WorldWideScience

Sample records for stream heat content

  1. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  2. Advanced content delivery, streaming, and cloud services

    CERN Document Server

    Sitaraman, Ramesh Kumar; Robinson, Dom

    2014-01-01

    While other books on the market provide limited coverage of advanced CDNs and streaming technologies, concentrating solely on the fundamentals, this book provides an up-to-date comprehensive coverage of the state-of-the-art advancements in CDNs, with a special focus on Cloud-based CDNs. The book includes CDN and media streaming basics, performance models, practical applications, and business analysis. It features industry case studies, CDN applications, and open research issues to aid practitioners and researchers, and a market analysis to provide a reference point for commercial entities. The book covers Adaptive Bitrate Streaming (ABR), Content Delivery Cloud (CDC), Web Acceleration, Front End Optimization (FEO), Transparent Caching, Next Generation CDNs, CDN Business Intelligence and more.

  3. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  4. Winter-regime surface heat loss from heated streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paily, P.P.; Macagno, E.O.; Kennedy, J.F.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of the rate of surface heat exchange between the water and air is a significant factor in any study of the thermal response of heated streams to heat inputs. Existing methods to determine the amount of heat transfer across the water surface are surveyed, and the different formulas developed for determining the heat exchange components are compiled. Heat-transfer models that have been proposed in the literature are reviewed, and a new linearized model for determining the rate of surface heat exchange is proposed. Generalized relations between the major climatological factors and the coefficients of the linearized heat-loss rate are established by multiple-regression analysis. The analysis is limited to cold-period conditions, in the sense that air temperatures below the freezing point of water only are considered in developing the regression equations. A computer program, using FORTRAN, is presented which enables the computation of the coefficients appearing in the linearized heat-loss rate for all combinations of the various climatological factors

  5. Heat transfer entropy resistance for the analyses of two-stream heat exchangers and two-stream heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, XueTao; Liang, XinGang

    2013-01-01

    The entropy generation minimization method is often used to analyze heat transfer processes from the thermodynamic viewpoint. In this paper, we analyze common heat transfer processes with the concept of entropy generation, and propose the concept of heat transfer entropy resistance. It is found that smaller heat transfer entropy resistance leads to smaller equivalent thermodynamic force difference with prescribed heat transfer rate and larger heat transfer rate with prescribed equivalent thermodynamic force difference. With the concept of heat transfer entropy resistance, the performance of two-stream heat exchangers (THEs) and two-stream heat exchanger networks (THENs) is analyzed. For the cases discussed in this paper, it is found that smaller heat transfer entropy resistance always leads to better heat transfer performance for THEs and THENs, while smaller values of the entropy generation, entropy generation numbers and revised entropy generation number do not always. -- Highlights: • The concept of entropy resistance is defined. • The minimum entropy resistance principle is developed. • Smaller entropy resistance leads to better heat transfer

  6. Entropy resistance analyses of a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Heat exchangers are widely used in industry, and analyses and optimizations of the performance of heat exchangers are important topics. In this paper, we define the concept of entropy resistance based on the entropy generation analyses of a one-dimensional heat transfer process. With this concept, a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating is analyzed and discussed. It is found that the minimization of entropy resistance always leads to the maximum heat transfer rate for the discussed two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger, while the minimizations of entropy generation rate, entropy generation numbers, and revised entropy generation number do not always. (general)

  7. Heated water jet in coflowing turbulent stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M.A.; McQuivey, R.S.; Keefer, T.N.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of ambient turbulence on temperature and salinity distributions of heated water and neutrally buoyant saltwater jets were studied for a wide range of densimetric jet Froude numbers, jet discharge velocities, and ambient turbulence levels in a 4-ft-wide channel. Estimates of vertical and lateral diffusivity coefficients for heat and for salt were obtained from salinity and temperature distributions taken at several stations downstream of the injection point. Readily usable correlations are presented for plume center-line temperature, plume width, and trajectory. The ambient turbulence affects the gross behavior characteristics of the plume. The effects vary with the initial jet Froude number and the jet to ambient velocity ratio. Heat and salinity are transported similarly and the finite source dimensions and the initial jet characteristics alter the numerical value of the diffusivity

  8. Ocean heat content and Earth's radiation imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, David H.; Knox, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth's radiation imbalance is determined from ocean heat content data and compared with results of direct measurements. Distinct time intervals of alternating positive and negative values are found: 1960-mid-1970s (-0.15), mid-1970s-2000 (+0.15), 2001-present (-0.2 W/m 2 ), and are consistent with prior reports. These climate shifts limit climate predictability.

  9. STREAMTO: Streaming Content using a Tamper-Resistant Token

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Jieyin; Chong, C.N.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Nikolaus, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    StreamTo uses tamper resistant hardware tokens to generate the key stream needed to decrypt encrypted streaming music. The combination of a hardware token and steaming media effectively brings tried and tested PayTV technology to the Internet. We provide a security analysis and present two prototype

  10. GENERALIZATION, FORMULATION AND HEAT CONTENTS OF SIMULATED MSW WITH HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JOHARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalization technique for the formulation of simulated municipal solid waste. This technique is used for the elimination of the inconsistency in the municipal solid waste (MSW characteristics due to its heterogeneous nature. The compositions of simulated municipal solid waste were formulated from four major municipal waste streams components in Malaysia namely paper, plastic, food and yard waste. The technique produced four simplified waste generalization categories with composition of paper (19%, plastic (25%, food (27% and green waste (29% respectively. Comparative study was conducted for proximate analysis for the determination of volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. Ultimate analysis was performed for carbon and hydrogen content. The heat content for simulated and actual municipal solid waste showed good agreement. The moisture content of the simulated municipal solid waste and actual municipal solid waste were established at 52.34% and 61.71% respectively. Overall results were considered to be representative of the actual compositions of municipal solid waste in Malaysia.

  11. Simultaneous determination of reference free-stream temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gi Ho; Song, Ki Bum; Kim, Kui Soon

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a new method that can obtain heat transfer coefficient and reference free stream temperature simultaneously. The method is based on transient heat transfer experiments using two narrow-band TLCs. The method is validated through error analysis in terms of the random uncertainties in the measured temperatures. It is shown how the uncertainties in heat transfer coefficient and free stream temperature can be reduced. The general method described in this paper is applicable to many heat transfer models with unknown free stream temperature

  12. Evaluation of material fracture energy by its heat content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, G.A.; Pasichnyj, V.V.; Polezhaev, Yu.V.; Frolov, A.A.; Choba, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Based on published and experimental data it is shown that there is a simple relationship between the heat of evaporation and heat content. This allows in some instances the evaluation of a rate of material fracture by its content. Experimental and theoretical data for quartz glass ceramics, and glass-reinforced plastic are presented

  13. Real Time Synchronization of Live Broadcast Streams with User Generated Content and Social Network Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Kaptein, A.M.; Veenhuizen, A.T.; Spitters4, M.M.; Niamut, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the work in the FP7 STEER project on augmenting a live broadcast with live user generated content. This user generated content consists of both video content, captured with mobile devices, and social network content, such as Facebook or Twitter messages. To enable multi-source

  14. Thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles for multi-stream waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufei; Tang, Qikui; Wang, Mengying; Feng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles (KC) for multi-stream waste heat recovery. • Divide waste heat into straight, convex and concave based on its composite curve. • Use heat ratio and temperature of the most point to show the feature of waste heat. • KC is suitable for straight and most concave heat, while ORC for convex one. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and Kalina cycle are the main technologies to recover waste heat for power generation. Up to now, many works dealing with the thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles are available, but these studies considered for heat recovery from a single heat source or stream. In the process industry, there are multiple waste heat streams, forming a complex heat source profile. In this paper, based on the simulation model developed in the Aspen Hysys software, the two cycles are calculated and compared. According to the waste heat composite curve, the multi-stream waste heat is divided into three kinds, straight, convex, and concave waste heat. Two parameters, the ratio of the heat above and below the most salient/concave point (R) and the temperature of the most point, are used to roughly express the feature of waste heat. With the efficiency from waste heat (exergy) to power as energy performance indicator, the calculation results for waste heat with maximum supply temperature 180 °C show that for straight and concave waste heat with R not less than 0.2, Kalina cycle is better than ORC, while for convex waste heat, ORC is preferable. The work can provide a reference to choose a suitable technology to recover low temperature waste heat for power generation in the process industry.

  15. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  16. Streamer Motives and User-Generated Content on Social Live-Streaming Services

    OpenAIRE

    Friedlander, Mathilde B.

    2017-01-01

    Three most popular information services, Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow, vicarious for all Social Live-Streaming Services (SLSSs), are investigated to analyze their streamers' motivations and the user-generated content. Additionally, we collected demographic data (gender and age). More than 7,500 streams by users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan were observed. Main streamer motivations on SLSSs are boredom, socializing, the need to reach a specific group, the need to communicate, and fun. Im...

  17. Simultaneous heat integration and techno-economic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for multiple waste heat stream recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haoshui; Eason, John; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Feng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has become a promising technology for low and medium temperature energy utilization. In refineries, there are usually multiple waste heat streams to be recovered. From a safety and controllability perspective, using an intermedium (hot water) to recover waste heat before releasing heat to the ORC system is more favorable than direct integration. The mass flowrate of the intermediate hot water stream determines the amount of waste heat recovered and the final hot water temperature affects the thermal efficiency of ORC. Both, in turn, exert great influence on the power output. Therefore, the hot water mass flowrate is a critical decision variable for the optimal design of the system. This study develops a model for techno-economic optimization of an ORC with simultaneous heat recovery and capital cost optimization. The ORC is modeled using rigorous thermodynamics with the concept of state points. The task of waste heat recovery using the hot water intermedium is modeled using the Duran-Grossmann model for simultaneous heat integration and process optimization. The combined model determines the optimal design of an ORC that recovers multiple waste heat streams in a large scale background process using an intermediate heat transfer stream. In particular, the model determines the optimal heat recovery approach temperature (HRAT), the utility load of the background process, and the optimal operating conditions of the ORC simultaneously. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated with a case study that uses a refinery as the background process. Sensitivity of the optimal solution to the parameters (electricity price, utility cost) is quantified in this paper. - Highlights: • A new model for Organic Rankine cycle design optimization is presented. • Process heat integration and ORC are considered simultaneously. • Rigorous equation oriented models of the ORC are used for accurate results. • Impact of working

  18. Effect of multi-stream heat exchanger on performance of natural gas liquefaction with mixed refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2012-12-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out to investigate the effect of multi-stream heat exchanger on the performance of natural gas (NG) liquefaction with mixed refrigerant (MR). A cold stream (low-pressure MR) is in thermal contact with opposite flow of two hot streams (high-pressure MR and NG feed) at the same time. In typical process simulation with commercial software (such as Aspen HYSYS®), the liquefaction performance is estimated with a method of minimum temperature approach, simply assuming that two hot streams have the same temperature. In this study, local energy balance equations are rigorously solved with temperature-dependent properties of MR and NG feed, and are linked to the thermodynamic cycle analysis. The figure of merit (FOM) is quantitatively examined in terms of UA (the product of overall heat transfer coefficient and heat exchange area) between respective streams. In a single-stage MR process, it is concluded that the temperature profile from HYSYS is difficult to realize in practice, and the FOM value from HYSYS is an over-estimate, but can be closely achieved with a proper heat-exchanger design. It is also demonstrated that there exists a unique optimal ratio in three UA's, and no direct heat exchanger between hot streams is recommended.

  19. Retrofitting of heat exchanger networks involving streams with variable heat capacity: Application of single and multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreepathi, Bhargava Krishna; Rangaiah, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Heat exchanger network (HEN) retrofitting improves the energy efficiency of the current process by reducing external utilities. In this work, HEN retrofitting involving streams having variable heat capacity is studied. For this, enthalpy values of a stream are fitted to a continuous cubic polynomial instead of a stepwise approach employed in the previous studies [1,2]. The former methodology is closer to reality as enthalpy or heat capacity changes gradually instead of step changes. Using the polynomial fitting formulation, single objective optimization (SOO) and multi-objective optimization (MOO) of a HEN retrofit problem are investigated. The results obtained show an improvement in the utility savings, and MOO provides many Pareto-optimal solutions to choose from. Also, Pareto-optimal solutions involving area addition in existing heat exchangers only (but no new exchangers and no structural modifications) are found and provided for comparison with those involving new exchangers and structural modifications as well. - Highlights: • HEN retrofitting involving streams with variable heat capacities is studied. • A continuous approach to handle variable heat capacity is proposed and tested. • Better and practical solutions are obtained for HEN retrofitting in process plants. • Pareto-optimal solutions provide many alternate choices for HEN retrofitting

  20. Control and Innovation on Digital Platforms : the case of Netflix and streaming of video content

    OpenAIRE

    Vigeland, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate innovation processes on innovation platforms, and look at the role played by content release for innovation in digital distribution of home entertainment. I argue that innovation platforms rely on several aspects of innovation in order to succeed, and this thesis is concerned with one of these, namely release of digital entertainment content. I use the American video streaming service Netflix as a case and example of such an innovation platform. By using techno...

  1. Analysis of stream temperature and heat budget in an urban river under strong anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhuohang; Kinouchi, Tsuyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Stream temperature variations of the Tama River, which runs through highly urbanized areas of Tokyo, were studied in relation to anthropogenic impacts, including wastewater effluents, dam release and water withdrawal. Both long-term and longitudinal changes in stream temperature were identified and the influences of stream flow rate, temperature and volume of wastewater effluents and air temperature were investigated. Water and heat budget analyses were also conducted for several segments of the mainstream to clarify the relative impacts from natural and anthropogenic factors. Stream temperatures in the winter season significantly increased over the past 20 years at sites affected by intensive and warm effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located along the mainstream. In the summer season, a larger stream temperature increase was identified in the upstream reaches, which was attributable to the decreased flow rate due to water withdrawal. The relationship between air and stream temperatures indicated that stream temperatures at the upstream site were likely to be affected by a dam release, while temperatures in the downstream reaches have deviated more from air temperatures in recent years, probably due to the increased impacts of effluents from WWTPs. Results of the water and heat budget analyses indicated that the largest contributions to water and heat gains were attributable to wastewater effluents, while other factors such as groundwater recharge and water withdrawal were found to behave as energy sinks, especially in summer. The inflow from tributaries worked to reduce the impacts of dam release and the heat exchanges at the air-water interface contributed less to heat budgets in both winter and summer seasons for all river segments.

  2. Retrofit of heat exchanger networks with pressure recovery of process streams at sub-ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Viviani C.; Ravagnani, Mauro A.S.S.; Caballero, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New mathematical model for heat exchanger networks retrofit with pressure recovery. • Optimal heat and work integration applied to the retrofit of sub-ambient processes. • Streams pressure manipulation is used to enhance heat integration of the system. • Compressors and turbines can act on a coupling shaft and/or as stand-alone equipment. • Use of smaller amount of cold utilities, reducing significantly the operational costs. - Abstract: This paper presents a new mathematical programming model for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks (HENs), wherein the pressure recovery of process streams is conducted to enhance heat integration. Particularly applied to cryogenic processes, HENs retrofit with combined heat and work integration is mainly aimed at reducing the use of expensive cold services. The proposed multi-stage superstructure allows the increment of the existing heat transfer area, as well as the use of new equipment for both heat exchange and pressure manipulation. The pressure recovery of streams is carried out simultaneously with the HEN design, such that the process conditions (streams pressure and temperature) are variables of optimization. The mathematical model is formulated using generalized disjunctive programming (GDP) and is optimized via mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), through the minimization of the retrofit total annualized cost, considering the turbine and compressor coupling with a helper motor. Three case studies are performed to assess the accuracy of the developed approach, including a real industrial example related to liquefied natural gas (LNG) production. The results show that the pressure recovery of streams is efficient for energy savings and, consequently, for decreasing the HEN retrofit total cost especially in sub-ambient processes

  3. Streams in the urban heat island: spatial and temporal variability in temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Kayleigh A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Grace, James B.; Hassett, Brooke A.; Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Wang, Siyi; Urban, Dean L.

    2013-01-01

    Streams draining urban heat islands tend to be hotter than rural and forested streams at baseflow because of warmer urban air and ground temperatures, paved surfaces, and decreased riparian canopy. Urban infrastructure efficiently routes runoff over hot impervious surfaces and through storm drains directly into streams and can lead to rapid, dramatic increases in temperature. Thermal regimes affect habitat quality and biogeochemical processes, and changes can be lethal if temperatures exceed upper tolerance limits of aquatic fauna. In summer 2009, we collected continuous (10-min interval) temperature data in 60 streams spanning a range of development intensity in the Piedmont of North Carolina, USA. The 5 most urbanized streams averaged 21.1°C at baseflow, compared to 19.5°C in the 5 most forested streams. Temperatures in urban streams rose as much as 4°C during a small regional storm, whereas the same storm led to extremely small to no changes in temperature in forested streams. Over a kilometer of stream length, baseflow temperature varied by as much as 10°C in an urban stream and as little as 2°C in a forested stream. We used structural equation modeling to explore how reach- and catchment-scale attributes interact to explain maximum temperatures and magnitudes of storm-flow temperature surges. The best predictive model of baseflow temperatures (R2  =  0.461) included moderately strong pathways directly (extent of development and road density) and indirectly, as mediated by reach-scale factors (canopy closure and stream width), from catchment-scale factors. The strongest influence on storm-flow temperature surges appeared to be % development in the catchment. Reach-scale factors, such as the extent of riparian forest and stream width, had little mitigating influence (R2  =  0.448). Stream temperature is an essential, but overlooked, aspect of the urban stream syndrome and is affected by reach-scale habitat variables, catchment-scale urbanization

  4. Content-Adaptive Packetization and Streaming of Wavelet Video over IP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Peng Ho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of content-adaptive packetization scheme for streaming of 3D wavelet-based video content over lossy IP networks. The tradeoff between rate and distortion is controlled by jointly adapting scalable source coding rate and level of forward error correction (FEC protection. A content dependent packetization mechanism with data-interleaving and Reed-Solomon protection for wavelet-based video codecs is proposed to provide unequal error protection. This paper also tries to answer an important question for scalable video streaming systems: given extra bandwidth, should one increase the level of channel protection for the most important packets, or transmit more scalable source data? Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves good balance between quality of the received video and level of error protection under bandwidth-varying lossy IP networks.

  5. Decadal variation of ocean heat content and tropical cyclone activity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upper ocean heat content up to 700 m depth (OHC700) is an important ... made to examine the inter-decadal variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activity and OHC700 over the ..... In: Climate change 2007: The physical science basis (eds).

  6. Calculation of heat transfer in transversely stream-lined tube bundles with chess arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaj, V.K.

    1978-01-01

    A semiempirical theory of heat transfer in transversely stream-lined chess-board tube bundles has been developed. The theory is based on a single cylinder model and involves external flow parameter evaluation on the basis of the solidification principle of a vortex zone. The effect of turbulence is estimated according to experimental results. The method is extended to both average and local heat transfer coefficients. Comparison with experiment shows satisfactory agreement

  7. On the correlation of heat transfer in turbulent boundary layers subjected to free-stream turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M.J.; Hollingsworth, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    The turbulent flow of a fluid bounded by a heated surface is a wonderfully complex yet derisively mundane phenomenon. Despite its commonness in natural and man-made environments, the authors struggle to accurately predict its behavior in many simple situations. A complexity encountered in a number of flows is the presence of free-stream turbulence. A turbulent free-stream typically yields increased surface friction and heat transfer. Turbulent boundary layers with turbulent free-streams are encountered in gas-turbine engines, rocket nozzles, electronic-cooling passages, geophysical flows, and numerous other dynamic systems. Here, turbulent boundary layers were subjected to grid-generated free-stream turbulence to study the effects of length scale and intensity on heat transfer. The research focused on correlating heat transfer without the use of conventional boundary-layer Reynolds numbers. The boundary-layers studied ranged from 400 to 2,700 in momentum-thickness Reynolds number and from 450 to 1,900 in enthalpy-thickness Reynolds number. Free-stream turbulence intensities varied from 0.1 to 8.0%. The turbulent-to-viscous length-scale ratios presented are the smallest found in the heat-transfer literature; the ratios spanned from 100 to 1000. The turbulent-to-thermal ratios (using enthalpy thickness as the thermal scale) are also the smallest reported; the ratios ranged from 3.2 to 12.3. A length-scale dependence was identified in a Stanton number based on a near-wall streamwise velocity fluctuation. A new near-wall Stanton number was introduced; this parameter was regarded as a constant in a two-region boundary-layer model. The new model correlated heat-transfer to within 7%.

  8. Value Stream Mapping for Evaluation of Load Scheduling Possibilities in a District Heating Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raivo Melsas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a solution for load scheduling by implementing value stream mapping, which is a straightforward enough for production management. Decision makers in the industry should have a clear understanding about positive effect from load scheduling and its effect to production outcome and process availability. Value stream mapping is a well-known process optimization tool from lean production philosophy. The aim of value stream mapping is to shorten the lead time of industrial processes and to reduce the intermediate stock amounts. By complementing value stream map with process energy intensity and energy stored in intermediate stocks, we can promote load scheduling possibilities. Our methodology provides a tool that is understandable and traceable for industry-minded decision makers. Finally, we present a real life test example for the new methodology, which is based on the production process of a district heating plant.

  9. Interhemispheric Changes in Atlantic Ocean Heat Content and Their Link to Global Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, H.; Lee, S. K.; Dong, S.; Goni, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether low frequency decadal variability of the South Atlantic meridional heat transport (SAMHT) influences decadal variability of the global monsoons. A multi-century run from a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model is used as basis for the analysis. Our findings indicate that multi-decadal variability of the South Atlantic Ocean plays a key role in modulating atmospheric circulation via interhemispheric changes in Atlantic Ocean heat content. Weaker SAMHT produces anomalous ocean heat divergence over the South Atlantic resulting in negative ocean heat content anomaly about 15 years later. This, in turn, forces a thermally direct anomalous interhemispheric Hadley circulation in the atmosphere, transporting heat from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) and moisture from the SH to the NH, thereby intensify (weaken) summer (winter) monsoon in the NH and winter (summer) monsoon in the SH. Results also show that anomalous atmospheric eddies, both transient and stationary, transport heat northward in both hemispheres producing eddy heat flux convergence (divergence) in the NH (SH) around 15-30°, reinforcing the anomalous Hadley circulation. The effect of eddies on the NH (SH) poleward of 30° is opposite with heat flux divergence (convergence), which must be balanced by sinking (rising) motion, consistent with a poleward (equatorward) displacement of the jet stream and mean storm track. The mechanism described here could easily be interpreted for the case of strong SAMHT, with the reverse influence on the interhemispheric atmospheric circulation and monsoons. Overall, SAMHT decadal variability leads its atmospheric response by about 15 years, suggesting that the South Atlantic is a potential predictor of global climate variability.

  10. The Calculated and Measured Performance Characteristics of a Heated-Wire Liquid-Water-Content Meter for Measuring Icing Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Carr B.; Steinmetz, Charles P.

    1952-01-01

    Ground tests have been made of an instrument which, when assembled in a more compact form for flight installation, could be used to obtain statistical flight data on the liquid-water content of icing clouds and to provide an indication of icing severity. The sensing element of the instrument consists of an electrically heated wire which is mounted in the air stream. The degree of cooling of the wire resulting from evaporation of the impinging water droplets is a measure. of the liquid-water content of the cloud. Determination of the value of the liquid-water content from the wire temperature at any instant requires a knowledge of the airspeed, altitude, and air temperature. An analysis was made of the temperature response of a heated wire exposed to an air stream containing water drops. Comparisons were made of the liquid-water content as measured with several heated wires and absorbent cylinders in an artificially produced cloud. For one of the wires, comparative tests were made with a rotating-disk icing-rate meter in an icing wind tunnel. From the test results, it was shown that an instrument for measuring the concentration of liquid water in an air stream can be built using an electrically heated wire of known temperatureresistance characteristics, and that the performance of such a device can be predicted using appropriate theory. Although an instrument in a form suitable for gathering statistical data in flight was not built, the practicability of constructing such an instrument was illustrated. The ground-test results indicated that a flight heated-wire instrument would be simple and durable, would respond rapidly to variations in liquid-water content, and could be used for the measurement of water content in clouds which are above freezing temperature, as well as in icing clouds.

  11. Experimental investigations on heat content of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate by a simple heat loss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    Sodium acetate trihydrate is a phase change material that can be used for long term heat storage in solar heating systems because of its relatively high heat of fusion, a melting temperature of 58 °C and its ability to supercool stable. In practical applications sodium acetate trihydrate tend to ......, 0.3–0.5 % (wt.%) Xanthan Gum or 1–2% (wt.%) of some solid or liquid polymers as additives had significantly higher heat contents compared to samples of sodium acetate trihydrate suffering from phase separation....

  12. Application of quasi-steady-state plasma streams for simulation of ITER transient heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Marchenko, A.K.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Trubchaninov, S.A.; Tsarenko, A.V.; Landman, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents experimental investigations of energy characteristics of the plasma streams generated with quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50 and adjustment of plasma parameters from the point of view its applicability for simulation of transient plasma heat loads expected for ITER disruptions and type I ELMs. Possibility of generation of high-power magnetized plasma streams with ion impact energy up to 0.6 keV, pulse length of 0.25 ms and heat loads varied in wide range from 0.5 to 30 MJ/m 2 has been demonstrated and some features of plasma interaction with tungsten targets in dependence on plasma heat loads are discussed. (author)

  13. Streamer Motives and User-Generated Content on Social Live-Streaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedlander, Mathilde B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three most popular information services, Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow, vicarious for all Social Live-Streaming Services (SLSSs, are investigated to analyze their streamers' motivations and the user-generated content. Additionally, we collected demographic data (gender and age. More than 7,500 streams by users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan were observed. Main streamer motivations on SLSSs are boredom, socializing, the need to reach a specific group, the need to communicate, and fun. Important content categories on all three SLSSs are chatting, sharing information, 24/7, and 'slice of life.' We were able to identify differences between users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan as well as between the users of Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow. The main motive to stream in the U.S. is to reach a specific group, while in Japan it is socializing, and in Germany boredom. The top content category for both, YouNow as well as Periscope, is to chat; on Ustream it is 24/7 (i.e., webcams.

  14. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  15. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  16. Heat transfer by liquids in suspension in a turbulent gas stream (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, E.; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay

    1960-01-01

    The introduction of a small volume of liquid into a turbulent gas stream used as cooling agent improves considerably the heat transfer coefficient of the gas. When the turbulent regime is established, one observes in a cylindrical tube two types of flow whether the liquid wets or does not wet the wall. In the first case, one gets on the wall an annular liquid film and droplets in suspension are in the gas stream. In the second case, a fog of droplets is formed without any liquid film on the wall. Experiments were performed with the following mixtures: water-hydrogen, water-nitrogen, ethanol-nitrogen (wetting liquids) introduced into a stainless steel tube of 4 mm ID, electrically heated on 320 mm of length. We varied the gas flow rate (Reynolds until 50000), the rate of the liquid flow rate to gas flow rate (until 15), the pressure (until 10 kg/cm 2 ), the temperature (until the boiling point) and the heat flux (until 250 W/cm 2 ). Two types of burnout were observed. A formula of correlation of the burnout heat flux is given. Making use of the analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer, a dimensionless formula of correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is established. (author) [fr

  17. Non-uniform groundwater discharge across a stream bed: Heat as a tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jannick Kolbjørn; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2011-01-01

    Time series analysis of conO nuous streambed temperature during a period of 47 d revealed that discharge to a stream is nonuniform, with strongly increasing verO cal fl uxes throughout the top 20 cm of the streambed–aquifer interface. An analyO cal soluO on to the transient heat transport equa...... near the streambed. Seepage meter measurements in the middle of the stream oO en resulted in highly variable fl ux esO - mates, which could have been caused by hyporheic fl ow due to the presence of a gravel layer. Discharge and recharge to the stream at the bank near the meadow was relaO vely steady...

  18. Experimental determination of the empirical formula and energy content of unknown organics in waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizas, I. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kosmatos, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bagley, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    Two experimental methods are described in this paper: one for determining the empirical formula, and one for determining the energy content of unknown organics in waste streams. The empirical formula method requires volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) to be measured for the waste; the formula can then be calculated from these values. To determine the energy content of the organic waste, bomb calorimetry was used with benzoic acid as a combustion aid. The results for standard compounds (glucose, propionic acid, L-arginine, and benzoic acid) were relatively good. The energy content measurement for wastewater and sludges had good reproducibility (i.e. 1.0 to 3.2% relative standard deviation for triplicate samples). Trouble encountered in the measurement of the empirical formulae of the waste samples was possibly due to difficulties with the TOC test; further analysis of this is required. (author)

  19. Experimental determination of the empirical formula and energy content of unknown organics in waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizas, I.; Kosmatos, A.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    Two experimental methods are described in this paper: one for determining the empirical formula, and one for determining the energy content of unknown organics in waste streams. The empirical formula method requires volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) to be measured for the waste; the formula can then be calculated from these values. To determine the energy content of the organic waste, bomb calorimetry was used with benzoic acid as a combustion aid. The results for standard compounds (glucose, propionic acid, L-arginine, and benzoic acid) were relatively good. The energy content measurement for wastewater and sludges had good reproducibility (i.e. 1.0 to 3.2% relative standard deviation for triplicate samples). Trouble encountered in the measurement of the empirical formulae of the waste samples was possibly due to difficulties with the TOC test; further analysis of this is required. (author)

  20. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huang eSu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently or upwards (incongruently to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli.

  1. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity) and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency) are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual (AV) streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently) or upwards (incongruently) to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli.

  2. A thermal design method for the performance optimization of multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanzhong [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an (China); Sunden, Bengt [Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Han, Fenghui [Dalian Maritime University, Dalian (China)

    2017-06-15

    An optimization design method based on field synergy principle is developed for Multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers (MPHEs) with a segmented differential model. The heat exchanger is divided into a number of sub-exchangers along the main stream, and each sub-exchanger consists of N passages along the height of the exchanger. Compared with the traditional heat exchanger design, this method allows temperature and pressure fields to be obtained via coupling calculation with consideration of variable physical properties and the axial heat loss of the heat exchanger. Finally, the heat exchanger is optimally designed using a temperature-difference uniformity optimization factor based on field synergy principle. This design model can provide an accurate temperature field and pressure field, because the stream properties are determined by the mean temperature and pressure of each local sub-exchanger. Optimum results indicate that the temperature distribution on the cross section of the heat exchanger is relatively uniform and that the temperature difference of heat transfer for each stream is always a small value. These characteristics prove the feasibility and effectiveness of this design model. In this paper, a case of five stream plate-fin heat exchangers for an ethylene plant is designed under a practical cold box operating condition with the proposed model, the structure and heat transfer of which are optimally determined. The design model and optimization method proposed in this work can provide theoretical and technical support to the optimization design of MPHEs.

  3. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marica Sorak-Pokrajac; Dermelj, M.; Zdenka Slejkovec; Eskinja, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extermely important. As one of the volatile elements is can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis

  4. Evaluation of consequence due to higher hydrazine content in partitioning stream of PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Suresh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Special Nuclear Recycle Facility

    2016-07-01

    Hydrazine nitrate is being used as a stabilizer for U(IV) as well as Pu(III) during partitioning of Pu in PUREX process by scavenging the nitrous acid present along with nitric acid. As hydrazine hydrate as well as its salts have been successfully used for scrubbing of degradation products of TBP to aqueous phase, experiments were conducted to evaluate the consequence of hydrazine content during Pu partitioning. It was observed that higher amount of hydrazine nitrate along with uranous nitrate in the partitioning stream of PUREX process leads to build up of DBP in aqueous phase and resulted in precipitation of Pu.

  5. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the convective heat transfer from a stream-wise oscillating circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Sheng; Chen Sheng; Liu Zhaohui; Zheng Chuguang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Heat transfer is enhanced by small and slow stream-wise oscillation. ► The average Nu decreases with increasing oscillation frequency. ► The RMS Nu increases with increasing frequency. ► The mean and RMS Nu reach a local maximum value in locked regime. ► Similar frequency effect is found for different Reynolds numbers. - Abstract: In this paper, we studied the convective heat transfer from a stream-wise oscillating circular cylinder. Two dimensional numerical simulations are conducted at Re = 100–200, A = 0.1–0.4 and F = f o /f s = 0.2–3.0 with the aid of the lattice Boltzmann method. In particular, detailed attentions are paid on the extensive numerical results elucidating the influence of oscillation frequency, oscillation amplitude and Reynolds number on the time-average and RMS value of the Nusselt number. Over the ranges of conditions considered herein, the heat transfer characteristics are observed to be influenced in an intricate manner by the value of the oscillation frequency (F), oscillation amplitude (A) and Reynolds number (Re). Firstly, the heat transfer is enhanced when the cylinder oscillates stream-wise with small amplitude and low frequency, while it will be reduced by large amplitude and high frequency. Secondly, the average Nusselt number (Nu (ave)) decreases against the increasing value of oscillation frequency, while the RMS value of the Nusselt number, Nu (RMS), displays an opposite trend. Third, we obtained a similar frequency effect on the heat transfer over the range of Reynolds numbers investigated in this paper. In addition, detailed analyses on phase portraits, energy spectrum are also made.

  6. Monitoring the sulfur content of coal streams by thermal-neutron-capture gamma-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.W.; Hall, A.W.

    1976-07-01

    A theory was developed for evaluating a complex, prompt gamma ray spectrum to serve as the basis for an instrument to monitor continuously the sulfur content of tonnage streams of coal. Equations for the energies and intensities of prompt gamma rays emitted from 13 most significant elements in coal are combined into a single equation that defines the basic electronic design of the meter. The sulfur content of up to 10 tons per hour of coal was determined in pilot plant tests with a prototype meter. The precision of 0.04 percent sulfur substantiates the validity of the theory. In subsequent industrial plant tests the precision was determined to be a comparable 0.05 percent sulfur

  7. Joule heating induced stream broadening in free-flow zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debashis

    2018-03-01

    The use of an electric field in free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) automatically leads to Joule heating yielding a higher temperature at the center of the separation chamber relative to that around the channel walls. For small amounts of heat generated, this thermal effect introduces a variation in the equilibrium position of the analyte molecules due to the dependence of liquid viscosity and analyte diffusivity on temperature leading to a modification in the position of the analyte stream as well as the zone width. In this article, an analytic theory is presented to quantitate such effects of Joule heating on FFZE assays in the limit of small temperature differentials across the channel gap yielding a closed form expression for the stream position and zone variance under equilibrium conditions. A method-of-moments approach is employed to develop this analytic theory, which is further validated with numerical solutions of the governing equations. Interestingly, the noted analyses predict that Joule heating can drift the location of the analyte stream either way of its equilibrium position realized in the absence of any temperature rise in the system, and also tends to reduce zone dispersion. The extent of these modifications, however, is governed by the electric field induced temperature rise and three Péclet numbers evaluated based on the axial pressure-driven flow, transverse electroosmotic and electrophoretic solute velocities in the separation chamber. Monte Carlo simulations of the FFZE system further establish a time and a length scale over which the results from the analytic theory are valid. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...... model supports a relatively diverse use of educational technologies and may also be used to transform teaching into completely online learning. So far both teachers and educational developers have positively received the model and the initial design experiences show promise....

  9. Seasonal relationships between foliar moisture content, heat content and biochemistry of lodge pole pine and big sagebrush foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Qi; Matt Jolly; Philip E. Dennison; Rachael C. Kropp

    2016-01-01

    Wildland fires propagate by liberating energy contained within living and senescent plant biomass. The maximum amount of energy that can be generated by burning a given plant part can be quantified and is generally referred to as its heat content (HC). Many studies have examined heat content of wildland fuels but studies examining the seasonal variation in foliar HC...

  10. Using heat to characterize streambed water flux variability in four stream reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.I.; Zamora, C.M.; McCarthy, K.A.; Vogel, J.R.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of streambed water flux are needed for the interpretation of streambed chemistry and reactions. Continuous temperature and head monitoring in stream reaches within four agricultural watersheds (Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Maple Creek, NE; DR2 Drain, WA; and Merced River, CA) allowed heat to be used as a tracer to study the temporal and spatial variability of fluxes through the streambed. Synoptic methods (seepage meter and differential discharge measurements) were compared with estimates obtained by using heat as a tracer. Water flux was estimated by modeling one-dimensional vertical flow of water and heat using the model VS2DH. Flux was influenced by physical heterogeneity of the stream channel and temporal variability in stream and ground-water levels. During most of the study period (April-December 2004), flux was upward through the streambeds. At the IN, NE, and CA sites, high-stage events resulted in rapid reversal of flow direction inducing short-term surface-water flow into the streambed. During late summer at the IN site, regional ground-water levels dropped, leading to surface-water loss to ground water that resulted in drying of the ditch. Synoptic measurements of flux generally supported the model flux estimates. Water flow through the streambed was roughly an order of magnitude larger in the humid basins (IN and NE) than in the arid basins (WA and CA). Downward flux, in response to sudden high streamflows, and seasonal variability in flux was most pronounced in the humid basins and in high conductivity zones in the streambed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM. Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007–2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  12. Multiobjective heat exchanger network synthesis based on grouping of process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukkanen, T.P.

    2012-06-15

    Heat exchanger network synthesis (HENS) is an important process synthesis problem and different tools and methods have been presented to solve this synthesis problem. This is mainly due to its importance in achieving energy savings in industrial processes in a cost-efficient way. The problem is also hard to solve and has been proven NP-hard (Nondeterministic Polynomial-time) and hence it is not known if a computationally efficient (polynomial) algorithm to solve the problem exists. Thus methods that provide good approximate solutions with reasonable computational requirements are useful. The objective of this thesis is to present new HENS approaches that are able to generate good solutions for HENS problems in a computationally efficient way so that all the objectives of HENS are optimized simultaneously. The main approach in accomplishing this objective is by grouping process streams. This is done either on the basis of the fact that in reality the process streams belong to a specific group or these groups are artificially developed. In the latter approach the idea is to decompose the set of binary variables i.e., the variables that define the existence of heat exchanger matches, into two separate problems. In this way the number of different options to connect the streams decreases compared to the situation where no decomposition is present. This causes the solution time to decrease and provides options for solving larger HENS problems. In this work the multiobjective HENS problem is solved either with the traditional weighting method or with an interactive multiobjective optimization method. In the weighting method the weights are the annual costs of the different objectives. In the interactive multiobjective optimization method the Decision Maker (DM) controls the decision-making process by classifying the objectives at each iteration. This multiobjective approach provides the benefit of using interactive multiobjective optimization, so that it is possible to

  13. On a computational study for investigating acoustic streaming and heating during focused ultrasound ablation of liver tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovchuk, Maxim A.; Sheu, Tony W.H.; Thiriet, Marc; Lin, Win-Li

    2013-01-01

    The influences of blood vessels and focused location on temperature distribution during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of liver tumors are studied numerically. A three-dimensional acoustics-thermal-fluid coupling model is employed to compute the temperature field in the hepatic cancerous region. The model construction is based on the linear Westervelt and bioheat equations as well as the nonlinear Navier–Stokes equations for the liver parenchyma and blood vessels. The effect of acoustic streaming is also taken into account in the present HIFU simulation study. Different blood vessel diameters and focal point locations were investigated. We found from this three-dimensional numerical study that in large blood vessels both the convective cooling and acoustic streaming can considerably change the temperature field and the thermal lesion near blood vessels. If the blood vessel is located within the beam width, both acoustic streaming and blood flow cooling effects should be addressed. The temperature rise on the blood vessel wall generated by a 1.0 MHz focused ultrasound transducer with the focal intensity 327 W/cm 2 was 54% lower when acoustic streaming effect was taken into account. Subject to the applied acoustic power the streaming velocity in a 3 mm blood vessel is 12 cm/s. Thirty percent of the necrosed volume can be reduced, when taking into account the acoustic streaming effect. -- Highlights: • 3D three-field coupling physical model for focused ultrasound tumor ablation is presented. • Acoustic streaming and blood flow cooling effects on ultrasound heating are investigated. • Acoustic streaming can considerably affect the temperature distribution. • The lesion can be reduced by 30% due to the acoustic streaming effect. • Temperature on the blood vessel wall is reduced by 54% due to the acoustic streaming effect

  14. DNS of heat transfer in transitional, accelerated boundary layer flow over a flat plate affected by free-stream fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissink, Jan G.; Rodi, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow over and heat transfer from a flat plate affected by free-stream fluctuations were performed. A contoured upper wall was employed to generate a favourable streamwise pressure gradient along a large portion of the flat plate. The free-stream fluctuations originated from a separate LES of isotropic turbulence in a box. In the laminar portions of the accelerating boundary layer flow the formation of streaks was observed to induce an increase in heat transfer by the exchange of hot fluid near the surface of the plate and cold fluid from the free-stream. In the regions where the streamwise pressure gradient was only mildly favourable, intermittent turbulent spots were detected which relaminarised downstream as the streamwise pressure gradient became stronger. The relaminarisation of the turbulent spots was reflected by a slight decrease in the friction coefficient, which converged to its laminar value in the region where the streamwise pressure gradient was strongest.

  15. Numerical study of the influence of the convective heat transport on acoustic streaming in a standing wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Červenka, Milan; Bednařík, Michal

    2018-02-01

    Within this work, acoustic streaming in an air-filled cylindrical resonator with walls supporting a temperature gradient is studied by means of numerical simulations. A set of equations based on successive approximations is derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. The equations take into account the acoustic-streaming-driven convective heat transport; as time-averaged secondary-field quantities are directly calculated, the equations are much easier to integrate than the original fluid-dynamics equations. The model equations are implemented and integrated employing commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics. Numerical calculations are conducted for the case of a resonator with a wall-temperature gradient corresponding to the action of a thermoacoustic effect. It is shown that due to the convective heat transport, the streaming profile is considerably distorted even in the case of weak wall-temperature gradients. The numerical results are consistent with available experimental data.

  16. Field test and sensitivity analysis of a sensible heat balance method to determine ice contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil ice content impacts winter vadose zone hydrology. It may be possible to estimate changes in soil ice content with a sensible heat balance (SHB) method, using measurements from heat pulse (HP) sensors. Feasibility of the SHB method is unknown because of difficulties in measuring soil thermal pro...

  17. Rivers and streams in the media: a content analysis of ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Weber

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ecosystem services research has become common, few efforts are directed toward in-depth understanding of the specific ecological quantities people value. The theoretical framework of final ecosystem services focuses attention on such measurable attributes, as a common currency for social-ecological systems research. Environmental communications as well as ecological monitoring and analysis efforts could be enhanced through increased documentation of final ecosystem services. For example, small changes in the way ecosystems are described could strongly influence relevance to the public and improve the foundation for environmental decision making. Focusing on rivers and streams, we conducted a content analysis of existing publications to document the breadth and frequency with which various measurable attributes, such as flooding, water quality characteristics, and wildlife appeared in different news sources over a multiyear timeline. In addition to attributes, motivations for human interest in river-related resources were also coded, such as recreation or preservation for future generations. To allow testing of differences between materials written for different audiences, three sources were sampled: a blog hosted by National Geographic, New York Times articles, and Wall Street Journal articles. The coding approach was rigorously tested in a pilot phase, with measures developed to ensure high data quality, including use of two independent coders. Results show numerous similarities across sources with some notable differences in emphasis. Significant relationships between groups of attribute and motivation codes were also found, one outcome of which is further support for the importance of nonuse values for fish and wildlife. Besides offering insight on ecosystem services, the project demonstrates an in-depth quantitative approach to analyzing preexisting qualitative data.

  18. State and performance of on-stream ash content determination in lignite and black coal using 2-energy transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuemmel, H.W.; Koerner, G.; Leonhardt, J.

    1986-01-01

    The total r.m.s. ash error of the 2-energy transmission on-stream ash gauges KRAS-2 (CIIRR, GDR) and SIROASH (Australia) are 4 weight percentage for raw lignite and 0.5 weight percentage for black coal, respectively. A detailed error analysis shows that this difference is due to the high water content and to strong variations in the ash composition of raw lignite. Both gauges show essentially the same radiometric performance. (author)

  19. Effects of moisture content and heat treatment on peroxide value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... moisture content and reduced with increasing roasting duration. Analysis of ... Within the studied range, 13 h was the minimum OS recorded while maximum were 63.3 h.

  20. Heat damaged forages: effects on forage energy content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, educational materials describing the effects of heat damage within baled hays have focused on reduced bioavailability of crude protein as a result of Maillard reactions. These reactions are not simple, but actually occur in complex, multi-step pathways. Typically, the initial step inv...

  1. Study of stream wise transverse magnetic fluid flow with heat transfer around an obstacle embedded in a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghan, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35196-45399, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ellahi, R., E-mail: rellahi@engr.ucr.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, IIUI, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bourns Hall, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Riaz, M. [Department of QEC, National Defense University, E-9 Sector, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Jamal-Abad, M.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35196-45399, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    A mathematical model for two-dimensional fluid flow under the influence of stream wise transverse magnetic fields in laminar regime is simulated in this study. Heat transfer past a square diamond shaped porous obstacle is also taken into account. The attention is focused to investigate the effects of intensity and direction of magnetic field, Darcy and Reynolds numbers on the mechanism of convective heat transfer and flow structures. The Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model along with the Maxwell equations is used. The nonlinear coupled equations using a finite volume approach (FVA) are solved numerically. The calculations are performed for different governing parameters such as Reynolds number, Nusselt number, Stuart number and Prandtl Number. The physical interpretation of velocity and isothermal contours is assigned through graphs. It is shown that the effects of a transverse magnetic field on flow behavior and heat transfer mechanism are more than that of the stream wise magnetic field. The configuration of streamlines and vorticity contours phenomena are also presented for porous diamond obstacle. Comparison of the numerical solutions with existing literature is also made. - Highlights: • This paper analyses two-dimensional fluid flow under the influence of stream wise transverse magnetic field. • Heat transfer past a square diamond shaped porous obstacle is taken into account. • The Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model is used. • Finite volume approach is used to find numerical solutions. • The configuration of streamlines and vorticity contours phenomena are presented through graphs.

  2. High contents of rare earth elements (REEs) in stream waters of a Cu-Pb-Zn mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protano, G; Riccobono, F

    2002-01-01

    Stream waters draining an old mining area present very high rare earth element (REE) contents, reaching 928 microg/l as the maximum total value (sigmaREE). The middle rare earth elements (MREEs) are usually enriched with respect to both the light (LREEs) and heavy (HREEs) elements of this group, producing a characteristic "roof-shaped" pattern of the shale Post-Archean Australian Shales-normalized concentrations. At the Fenice Capanne Mine (FCM), the most important base metal mine of the study area, the REE source coincides with the mine tailings, mostly the oldest ones composed of iron-rich materials. The geochemical history of the REEs released into Noni stream from wastes in the FCM area is strictly determined by the pH, which controls the REE speciation and in-stream processes. The formation of Al-rich and mainly Fe-rich flocs effectively scavenges the REEs, which are readily and drastically removed from the solution when the pH approaches neutrality. Leaching experiments performed on flocs and waste materials demonstrate that Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxides play a key role in the release of lanthanide elements into stream waters. The origin of the "roof-shaped" REE distribution pattern as well as the peculiar geochemical behavior of some lanthanide elements in the aqueous system are discussed.

  3. Akamai Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Akamai offers world-class streaming media services that enable Internet content providers and enterprises to succeed in today's Web-centric marketplace. They deliver live event Webcasts (complete with video production, encoding, and signal acquisition services), streaming media on demand, 24/7 Webcasts and a variety of streaming application services based upon their EdgeAdvantage.

  4. [Affect regularity of medicinal species and heating time on flavonoids contents in Epimedium cut crude drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, E; Chen, Ling-ling; Jia, Xiao-bin; Qian, Qian; Cui, Li

    2012-09-01

    To study the affect regularity of medicinal species and heating time on flavonoids contents in Epimedium cut crude drug. Setting processing temperature at 170 degrees C, 39 batches Epimedium cut crude drug of different species were heated for 0, 5, 10 minutes. The contents of epimedin A, B, C, icariin, Baohuoside I in different species of Epimedium were determined by HPLC. The variance analysis was used to study the effect of medicinal species and heating time on the contents change of five major flavonoids. The contents of Epimedin A, B, C were significantly impacted by medicinal species (P time (P time and species (P > 0.05). The medicinal species and heat processed time are two important influence factors on the flavonoids contents in Epimedium. The contents of Epimedin A, C are abundant in Epimedium pubescens, and the contents of Epimedin B, Baohuoside I are higher in Epimedium brevicornu. After heating, the contents of Epimedin A, B, C are decreased, and icariin, Baohuoside I are increased. This study provides scientific evidences for variety certification, optimizing processing technology, exploring processing mechanism and clinical rational administration.

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1980-present, Heat Content

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Heat Content data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. Reconnaissance study of uranium and fluorine contents of stream and lake waters, West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenfelt, A.; Dam, E.

    1982-01-01

    The present study forms part of a current investigation on the applicability of geochemical methods in mineral exploration in Greenland. The sampling programme of 1981 comprised three parts: (1) A helicopter supported, low density, regional sampling (1 sample/30 km 2 ) of stream water and stream sediment in the area covered by map sheet 66 V.2, south-east of Soendre Stroemfjord. A total of 207 water samples was obtained. (2) Detailed sampling within a 20 km 2 area of lake and stream water (71 samples) from a camp at 66deg49'N, 25deg37'W, 25 km south-west of Soendre Stroemfjord. (3) Reconnaissance sampling, by boat, along the southern part of the west coast of Greenland. The aim of this reconnaissance was to obtain information on the character of the drainage systems and on the availability of sample media (water, stream sediment, aquatic moss) for geochemical exploration. A total of 195 water samples were collected. In addition, rust zones and areas of known mineralisation along the coast were sampled. (author)

  7. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Lycopene Content of Tomato Puree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Heat Treatment on the Lycopene Content of Tomato Puree. MI Mohammed, DI Malami. Abstract. Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant. Epidemiological studies have associated its consumption with numerous health benefits. In this study the effects of heating on lycopene were investigated by exposing tomato ...

  8. Radiative heat transfer and water content in atmosphere of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarov, M.Y.; Gal'stev, A.P.; Shari, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors present the procedure for calculating optical characteristics of the main components and the effective fluxes in the atmosphere of Venus, and concrete results of the calculations. They are compared to the results of other authors and to the experimantal data. Integration was carried out by the Simpson method with automatic selection of the step or interval for a given relative integrating accuracy delta. The calculations were done with a BESM-6 computer. Using this procedure and data on absorbtion coefficients, calculations of the spectrum of effective flux were carried out for a pure carbon dioxide atmosphere and for an atmosphere containing water vapor at various relative admixtures, for different altitude profiles of temperature and cloudiness albedo. Thus, the comparisons made, enable the authors to judge about the degree of agreement of the F(z) altitude profile, in some regions of the planet where measurements have been made, rather than about the absolute values of the heat fluxes. In conclusion, the authors point out that the task of calculating in detail the radiation balance in Venus' lower atmosphere, as also the problem of a more reliable interpretation of the experimantal data, is coupled with the necessity of elaborating reliable models of the atmospheric components' optical characteristics, which determine the radiative transfer of heat

  9. Delivering Live Multimedia Streams to Mobile Hosts in a Wireless Internet with Multiple Content Aggregators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, G.; Hesselman, C.E.W.; Eertink, E.H.; Eertink, Henk; Kermani, P.; Lee, S.J.; Widya, I.A.; Huizer, E.

    We consider the distribution of channels of live multimedia content (e.g., radio or TV broadcasts) via multiple content aggregators. In our work, an aggregator receives channels from content sources and redistributes them to a potentially large number of mobile hosts. Each aggregator can offer a

  10. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features.

  11. Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer with Variable Fluid Properties on a Moving Flat Plate in a Parallel Free Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfifah Bachok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a viscous fluid on a moving flat plate in a parallel free stream with variable fluid properties are studied. Two special cases, namely, constant fluid properties and variable fluid viscosity, are considered. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically by a finite-difference scheme known as Keller-box method. Numerical results for the flow and the thermal fields for both cases are obtained for various values of the free stream parameter and the Prandtl number. It is found that dual solutions exist for both cases when the fluid and the plate move in the opposite directions. Moreover, fluid with constant properties shows drag reduction characteristics compared to fluid with variable viscosity.

  12. Numerical study of unsteady MHD oblique stagnation point flow and heat transfer due to an oscillating stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, T.; Ghaffari, A.; Ahmad, H.

    2016-05-01

    The unsteady stagnation point flow impinging obliquely on a flat plate in presence of a uniform applied magnetic field due to an oscillating stream has been studied. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless form and the stream function is expressed in terms of Hiemenz and tangential components. The dimensionless partial differential equations are solved numerically by using well-known implicit finite difference scheme named as Keller-box method. The obtained results are compared with those available in the literature. It is observed that the results are in excellent agreement with the previous studies. The effects of pertinent parameters involved in the problem namely magnetic parameter, Prandtl number and impinging angle on flow and heat transfer characteristics are illustrated through graphs. It is observed that the influence of magnetic field strength increases the fluid velocity and by the increase of obliqueness parameter, the skin friction increases.

  13. Relationship between the dough quality and content of specific glutenin proteins in wheat mill streams, and its application to making flour suitable for instant Chinese noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Eriko; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Nishio, Zenta; Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Hanaoka, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Hisashi; Tanida, Masatoshi; Saruyama, Haruo

    2006-04-01

    The content of specific proteins such as high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits HMW-GS 5+10 and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits LMW-GS KS2 in wheat mill streams of extra-strong Kachikei 33 wheat was quantified by SDS-PAGE and 2D-PAGE. The mill streams showed varied quantities of HMW-GS 5+10 (0.077 to 2.007 mg/g of mill stream), LMW-GS KS2 (0.018 to 0.586 mg/g of mill stream) and total protein (9.42% to 18.98%). The contents of these specific proteins in the mill streams were significantly correlated with the SDS sedimentation volume and the mixing properties, which are respective indices of specific loaf volume and dough strength. The contents of these specific glutenin proteins in the mill streams were therefore found to be significantly important for improving the dough quality suitable for bread and Chinese noodles. Accordingly, we present here the application of this information to the development of an effective method for producing mill streams with high quality and yield that are suitable for instant Chinese noodles.

  14. Relationship between ash content and R{sub 70} self-heating rate of Callide Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B. Basil; Blazak, Darren G. [School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2005-10-17

    Borecore samples from the Trap Gully pit at Callide have been assessed using the R{sub 70} self-heating test. The highest R{sub 70} self-heating rate value was 16.22 {sup o}C/h, which is consistent with the subbituminous rank of the coal. R{sub 70} decreases significantly with increasing mineral matter content, as defined by the ash content of the coal. This effect is due to the mineral matter in the coal acting as a heat sink. A trendline equation has been fitted to the borecore data from the Trap Gully pit: R{sub 70}=0.0029xash{sup 2}-0.4889xash+20.644, where all parameters are on a dry-basis. This relationship can be used to model the self-heating hazard of the pit, both vertically and laterally. (author)

  15. Impact of moisture content in AAC on its heat insulation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubene, S.; Vilnitis, M.

    2017-10-01

    One of the most popular trends in construction industry is sustainable construction. Therefore, application of construction materials with high insulation characteristics has significantly increased during the past decade. Requirements for application of construction materials with high insulation parameters are required not only by means of energy saving and idea of sustainable construction but also by legislative requirements. Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is a load bearing construction material, which has high heat insulation parameters. However, if the AAC masonry construction has high moisture content the heat insulation properties of the material decrease significantly. This fact lead to the necessity for the on-site control of moisture content in AAC in order to avoid inconsistency between the designed and actual thermal resistivity values of external delimiting constructions. Research of the impact of moisture content in AAC on its heat insulation properties has been presented in this paper.

  16. Effects of heat exchange and nonlinearity on acoustic streaming in a vibrating cylindrical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaidullin, Amir A; Yakovenko, Anna V

    2015-06-01

    Acoustic streaming in a gas filled cylindrical cavity subjected to the vibration effect is investigated numerically. Both thermally insulated walls and constant temperature walls are considered. The range of vibration frequencies from low frequencies, at which the process can be described by an approximate analytical solution, to high frequencies giving rise to strong nonlinear effects is studied. Frequencies lower than the resonant one are chosen, and nonlinearity is achieved due to the large amplitude. The problem is solved in an axisymmetric statement. The dependence of acoustic streaming in narrow channels at vibration frequencies lower than the resonant one on the type of thermal boundary conditions is shown. The streaming vortices' directions of rotation in the case of constant temperature walls are found to be opposite to those in the case of thermally insulated walls. Different nonlinear effects, which increase with the frequency of vibration, are obtained. Nonlinear effects manifesting as the nonuniformity of average temperature, pressure, and density are in turn found to be influencing the streaming velocity and streaming structure.

  17. The effect of molybdenum content with changes in phase and heat capacity of UMo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslina Br Ginting; Supardjo; Agoeng Kadarjono; Dian Anggraini

    2011-01-01

    Has done the analysis of phase and heat capacity change of the UMo alloy by variation of 7% Mo, 8% and 9% Mo. Analysis performed using phase change Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) at a temperature between 30°C until 1400°C with heating rate 10°C/minute and heat capacity analysis carried out using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) at a temperature between 30°C to 450°C with heating rate 5°C/minute. The purpose of this study was to determine the character of the UMo alloy include phase change and heat capacity variation with Mo content due to higher content of Mo is expected to change both the character U-7% Mo alloy, U-8% Mo and U-9% Mo. The analysis showed that of 7% Mo, 8% Mo and 9% Mo the combination experiencing α+ δ a phase change becomes α + β phase at temperatures of 578.63°C to 580.16°C. At the temperature 606.50°C to 627.58°C having a phase change of α+ β to β + γ be followed by the endothermic reaction in the content of 9% Mo with the enthalpy ΔH = 6.5989 J / g. At temperatures 1075.45°C up to 1160.51°C phase change β + γ into γ phase. The increase in Mo content to heating at a temperature 1100°C not cause a significant phase change. At temperatures above 1177.21°C, the increase in Mo content leads to changes in the γ phase of forming L + γ phase which followed the reaction of uranium with Mo to form γ phase - solid solution. The higher content of Mo, the reaction heat is needed and released the greater. The results of the analysis of the heat capacity is obtained that the increase in Mo content in the U-7% Mo, U-8% Mo, and U-9% Mo alloy does not give a significant difference in heat capacity. This is attested by doing different test (F test) at 95% degree of confidence. This data is expected to be as a first step to study the manufacture of UMo alloy as a fuel of high uranium density for research reactor. (author)

  18. Wurf.it: A Network Coding Reliable Multicast Content Streaming Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Pihl, Jeppe; Heide, Janus

    demonstrator consists of stored simulations with ns-3 in a laptop and a Wurf.it implementation within a WiFi network. For the implementation, a video content from a mobile camera is distributed with low delay using SCORE to a set of heterogenous receivers (e.g. dierent platforms). Use cases of Wurf.it are mild...

  19. Heat and salt budgets over the Gulf Stream North Wall during LatMix survey in winter 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Rios, A.; Shearman, R. K.; D'Asaro, E. A.; Lee, C.; Gula, J.; Klymak, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    As part of the ONR-sponsored LatMix Experiment, ship-based and glider-based observations following a Lagrangian float are used to examine the evolution of temperature, salinity and density along the Gulf Stream north wall in wintertime. Satellite observations during the survey and the in-situ measurements showed the presence of submesoscale (1) calculated for this regions corroborates the possibility of submesoscale dynamics. Using a heat and salinity budget, we show that surface forcing, entrainment from below and advection by the mean flow velocities are not sufficient to explain the observed rate of change of heat and salinity in the mixed layer. Although confidence estimates prevent an accurate flux divergence calculation, Reynold flux estimates are consistent with a cross-frontal exchange that can reproduce the observed temporal trends.

  20. Tissue content of sulfomucins and sialomucins in the colonic mucosa, without fecal stream, undergoing daily intervention with sucralfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonassa, Christiny Emmanuelle Gabriel; Pereira, José Aires; Campos, Fábio Guilherme Caserta Maryssael de; Rodrigues, Murilo Rocha; Sato, Daniela Tiemi; Chaim, Felipe David Mendonça; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-05-01

    To measure the content of acidic mucin, sialomucin, and sulfomucins in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream submit to intervention with sucralfate (SCF). Thirty-six rats were submitted to a right colostomy and a distal mucous fistula and divided into two groups according to sacrifice to be performed two or four weeks. Each group was divided into three subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline, SCF at 1.0 g/kg/day or 2.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis. Acid mucins were determined with the Alcian-Blue and sulfomucin and sialomucin by high iron diamine-alcian blue (HID-AB) techniques. The mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Mann-Whitney and ANOVA tests were used to analyze the results establishing the level of significance of 5% for both (p<0.05). SCF enemas decreased the inflammation score and was related to the concentration used and time of the intervention. SCF at both concentrations increased the content of acid mucin, which was related to the concentration used and to the improvement in the inflammatory score. There was an increase in the content of sulfomucins and sialomucins in SCF groups. SCF increased sulfomucins from 2 weeks of intervention, which was not related to the dose or time of application. The increase in sialomucin content was related to the time and dose used in the intervention. Sucralfate increased the content of acidic mucins, primarily at the expense of sialomucin, which was affected by the dose and time of intervention.

  1. Solid recovered fuel: influence of waste stream composition and processing on chlorine content and fuel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Costas; Wagland, Stuart; Longhurst, Phil; Robson, Bryce; Sinfield, Keith; Wise, Stephen; Pollard, Simon

    2012-02-07

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal waste can replace fossil fuels, being a CO(2)-neutral, affordable, and alternative energy source. SRF application is limited by low confidence in quality. We present results for key SRF properties centered on the issue of chlorine content. A detailed investigation involved sampling, statistical analysis, reconstruction of composition, and modeling of SRF properties. The total chlorine median for a typical plant during summer operation was 0.69% w/w(d), with lower/upper 95% confidence intervals of 0.60% w/w(d) and 0.74% w/w(d) (class 3 of CEN Cl indicator). The average total chlorine can be simulated, using a reconciled SRF composition before shredding to limit for ash content marginally below the 20% w/w(d) deemed suitable for certain power plants; and a lower 95% confidence limit of net calorific value (NCV) at 14.5 MJ kg(ar)(-1). The data provide, for the first time, a high level of confidence on the effects of SRF composition on its chlorine content, illustrating interrelationships with other fuel properties. The findings presented here allow rational debate on achievable vs desirable MBT-derived SRF quality, informing the development of realistic SRF quality specifications, through modeling exercises, needed for effective thermal recovery.

  2. Engineering web maps with gradual content zoom based on streaming vector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lina; Meijers, Martijn; Šuba, Radan; van Oosterom, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Vario-scale data structures have been designed to support gradual content zoom and the progressive transfer of vector data, for use with arbitrary map scales. The focus to date has been on the server side, especially on how to convert geographic data into the proposed vario-scale structures by means of automated generalisation. This paper contributes to the ongoing vario-scale research by focusing on the client side and communication, particularly on how this works in a web-services setting. It is claimed that these functionalities are urgently needed, as many web-based applications, both desktop and mobile, require gradual content zoom, progressive transfer and a high performance level. The web-client prototypes developed in this paper make it possible to assess the behaviour of vario-scale data and to determine how users will actually see the interactions. Several different options of web-services communication architectures are possible in a vario-scale setting. These options are analysed and tested with various web-client prototypes, with respect to functionality, ease of implementation and performance (amount of transmitted data and response times). We show that the vario-scale data structure can fit in with current web-based architectures and efforts to standardise map distribution on the internet. However, to maximise the benefits of vario-scale data, a client needs to be aware of this structure. When a client needs a map to be refined (by means of a gradual content zoom operation), only the 'missing' data will be requested. This data will be sent incrementally to the client from a server. In this way, the amount of data transferred at one time is reduced, shortening the transmission time. In addition to these conceptual architecture aspects, there are many implementation and tooling design decisions at play. These will also be elaborated on in this paper. Based on the experiments conducted, we conclude that the vario-scale approach indeed supports gradual

  3. Anomalous conductivity and electron heating in a plasma unstable to the two-stream instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.H.M.; Hamberger, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment to excite the electron-ion two-stream instability in a cylindrical Q-machine plasma column is described. The mechanism for establishing a large pulsed electron drift velocity in the plasma by applying a potential difference between the end electrodes is discussed. The pulsed current-voltage characteristic of the plasma column and the temporal evolution of the electron density, drift velocity and thermal velocity are measured. In contrast with the behaviour of some computer simulations of the two-stream instability, the plasma exhibits a constant conductivity and the electron thermal velocity increases to values far in excess of the drift velocity. The electrical dissipation is consistent with the increase of the electron thermal energy, both indicating an anomalous conductivity of the same order as an empirical scaling found in earlier experiments on a toroidal discharge. (author)

  4. Convective heat transfer from rotating disks subjected to streams of air

    CERN Document Server

    aus der Wiesche, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This Brief describes systematically results of research studies on a series of convective heat transfer phenomena from rotating disks in air crossflow. Phenomena described in this volume were investigated experimentally using an electrically heated disk placed in the test section of a wind tunnel. The authors describe findings in which transitions between different heat transfer regimes can occur in dependency on the involved Reynolds numbers and the angle of incidence, and that these transitions could be related to phenomenological Landau and Landau-de Gennes models. The concise volume closes a substantial gap in the scientific literature with respect to flow and heat transfer in rotating disk systems and provides a comprehensive presentation of new and recent results not previously published in book form.

  5. Effect of water content on specific heat capacity of porcine septum cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yongseok; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Wong, Brian J.

    2002-06-01

    The effect of water content on specific heat capacity was examined using temperature modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC). This research was motivated in part by the development laser cartilage reshaping operations, which use photothermal heating to accelerate stress relaxation and shape change. Deposition of thermal energy leads to mechanical stress relaxation and redistribution of cartilage internal stresses, which may lead to a permanent shape change. The specific heat of cartilage specimens (dia: 3 mm and thickness 1-2 mm) was measured using a heating rate of 2 degree(s)C/min for conventional DSC and 2 degree(s)C/min with an amplitude 0.38-0.45 degree(s)C and a period 60-100 sec for TMDSC. The amount of water in cartilaginous tissue was determined using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) under ambient conditions. In order to correlate changes in heat flow with alterations in cartilage mechanical behavior, dynamic mechanical temperature analysis (DMTA) was used to estimate the specific transition temperatures where stress relaxation occurs. With decreasing water content, we identified a phase transition that shifted to a higher temperature after 35-45% water content was measured. The phase transition energy increased from 0.12 J/g to 1.68 J/g after a 45% weight loss. This study is a preliminary investigation focused on understanding the mechanism of the stress relaxation of cartilage during heating. The energy requirement of such a transition estimated using TMDSC and temperature range, where cartilage shape changes likely occur, was estimated.

  6. ESTIMATION OF THE TEMPERATURE RISE OF A MCU ACID STREAM PIPE IN NEAR PROXIMITY TO A SLUDGE STREAM PIPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-01-01

    Effluent streams from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) will transfer to the tank farms and to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These streams will contain entrained solvent. A significant portion of the Strip Effluent (SE) pipeline (i.e., acid stream containing Isopar(reg s ign) L residues) length is within one inch of a sludge stream. Personnel envisioned the sludge stream temperature may reach 100 C during operation. The nearby SE stream may receive heat from the sludge stream and reach temperatures that may lead to flammability issues once the contents of the SE stream discharge into a larger reservoir. To this end, personnel used correlations from the literature to estimate the maximum temperature rise the SE stream may experience if the nearby sludge stream reaches boiling temperature. Several calculation methods were used to determine the temperature rise of the SE stream. One method considered a heat balance equation under steady state that employed correlation functions to estimate heat transfer rate. This method showed the maximum temperature of the acid stream (SE) may exceed 45 C when the nearby sludge stream is 80 C or higher. A second method used an effectiveness calculation used to predict the heat transfer rate in single pass heat exchanger. By envisioning the acid and sludge pipes as a parallel flow pipe-to-pipe heat exchanger, this method provides a conservative estimation of the maximum temperature rise. Assuming the contact area (i.e., the area over which the heat transfer occurs) is the whole pipe area, the results found by this method nearly matched the results found with the previous calculation method. It is recommended that the sludge stream be maintained below 80 C to minimize a flammable vapor hazard from occurring

  7. Ocean heat content variability in an ensemble of twentieth century ocean reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boisséson, Eric; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Mayer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a ten-member ensemble of twentieth century Ocean ReAnalyses called ORA-20C. ORA-20C assimilates temperature and salinity profiles and is forced by the ECMWF twentieth century atmospheric reanalysis (ERA-20C) over the 1900-2010 period. This study attempts to identify robust signals of ocean heat content change in ORA-20C and detect contamination by model errors, initial condition uncertainty, surface fluxes and observing system changes. It is shown that ORA-20C trends and variability in the first part of the century result from the surface fluxes and model drift towards a warmer mean state and weak meridional overturning circulation. The impact of the observing system in correcting the mean state causes the deceleration of the warming trend and alters the long-term climate signal. The ensemble spread reflects the long-lasting memory of the initial conditions and the convergence of the system to a solution compatible with surface fluxes, the ocean model and observational constraints. Observations constrain the ocean heat uptake trend in the last decades of the twentieth century, which is similar to trend estimations from the post-satellite era. An ocean heat budget analysis attributes ORA-20C heat content changes to surface fluxes in the first part of the century. The heat flux variability reflects spurious signals stemming from ERA-20C surface fields, which in return result from changes in the atmospheric observing system. The influence of the temperature assimilation increments on the heat budget is growing with time. Increments control the most recent ocean heat uptake signals, highlighting imbalances in forced reanalysis systems in the ocean as well as in the atmosphere.

  8. Moisture content of PuO2 fuel used for the milliwatt generator heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotelli, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the moisture content of 238 Pu dioxide fuel for use in Milliwatt Generator heat sources was studied in an attempt to more clearly define the production fuel preloading procedures. The study indicated that water was not present or being adsorbed at various steps of the process (or during storage) that could lead to compatibility problems during pretreatment or long-term storage. The moisture content of the plutonium dioxide was analyzed by a commercial moisture analyzer. The moisture content at all steps of the process including storage averaged from 0.002% to 0.005%. The moisture content of the plutonium dioxide exposed to moist atmosphere for 7 days was 0.001%. These values indicated that no significant amount of moisture was adsorbed by the plutonium dioxide fuel charges. The only significant moisture content found was an average of 3.47%, after self-calcination. This was expected since no additional steps, other than self-heating of the fuel, are taken to remove the water

  9. Application of Streaming Effect and Joule Heating Effect of Pulse Current in Crack Healing of Metal Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacture engineering is an emerging industry that saves resources as well as protects the environment. However, cracks on remanufactured components can result in serious trouble. Therefore, in order to avoid unnecessary waste of resources and energy, these cracks should be repaired radically in order to ensure the smooth progressing of the remanufacturing process. Consequently, the crack healing technique of metal materials is very important in the field of remanufacturing. In this study, the U-shape vane stainless steel of a centrifugal compressor which had cracks was processed by pulse current using a high pulse current discharge device, and the influence of the streaming effect and Joule heating effect of pulse current on the crack healing of metal materials was studied, aiming to provide references for the better application of this technology in the remanufacturing field in the future.

  10. Effect of Cr Contents and Heat Treating on Reverted Austenite in Maraging Steel Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. W.; Lee, H. W.

    2018-05-01

    By conducting flux cored arc welding (FCAW) on maraging steels with Cr contents of 1.4 and 5.2 wt%, this study observed the effects of Cr content and heat treating on reverted austenite formation in welded maraging steel. Aging treatment was carried out at the temperatures of 450, 480 and 530 °C for 3 h in each condition. As the aging temperature increased, reverted austenite was formed along the interdendritic and intercellular grain boundaries, and the proportion of reverted austenite increased with increasing Cr addition. The aging process led to the segregation of Ti and Mo along the interdendritic and intercellular grain boundaries. Some of the welded specimens were subjected to solution heat treatment at 820 and 1250 °C for 1 h after welding, resulting in a decrease in reverted austenite fraction.

  11. Radiation Effects on the Flow and Heat Transfer over a Moving Plate in a Parallel Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Anuar

    2009-01-01

    Effects of thermal radiation on the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a moving plate in a moving fluid is investigated. Under certain conditions, the present problem reduces to the classical Blasius and Sakiadis problems. It is found that dual solutions exist when the plate and the fluid move in the opposite directions. Moreover, the existence of thermal radiation is to reduce the heat transfer rate at the surface. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  12. Angular distributions of atomic vapor stream produced by electron beam heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Hironori; Amekawa, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Takemasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The angular distributions were measured as a function of deposition rate for aluminium, copper, gadolinium and cerium vapor stream produced by an electron beam gun with water-cooled copper crucible. The distributions were recorded on the mounted on a semicircular (120mm in radius) mask over the evaporation source. The measured distributions were able to be described by a simple cosine law, that is cos{sup n} {theta}, except for the case of extremely high evaporation rate with a porous material, where n is a rate-dependent beaming exponent, {theta} is the angle from the vertical. For many kinds of evaporants, it was confirmed that the beaming exponents increase continuously from unity to 3 or 4 with increasing deposition rate and are approximately proportional to R{sup 0.25} where R is the deposition rate. Moreover, it was found that the beaming exponents n are able to be expressed as n = {alpha} Kn{sub 0}{sup -0.25}, where Kn{sub 0}{sup -1} is the inverse of Knudsen number, which is defined by the mean free path of evaporated atoms and the evaporation spot size, and {alpha} is the constant. (author)

  13. Angular distributions of atomic vapor stream produced by electron beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hironori; Amekawa, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Takemasa

    1997-03-01

    The angular distributions were measured as a function of deposition rate for aluminium, copper, gadolinium and cerium vapor stream produced by an electron beam gun with water-cooled copper crucible. The distributions were recorded on the mounted on a semicircular (120mm in radius) mask over the evaporation source. The measured distributions were able to be described by a simple cosine law, that is cos n θ, except for the case of extremely high evaporation rate with a porous material, where n is a rate-dependent beaming exponent, θ is the angle from the vertical. For many kinds of evaporants, it was confirmed that the beaming exponents increase continuously from unity to 3 or 4 with increasing deposition rate and are approximately proportional to R 0.25 where R is the deposition rate. Moreover, it was found that the beaming exponents n are able to be expressed as n = α Kn 0 -0.25 , where Kn 0 -1 is the inverse of Knudsen number, which is defined by the mean free path of evaporated atoms and the evaporation spot size, and α is the constant. (author)

  14. Can riparian vegetation shade mitigate the expected rise in stream temperatures due to climate change during heat waves in a human-impacted pre-alpine river?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Trimmel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has already affected European rivers and their aquatic biota, and climate models predict an increase of temperature in central Europe over all seasons. We simulated the influence of expected changes in heat wave intensity during the 21st century on water temperatures of a heavily impacted pre-alpine Austrian river and analysed future mitigating effects of riparian vegetation shade on radiant and turbulent energy fluxes using the deterministic Heat Source model. Modelled stream water temperature increased less than 1.5 °C within the first half of the century. Until 2100, a more significant increase of around 3 °C in minimum, maximum and mean stream temperatures was predicted for a 20-year return period heat event. The result showed clearly that in a highly altered river system riparian vegetation was not able to fully mitigate the predicted temperature rise caused by climate change but would be able to reduce water temperature by 1 to 2 °C. The removal of riparian vegetation amplified stream temperature increases. Maximum stream temperatures could increase by more than 4 °C even in annual heat events. Such a dramatic water temperature shift of some degrees, especially in summer, would indicate a total shift of aquatic biodiversity. The results demonstrate that effective river restoration and mitigation require re-establishing riparian vegetation and emphasize the importance of land–water interfaces and their ecological functioning in aquatic environments.

  15. The role of heating, cavitation and acoustic streaming in mediating ultrasound-induced changes of TGF-β gene expression in bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harle, J; Mayia, F

    2004-01-01

    This paper relates ultrasound-induced changes in bone cell function to quantitative data assessing the level of several interaction mechanisms within the exposure environment. Characterisation of ultrasound fields in terms of resultant levels of heating, cavitation and acoustic streaming may provide a novel means of accurately assessing the likelihood of biological effects in vitro

  16. Can riparian vegetation shade mitigate the expected rise in stream temperatures due to climate change during heat waves in a human-impacted pre-alpine river?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Heidelinde; Weihs, Philipp; Leidinger, David; Formayer, Herbert; Kalny, Gerda; Melcher, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Global warming has already affected European rivers and their aquatic biota, and climate models predict an increase of temperature in central Europe over all seasons. We simulated the influence of expected changes in heat wave intensity during the 21st century on water temperatures of a heavily impacted pre-alpine Austrian river and analysed future mitigating effects of riparian vegetation shade on radiant and turbulent energy fluxes using the deterministic Heat Source model. Modelled stream water temperature increased less than 1.5 °C within the first half of the century. Until 2100, a more significant increase of around 3 °C in minimum, maximum and mean stream temperatures was predicted for a 20-year return period heat event. The result showed clearly that in a highly altered river system riparian vegetation was not able to fully mitigate the predicted temperature rise caused by climate change but would be able to reduce water temperature by 1 to 2 °C. The removal of riparian vegetation amplified stream temperature increases. Maximum stream temperatures could increase by more than 4 °C even in annual heat events. Such a dramatic water temperature shift of some degrees, especially in summer, would indicate a total shift of aquatic biodiversity. The results demonstrate that effective river restoration and mitigation require re-establishing riparian vegetation and emphasize the importance of land-water interfaces and their ecological functioning in aquatic environments.

  17. Plume-Free Stream Interaction Heating Effects During Orion Crew Module Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichalar, J.; Lumpkin, F.; Boyles, K.

    2012-01-01

    During reentry of the Orion Crew Module (CM), vehicle attitude control will be performed by firing reaction control system (RCS) thrusters. Simulation of RCS plumes and their interaction with the oncoming flow has been difficult for the analysis community due to the large scarf angles of the RCS thrusters and the unsteady nature of the Orion capsule backshell environments. The model for the aerothermal database has thus relied on wind tunnel test data to capture the heating effects of thruster plume interactions with the freestream. These data are only valid for the continuum flow regime of the reentry trajectory. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) analysis was performed to study the vehicle heating effects that result from the RCS thruster plume interaction with the oncoming freestream flow at high altitudes during Orion CM reentry. The study was performed with the DSMC Analysis Code (DAC). The inflow boundary conditions for the jets were obtained from Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions. Simulations were performed for the roll, yaw, pitch-up and pitch-down jets at altitudes of 105 km, 125 km and 160 km as well as vacuum conditions. For comparison purposes (see Figure 1), the freestream conditions were based on previous DAC simulations performed without active RCS to populate the aerodynamic database for the Orion CM. Other inputs to the analysis included a constant Orbital reentry velocity of 7.5 km/s and angle of attack of 160 degrees. The results of the study showed that the interaction effects decrease quickly with increasing altitude. Also, jets with highly scarfed nozzles cause more severe heating compared to the nozzles with lower scarf angles. The difficulty of performing these simulations was based on the maximum number density and the ratio of number densities between the freestream and the plume for each simulation. The lowest altitude solutions required a substantial amount of computational resources

  18. Correlation Lengths for Estimating the Large-Scale Carbon and Heat Content of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Gille, S. T.; Verdy, A.

    2018-02-01

    The spatial correlation scales of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon, heat content, and carbon and heat exchanges with the atmosphere are estimated from a realistic numerical simulation of the Southern Ocean. Biases in the model are assessed by comparing the simulated sea surface height and temperature scales to those derived from optimally interpolated satellite measurements. While these products do not resolve all ocean scales, they are representative of the climate scale variability we aim to estimate. Results show that constraining the carbon and heat inventory between 35°S and 70°S on time-scales longer than 90 days requires approximately 100 optimally spaced measurement platforms: approximately one platform every 20° longitude by 6° latitude. Carbon flux has slightly longer zonal scales, and requires a coverage of approximately 30° by 6°. Heat flux has much longer scales, and thus a platform distribution of approximately 90° by 10° would be sufficient. Fluxes, however, have significant subseasonal variability. For all fields, and especially fluxes, sustained measurements in time are required to prevent aliasing of the eddy signals into the longer climate scale signals. Our results imply a minimum of 100 biogeochemical-Argo floats are required to monitor the Southern Ocean carbon and heat content and air-sea exchanges on time-scales longer than 90 days. However, an estimate of formal mapping error using the current Argo array implies that in practice even an array of 600 floats (a nominal float density of about 1 every 7° longitude by 3° latitude) will result in nonnegligible uncertainty in estimating climate signals.

  19. Diurnal variability of heat fluxes and heat content at a few locations off central east coast of India during April 1989

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, V.S.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Diurnal variability of surface wind speed, net heat exchange, sea surface temperature, vertical thermal structure and heat content at three locations, viz., station A (17 degrees 59'N, 83 degrees 53.9'E), station B (17 degrees 00'N, 82 degrees 32...

  20. Ocean heat content and Earth's radiation imbalance. II. Relation to climate shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, D.H.; Knox, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    In an earlier study of ocean heat content (OHC) we showed that Earth's empirically implied radiation imbalance has undergone abrupt changes. Other studies have identified additional such climate shifts since 1950. The shifts can be correlated with features in recently updated OHC data. The implied radiation imbalance may possibly alternate in sign at dates close to the climate shifts. The most recent shifts occurred during 2001–2002 and 2008–2009. The implied radiation imbalance between these dates, in the direction of ocean heat loss, was −0.03±0.06 W/m 2 , with a possible systematic error of [−0.00,+0.09] W/m 2 . -- Highlights: ► Ocean heat content (OHC) slope discontinuities match similar Earth climate features. ► OHC slopes between climate shifts give most of the implied radiation balance (IRI). ► IRI often alternates in sign at dates close to the climate shifts. ► IRI between climate shifts of 2001–2002 and 2008–2009 was −0.03±0.06 W/m 2 . ► Geothermal flux is relevant to analyses of radiation imbalance.

  1. On the mechanisms behind decadal heat content changes in the eastern subpolar gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbruyères, Damien; Mercier, Herlé; Thierry, Virginie

    2015-03-01

    Historical and modern hydrographic data show substantial decadal variability in the heat content (HC) of the eastern subpolar North Atlantic. Those changes are here investigated in an eddy-permitting simulation (ORCA025-G70) forced by reanalysis products for the period 1965-2004. The observed and simulated decadal signal is characterized by a strong cooling in the 1960s and 1970s, a period of minor changes in the 1980s, and a strong warming in the 1990s and 2000s. A heat budget calculation is performed within a box bounded by the Greenland-Scotland sills and the Cape Farewell (Greenland)-Portugal A25-Ovide section. The decadal variability of HC is mainly governed by the integrated effect of anomalous oceanic heat transport across A25-Ovide (HTA25), with local air-sea heat fluxes playing a damping role. The impact of temperature changes acting upon the mean oceanic circulation is shown to dominate the long-term behavior of HTA25 . Through Lagrangian experiments, we show that temperature anomalies advected by the mean circulation across A25-Ovide are mostly created by the gyre circulation anomalies upstream of A25-Ovide and the associated changes in the relative proportion of cold subpolar and warm subtropical waters feeding the northern and southern branches of the North Atlantic Current. These temperature anomalies induce large-scale changes in the pycnocline slope east of Reykjanes Ridge along A25-Ovide: when the NAC is relatively cold (warm), the main pycnocline moves upward (downward) in the Iceland Basin and on top of Reykjanes Ridge, thereby increasing (decreasing) the pycnocline slope. The resulting velocity anomalies lead to heat transport changes that strongly oppose the thermally-driven heat transport anomalies.

  2. Mechanisms underlying recent decadal changes in subpolar North Atlantic Ocean heat content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Christopher G.; Ponte, Rui M.; Little, Christopher M.; Buckley, Martha W.; Fukumori, Ichiro

    2017-09-01

    The subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) is subject to strong decadal variability, with implications for surface climate and its predictability. In 2004-2005, SPNA decadal upper ocean and sea-surface temperature trends reversed from warming during 1994-2004 to cooling over 2005-2015. This recent decadal trend reversal in SPNA ocean heat content (OHC) is studied using a physically consistent, observationally constrained global ocean state estimate covering 1992-2015. The estimate's physical consistency facilitates quantitative causal attribution of ocean variations. Closed heat budget diagnostics reveal that the SPNA OHC trend reversal is the result of heat advection by midlatitude ocean circulation. Kinematic decompositions reveal that changes in the deep and intermediate vertical overturning circulation cannot account for the trend reversal, but rather ocean heat transports by horizontal gyre circulations render the primary contributions. The shift in horizontal gyre advection reflects anomalous circulation acting on the mean temperature gradients. Maximum covariance analysis (MCA) reveals strong covariation between the anomalous horizontal gyre circulation and variations in the local wind stress curl, suggestive of a Sverdrup response. Results have implications for decadal predictability.

  3. A comparative study of plasma heating by ion acoustic and modified two-stream instabilities at subcritical quasi-perpendicular shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Giacalone, J.; Thomsen, M.F.; Mellott, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Plasma heating due to the ion instability and the modified two-stream instability is examined for quasi-perpendicular subcritical shocks. Electron and ion heating is investigated as a function of upstream electron to ion temperature ratio and plasma beta using second-order heating rates. A simple shock model is employed in which the cross-field electron-ion drift speed is adjusted until the total (adiabatic plus anomalous) heating matches that required by the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. Quantities such as the width of the shock and the maximum electric field fluctuations are also calculated, and the results are compared with the ISEE data set of subcritical box shock crossings. The observed width of the shock, the amount of plasma heating, and the low-frequency electric field intensity are in reasonably good agreement with the calculations for the modified two-stream instability. On the other hand, the wave intensities at higher frequency are about 4 orders of magnitude smaller than those predicted for the ion acoustic instability at saturation, consistent with the fact that the measured shock widths imply cross-field drift speeds that are below threshold for this instability. It is therefore concluded that the dissipation at these shocks is most likely due to the lower frequency, modified two-stream instability

  4. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs

  5. Multi-Decadal Oscillations of the Ocean Active Upper-Layer Heat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byshev, Vladimir I.; Neiman, Victor G.; Anisimov, Mikhail V.; Gusev, Anatoly V.; Serykh, Ilya V.; Sidorova, Alexandra N.; Figurkin, Alexander L.; Anisimov, Ivan M.

    2017-07-01

    Spatial patterns in multi-decadal variability in upper ocean heat content for the last 60 years are examined using a numerical model developed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of Russia (INM Model) and sea water temperature-salinity data from the World Ocean Database (in: Levitus, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 66, U.S. Wash.: Gov. Printing Office, 2009). Both the model and the observational data show that the heat content of the Active Upper Layer (AUL) in particular regions of the Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans have experienced prominent simultaneous variations on multi-decadal (25-35 years) time scales. These variations are compared earlier revealed climatic alternations in the Northern Atlantic region during the last century (Byshev et al. in Doklady Earth Sci 438(2):887-892, 2011). We found that from the middle of 1970s to the end of 1990s the AUL heat content decreased in several oceanic regions, while the mean surface temperature increased on Northern Hemisphere continents according to IPCC (in: Stocker et al. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013). This means that the climate-forcing effect of the ocean-atmosphere interaction in certain energy-active areas determines not only local climatic processes, but also have an influence on global-scale climate phenomena. Here we show that specific regional features of the AUL thermal structure are in a good agreement with climatic conditions on the adjacent continents. Further, the ocean AUL in the five distinctive regions identified in our study have resumed warming in the first decade of this century. By analogy inference from previous climate scenarios, this may signal the onset of more continental climate over mainlands.

  6. Sapflow+: a four-needle heat-pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    • To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Ocean heat content and ocean energy budget: make better use of historical global subsurface temperature dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Zhu, J.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean heat content (OHC) change contributes substantially to global sea level rise, also is a key metric of the ocean/global energy budget, so it is a vital task for the climate research community to estimate historical OHC. While there are large uncertainties regarding its value, here we review the OHC calculation by using the historical global subsurface temperature dataset, and discuss the sources of its uncertainty. The presentation briefly introduces how to correct to the systematic biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data, a alternative way of filling data gaps (which is main focus of this talk), and how to choose a proper climatology. A new reconstruction of historical upper (0-700 m) OHC change will be presented, which is the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) version of historical upper OHC assessment. The authors also want to highlight the impact of observation system change on OHC calculation, which could lead to bias in OHC estimates. Furthermore, we will compare the updated observational-based estimates on ocean heat content change since 1970s with CMIP5 results. This comparison shows good agreement, increasing the confidence of the climate models in representing the climate history.

  8. Temperature, heat content, mixing and stability in Lake Orta: a pluriannual investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi BARBANTI

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the overall state of some physical phenomena occurring in Lake Orta, such as thermal stratification and destratification, accumulation and release of heat, vertical winter mixing, and stability of the water mass. The historical series of temperature distribution along the water column in the period 1984-1999, from which the holo-oligomictic character of Lake Orta emerges, is analysed. The monthly evaluation of the heat contents metre by metre from 0 to 143 m depth reveals how the complete winter mixing occurs only when the energy present within the whole column is less than 1,675 MJ m-2; above this value the circulation is only partial, as in the other deep subalpine lakes. A water layer in the deep hypolimnion has been shown to contain a climatic memory, which has generally increased since 1981. Walker’s stability analysis has revealed that when at a depth below 90 metres there is a level where 0.07 J m-2 are exceeded, total mixing cannot take place. In contrast, the Birgean work identifies, during the heating phase, the layers of the lake where energy is stored or lost.

  9. Consensuses and discrepancies of basin-scale ocean heat content changes in different ocean analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongjie; Cheng, Lijing; Abraham, John; Li, Chongyin

    2018-04-01

    Inconsistent global/basin ocean heat content (OHC) changes were found in different ocean subsurface temperature analyses, especially in recent studies related to the slowdown in global surface temperature rise. This finding challenges the reliability of the ocean subsurface temperature analyses and motivates a more comprehensive inter-comparison between the analyses. Here we compare the OHC changes in three ocean analyses (Ishii, EN4 and IAP) to investigate the uncertainty in OHC in four major ocean basins from decadal to multi-decadal scales. First, all products show an increase of OHC since 1970 in each ocean basin revealing a robust warming, although the warming rates are not identical. The geographical patterns, the key modes and the vertical structure of OHC changes are consistent among the three datasets, implying that the main OHC variabilities can be robustly represented. However, large discrepancies are found in the percentage of basinal ocean heating related to the global ocean, with the largest differences in the Pacific and Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, we find a large discrepancy of ocean heat storage in different layers, especially within 300-700 m in the Pacific and Southern Oceans. Furthermore, the near surface analysis of Ishii and IAP are consistent with sea surface temperature (SST) products, but EN4 is found to underestimate the long-term trend. Compared with ocean heat storage derived from the atmospheric budget equation, all products show consistent seasonal cycles of OHC in the upper 1500 m especially during 2008 to 2012. Overall, our analyses further the understanding of the observed OHC variations, and we recommend a careful quantification of errors in the ocean analyses.

  10. Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Szalóki-Dorkó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3, were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L. The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18 %, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19 % were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2 of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production.

  11. The effect of the moisture content of a local heat source on the blood flow response of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Bains, Gurinder; Raju, Chinna; Lohman, Everett; Berk, Lee; Prowse, Michelle; Gunda, Shashi; Madani, Piyush; Batt, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of local and global heating of the body on skin blood flow. However, the effect of the moisture content of the heat source on the skin blood flow response has not been examined. Thirty-three subjects, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, between the ages of 22 and 32 were examined to determine the relationship between the effects of dry vs. moist heat applied for the same length of time and with the skin clamped at the same skin temperature on the blood flow response of the skin. The skin, heated with an infrared heat lamp (skin temperature monitored with a thermocouple) to 40 degrees C for 15 min, was either kept moist with wet towels or, in a separate experiment, kept dry with Drierite (a desiccant) between the towels to remove any moisture. Before and after heat exposure of the forearm, blood pressure, heart rate, skin moisture content, skin temperature, and skin blood flow were recorded. The results of the experiment showed that there was no change in skin moisture after 15 min exposure to dry heat at 40 degrees C. However, with moist heat, skin moisture increased by 43.7%, a significant increase (P heat, blood flow increased from the resting value by 282.3% whereas with moist heat, blood flow increased by 386% over rest, a significant increase over dry heat (P heat was a better heating modality than dry heat. The reason may be linked to moisture sensitivity in calcium channels in the vascular endothelial cell.

  12. Advective and atmospheric forced changes in heat and fresh water content in the Norwegian Sea, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Kjell Arne; Skagseth, Øystein; Ivshin, Victor; Ozhigin, Vladimir; Hughes, Sarah L.; Valdimarsson, Hédinn

    2014-09-01

    Climate variability in the Norwegian Sea was investigated in terms of ocean heat and fresh water contents of Atlantic water above a reference surface, using hydrographic data during spring 1951-2010. The main processes acting on this variability were examined and then quantified. The area-averaged water mass cooled and freshened, but a deepening of the reference surface resulted in a positive trend in the heat content of 0.3 W m-2. Air-sea heat fluxes explained about half of the interannual variability in heat content. The effect of the advection of Atlantic and Arctic waters on the variability varied with time, apparently due to large-scale changes in the ocean circulation. The data are consistent with the explanation that changing wind patterns caused buffering and then release of Arctic water in the Iceland Sea during the late 1960s to early 1970s, and this caused large hydrographic changes in the Norwegian Sea.

  13. Effect of moisture content on the R{sub 70} self-heating rate of Callide coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B. Basil; Hamilton, Garth R. [School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2005-10-17

    Strip samples from the Boundary Hill pit at Callide have been tested in an adiabatic oven to assess the effect of moisture on the R{sub 70} self-heating rate of coal. The two strip samples tested had R{sub 70} self-heating rate values of 10.23 and 8.61 {sup o}C/h. As the moisture content of the coal was progressively increased, from the dry state of the test, the R{sub 70} value decreased dramatically. At approximately 40-50% of the moisture holding capacity of the coal, the self-heating rate becomes measurable. Above this critical level of moisture content, the heat produced by oxidation is dissipated by moisture evaporation and coal self-heating is significantly delayed. (author)

  14. A computational study for investigating acoustic streaming and tissue heating during high intensity focused ultrasound through blood vessel with an obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Salma; Sultana, Aysha

    2017-06-01

    The influence of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) on the obstacle through blood vessel is studied numerically. A three-dimensional acoustics-thermal-fluid coupling model is employed to compute the temperature field around the obstacle through blood vessel. The model construction is based on the linear Westervelt and conjugate heat transfer equations for the obstacle through blood vessel. The system of equations is solved using Finite Element Method (FEM). We found from this three-dimensional numerical study that the rate of heat transfer is increasing from the obstacle and both the convective cooling and acoustic streaming can considerably change the temperature field.

  15. Effect of microwave heating on content of cyanogenic glycosides in linseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Linseed is a good source of linoleic (LA, 18:2, n-6 and especially α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3, ω6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, which are essential because mammals, and therefore humans, cannot endogenously synthesize them and must adopt them exogenously from dietary sources. In spite of its high nutritive value, linseed has not been effectively exploited in animal feeding, due to the fact that it contains antinutritive components, which are cyanogenic glycosides (CG and antivitamin B6 (linatine. CGs are a major limitation in application of linseed and its meal in animal nutrition. The objective of the study was to investigate effect of microwave heat treatment on the content of hydrogen cyanide, and consequently cyanogenic glycosides in linseed. Operating frequency of microwave oven was 2450 mHz, and working power was 240W, 400W, 560W and 800W. Samples were treated for 0, 3, 6 and 10 minutes for every working power. When microwave power of 560 W and 800 W was used for 6 min and longer, linseed samples were burned and damaged, therefore these treatments should not be used. Minimal time of heating with microwave power of 400W, which would provide reduction of HCN content under allowed limits (250 mg/kg of linseed, was determined graphically using three-dimensional contour plot graph and it was 290 s (4 minutes and 50 s. This regime is recommended for treating linseed before usage as a feed compound.

  16. Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Daume

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGSe solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis, capacitance-voltage profiling, as well as electroluminescence imaging. By comparing the aging process to cells that were exposed to heat only, it could be confirmed that moisture plays the key role in the degradation process. We found that cells with higher sodium content suffer from a more pronounced degradation. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate the superposition of an enhancing and a deteriorating mechanism during the aging process. We propose an explanation based on the corrosion of the planar contacts of the solar cell.

  17. Effect of heating oils and fats in containers of different materials on their trans fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, A L Amrutha; Joshi, Vishal; Gurudutt, K N

    2012-08-30

    The nature of the container material and temperature employed for deep-frying can have an influence on the development of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in the fat used. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of heating vegetable oils and partially hydrogenated vegetable fats with different initial TFA content in stainless steel, Hindalium (an aluminium alloy), cast iron and glass containers. Ground nut oil (oil 1), refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palmolein (oil 2) and two partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with low (fat 1) and high (fat 2) TFA content were uniformly heated at 175-185 °C over a period of 12 h. An increase in TFA content to 20 g kg⁻¹ was observed in oil 2 in the cast iron container, while a decrease in TFA content of 20-30 g kg⁻¹ was observed in fat 2 in all containers. The heating process of fats and oils also led to an increase in Butyro refractometer reading and colour values. This study showed that the TFA 18:1t content of oil 1, oil 2 and fat 1 increased with repeated or prolonged heating. The cast iron container showed the highest increase in TFA 18:1t for RBD palmolein (oil 2). The amount of linoleic acid trans isomers formed in the heating process was negligible. Fat 2 with high initial TFA content showed a decrease in TFA 18:1 and 18:2 on heating in all containers. Oils heated in glass and stainless steel containers showed less TFA 18:1t formation. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Combined effect of heat treatment and humidity on total polyphenol content of tartary buckwheat wholeflour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor crops are gaining new interest due to the high content of bioactive compounds available in their grain and the consequent opportunity to be employed as ingredients for the production of healthy foodstuff. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. grain is rich in flavonoids, the most important being represented by rutin, a compound possessing a high health value. When processing bakery products added with Tartary buckwheat whole flour, the key point is to prevent rutin from being hydrolysed to quercetin. In this view, a combination of heat treatment and controlled humidity level was applied for different lengths of time, in the attempt to deactivate the enzymes catalysing the reaction. Tartary buckwheat grain contains other polyphenols also capable to confer health properties. This class of compounds has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In this study it was observed how the physical treatments meant to preserve rutin would influence the overall content of polyphenols in Tartary buckwheat whole flour and dough.

  19. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  20. More than a House of Cards: Developing a Firm Foundation for Streaming Media and Consumer-Licensed Content in the Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Cross

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will introduce traditional library practice for licensing multimedia content and discuss the way that consumer-licensing and streaming services disrupt that practice. Sections II and III describe the statutory copyright regime designed by Congress to facilitate the socially-valuable work done by libraries and the impact of the move from ownership to licensed content. Collecting multimedia materials has always presented special legal challenges for libraries, particularly as licensed content has replaced the traditional practice of purchasing and circulation based on the first sale doctrine. These issues have grown even more complex as streaming services like Netflix and Amazon and video game downloads through services like Steam have come to dominate the landscape. Section IV will describe the way that consumer-licensed materials, which not only remove the ownership that undergirds library practice, but also the ability to negotiate for library use, imperil the congressionally-designed balance. Section V will present a path forward for libraries to develop robust, cutting-edge collections that reflect a sophisticated understanding of the contractual and copyright issues at play.

  1. Vectorization and improvement of nuclear codes (MEUDAS4, FORCE, STREAM V2.6, HEATING7-VP, SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD2.5, NBI3DGFN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Koichiro; Isobe, Nobuo; Machida, Masahiko; Osanai, Seiji; Yokokawa, Mitsuo

    1992-09-01

    Eight nuclear codes have been vectorized and modified to improve their performance. These codes are magnetic fluid equilibrium code MEUDAS4 (CR and FFT versions), the magnetic field analysis code FORCE, the three-dimensional heat fluid analysis code STREAM V2.6, the three-dimensional heat analysis code HEATING 7-VP, the severe accident transient analysis code SCDAP/RELAP 5/MOD 2.5 for light water reactors, the ion beam orbital analysis code NBI3DGFN, and a free electron laser analysis code. The speedup ratios of the vectorized versions to the original ones in scalar mode are 2.3-4.9, 1.9-5.4, 2.6-6.2, and 1.9 for the MEUDAS4, STREAM, FORCE, and free electron laser analysis code, respectively. The definition method of the computational regions in the HEATING7-VP is improved. The SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD2.5 is modified to use extended memory regions of the computer. In this report, outlines of the codes, techniques used in the vectorization and reorganization of the codes, verification of computed results, and improvement on the performance are presented. (author)

  2. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  3. Evaluation of the influence of different heat-treatment methods on fatty acids content particulary trans isomers in french fries

    OpenAIRE

    Mojska, H.; Malecka, K.; Gielecinska, I.; Sitek, A.; Pawlicka, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of different heat treatment methods on trans fatty acids content in French fries. French fries were heat-treated by using a deep fryer, a frying pan, an oven and a microwave. The fatty acids content was analyzed by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography using MS detector (GC/MS). The highest increase in fat was determined in French fries prepared in deep fryer in comparison to raw French fries, whereas the lowest by using oven and micro...

  4. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horttanainen, M.; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose

  5. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horttanainen, M., E-mail: mika.horttanainen@lut.fi; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  6. Decadal Western Pacific Warm Pool Variability: A Centroid and Heat Content Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Autumn; Han, Lu; Jo, Young-Heon; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2017-10-13

    We examine several characteristics of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WP) in the past thirty years of mixed interannual variability and climate change. Our study presents the three-dimensional WP centroid (WPC) movement, WP heat content anomaly (HC) and WP volume (WPV) on interannual to decadal time scales. We show the statistically significant correlation between each parameter's interannual anomaly and the NINO 3, NINO 3.4, NINO 4, SOI, and PDO indices. The longitudinal component of the WPC is most strongly correlated with NINO 4 (R = 0.78). The depth component of the WPC has the highest correlation (R = -0.6) with NINO3.4. The WPV and NINO4 have an R-Value of -0.65. HC has the highest correlation with NINO3.4 (R = -0.52). During the study period of 1982-2014, the non-linear trends, derived from ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), show that the WPV, WP depth and HC have all increased. The WPV has increased by 14% since 1982 and the HC has increased from -1 × 10 8  J/m 2 in 1993 to 10 × 10 8  J/m 2 in 2014. While the largest variances in the latitudinal and longitudinal WPC locations are associated with annual and seasonal timescales, the largest variances in the WPV and HC are due to the multi-decadal non-linear trend.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Upper Ocean Heat Content Variability from Ensemble Operational Ocean Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Boyer, Tim; Ferry, Nicolas; Good, Simon; Ishikawa, Ichiro; Rienecker, Michele; Rosati, Tony; Yin, Yonghong; Kumar, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Upper ocean heat content (HC) is one of the key indicators of climate variability on many time-scales extending from seasonal to interannual to long-term climate trends. For example, HC in the tropical Pacific provides information on thermocline anomalies that is critical for the longlead forecast skill of ENSO. Since HC variability is also associated with SST variability, a better understanding and monitoring of HC variability can help us understand and forecast SST variability associated with ENSO and other modes such as Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Tropical Atlantic Variability (TAV) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). An accurate ocean initialization of HC anomalies in coupled climate models could also contribute to skill in decadal climate prediction. Errors, and/or uncertainties, in the estimation of HC variability can be affected by many factors including uncertainties in surface forcings, ocean model biases, and deficiencies in data assimilation schemes. Changes in observing systems can also leave an imprint on the estimated variability. The availability of multiple operational ocean analyses (ORA) that are routinely produced by operational and research centers around the world provides an opportunity to assess uncertainties in HC analyses, to help identify gaps in observing systems as they impact the quality of ORAs and therefore climate model forecasts. A comparison of ORAs also gives an opportunity to identify deficiencies in data assimilation schemes, and can be used as a basis for development of real-time multi-model ensemble HC monitoring products. The OceanObs09 Conference called for an intercomparison of ORAs and use of ORAs for global ocean monitoring. As a follow up, we intercompared HC variations from ten ORAs -- two objective analyses based on in-situ data only and eight model analyses based on ocean data assimilation systems. The mean, annual cycle, interannual variability and longterm trend of HC have

  8. Multi-centennial upper-ocean heat content reconstruction using online data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. A.; Hakim, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Last Millennium Reanalysis (LMR) provides an advanced paleoclimate ensemble data assimilation framework for multi-variate climate field reconstructions over the Common Era. Although reconstructions in this framework with full Earth system models remain prohibitively expensive, recent work has shown improved ensemble reconstruction validation using computationally inexpensive linear inverse models (LIMs). Here we leverage these techniques in pursuit of a new multi-centennial field reconstruction of upper-ocean heat content (OHC), synthesizing model dynamics with observational constraints from proxy records. OHC is an important indicator of internal climate variability and responds to planetary energy imbalances. Therefore, a consistent extension of the OHC record in time will help inform aspects of low-frequency climate variability. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Max Planck Institute (MPI) last millennium simulations to derive the LIMs, and the PAGES2K v.2.0 proxy database to perform annually resolved reconstructions of upper-OHC, surface air temperature, and wind stress over the last 500 years. Annual OHC reconstructions and uncertainties for both the global mean and regional basins are compared against observational and reanalysis data. We then investigate differences in dynamical behavior at decadal and longer time scales between the reconstruction and simulations in the last-millennium Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5). Preliminary investigation of 1-year forecast skill for an OHC-only LIM shows largely positive spatial grid point local anomaly correlations (LAC) with a global average LAC of 0.37. Compared to 1-year OHC persistence forecast LAC (global average LAC of 0.30), the LIM outperforms the persistence forecasts in the tropical Indo-Pacific region, the equatorial Atlantic, and in certain regions near the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. In other regions, the forecast correlations are less than the

  9. Ocean heat content variability and change in an ensemble of ocean reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M. D.; Roberts, C. D.; Balmaseda, M.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chepurin, G.; Ferry, N.; Fujii, Y.; Good, S. A.; Guinehut, S.; Haines, K.; Hernandez, F.; Köhl, A.; Lee, T.; Martin, M. J.; Masina, S.; Masuda, S.; Peterson, K. A.; Storto, A.; Toyoda, T.; Valdivieso, M.; Vernieres, G.; Wang, O.; Xue, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Accurate knowledge of the location and magnitude of ocean heat content (OHC) variability and change is essential for understanding the processes that govern decadal variations in surface temperature, quantifying changes in the planetary energy budget, and developing constraints on the transient climate response to external forcings. We present an overview of the temporal and spatial characteristics of OHC variability and change as represented by an ensemble of dynamical and statistical ocean reanalyses (ORAs). Spatial maps of the 0-300 m layer show large regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans where the interannual variability of the ensemble mean exceeds ensemble spread, indicating that OHC variations are well-constrained by the available observations over the period 1993-2009. At deeper levels, the ORAs are less well-constrained by observations with the largest differences across the ensemble mostly associated with areas of high eddy kinetic energy, such as the Southern Ocean and boundary current regions. Spatial patterns of OHC change for the period 1997-2009 show good agreement in the upper 300 m and are characterized by a strong dipole pattern in the Pacific Ocean. There is less agreement in the patterns of change at deeper levels, potentially linked to differences in the representation of ocean dynamics, such as water mass formation processes. However, the Atlantic and Southern Oceans are regions in which many ORAs show widespread warming below 700 m over the period 1997-2009. Annual time series of global and hemispheric OHC change for 0-700 m show the largest spread for the data sparse Southern Hemisphere and a number of ORAs seem to be subject to large initialization `shock' over the first few years. In agreement with previous studies, a number of ORAs exhibit enhanced ocean heat uptake below 300 and 700 m during the mid-1990s or early 2000s. The ORA ensemble mean (±1 standard deviation) of rolling 5-year trends in full-depth OHC shows a relatively steady

  10. Whole planet cooling and the radiogenic heat source contents of the earth and moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, G.; Stevenson, D.

    1980-01-01

    It is widely believed that the surface heat flows of the earth and moon provide good measures of the total amounts of radioactives in these bodies. Simple thermal evolution models, based on subsolidus whole mantle convection, indicate that this may not be the case. These models have been constructed assuming an initially hot state, but with a wide variety of choices for the parameters characterizing the rheology and convective vigor. All models are constrained to be consistent with present-day surface heat fluxes, and many of the terrestrial models are consistent with the mantle viscosities indicated by post-glacial rebound. For the earth the acceptable models give a radiogenic heat production that is only 65--85% of the surface heat output, the difference being due to secular cooling of the earth (about 50 0 --100 0 C per 10 9 years in the upper mantle). It is argued that the actual heat generation may be substantially less, since the models omit core heat, upward migration of heat sources, possible layering of the mantle, and deviations from steady convection. Geochemical models which are near to chondritic (apart from potassium depletion) are marginally consistent with surface heat flow. In the lunar models, heat generation is typically only 70--80% of the surface heat flow, even with allowance for the strong near-surface enhancement of radioactives. Despite the simplicity of the models the persistence of a significant difference between heat generation and heat output for a wide range of parameter choices indicates that this difference is real and should be incorporated in geochemical modeling of the planets

  11. Generalization of measurements of local and integral heat transfer while transverse stream-lining of smooth and rough cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhenbakh, Eh.

    1976-01-01

    The investigation is presented into heat transfer in the boundary layer and in the tear-away region of a rough round cylinder. The data obtained must aid in improving nuclear reactor heat exchangers. The experiments were carried out in the Re range between 2 x 10 4 and 4 x 10 6 . The roughness parameter k 5 /d (where ksub(S) is the equivalent roughness, and d is the cylinder diameter) varied in the range 0 -5 . The degree of turbulence of the incident flow Tu = 0.45%. Heat transfer values are given in relation to Re and the roughness parameter in subcritical, critical, supercritical, and transcritical flows

  12. Effect of milk fat content on the performance of ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-S; Kang, D-H

    2015-08-01

    The effect of milk fat content on ohmic heating compared to conventional heating for inactivation of food-borne pathogens was investigated. Sterile cream was mixed with sterile buffered peptone water and adjusted to 0, 3, 7, 10% (w/v) milk fat content. These samples with varying fat content were subjected to ohmic and conventional heating. The effect of milk fat on temperature increase and electrical conductivity were investigated. Also, the protective effect of milk fat on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens was studied. For conventional heating, temperatures of samples increased with time and were not significantly (P > 0.05) different regardless of fat content. Although the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogens decreased in samples of 10% fat content, a protective effect was not observed for conventional heating. In contrast with conventional heating, ohmic heating was significantly affected by milk fat content. Temperature increased more rapidly with lower fat content for ohmic heating due to higher electrical conductivity. Nonuniform heat generation of nonhomogeneous fat-containing samples was verified using a thermal infrared camera. Also, the protective effect of milk fat on E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was observed in samples subjected to ohmic heating. These results indicate that food-borne pathogens can survive in nonhomogeneous fat-containing foods subjected to ohmic heating. Therefore, more attention is needed regarding ohmic heating than conventional heating for pasteurizing fat-containing foods. The importance of adequate pasteurization for high milk fat containing foods was identified. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Effect of silicon contents on the microstructures and mechanical properties of heat affected zones for 9Cr2WVTa steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Lu, Shanping, E-mail: shplu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Rong, Lijian [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Li, Dianzhong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China)

    2016-03-15

    The weldability of 9Cr2WVTa steels with silicon content varying from 0.30 wt.% to 1.36 wt.% was studied to meet the requirement of Generation-Ⅳ nuclear reactor. Samples of enlarged HAZs were fabricated by a thermal-mechanical simulator based on the simulation and measurement of non-equilibrium phase transformation. The content of δ-ferrite in the HAZs increased with the silicon content and the peak temperature of welding thermal cycle. The impact toughness in the HAZs decreased in different degrees when the δ-ferrite exhibits stripe (lower than 4.82%) or blocky types (higher than 4.82%). Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) has a significant role on improving the toughness. Adding silicon content increased the volume of δ-ferrite and therefore, decreased the tensile strength of the HAZs for 9Cr2WVTa steels. Silicon also as solid solution strengthening element increased the tensile strength. The 9Cr2WVTa steel has good weldability when the silicon content is lower than 0.60 wt.%. - Highlights: • The weldability of 9Cr2WVTa steel with different silicon contents was studied. • The impact toughness decreased in different degrees owing to the δ-ferrite. • PWHT has a significant role on improving the impact toughness. • The 9Cr2WVTa steel with silicon content not exceeding 0.60 wt.% has good weldability.

  14. Zirconia/Hydroxyapatite Composites Synthesized Via Sol-Gel: Influence of Hydroxyapatite Content and Heating on Their Biological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollino, Flavia; Armenia, Emilia; Tranquillo, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) and zirconia-based glasses and ceramics are materials proposed for use in the dental and orthopedic fields. In this work, ZrO2 glass was modified by adding different amounts of bioactive and biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp). ZrO2/HAp composites were synthesized via the sol-gel method and heated to different temperatures to induce modifications of their chemical structure, as ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The aim was to investigate the effect of both HAp content and heating on the biological performances of ZrO2. The materials’ bioactivity was studied by soaking samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF). FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) analyses carried out after exposure to SBF showed that all materials are bioactive, i.e., they are able to form a hydroxyapatite layer on their surface. Moreover, the samples were soaked in a solution containing bovine serum albumin (BSA). FTIR analysis proved that the synthesized materials are able to adsorb the blood protein, the first step of cell adhesion. WST-8 ([2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt]) assay showed that no cytotoxicity effects were induced by the materials’ extract. However, the results proved that bioactivity increases with both the HAp content and the temperature used for the thermal treatment, whereas biocompatibility increases with heating but is not affected by the HAp content. PMID:28773116

  15. The influence of meridional ice transport on Europa's ocean stratification and heat content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Manucharyan, G.; Thompson, A. F.; Goodman, J. C.; Vance, S.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa likely hosts a saltwater ocean beneath its icy surface. Geothermal heating and rotating convection in the ocean may drive a global overturning circulation that redistributes heat vertically and meridionally, preferentially warming the ice shell at the equator. Here we assess thepreviously unconstrained influence of ocean-ice coupling on Europa's ocean stratification and heat transport. We demonstrate that a relatively fresh layer can form at the ice-ocean interface due to a meridional ice transport forced by the differential ice shell heating between the equator and the poles. We provide analytical and numerical solutions for the layer's characteristics, highlighting their sensitivity to critical ocean parameters. For a weakly turbulent and highly saline ocean, a strong buoyancy gradient at the base of the freshwater layer can suppress vertical tracer exchange with the deeper ocean. As a result, the freshwater layer permits relatively warm deep ocean temperatures.

  16. Geothermal heat - The second stream for geothermal sectors; Electricity production: industries are facing the geological unexpected events; Heat networks: a new boom in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Appert, Olivier; Moisant, Francois; Salha, Bernard; Tardieu, Bernard; Florette, Marc; Basilico, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    A first article proposes an overview of recent development in the field of geothermal power (individual heat pumps, urban heating networks, electricity production in volcanic context, and possibility of non conventional fields). These developments are notably interesting in a context of an evolving energy mix. Some benefits of geothermal power are outlined: a reliable and predictable production, and a low footprint. An installation of deep geothermal power in Alsace is presented. By evoking the construction of three high-energy geothermal power stations by GDF Suez in Sumatra, a second article outlines the high costs associated with exploration drilling which can face geological difficulties. It indicates and comments the distribution of costs among exploration, confirmation, authorizations, drilling, steam collection, electric plant, and connection to the grid. The third and last article comments the development of heat networks in France, and more particularly in the Parisian Basin which has the highest concentration of low-energy geothermal exploitations

  17. A Simple Experiment To Measure the Content of Oxygen in the Air Using Heated Steel Wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The typical experiment to measure the oxygen content in the atmosphere uses the rusting of steel wool inside a closed volume of air. Two key aspects of this experiment that make possible a successful measurement of the content of oxygen in the air are the use of a closed atmosphere and the use of a chemical reaction that involves the oxidation of…

  18. Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties Analysis of Weld Metals with Two Ni Contents During Post-Weld Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da-yong; Han, Xiu-lin; Tian, Hong-tao; Liao, Bo; Xiao, Fu-ren

    2015-05-01

    This study designed post-weld heat treatments, including reheating and tempering, associated with hot bending to investigate the microstructures, toughness, and hardness of two weld metals with different Ni contents (transformation temperature and increased the proportion of acicular ferrite (AF). Furthermore, a high Ni content promoted the martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent formation after reheating. The promotion of the M/A formation increased the number of cementite particles, and accelerated cementite coarsening during tempering. The large-angle grain boundary density from the AF improved the toughness despite the negative effect of cementite. The strengthening contributions were calculated, and the grain refinement was the greatest. The high Ni content decreased the effective grain size with a 2 deg tolerance angle, thus enhancing the grain refinement contribution.

  19. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  20. A computational modeling approach of the jet-like acoustic streaming and heat generation induced by low frequency high power ultrasonic horn reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Francisco Javier; Knoerzer, Kai

    2011-11-01

    High power ultrasound reactors have gained a lot of interest in the food industry given the effects that can arise from ultrasonic-induced cavitation in liquid foods. However, most of the new food processing developments have been based on empirical approaches. Thus, there is a need for mathematical models which help to understand, optimize, and scale up ultrasonic reactors. In this work, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to predict the acoustic streaming and induced heat generated by an ultrasonic horn reactor. In the model it is assumed that the horn tip is a fluid inlet, where a turbulent jet flow is injected into the vessel. The hydrodynamic momentum rate of the incoming jet is assumed to be equal to the total acoustic momentum rate emitted by the acoustic power source. CFD velocity predictions show excellent agreement with the experimental data for power densities higher than W(0)/V ≥ 25kWm(-3). This model successfully describes hydrodynamic fields (streaming) generated by low-frequency-high-power ultrasound. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vibro-fluidized bed heat pump drying of mint leaves with respect to phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and color indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataei Ardestani Seyed Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of high porosity and stickiness of mint leaves, they could not be fluidized well during fluidization. In this study, a vibro-fluidized bed dryer assisted heat pump system was designed and fabricated to overcome this problem. The drying experiments were carried out at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The quality of the dehydrated samples was assessed based on color indices, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content. Drying process primarily occurred in falling rate period. The effective coefficient of moisture transfer of the samples was increased with air temperature and varied from 4.26656×10-11 to 2.95872×10-10 m2 s-1 for heat pump drying (HPD method, and 3.71918×10-11 to 1.29196×10-10 m2 s-1 for none-heat pump drying (NHPD method. The color indices for temperatures of 40 and 50 °C were very close to each other, whereas by increasing temperature to 60 °C, a remarkable loss of green color was observed. The highest phenolic content was found in methanolic extract for HPD at 60 °C, and NHPD at 50 °C contained the lowest amount of phenolic compounds. NHPD treatments showed lower antioxidant activity compared to HPD treatments at the same temperature due to the longer drying times.

  2. Modeling the influence of potassium content and heating rate on biomass pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Surup, Gerrit; Shapiro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a combined kinetic and particle model that describes the effect of potassium and heating rate during the fast pyrolysis of woody and herbaceous biomass. The model calculates the mass loss rate, over a wide range of operating conditions relevant to suspension firing...

  3. Trace metals content (contaminants) as initial indicator in the quality of heat treated palm oil whole extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fauzi, Noor Akhmazillah bt [Chemical and Bioprocess Department, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Sarmidi, Mohd Roji [Chemical Engineering Pilot Plant, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of different sterilization time on the trace metals concentration of palm oil whole extract. Palm fruits were collected, cleaned and sterilized for 0, 20, 40 and 60 minutes. The kernels were then stripped from the sterilized fruits to get the pulp and later the pulp was pressed using small scale expeller. The resulting puree was centrifuge at 4000 rpm for 20 minutes. The palm oil whole extract were then collected and trace metals analysis was conducted using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The result showed that the highest yield was obtained at 40 minutes of sterilization with 19.9 {+-} 0.21 % (w/w). There was no significant different (p < 0.5) in total trace metals content between the degrees of the heat treatment. Na+ was found as the highest trace metals content in the extract with mean concentration ranging from 1.05 {+-} 0.03 ppm to 2.36 {+-} 0.01 ppm. 40 minutes of heating time was predicted to have good oil quality due to higher content in trace metals that inhibit the lipase enzyme activity.

  4. U, Th, K content, heat production and thermal conductivity of Sao Paulo, Brazil continental shelf sediments: a reconnaissance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.; Hamza, V.M.; Furtado, V.V.; Adams, J.A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the natural potassium, uranium and thorium content, the radiogenic heat production and the thermal conductivity of 80 bottom surface sediment samples collected from the Brazilian continental shelf off Sao Paulo was made. The average equivalent contents of these radio-elements in an estuarine ambient were 1.21%, 1.75 ppm and 4.29 ppm respectively, and 1.20%, 1.21 ppm and 4.05 ppm, respectively, in the shelf samples. The largest radioelement contents were associated with the more fine-grained sediments. The 234 U to 238 U isotopic ratios varied from 0.60 to 1.75 with an average of 1.11, indicating that the sources for the uranium in these sediments are both terrigenous and from the sea water. An average radiogenic heat production of 0.63 (+ - 0.04) μW.m -3 was calculated from the experimental concentration data. Data for the thermal conductivity measurements ranged from 0.83 to 2.51 μW.m -1 . 0 C -1 , with an average of 1.81 μW.m -1 . 0 C -1 . (Author) [pt

  5. Flow and heat and mass transfer in laminar and turbulent mist gas-droplets stream over a flat plate

    CERN Document Server

    Terekhov, Victor I

    2014-01-01

    In this book the author presents selected challenges of thermal-hydraulics modeling of two-phase flows in minichannels with change of phase. These encompass the common modeling of flow boiling and flow condensation using the same expression. Approaches to model these two respective cases show, however, that experimental data show different results to those obtained by methods of calculation of heat transfer coefficient for respective cases. Partially that can be devoted to the fact that there are non-adiabatic effects present in both types of phase change phenomena which modify the pressure drop due to friction, responsible for appropriate modelling. The modification of interface shear stresses between flow boiling and flow condensation in case of annular flow structure may be considered through incorporation of the so called blowing parameter, which differentiates between these two modes of heat transfer. On the other hand, in case of bubbly flows, the generation of bubbles also modifies the friction pressur...

  6. Optimisasi Suhu Pemanasan dan Kadar Air pada Produksi Pati Talas Kimpul Termodifikasi dengan Teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT (Optimization of Heating Temperature and Moisture Content on the Production of Modified Cocoyam Starch Using Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kencana Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the physically starch modification technique is heat-moisture treatment (HMT. This technique can increase the resistance of starch to heat, mechanical treatment, and acid during processing.  This research aimed to find out the influence of heating temperature and moisture content in the modification process of cocoyam starch  with HMT techniques on the characteristic of product, and then to determine the optimum heating temperature and moisture content in the process. The research was designed with a complete randomized design (CRD with two factors factorial experiment.  The first factor was temperature of the heating consists of 3 levels namely 100 °C, 110 °C, and 120 °C. The second factor was the moisture content of starch which consists of 4 levels, namely 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, and 30 %. The results showed that the heating temperature and moisture content significantly affected water content, amylose content and swelling power of modified cocoyam starch product, but the treatment had no significant effect on the solubility of the product. HMT process was able to change the type of cocoyam starch from type B to type C. The optimum heating temperature and water content on modified cocoyam starch production process was 110 °C and 30 % respectively. Such treatment resulted in a modified cocoyam starch with moisture content of 6.50 %, 50,14 % amylose content, swelling power of 7.90, 0.0009% solubility, paste clarity of 96.310 % T, and was classified as a type C starch.   ABSTRAK Salah satu teknik modifikasi pati secara fisik adalah teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT. Teknik ini dapat meningkatkan ketahanan pati terhadap panas, perlakuan mekanik, dan asam selama pengolahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan kadar air pada proses modifikasi pati talas kimpul dengan teknik HMT terhadap karakteristik produk, dan selanjutnya menentukan suhu dan kadar air yang optimal dalam proses tersebut. Penelitian ini dirancang

  7. Particle simulation study of electron heating by counter-streaming ion beams ahead of supernova remnant shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, M E; Sarri, G; Kourakis, I; Borghesi, M; Bret, A; Perez Alvaro, E

    2012-01-01

    The growth and saturation of Buneman-type instabilities is examined with a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation for parameters that are representative for the foreshock region of fast supernova remnant shocks. A dense ion beam and the electrons correspond to the upstream plasma and a fast ion beam to the shock-reflected ions. The purpose of the 2D simulation is to identify the nonlinear saturation mechanisms, the electron heating and potential secondary instabilities that arise from anisotropic electron heating and result in the growth of magnetic fields. We confirm that the instabilities between both ion beams and the electrons saturate by the formation of phase space holes by the beam-aligned modes. The slower oblique modes accelerate some electrons, but they cannot heat up the electrons significantly before they are trapped by the faster beam-aligned modes. Two circular electron velocity distributions develop, which are centred around the velocity of each ion beam. They develop due to the scattering of the electrons by the electrostatic wave potentials. The growth of magnetic fields is observed, but their amplitude remains low. (paper)

  8. Liquid praseodymium heat content by levitation calorimetry. [Sample size 0. 5 - 1. 5g; 1460 to 2289/sup 0/K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretz, L.A.; Bautista, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The high-temperature heat content of liquid praseodymium was measured experimentally by the levitation calorimetry technique. The samples, ranging in size from 0.5 to 1.5 g, were simultaneously levitated and heated by a radiofrequency generator in an argon-helium mixture prior to being dropped into a conventional copper block drop calorimeter. Corrections were made for the convection and radiation losses during the fall of the sample from the levitation chamber into the calorimeter. The praseodymium data, from 1460 to 2289K, were fitted by the following equation where the indicated errors represent the average deviation of the experimental value from the value predicted by the equation: H/sub T/ - H/sub 298/./sub 15/ = (41.57 +- 0.29) (T - 1208) + (41733 +- 197) J/mol. (auth)

  9. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  10. Exceptional heat stability of high protein content dispersions containing whey protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to aggregation and/or gelation during thermal treatment, the amount of whey proteins that can be used in the formulation of high protein foods e.g. protein drinks, is limited. The aim of this study was to replace whey proteins with whey protein particles to increase the total protein content and

  11. Process for humidifying a gaseous fuel stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederquist, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel gas stream for a fuel cell is humidified by a recirculating hot liquid water stream using the heat of condensation from the humidified stream as the heat to vaporize the liquid water. Humidification is accomplished by directly contacting the liquid water with the dry gas stream in a saturator to evaporate a small portion of water. The recirculating liquid water is reheated by direct contact with the humidified gas stream in a condenser, wherein water is condensed into the liquid stream. Between the steps of humidifying and condensing water from the gas stream it passes through the fuel cell and additional water, in the form of steam, is added thereto

  12. Heat transfer by liquids in suspension in a turbulent gas stream (1960); Transfert de chaleur par liquides entraines dans un ecoulement gazeux turbulent (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de Physique-Chimie et basses temperatures, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The introduction of a small volume of liquid into a turbulent gas stream used as cooling agent improves considerably the heat transfer coefficient of the gas. When the turbulent regime is established, one observes in a cylindrical tube two types of flow whether the liquid wets or does not wet the wall. In the first case, one gets on the wall an annular liquid film and droplets in suspension are in the gas stream. In the second case, a fog of droplets is formed without any liquid film on the wall. Experiments were performed with the following mixtures: water-hydrogen, water-nitrogen, ethanol-nitrogen (wetting liquids) introduced into a stainless steel tube of 4 mm ID, electrically heated on 320 mm of length. We varied the gas flow rate (Reynolds until 50000), the rate of the liquid flow rate to gas flow rate (until 15), the pressure (until 10 kg/cm{sup 2}), the temperature (until the boiling point) and the heat flux (until 250 W/cm{sup 2}). Two types of burnout were observed. A formula of correlation of the burnout heat flux is given. Making use of the analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer, a dimensionless formula of correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is established. (author) [French] L'introduction d'un faible volume de liquide dans un ecoulement gazeux turbulent utilise comme fluide refrigerant permet une amelioration considerable des coefficients d'echanges thermiques que l'on aurait si le gaz etait employe seul (nous avons obtenu un facteur d'amelioration superieur a 10). En regime turbulent etabli, on observe dans un tube deux modes d'ecoulements selon que le liquide mouille ou ne mouille pas la paroi. Dans le premier cas, on obtient sur la paroi un film annulaire liquide et des gouttelettes en suspension dans le coeur gazeux. Dans le deuxieme cas, il se forme un veritable brouillard sans film liquide sur la paroi. Les etudes experimentales ont ete effectuees avec les melanges eau-hydrogene, eau-azote, ethanol-azote (liquides

  13. A city scale study on the effects of intensive groundwater heat pump systems on heavy metal contents in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Garrido, Eduardo; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Lázaro, Jesús Mateo; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; Huggenberger, P; Calvo, Miguel Ángel Marazuela

    2016-12-01

    As a result of the increasing use of shallow geothermal resources, hydraulic, thermal and chemical impacts affecting groundwater quality can be observed with ever increasing frequency (Possemiers et al., 2014). To overcome the uncertainty associated with chemical impacts, a city scale study on the effects of intensive geothermal resource use by groundwater heat pump systems on groundwater quality, with special emphasis on heavy metal contents was performed. Statistical analysis of geochemical data obtained from several field campaigns has allowed studying the spatiotemporal relationship between temperature anomalies in the aquifer and trace element composition of groundwater. The relationship between temperature and the concentrations of trace elements resulted in weak correlations, indicating that temperature changes are not the driving factor in enhancing heavy metal contaminations. Regression models established for these correlations showed a very low reactivity or response of heavy metal contents to temperature changes. The change rates of heavy metal contents with respect to temperature changes obtained indicate a low risk of exceeding quality threshold values by means of the exploitation regimes used, neither producing nor enhancing contamination significantly. However, modification of pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity correlated with the concentrations of heavy metals. In this case, the change rates of heavy metal contents are higher, with a greater risk of exceeding threshold values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The ratio between the decay heat output and activity content of discharged magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, B.S.J.

    1977-01-01

    Values of the ratio between activity and heat production rate have been calculated for magnox fuel irradiated to 3500 and 8000 MWd.Te -1 and for cooling times of 100, 200 and 500 days. Results are expressed in terms of both MeV.decay -1 and MCi.KW -1 . The results indicate that: for these irradiation and cooling conditions 21 nuclides account for over 99% of the total activity; the calculated values show only small variations with burn-up and cooling time, although the mean energy per decay does fall slightly at 500 days cooling: so for many purposes a median value of 0.63 MeV.decay -1 (0.27 MCi.MW -1 ) may be used; the calculated values have standard deviations ranging from 2.6% at 100 days cooling to 9% at 500 days cooling. (author)

  15. Investigation of the variation of the specific heat capacity of local soil samples from the Niger delta, Nigeria with moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, C.O.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1987-11-01

    Results of an investigation of the variation, with moisture content, of the specific heat capacity of samples of three texturally different types of soil (clayey, sandy and sandy loam) obtained from the Niger delta area of Nigeria, are presented. The results show that the specific heat capacities of the soils studied, increase with moisture content. This increase is found to be linear for the entire range of moisture contents considered (0-25%), in the case of the sandy loam soil while for the clayey and sandy soils the specific heat capacity is found to increase linearly with moisture content up to about 15% after which the increase becomes parabolic. The rate of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content appears to be highest in the clayey soil and lowest in the sandy soil. It is thought that the differences in the rates of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content, observed for the soils, reflect the soils' water-retention capacities. (author) 3 refs, 5 figs

  16. Stream Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...

  17. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Converti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  18. Variability of the ocean heat content during the last millennium – an assessment with the ECHO-g Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ortega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies addressing climate variability during the last millennium generally focus on variables with a direct influence on climate variability, like the fast thermal response to varying radiative forcing, or the large-scale changes in atmospheric dynamics (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation. The ocean responds to these variations by slowly integrating in depth the upper heat flux changes, thus producing a delayed influence on ocean heat content (OHC that can later impact low frequency SST (sea surface temperature variability through reemergence processes. In this study, both the externally and internally driven variations of the OHC during the last millennium are investigated using a set of fully coupled simulations with the ECHO-G (coupled climate model ECHAMA4 and ocean model HOPE-G atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM. When compared to observations for the last 55 yr, the model tends to overestimate the global trends and underestimate the decadal OHC variability. Extending the analysis back to the last one thousand years, the main impact of the radiative forcing is an OHC increase at high latitudes, explained to some extent by a reduction in cloud cover and the subsequent increase of short-wave radiation at the surface. This OHC response is dominated by the effect of volcanism in the preindustrial era, and by the fast increase of GHGs during the last 150 yr. Likewise, salient impacts from internal climate variability are observed at regional scales. For instance, upper temperature in the equatorial Pacific is controlled by ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation variability from interannual to multidecadal timescales. Also, both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO modulate intermittently the interdecadal OHC variability in the North Pacific and Mid Atlantic, respectively. The NAO, through its influence on North Atlantic surface heat fluxes and convection, also plays an important role on

  19. Influence of Heat Treatment on Content of the Carbide Phases in the Microstructure of High-Speed Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of investigations of the effect of heat treatment temperature on the content of the carbide phase of HS3-1-2 and HS6-5-2 low-alloy high-speed steel. Analysis of the phase composition of carbides is carried out using the diffraction method. It is determined that with increasing austenitising temperature, the intensification of dissolution of M6C carbide increases. As a result, an increase in the grain size of the austenite and the amount of retained austenite causes a significant reduction in the hardness of hardened steel HS3-1-2 to be observed. The results of diffraction investigations showed that M7C3 carbides containing mainly Cr and Fe carbides and M6C carbides containing mainly Mo and W carbides are dissolved during austenitisation. During austenitisation of HS3-1-2 steel, the silicon is transferred from the matrix to carbides, thus replacing carbide-forming elements. An increase in a degree of tempering leads to intensification of carbide separation and this process reduce the grindability of tested steels.

  20. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...

  1. Preliminary report on arsenic and heavy metals contents in soils and stream bed sediments of Cornia, Bruna and Alma coastal plains (Southern Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dughetti F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Earth Sciences of University of Florence has conducted over the past ten years, numerous studies about the distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in mineralized areas of Tuscany, particularly in the Pecora basin. The area hosts several polymetallic ore bodies and a pyrite ore deposit. The studies have identified several geochemical anomalies (As, Cu, Pb, Zn… both in the areas which host the ore bodies and in the coastal plain (Scarlino Plain. To increase the knowledge concerning the distribution of As and heavy metals in other Tuscan coastal plains, research is under way in the alluvial plains of the Bruna, Cornia and Alma rivers. The preliminary analysis have focused on soils and stream sediments, to better understand the correlations between the downstream transport of rivers and the soils. We have made physic-chemical analysis, particle size analysis, mineralogical analysis for X-ray powder diffraction, chemical analysis for the determination of major element (X-ray Fluorescence and for the determination of 35 minor elements and traces (AAS and ICP.Preliminary data show high concentrations of several elements (As, Zn, Co…. The concentrations of these elements in soils and stream bed sediments are not always consistent; in particular we have found higher concentrations in soils than in stream bed sediments in Cornia Plain, while the opposite happens in the Bruna basin. Therefore the natural processes of rocks weathering does not seem to have affected uniformly. The distribution of As and heavy metals in soils and stream bed sediments of the all three basins of interest are still under investigation.

  2. Effect of pH Changes on Antioxidant Capacity and the Content of Betalain Pigments During the Heating of a Solution of Red Beet Betalains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Red beets and their products are mainly consumed after processing. In this study, the effect of pH on changes in antioxidant capacity (AC and the content of betalain pigments were analysed during the heating of a betalain preparation solution. With pH ranging from 4 to 9 during the heat-treatment, the content of red pigments decreased depending on the pH level of the sample. The losses of red pigments in the investigated betalain preparation solution increased along with rising pH levels of the heated solution. The greatest losses were recorded at pH of 9.0. An opposite correlation was observed for yellow pigments. The content of yellow pigments in the heated betalain preparation solution was increasing along with increasing pH. The most pronounced increase in the content of yellow pigments was found at pH of 6.5 and 7.0. At the same time, the heated betalain preparation solution was shown to exhibit a higher antioxidant capacity at pH of 6.0 (14.9 μmol Trolox/mL than at pH of 4.0 (12.6 μmol Trolox/mL. It was observed that the increase in the antioxidant capacity in heated betalain preparation solutions with pH in the 6.0–6.5 range occurred as a result of increased concentrations of neobetanin, assessed by HPLC, within the pH range from 5.0 to 6.5.

  3. Variability in north tropical atlantic over the last 20 000 years and holocene gulf stream activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleroux, C.

    2007-10-01

    Modern oceanographical studies shown that most of the ocean heat content in the North Atlantic Western Boundary Current region is stored in the upper 400 meters. To study past heat content and Gulf Stream activity, we performed coupled analyses of oxygen isotopic and trace elemental composition on several foraminifera species to reconstruct upper water column temperature and salinity. Calcification depths of Globorotalia inflata, Globorotalia truncatulinoides and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata have been constrain by correlating modern hydrographic data to oxygen isotopic measurement of North Atlantic core-top samples. We found that the three deep-dwelling foraminifera species have a preferred habitat at the base of the seasonal thermocline (Cleroux et al, 2007). The same set of North Atlantic core-tops has been used to define relationships between trace elemental compositions and temperature. We established calibrations between Mg/Ca ratio or Sr/Ca ratio and temperature for the three deep-dwelling foraminifera (Cleroux et al, submitted). We apply this strategy on the core MD99-2203 located off Cape Hatteras where the Gulf Stream separate from the United States coast. High-resolution surface reconstructions over the Holocene show low amplitude periodic temperature and salinity changes that could be related to NAO type mechanisms. Large hydrological changes in sub-surface reflect variations of Labrador current and Mode Water influences. Using recent studies on Mode Water formation and Gulf Stream heat advection, we interpret our results in term of ocean heat content and Gulf Stream activity. (author)

  4. Stream systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves

    2006-01-01

    Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...

  5. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  6. Biochemical effects of heat shock and caffeine on post-irradiation oxic and anoxic damage in barley seeds of low and high water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Wet heat shock (60 o C, 90s) and caffeine (3.8 x 10 -4 M) afford significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O 2 -dependent damage which develops in seeds of ∼ 3.5% moisture content. The damage was assessed in terms of seedling injury on the eighth day of growth. An increase in seedling injury is clearly seen, associated with a parallel increase in the peroxidase activity. There is a concomitant decrease in the content of total peroxides. Both these post-irradiation treatments potentiate the O 2 -independent component of seedling injury, irrespective of the seed moisture content. Analysis of the peroxidase activity in the seedlings using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that two additional bands appear with the post-irradiation oxic damage. Radioprotection against this damage by caffeine, heat shock and O 2 -free post-irradiation hydration is accompanied by the disappearance of these two additional bands. (author)

  7. Olive Oil Total Phenolic Contents and Sensory Sensations Trends during Oven and Microwave Heating Processes and Their Discrimination Using an Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Prata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil has unique organoleptic attributes and its consumption is associated with nutritional and health benefits, which are mainly related to its rich composition in phenolic and volatile compounds. The use of olive oil in heat-induced cooking leads to deep reduction of phenolic and volatile concentrations and to changes of the sensory profiles. This work confirmed that oven and microwave heating significantly reduced total phenolic contents (P value < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA, more pronounced in the latter, together with a significant reduction of the intensity of fruity, sweet, bitter, pungent, and green attributes (P value < 0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test, particularly for fruity and green sensations. Besides, bitter, fruity, green, and pungent intensities showed a linear dependency with the total phenolic contents (0.8075≤R-Pearson ≤ 0.9694. Finally, the potentiometric electronic tongue together with linear discriminant analysis-simulated annealing algorithm allowed satisfactory discrimination (sensitivities of 94±4%, for repeated K-fold cross-validation of olive oils subjected to intense microwave heating (5–10 min, 160–205°C from those processed under usual cooking conditions (oven heating during 15–60 min or microwave heating during 1.5–3 min, 72–165°C. This could be due to the different responses of the electronic tongue towards olive oils with diverse phenolic and sensory profiles.

  8. Effects of oxygen content and heating rate on phase transition behavior in Bi2(V0.95Ti0.05)O5.475-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taninouchi, Yu-ki; Uda, Tetsuya; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Phase transition behavior of oxide-ion conductor Bi 2 (V 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O 5.475-x , which has various thermal histories and physical forms. → At the same heating rate of 10 K min -1 , Bi 2 (V 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O 5.475-x with less oxygen content exhibits transition from α f to β f at a higher temperature and the transition from β f to γ f at a lower temperature. → α f directly transformed to β f at fast heating rates. At a slower heating rate of 2 K min -1 , β f precipitated from α f due to the sufficient diffusion of Ti and oxygen vacancies. - Abstract: The phase transition behavior of oxide-ion conductor Bi 2 (V 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O 5.475-x , which has various thermal histories and sample forms, has been studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the oxygen content per compositional formula varied with the applied thermal treatment, although no significant structural difference was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The phase transition behavior from α f to β f and from β f to γ f , observed at a heating rate of 10 K min -1 , are markedly affected by the sample preparation. For example, the endothermic peak of the transition from α f to β f appeared at around 400 deg. C for quenched powder and at around 320 deg. C for powder cooled at 0.5 K min -1 . The trend of the transition temperatures can be qualitatively explained in terms of oxygen content, i.e., Bi 2 (V 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O 5.475-x with less oxygen content exhibits the transition from α f to β f at a higher temperature and the transition from β f to γ f at a lower temperature. We confirmed the two types of transition behavior from α f to β f depending on heating rate of DSC and high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) analysis. At rapid heating rates of 10 and 40 K min -1 , α f transformed to β f directly. Meanwhile, at a slow heating rate of 2 K min -1 , the β f precipitated from α f because slow heating

  9. Stream Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  10. Two-dimensional finite element heat transfer model of softwood. Part III, Effect of moisture content on thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; John F. Hunt

    2007-01-01

    The anisotropy of wood creates a complex problem for solving heat and mass transfer problems that require analyses be based on fundamental material properties of the wood structure. Most heat transfer models for softwood use average thermal properties across either the radial or tangential direction and do not differentiate the effects of cellular alignment or...

  11. Heat, hydrogen peroxide, and UV resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores with increased core water content and with or without major DNA-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popham, D.L.; Sengupta, S.; Setlow, P.

    1995-01-01

    Spores of a Bacillus subtilis strain with an insertion mutation in the dacB gene, which codes for an enzyme involved in spore cortex biosynthesis, have a higher core water content than wild-type spores. Spores lacking the two major α/β-type small, acid-soluble proteins (SASP) (termed a α - β - spores) have the same core water content as do wild-type spores, but α - β - dacB spores had more core water than did dacB spores. The resistance of α - β - , α - β - dacB, dacB, and wild-type spores to dry and moist heat, hydrogen peroxide, and UV radiation has been determined, as has the role of DNA damage in spore killing by moist heat and hydrogen peroxide. These data (1) suggest that core water content has little if any role in spore UV resistance and are consistent with binding of α/β-type SASP to DNA being the major mechanism providing protection to spores from UV radiation; (2) suggest that binding of αβ-type SASP to DNA is the major mechanism unique to spores providing protection from dry heat; (3) suggest that spore resistance to moist heat and hydrogen peroxide is affected to a large degree by the core water content, as increased core water resulted in large decreases in spore resistance to these agents; and (4) indicate that since this decreased resistance (i.e., in dacB spores) is not associated with increased spore killing by DNA damage, spore DNA must normally be extremely well protected against such damage, presumably by the saturation of spore DNA by α/β-type SASP. 19 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  12. On the conjoint influence of heat treatment and lithium content on microstructure and mechanical properties of A380 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, Mostafa; Azarbarmas, Mortaza; Emamy, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • T4 heat treatment and the addition of Li modify the microstructure of alloy. • Heat treatment improves the tensile properties of non-modified and modified alloys. • Fracture surfaces of modified specimens had more ductile dimples than base alloys. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of a T4 heat treatment on the microstructure and tensile properties of an A380 aluminum alloy with and without lithium (Li) additions have been investigated. Microstructural examination was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy, image analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis methods. The results showed that when the T4 heat treatment was applied, spheroidized eutectic Si particles and fragmented β-phase particles were formed. The influence of the heat treatment on the aspect ratio and average length of Si and β phases in a non-modified alloy was more noticeable than in the Li-modified. Significant improvements in tensile properties were also observed in heat-treated samples. Additionally, a fractographical analysis showed that the fracture surfaces of the Li-modified specimens with and without heat treatment had more ductile dimple and fewer brittle cleavage surfaces

  13. Cold spraying SiC/Al metal matrix composites: effects of SiC contents and heat treatment on microstructure, thermophysical and flexural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyansah, L.; Tariq, N. H.; Tang, J. R.; Qiu, X.; Feng, B.; Huang, J.; Du, H.; Wang, J. Q.; Xiong, T. Y.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, cold spray was used as an additive manufacturing method to fabricate 5 mm thick SiC/Al metal matrix composites with various SiC contents. The effects of SiC contents and heat treatment on the microstructure, thermophysical and flexural properties were investigated. Additionally, the composites were characterized for retention of SiC particulates, splat size, surface roughness and the progressive understanding of strengthening, toughening and cracking mechanisms. Mechanical properties were investigated via three-point bending test, thermophysical analysis, and hardness test. In the as-sprayed state, flexural strength increased from 95.3 MPa to 133.5 MPa, an appreciation of 40% as the SiC contents increased, and the main toughening and strengthening mechanisms were zigzag crack propagation and high retention of SiC particulates respectively. In the heat treatment conditions, flexural strength appreciated significantly compared to the as-sprayed condition and this was as a result of coarsening of pure Al splat. Crack branching, crack deflection and interface delamination were considered as the main toughening mechanisms at the heat treatment conditions. Experimental results were consistent with the measured CTE, hardness, porosity and flexural modulus.

  14. Acetyl salicylic acid and 24-epibrassinolide attenuate decline in photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents and membrane thermo- stability in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) under heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Hui, C.Z.; Ghazanfar, B.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of exogenous application of varying levels of 24-epibrassinolide (0.75, 1.5 and 3 micro M) and acetyl salicylic acid (0.25, 0.75 and 1.25 micro M) for induction of heat tolerance in terms of their effect on photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, membrane integrity and survival in four weeks old tomato (cultivar: Mei Jie Lo) seedlings under high temperature stress (46 degree C/4 h daily) for 21 days was investigated. The daily heat stress treatment had deleterious effects on seedlings but chemical treatments significantly reduced the magnitude of losses to different extents. 24-epibrassinolide (3 micro M) was over all the best treatment to improve survival (86.11%), photosynthesis (39.4%) and chlorophyll contents (26.12%) accompanied with initiation of flower buds and improved vegetative growth. Whereas acetyl salicylic acid (1.25 mM) best improved photosynthetic activity (40.6%) as compared to the untreated heat stressed control seedlings. Moreover, 3 micro M 24-epibrassinolide and 0.75 micro M acetyl salicylic acid reduced cell membrane injury to 8.3 and 6.9% respectively as compared with 22.4% in heat stressed control seedlings. However lower doses of acetyl salicylic acid (0.25 and 0.75 micro M) had slight (5.6 and 12.8%) inhibition effect on the photosynthesis than the heat stressed controls. Overall both acetyl salicylic acid and 24-epibrassinolide up regulated basal heat tolerance in tomato seedlings and studied concentrations demonstrated signature affect upon different parameters. Thus both chemical agents can be potential candidates for further investigations for exogenous application aiming at extension of tomato growth season in summer. (author)

  15. Heat content variability in the tropical Indian Ocean during second pre-INDOEX campaign (boreal winter 1996-1997)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, E.P.R.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, L.V.G.

    Surface meteorological data and upper ocean temperature profiles are obtained on-board ORV Sagar Kanya (cruise 120) during the second pre-INDOEX Campaign (December 1996-January 1997) for evaluating the north-south variability of surface heat fluxes...

  16. Evolution of Summer Ocean Mixed Layer Heat Content and Ocean/Ice Fluxes in the Arctic Ocean During the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, T. P.; Shaw, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002, a series of 28 Autonomous Ocean Flux Buoys have been deployed in the Beaufort Sea and from the North Pole Environmental Observatory. These long-term ice-deployed instrument systems primarily measure vertical turbulent fluxes of heat, salt and momentum at a depth of 2 - 6 m below the ocean/ice interface, while concurrently measuring current profile every 2m down to approximately 40-50m depth, within the seasonal pycnocline. Additional sensors have been added to measure local ice melt rates acoustically, and finescale thermal structure from the eddy correlation flux sensor up into the ice to resolve summer near-surface heating. The AOFB buoys have typically been co-located with Ice Tethered Profilers, that measure the upper ocean T/S structure and ice mass balance instruments. Comparisons of near-surface heat fluxes, heat content and vertical structure over the last decade will be made for buoys in the Beaufort Sea and Transpolar Drift between the North Pole and Spitzbergen. The effects of enhanced basal melting from ice/albedo feedbacks can be clearly seen in the low ice concentration summer conditions found more recently in the Beaufort Sea, while there are less pronounced effects of enhanced summer surface heating in the higher ice concentrations still found in the transpolar drift.

  17. A comparison of product yields and inorganic content in process streams following thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of microalgae, manure and digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Williams, P T

    2016-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing show promise for converting biomass into higher energy density fuels. Both approaches facilitate the extraction of inorganics into the aqueous product. This study compares the behaviour of microalgae, digestate, swine and chicken manure by thermal hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing at increasing process severity. Thermal hydrolysis was performed at 170°C, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) was performed at 250°C, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) was performed at 350°C and supercritical water gasification (SCWG) was performed at 500°C. The level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the product streams was measured for each feedstock. Nitrogen is present in the aqueous phase as organic-N and NH3-N. The proportion of organic-N is higher at lower temperatures. Extraction of phosphorus is linked to the presence of inorganics such as Ca, Mg and Fe in the feedstock. Microalgae and chicken manure release phosphorus more easily than other feedstocks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of combined heat and ionizing radiation on thiamine (Vitamin B1) content in model systems and food matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; Shoemaker, L.; McDougall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heat and radiation on thiamine stability are being studied both singly and in combination. Heat, γ-radiation and a combination of them were applied to a model system consisting of 2 x 10 -5 M thiamine hydrochloride in 0.01N HCl (pH=2.5), and their effects are reported. The effects of these two agents on thiamine in two food matrices, concentrated orange juice and green peas, are also reported. Heat was not found to have a significant effect on thiamine in the model system at temperatures up to 120 0 C for up to 60 min of treatment. A small, but significant heat effect was found in the two foods. The retention of thiamine in the model system and in the two foods decreased exponentially as the radiation dose increased. The degradation of thiamine by γ-radiation in both foods was a factor of 10 less than that observed in the model system. A small, but significant synergistic effect was found when samples of the model system were heated at 120 0 C for one hour 24 h after irradiation. (author)

  19. Effects of combined heat and ionizing radiation on thiamine (Vitamin B sub 1 ) content in model systems and food matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; Shoemaker, L.; McDougall, T. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment)

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heat and radiation on thiamine stability are being studied both singly and in combination. Heat, {gamma}-radiation and a combination of them were applied to a model system consisting of 2 x 10{sup -5}M thiamine hydrochloride in 0.01N HCl (pH=2.5), and their effects are reported. The effects of these two agents on thiamine in two food matrices, concentrated orange juice and green peas, are also reported. Heat was not found to have a significant effect on thiamine in the model system at temperatures up to 120{sup 0}C for up to 60 min of treatment. A small, but significant heat effect was found in the two foods. The retention of thiamine in the model system and in the two foods decreased exponentially as the radiation dose increased. The degradation of thiamine by {gamma}-radiation in both foods was a factor of 10 less than that observed in the model system. A small, but significant synergistic effect was found when samples of the model system were heated at 120{sup 0}C for one hour 24 h after irradiation. (author).

  20. Physical properties and component contents of brown coal tars obtained in semicoking with a solid heat transfer semicoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V I; Bobrova, A A

    1955-01-01

    Tar obtained in low-temperature carbonization of brown coals with brown-coal semicoke as a heat-transfer medium contains more water and dust, has a lower drop point, and a higher specific gravity, and contains more asphaltene and less paraffin than does tar from the same coal produced in rotating retorts or in shaft kilns. The brown-coal semicoke used as a heat-transfer medium produces partial thermal cracking of the fuel and polymerization of the products of secondary decompositions. The yield of asphaltenes is lowered when the carbonization temperature is raised.

  1. Efficiency of Gamma Radiation Alone or In Combination With Heat Stress on Metal Contents of Parents and First Generation of Males of The Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera Littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Degwi, M.S.; Alm El-Din, M.M.S.; Hazaa, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to determine the influence of gamma radiation either alone or in combination with heat on the contents and concentration of elements detected in the whole body tissue of male parents and F1 generation of Spodoptera littoralis treated as full grown pupae. The doses applied were 75, 100 and 150 Gy. The data revealed the presence of eight elements in parents and F1 generation exposed to different heat stress (27±2, 33 and 37 degree C and P and Mg were the major contents. The obtained data indicated also that there were no differences in the composition of individual elements between male parents and male F1 generation. There were differences in relative concentration which depends on irradiation dose. The combination treatments were effective on elements concentration. The total concentration of light elements of male parents and F1 generation was increased by increasing the radiation dose. In the contrary, the concentration of heavy element was decreased by increasing the radiation dose. It could be concluded that gamma radiation and/or heat was effective on elements concentrations in adult body of male parents and F1 generation of Spodoptera littoralis which served as biological indicator of normal metabolic pathways and/or biological activity.

  2. Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic measurements of noise radiated from a heated, three-stream, co-annular exhaust system operated at subsonic conditions are presented. The experiments were conducted for a range of core, bypass, and tertiary stream temperatures and pressures. The nozzle system had a fan-to-core area ratio of 2.92 and a tertiary-to-core area ratio of 0.96. The impact of introducing a third stream on the radiated noise for third-stream velocities below that of the bypass stream was to reduce high frequency noise levels at broadside and peak jet-noise angles. Mid-frequency noise radiation at aft observation angles was impacted by the conditions of the third stream. The core velocity had the greatest impact on peak noise levels and the bypass-to-core mass flow ratio had a slight impact on levels in the peak jet-noise direction. The third-stream jet conditions had no impact on peak noise levels. Introduction of a third jet stream in the presence of a simulated forward-flight stream limits the impact of the third stream on radiated noise. For equivalent ideal thrust conditions, two-stream and three-stream jets can produce similar acoustic spectra although high-frequency noise levels tend to be lower for the three-stream jet.

  3. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 176, JUN 1 2015 (2015), s. 205-211 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : n-3 PUFA * n-6 PUFA * Heat treatment * Fish tissue * HPLC/MS * GC/MS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.052, year: 2015

  4. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  5. Biochemical effects of heat shock and caffeine on post-irradiation oxic and anoxic damage in barley seeds of low and high water content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1991-05-01

    Wet heat shock (60{sup o}C, 90s) and caffeine (3.8 x 10{sup -4}M) afford significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O{sub 2}-dependent damage which develops in seeds of {similar to} 3.5% moisture content. The damage was assessed in terms of seedling injury on the eighth day of growth. An increase in seedling injury is clearly seen, associated with a parallel increase in the peroxidase activity. There is a concomitant decrease in the content of total peroxides. Both these post-irradiation treatments potentiate the O{sub 2}-independent component of seedling injury, irrespective of the seed moisture content. Analysis of the peroxidase activity in the seedlings using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that two additional bands appear with the post-irradiation oxic damage. Radioprotection against this damage by caffeine, heat shock and O{sub 2}-free post-irradiation hydration is accompanied by the disappearance of these two additional bands. (author).

  6. A history of violence: Insights into post-accretionary heating in carbonaceous chondrites from volatile element abundances, Zn isotopes and water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Brandon; Moynier, Frédéric; Beck, Pierre; Pringle, Emily A.; Siebert, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) may have been the carriers of water, volatile and moderately volatile elements to Earth. Investigating the abundances of these elements, their relative volatility, and isotopes of state-change tracer elements such as Zn, and linking these observations to water contents, provide vital information on the processes that govern the abundances and isotopic signatures of these species in CCs and other planetary bodies. Here we report Zn isotopic data for 28 CCs (20 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), as well as trace element data for Zn, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi in 16 samples (8 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), that display a range of elemental abundances from case-normative to intensely depleted. We use these data, water content data from literature and Zn isotopes to investigate volatile depletions and to discern between closed and open system heating. Trace element data have been used to construct relative volatility scales among the elements for the CM and CR chondrites. From least volatile to most, the scale in CM chondrites is Pb-Sn-Bi-In-Zn-Tl, and for CR chondrites it is Tl-Zn-Sn-Pb-Bi-In. These observations suggest that heated CM and CR chondrites underwent volatile loss under different conditions to one another and to that of the solar nebula, e.g. differing oxygen fugacities. Furthermore, the most water and volatile depleted samples are highly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Zn. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly indicate that heated CM and CR chondrites incurred open system heating, stripping them of water and volatiles concomitantly, during post-accretionary shock impact(s).

  7. Energy content of suspended detritus from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Mar_Sci_20_80.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Mar_Sci_20_80.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. Effects of heat stress on the endogenous contents of hormones and related gene expression in developing axillary tubes of potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potatoes are a cool season crop and optimum tuber initiation, development, yield, and quality require growing temperatures between 15 -20°C. At temperatures above 30°C, tuber initiation is delayed or prevented and developing tubers exhibit decreased starch content, increased malformation, chain-tube...

  9. NCEI ocean heat content, temperature anomalies, salinity anomalies, thermosteric sea level anomalies, halosteric sea level anomalies, and total steric sea level anomalies from 1955 to present calculated from in situ oceanographic subsurface profile data (NCEI Accession 0164586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains ocean heat content change, oceanic temperature and salinity changes, and steric sea level change (change in volume without change in mass),...

  10. Heat transfer in MHD unsteady stagnation point flow with variable wall temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soundalgekar, V.M.; Murty, T.V.R.; Takhar, H.S.

    stream_size 8739 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Pure_Appl_Math_21_384.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Pure_Appl_Math_21_384.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8.... Soc. A224 (1954), 1-23. 2. S. I. Cheng and D. Elliott, Heat Transfer and Fluid Mech. IlIstitUfl?, S:anfoni University. Stanford (CA). 1956, p.p.221-38. 3. S. I. Cheng, Quart. appl. Math. 14 (1956-1957), 337-52. (\\ K. T. Yang, J. Appl. Mecll. (Tr. ASME...

  11. The thermo-mechanical behaviour of W-Cu metal matrix composites for fusion heat sink applications: The influence of the Cu content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejado, E.; Müller, A. v.; You, J.-H.; Pastor, J. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Copper and its alloys are used as heat sink materials for next generation fusion devices and will be joined to tungsten as an armour material. However, the joint of W and Cu experiences high thermal stresses when exposed to high heat loads so an interlayer material could effectively ensure the lifetime of the component by reducing the thermal mismatch. Many researchers have published results on the production of W-Cu composites aiming attention at its thermal conductivity; nevertheless, the mechanical performance of these composites remains poor. This paper reports the characterization of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of W-Cu composites produced via a liquid Cu melt infiltration of porous W preform. This technique was applied to produce composites with 15, 30 and 40 wt% Cu. The microstructure, thermal properties, and mechanical performance were investigated and measured from RT to 800 °C. The results demonstrated that high densification and superior mechanical properties can indeed be achieved via this manufacturing route. The mechanical properties (elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and strength) of the composites show a certain dependency on the Cu content; fracture mode shifts from the dominantly brittle fracture of W particles with constrained deformation of the Cu phase at low Cu content to the predominance of the ductile fracture of Cu when its ratio is higher. Though strong degradation is observed at 800 °C, the mechanical properties at operational temperatures, i.e. below 350 °C, remain rather high-even better than W/Cu materials reported previously. In addition, we demonstrated that the elastic modulus, and therefore the coefficient of thermal expansion, can be tailored via control of the W skeleton's porosity. As a result, the W-Cu composites presented here would successfully drive away heat produced in the fusion chamber avoiding the mismatch between materials while contributing to the structural support of the system.

  12. Influence of moisture content on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in powdered red and black pepper spices by radio-frequency heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-04-17

    The influence of moisture content during radio-frequency (RF) heating on heating rate, dielectric properties, and inactivation of foodborne pathogens was investigated. The effect of RF heating on the quality of powdered red and black pepper spices with different moisture ranges was also investigated. Red pepper (12.6%, 15.2%, 19.1%, and 23.3% dry basis, db) and black pepper (10.1%, 17.2%, 23.7%, and 30.5% db) inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were treated in a RF heating system with 27.12 MHz. The heating rate of the sample was dependent on moisture content up to 19.1% (db) of red pepper and 17.2% (db) of black pepper, but there was a significant decrease in the heating rate when the moisture content was increased beyond these levels. The dielectric properties of both samples increased with a rise in moisture content. As the moisture content increased, treatment time required to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium by more than 7 log CFU/g (below the detection limit, 1 log CFU/g) decreased and then increased again without affecting product quality when the moisture content exceeded a level corresponding to the peak heating rate. RF treatment significantly (Pspices. These results suggest that RF heating can be effectively used to not only control pathogens but also reduce moisture levels in spices and that the effect of inactivation is dependent on moisture content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, Steven [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-23

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  14. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  15. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  16. Targeting the maximum heat recovery for systems with heat losses and heat gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah; Lee, Carmen Kar Mun; Lee, Kim Yau; Abd Manan, Zainuddin; Fraser, Duncan M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Illustration of heat gains and losses from process streams. - Highlights: • Maximising energy savings through heat losses or gains. • Identifying location where insulation can be avoided. • Heuristics to maximise heat losses or gains. • Targeting heat losses or gains using the extended STEP technique and HEAT diagram. - Abstract: Process Integration using the Pinch Analysis technique has been widely used as a tool for the optimal design of heat exchanger networks (HENs). The Composite Curves and the Stream Temperature versus Enthalpy Plot (STEP) are among the graphical tools used to target the maximum heat recovery for a HEN. However, these tools assume that heat losses and heat gains are negligible. This work presents an approach that considers heat losses and heat gains during the establishment of the minimum utility targets. The STEP method, which is plotted based on the individual, as opposed to the composite streams, has been extended to consider the effect of heat losses and heat gains during stream matching. Several rules to guide the proper location of pipe insulation, and the appropriate procedure for stream shifting have been introduced in order to minimise the heat losses and maximise the heat gains. Application of the method on two case studies shows that considering heat losses and heat gains yield more realistic utility targets and help reduce both the insulation capital cost and utility cost of a HEN

  17. Measurements of the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in convexly curved boundary layers - Effects of curvature, recovery and free-stream turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Simon, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of streamwise convex curvature, recovery, and freestream turbulence intensity on the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in a mature boundary layer are studied using a specially designed three-wire hot-wire probe. Increased freestream turbulence is found to increase the profiles throughout the boundary layer on the flat developing wall. Curvature effects were found to dominate turbulence intensity effects for the present cases considered. For the higher TI (turbulence intensity) case, negative values of the turbulent Prandtl number are found in the outer half of the boundary layer, indicating a breakdown in Reynolds analogy.

  18. Interaction between stream temperature, streamflow, and groundwater exchanges in alpine streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, James E.

    1998-01-01

    Four alpine streams were monitored to continuously collect stream temperature and streamflow for periods ranging from a week to a year. In a small stream in the Colorado Rockies, diurnal variations in both stream temperature and streamflow were significantly greater in losing reaches than in gaining reaches, with minimum streamflow losses occurring early in the day and maximum losses occurring early in the evening. Using measured stream temperature changes, diurnal streambed infiltration rates were predicted to increase as much as 35% during the day (based on a heat and water transport groundwater model), while the measured increase in streamflow loss was 40%. For two large streams in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, annual stream temperature variations ranged from 0° to 25°C. In summer months, diurnal stream temperature variations were 30–40% of annual stream temperature variations, owing to reduced streamflows and increased atmospheric heating. Previous reports document that one Sierra stream site generally gains groundwater during low flows, while the second Sierra stream site may lose water during low flows. For August the diurnal streamflow variation was 11% at the gaining stream site and 30% at the losing stream site. On the basis of measured diurnal stream temperature variations, streambed infiltration rates were predicted to vary diurnally as much as 20% at the losing stream site. Analysis of results suggests that evapotranspiration losses determined diurnal streamflow variations in the gaining reaches, while in the losing reaches, evapotranspiration losses were compounded by diurnal variations in streambed infiltration. Diurnal variations in stream temperature were reduced in the gaining reaches as a result of discharging groundwater of relatively constant temperature. For the Sierra sites, comparison of results with those from a small tributary demonstrated that stream temperature patterns were useful in delineating discharges of bank storage following

  19. Analysis of streaming media systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia services have been popping up at tremendous speed in recent years. A large number of these multimedia streaming systems are introduced to the consumer market. Internet Service Providers, Telecommunications Operators, Service/Content Providers, and end users are interested in the

  20. Evaluation of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel for liquid lithium containment. II. Effects of post-weld heat treatment and niobium content. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Edwards, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The lithium corrosion resistance of the regular grade of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel can be vastly improved with a proper postweld heat treatment, but even greater improvements are needed. Results indicate that if weldments were tempered sufficiently long at 760C to remove all Mo/sub 2/C from the microstructure, even greater resistance to attack by low nitrogen lithium could be achieved. Corrosion tests should eventually be performed on regular grade 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel weldments which have been given a long-term (> 25 h) post-weld temper at 760C. Lithium corrosion resistance of regular grade 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel may also be improved by employing a quench and temper heat treatment. Quenched microstructures have more homogenous distribution of carbides than isothermally annealed microstructures, and if properly tempered, should provide excellent lithium corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the toughness of such a lower bainite microstructure should be better than that of the ferrite-bainitic microstructure created by an isothermal anneal. Numerous parameters, all potentially deleterious to the lithium corrosion resistance of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, remain to be investigated; two such variables are velocity effects and lead content in the lithium.

  1. The effect of aluminum content on phase constitution and heat treatment behavior of Ti-Cr-Al alloys for healthcare application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Daisuke; Ikeda, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    As life expectancy steadily increases, developing reliable functional materials for healthcare applications gains importance. Titanium and its alloys, while attractive for such applications, are expensive. The present investigation suggests that it may be possible to reduce costs by using new, low-cost beta Ti alloys. To assess their reliability, the heat treatment behavior of beta Ti alloys, Ti-7 mass% Cr with varying Al content (0%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5%), was investigated through electrical resistivity and Vickers hardness measurements. In the Ti-7Cr-0Al alloy quenched from 1173 K, only the beta phase was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In Ti-7Cr-1.5 to 4.5 Al alloys, XRD detected both beta and orthorhombic martensite. On isochronal heat treatment behavior of Ti-7Cr-3.0, 4.5 Al alloys, resistivity at liquid nitrogen temperature and resistivity ratio increased between 423 and 523 K.These increases are due to reverse transformation of orthorhombic martensite to the metastable beta phase

  2. Evaluation of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel for liquid lithium containment. II. Effects of post-weld heat treatment and niobium content. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.L.; Edwards, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The lithium corrosion resistance of the regular grade of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel can be vastly improved with a proper postweld heat treatment, but even greater improvements are needed. Results indicate that if weldments were tempered sufficiently long at 760C to remove all Mo 2 C from the microstructure, even greater resistance to attack by low nitrogen lithium could be achieved. Corrosion tests should eventually be performed on regular grade 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel weldments which have been given a long-term (> 25 h) post-weld temper at 760C. Lithium corrosion resistance of regular grade 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel may also be improved by employing a quench and temper heat treatment. Quenched microstructures have more homogenous distribution of carbides than isothermally annealed microstructures, and if properly tempered, should provide excellent lithium corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the toughness of such a lower bainite microstructure should be better than that of the ferrite-bainitic microstructure created by an isothermal anneal. Numerous parameters, all potentially deleterious to the lithium corrosion resistance of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, remain to be investigated; two such variables are velocity effects and lead content in the lithium

  3. Distribution of cyclone heat potential in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma; Murty; Rao, D.P.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_102.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_102.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Accuracy of surface heat fluxes from observations of operational satellites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Sugimori, Y.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Remote_Sens_Geogr_Inf_Syst_Environ_Plan_1995_368.pdf.txt stream_source_info Remote_Sens_Geogr_Inf_Syst_Environ_Plan_1995_368.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content...

  5. Geothermal use of the Wiesbaden thermal water with high minerals content for heat base load supply of the town hall and affiliated buildings. Geothermische Nutzung des hochmineralisierten Wiesbadener Thermalwassers fuer die Grundlastwaermedeckung des Rathauses und angeschlossener Baulichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedle, K.

    1991-10-01

    Within the framework of the large-scale renovation of the spa center Wiesbaden also heat base load supply of all heat consumers is realized with extracted thermal energy. As the thermal water has a high mineral content a delivery method has to be used, which avoids incrustations in form of calcareous sediments, sulphur sludges and iron ochre as well as the escape of the well gas CO{sub 2} and the diffusion of atmospheric oxygene that has an oxidative effect. For this purpose a closed system is used with which the water is drawn off, delivered, stored and distributed. In the second part of the report the heat supply system of the town hall is presented which consists of a direct heat exchange system of thermal water, of residual thermal heat utilization with heat pumps, a cogeneration system as well as of gas boilers to cover peak loads. (BWI).

  6. Thermal damage study on diamond tools at varying laser heating time and temperature by Raman spectroscopy and SEM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available 1400 G O B I c a m e r a t e m p e r a t u r e ( K e l v i n ) Blackbody object temperature (Kelvin) y = 0.96 x Slide 10 Physical changes on the diamond tool samples due to the laser heating Initial 5 min – 895 K 15 min – 968 K 25 min – 979 K... stream_source_info Masina_2011_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3683 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Masina_2011_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Thermal...

  7. Ninth annual coal-fueled heat engines, advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Welcoming address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The market for retrofit and new capacity in the electric utility is expected to be very large: 250 gigawatt (GW) and 500 GW by the year 2030--an amount which equals the presently installed capacity in the US Overseas, the market is even larger exclamation point This large market will be driven by a number of key ''drivers.'' In order for power generation systems to compete in this market, they will have to satisfy the market drivers. This will lead us inevitably to modular, low cost, super clean, efficient, and reliable products which are fuel flexible and can meet either retrofit, repowering, or new capacity applications. I believe clean coal technologies that we are developing will meet these market demands and will penetrate--and eventually dominate--the power generation market of the next century. But for this market penetration and widespread deployment to take place, the products we are jointly developing must be continuously improved. We must together set our goals on a rapid march down the learning curve from the present high ''projected costs'' of these systems to an acceptable market clearing price on the order of $1000 to $1200 per kilowatt (kw) and with heat rates approaching 7500 Btu per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The projected learning curve for integrated gasification combined cycle systems is a good illustration of the aggressive goals we need to achieve

  8. Prediction and explanation over DL-Lite data streams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available the popular DL-Lite family, and study the logic foundations of prediction and explanation over DL-Lite data streams, i.e., reasoning from finite segments of streaming data to conjectures about the content of the streams in the future or in the past. We propose...

  9. Generalization of experimental data and development of recommendations for calculating heat transfer of a staggered tube bank with helical and ring extended-surface tubes in a perpendicular gas stream (for new formulation of standard method for boiler heat analyses)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomina, V N; Titova, E Ya; Migai, V K; Bystrov, P G; Pis' mennyi, E N [Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (USSR)

    1991-06-01

    Comparatively evaluates methods for determination of optimum design of extended-surface tubes used in water walls of boilers fired with coal and other fuels in commercial power plants in the USSR. The standard calculation methods introduced in 1973 and other methods developed and tested by individual research institutes of the USSR are described. New and original formulae based on the results of physical and mathematical modeling are evaluated. Heat transfer from flue gases to water walls is analyzed. Arrangement of tube banks, design of extended-surface tubes and other factors that influence heat transfer are considered. Evaluations show that from among the analyzed calculation methods the method developed by the KPI institute is superior to others (it is most accurate and universal). Investigations show that the coefficient of thermal efficiency of the economizers (1st and 2nd stage) of boilers fired with coal amounts to about 0.85. The coefficient considers effects of buildup on the economizer tubes. Use of the method is explained on example of boilers fired with black coal from the Ehkibastuz. 13 refs.

  10. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Han, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heat-map. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  11. Innovation in radioactive wastewater-stream management: Part one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karameldin, A.

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of radioactive wastewater streams is receiving considerable attention in most countries that have nuclear reactors. The first Egyptian research reactor ETRR-1 has been operating for 40 years, resulting in accumulation of large quantities of wastewater collected in special drainage tanks called SDTs. Previous attempts were aimed at the volumetric reduction of streams present in SDTs, by reverse osmosis systems, which previously succeeded in reducing the water volume present in SDTs from 450 m 3 to 50 m 3 (during the period 1998-2000). The main drawbacks of the RO system are the additional amount of secondary wastes (turbidity and emulsion filters media replacement, and the excessive amounts of chemicals for the membrane cleaning, flushing and storing), and a limited contaminant release in the SDTs area, resulting in the decommissioning of the RO system. Meanwhile, the SDTs waste contents recently reached 500 m 3 . Recently, the invention of a system for volume reduction of the wastewater streams present in SDTs has been achieved. This system substantially utilises the air conditioning and ventilation techniques in water transfer from the wastewater to air. This process is promoted by a mutual heating and humidification of a compressed dry air introduced through SDTs. From the probable release of radioactive nuclides point of view, the analysis of the evaporation of waste streams present in SDTs has indicated that the proposed optimal evaporating temperature is around 75 deg. C. The design curve of the daily volumetric reduction of the wastewater streams vs. the necessary volumetric airflow rates at different operating temperatures has been achieved. Recently, an experimental facility is being constructed to obtain the optimal operating parameters of the system, regarding the probable emissions of the radioactive nuclides within the permissible release limits. (author)

  12. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...

  13. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  14. Adaptive Media Streaming to Mobile Devices: Challenges, Enhancements, and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Evensen, Kristian; Kupka, Tomas; Riiser, Haakon; Ni, Pengpeng; Eg, Ragnhild; Griwodz, Carsten; Halvorsen, Pål

    2014-01-01

    Video streaming is predicted to become the dominating traffic in mobile broadband networks. At the same time, adaptive HTTP streaming is developing into the preferred way of streaming media over the Internet. In this paper, we evaluate how different components of a streaming system can be optimized when serving content to mobile devices in particular. We first analyze the media traffic from a Norwegian network and media provider. Based on our findings, we outline benefits and chal...

  15. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, Amelia [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hampson, Anne [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  16. Tracking Gendered Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eriksson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent features of digital music services is the provision of personalized music recommendations that come about through the profiling of users and audiences. Based on a range of "bot experiments," this article investigates if, and how, gendered patterns in music recommendations are provided by the streaming service Spotify. While our experiments did not give any strong indications that Spotify assigns different taste profiles to male and female users, the study showed that male artists were highly overrepresented in Spotify's music recommendations; an issue which we argue prompts users to cite hegemonic masculine norms within the music industries. Although the results should be approached as historically and contextually contingent, we argue that they point to how gender and gendered tastes may be constituted through the interplay between users and algorithmic knowledge-making processes, and how digital content delivery may maintain and challenge gender relations and gendered power differentials within the music industries. Seen through the lens of critical research on software, music and gender performativity, the experiments thus provide insights into how gender is shaped and attributed meaning as it materializes in contemporary music streams.

  17. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  18. Difference in the influence of Indo-Pacific Ocean heat content on South Asian Summer Monsoon intensity before and after 1976/1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yujie; Feng, Junqiao; Hu, Dunxin

    2016-05-01

    Monthly ocean temperature from ORAS4 datasets and atmospheric data from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I/II were used to analyze the relationship between the intensity of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) and upper ocean heat content (HC) in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. The monsoon was differentiated into a Southwest Asian Summer Monsoon (SWASM) (2.5°-20°N, 35°-70°E) and Southeast Asian Summer Monsoon (SEASM) (2.5°-20°N, 70°-110°E). Results show that before the 1976/77 climate shift, the SWASM was strongly related to HC in the southern Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean. The southern Indian Ocean affected SWASM by altering the pressure gradient between southern Africa and the northern Indian Ocean and by enhancing the Somali cross-equatorial flow. The tropical Pacific impacted the SWASM through the remote forcing of ENSO. After the 1976/77 shift, there was a close relationship between equatorial central Pacific HC and the SEASM. However, before that shift, their relationship was weak.

  19. Dissipation of the reactor heat at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, J.S.; Babcock, D.F.

    1971-10-01

    The effluent cooling water from the heat exchangers of the Savannah River nuclear reactors is cooled by natural processes as it flows through the stream beds, canals, ponds, and swamps on the plant site. The Langhaar equation, which gives the rate of heat removal from the water surface as a function of the surface temperature, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, is applied satisfactorily to calculate the cooling that occurs at all temperature levels and for all modes of water flow. The application of this equation requires an accounting of effects such as solar heating, shading, mixing, staging, stratification, underflow, rainfall, the imposed heat load, and the rate of change in heat content of the body of water

  20. Variability in north tropical atlantic over the last 20 000 years and holocene gulf stream activity; Variabilite au cours des derniers 20 000 ans de l'hydrologie de l'atlantique tropical nord et de l'activite du gulf stream a partir de la composition isotopique de l'oxygene et de la composition en elements trace des foraminferes planctoniques profonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleroux, C

    2007-10-15

    Modern oceanographical studies shown that most of the ocean heat content in the North Atlantic Western Boundary Current region is stored in the upper 400 meters. To study past heat content and Gulf Stream activity, we performed coupled analyses of oxygen isotopic and trace elemental composition on several foraminifera species to reconstruct upper water column temperature and salinity. Calcification depths of Globorotalia inflata, Globorotalia truncatulinoides and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata have been constrain by correlating modern hydrographic data to oxygen isotopic measurement of North Atlantic core-top samples. We found that the three deep-dwelling foraminifera species have a preferred habitat at the base of the seasonal thermocline (Cleroux et al, 2007). The same set of North Atlantic core-tops has been used to define relationships between trace elemental compositions and temperature. We established calibrations between Mg/Ca ratio or Sr/Ca ratio and temperature for the three deep-dwelling foraminifera (Cleroux et al, submitted). We apply this strategy on the core MD99-2203 located off Cape Hatteras where the Gulf Stream separate from the United States coast. High-resolution surface reconstructions over the Holocene show low amplitude periodic temperature and salinity changes that could be related to NAO type mechanisms. Large hydrological changes in sub-surface reflect variations of Labrador current and Mode Water influences. Using recent studies on Mode Water formation and Gulf Stream heat advection, we interpret our results in term of ocean heat content and Gulf Stream activity. (author)

  1. Heat integrated ethanol dehydration flowsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutahaean, L.S.; Shen, W.H.; Brunt, V. Van [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    zA theoretical evaluation of heat-integrated heterogeneous-azeotropic ethanol-water distillation flowsheets is presented. Simulations of two column flowsheets using several different hydrocarbon entrainers reveal a region of potential heat integration and substantial reduction in operating energy. In this paper, methods for comparing hydrocarbon entrainers are shown. Two aspects of entrainers are related to operating and capital costs. The binary azeotropic composition of the entrainer-ethanol mixture is related to the energy requirements of the flowsheet. A temperature difference in the azeotrophic column is related to the size of the column and overall process staging requirements. Although the hydrophobicity of an entrainer is essential for specification of staging in the dehydration column, no substantial increase in operating energy results from an entrainer that has a higher water content. Likewise, liquid-liquid equilibria between several entrainer-ethanol-water mixtures have no substantial effect on either staging or operation. Rather, increasing the alcohol content of the entrainer-ethanol azeotrope limits its recovery in the dehydration column, and increases the recycle and reflux streams. These effects both contribute to increasing the separation energy requirements and reducing the region of potential heat integration. A cost comparison with a multieffect extractive distillation flowsheet reveals that the costs are comparable; however, the extractive distillation flowsheet is more cost effective as operating costs increase.

  2. Daikenchuto, a Kampo medicine, regulates intestinal fibrosis associated with decreasing expression of heat shock protein 47 and collagen content in a rat colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ken; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Natsuko; Hirai, Yasuko; Mizushima, Katsura; Horie, Ryusuke; Fukumoto, Kohei; Yamada, Shinya; Harusato, Akihito; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Yoshida, Naohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Wakabayashi, Naoki; Yagi, Nobuaki; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis. Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, has been reported to ameliorate intestinal inflammation. The aims of this study were to determine time-course profiles of several parameters of fibrosis in a rat model, to confirm the HSP47-expressing cells in the colon, and finally to evaluate DKT's effects on intestinal fibrosis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 200 g using an enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). HSP47 localization was determined by immunohistochemistry. Colonic inflammation and fibrosis were assessed by macroscopic, histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. Colonic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), HSP47, and collagen type I were assessed by real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DKT was administered orally once a day from 8 to 14 d after TNBS administration. The colon was removed on the 15th day. HSP47 immunoreactivity was coexpressed with α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells located in the subepithelial space. Intracolonic administration of TNBS resulted in grossly visible ulcers. Colonic inflammation persisted for 6 weeks, and fibrosis persisted for 4 weeks after cessation of TNBS treatment. The expression levels of mRNA and proteins for TGF-β1, HSP47, and collagen I were elevated in colonic mucosa treated with TNBS. These fibrosis markers indicated that DKT treatment significantly inhibited TNBS-induced fibrosis. These findings suggest that DKT reduces intestinal fibrosis associated with decreasing expression of HSP47 and collagen content in the intestine.

  3. Anomaly transform methods based on total energy and ocean heat content norms for generating ocean dynamic disturbances for ensemble climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In our study we use the anomaly transform, a special case of ensemble transform method, in which a selected set of initial oceanic anomalies in space, time and variables are defined and orthogonalized. The resulting orthogonal perturbation patterns are designed such that they pick up typical balanced anomaly structures in space and time and between variables. The metric used to set up the eigen problem is taken either as the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions, or the weighted ocean heat content in which a disturbance is applied only to the initial temperature fields. The choices of a reference state for defining the initial anomalies are such that either perturbations on seasonal timescales and or on interannual timescales are constructed. These project a-priori only the slow modes of the ocean physical processes, such that the disturbances grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the El Nino Southern Oscillation regions. An additional set of initial conditions is designed to fit in a least square sense data from global ocean reanalysis. Applying the AT produced sets of disturbances to oceanic initial conditions initialized by observations of the MPIOM-ESM coupled model on T63L47/GR15 resolution, four ensemble and one hind-cast experiments were performed. The weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the amplitudes and rates of the fastest growing error modes. The results showed minor dependence of the instabilities or error growth on the selected metric but considerable change due to the magnitude of the scaling amplitudes of the perturbation patterns. In contrast to similar atmospheric applications, we find an energy conversion from kinetic to available potential energy, which suggests a different source of uncertainty generation in the ocean than in the atmosphere mainly associated with changes in the density field.

  4. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  5. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  6. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  7. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  8. CovertCast: Using Live Streaming to Evade Internet Censorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPherson Richard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We design, implement, and evaluate CovertCast, a censorship circumvention system that broadcasts the content of popular websites in real-time, encrypted video streams on common live-streaming services such as YouTube. CovertCast does not require any modifications to the streaming service and employs the same protocols, servers, and streaming software as any other user of the service. Therefore, CovertCast cannot be distinguished from other live streams by IP address filtering or protocol fingerprinting, raising the bar for censors.

  9. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  10. Heat pipe heat exchanger for heat recovery in air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Baky, Mostafa A.; Mohamed, Mousa M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minufiya University, Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)

    2007-03-15

    The heat pipe heat exchangers are used in heat recovery applications to cool the incoming fresh air in air conditioning applications. Two streams of fresh and return air have been connected with heat pipe heat exchanger to investigate the thermal performance and effectiveness of heat recovery system. Ratios of mass flow rate between return and fresh air of 1, 1.5 and 2.3 have been adapted to validate the heat transfer and the temperature change of fresh air. Fresh air inlet temperature of 32-40{sup o}C has been controlled, while the inlet return air temperature is kept constant at about 26{sup o}C. The results showed that the temperature changes of fresh and return air are increased with the increase of inlet temperature of fresh air. The effectiveness and heat transfer for both evaporator and condenser sections are also increased to about 48%, when the inlet fresh air temperature is increased to 40{sup o}C. The effect of mass flow rate ratio on effectiveness is positive for evaporator side and negative for condenser side. The enthalpy ratio between the heat recovery and conventional air mixing is increased to about 85% with increasing fresh air inlet temperature. The optimum effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger is estimated and compared with the present experimental data. The results showed that the effectiveness is close to the optimum effectiveness at fresh air inlet temperature near the fluid operating temperature of heat pipes. (author)

  11. Stream Response to an Extreme Defoliation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Loffredo, J.; Addy, K.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Berdanier, A. B.; Schroth, A. W.; Inamdar, S. P.; Bowden, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme climatic events are known to profoundly impact stream flow and stream fluxes. These events can also exert controls on insect outbreaks, which may create marked changes in stream characteristics. The invasive Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) experiences episodic infestations based on extreme climatic conditions within the northeastern U.S. In most years, gypsy moth populations are kept in check by diseases. In 2016 - after successive years of unusually warm, dry spring and summer weather -gypsy moth caterpillars defoliated over half of Rhode Island's 160,000 forested ha. No defoliation of this magnitude had occurred for more than 30 years. We examined one RI headwater stream's response to the defoliation event in 2016 compared with comparable data in 2014 and 2015. Stream temperature and flow was gauged continuously by USGS and dissolved oxygen (DO) was measured with a YSI EXO2 sonde every 30 minutes during a series of deployments in the spring, summer and fall from 2014-2016. We used the single station, open channel method to estimate stream metabolism metrics. We also assessed local climate and stream temperature data from 2009-2016. We observed changes in stream responses during the defoliation event that suggest changes in ET, solar radiation and heat flux. Although the summer of 2016 had more drought stress (PDSI) than previous years, stream flow occurred throughout the summer, in contrast to several years with lower drought stress when stream flow ceased. Air temperature in 2016 was similar to prior years, but stream temperature was substantially higher than the prior seven years, likely due to the loss of canopy shading. DO declined dramatically in 2016 compared to prior years - more than the rising stream temperatures would indicate. Gross Primary Productivity was significantly higher during the year of the defoliation, indicating more total fixation of inorganic carbon from photo-autotrophs. In 2016, Ecosystem Respiration was also higher and Net

  12. Movie Pirates of the Caribbean: Exploring Illegal Streaming Cyberlockers

    OpenAIRE

    Ibosiola, Damilola; Steer, Benjamin; Garcia-Recuero, Alvaro; Stringhini, Gianluca; Uhlig, Steve; Tyson, Gareth

    2018-01-01

    Online video piracy (OVP) is a contentious topic, with strong proponents on both sides of the argument. Recently, a number of illegal websites, called streaming cyberlockers, have begun to dominate OVP. These websites specialise in distributing pirated content, underpinned by third party indexing services offering easy-to-access directories of content. This paper performs the first exploration of this new ecosystem. It characterises the content, as well the streaming cyberlockers' individual ...

  13. Advanced real-time manipulation of video streams

    CERN Document Server

    Herling, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Diminished Reality is a new fascinating technology that removes real-world content from live video streams. This sensational live video manipulation actually removes real objects and generates a coherent video stream in real-time. Viewers cannot detect modified content. Existing approaches are restricted to moving objects and static or almost static cameras and do not allow real-time manipulation of video content. Jan Herling presents a new and innovative approach for real-time object removal with arbitrary camera movements.

  14. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  15. Viscous dissipation effects on heat transfer inflow past a continuously moving porous plate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Soundalgekar, V.M.

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Math_Soc_B.H.U_11_53.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Math_Soc_B.H.U_11_53.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Triploidy induction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. using pressure, heat and cold shocks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hussain, M.G.; Chatterji, A.; McAndrew, B.J.; Johnstone, R.

    stream_size 7 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Theor_Appl_Genet_81_6.pdf.txt stream_source_info Theor_Appl_Genet_81_6.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Surface heat fluxes using satellite observations: A case study in the northwest Pacific

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Sugimori, Y; Akiyama, M.

    stream_size 16 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Atmos_Ocean_Technol_12_1071.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Atmos_Ocean_Technol_12_1071.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  18. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Spawn, Seth A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr−1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  19. Effect of Al content on critical CTOD properties in heat affected zone of C-Mn microalloyed steel. Teitanso teigokin koyosetsu netsu eikyobu no genkai CTOD tokusei ni oyobosu Al ganyuryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Y.; Komizo, Y. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-08-05

    Two types of molten alloys specimen with a base of 0.10%C-0.20%Si-1.40%Mn-0.01%Ti system and varied Al content, were studied. The critical crack tip opening displacement(CTOD) properties in heat effected zone(HAZ) of extreme low Al content steel was stable at. extremely low temperature and there was no formation of M-A. Fine ferrite has a texture of [alpha] main body and it has been thought that the the change in the CTOD properties with the variation in Al content has been due to the difference in the texture. In case of Al content steel plate, the interfacial energy has been decreased due to excessive carbon concentration at [gamma] /[alpha] interface, M-A formation has been easier by the suppression of [alpha] transformation. In case of extremely low Al content steel plate, [alpha] transformation has been promoted and cementite deposition has been estimated from a small amount. of left [gamma] of extremely high carbon concentration. As for SH-CCT diagram of extremely low Al content steel plate, compare to Al content steel plate, [alpha] noze has shifted toward shorter time and formation of [alpha] has been easier within the normal welding cooling rate, and microstructures of [alpha] texture have formed in HAZ. 21 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the

  1. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  2. Factors affecting thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis ODA 99-30581-13 in shell egg contents and use of heat-ozone combinations for egg pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-02-01

    Infection of laying hens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis leads to deposition of the pathogen into the albumen or yolk of forming eggs. Heat treatment can inactivate internalized Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs, but factors such as the nature and location of contamination may influence the efficacy of thermal treatments. In the current research, natural contamination was mimicked by introducing small inocula of Salmonella Enteritidis into different locations of shell eggs and incubating inoculated eggs. These pathogen-containing eggs were heated at 57°C for 40 min, and temperature within eggs was monitored at the locations of inocula. Comparison of inactivation at equivalent internal temperatures revealed similar levels of lethality regardless of inoculum location. Refrigeration between incubation and heat treatment did not increase thermal resistance of cells in albumen but decreased cell inactivation in yolk. Sequential application of heat and gaseous ozone allows for the development of a process capable of decontaminating shell eggs with minimal thermal treatment and impact on egg quality. Inoculated eggs were subjected to (i) an immersion heating process similar to that used in commercial pasteurization or (ii) immersion heating, at reduced duration, followed by vacuum (50.8 kPa) and treatment with ozone gas (maximum 160 g/m(3)) under pressure (∼187.5 kPa). All treatments tested produced greater than 5-log inactivation, which is required for "pasteurization" processes. Differences were observed in the visual quality of eggs depending on treatment parameters. Application of ozone subsequent to heating allows for a significant reduction in heating time without decreasing process lethality.

  3. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  4. Secure remote service execution for web media streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Mikityuk, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Through continuous advancements in streaming and Web technologies over the past decade, the Web has become a platform for media delivery. Web standards like HTML5 have been designed accordingly, allowing for the delivery of applications, high-quality streaming video, and hooks for interoperable content protection. Efficient video encoding algorithms such as AVC/HEVC and streaming protocols such as MPEG-DASH have served as additional triggers for this evolution. Users now employ...

  5. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column

  6. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  7. Streaming Media for Web Based Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Chad; Rizzo, Frank; Bangert, Linda

    This paper discusses streaming media for World Wide Web-based training (WBT). The first section addresses WBT in the 21st century, including the Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) standard that allows multimedia content such as text, pictures, sound, and video to be synchronized for a coherent learning experience. The second…

  8. Microbial incorporation of nitrogen in stream detritus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Sanzone; Jennifer L. Tank; Judy L. Meyer; Patrick J. Mulholland; Stuart E.G. Findlay

    2001-01-01

    We adapted the chloroform fumigation method to determine microbial nitrogen (N) and microbial incorporation of 15N on three common substrates [leaves, wood and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM)] in three forest streams. We compared microbial N and 15 content of samples collected during a 6-week15N-NH...

  9. LHCb trigger streams optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, D.; Kazeev, N.; Neychev, R.; Panin, A.; Trofimov, I.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Vesterinen, M.

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment stores around 1011 collision events per year. A typical physics analysis deals with a final sample of up to 107 events. Event preselection algorithms (lines) are used for data reduction. Since the data are stored in a format that requires sequential access, the lines are grouped into several output file streams, in order to increase the efficiency of user analysis jobs that read these data. The scheme efficiency heavily depends on the stream composition. By putting similar lines together and balancing the stream sizes it is possible to reduce the overhead. We present a method for finding an optimal stream composition. The method is applied to a part of the LHCb data (Turbo stream) on the stage where it is prepared for user physics analysis. This results in an expected improvement of 15% in the speed of user analysis jobs, and will be applied on data to be recorded in 2017.

  10. Asteroid/meteorite streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    The independent discovery of the same three streams (named alpha, beta, and gamma) among 139 Earth approaching asteroids and among 89 meteorite producing fireballs presents the possibility of matching specific meteorites to specific asteroids, or at least to asteroids in the same stream and, therefore, presumably of the same composition. Although perhaps of limited practical value, the three meteorites with known orbits are all ordinary chondrites. To identify, in general, the taxonomic type of the parent asteroid, however, would be of great scientific interest since these most abundant meteorite types cannot be unambiguously spectrally matched to an asteroid type. The H5 Pribram meteorite and asteroid 4486 (unclassified) are not part of a stream, but travel in fairly similar orbits. The LL5 Innisfree meteorite is orbitally similar to asteroid 1989DA (unclassified), and both are members of a fourth stream (delta) defined by five meteorite-dropping fireballs and this one asteroid. The H5 Lost City meteorite is orbitally similar to 1980AA (S type), which is a member of stream gamma defined by four asteroids and four fireballs. Another asteroid in this stream is classified as an S type, another is QU, and the fourth is unclassified. This stream suggests that ordinary chondrites should be associated with S (and/or Q) asteroids. Two of the known four V type asteroids belong to another stream, beta, defined by five asteroids and four meteorite-dropping (but unrecovered) fireballs, making it the most probable source of the eucrites. The final stream, alpha, defined by five asteroids and three fireballs is of unknown composition since no meteorites have been recovered and only one asteroid has an ambiguous classification of QRS. If this stream, or any other as yet undiscovered ones, were found to be composed of a more practical material (e.g., water or metalrich), then recovery of the associated meteorites would provide an opportunity for in-hand analysis of a potential

  11. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  12. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  13. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  14. Surface heat budget of the Caribbean Sea during the pre-hurricane period (April-May) of 1990

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Brown, P; Gray, C.R.; Hulse, J.; Jeremiah, P; Wagh, A.B.; Desai, B.N.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Caribb_Mar_Stud_2_87.pdf.txt stream_source_info Caribb_Mar_Stud_2_87.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Heat transfer in flow of an elastico-viscous fluid past a semi-infinite plate with variable temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soundalgekar, V; Murty

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Braz_Soc_Mech_Sci_26_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Braz_Soc_Mech_Sci_26_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Wadeable Streams Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of small streams throughout the U.S. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worked with the states to conduct the assessment in 2004-2005. Data for each parameter sampled in the Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) are available for downloading in a series of files as comma separated values (*.csv). Each *.csv data file has a companion text file (*.txt) that lists a dataset label and individual descriptions for each variable. Users should view the *.txt files first to help guide their understanding and use of the data.

  17. Numeric Analysis for Relationship-Aware Scalable Streaming Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Ki Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent packet loss of media data is a critical problem that degrades the quality of streaming services over mobile networks. Packet loss invalidates frames containing lost packets and other related frames at the same time. Indirect loss caused by losing packets decreases the quality of streaming. A scalable streaming service can decrease the amount of dropped multimedia resulting from a single packet loss. Content providers typically divide one large media stream into several layers through a scalable streaming service and then provide each scalable layer to the user depending on the mobile network. Also, a scalable streaming service makes it possible to decode partial multimedia data depending on the relationship between frames and layers. Therefore, a scalable streaming service provides a way to decrease the wasted multimedia data when one packet is lost. However, the hierarchical structure between frames and layers of scalable streams determines the service quality of the scalable streaming service. Even if whole packets of layers are transmitted successfully, they cannot be decoded as a result of the absence of reference frames and layers. Therefore, the complicated relationship between frames and layers in a scalable stream increases the volume of abandoned layers. For providing a high-quality scalable streaming service, we choose a proper relationship between scalable layers as well as the amount of transmitted multimedia data depending on the network situation. We prove that a simple scalable scheme outperforms a complicated scheme in an error-prone network. We suggest an adaptive set-top box (AdaptiveSTB to lower the dependency between scalable layers in a scalable stream. Also, we provide a numerical model to obtain the indirect loss of multimedia data and apply it to various multimedia streams. Our AdaptiveSTB enhances the quality of a scalable streaming service by removing indirect loss.

  18. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  19. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  20. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-09

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  1. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  2. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  3. DNR 24K Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — 1:24,000 scale streams captured from USGS seven and one-half minute quadrangle maps, with perennial vs. intermittent classification, and connectivity through lakes,...

  4. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  5. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  6. Jet Noise Scaling in Dual Stream Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2010-01-01

    Power spectral laws in dual stream jets are studied by considering such flows a superposition of appropriate single-stream coaxial jets. Noise generation in each mixing region is modeled using spectral power laws developed earlier for single stream jets as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. Similarity arguments indicate that jet noise in dual stream nozzles may be considered as a composite of four single stream jets representing primary/secondary, secondary/ambient, transition, and fully mixed zones. Frequency filter are designed to highlight spectral contribution from each jet. Predictions are provided at an area ratio of 2.0--bypass ratio from 0.80 to 3.40, and are compared with measurements within a wide range of velocity and temperature ratios. These models suggest that the low frequency noise in unheated jets is dominated by the fully mixed region at all velocity ratios, while the high frequency noise is dominated by the secondary when the velocity ratio is larger than 0.80. Transition and fully mixed jets equally dominate the low frequency noise in heated jets. At velocity ratios less than 0.50, the high frequency noise from primary/bypass becomes a significant contributing factor similar to that in the secondary/ambient jet.

  7. Collaborative Media Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Kahmann, Verena

    2008-01-01

    Mit Hilfe der IP-Technologie erbrachte Multimedia-Dienste wie IPTV oder Video-on-Demand sind zur Zeit ein gefragtes Thema. Technisch werden solche Dienste unter dem Begriff "Streaming" eingeordnet. Ein Server sendet Mediendaten kontinuierlich an Empfänger, welche die Daten sofort weiterverarbeiten und anzeigen. Über einen Rückkanal hat der Kunde die Möglichkeit der Einflussnahme auf die Wiedergabe. Eine Weiterentwicklung dieser Streaming-Dienste ist die Möglichkeit, gemeinsam mit anderen dens...

  8. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  9. Design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Heat integration of energy streams is very important for the efficient energy recovery in production systems. Pinch technology is a very useful tool for heat integration and maximizing energy efficiency. Creating of heat exchangers network as a common solution for systems in batch mode that will be applicable in all existing time slices is very difficult. This paper suggests a new methodology for design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes. Heat exchanger network designs were created for all determined repeatable and non-repeatable time periods – time slices. They are the basis for creating the common heat exchanger network. The common heat exchanger network as solution, satisfies all heat-transfer needs for each time period and for every existing combination of selected streams in the production process. This methodology use split of some heat exchangers into two or more heat exchange units or heat exchange zones. The reason for that is the multipurpose use of heat exchangers between different pairs of streams in different time periods. Splitting of large heat exchangers would maximize the total heat transfer usage of heat exchange units. Final solution contains heat exchangers with the minimum heat load as well as the minimum need of heat transfer area. The solution is applicable for all determined time periods and all existing stream combinations. - Highlights: •Methodology for design of energy efficient systems in batch processes. •Common Heat Exchanger Network solution based on designs with Pinch technology. •Multipurpose use of heat exchangers in batch processes

  10. Effect of high hydrogen content on metallurgical and mechanical properties of zirconium alloy claddings after heat-treatment at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turque, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Under hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident conditions, fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys can be exposed to steam at high temperature (HT, up 1200 C) before being cooled and then quenched in water. In some conditions, after burst occurrence the cladding can rapidly absorb a significant amount of hydrogen (secondary hydriding), up to 3000 wt.ppm locally, during steam exposition at HT. The study deals with the effect, poorly studied up to date, of high contents of hydrogen on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of two zirconium alloys, Zircaloy-4 and M5, during and after cooling from high temperatures, at which zirconium is in its β phase. A specific facility was developed to homogeneously charge in hydrogen up to ∼ 3000 wt.ppm cladding tube samples of several centimeters in length. Phase transformations, chemical element partitioning and hydrogen precipitation during cooling from the β temperature domain of zirconium were studied by using several techniques, for the materials containing up to ∼ 3000 wt.ppm of hydrogen in average: in-situ neutron diffraction upon cooling from 700 C, X-ray diffraction, μ-ERDA, EPMA and electron microscopy in particular. The results were compared to thermodynamic predictions. In order to study the effect of high hydrogen contents on the mechanical behavior of the (prior-)μ phase of zirconium, axial tensile tests were performed at various temperatures between 20 and 700 C upon cooling from the β temperature domain, on samples with mean hydrogen contents up to ∼ 3000 wt.ppm. The results show that metallurgical and mechanical properties of the (prior-)β phase of zirconium alloys strongly depend on temperature and hydrogen content. (author) [fr

  11. Measurement of dynamic adsorption coefficient of Xe on coconut charcoal in CO2 streams by gas-solid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xinxi; Huang Yuying; Li Wangchang

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring the dynamic adsorption coefficients of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 in CO 2 carrier streams by SP-2305E gas chromatograph with the thermal conductivity cell. The adsorption column is made of stainless steel (diameter 4 x 240 mm) packed with 60-80 mesh coconut charcoal II-2. The CO 2 content in carrier streams is about 87%. Three groups of data of Xe dynamic adsorption coefficient were obtained at temperature 15.5 deg C, 31.5 deg C and 50.5 deg C by pulse injection respectively. Another group was obtained at temperature approx. 16 deg C by continueous injection. In addition, adsorption isotherms and adsorption isometrics were determined. In this experimental system, the adsorption heat of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 is 2820 cal/mole

  12. Streams and their future inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Friberg, Nikolai

    2006-01-01

    In this fi nal chapter we look ahead and address four questions: How do we improve stream management? What are the likely developments in the biological quality of streams? In which areas is knowledge on stream ecology insuffi cient? What can streams offer children of today and adults of tomorrow?...

  13. Solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases in Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn squeeze cast alloy with variable Fe contents during solution heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Bo [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Gui Zhou University, Guiyang 550000 (China); Zhang, Weiwen, E-mail: mewzhang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and needle-like Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}(FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve.

  14. Solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases in Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn squeeze cast alloy with variable Fe contents during solution heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Bo; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al 6 (FeMn) and needle-like Al 3 (FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al 7 Cu 2 (FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al 6 (FeMn) and Al 3 (FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve

  15. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  16. Modelling climate change impacts on stream habitat conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, Eva; Conallin, John; Karthikeyan, Matheswaran

    Impact from groundwater abstraction on freshwater resources and ecosystems is an issue of sincere concern in Denmark and many other countries worldwide. In addition, climate change projections add complexity to the existing conflict between water demands to satisfy human needs and water demands...... required to conserve streams as biologically diverse and healthy ecosystems. Solutions to this intensifying conflict require a holistic approach whereby stream biota is related to their physical environment at catchment scale, as also demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive. In the present study......, climate impacts on stream ecological conditions were quantified by combining a heat and mass stream flow with a habitat suitability modelling approach. Habitat suitability indices were developed for stream velocity, water depth, water temperature and substrate. Generally, water depth was found...

  17. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  18. Quality models for audiovisual streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Truong Cong; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Cheon Seog; Ro, Yong Man

    2006-01-01

    Quality is an essential factor in multimedia communication, especially in compression and adaptation. Quality metrics can be divided into three categories: within-modality quality, cross-modality quality, and multi-modality quality. Most research has so far focused on within-modality quality. Moreover, quality is normally just considered from the perceptual perspective. In practice, content may be drastically adapted, even converted to another modality. In this case, we should consider the quality from semantic perspective as well. In this work, we investigate the multi-modality quality from the semantic perspective. To model the semantic quality, we apply the concept of "conceptual graph", which consists of semantic nodes and relations between the nodes. As an typical of multi-modality example, we focus on audiovisual streaming service. Specifically, we evaluate the amount of information conveyed by a audiovisual content where both video and audio channels may be strongly degraded, even audio are converted to text. In the experiments, we also consider the perceptual quality model of audiovisual content, so as to see the difference with semantic quality model.

  19. Soliton collapse during ionospheric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheerin, J.P.; Nicholson, D.R.; Payne, G.L.; Duncan, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    We present analytical and numerical work which indicates that during ionospheric heating with high-powered hf radio waves, the oscillating two-stream instability may dominate the parametric decay instability. The oscillating two-stream instability saturates nonlinearly through the formation of solitons which undergo a collisionally damped collapse. Using the heater and radar facilities at Arecibo Observatory, we have investigated this phenomenon experimentally. Recent results from our theoretical and experimental investigations are presented

  20. Changing their tune : How consumers' adoption of online streaming affects music consumption and discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, Hannes; Knox, George; Bronnenberg, Bart

    Instead of purchasing individual content, streaming adopters rent access to libraries, with content being free at the margin. In this paper, we study how the adoption of music streaming affects consumers’ listening behavior. Using a unique panel data set of individual consumers’ listening histories

  1. Effect of content silver and heat treatment temperature on morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ITO films by sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Majid; Dolati, Abolghasem

    2014-09-01

    Silver-doped indium tin oxide thin films were synthesized using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The influence of different silver-dopant contents and annealing temperature on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the films were characterized by means of four-point probe, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of cubic bixbyte structure of In2O3 with silver nanoparticles annealed at 350 °C. XPS analysis showed that divalent tin transformed to tetravalent tin through oxidization, and silver nanoparticles embedded into ITO matrix covered with silver oxide shell, resulting in high quality nanocomposite thin films. The embedment of polyvinylpyrrolidone inhibited the growth of silver nanoparticles and ITO annealed at 350 °C. Delafossite structure of tin-doped AgInO2 was found at higher annealing temperatures. XRD analysis and FESEM micrographs showed that the optimum temperature to prevent the formation of AgInO2 is 350 °C. The embedment of silver particles (5-10 nm) from reduction of silver ion in ITO thin films improved the electrical conductivity and optical transmittance of ITO nanolayers. The lowest stable sheet resistance of 1,952 Ω/Sq for a 321 nm thick and an average optical transmittance of 91.8 % in the visible region with a band gap of 3.43 eV were achieved for silver-doping content of 0.04 M.

  2. Changes in Ocean Heat, Carbon Content, and Ventilation: A Review of the First Decade of GO-SHIP Global Repeat Hydrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, L D; Feely, R A; Sloyan, B M; Wanninkhof, R; Baringer, M O; Bullister, J L; Carlson, C A; Doney, S C; Fine, R A; Firing, E; Gruber, N; Hansell, D A; Ishii, M; Johnson, G C; Katsumata, K; Key, R M; Kramp, M; Langdon, C; Macdonald, A M; Mathis, J T; McDonagh, E L; Mecking, S; Millero, F J; Mordy, C W; Nakano, T; Sabine, C L; Smethie, W M; Swift, J H; Tanhua, T; Thurnherr, A M; Warner, M J; Zhang, J-Z

    2016-01-01

    Global ship-based programs, with highly accurate, full water column physical and biogeochemical observations repeated decadally since the 1970s, provide a crucial resource for documenting ocean change. The ocean, a central component of Earth's climate system, is taking up most of Earth's excess anthropogenic heat, with about 19% of this excess in the abyssal ocean beneath 2,000 m, dominated by Southern Ocean warming. The ocean also has taken up about 27% of anthropogenic carbon, resulting in acidification of the upper ocean. Increased stratification has resulted in a decline in oxygen and increase in nutrients in the Northern Hemisphere thermocline and an expansion of tropical oxygen minimum zones. Southern Hemisphere thermocline oxygen increased in the 2000s owing to stronger wind forcing and ventilation. The most recent decade of global hydrography has mapped dissolved organic carbon, a large, bioactive reservoir, for the first time and quantified its contribution to export production (∼20%) and deep-ocean oxygen utilization. Ship-based measurements also show that vertical diffusivity increases from a minimum in the thermocline to a maximum within the bottom 1,500 m, shifting our physical paradigm of the ocean's overturning circulation.

  3. STEGANOGRAPHY USAGE TO CONTROL MULTIMEDIA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koziel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a proposal of new application for steganography is presented. It is possible to use steganographic techniques to control multimedia stream playback. Special control markers can be included in the sound signal and the player can detect markers and modify the playback parameters according to the hidden instructions. This solution allows for remembering user preferences within the audio track as well as allowing for preparation of various versions of the same content at the production level.

  4. Gas stream cleaning system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunchal, S. Kumar; Erck, Louis J.; Harris, Harry A.

    1979-04-13

    An oil mist and solid particle laden gas from an oil shale retorting operation is initially treated with a temperature controlled oil spray and then by a coalescer to reduce the quantity of oil mist and remove most of the solid particle content of the gas stream and then finally treated by an electrostatic precipitator to essentially remove the oil mist remaining in the gas.

  5. Baseline Glass Development for Combined Fission Products Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Billings, Amanda Y.; Lang, Jesse B.; Marra, James C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Borosilicate glass was selected as the baseline technology for immobilization of the Cs/Sr/Ba/Rb (Cs), lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) waste steams as part of a cost benefit analysis study.(1) Vitrification of the combined waste streams have several advantages, minimization of the number of waste forms, a proven technology, and similarity to waste forms currently accepted for repository disposal. A joint study was undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop acceptable glasses for the combined Cs + Ln + TM waste streams (Option 1) and Cs + Ln combined waste streams (Option 2) generated by the AFCI UREX+ set of processes. This study is aimed to develop baseline glasses for both combined waste stream options and identify key waste components and their impact on waste loading. The elemental compositions of the four-corners study were used along with the available separations data to determine the effect of burnup, decay, and separations variability on estimated waste stream compositions.(2-5) Two different components/scenarios were identified that could limit waste loading of the combined Cs + LN + TM waste streams, where as the combined Cs + LN waste stream has no single component that is perceived to limit waste loading. Combined Cs + LN waste stream in a glass waste form will most likely be limited by heat due to the high activity of Cs and Sr isotopes.

  6. Remote Monitoring of Soil Water Content, Temperature, and Heat Flow Using Low-Cost Cellular (3G) IoT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    New microprocessor boards, open-source sensors, and cloud infrastructure developed for the Internet of Things (IoT) can be used to create low-cost monitoring systems for environmental research. This project describes two applications in soil science and hydrology: 1) remote monitoring of the soil temperature regime near oil and gas operations to detect the thermal signature associated with the natural source zone degradation of hydrocarbon contaminants in the vadose zone, and 2) remote monitoring of soil water content near the surface as part of a global citizen science network. In both cases, prototype data collection systems were built around the cellular (2G/3G) "Electron" microcontroller (www.particle.io). This device allows connectivity to the cloud using a low-cost global SIM and data plan. The systems have cellular connectivity in over 100 countries and data can be logged to the cloud for storage. Users can view data real time over any internet connection or via their smart phone. For both projects, data logging, storage, and visualization was done using IoT services like Thingspeak (thingspeak.com). The soil thermal monitoring system was tested on experimental plots in Colorado USA to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of different temperature sensors and 3D printed housings. The soil water experiment included comparison opens-source capacitance-based sensors to commercial versions. Results demonstrate the power of leveraging IoT technology for field research.

  7. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  8. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis of d...

  9. Heat shock protein 70 modulates neural progenitor cells dynamics in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to high glucose content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Leila; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Jafarian, Vahab; Biray Avci, Çıgır; Goker Bagca, Bakiye; Pinar Ozates, Neslihan; Khaksar, Majid; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2018-01-18

    In the current experiment, detrimental effects of high glucose condition were investigated on human neuroblastoma cells. Human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y were exposed to 5, 40, and 70 mM glucose over a period of 72 h. Survival rate and the proliferation of cells were analyzed by MTT and BrdU incorporation assays. Apoptosis was studied by the assays of flow cytometry and PCR array. In order to investigate the trans-differentiation capacity of the cell into mature neurons, we used immunofluorescence imaging to follow NeuN protein level. The transcription level of HSP70 was shown by real-time PCR analysis. MMP-2 and -9 activities were shown by gelatin Zymography. According to data from MTT and BrdU incorporation assay, 70 mM glucose reduced cell viability and proliferation rate as compared to control (5 mM glucose) and cells treated with 40 mM glucose (P Cell exposure to 70 mM glucose had potential to induced apoptosis after 72 h (P SH-SY5Y cells to detrimental effects of high glucose condition during trans-differentiation into mature neuron-like cells. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the expression of HSP70 in cells under high content glucose levels, demonstrating the possible cell compensatory response to an insulting condition (p control vs 70 mM group  cells being exposed to 70 mM glucose. High glucose condition could abrogate the dynamics of neural progenitor cells. The intracellular level of HSP70 was proportional to cell damage in high glucose condition. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Performance of the air2stream model that relates air and stream water temperatures depends on the calibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Adam P.; Napiorkowski, Jaroslaw J.

    2018-06-01

    A number of physical or data-driven models have been proposed to evaluate stream water temperatures based on hydrological and meteorological observations. However, physical models require a large amount of information that is frequently unavailable, while data-based models ignore the physical processes. Recently the air2stream model has been proposed as an intermediate alternative that is based on physical heat budget processes, but it is so simplified that the model may be applied like data-driven ones. However, the price for simplicity is the need to calibrate eight parameters that, although have some physical meaning, cannot be measured or evaluated a priori. As a result, applicability and performance of the air2stream model for a particular stream relies on the efficiency of the calibration method. The original air2stream model uses an inefficient 20-year old approach called Particle Swarm Optimization with inertia weight. This study aims at finding an effective and robust calibration method for the air2stream model. Twelve different optimization algorithms are examined on six different streams from northern USA (states of Washington, Oregon and New York), Poland and Switzerland, located in both high mountains, hilly and lowland areas. It is found that the performance of the air2stream model depends significantly on the calibration method. Two algorithms lead to the best results for each considered stream. The air2stream model, calibrated with the chosen optimization methods, performs favorably against classical streamwater temperature models. The MATLAB code of the air2stream model and the chosen calibration procedure (CoBiDE) are available as Supplementary Material on the Journal of Hydrology web page.

  11. Video Streaming Transfer in a Smart Satellite Mobile Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Celandroni, Nedo; Davoli, Franco; Ferro, Erina; Gotta, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    In the near future, transportation media are likely to become "smart spaces", where sophisticated services are offered to the passengers. Among such services, we concentrate on video streaming provided on buses that move in urban, suburban, or highway environments. A contents' source utilizes a satellite DVB-S2 link for transmitting video streams to a bus, which, in its turn, relays it to its passengers' devices. A bus works in a smart mode taking advantage of the knowledge of the exact point...

  12. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  13. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  14. Effects of heating on salt-occluded zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel generates a waste stream of fission products in the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a mineral waste form for this waste stream. The waste form consists of a composite formed by hot pressing salt-occluded zeolite and a glass binder. Pressing conditions must be judiciously chosen. For a given pressure, increasing temperatures and hold times give denser products but the zeolite is frequently converted to sodalite. Reducing the temperature or hold time leads to a porous zeolite composite. Therefore, conditions that affect the thermal stability of salt-occluded zeolite both with and without glass are being investigated in an ongoing study. The parameters varied in this stage of the work were heating time, temperature, salt loading, and glass content. The heat-treated samples were examined primarily by X-ray diffraction. Large variations were found in the rate at which salt-occluded zeolite converted to other phases such as nepheline, salt, and sodalite. The products depended on the initial salt loading. Heating times required for these transitions depended on the procedure and temperature used to prepare the salt-occluded zeolite. Mixtures of glass and zeolite reacted much faster than the pure salt-occluded zeolite and were almost always converted to sodalite

  15. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion in small stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jin; Jun, Kye-Won [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju(Korea)

    2001-10-31

    This study is the analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion reach by numerical model test. Through it we can provide the basis data in flood, and in grasping stream flow characteristics. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics in Seoknam stream were implemented by using computer model HEC-RAS(one-dimensional model) and RMA2(two-dimensional finite element model). As a result we became to know that RMA2 to simulate left, main channel, right in stream is more effective method in analysing flow in channel bends, steep slope, complex bed form effect stream flow characteristics, than HEC-RAS. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Process and installation for heat recovery. Verfahren und Anlage zur Waermerueckgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, M.

    1990-01-10

    The patent describes a method for heat recovery from the warmer of two separately conducted streams of a fluid, whereby heat is recovered through a first heat exchanger in the warmer stream of medium, a heat transfer medium in a transmitting circuit and a second heat exchanger in the cooler stream of fluid, whereby the transmitting circuit includes both heat exchangers, characterized in that the recovered thermic output ({Delta}t.Q) is continuously detected and a regulation of the quantity (Q) of heat transfer medium in this circuit to maximum thermic output is effected. (author) 4 figs., 2 refs.

  17. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  18. Cleaning Schedule Operations in Heat Exchanger Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hairul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger networks have been known to be the essential parts in the chemical industries. Unfortunately, since the performance of heat exchanger can be decreasing in transferring the heat from hot stream into cold stream due to fouling, then cleaning the heat exchanger is needed to restore its initial performance periodically. A process of heating crude oil in a refinery plant was used as a case study. As many as eleven heat exchangers were used to heat crude oil before it was heated by a furnace to the temperature required to the crude unit distillation column. The purpose of this study is to determine the cleaning schedule of heat exchanger on the heat exchanger networks due to the decrease of the overall heat transfer coefficient by various percentage of the design value. A close study on the process of heat exchanger cleaning schedule in heat exchanger networks using the method of decreasing overall heat transfer coefficient as target. The result showed that the higher the fouling value the more often the heat exchanger is cleaned because the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases quickly.

  19. Suppression of acoustic streaming in tapered pulse tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    In a pulse tube cryocooler, the gas in the pulse tube can be thought of as an insulating piston, transmitting pressure and velocity from the cold heat exchanger to the hot end of the pulse tube. Unfortunately, convective heat transfer can carry heat from the hot end to the cold end and reduce the net cooling power. Here, the authors discuss one driver of such convection: steady acoustic streaming as generated by interactions between the boundary and the oscillating pressure, velocity, and temperature. Using a perturbation method, they have derived an analytical expression for the streaming in a tapered pulse tube with axially varying mean temperature in the acoustic boundary layer limit. The calculations showed that the streaming depends strongly on the taper angle, the ratio of velocity and pressure amplitudes, and the phase between the velocity and pressure, but it depends only weakly on the mean temperature profile and is independent of the overall oscillatory amplitude. With the appropriate tapering of the tube, streaming can be eliminated for a particular operating condition. Experimentally, the authors have demonstrated that an orifice pulse tube cryocooler with the calculated zero-streaming taper has more cooling power than one with either a cylindrical tube or a tapered pulse tube with twice the optimum taper angle

  20. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  1. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  2. The LHCb Turbo stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, A., E-mail: albert.puig@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015–2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  3. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  4. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  5. Stream processing health card application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data.

  6. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  7. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  8. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  9. Heat tracer methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    The flow of heat in the subsurface is closely linked to the movement of water (Ingebritsen et al., 2006). As such, heat has been used as a tracer in groundwater studies for more than 100 years (Anderson, 2005). As with chemical and isotopic tracers (Chapter 7), spatial or temporal trends in surface and subsurface temperatures can be used to infer rates of water movement. Temperature can be measured accurately, economically, at high frequencies, and without the need to obtain water samples, facts that make heat an attractive tracer. Temperature measurements made over space and time can be used to infer rates of recharge from a stream or other surface water body (Lapham, 1989; Stonestrom and Constantz, 2003); measurements can also be used to estimate rates of steady drainage through depth intervals within thick unsaturated zones (Constantz et al., 2003; Shan and Bodvarsson, 2004). Several thorough reviews of heat as a tracer in hydrologic studies have recently been published (Constantz et al., 2003; Stonestrom and Constantz, 2003; Anderson, 2005; Blasch et al., 2007; Constantz et al., 2008). This chapter summarizes heat-tracer approaches that have been used to estimate recharge.Some clarification in terminology is presented here to avoid confusion in descriptions of the various approaches that follow. Diffuse recharge is that which occurs more or less uniformly across large areas in response to precipitation, infiltration, and drainage through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of diffuse recharge determined using measured temperatures in the unsaturated zone are referred to as potential recharge because it is possible that not all of the water moving through the unsaturated zone will recharge the aquifer; some may be lost to the atmosphere by evaporation or plant transpiration. Estimated fluxes across confining units in the saturated zone are referred to as interaquifer flow (Chapter 1). Focused recharge is that which occurs directly from a point or line source, such

  10. History of Rocky Flats waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckett, L.L.; Dickman, A.A.; Wells, C.R.; Vickery, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the waste streams at Rocky Flats was done to provide information for the Waste Certification program. This program has involved studying the types and amounts of retrievable transuranic (TRU) waste from Rocky Flats that is stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The information can be used to estimate the types and amounts of waste that will need to be permanently stored in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The study covered mostly the eight-year period from June 1971 to June 1979. The types, amounts, and plutonium content of TRU waste and the areas or operations responsible for generating the waste are summarized in this waste stream history report. From the period studied, a total of 24,546,153 lbs of waste containing 211,148 g of plutonium currently occupies 709,497 cu ft of storage space at INEL

  11. Nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Stevan R; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer (15NO3-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient of background N concentration. Uptake increased in four of six streams as NO3-N was incrementally elevated, indicating that these streams were not saturated. Uptake generally corresponded to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but deviated from the model in two streams where some other growth-critical factor may have been limiting. Proximity to saturation was correlated to background N concentration but was better predicted by the ratio of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suggesting phosphorus limitation in several high-N streams. Uptake velocity, a reflection of uptake efficiency, declined nonlinearly with increasing N amendment in all streams. At the same time, uptake velocity was highest in the low-N streams. Our conceptual model of N transport, uptake, and uptake efficiency suggests that, while streams may be active sites of N uptake on the landscape, N saturation contributes to nonlinear changes in stream N dynamics that correspond to decreased uptake efficiency.

  12. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  13. Galaxies with jet streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Describes recent research work on supersonic gas flow. Notable examples have been observed in cosmic radio sources, where jet streams of galactic dimensions sometimes occur, apparently as the result of interaction between neighbouring galaxies. The current theory of jet behaviour has been convincingly demonstrated using computer simulation. The surprisingly long-term stability is related to the supersonic velocity, and is analagous to the way in which an Appollo spacecraft re-entering the atmosphere supersonically is protected by the gas from the burning shield. (G.F.F.)

  14. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  15. Entropy resistance minimization: An alternative method for heat exchanger analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, XueTao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of entropy resistance is proposed based on the entropy generation analyses of heat transfer processes. It is shown that smaller entropy resistance leads to larger heat transfer rate with fixed thermodynamic force difference and smaller thermodynamic force difference with fixed heat transfer rate, respectively. For the discussed two-stream heat exchangers in which the heat transfer rates are not given and the three-stream heat exchanger with prescribed heat capacity flow rates and inlet temperatures of the streams, smaller entropy resistance leads to larger heat transfer rate. For the two-stream heat exchangers with fixed heat transfer rate, smaller entropy resistance leads to larger effectiveness. Furthermore, it is shown that smaller values of the concepts of entropy generation numbers and modified entropy generation number do not always correspond to better performance of the discussed heat exchangers. - Highlights: • The concept of entropy resistance is defined for heat exchangers. • The concepts based on entropy generation are used to analyze heat exchangers. • Smaller entropy resistance leads to better performance of heat exchangers. • The applicability of entropy generation minimization is conditional

  16. The metaphors we stream by: Making sense of music streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja Nylund

    2016-01-01

    In Norway music-streaming services have become mainstream in everyday music listening. This paper examines how 12 heavy streaming users make sense of their experiences with Spotify and WiMP Music (now Tidal). The analysis relies on a mixed-method qualitative study, combining music-diary self-reports, online observation of streaming accounts, Facebook and last.fm scrobble-logs, and in-depth interviews. By drawing on existing metaphors of Internet experiences we demonstrate that music-streaming...

  17. The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070171

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 wi...

  18. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  19. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  20. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  1. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  2. End-to-End Mechanisms for Rate-Adaptive Multicast Streaming over the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Rimac, Ivica

    2005-01-01

    Continuous media applications over packet-switched networks are becoming more and more popular. Radio stations, for example, already use streaming technology to disseminate their content to users on the Internet, and video streaming services are expected to experience similar popularity. In contrast to traditional television and radio broadcast systems, however, prevalent Internet streaming solutions are based on unicast communication and raise scalability and efficiency issues. Multicast com...

  3. Alpha-Stream Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Jr., Rodger William (Inventor); Bruder, Geoffrey Adam (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A thermo-acoustic engine and/or cooler is provided and includes an elongated tubular body, multiple regenerators disposed within the body, multiple heat exchangers disposed within the body, where at least one heat exchanger is disposed adjacent to each of the multiple regenerators, multiple transducers axially disposed at each end of the body, and an acoustic wave source generating acoustic waves. At least one of the acoustic waves is amplified by one of the regenerators and at least another acoustic wave is amplified by a second one of regenerators.

  4. Morphology of a Wetland Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu; Andrle

    1997-11-01

    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  5. The Effect of Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) on Ionosphere and Thermosphere during 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm: Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.; Deng, Y.; Zhang, D.; Lu, Y.; Sheng, C.

    2017-12-01

    Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) are incorporated into the non-hydrostatic Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM), revealing the complex effects on neutral dynamics and ion-neutral coupling processes. The intense westward ion stream could enhance the neutral zonal wind within the SAPS channel. Through neutral dynamics the neutrals then divide into two streams, one turns poleward and the other turns equatorward, forming a two-cell pattern in the SAPS-changed wind. The significant Joule heating induced by SAPS also leads to traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD) accompanied by traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID), increasing the total electron content (TEC) by 2-8 TECu in the mid-latitude ionosphere. We investigate the potential causes of the reported poleward wind surge during the St. Patrick's Day storm in 2015. It is confirmed that Coriolis force on the westward zonal wind can contribute the poleward wind during post-SAPS interval. In addition, the simulations imply that the sudden decrease of heating rate within auroral oval could result in a TAD propagating equatorward, which could also be responsible for the sudden poleward wind surge. This study highlights the complicated effects of SAPS on ion-neutral coupling and neutral dynamics.

  6. Content-based intermedia synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Young; Sampath-Kumar, Srihari; Rangan, P. Venkat

    1995-03-01

    Inter-media synchronization methods developed until now have been based on syntactic timestamping of video frames and audio samples. These methods are not fully appropriate for the synchronization of multimedia objects which may have to be accessed individually by their contents, e.g. content-base data retrieval. We propose a content-based multimedia synchronization scheme in which a media stream is viewed as hierarchial composition of smaller objects which are logically structured based on the contents, and the synchronization is achieved by deriving temporal relations among logical units of media object. content-based synchronization offers several advantages such as, elimination of the need for time stamping, freedom from limitations of jitter, synchronization of independently captured media objects in video editing, and compensation for inherent asynchronies in capture times of video and audio.

  7. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  8. ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  9. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  10. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Komori, Nobumasa; Xie, Shang-Ping; Small, Richard Justin

    2008-03-13

    The Gulf Stream transports large amounts of heat from the tropics to middle and high latitudes, and thereby affects weather phenomena such as cyclogenesis and low cloud formation. But its climatic influence, on monthly and longer timescales, remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how the warm current affects the free atmosphere above the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Here we consider the Gulf Stream's influence on the troposphere, using a combination of operational weather analyses, satellite observations and an atmospheric general circulation model. Our results reveal that the Gulf Stream affects the entire troposphere. In the marine boundary layer, atmospheric pressure adjustments to sharp sea surface temperature gradients lead to surface wind convergence, which anchors a narrow band of precipitation along the Gulf Stream. In this rain band, upward motion and cloud formation extend into the upper troposphere, as corroborated by the frequent occurrence of very low cloud-top temperatures. These mechanisms provide a pathway by which the Gulf Stream can affect the atmosphere locally, and possibly also in remote regions by forcing planetary waves. The identification of this pathway may have implications for our understanding of the processes involved in climate change, because the Gulf Stream is the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which has varied in strength in the past and is predicted to weaken in response to human-induced global warming in the future.

  11. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  12. Stream periphyton responses to mesocosm treatments of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stream mesocosm experiment was designed to compare biotic responses among streams exposed to an equal excess specific conductivity target of 850 µS/cm relative to a control that was set for 200 µS/cm and three treatments comprised of different major ion contents. Each treatment and the control was replicated 4 times at the mesocosm scale (16 mesocosms total). The treatments were based on dosing the background mesocosm water, a continuous flow-through mixture of natural river water and reverse osmosis treated water, with stock salt solutions prepared from 1) a mixture of sodium chloride and calcium chloride (Na/Cl chloride), 2) sodium bicarbonate, and 3) magnesium sulfate. The realized average specific conductance over the first 28d of continuous dosing was 827, 829, and 847 µS/cm, for the chloride, bicarbonate, and sulfate based treatments, respectively, and did not differ significantly. The controls averaged 183 µS/cm. Here we focus on comparing stream periphyton communities across treatments based on measurements obtained from a Pulse-Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometer. The fluorometer is used in situ and with built in algorithms distributes the total aerial algal biomass (µg/cm2) of the periphyton among cyanobacteria, diatoms, and green algae. A measurement is recorded in a matter of seconds and, therefore, many different locations can be measured with in each mesocosm at a high return frequency. Eight locations within each of the 1 m2 (0.3 m W x 3

  13. The effect of industrial effluent stream on the groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Chaudhry, M.N.; Sarwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the industrial wastewater stream on the groundwater. Wastewater was characterized in terms of inorganic and organic constituents. Inorganic constituents included Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2+/ K/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ coupled with heavy metal elements such as, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni, Fe and In. Organic load of the stream was determined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH/sub 3/-N) contents. Other characteristics were pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The correlation coefficients between quality parameter pairs of stream water and groundwater were determined to ascertain the source of groundwater contamination. At station 1, BOD/sub 5/ and COD contents were 20 times and Cr concentration was 10 times higher than the permissible limits for stream water [1]. Contents of these parameters reflected the level of industrial and domestic pollution coming from India. However, large variations in the levels of these parameters at down stream sites of the drain were characteristic of type and nature of industrial effluents and domestic sewage joining the stream. Analysis results of more than one hundred groundwater samples from shallow and deep wells around the drain showed that groundwater of shallow aquifers was contaminated due to drain water. A comparison of the contents of these parameters in shallow wells with WHO standards showed that some parameters such as turbidity, TDS, Na/sup +/, F -and heavy metals like Cr were found higher than the permissible limits. (author)

  14. Streamflow and nutrient dependence of temperature effects on dissolved oxygen in low-order forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    April Mason; Y. Jun Xu; Philip Saksa; Adrienne Viosca; Johnny M. Grace; John Beebe; Richard Stich

    2007-01-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in streams can be linked to both natural conditions and human activities. In Louisiana, natural stream conditions such as low flow, high temperature and high organic content, often result in DO levels already below current water quality criteria, making it difficult to develop standards for Best Management Practices (BMPs)....

  15. Consumer-resource stoichiometry in detritus-based streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt F. Cross; Jonathan P. Benstead; Amy D. Rosemond; J. Bruce Wallace

    2003-01-01

    Stoichiometric relationships between consumers and resources in detritus-based ecosystems have received little attention, despite the importance of detritus in most food webs. We analysed carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) content of invertebrate consumers, and basal food resources in two forested headwater streams (one reference and the other nutrient-...

  16. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  17. Industrial-Strength Streaming Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky

    1997-01-01

    Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…

  18. Data streams: algorithms and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muthukrishnan, S

    2005-01-01

    ... massive data sets in general. Researchers in Theoretical Computer Science, Databases, IP Networking and Computer Systems are working on the data stream challenges. This article is an overview and survey of data stream algorithmics and is an updated version of [175]. S. Muthukrishnan Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, muthu@cs...

  19. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. Here, data streams have been viewed as a flow of low-level data items, e.g., sensor readings or IP packet data. Stream query languages have mostly been SQL-based, with the STREAM and TelegraphCQ lang...

  20. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  1. Stream Deniable-Encryption Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Moldovyan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for stream deniable encryption of secret message is proposed, which is computationally indistinguishable from the probabilistic encryption of some fake message. The method uses generation of two key streams with some secure block cipher. One of the key streams is generated depending on the secret key and the other one is generated depending on the fake key. The key streams are mixed with the secret and fake data streams so that the output ciphertext looks like the ciphertext produced by some probabilistic encryption algorithm applied to the fake message, while using the fake key. When the receiver or/and sender of the ciphertext are coerced to open the encryption key and the source message, they open the fake key and the fake message. To disclose their lie the coercer should demonstrate possibility of the alternative decryption of the ciphertext, however this is a computationally hard problem.

  2. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  3. Derivation of effectiveness-NTU method for heat exchangers with heat leak; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William M. Soyars

    2001-01-01

    A powerful and useful method for heat exchanger analysis is the effectiveness-NTU method. The equations for this technique presented in textbooks, however, are limited to the case where all of the heat transfer occurs between the two fluid streams. In an application of interest to us, cryogenic heat exchangers, we wish to consider a heat leak term. Thus, we have derived equations for the(var e psilon)-NTU method with heat leak involved. The cases to be studied include evaporators, condensers, and counter-flow, with heat leak both in and out

  4. Pilot-Streaming: Design Considerations for a Stream Processing Framework for High-Performance Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Luckow; Peter Kasson; Shantenu Jha

    2016-01-01

    This White Paper (submitted to STREAM 2016) identifies an approach to integrate streaming data with HPC resources. The paper outlines the design of Pilot-Streaming, which extends the concept of Pilot-abstraction to streaming real-time data.

  5. Discharge modulates stream metabolism dependence on fine particulate organic carbon in a Mediterranean WWTP-influenced stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Bernal, S.; Meredith, W.; Schumer, R.; Martí Roca, E.

    2017-12-01

    Waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents constitute point source inputs of fine sediment, nutrients, carbon, and microbes to stream ecosystems. A range of responses to these inputs may be observed in recipient streams, including increases in respiration rates, which augment CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Yet, little is known about which fractions of organic carbon (OC) contribute the most to stream metabolism in WWTP-influenced streams. Fine particulate OC (POC) represents ca. 40% of the total mass of OC in river networks, and is generally more labile than dissolved OC. Therefore, POC inputs from WWTPs could contribute disproportionately to higher rates of heterotrophic metabolism by stream microbial communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of POC inputs from a WWTP effluent on the metabolism of a Mediterranean stream over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. We hypothesized that POC inputs would have a positive effect on respiration rates, and that the response to POC availability would be larger during low flows when the dilution capacity of the recipient stream is negligible. We focused on the easily resuspended fine sediment near the sediment-water interface (top 3 cm), as this region is a known hot spot for biogeochemical processes. For one year, samples of resuspended sediment were collected bimonthly at 7 sites from 0 to 800 m downstream of the WWTP point source. We measured total POC, organic matter (OM) content (%), and the associated metabolic activity of the resuspended sediment using the resazurin-resorufin smart tracer system as a proxy for aerobic ecosystem respiration. Resuspended sediment showed no difference in total POC over the year, while the OM content increased with decreasing discharge. This result together with the decreasing trend of total POC observed downstream of the point source during autumn after a long dry period, suggests that the WWTP effluent was the main contributor to stream POC. Furthermore

  6. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  7. Dynamical modeling of tidal streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2014-01-01

    I present a new framework for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams. The framework consists of simple models for the initial action-angle distribution of tidal debris, which can be straightforwardly evolved forward in time. Taking advantage of the essentially one-dimensional nature of tidal streams, the transformation to position-velocity coordinates can be linearized and interpolated near a small number of points along the stream, thus allowing for efficient computations of a stream's properties in observable quantities. I illustrate how to calculate the stream's average location (its 'track') in different coordinate systems, how to quickly estimate the dispersion around its track, and how to draw mock stream data. As a generative model, this framework allows one to compute the full probability distribution function and marginalize over or condition it on certain phase-space dimensions as well as convolve it with observational uncertainties. This will be instrumental in proper data analysis of stream data. In addition to providing a computationally efficient practical tool for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams, the action-angle nature of the framework helps elucidate how the observed width of the stream relates to the velocity dispersion or mass of the progenitor, and how the progenitors of 'orphan' streams could be located. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework crucially depends on the ability to calculate action-angle variables for any orbit in any gravitational potential. A novel method for calculating actions, frequencies, and angles in any static potential using a single orbit integration is described in the Appendix.

  8. Modelling of Split Condenser Heat Pump: Optimization and Exergy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of a split condenser heat pump (SCHP). The SCHP setup differs from a traditional heat pump (THP) setup in the way that two separate water streams on the secondary side of the condenser are heated in parallel to different temperature levels, whereas only one...

  9. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  10. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  11. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HEATING RATE PRODUCT AT HIGH HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Akhmedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of computing and mathematical modeling are all widely used in the study of various heat exchange processes that provide the ability to study the dynamics of the processes, as well as to conduct a reasonable search for the optimal technological parameters of heat treatment.This work is devoted to the identification of correlations among the factors that have the greatest effect on the rate of heating of the product at hightemperature heat sterilization in a stream of hot air, which are chosen as the temperature difference (between the most and least warming up points and speed cans during heat sterilization.As a result of the experimental data warming of the central and peripheral layers compote of apples in a 3 liter pot at high-temperature heat treatment in a stream of hot air obtained by the regression equation in the form of a seconddegree polynomial, taking into account the effects of pair interaction of these parameters. 

  13. Climate and land cover effects on the temperature of Puget Sound streams: Assessment of Climate and Land Use Impacts on Stream Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qian [Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA USA; Sun, Ning [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Yearsley, John [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Nijssen, Bart [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA USA

    2016-03-06

    We apply an integrated hydrology-stream temperature modeling system, DHSVM-RBM, to examine the response of the temperature of the major streams draining to Puget Sound to land cover and climate change. We first show that the model construct is able to reconstruct observed historic streamflow and stream temperature variations at a range of time scales. We then explore the relative effect of projected future climate and land cover change, including riparian vegetation, on streamflow and stream temperature. Streamflow in summer is likely to decrease as the climate warms especially in snowmelt-dominated and transient river basins despite increased streamflow in their lower reaches associated with urbanization. Changes in streamflow also result from changes in land cover, and changes in stream shading result from changes in riparian vegetation, both of which influence stream temperature. However, we find that the effect of riparian vegetation changes on stream temperature is much greater than land cover change over the entire basin especially during summer low flow periods. Furthermore, while future projected precipitation change will have relatively modest effects on stream temperature, projected future air temperature increases will result in substantial increases in stream temperature especially in summer. These summer stream temperature increases will be associated both with increasing air temperature, and projected decreases in low flows. We find that restoration of riparian vegetation could mitigate much of the projected summer stream temperature increases. We also explore the contribution of riverine thermal loadings to the heat balance of Puget Sound, and find that the riverine contribution is greatest in winter, when streams account for up to 1/8 of total thermal inputs (averaged from December through February), with larger effects in some sub-basins. We project that the riverine impact on thermal inputs to Puget Sound will become greater with both urbanization

  14. Novel graphical approach as fouling pinch for increasing fouling formation period in heat exchanger network (HEN) state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Abazar Vahdat; Ghaebi, Hadi; Amidpour, Majid

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new graphical tool is proposed for investigation of fouling formation period in heat exchanger networks (HEN). The objective of this paper is increasing the time that HEN can perform its desirable heat transfer operation without required cleaning process. In a typical heat exchanger network, fouling formation rate of some streams is more than other ones. The method obtained in this work is based on given more opportunity for fouling formation for streams with high fouling formation rate. In fact high fouling formation rate streams are replaced with low fouling formation rate streams between different heat exchangers so that more fouling formation opportunity may be given for HEN. Therefore the HEN cleaning time decreases in fixed time period and the high fouling formation streams should pass from the path that the low fouling formation rate stream previously has passed, and inversely. As a result, secondly stream with high fouling formation rate mixes with residues of primary stream (low fouling formation rate stream). Therefore we should consider to adoption and conformability of streams structures (for prevention of streams destruction) and thermal considerations (for desirable heat transfer). Outlet temperatures of hot and cold streams should state in predefined temperatures. For satisfying thermal consideration after streams replacement this approach can be used in plants that cleanliness and its operational costs are most important problem.

  15. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  16. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  17. Knowledge discovery from data streams

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Internet age and the increased use of ubiquitous computing devices, the large volume and continuous flow of distributed data have imposed new constraints on the design of learning algorithms. Exploring how to extract knowledge structures from evolving and time-changing data, Knowledge Discovery from Data Streams presents a coherent overview of state-of-the-art research in learning from data streams.The book covers the fundamentals that are imperative to understanding data streams and describes important applications, such as TCP/IP traffic, GPS data, sensor networks,

  18. Waste streams from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Ericsson, A.-M.

    1978-03-01

    The three main products from reprocessing operations are uranium, plutonium and vitrified high-level-waste. The purpose of this report is to identify and quantify additional waste streams containing radioactive isotops. Special emphasis is laid on Sr, Cs and the actinides. The main part, more than 99 % of both the fission-products and the transuranic elements are contained in the HLW-stream. Small quantities sometimes contaminate the U- and Pu-streams and the rest is found in the medium-level-waste

  19. H(+) - O(+) two-stream interaction on auroral field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, R.

    1990-01-01

    Upflowing beams of hydrogen, oxygen, and minor ion species, and downward accelerated electrons have been observed above several thousand kilometers altitude on evening auroral field lines. The mechanism for electron and ion acceleration is generally accepted to be the presence of a quasi-static electric field with a component parallel to the earth's magnetic field. The thermal energy of the observed beams is much larger than ionospheric ion temperatures indicating that the beams have been heated as they are accelerated upward. This heating is probably due to a two-stream interaction between beams of different mass ions. The beams gain equal energy in the potential drop and so have different average velocities. Their relative streaming initiates an ion-ion two-stream interaction which then mediates a transfer of energy and momentum between the beams and causes thermalization of each beam. The qualitative evidence that supports this scenario is reviewed. Properties of the two-stream instability are presented in order to demonstrate that a calculation of the evolution of ion beams requires a model that includes field-aligned spatial structure. 26 refs

  20. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  1. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  2. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  3. STREAMS - Technology Programme. Yearbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The STREAMS Technology Programme addresses municipal waste. Municipal waste is composed of waste from households and small businesses. The programme focuses on five areas Waste prevention, Collection, transportation, and management of waste streams, Waste treatment technologies, Waste recycling into raw materials and new products, Landfill technologies. The development projects of the STREAMS Programme utilize a number of different technologies, such as biotechnology, information technology, materials technology, measurement and analysis, and automation technology. Finnish expertise in materials recycling technologies and related electronics and information technology is extremely high on a worldwide scale even though the companies represent SMEs. Started in 2001, the STREAMS programme has a total volume of 27 million euros, half of which is funded by Tekes. The programme runs through the end of 2004. (author)

  4. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On-stream analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.; Watt, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    An outline of some commercially available on-stream analysis systems in given. Systems based on x-ray tube/crystal spectrometers, scintillation detectors, proportional detectors and solid-state detectors are discussed

  6. What Is Heat? Inquiry regarding the Science of Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascoe, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This lab activity uses inquiry to help students define heat. It is generic in that it can be used to introduce a plethora of science content across middle and high school grade levels and across science disciplines that include biology, Earth and space science, and physical science. Even though heat is a universal science phenomenon that is…

  7. Groundwater flux estimation in streams: A thermal equilibrium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Fox, Garey A.; Miller, Ron B.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Brewer, Shannon

    2018-06-01

    Stream and groundwater interactions play an essential role in regulating flow, temperature, and water quality for stream ecosystems. Temperature gradients have been used to quantify vertical water movement in the streambed since the 1960s, but advancements in thermal methods are still possible. Seepage runs are a method commonly used to quantify exchange rates through a series of streamflow measurements but can be labor and time intensive. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a thermal equilibrium method as a technique for quantifying groundwater flux using monitored stream water temperature at a single point and readily available hydrological and atmospheric data. Our primary assumption was that stream water temperature at the monitored point was at thermal equilibrium with the combination of all heat transfer processes, including mixing with groundwater. By expanding the monitored stream point into a hypothetical, horizontal one-dimensional thermal modeling domain, we were able to simulate the thermal equilibrium achieved with known atmospheric variables at the point and quantify unknown groundwater flux by calibrating the model to the resulting temperature signature. Stream water temperatures were monitored at single points at nine streams in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and five reaches of the Kiamichi River to estimate groundwater fluxes using the thermal equilibrium method. When validated by comparison with seepage runs performed at the same time and reach, estimates from the two methods agreed with each other with an R2 of 0.94, a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.08 (m/d) and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.93. In conclusion, the thermal equilibrium method was a suitable technique for quantifying groundwater flux with minimal cost and simple field installation given that suitable atmospheric and hydrological data were readily available.

  8. nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, S. R.; Valett, H. M.; Webster, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer ((NO3)-N-15-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient ...

  9. Influence of silicon content and heat treatment on wear resistance of white chromium cast irons under high speed solidification conditions; Influencia del contenido de silicio y el tratamiento termico en la resistencia al desgaste de fundiciones blancas al cromo en condiciones de rapida solidificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyo, L.; Varela, A.; Verhaege, M.; Garcia, A.; Mier, J.; Moors, M.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of silicon content and heat treatment on microstructure, abrasive and dry friction wear resistance of a 3 % C, 12 % Cr cast iron, under fast solidification conditions is studied. The fast solidification condition diminishes the carbide volume and the silicon content increases their dispersion and finesses. All matrixes obtained were perlitics, whit different finesses. No intermediate transformation products were noticed. Hardness had little variation. Austenization treatment show little effectivity, with tendency to increase wear in reference to as cast and maintenance treatments. Behavior under dry friction and abrasive wear were similar under test conditions applied whit more influence of carbide morphology in the abrasive wear conditions. (Author) 32 refs.

  10. Differences in temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption among lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Pedersen, N. L.

    2005-01-01

    1. Temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption were measured over a year at 13 sites in four lowlands streams within the same region in North Zealand, Denmark with the objectives of determining: (i) spatial and seasonal differences between open streams, forest streams and streams with or w......1. Temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption were measured over a year at 13 sites in four lowlands streams within the same region in North Zealand, Denmark with the objectives of determining: (i) spatial and seasonal differences between open streams, forest streams and streams...... the exponential increase of oxygen consumption rate between 4 and 20 °C averaged 0.121 °C-1 (Q10 of 3.35) in 70 measurements and showed no significant variations between seasons and stream sites or correlations with ambient temperature and organic content. 5. Oxygen consumption rate was enhanced downstream...... at ambient temperature by 30-40% and 80-130%, respectively. Faster consumption of organic matter and dissolved oxygen downstream of point sources should increase the likelihood of oxygen stress of the stream biota and lead to the export of less organic matter but more mineralised nutrients to the coastal...

  11. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  12. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  13. ANOTHER LOOK AT THE EASTERN BANDED STRUCTURE: A STELLAR DEBRIS STREAM AND A POSSIBLE PROGENITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillmair, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we re-examine the Eastern Banded Structure (EBS), a stellar debris stream first discovered in Data Release 5 and more recently detected in velocity space by Schlaufman et al. The visible portion of the stream is 18 0 long, lying roughly in the Galactic Anticenter direction and extending from Hydra to Cancer. At an estimated distance of 9.7 kpc, the stream is ∼170 pc across on the sky. The curvature of the stream implies a fairly eccentric box orbit that passes close to both the Galactic center and to the Sun, making it dynamically distinct from the nearby Monoceros, Anticenter, and GD-1 streams. Within the stream is a relatively strong, 2 0 -wide concentration of stars with a very similar color-magnitude distribution that we designate Hydra I. Given its prominence within the stream and its unusual morphology, we suggest that Hydra I is the last vestige of EBS's progenitor, possibly already unbound or in the final throes of tidal dissolution. Though both Hydra I and the EBS have a relatively high-velocity dispersion, given the comparatively narrow width of the stream and the high frequency of encounters with the bulge and massive constituents of the disk that such an eccentric orbit would entail, we suggest that the progenitor was likely a globular cluster and that both it and the stream have undergone significant heating over time.

  14. Maximising the recovery of low grade heat: An integrated heat integration framework incorporating heat pump intervention for simple and complex factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, J.H.; Griffiths, A.; McNeill, R.; Poonaji, I.; Martin, R.; Leiser, A.; Morse, S.; Yang, A.; Sadhukhan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new practical heat integration framework incorporating heat pump technology for simple and complex food factories. • A decision making procedure was proposed to select process or utility heat integration in complex and diverse factories. • New stream classifications proposed to identify and compare streams linked between process and utility, especially waste heat. • A range of ‘Heat Pump Thresholds’ to identify and compare heat pump configurations with steam generation combustion boiler. - Abstract: The recovery of heat has long been a key measure to improving energy efficiency and maximising the heat recovery of factories by Pinch analysis. However, a substantial amount of research has been dedicated to conventional heat integration where low grade heat is often ignored. Despite this, the sustainability challenges facing the process manufacturing community are turning interest on low grade energy recovery systems to further advance energy efficiency by technological interventions such as heat pumps. This paper presents a novel heat integration framework incorporating technological interventions for both simple and complex factories to evaluate all possible heat integration opportunities including low grade and waste heat. The key features of the framework include the role of heat pumps to upgrade heat which can significantly enhance energy efficiency; the selection process of heat pump designs which was aided by the development of ‘Heat Pump Thresholds’ to decide if heat pump designs are cost-competitive with steam generation combustion boiler; a decision making procedure to select process or utility heat integration in complex and diverse factories; and additional stream classifications to identify and separate streams that can be practically integrated. The application of the framework at a modified confectionery factory has yielded four options capable of delivering a total energy reduction of about 32% with an economic payback

  15. Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  16. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  17. The comparative analysis of the compressible plasma streams generated in QSPA from the various gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.N.; Drukarenko, S.P.; Seytkhalilova, E.I.; Velichkin, M.A.; Solyakov, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    The numerical research of streams dynamics in the channel and the compressible flows at the QSPA output is carried out for the plasma generated from hydrogen, helium, argon and xenon. The MHD equations in the one-fluid approach taking into account the final conductivity of medium, the heat conductivity and the effective losses of radiation energy underlie the numerical model of the two-dimensional axisymmetric plasma flows. Features of the compressible plasma streams generated from various gases are revealed.

  18. Fingerprint multicast in secure video streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Vicky; Liu, K J Ray

    2006-01-01

    Digital fingerprinting is an emerging technology to protect multimedia content from illegal redistribution, where each distributed copy is labeled with unique identification information. In video streaming, huge amount of data have to be transmitted to a large number of users under stringent latency constraints, so the bandwidth-efficient distribution of uniquely fingerprinted copies is crucial. This paper investigates the secure multicast of anticollusion fingerprinted video in streaming applications and analyzes their performance. We first propose a general fingerprint multicast scheme that can be used with most spread spectrum embedding-based multimedia fingerprinting systems. To further improve the bandwidth efficiency, we explore the special structure of the fingerprint design and propose a joint fingerprint design and distribution scheme. From our simulations, the two proposed schemes can reduce the bandwidth requirement by 48% to 87%, depending on the number of users, the characteristics of video sequences, and the network and computation constraints. We also show that under the constraint that all colluders have the same probability of detection, the embedded fingerprints in the two schemes have approximately the same collusion resistance. Finally, we propose a fingerprint drift compensation scheme to improve the quality of the reconstructed sequences at the decoder's side without introducing extra communication overhead.

  19. A Distributed Flocking Approach for Information Stream Clustering Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Intelligence analysts are currently overwhelmed with the amount of information streams generated everyday. There is a lack of comprehensive tool that can real-time analyze the information streams. Document clustering analysis plays an important role in improving the accuracy of information retrieval. However, most clustering technologies can only be applied for analyzing the static document collection because they normally require a large amount of computation resource and long time to get accurate result. It is very difficult to cluster a dynamic changed text information streams on an individual computer. Our early research has resulted in a dynamic reactive flock clustering algorithm which can continually refine the clustering result and quickly react to the change of document contents. This character makes the algorithm suitable for cluster analyzing dynamic changed document information, such as text information stream. Because of the decentralized character of this algorithm, a distributed approach is a very natural way to increase the clustering speed of the algorithm. In this paper, we present a distributed multi-agent flocking approach for the text information stream clustering and discuss the decentralized architectures and communication schemes for load balance and status information synchronization in this approach.

  20. Advertising Content

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that most advertisements contain little direct informa- tion. Many do not mention prices. We analyze a firm'ss choice of advertising content and the information disclosed to consumers. A firm advertises only product informa- tion, price information, or both; and prefers to convey only limited product information if possible. Extending the "persuasion" game, we show that quality information takes precedence over price information and horizontal product information.T...

  1. Trophic structure of macroinvertebrates in tropical pasture streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Neves da Silveira-Manzotti

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to describe the diet of stream macroinvertebrates and to determine their trophic groups. Methods Invertebrates were sampled with D nets in three pasture streams. They were identified to genus level and submitted to gut content analysis, except for fluid feeders such as hemipterans, to which diet data was obtained from the literature. Trophic groups were determined based on a similarity analysis using the Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. Results Five trophic groups were defined: fine-detritivores (feed mostly on fine particulate organic matter - FPOM, coarse-detritivores/herbivores (feed mostly on coarse particulate organic matter - CPOM - and plant material, omnivores, specialist-predators (prey upon aquatic insects only, and generalist-predators. Ephemeroptera, Diptera (except Tanypodinae, Coleoptera, and Trichoptera (except Smicridea were detritivores. The caddis Macronema (Trichoptera fed exclusively on plant detritus and Tanypodinae and Smicridea were classified as omnivores. The odonate families Calopterygidae and Gomphidae were classified as specialist-predators, while Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Belostoma, and Limnocoris (Hemiptera were generalist-predators. Conclusions The great quantity and frequency of occurrence of FPOM consumed by most taxa highlight the importance of this food resource for macroinvertebrate communities from tropical streams. Furthermore, observed variations on trophic group assignment for some taxa indicate the generalist and opportunistic nature of these aquatic invertebrates. Such findings reinforce the importance of conducting gut content analysis on macroinvertebrates to understand their role in the structure and functioning of tropical streams.

  2. Fish populations in Plynlimon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Crisp

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.

  3. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  4. Development of a method to determine the total C-14 content in saturated salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucks, C.; Prautsch, C.

    2016-01-01

    This two-step method described here for the determination of the total carbon-14 content in saturated salt solutions is divided in the analysis of the carbon-14 in the evaporable and the non-evaporable fraction. After driving off the inorganic carbon by acidification, the volatile carbon compounds and volatile decomposition products follow with rising temperature inside the sample vessel in a mild stream of oxygen to a tube furnace equipped with CuO catalyst for oxidizing the carbon compounds to CO 2 at a temperature of 800 C. Water is condensed out with an intensive condenser and the released CO 2 is absorbed in a wash bottle filled with sodium hydroxide. Similarly, an aliquot of the evaporation residue is put in the first zone of the tube furnace during the second step of the analysis. After heating the catalyst in the second zone of the furnace to 800 C the residue is heated stepwise to 800 C. By proceeding in this way, the non-volatile compounds are decomposed or oxidised in the oxygen stream and finally completely oxidized by the aid of the catalyst. The released CO 2 is again absorbed in another wash bottle. The carbonate of each fraction is then precipitated as BaCO 3 separately. Finally, the precipitate is washed, dried, finely grounded and covered with toluene scintillation cocktail for measurement in a LSC. The detection limit is about 0,2 Bq/l for a sample volume of 250 ml.

  5. Deuterium in New Zealand rivers and streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Cox, M.A.; James, M.R.; Lyon, G.

    1983-07-01

    Over 750 deuterium measurements on rivers and streams in New Zealand are reported. Monthly samples were collected for periods of several years from a number of representative rivers. These show irregular storm-to-storm as well as seasonal deuterium variations. The seasonal variations range from as low as 1 per mille for lake-fed rivers to 8-10 per mille for rivers with large spring snow-melt contributions. Variations in mean annual ΔD values are believed to reflect changes in climatic variables; the present data will be used to compare with future changes. The bulk of the data are single samples; these show a geographic variation related to the altitude, latitude and climatic character of the catchments, with the highest deuterium contents (ΔD = -20 per mille) occurring in the far north, and lowest contents (-80 per mille) in the inland Otago region. Regression equations derived for the ΔD dependence on altitude (h) and latitude (l), are ΔD = -0.0169 h - 30.2 and westerly influence. Eastern climatic zones have lower deuterium contents because of rainout effects on the axial ranges. Contours of constant

  6. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  7. Stream ciphers and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cusick, Thomas W; Renvall, Ari R

    2004-01-01

    This is the unique book on cross-fertilisations between stream ciphers and number theory. It systematically and comprehensively covers known connections between the two areas that are available only in research papers. Some parts of this book consist of new research results that are not available elsewhere. In addition to exercises, over thirty research problems are presented in this book. In this revised edition almost every chapter was updated, and some chapters were completely rewritten. It is useful as a textbook for a graduate course on the subject, as well as a reference book for researchers in related fields. · Unique book on interactions of stream ciphers and number theory. · Research monograph with many results not available elsewhere. · A revised edition with the most recent advances in this subject. · Over thirty research problems for stimulating interactions between the two areas. · Written by leading researchers in stream ciphers and number theory.

  8. Streaming simplification of tetrahedral meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Huy T; Callahan, Steven P; Lindstrom, Peter; Pascucci, Valerio; Silva, Cláudio T

    2007-01-01

    Unstructured tetrahedral meshes are commonly used in scientific computing to represent scalar, vector, and tensor fields in three dimensions. Visualization of these meshes can be difficult to perform interactively due to their size and complexity. By reducing the size of the data, we can accomplish real-time visualization necessary for scientific analysis. We propose a two-step approach for streaming simplification of large tetrahedral meshes. Our algorithm arranges the data on disk in a streaming, I/O-efficient format that allows coherent access to the tetrahedral cells. A quadric-based simplification is sequentially performed on small portions of the mesh in-core. Our output is a coherent streaming mesh which facilitates future processing. Our technique is fast, produces high quality approximations, and operates out-of-core to process meshes too large for main memory.

  9. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  10. Pollutant transport in natural streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hayes, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to estimate the downstream effect of chemical and radioactive pollutant releases to tributary streams and rivers. The one-dimensional dispersion model was employed along with a dead zone model to describe stream transport behavior. Options are provided for sorption/desorption, ion exchange, and particle deposition in the river. The model equations are solved numerically by the LODIPS computer code. The solution method was verified by application to actual and simulated releases of radionuclides and other chemical pollutants. (U.S.)

  11. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  12. Streaming submandibular gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajicek, G.; Yagil, C.; Michaeli, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty female young adult rats were injected with tritiated thymidine ( 3 HTdR). The animals were then killed in groups of five, at the following times: 1 hour, and 4, 16, and 23 days. Autoradiograms of sections through the submandibular gland were prepared, and the location of labelled cells in relationship to tubuli and acini was recorded. The different tubular and acinar cross sections could be distinguished by their cell number. Narrow tubuli had fewer nuclei than the wider ones. The nuclear number of a cross section was defined as its class and the location of a labelled epithelial cell was expressed in relationship to the class where it was found. The location of a labelled stromal cell was determined by the class of its neighboring tubular or acinar cross sections. The mean cell numbers of intercalated, granular, and striated duct cross sections were, respectively, 4.7, 10.5, and 10.2, while the average cell content of acini was 4.7 cells. One hour after labelling most labelled tubular epithelial and stromal cells were found in tubular cross sections (or low tubular classes), while in the acini, labelled epithelial and stromal cells were found mainly in wider cross sections (or higher acinar classes). Within the next 23 days labelled tubular cells and stroma proceeded into higher classes, while labelled acinar epithelium and stroma cells were displaced into narrower cross sections (or lower classes). The displaced tubular epithelium and stroma covered daily 0.26 classes. At this velocity the cell will reach the highest tubular class in 62 days and the estimated maximal tubular cell life span is 62 days

  13. Stream-processing pipelines: processing of streams on multiprocessor architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    In this paper we study the timing aspects of the operation of stream-processing applications that run on a multiprocessor architecture. Dependencies are derived for the processing and communication times of the processors in such a system. Three cases of real-time constrained operation and four

  14. CAMS: OLAPing Multidimensional Data Streams Efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Alfredo

    In the context of data stream research, taming the multidimensionality of real-life data streams in order to efficiently support OLAP analysis/mining tasks is a critical challenge. Inspired by this fundamental motivation, in this paper we introduce CAMS (C ube-based A cquisition model for M ultidimensional S treams), a model for efficiently OLAPing multidimensional data streams. CAMS combines a set of data stream processing methodologies, namely (i) the OLAP dimension flattening process, which allows us to obtain dimensionality reduction of multidimensional data streams, and (ii) the OLAP stream aggregation scheme, which aggregates data stream readings according to an OLAP-hierarchy-based membership approach. We complete our analytical contribution by means of experimental assessment and analysis of both the efficiency and the scalability of OLAPing capabilities of CAMS on synthetic multidimensional data streams. Both analytical and experimental results clearly connote CAMS as an enabling component for next-generation Data Stream Management Systems.

  15. Salamander occupancy in headwater stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E.H.C.; Green, L.E.; Lowe, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. Stream ecosystems exhibit a highly consistent dendritic geometry in which linear habitat units intersect to create a hierarchical network of connected branches. 2. Ecological and life history traits of species living in streams, such as the potential for overland movement, may interact with this architecture to shape patterns of occupancy and response to disturbance. Specifically, large-scale habitat alteration that fragments stream networks and reduces connectivity may reduce the probability a stream is occupied by sensitive species, such as stream salamanders. 3. We collected habitat occupancy data on four species of stream salamanders in first-order (i.e. headwater) streams in undeveloped and urbanised regions of the eastern U.S.A. We then used an information-theoretic approach to test alternative models of salamander occupancy based on a priori predictions of the effects of network configuration, region and salamander life history. 4. Across all four species, we found that streams connected to other first-order streams had higher occupancy than those flowing directly into larger streams and rivers. For three of the four species, occupancy was lower in the urbanised region than in the undeveloped region. 5. These results demonstrate that the spatial configuration of stream networks within protected areas affects the occurrences of stream salamander species. We strongly encourage preservation of network connections between first-order streams in conservation planning and management decisions that may affect stream species.

  16. Evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in air-heating collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattox, D. L.

    1979-06-01

    The present research effort was initiated for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of air heating solar collectors through identification and development of optimum design and operation criteria for solar absorber-to-air heat exchangers. Initially this effort took the form of a solar collector systems analysis to evaluate the impact of various techniques for enhancing the heat transfer between the absorber and air stream on overall thermal performance of the entire solar collector. This systems analysis resulted in the selection of solar collector designs providing ducted cooling air on the absorber shaded side as a base line. A transient heat transfer analysis of a complete solar air heating collector was used to demonstrate that an optimum absorber-to-air heat exchanger design could be provided with several interrupted fin configurations. Additional analyses were performed to establish that the maximum solar collector thermal performance to required pumping power was realized for a Reynolds number range of 1000 to 2000. This Reynolds number range was used to establish a theoretical design limit curve for maximum thermal performance versus required pumping power for all interrupted fin designs as published in the open literature. Heat and momentum transfer empirical relationships were defined for scaling the state-of-the-art high conductance fin designs identified from a compact configuration to the less compact designs needed for solar collectors.

  17. Neutron streaming evaluation for the DREAM fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Nishio, Satoshi; Ueda, Shuzo; Kurihara, Ryoichi

    2000-01-01

    Aiming at high degree of safety and benign environmental effect, we have proposed a tokamak fusion reactor concept called DREAM, which stands for DRastically EAsy Maintenance Reactor. The blanket structure of the reactor is made from very low activation SiC/SiC composites and cooled by non-reactive helium gas. High net thermal efficiency of about 50% is realized by 900 C helium gas and high plant availability is possible with simple maintenance scheme. In the DREAM Reactor, neutron streaming is a big problem because cooling pipes with diameter larger than 80 cm are used for blanket heat removal. Neutron streaming through the cooling pipes could cause hot spots in the superconducting magnets adjacent to the cooling pipes to shorten the magnet lifetime or increase cryogenic cooling requirement. Neutron streaming could also activate components such as gas turbine further away from the fusion plasma. The effect of neutron streaming through the helium cooling pipes was evaluated for the two types of cooling pipe extraction scheme. The result of a preliminary calculation indicates the gas turbine activation prohibits personnel access in the case of inboard pipe extraction while with additional shielding measures, limited contact maintenance is possible in the case of outboard extraction. (author)

  18. innovation in radioactive waste water-stream management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, D.A.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    treatment of radioactive waste dtreams is receiving considereble attention in most countries. the present work is for the radioactive wastewater stream management, by volume reduction by a mutual heating and humidificaction of a compressed dry air introduced through the wastewater. in the present work, a mathematical model describing the volume reduction by at the optimum operating condition is determined. a set of coupled first order differential equations, obtained through the mass and energy conservations laws, are used to obtain the humidity ratio, water diffused to the air stream, water temperature, and humid air stream temperature distributions through the bubbling column. these coupled differential equations are simulataneously solved numerically by the developed computer program using fourth order rung-kutta method. the results obtained, according to the present mathematical model, revealed that the air bubble state variables such as mass transfer coefficient (K G ) and interfacial area (a) have a strong effect on the process. therefore, the behavior of the air bubble state variables with coulmn height can be predicted and optimized. moreover, the design curves of the volumetric reduction of the wastewater streams are obtained and assessed at the different operating conditions. an experimental setup was constructed to verify the suggested model. comperhensive comparison between suggested model results, recent experimental measurements and the results of previous work was carried out

  19. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Kosinka, Jin; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these 'stretch-free' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  1. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear reactor cavity streaming shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, R.J.; Stephen, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The upper portion of a nuclear reactor vessel supported in a concrete reactor cavity has a structure mounted below the top of the vessel between the outer vessel wall and the reactor cavity wall which contains hydrogenous material which will attenuate radiation streaming upward between vessel and the reactor cavity wall while preventing pressure buildup during a loss of coolant accident

  3. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  4. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple distribu......A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  5. Supercritical heat transfer in an annular channel with external heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remizov, O.V.; Gal'chenko, Eh.F.; Shurkin, N.G.; Sergeev, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of experimental studies of the burnout heat transfer in a 32x28x3000 mm annular channel with a uniform distribution of a heat flow at pressures of 6.9-19.6 MPa and mass rates of 350-1000 kg/m 2 xs. The heating is electrical, external, one-sided. It is shown that dependencies of the heat-transfer coefficient on rated parameters in the annular channel and tube are similar. An empirical equation has been obtained for the calculation of the burnout heat transfer in the annual channels with external heating in the following range: pressure, 6.9 -13.7 MPa; mass rate 350-700 kg/m 2 xs, and steam content ranging from Xsub(crit) to 1

  6. Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30% of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.

  7. Low grade waste heat recovery using heat pumps and power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, D.M. van de; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Kiss, Anton A.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy represents a large part of the global energy usage and about 43% of this energy is used for industrial applications. Large amounts are lost via exhaust gases, liquid streams and cooling water while the share of low temperature waste heat is the largest. Heat pumps upgrading waste heat to process heat and cooling and power cycles converting waste heat to electricity can make a strong impact in the related industries. The potential of several alternative technologies, either for the upgrading of low temperature waste heat such as compression-resorption, vapor compression and trans-critical heat pumps, or for the conversion of this waste heat by using organic Rankine, Kalina and trilateral cycle engines, are investigated with regards to energetic and economic performance by making use of thermodynamic models. This study focuses on temperature levels of 45–60 °C as at this temperature range large amounts of heat are rejected to the environment but also investigates the temperature levels for which power cycles become competitive. The heat pumps deliver 2.5–11 times more energy value than the power cycles in this low temperature range at equal waste heat input. Heat engines become competitive with heat pumps at waste heat temperatures at 100 °C and above. - Highlights: • Application of heat pump technology for heating and cooling. • Compression resorption heat pumps operating with large glides approaching 100 K. • Compression-resorption heat pumps with wet compression. • Potential to convert Industrial waste heat to power or high grade heat. • Comparison between low temperature power cycles and heat pumps

  8. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  9. Recommending personally interested contents by text mining, filtering, and interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface device configured to monitor a user's information data stream. A collaborative filter remote from the client interface device generates automated predictions about the interests of the user. A database server stores personal behavioral profiles and user's preferences based on a plurality of monitored past behaviors and an output of the collaborative user personal interest inference engine. A programmed personal content recommendation server filters items in an incoming information stream with the personal behavioral profile and identifies only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially matches the personal behavioral profile. The identified personally relevant content is then recommended to the user following some priority that may consider the similarity between the personal interest matches, the context of the user information consumption behaviors that may be shown by the user's content consumption mode.

  10. Heat transfer fouling characteristics of microfiltered thin stillage from the dry grind process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2010-08-01

    We investigated effects of microfiltration (MF) on heat transfer fouling tendencies of thin stillage. A stainless steel MF membrane (0.1 micron pore size) was used to remove solids from thin stillage. At filtration conditions of 690kPa, the MF process effectively recovered total solids from thin stillage. Thin stillage was concentrated from 7.0% to 22.4% solids with average permeate flux rates of 180+/-30 L/m(2)/h at 75 degrees C. In retentate streams, protein and fat contents were increased from 23.5 and 16.7% db to 27.6 and 31.1% db, respectively, and ash content was reduced from 10.5% to 3.8% db. Removal of solids, protein and fat generated a microfiltration permeate (MFP) that was used as an input stream to the fouling probe system; MFP fouling tendencies were measured. An annular fouling probe was used to measure fouling tendencies of thin stillage from a commercial dry grind facility. When comparing diluted thin stillage (DTS) stream and MFP, a reduction in solids concentration was not the only reason of fouling decrement. Selective removal of protein and fat played an important role in mitigating the fouling. At t=10h, mean fouling rates of MFP were an order of magnitude lower when compared to thin stillage and diluted streams. When maximum probe temperature (200 degrees C) was reached, mean fouling rates for thin stillage, DTS and MFP were 7.1x10(-4), 4.2x10(-4) and 2.6x10(-4) m(2) degrees C/kW/min, respectively. In DTS and MFP, the induction period was prolonged by factors of 4.3 and 9.5, respectively, compared to the induction period for thin stillage fouling. Mean fouling rates were decreased by factors of 2.3 and 23.4 for DTS and MFP, respectively. Fouling of MFP took twice the time to reach a probe temperature of 200 degrees C than did thin stillage (22 h vs 10 h, respectively). A reduction in heat transfer fouling could be achieved by altering process stream composition using microfiltration. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced industrial ceramic heat pipe recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strumpf, H.J.; Stillwagon, T.L.; Kotchick, D.M.; Coombs, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an investigation involving the use of ceramic heat pipe recuperators for high-temperature heat recovery from industrial furnaces. The function of the recuperator is to preheat combustion air with furnace exhaust gas. The heat pipe recuperator comprises a bundle of individual ceramic heat pipes acting in concert, with a partition separating the air and exhaust gas flow streams. Because each heat pipe is essentially an independent heat exchanger, the failure of a single tube does not compromise recuperator integrity, has only a minimal effect on overall heat exchanger performance and enables easier replacement of individual heat pipes. In addition, the heat pipe acts as an essentially isothermal heat transfer device, leading to a high thermodynamic efficiency. Cost estimates developed for heat pipe recuperator systems indicate favorable payback periods. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating the required ceramic tubes, coating the inside of the tubes with CVD tungsten, and sealing the heat pipe with an electron-beam-welded or vacuum-brazed end cap.

  12. Minimizing the impact of delay on live SVC-based HTTP adaptive streaming services

    OpenAIRE

    Bouten, Niels; Latré, Steven; Famaey, Jeroen; Van Leekwijck, W; De Turck, Filip

    2013-01-01

    HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) is becoming the de-facto standard for Over-The-Top video streaming services. Video content is temporally split into segments which are offered at multiple qualities to the clients. These clients autonomously select the quality layer matching the current state of the network through a quality selection heuristic. Recently, academia and industry have begun evaluating the feasibility of adopting layered video coding for HAS. Instead of downloading one file for a cer...

  13. Conventional to Cloud: Detailed survey and comparative study of multimedia streaming rate Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj Kesavan; Jayakumar J

    2014-01-01

    Infotainment and telecommunication industry is fast evolving towards personalized network connectivity and newer applications services ranging from music playback to ever changing telephony applications. Streaming is the key services which enables the users to view real time multimedia content on-the-go anywhere and everywhere. In streaming, quality of service is a major concern in the increasing network traffic and high user demand. Rate adaptation is crucial process to dynamically evaluate,...

  14. Heat as a tracer to determine streambed water exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    2010-01-01

    This work reviews the use of heat as a tracer of shallow groundwater movement and describes current temperature-based approaches for estimating streambed water exchanges. Four common hydrologic conditions in stream channels are graphically depicted with the expected underlying streambed thermal responses, and techniques are discussed for installing and monitoring temperature and stage equipment for a range of hydrological environments. These techniques are divided into direct-measurement techniques in streams and streambeds, groundwater techniques relying on traditional observation wells, and remote sensing and other large-scale advanced temperatureacquisition techniques. A review of relevant literature suggests researchers often graphically visualize temperature data to enhance conceptual models of heat and water flow in the near-stream environment and to determine site-specific approaches of data analysis. Common visualizations of stream and streambed temperature patterns include thermographs, temperature envelopes, and one-, two-, and three-dimensional temperature contour plots. Heat and water transport governing equations are presented for the case of transport in streambeds, followed by methods of streambed data analysis, including simple heat-pulse arrival time and heat-loss procedures, analytical and time series solutions, and heat and water transport simulation models. A series of applications of these methods are presented for a variety of stream settings ranging from arid to continental climates. Progressive successes to quantify both streambed fluxes and the spatial extent of streambeds indicate heat-tracing tools help define the streambed as a spatially distinct field (analogous to soil science), rather than simply the lower boundary in stream research or an amorphous zone beneath the stream channel.

  15. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  16. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Modification and channelization of streams and rivers have been conducted extensively throughout the world during the past century. Subsequently, much effort has been directed at re-creating the lost habitats and thereby improving living conditions for aquatic organisms. However, as restoration...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in...

  17. A survey on Big Data Stream Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... huge amount of stream like telecommunication systems. So, there ... streams have many challenges for data mining algorithm design like using of ..... A. Bifet and R. Gavalda, "Learning from Time-Changing Data with. Adaptive ...

  18. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  19. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  20. Response of Earth and Venus ionospheres to corotating solar wind stream of 3 July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.A. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Corotating solar wind streams emanating from stable coronal structures provide an unique opportunity to compare the response of planetary ionospheres to the energy conveyed in the streams. For recurrent solar conditions the 'signal' propagating outward along spiral paths in interplanetary space can at times exhibit rather similar content at quite different downstream locations in the ecliptic plane. Using solar wind measurements from plasma detectors on ISEE-3, Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Helios-A, as well as in-situ ion composition measurements from Bennett Ion Mass Spectrometers on the Atmosphere Explorer-E and PVO spacecraft, corotating stream interactions are examined at Earth and Venus. (Auth.)

  1. An economic analysis of online streaming: How the music industry can generate revenues from cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Thomes, Tim Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the upcoming business model of online streaming services allowing music consumers either to subscribe to a service which provides free-of-charge access to streaming music and which is funded by advertising, or to pay a monthly flat fee in order to get ad-free access to the content of the service accompanied with additional benefits. Both businesses will be launched by a single provider of streaming music. By imposing a two-sided market model on the one hand combined wi...

  2. Magnitude and processes of bank erosion at a small stream in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veihe, Anita; Jensen, Niels H.; Schiøtz, Iris Gunia

    2011-01-01

    River banks are important sources of sediment and phosphorus to fluvial systems, and the erosion processes operating on the banks are complex and change over time. This study explores the magnitude of bank erosion on a cohesive streambank within a small channelized stream and studies the various...... (17Ð6–30Ð1 mm year-1) and total P content on the banks were relatively high, which makes the bank an important source of sediment and phosphorus to the stream, and it was estimated that 0Ð27 kg Ptot year-1 ha-1 may potentially be supplied to the stream from the banks. Yearly pin erosion rates...

  3. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 1 - single stage vapour compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of heat pumps operated with natural working fluids. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions was carried out considering......, the transcritical R744 expands the working domain for low sink outlet temperatures....

  4. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  5. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  6. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat......Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...

  9. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  10. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  11. Stream dynamics: An overview for land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard H. Heede

    1980-01-01

    Concepts of stream dynamics are demonstrated through discussion of processes and process indicators; theory is included only where helpful to explain concepts. Present knowledge allows only qualitative prediction of stream behavior. However, such predictions show how management actions will affect the stream and its environment.

  12. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  13. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  14. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  15. Implementation of a subcanopy solar radiation model on a forested headwater basin in the Southern Appalachians to estimate riparian canopy density and stream insolation for stream temperature models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belica, L.; Petras, V.; Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Caldwell, P.; Mitasova, H.; Nelson, S. A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Water temperature is a key aspect of water quality and understanding how the thermal regimes of forested headwater streams may change in response to climatic and land cover changes is increasingly important to scientists and resource managers. In recent years, the forested mountain watersheds of the Southeastern U.S. have experienced changing climatic patterns as well as the loss of a keystone riparian tree species and anticipated hydrologic responses include lower summer stream flows and decreased stream shading. Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy to streams and a key parameter in heat-budget models of stream temperature; a decrease in flow volume combined with a reduction in stream shading during summer have the potential to increase stream temperatures. The high spatial variability of forest canopies and the high spatio-temporal variability in sky conditions make estimating the solar radiation reaching small forested headwater streams difficult. The Subcanopy Solar Radiation Model (SSR) (Bode et al. 2014) is a GIS model that generates high resolution, spatially explicit estimates of solar radiation by incorporating topographic and vegetative shading with a light penetration index derived from leaf-on airborne LIDAR data. To evaluate the potential of the SSR model to provide estimates of stream insolation to parameterize heat-budget models, it was applied to the Coweeta Basin in the Southern Appalachians using airborne LIDAR (NCALM 2009, 1m resolution). The LIDAR derived canopy characteristics were compared to current hyperspectral images of the canopy for changes and the SSR estimates of solar radiation were compared with pyranometer measurements of solar radiation at several subcanopy sites during the summer of 2016. Preliminary results indicate the SSR model was effective in identifying variations in canopy density and light penetration, especially in areas associated with road and stream corridors and tree mortality. Current LIDAR data and

  16. Modelling of Split Condenser Heat Pump with Limited Set of Plate Heat Exchanger Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    in parallel to different temperature levels, whereas only one stream is heated in a THP. The length/width ratio of the plate heat exchangers on the high pressure side of a SCHP was investigated to find the optimal plate dimensions with respect to minimum area of the heat exchangers. The total heat exchanger...... area was found to decrease with an increasing length/width ratio of the plates. The marginal change in heat exchanger area was shown to be less significant for heat exchangers with high length/width ratios. In practice only a limited number of plate dimensions are available and feasible...... in the production. This was investigated to find the practical potential of a SCHP compared to a THP. Using plates optimized for a SCHP in a THP, the total required heat exchanger area increased by approximately 100% for the conditions investigated in this study, indicating that available plate dimensions influence...

  17. The empirical potential of live streaming beyond cognitive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nicolai Wendt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical methods of self-description, think aloud protocols and introspection have been extensively criticized or neglected in behaviorist and cognitivist psychology. Their methodological value has been fundamentally questioned since there apparently is no suficient proof for their validity. However, the major arguments against self-description can be critically reviewed by theoretical psychology. This way, these methods’ empirical value can be redeemed. Furthermore, self-descriptive methods can be updated by the use of contemporary media technology. In order to support the promising perspectives for future empirical research in the field of cognitive psychology, Live Streaming is proposed as a viable data source. Introducing this new paradigm, this paper presents some of the formal constituents and accessible contents of Live Streaming, and relates them to established forms of empirical research. By its structure and established usage, Live Streaming bears remarkable resemblances to the traditional methods of self-description, yet it also adds fruitful new features of use. On the basis of its qualities, the possible benefits that appear to be feasible in comparison with the traditional methods of self-description are elaborated, such as Live Streaming’s ecological validity. Ultimately, controversial theoretical concepts, such as those in phenomenology and cultural-historical psychology, are adopted to sketch further potential benefits of the utility of Live Streaming in current psychology debates.

  18. Academic Self-Concepts in Ability Streams: Considering Domain Specificity and Same-Stream Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…

  19. The long term response of stream flow to climatic warming in headwater streams of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy B. Jones; Amanda J. Rinehart

    2010-01-01

    Warming in the boreal forest of interior Alaska will have fundamental impacts on stream ecosystems through changes in stream hydrology resulting from upslope loss of permafrost, alteration of availability of soil moisture, and the distribution of vegetation. We examined stream flow in three headwater streams of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) in...

  20. STREAM: A First Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    to derive a programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich agile software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to achieve two things: to help novice......Programming is recognized as one of seven grand challenges in computing education. Decades of research have shown that the major problems novices experience are composition-based—they may know what the individual programming language constructs are, but they do not know how to put them together....... Despite this fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming education research hardly address the issue of teaching the skills needed for systematic development of programs. We provide a conceptual framework for incremental program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which unifies best...

  1. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  2. Spatial patterns of stream temperatures and electric conductivity in a mesoscale catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Ernestine; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2017-04-01

    Stream temperature and electric conductivity (EC) are both relatively easily measured and can provide valuable information on runoff generation processes and catchment storage.This study investigates the spatial variability of stream temperature and EC in a mesoscale basin. We focus on the mesoscale (sub-catchments and reach scale), and long term (seasonal / annual) stream temperature and EC patterns. Our study basin is the Attert catchment in Luxembourg (288km2), which contains multiple sub-catchments of different geology, topography and land use patterns. We installed 90 stream temperature and EC sensors at sites across the basin in summer 2015. The collected data is complemented by land use and discharge data and an extensive climate data set. Thermal sensitivity was calculated as the slope of daily air temperature-water-temperature regression line and describes the sensitivity of stream temperature to long term environmental change. Amplitude sensitivity was calculated as slope of the daily air and water temperature amplitude regression and describes the short term warming capacity of the stream. We found that groups with similar long term thermal and EC patterns are strongly related to different geological units. The sandstone reaches show the coldest temperatures and lowest annual thermal sensitivity to air temperature. The slate reaches are characterized by comparably low EC and high daily temperature amplitudes and amplitude sensitivity. Furthermore, mean annual temperatures and thermal sensitivities increase exponentially with drainage area, which can be attributed to the accumulation of heat throughout the system. On the reach scale, daily stream temperature fluctuations or sensitivities were strongly influenced by land cover distribution, stream shading and runoff volume. Daily thermal sensitivities were low for headwater streams; peaked for intermediate reaches in the middle of the catchment and then decreased again further downstream with increasing

  3. Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Barouch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction, are calculated for volume elements of the solar wind as a function of the initial magnetic field direction, Phi 0 , and the initial speed gradient, (deltaV/deltaR) 0 . It is assumed that the velocity is constant and radial. These assumptions are approximately valid between approx.0.1 and 1.0 AU for many streams. Time profiles of n, B, and V are calculated for corotating streams, neglecting effects of pressure gradients. The compression and rarefaction of B depend sensitively on Phi 0 . By averaging over a typical stream, it is found that approx.r -2 , whereas does not vary in a simple way, consistent with deep space observations. Changes of field direction may be very large, depending on the initial angle; but when the initial angle at 0.1 Au is such that the base of the field line corotates with the Sun, the spiral angle is the preferred direction at 1 AU. The theory is also applicable to nonstationary flows

  4. StreamStats, version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Smith, Martyn J.; Guthrie, John D.; Steeves, Peter A.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kolb, Katharine R.; Thompson, Ryan F.; Santoro, Richard D.; Vraga, Hans W.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionStreamStats version 4, available at https://streamstats.usgs.gov, is a map-based web application that provides an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management, and engineering purposes. Developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the primary purpose of StreamStats is to provide estimates of streamflow statistics for user-selected ungaged sites on streams and for USGS streamgages, which are locations where streamflow data are collected.Streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent flood, the mean flow, and the 7-day 10-year low flow, are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. For example, estimates of the 1-percent flood (which is exceeded, on average, once in 100 years and has a 1-percent chance of exceedance in any year) are used to create flood-plain maps that form the basis for setting insurance rates and land-use zoning. This and other streamflow statistics also are used for dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; permitting of water withdrawals and wastewater and industrial discharges; hydropower facility design and regulation; and setting of minimum allowed streamflows to protect freshwater ecosystems. Streamflow statistics can be computed from available data at USGS streamgages depending on the type of data collected at the stations. Most often, however, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no streamflow data are available to determine the statistics.

  5. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2017-03-01

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Animal models for auditory streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons’ response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044022

  7. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  8. Basic heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, A F

    1999-01-01

    The Second Edition offers complete coverage of heat transfer with broad up-to-date coverage that includes an emphasis on engineering relevance and on problem solving. Integrates software to assist the reader in efficiently calculations. Carefully orders material to make book more reader-friendly and accessible. Offers an extensive introduction to heat exchange design to enhance the engineering and design content of course to satisfy ABET requirements. For professionals in engineering fields.

  9. Global perspectives on the urban stream syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Booth, Derek B.; Capps, Krista A.; Smith, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Urban streams commonly express degraded physical, chemical, and biological conditions that have been collectively termed the “urban stream syndrome”. The description of the syndrome highlights the broad similarities among these streams relative to their less-impaired counterparts. Awareness of these commonalities has fostered rapid improvements in the management of urban stormwater for the protection of downstream watercourses, but the focus on the similarities among urban streams has obscured meaningful differences among them. Key drivers of stream responses to urbanization can vary greatly among climatological and physiographic regions of the globe, and the differences can be manifested in individual stream channels even through the homogenizing veneer of urban development. We provide examples of differences in natural hydrologic and geologic settings (within similar regions) that can result in different mechanisms of stream ecosystem response to urbanization and, as such, should lead to different management approaches. The idea that all urban streams can be cured using the same treatment is simplistic, but overemphasizing the tremendous differences among natural (or human-altered) systems also can paralyze management. Thoughtful integration of work that recognizes the commonalities of the urban stream syndrome across the globe has benefitted urban stream management. Now we call for a more nuanced understanding of the regional, subregional, and local attributes of any given urban stream and its watershed to advance the physical, chemical, and ecological recovery of these systems.

  10. Designer solvents for the extraction of glycols and alcohols from aqueous streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The separation of polar compounds from aqueous streams is one of the most energy intensive operations within the chemical industry, because of the formation of hydrogen bonds that should be broken and the high heat of vaporization of water. Important bulk chemicals like glycols and alcohols produced

  11. Mining Frequent Item Sets in Asynchronous Transactional Data Streams over Time Sensitive Sliding Windows Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, Q.; Memon, F.; Talpur, S.; Arif, M.; Awan, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    EPs (Extracting Frequent Patterns) from the continuous transactional data streams is a challenging and critical task in some of the applications, such as web mining, data analysis and retail market, prediction and network monitoring, or analysis of stock market exchange data. Many algorithms have been developed previously for mining FPs (Frequent Patterns) from a data stream. Such algorithms are currently highly required to develop new solutions and approaches to the precise handling of data streams. New techniques, solutions, or approaches are developed to address unbounded, ordered, and continuous sequences of data and for the generation of data at a rapid speed from data streams. Hence, extracting FPs using fresh or recent data involves the high-level analysis of data streams. We have suggested an efficient technique for the window sliding model; this technique extracts new and fresh FPs from high-speed data streams. In this study, a CPILT (Compacted Tree Compact Pattern Tree) is developed to capture the latest contents in the stream and to efficiently remove outdated contents from the data stream. The main concept introduced in this work on CPILT is the dynamic restructuring of a tree, which is helpful in producing a compacted tree and the frequency descending structure of a tree on runtime. With the help of the mining technique of FP growth, a complete list of new and fresh FPs is obtained from a CPILT using an existing window. The memory usage and time complexity of the latest FPs in high-speed data streams can efficiently be determined through proper experimentation and analysis. (author)

  12. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  13. Practical design of a heat exchanger for dilution refrigeration. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y; Fujii, G; Nagano, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Solid State Physics

    1978-02-01

    A compact heat exchanger for a dilution refrigerator with a high thermal efficiency is presented. Discrete heat exchangers with by-pass channels were used to decrease the flow impedance. This heat exchanger was designed so that the thermal conductance of liquid along the stream was greatly reduced. The effective thickness of the sponge material in the heat exchanger and mixer is also discussed. The obtained minimum temperatures of 12 mK was very close to the designed value of 10.8 mK. Moreover a rapid response was obtained. This is attributed to the small liquid volume of the heat exchanger.

  14. Performance of tubes-and plate fins heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosman, E.C.

    1979-11-01

    By means of a two-dimensional analysis performance, and using local heat transfer coefficients, the plate fin temperature distribution, the air bulk temperature along the stream path and the fin efficiency can be obtained, for several Reynolds numbers and fin materials. Herein are also presented the average heat transfer coefficients for isothermal plate fins, referring to heat exchangers with central-tube and rear-tube row and to two-row tubes heat exchangers configurations. It is possible to obtain the real tax or the real area of heat transfer, using the average hea transfer coefficients for isothermal plate fins and the fin efficiency. (Author) [pt

  15. Continuity-Aware Scheduling Algorithm for Scalable Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atinat Palawan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The consumer demand for retrieving and delivering visual content through consumer electronic devices has increased rapidly in recent years. The quality of video in packet networks is susceptible to certain traffic characteristics: average bandwidth availability, loss, delay and delay variation (jitter. This paper presents a scheduling algorithm that modifies the stream of scalable video to combat jitter. The algorithm provides unequal look-ahead by safeguarding the base layer (without the need for overhead of the scalable video. The results of the experiments show that our scheduling algorithm reduces the number of frames with a violated deadline and significantly improves the continuity of the video stream without compromising the average Y Peek Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR.

  16. The overall heat transfer characteristics of a double pipe heat exchanger: comparison of experimental data with predictions of standard correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabian, M. A.; Mansouri, S. H.; Sheikhzadeh, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The single-phase flow and thermal performance of a double pipe heat exchanger are examined by experimental methods. The working fluid is water at atmospheric pressure. Temperature measurements at the inlet and outlet of the two streams and also at an intermediate point half way between the inlet and outlet is made, using copper-constantan thermocouple wires. Mass flow rates for each stream are also measured using calibrated ratemeters. Heat is supplied to the inner tube stream by an immersion heater. The overall heat transfer coefficients are inferred from the measured data. The heat transfer coefficient of the inner tube flow (circular cross section) is calculated using the standard correlations. The heat transfer coefficient of the outer tube flow (annular cross section) is then deduced.Higher heat transfer coefficients are reported in the laminar flow regime in comparison to the predictions of standard correlations for straight and smooth tubes. The reasons for this discrepancy are identified and discussed. Experimental errors in measuring temperatures and mass flow rates are studied and their effects on the heat transfer coefficients are estimated. Experimental results for the range of operating conditions used in this work show that the outer tube side heat transfer coefficients are smaller than the inner side heat transfer coefficients by a factor of almost 1.5 and 3.4 in counter flow and parallel flow arrangements, respectively. The agreement with predictions is very good for the counter flow arrangement, but not very good for the parallel flow arrangement

  17. Distribution of temperature and moisture content fields in a rectangular beet pulp particle during convection drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model describing distribution of fields of temperatures and moisture contents in a particle of a squared beet press at convective drying is given. As the initial equations the differential equations of material and thermal balances in which transfer of warmth and weight is caused by phase transformations have been accepted. The algorithm of the numerical solution of a non-stationary regional problem of heat conductivity with variable heat and mass transfer coefficients of the dried-up product, boundary and entry conditions and also phase transition with mobile limit of the section of phases is developed for the solution of mathematical model. At the same time the initial system of the equations is given to a dimensionless look. For the solution of a problem of non-stationary heat conductivity the zone method of calculation of temperature fields when drying a beet press is used. Process of drying broke into some time intervals. Within each interval geometrical form of a particle, its density, heatphysical and mass-exchanged characteristics; initial distribution of temperature and moisture content on particle volume and also density of a mass and thermal stream with the evaporated moisture are constant. The zone method of the solution of a problem of the non-stationary three-dimensional equation of heat conductivity for a parallelepiped taking into account internal sources of warmth has been checked on experimental data of stationary drying of a beet press with use of basic data. For realization of a zone method dependences of change of the linear size of a particle of a beet press on spatial coordinate x and its moisture content in the course of drying are received. At constant values of moisture content and the sizes of the party of the dried-up particle on each step the method of a machine experiment has found the current values of coefficient of phase transformation on condition of the maximum rapprochement of settlement and

  18. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1978-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km/sup 2/. The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill.

  19. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1978-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km 2 . The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill

  20. Forgestream : streaming data processing pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreev, S.

    2012-01-01

    Popular social networks like Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, Tumblr, Instagram, FourSquare, and Google+ generate enormous amounts of social content every day. Consumer product providers want to increasingly rely on the users' social content to learn more about them, personalize the experience of users

  1. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawierucha, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack

  2. Review: heat pipe heat exchangers at IROST

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2012-01-01

    The use of the heat pipe as a component in a heat recovery device has gained worldwide acceptance. Heat pipes are passive, highly reliable and offer high heat transfer rates. This study summarizes the investigation of different types of heat pipe heat recovery systems (HPHRSs). The studies are classified on the basis of the type of the HPHRS. This research is based on 30 years of experience on heat pipe and heat recovery systems that are presented in this study. Copyright , Oxford University ...

  3. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  4. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 1 - Vapour Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of heat pumps operated with natural working fluids. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions is carried out considering...... the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive Net Present Value of the investment. The considered sink outlet temperature range is from 40 °C to 140 °C, but for the heat pumps considered in this paper, the upper limit is 100 °C. Five heat pumps are studied. For each set...... of heat sink and source temperatures the optimal solution is determined. At low sink temperature glide R717 heat pumps show best performance, while at higher sink glide transcritical R744 may become important. In a second paper, the results of the VCHP are compared to a similar study considering...

  5. Poly-P storage by natural biofilms in streams with varying biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have increased in many watersheds throughout the world; these inputs have been linked to the eutrophication of inland and coastal waters worldwide. We selected and surveyed 20, third-order streams that supported a range of water column biogeochemical conditions (conductivity, nutrient concentrations) located in the mid-Atlantic region, USA. Biofilm biomass, algal taxonomic composition, and nutrient stoichiometry (C, N, P, and poly-P) were measured at all stream sites. Pulse-amplitude modulation fluorometry (PAM) was used to estimate photosynthetic parameters for stream biofilms (e.g., alpha, Pmax), while microbiology techniques were used to verify poly-P storage by pro- and eukaryotic components of the biofilm (e.g., epi-fluorescent staining). As anticipated, chlorophyll ranged over 2 orders of magnitude among the streams (range 10-1,000 mg/m2). Biofilm chlorophyll and algal biovolume levels increased with water column nutrient contents, while the C:P ratio within the biofilm decreased. Both pro and eukaryotic organisms were present in resident biofilms and actively stored intracellular poly-P. Finally, the rate of photosynthetic within the biofilms appeared to be driven the nutritional condition of the biofilms; pmax and alpha values increased with significantly with stream biofilm poly-P content (r2 = 0.35 and 0.44, respectively). These results indicated that where nutrients are plentiful, biofilms P storage is favored, and this is likely a key regulator of stream biofilm biomass and productivity.

  6. Unwanted heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, M.

    2006-01-01

    The number of small heating plants using biomass is growing. According to TREND's information, Hrinovska energeticka, is the only one that controls the whole supplier chain in cooperation with its parent company in Bratislava. Starting with the collection and processing of wood chips by burning, heat production and heat distribution to the end user. This gives the company better control over costs and consequently its own prices. Last year, the engineering company, Hrinovske storjarne, decided to focus only on its core business and sold its heating plant, Hrinovske tepelne hospodarstvo, to Intech Slovakia and changed the company name to Hrinovska energeticka. Local companies and inhabitants were concerned that the new owner would increase prices. But the company publicly declared and kept promises that the heat price for households would remain at 500 Slovak crowns/gigajoule (13.33 EUR/gigajoule ), one of the lowest prices in Slovakia. This year the prices increased slightly to 570 Slovak crowns (15.2 EUR). 'We needed - even at the cost of lower profit - to satisfy our customers so that we would not lose them. We used this time for transition to biomass. This will allow us to freeze our prices in the coming years,' explained the statutory representative of the company, Ivan Dudak. (authors)

  7. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  8. Frequency dependence and frequency control of microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2013-02-01

    Steady streaming from oscillating microbubbles is a powerful actuating mechanism in microfluidics, enjoying increased use due to its simplicity of manufacture, ease of integration, low heat generation, and unprecedented control over the flow field and particle transport. As the streaming flow patterns are caused by oscillations of microbubbles in contact with walls of the set-up, an understanding of the bubble dynamics is crucial. Here we experimentally characterize the oscillation modes and the frequency response spectrum of such cylindrical bubbles, driven by a pressure variation resulting from ultrasound in the range of 1 kHz raisebox {-.9ex{stackrel{textstyle <}{˜ }} }f raisebox {-.9ex{stackrel{textstyle <}{˜ }} } 100 kHz. We find that (i) the appearance of 2D streaming flow patterns is governed by the relative amplitudes of bubble azimuthal surface modes (normalized by the volume response), (ii) distinct, robust resonance patterns occur independent of details of the set-up, and (iii) the position and width of the resonance peaks can be understood using an asymptotic theory approach. This theory describes, for the first time, the shape oscillations of a pinned cylindrical bubble at a wall and gives insight into necessary mode couplings that shape the response spectrum. Having thus correlated relative mode strengths and observed flow patterns, we demonstrate that the performance of a bubble micromixer can be optimized by making use of such flow variations when modulating the driving frequency.

  9. Innovation in radioactive wastewater-stream management. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karameldin, A.

    2002-01-01

    Recently an invention of a system for volume reduction of the wastewater streams present in SDTs has been achieved. This system substantially utilized the air conditioning and ventilation techniques in water transfer from the wastewater to air. This process is promoted by a mutual heating and humidification of a compressed dry air introduced through SDTs (or in another tank). From the probable release of radioactive nuclides point of view, the analysis of the evaporation of waste streams present in SDTs have been indicated that the proposed optimal evaporating temperature is round 75 C. The design curve of the daily volumetric reduction of the wastewater streams versus the necessary volumetric airflow rates at different operating temperature has been achieved. The evaporating temperature varied from 40 C to 95 C with a step of 5 C. The obtained curve illustrates that the required volumetric airflow rate utilized to evaporate one m 3 /day (when maintaining SDTs at the temperature 75 C) is less than 90 m 3 /h. The assessments of the obtained curve have been indicated that this system is feasible and viable, economic and has no secondary waste residuals. Recently, an experimental facility proposed to be constructed to obtain the optimal operating parameters of the system, regarding to the probable emissions of the radioactive nuclides within the permissible release limits. (authors)

  10. The distribution of copper in stream sediments in an anomalous stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruin, D.

    1987-01-01

    Anomalous copper concentrations detected by the regional stream-sediment programme of the Geological Survey was investigated in a stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand. A follow-up disclosed the presence of malachite mineralization. However, additional stream-sediment samples collected from the 'anomalous' stream revealed an erratic distribution of copper and also that the malachite mineralization had no direct effect on the copper distribution in the stream sediments. Low partial-extraction yields, together with X-ray diffraction analyses, indicated that dispersion is mainly mechanical and that the copper occurs as cations in the lattice of the biotite fraction of the stream sediments. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. The distribution of copper in stream sediments in an anomalous stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruin, D

    1987-01-01

    Anomalous copper concentrations detected by the regional stream-sediment programme of the Geological Survey was investigated in a stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand. A follow-up disclosed the presence of malachite mineralization. However, additional stream-sediment samples collected from the 'anomalous' stream revealed an erratic distribution of copper and also that the malachite mineralization had no direct effect on the copper distribution in the stream sediments. Low partial-extraction yields, together with X-ray diffraction analyses, indicated that dispersion is mainly mechanical and that the copper occurs as cations in the lattice of the biotite fraction of the stream sediments. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Stream temperature estimated in situ from thermal-infrared images: best estimate and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iezzi, F; Todisco, M T

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to show a technique to estimate in situ the stream temperature from thermal-infrared images deepening its best estimate and uncertainty. Stream temperature is an important indicator of water quality and nowadays its assessment is important particularly for thermal pollution monitoring in water bodies. Stream temperature changes are especially due to the anthropogenic heat input from urban wastewater and from water used as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. The stream temperatures assessment using ordinary techniques (e.g. appropriate thermometers) is limited by sparse sampling in space due to a spatial discretization necessarily punctual. Latest and most advanced techniques assess the stream temperature using thermal-infrared remote sensing based on thermal imagers placed usually on aircrafts or using satellite images. These techniques assess only the surface water temperature and they are suitable to detect the temperature of vast water bodies but do not allow a detailed and precise surface water temperature assessment in limited areas of the water body. The technique shown in this research is based on the assessment of thermal-infrared images obtained in situ via portable thermal imager. As in all thermographic techniques, also in this technique, it is possible to estimate only the surface water temperature. A stream with the presence of a discharge of urban wastewater is proposed as case study to validate the technique and to show its application limits. Since the technique analyzes limited areas in extension of the water body, it allows a detailed and precise assessment of the water temperature. In general, the punctual and average stream temperatures are respectively uncorrected and corrected. An appropriate statistical method that minimizes the errors in the average stream temperature is proposed. The correct measurement of this temperature through the assessment of thermal- infrared images obtained in situ via portable

  13. Influence of diurnal variations in stream temperature on streamflow loss and groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, Jim; Thomas, Carole L.; Zellweger, Gary W.

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate that for losing reaches with significant diurnal variations in stream temperature, the effect of stream temperature on streambed seepage is a major factor contributing to reduced afternoon streamflows. An explanation is based on the effect of stream temperature on the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed, which can be expected to double in the 0° to 25°C temperature range. Results are presented for field experiments in which stream discharge and temperature were continuously measured for several days over losing reaches at St. Kevin Gulch, Colorado, and Tijeras Arroyo, New Mexico. At St. Kevin Gulch in July 1991, the diurnal stream temperature in the 160-m study reach ranged from about 4° to 18°C, discharges ranged from 10 to 18 L/s, and streamflow loss in the study reach ranged from 2.7 to 3.7 L/s. On the basis of measured stream temperature variations, the predicted change in conductivity was about 38%; the measured change in stream loss was about 26%, suggesting that streambed temperature varied less than the stream temperature. At Tijeras Arroyo in May 1992, diurnal stream temperature in the 655-m study reach ranged from about 10° to 25°C and discharge ranged from 25 to 55 L/s. Streamflow loss was converted to infiltration rates by factoring in the changing stream reach surface area and streamflow losses due to evaporation rates as measured in a hemispherical evaporation chamber. Infiltration rates ranged from about 0.7 to 2.0 m/d, depending on time and location. Based on measured stream temperature variations, the predicted change in conductivity was 29%; the measured change in infiltration was also about 27%. This suggests that high infiltration rates cause rapid convection of heat to the streambed. Evapotranspiration losses were estimated for the reach and adjacent flood plain within the arroyo. On the basis of these estimates, only about 5% of flow loss was consumed via stream evaporation and stream-side evapotranspiration

  14. About subjective evaluation of adaptive video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Garcia, Narciso

    2015-03-01

    The usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology by content providers is increasing rapidly. Having available the video content in multiple qualities, using HAS allows to adapt the quality of downloaded video to the current network conditions providing smooth video-playback. However, the time-varying video quality by itself introduces a new type of impairment. The quality adaptation can be done in different ways. In order to find the best adaptation strategy maximizing users perceptual quality it is necessary to investigate about the subjective perception of adaptation-related impairments. However, the novelties of these impairments and their comparably long time duration make most of the standardized assessment methodologies fall less suited for studying HAS degradation. Furthermore, in traditional testing methodologies, the quality of the video in audiovisual services is often evaluated separated and not in the presence of audio. Nevertheless, the requirement of jointly evaluating the audio and the video within a subjective test is a relatively under-explored research field. In this work, we address the research question of determining the appropriate assessment methodology to evaluate the sequences with time-varying quality due to the adaptation. This was done by studying the influence of different adaptation related parameters through two different subjective experiments using a methodology developed to evaluate long test sequences. In order to study the impact of audio presence on quality assessment by the test subjects, one of the experiments was done in the presence of audio stimuli. The experimental results were subsequently compared with another experiment using the standardized single stimulus Absolute Category Rating (ACR) methodology.

  15. A heat exchanger analogy of automotive paint ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Preetham P.

    2013-01-01

    Computational prediction of vehicle temperatures in an automotive paint oven is essential to predict paint quality and manufacturability. The complex geometry of vehicles, varying scales in the flow, transient nature of the process, and the tightly coupled conjugate heat transfer render the numerical models computationally very expensive. Here, a novel, simplified model of the oven is developed using an analogy to a three-stream cross flow heat exchanger that transfers heat from air to a series of moving bodies and supporting carriers. The analogous heat exchanger equations are developed and solved numerically. Steady state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to model the flow field and to extract the heat transfer coefficients around the body and carriers. The air temperature distribution from the CFD models is used as a boundary condition in the analogous model. Correction coefficients are used in the analogy to take care of various assumptions. These are determined from existing test data. The same corrections are used to predict air temperatures for a modified configuration of the oven and a different vehicle. The method can be used to conduct control volume analysis of ovens to determine energy efficiency, and to study new vehicle or oven designs. -- Highlights: • Analogy of an automotive paint oven as a three stream cross flow heat exchanger. • The three streams are vehicle bodies, carriers and hot air. • Convection coefficients and inlet air stream temperatures from steady CFD simulations. • Analogy useful for overall energy efficiency analysis of conveyor ovens in general

  16. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes varies with kinesin activity and correlates with the microtubule cytoskeleton architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sujoy; Williams, Lucy S; Palacios, Isabel M; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2012-09-18

    Cells can localize molecules asymmetrically through the combined action of cytoplasmic streaming, which circulates their fluid contents, and specific anchoring mechanisms. Streaming also contributes to the distribution of nutrients and organelles such as chloroplasts in plants, the asymmetric position of the meiotic spindle in mammalian embryos, and the developmental potential of the zygote, yet little is known quantitatively about the relationship between streaming and the motor activity which drives it. Here we use Particle Image Velocimetry to quantify the statistical properties of Kinesin-dependent streaming during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila. We find that streaming can be used to detect subtle changes in Kinesin activity and that the flows reflect the architecture of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Furthermore, based on characterization of the rheology of the cytoplasm in vivo, we establish estimates of the number of Kinesins required to drive the observed streaming. Using this in vivo data as the basis of a model for transport, we suggest that the disordered character of transport at mid-oogenesis, as revealed by streaming, is an important component of the localization dynamics of the body plan determinant oskar mRNA.

  17. Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Stanton [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-12-12

    The project goal was to develop a revolutionary energy saving technology for residential clothes drying. The team developed an IR (infrared) heating system and NESP (Nebulizer and Electro-Static Precipitator) for integration into a ventless clothes dryer. The proposed technology addresses two of the major inefficiencies in current electric vented dryers by providing effective energy transfer for the removal of the water and recapture of the vapor latent heat. The IR heaters operating in the mid wave (2.5-10um) are very efficient as they target the 3-micron peak absorption of the water molecule. This allows direct energy absorption, unlike conventional element heaters where heat is transferred by convection. The low power NESP removes water vapor from the exhausted stream and recaptures the latent heat in the ESP (Electro-Static Precipitator) exchanger section. This allows the warm dry air to be recirculated back into the drum for additional efficiency savings. The remaining majority of the dryer hardware stays the same. Summing the efficiency gain from the two subcomponents we anticipated the EF (Efficiency Factor) to exceed the goal of 4.04. EF is obtained by dividing the weight (lbs) of water removed by the energy (kWhr) used, where the test load size is 8.45 lbs of bone dry clothing wetted to 57.5% or 4.8lbs of water, and dried to a remaining moisture content of 2.5-5%. Additional benefits include not having to recondition (heat or cool) the large amounts of make-up air to replace the air exhausted by a vented dryer. It was anticipated that the NESP/heat exchanger would be the most challenging and highest risk element in the program. Therefore, the team focused their efforts during Phase 1 of the program on the design, construction, testing, and optimization of the NESP/heat exchanger. At the end Phase 1, the team compared the performance of the NESP/heat exchanger with the system level requirements and made a Go/No-Go decision on proceeding with the second

  18. Streaming Media in an Uncertain Legal Environment: A Model Policy and Best Practices for Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina M Adams

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As VCRs and DVD players become obsolete, online course offerings increase, and flipped pedagogy becomes ubiquitous, academic librarians are frequently confronted with requests from instructors for streaming media. The authors of this article describe the reasoning for and process by which a policy and best practices to manage streaming media requests were developed at a large public university. This policy is guided by the principles set forth in U.S. Copyright Act’s fair use doctrine (17 U.S.C. § 107 and ARL’s Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries (2012. The policy also includes a workflow for delivering streaming, ADA-compliant video content that cannot be licensed via conventional library means. Moreover, the comparative costs of purchasing subscription video collections versus licensing individual streaming videos at George Mason University are provided for the fiscal years 2013 through 2016.

  19. Technique for producing a continuous interference-free stream of Argon-41 in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, T.-T.; Jester, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    A monitoring system was developed for the detection of 131 I in the presence of orders of magnitude higher concentrations of radioactive noble gas. During the course of this work, a technique was developed for producing a continuous air stream of 41 Ar required for testing this concept. The 41 Ar stream is produced by the neutron activation of air using a research reactor. The 41 Ar content of the air stream can be varied by many orders of magnitude by varying the reactor power level and the rate at which the air is pumped through a vertically positioned tube in or in front of the reactor. It was found that the neutrons also activate other air constituents, producing undesirable interference radionuclides. Selective filtering techniques have therefore been developed to remove these interference radionuclides from the 41 Ar air stream

  20. Monopole heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Upper bounds on the flux of monopoles incident on the Earth with velocity -5 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ) and on the flux of monopoles incident on Jupiter with velocity -3 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ), are derived. Monopoles moving this slowly lose sufficient energy to be stopped, and then catalyse nucleon decay, releasing heat. The limits are obtained by requiring the rate of energy release from nucleon decay to be less than the measured amount of heat flowing out from the surface of the planet. (U.K.)

  1. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  2. Heat Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, Latif M.

    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.

  3. BLOSTREAM: A HIGH SPEED STREAM CIPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI H. KASHMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although stream ciphers are widely utilized to encrypt sensitive data at fast speeds, security concerns have led to a shift from stream to block ciphers, judging that the current technology in stream cipher is inferior to the technology of block ciphers. This paper presents the design of an improved efficient and secure stream cipher called Blostream, which is more secure than conventional stream ciphers that use XOR for mixing. The proposed cipher comprises two major components: the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG using the Rabbit algorithm and a nonlinear invertible round function (combiner for encryption and decryption. We evaluate its performance in terms of implementation and security, presenting advantages and disadvantages, comparison of the proposed cipher with similar systems and a statistical test for randomness. The analysis shows that the proposed cipher is more efficient, high speed, and secure than current conventional stream ciphers.

  4. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brignac, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl 2 O 4 , wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  5. Organic carbon spiralling in stream ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Mulholland, P J; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V

    1982-01-01

    The term spiralling has been used to describe the combined processes of cycling and longitudinal transport in streams. As a measure or organic carbon spiralling, we introduced organic carbon turnover length, S, defined as the average or expected downstream distance travelled by a carbon atom between its entry or fixation in the stream and its oxidation. Using a simple model for organic carbon dynamics in a stream, we show that S is closely related to fisher and Likens' ecosystem efficiency. Unlike efficiency, however, S is independent of the length of the study reach, and values of S determined in streams of differing lengths can be compared. Using data from three different streams, we found the relationship between S and efficiency to agree closely with the model prediction. Hypotheses of stream functioning are discussed in the context of organic carbeon spiralling theory.

  6. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  7. LHCb : The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  8. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  9. Radon in streams and ground waters of Pennsylvania as a guide to uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korner, L.A.; Rose, A.W.

    1977-06-01

    Radon-222, a daughter in the radioactive decay of uranium, has potential as a geochemical guide to uranium ores because of its chemical inertness and its relatively easy determination. The radon contents of 59 stream and 149 ground waters have been determined with a newly designed portable radon detector in order to test the method in uranium exploration. Radon contents of stream waters do not appear useful for reconnaissance uranium exploration of areas like Pennsylvania because of relatively rapid degassing of radon from turbulent waters, and because most radon is derived from nearby influx of ground waters into the streams. Radon in streams near uranium occurrences in Carbon and Lycoming counties is lower than many background streams. Radon in ground water is recommended as a reconnaissance method of uranium exploration because most samples from near mineralized areas are anomalous in radon. In contrast, uranium in ground waters is not anomalous near mineralized areas in Carbon County. Equations are derived to show the relation of radon in ground waters to uranium contents of enclosing rocks, emanation of radon from the solids to water, and porosity or fracture width. Limonites are found to be highly enriched in radium, the parent of radon. A model for detection of a nearby uranium ore body by radon measurement on a pumping well has been developed

  10. Correlates of elemental-isotopic composition of stream fishes: the importance of land-use, species identity and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaña, C G; Schalk, C M

    2018-04-01

    The isotopic (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and stoichiometric (C:N:P) compositions of four fish species (Family Centrarchidae: Lepomis auritus, Lepomis cyanellus; Family Cyprinidae: Nocomis leptocephalus, Semotilus atromaculatus) were examined across four North Carolina Piedmont streams arrayed along an urbanization gradient. Both isotopic and stoichiometric composition of fishes appeared to track changes occurring in basal resource availability. Values of δ 13 C of basal resources and consumers were more enriched at the most urbanized streams. Similarly, basal resources and consumers were δ 15 N-enriched at more urbanized streams. Basal resource stoichiometry varied across streams, with periphyton being the most variable. Primary consumers stoichiometry also differed across streams. Intraspecific variation in fish stoichiometry correlated with the degree of urbanization, as the two cyprinids had higher N content and L. cyanellus had higher P content in more urbanized streams, probably due to enrichment of basal resources. Intrinsic factors, specifically species identity and body size also affected stoichiometric variation. Phosphorus (P) content increased significantly with body size in centrarchids, but not in cyprinids. These results suggest that although species identity and body size are important predictors of elemental stoichiometry, the complex nature of altered urban streams may yield imbalances in the elemental composition of consumers via their food resources. © 2018 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Transitional Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting

    2007-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of elevated free-stream turbulence and streamwise acceleration on flow and thermal structures in transitional boundary layers. The free-stream turbulence ranges from 0.5 to 6.4% and the streamwise acceleration ranges from K = 0 to 0.8 x 10(exp -6). The onset of transition, transition length and the turbulent spot formation rate are determined. The statistical results and conditionally sampled results of th streamwise and cross-stream velocity fluctuations, temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stress and Reynolds heat fluxes are presented.

  12. The influence of riparian woodland on the spatial and temporal variability of stream water temperatures in an upland salmon stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability of stream water temperatures was investigated at six locations on the Girnock Burn (30km2 catchment, Cairngorms, Scotland over three hydrological years between 1998 and 2002. The key site-specific factors affecting the hydrology and climatology of the sampling points were investigated as a basis for physical process inference. Particular emphasis was placed on assessing the effects of riparian forest in the lower catchment versus the heather moorland riparian zones that are spatially dominant in the upper catchment. The findings were related to river heat budget studies that provided process detail. Gross changes in stream temperature were affected by the annual cycle of incoming solar radiation and seasonal changes in hydrological and climatological conditions. Inter-annual variation in these controlling variables resulted in inter-annual variability in thermal regime. However, more subtle inter-site differences reflected the impact of site-specific characteristics on various components of the river energy budget. Inter-site variability was most apparent at shorter time scales, during the summer months and for higher stream temperatures. Riparian woodland in the lower catchment had a substantial impact on thermal regime, reducing diel variability (over a period of 24 hours and temperature extremes. Observed inter-site differences are likely to have a substantial effect on freshwater ecology in general and salmonid fish in particular. Keywords: temperature, thermal regime, forest, salmon, hydrology, Girnock Burn, Cairngorm

  13. Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kären C.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Pizzuto, James E.; Moglen, Glenn E.; Angermeier, Paul L.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Dettinger, Mike; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections, stream hydrology, geomorphology, and water temperature) to predict how stream fish growth and reproduction will most probably respond to shifts in climate and urbanization over the next several decades.

  14. Incorporation of the equilibrium temperature approach in a Soil and Water Assessment Tool hydroclimatological stream temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinzhong; Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Ficklin, Darren L.; Wang, Junye

    2018-04-01

    Stream temperature is an important indicator for biodiversity and sustainability in aquatic ecosystems. The stream temperature model currently in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) only considers the impact of air temperature on stream temperature, while the hydroclimatological stream temperature model developed within the SWAT model considers hydrology and the impact of air temperature in simulating the water-air heat transfer process. In this study, we modified the hydroclimatological model by including the equilibrium temperature approach to model heat transfer processes at the water-air interface, which reflects the influences of air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and streamflow conditions on the heat transfer process. The thermal capacity of the streamflow is modeled by the variation of the stream water depth. An advantage of this equilibrium temperature model is the simple parameterization, with only two parameters added to model the heat transfer processes. The equilibrium temperature model proposed in this study is applied and tested in the Athabasca River basin (ARB) in Alberta, Canada. The model is calibrated and validated at five stations throughout different parts of the ARB, where close to monthly samplings of stream temperatures are available. The results indicate that the equilibrium temperature model proposed in this study provided better and more consistent performances for the different regions of the ARB with the values of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient (NSE) greater than those of the original SWAT model and the hydroclimatological model. To test the model performance for different hydrological and environmental conditions, the equilibrium temperature model was also applied to the North Fork Tolt River Watershed in Washington, United States. The results indicate a reasonable simulation of stream temperature using the model proposed in this study, with minimum relative error values compared to the other two models

  15. On-stream chemical element monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averitt, O.R.; Dorsch, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and method for on-stream chemical element monitoring are described wherein a multiplicity of sample streams are flowed continuously through individual analytical cells and fluorescence analyses are performed on the sample streams in sequence, together with a method of controlling the time duration of each analysis as a function of the concomitant radiation exposure of a preselected perforate reference material interposed in the sample-radiation source path

  16. Smart Streaming for Online Video Services

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yipeng; Chiu, Dah Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth consumption is a significant concern for online video service providers. Practical video streaming systems usually use some form of HTTP streaming (progressive download) to let users download the video at a faster rate than the video bitrate. Since users may quit before viewing the complete video, however, much of the downloaded video will be "wasted". To the extent that users' departure behavior can be predicted, we develop smart streaming that can be used to improve user QoE with ...

  17. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52 published studies. Sixty-nine percent of the experiments were performed in first- and second-order streams, and 31% were performed in third- to fifth-order streams. Uptake lengths, Sw, of NH4 (median = 86 m) and PO4 (median = 96 m) were significantly different (α = 0.05) than NO3 (median = 236 m). Areal uptake rates of NH4 (median = 28 μg m-2 min-1) were significantly different than NO3 and PO4 (median = 15 and 14 μg m-2 min-1, respectively). There were significant differences among NH4, NO3, and PO4 uptake velocity (median = 5, 1, and 2 mm min-1, respectively). Correlation analysis results were equivocal on the effect of transient storage on nutrient spiraling. Application of these data to a stream network model showed that recycling (defined here as stream length ÷ Sw) of NH4 and NO3 generally increased with stream order, while PO4 recycling remained constant along a first- to fifth-order stream gradient. Within this hypothetical stream network, cumulative NH4 uptake decreased slightly with stream order, while cumulative NO3 and PO4 uptake increased with stream order. These data suggest the importance of larger rivers to nutrient spiraling and the need to consider how stream networks affect nutrient flux between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  18. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  19. Acoustic streaming in pulsating flows through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, J.M.; Dura'n-Olivencia, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    When a body immersed in a viscous fluid is subjected to a sound wave (or, equivalently, the body oscillates in the fluid otherwise at rest) a rotational fluid stream develops across a boundary layer nearby the fluid-body interphase. This so-called acoustic streaming phenomenon is responsible for a notable enhancement of heat, mass and momentum transfer and takes place in any process involving two phases subjected to relative oscillations. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing acoustic streaming in two-phase flows is of great interest for a wide range of applications such as sonoprocessed fluidized bed reactors, thermoacoustic refrigerators/engines, pulsatile flows through veins/arteries, hemodialysis devices, pipes in off-shore platforms, offshore piers, vibrating structures in the power-generating industry, lab-on-a-chip microfluidics and microgravity acoustic levitation, and solar thermal collectors to name a few. The aim of engineering studies on this vast diversity of systems is oriented towards maximizing the efficiency of each particular process. Even though practical problems are usually approached from disparate disciplines without any apparent linkage, the behavior of these systems is influenced by the same underlying physics. In general, acoustic streaming occurs within the interstices of porous media and usually in the presence of externally imposed steady fluid flows, which gives rise to important effects arising from the interference between viscous boundary layers developed around nearby solid surfaces and the nonlinear coupling between the oscillating and steady flows. This paper is mainly devoted to highlighting the fundamental physics behind acoustic streaming in porous media in order to provide a simple instrument to assess the relevance of this phenomenon in each particular application. The exact microscopic Navier-Stokes equations will be numerically solved for a simplified 2D system consisting of a regular array of oscillating

  20. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.