WorldWideScience

Sample records for stream function-vorticity formulation

  1. Grid refinement model in lattice Boltzmann method for stream function-vorticity formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dongyang Mirae University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In this study, we present a grid refinement model in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for two-dimensional incompressible fluid flow. That is, the model combines the desirable features of the lattice Boltzmann method and stream function-vorticity formulations. In order to obtain an accurate result, very fine grid (or lattice) is required near the solid boundary. Therefore, the grid refinement model is used in the lattice Boltzmann method for stream function-vorticity formulation. This approach is more efficient in that it can obtain the same accurate solution as that in single-block approach even if few lattices are used for computation. In order to validate the grid refinement approach for the stream function-vorticity formulation, the numerical simulations of lid-driven cavity flows were performed and good results were obtained.

  2. Stream function-vorticity finite elements and the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, R.C.C. de.

    1987-07-01

    A stream function-vorticity finite element formulation for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is proposed. The present work shows a procedure to solve the problem posed by the no-slip conditions on solid frontiers which can also be applied to flow problems in a multi-connected domain. Moreover, a methodology to solve the pressure is developed using the stream function-vorticity approximate solution. Numerical experiments were conducted for some steady and unsteady problems and the performance of the proposed methods is discussed. (author) [pt

  3. A comparison of the Method of Lines to finite difference techniques in solving time-dependent partial differential equations. [with applications to Burger equation and stream function-vorticity problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L. A.; Smith, R. E.; Parks, C. L.; Boney, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    Steady state solutions to two time dependent partial differential systems have been obtained by the Method of Lines (MOL) and compared to those obtained by efficient standard finite difference methods: (1) Burger's equation over a finite space domain by a forward time central space explicit method, and (2) the stream function - vorticity form of viscous incompressible fluid flow in a square cavity by an alternating direction implicit (ADI) method. The standard techniques were far more computationally efficient when applicable. In the second example, converged solutions at very high Reynolds numbers were obtained by MOL, whereas solution by ADI was either unattainable or impractical. With regard to 'set up' time, solution by MOL is an attractive alternative to techniques with complicated algorithms, as much of the programming difficulty is eliminated.

  4. Revisiting diesel fuel formulation from Petroleum light and middle refinery streams based on optimized engine behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Amara , Arij; Dauphin , Roland; Babiker , Hassan; Viollet , Yoann; Chang , Junseok; Jeuland , Nicolas; Amer , Amer

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The share of diesel fuel in European transport sector, which currently represents over 50% of total 11 demand, is increasing, requiring massive imports of this product, while at the same time, gasoline fuels are 12 today in surplus. In terms of air pollutant emissions, gasoline and kerosene streams have shown potential 13 in achieving lower emissions in Compression Ignition (CI) engines, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) 14 and particulates. A new fuel formulation app...

  5. Effluent Management Facility Evaporator Bottom-Waste Streams Formulation and Waste Form Qualification Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslow, Sarah A.; Um, Wooyong; Russell, Renee L.

    2017-08-02

    This report describes the results from grout formulation and cementitious waste form qualification testing performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS). These results are part of a screening test that investigates three grout formulations proposed for wide-range treatment of different waste stream compositions expected for the Hanford Effluent Management Facility (EMF) evaporator bottom waste. This work supports the technical development need for alternative disposition paths for the EMF evaporator bottom wastes and future direct feed low-activity waste (DFLAW) operations at the Hanford Site. High-priority activities included simulant production, grout formulation, and cementitious waste form qualification testing. The work contained within this report relates to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). However, this work contains valuable information for use in PA maintenance past FY 2017 and future waste form development efforts. The provided results and data should be used by (1) cementitious waste form scientists to further the understanding of cementitious leach behavior of contaminants of concern (COCs), (2) decision makers interested in off-site waste form disposal, and (3) the U.S. Department of Energy, their Hanford Site contractors and stakeholders as they assess the IDF PA program at the Hanford Site. The results reported help fill existing data gaps, support final selection of a cementitious waste form for the EMF evaporator bottom waste, and improve the technical defensibility of long-term waste form risk estimates.

  6. Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Alumimum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW Streams-13000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-01-01

    The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulphur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings and higher throughput efficiencies. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. In view of the importance of aluminum limited waste streams at Hanford (and also Savannah River), the ability to achieve high waste loadings without adversely impacting melt rates has the potential for enormous cost savings from reductions in canister count and the potential for schedule acceleration. Consequently, the potential return on the investment made in the development of these enhancements is extremely favorable. Glass composition development for one of the latest Hanford HLW projected compositions with sulphate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading have been successfully tested and show tolerance for previously unreported tolerance for sulphate. Though a significant increase in waste loading for high-iron wastes has been achieved, the magnitude of the increase is not as substantial as those achieved for high-aluminum, high-chromium, high-bismuth or sulphur

  7. Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

    1987-06-02

    A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

  8. Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Aluminum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW Streams - 13000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [WTP Engineering Division, United States Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 450, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulphur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings and higher throughput efficiencies. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. In view of the importance of aluminum limited waste streams at Hanford (and also Savannah River), the ability to achieve high waste loadings without adversely impacting melt rates has the potential for enormous cost savings from reductions in canister count and the potential for schedule acceleration. Consequently, the potential return on the investment made in the development of these enhancements is extremely favorable. Glass composition development for one of the latest Hanford HLW projected compositions with sulphate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading have been successfully tested and show tolerance for previously unreported tolerance for sulphate. Though a significant increase in waste loading for high-iron wastes has been achieved, the magnitude of the increase is not as substantial as those achieved for high-aluminum, high-chromium, high-bismuth or

  9. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  10. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  11. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well

  12. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...... model supports a relatively diverse use of educational technologies and may also be used to transform teaching into completely online learning. So far both teachers and educational developers have positively received the model and the initial design experiences show promise....

  13. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS, TEST PLAN 09T1690-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Matlack, K.S.; Kot, W.K.; Pegg, I.L.; Joseph, I.

    2009-01-01

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and

  14. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT01, KT02, KT03, AND KT04-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-01

    Four series of glass compositions were selected, fabricated, and characterized as part of a study to determine the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT01 and KT02-series of glasses were chosen to allow for the identification of the influence of the concentrations of major components of the glass on the retention of TiO{sub 2}. The KT03 series of glasses was chosen to allow for the identification of these influences when higher Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZrO{sub 2} concentrations are included along with TiO2. The KT04 series of glasses was chosen to investigate the properties and performance of glasses based on the best available projections of actual compositions to be processed at the DWPF (i.e., future sludge batches including the SCIX streams).

  15. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements

  16. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  17. Stream Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...

  18. Akamai Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Akamai offers world-class streaming media services that enable Internet content providers and enterprises to succeed in today's Web-centric marketplace. They deliver live event Webcasts (complete with video production, encoding, and signal acquisition services), streaming media on demand, 24/7 Webcasts and a variety of streaming application services based upon their EdgeAdvantage.

  19. InSTREAM: the individual-based stream trout research and environmental assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Stephen K. Jackson; Roland H. Lamberson

    2009-01-01

    This report documents Version 4.2 of InSTREAM, including its formulation, software, and application to research and management problems. InSTREAM is a simulation model designed to understand how stream and river salmonid populations respond to habitat alteration, including altered flow, temperature, and turbidity regimes and changes in channel morphology. The model...

  20. Stream systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves

    2006-01-01

    Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...

  1. Stream Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  2. Dual-mode nonlinear instability analysis of a confined planar liquid sheet sandwiched between two gas streams of unequal velocities and prediction of droplet size and velocity distribution using maximum entropy formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Debayan; Nath, Sujit; Bhanja, Dipankar

    2018-04-01

    Twin fluid atomizers utilize the kinetic energy of high speed gases to disintegrate a liquid sheet into fine uniform droplets. Quite often, the gas streams are injected at unequal velocities to enhance the aerodynamic interaction between the liquid sheet and surrounding atmosphere. In order to improve the mixing characteristics, practical atomizers confine the gas flows within ducts. Though the liquid sheet coming out of an injector is usually annular in shape, it can be considered to be planar as the mean radius of curvature is much larger than the sheet thickness. There are numerous studies on breakup of the planar liquid sheet, but none of them considered the simultaneous effects of confinement and unequal gas velocities on the spray characteristics. The present study performs a nonlinear temporal analysis of instabilities in the planar liquid sheet, produced by two co-flowing gas streams moving with unequal velocities within two solid walls. The results show that the para-sinuous mode dominates the breakup process at all flow conditions over the para-varicose mode of breakup. The sheet pattern is strongly influenced by gas velocities, particularly for the para-varicose mode. Spray characteristics are influenced by both gas velocity and proximity to the confining wall, but the former has a much more pronounced effect on droplet size. An increase in the difference between gas velocities at two interfaces drastically shifts the droplet size distribution toward finer droplets. Moreover, asymmetry in gas phase velocities affects the droplet velocity distribution more, only at low liquid Weber numbers for the input conditions chosen in the present study.

  3. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  4. On the dynamics of stream piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, L.; Willett, S. D.

    2012-04-01

    Drainage network reorganization by stream piracy is invoked repeatedly to explain the morphology of unique drainage patterns and as a possible mechanism inducing abrupt variations of sediment accumulation rates. However, direct evidence of stream piracy is usually rare, and is highly interpretation dependent. As a first step in assessing how probable capture events are and establishing the conditions that favor stream piracy versus the those that favor stable landscapes, we formulate analytically the physics of divide migration and capture events and study this formulation from a dynamical system point of view. The formulation is based on a one-dimensional topographic cross section between two channels that share a water divide. Two hillslope profiles diverge from the divide and drain into two fluvial bedrock tributaries, whose erosion rate is controlled by a stream power law. The rate of erosion at the bounding channels is thus a function of the upstream drainage area and local slope. A tectonically induced downward perturbation of the elevation of one of the bounding channels lowers the channel slope but at the same time increases the drainage area due to outward migration of the water divide. The changes in slope and area have opposing effect on the erosion rate at the bounding channels, so that the perturbation may either grow or be damped. We define the geomorphic and tectonic parameters that control the behavior of the system and find the regimes that lead to stable landscapes and to capture events.

  5. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  6. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  7. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  8. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  9. Numerical study of fluid motion in bioreactor with two mixers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleva, I., E-mail: izheleva@uni-ruse.bg [Department of Heat Technology, Hydraulics and Ecology, Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, 8 Studentska str., 7017 Rousse (Bulgaria); Lecheva, A., E-mail: alecheva@uni-ruse.bg [Department of Mathematics, Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, 8 Studentska str., 7017 Rousse (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-28

    Numerical study of hydrodynamic laminar behavior of a viscous fluid in bioreactor with multiple mixers is provided in the present paper. The reactor is equipped with two disk impellers. The fluid motion is studied in stream function-vorticity formulation. The calculations are made by a computer program, written in MATLAB. The fluid structure is described and numerical results are graphically presented and commented.

  10. Audits of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for auditing radiopharmaceutical formulations is described. To meet FDA guidelines regarding the quality of radiopharmaceuticals, institutional radioactive drug research committees perform audits when such drugs are formulated away from an institutional pharmacy. All principal investigators who formulate drugs outside institutional pharmacies must pass these audits before they can obtain a radiopharmaceutical investigation permit. The audit team meets with the individual who performs the formulation at the site of drug preparation to verify that drug formulations meet identity, strength, quality, and purity standards; are uniform and reproducible; and are sterile and pyrogen free. This team must contain an expert knowledgeable in the preparation of radioactive drugs; a radiopharmacist is the most qualified person for this role. Problems that have been identified by audits include lack of sterility and apyrogenicity testing, formulations that are open to the laboratory environment, failure to use pharmaceutical-grade chemicals, inadequate quality control methods or records, inadequate training of the person preparing the drug, and improper unit dose preparation. Investigational radiopharmaceutical formulations, including nonradiolabeled drugs, must be audited before they are administered to humans. A properly trained pharmacist should be a member of the audit team

  11. Reactive decontamination formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletto, Anthony [College Station, TX; White, William [College Station, TX; Cisar, Alan J [Cypress, TX; Hitchens, G Duncan [Bryan, TX; Fyffe, James [Bryan, TX

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  12. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets

  13. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the

  14. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  15. Preparation of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Garlich, J.R.; Frank, R.K.; McMillan, K.

    1998-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical formulations for complexes comprising at least one radionuclide complexed with a ligand, or its physiologically-acceptable salts thereof, especially 153 samarium-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid, which optionally contains a divalent metal ion, e.g. calcium, and is frozen, thawed, and then administered by injection. Alternatively, the radiopharmaceutical formulations must contain the divalent metal and are frozen only if the time before administration is sufficiently long to cause concern for radiolysis of the ligand. 2 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Tariff formulation and equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svartsund, Trond

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the transmission tariff is to provide for socioeconomic use of the transmission grid. The present tariff structure is basically right. The responsibility for the formulation of the tariff resides with the local grid owner. This must take place in agreement with the current regulations which are passed by the authorities. The formulation must be adaptable to the local requirements. EBL (Norwegian Electricity Industry Association) is content with the current regulations

  17. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  18. Conference report: formulating better medicines for children: 4th European Paediatric Formulation Initiative conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Mills, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The fourth annual European Paediatric Formulation Initiative (EuPFI) conference on Formulating Better Medicines for Children was held on 19-20 September 2012 at the Institute of Molecular Genetics Congress Centre, Prague, Czech Republic. The 2-day conference concentrated on the latest advances, challenges and opportunities for developing medicinal products and administration devices for pediatric use, both from European and US perspectives. It was aimed specifically at providing exposure to emerging practical applications, and for illustrating remedies utilized by pediatric drug-development teams to overcome hurdles faced in developing medicines for pediatric patients. The conference format included plenary talks, focus sessions on each of the EuPFI work streams (extemporaneous preparations, excipients, pediatric administration devices, taste masking and taste assessment, age-appropriate formulations), case studies, soapbox sessions and a parallel poster display. This conference report summarizes the keynote lectures and also gives a flavor of other presentations and posters from the conference.

  19. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column

  20. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  1. Granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  2. LHCb trigger streams optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, D.; Kazeev, N.; Neychev, R.; Panin, A.; Trofimov, I.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Vesterinen, M.

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment stores around 1011 collision events per year. A typical physics analysis deals with a final sample of up to 107 events. Event preselection algorithms (lines) are used for data reduction. Since the data are stored in a format that requires sequential access, the lines are grouped into several output file streams, in order to increase the efficiency of user analysis jobs that read these data. The scheme efficiency heavily depends on the stream composition. By putting similar lines together and balancing the stream sizes it is possible to reduce the overhead. We present a method for finding an optimal stream composition. The method is applied to a part of the LHCb data (Turbo stream) on the stage where it is prepared for user physics analysis. This results in an expected improvement of 15% in the speed of user analysis jobs, and will be applied on data to be recorded in 2017.

  3. Three-dimensional model of corotating streams in the solar wind 3. Magnetohydrodynamic streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzo, V.J.

    1982-01-01

    The focus of this paper is two-fold: (1) to examine how the presence of the spiral magnetic field affects the evolution of interplanetary corotating solar wind streams, and (2) to ascertain the nature of secondary large-scale phenomena likely to be associated with streams having a pronounced three-dimensional (3-D) structure. The dynamics are presumed to be governed by the nonlinear polytropic, single-fluid, 3-D MHD equations. Solutions are obtained with an explicit, Eulerian, finite differences technique that makes use of a simple form of artificial diffusion for handling shocks. For smooth axisymmetric flows, the picture of magnetically induced meridional motions previously established by linear models requires only minor correction. In the case of broad 3-D streams input near the sun, inclusion of the magnetic field is found to retard the kinematic steepening at the stream front substantially but to produce little deviation from planar flow. For the more realistic case of initially sharply bounded streams, however, it becomes essential to account for magnetic effects in the formulation. Whether a full 3-D treatment is required depends upon the latitudinal geometry of the stream

  4. Asteroid/meteorite streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    The independent discovery of the same three streams (named alpha, beta, and gamma) among 139 Earth approaching asteroids and among 89 meteorite producing fireballs presents the possibility of matching specific meteorites to specific asteroids, or at least to asteroids in the same stream and, therefore, presumably of the same composition. Although perhaps of limited practical value, the three meteorites with known orbits are all ordinary chondrites. To identify, in general, the taxonomic type of the parent asteroid, however, would be of great scientific interest since these most abundant meteorite types cannot be unambiguously spectrally matched to an asteroid type. The H5 Pribram meteorite and asteroid 4486 (unclassified) are not part of a stream, but travel in fairly similar orbits. The LL5 Innisfree meteorite is orbitally similar to asteroid 1989DA (unclassified), and both are members of a fourth stream (delta) defined by five meteorite-dropping fireballs and this one asteroid. The H5 Lost City meteorite is orbitally similar to 1980AA (S type), which is a member of stream gamma defined by four asteroids and four fireballs. Another asteroid in this stream is classified as an S type, another is QU, and the fourth is unclassified. This stream suggests that ordinary chondrites should be associated with S (and/or Q) asteroids. Two of the known four V type asteroids belong to another stream, beta, defined by five asteroids and four meteorite-dropping (but unrecovered) fireballs, making it the most probable source of the eucrites. The final stream, alpha, defined by five asteroids and three fireballs is of unknown composition since no meteorites have been recovered and only one asteroid has an ambiguous classification of QRS. If this stream, or any other as yet undiscovered ones, were found to be composed of a more practical material (e.g., water or metalrich), then recovery of the associated meteorites would provide an opportunity for in-hand analysis of a potential

  5. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  6. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  7. Wadeable Streams Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of small streams throughout the U.S. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worked with the states to conduct the assessment in 2004-2005. Data for each parameter sampled in the Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) are available for downloading in a series of files as comma separated values (*.csv). Each *.csv data file has a companion text file (*.txt) that lists a dataset label and individual descriptions for each variable. Users should view the *.txt files first to help guide their understanding and use of the data.

  8. Towards a characterization of real-time streaming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weffers-Albu, M.A.; Lukkien, J.J.; Stok, van der P.D.V.; Puaut, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we provide a model for the dynamic behavior of a single video streaming chain, by formulating a theorem describing the stable behavior. This stable behavior is characterized in terms of the elementary actions of the components in the chain, from which standard performance measures

  9. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  10. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  11. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-09

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  12. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  13. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  14. DNR 24K Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — 1:24,000 scale streams captured from USGS seven and one-half minute quadrangle maps, with perennial vs. intermittent classification, and connectivity through lakes,...

  15. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  16. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  17. Collaborative Media Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Kahmann, Verena

    2008-01-01

    Mit Hilfe der IP-Technologie erbrachte Multimedia-Dienste wie IPTV oder Video-on-Demand sind zur Zeit ein gefragtes Thema. Technisch werden solche Dienste unter dem Begriff "Streaming" eingeordnet. Ein Server sendet Mediendaten kontinuierlich an Empfänger, welche die Daten sofort weiterverarbeiten und anzeigen. Über einen Rückkanal hat der Kunde die Möglichkeit der Einflussnahme auf die Wiedergabe. Eine Weiterentwicklung dieser Streaming-Dienste ist die Möglichkeit, gemeinsam mit anderen dens...

  18. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  19. Streams and their future inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Friberg, Nikolai

    2006-01-01

    In this fi nal chapter we look ahead and address four questions: How do we improve stream management? What are the likely developments in the biological quality of streams? In which areas is knowledge on stream ecology insuffi cient? What can streams offer children of today and adults of tomorrow?...

  20. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  1. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  2. Ether formulations of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Contemporary ether theories are surveyed and criticised, especially those formally identical to orthodox Relativity. The historical development of Relativity, Special and General, in terms of an ether, is briefly indicated. Classical interpretations of Generalized Relativity using ether are compared to Euclidean formulations using a background space. The history of a sub-group of theories, formulating a 'new' Relativity involving modified transforms, is outlined. According to the theory with which they agree, recent supposed detections of drift are classified and criticised. Cosmological evidence suggesting an ether is mentioned. Only ether theories formally identical to Relativity have been published in depth. They stand criticised as being contrary to the positivist spirit. The history of mechanical analogues is traced, from Hartley's representing gravitating matter as spherical standing waves, to recent suggestions that vortex-sponge might model electromagnetic, quantum, uncertainty and faster-than-light phenomena. Contemporary theories are particular physical theories, themselves 'second interpretations' of a primary mathematical model. Mechanical analogues are auxiliary, not necessary, to other theory, disclosing relationships between classical and non-classical descriptions of assemblies charging state. The ether-relativity polemic, part of a broader dispute about relativity, is founded on mistaken conceptions of the roles of mathematical and physical models, mechanical analogues; and a distored view of history, which indicates that ether theories have become relativistic. (author)

  3. Final Report. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing, VSL-03R3460-1, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Lai, Shan-Tao T. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-18

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  4. Vozy formule 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zbožínek, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Tato práce uvádí základní pravidla a předpoklady pro konstrukci a použití vozů formule 1. Hlavní zaměření je na aerodynamiku, která je nejdůležitější disciplínou v tomto motoristickém sportu, dále je tato práce zaměřena na základní faktory týkající se motoru vozu, kol, nové technologie KERS a provedení volantu. This work shows basic rules and conditions for construction and use of cars formula 1. The main part of this work focus on the aerodynamics which is the most important discipline of...

  5. Assessment of strategy formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    of the success criteria through face-to-face interviews with 46 managers, workshops involving 40 managers, and two in-depth case studies. The success criteria have been slightly modified due to the empirical results, to yield the assessment tool. Findings – The resulting assessment tool integrates three generic...... approaches to strategy assessment, namely the goal-centred, comparative and improvement approaches, as found in the literature. Furthermore, it encompasses three phases of strategy formulation processes: strategic thinking, strategic planning and embedding of strategy. The tool reflects that the different......, but cases and managerial perceptions indicate that the need for accurate and detailed plans might be overrated in the literature, as implementation relies heavily on continuous improvement and empowerment. Concerning embedding, key aspects relate both to the goal-centred and improvement approaches, while...

  6. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  7. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis of d...

  8. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...

  9. Acoustic streaming: an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Nitesh; Huang, Tony Jun; Costanzo, Francesco

    2017-08-25

    We analyse acoustic streaming flows using an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) perspective. The formulation stems from an explicit separation of time scales resulting in two subproblems: a first-order problem, formulated in terms of the fluid displacement at the fast scale, and a second-order problem, formulated in terms of the Lagrangian flow velocity at the slow time scale. Following a rigorous time-averaging procedure, the second-order problem is shown to be intrinsically steady, and with exact boundary conditions at the oscillating walls. Also, as the second-order problem is solved directly for the Lagrangian velocity, the formulation does not need to employ the notion of Stokes drift, or any associated post-processing, thus facilitating a direct comparison with experiments. Because the first-order problem is formulated in terms of the displacement field, our formulation is directly applicable to more complex fluid-structure interaction problems in microacoustofluidic devices. After the formulation's exposition, we present numerical results that illustrate the advantages of the formulation with respect to current approaches.

  10. The introduction of radial streaming into Galanin's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, D.C.

    1963-08-01

    In his original formulation of small-source theory, Galanin allowed only simple source/sinks at the lattice points. The effect of streaming across air gaps can be allowed for by including dipoles as well as simple sources at these points. The calculation is carried through and a formula is deduced for the radial streaming factor. This study was carried out during 1960, and was not published because it was to some extent superseded by other work. Galanin and Kuchorov have now published an analysis of this problem by a different method, and it seems that an account of the earlier study might now be of some interest. (author)

  11. Streaming effect of wall oscillation to boundary layer separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. H.; Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary theoretical result on the time averaged streaming effect of local forcing excitation to the boundary layer separation from smooth surface. The problem is formulated as a periodic disturbance to a basic steady breakaway separating flow, for which the data are taken from a numerical triple-deck solution. The ratio of Strouhal number St and Reynolds number Re plays an important role, both being assumed sufficiently high. The analytical and numerical results show that this streaming effect is quite strong at proper values of St/Re exp 1/4, which may delay or even suppress the separation.

  12. Gamma streaming experiments for validation of Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilagam, L.; Mohapatra, D.K.; Subbaiah, K.V.; Iliyas Lone, M.; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2012-01-01

    In-homogeneities in shield structures lead to considerable amount of leakage radiation (streaming) increasing the radiation levels in accessible areas. Development works on experimental as well as computational methods for quantifying this streaming radiation are still continuing. Monte Carlo based radiation transport code, MCNP is usually a tool for modeling and analyzing such problems involving complex geometries. In order to validate this computational method for streaming analysis, it is necessary to carry out some experimental measurements simulating these inhomogeneities like ducts and voids present in the bulk shields for typical cases. The data thus generated will be analysed by simulating the experimental set up employing MCNP code and optimized input parameters for the code in finding solutions for similar radiation streaming problems will be formulated. Comparison of experimental data obtained from radiation streaming experiments through ducts will give a set of thumb rules and analytical fits for total radiation dose rates within and outside the duct. The present study highlights the validation of MCNP code through the gamma streaming experiments carried out with the ducts of various shapes and dimensions. Over all, the present study throws light on suitability of MCNP code for the analysis of gamma radiation streaming problems for all duct configurations considered. In the present study, only dose rate comparisons have been made. Studies on spectral comparison of streaming radiation are in process. Also, it is planned to repeat the experiments with various shield materials. Since the penetrations and ducts through bulk shields are unavoidable in an operating nuclear facility the results on this kind of radiation streaming simulations and experiments will be very useful in the shield structure optimization without compromising the radiation safety

  13. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion in small stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jin; Jun, Kye-Won [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju(Korea)

    2001-10-31

    This study is the analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion reach by numerical model test. Through it we can provide the basis data in flood, and in grasping stream flow characteristics. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics in Seoknam stream were implemented by using computer model HEC-RAS(one-dimensional model) and RMA2(two-dimensional finite element model). As a result we became to know that RMA2 to simulate left, main channel, right in stream is more effective method in analysing flow in channel bends, steep slope, complex bed form effect stream flow characteristics, than HEC-RAS. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Forward Modeling and validation of a new formulation to compute self-potential signals associated with ground water flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bolève

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical formulation of the coupled hydroelectrical flow in porous media is based on a linear formulation of two coupled constitutive equations for the electrical current density and the seepage velocity of the water phase and obeying Onsager's reciprocity. This formulation shows that the streaming current density is controlled by the gradient of the fluid pressure of the water phase and a streaming current coupling coefficient that depends on the so-called zeta potential. Recently a new formulation has been introduced in which the streaming current density is directly connected to the seepage velocity of the water phase and to the excess of electrical charge per unit pore volume in the porous material. The advantages of this formulation are numerous. First this new formulation is more intuitive not only in terms of establishing a constitutive equation for the generalized Ohm's law but also in specifying boundary conditions for the influence of the flow field upon the streaming potential. With the new formulation, the streaming potential coupling coefficient shows a decrease of its magnitude with permeability in agreement with published results. The new formulation has been extended in the inertial laminar flow regime and to unsaturated conditions with applications to the vadose zone. This formulation is suitable to model self-potential signals in the field. We investigate infiltration of water from an agricultural ditch, vertical infiltration of water into a sinkhole, and preferential horizontal flow of ground water in a paleochannel. For the three cases reported in the present study, a good match is obtained between finite element simulations performed and field observations. Thus, this formulation could be useful for the inverse mapping of the geometry of groundwater flow from self-potential field measurements.

  15. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  16. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  17. The LHCb Turbo stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, A., E-mail: albert.puig@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015–2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  18. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  19. Stream processing health card application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data.

  20. Nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Stevan R; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer (15NO3-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient of background N concentration. Uptake increased in four of six streams as NO3-N was incrementally elevated, indicating that these streams were not saturated. Uptake generally corresponded to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but deviated from the model in two streams where some other growth-critical factor may have been limiting. Proximity to saturation was correlated to background N concentration but was better predicted by the ratio of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suggesting phosphorus limitation in several high-N streams. Uptake velocity, a reflection of uptake efficiency, declined nonlinearly with increasing N amendment in all streams. At the same time, uptake velocity was highest in the low-N streams. Our conceptual model of N transport, uptake, and uptake efficiency suggests that, while streams may be active sites of N uptake on the landscape, N saturation contributes to nonlinear changes in stream N dynamics that correspond to decreased uptake efficiency.

  1. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  2. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  3. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  4. Galaxies with jet streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Describes recent research work on supersonic gas flow. Notable examples have been observed in cosmic radio sources, where jet streams of galactic dimensions sometimes occur, apparently as the result of interaction between neighbouring galaxies. The current theory of jet behaviour has been convincingly demonstrated using computer simulation. The surprisingly long-term stability is related to the supersonic velocity, and is analagous to the way in which an Appollo spacecraft re-entering the atmosphere supersonically is protected by the gas from the burning shield. (G.F.F.)

  5. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  6. The metaphors we stream by: Making sense of music streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja Nylund

    2016-01-01

    In Norway music-streaming services have become mainstream in everyday music listening. This paper examines how 12 heavy streaming users make sense of their experiences with Spotify and WiMP Music (now Tidal). The analysis relies on a mixed-method qualitative study, combining music-diary self-reports, online observation of streaming accounts, Facebook and last.fm scrobble-logs, and in-depth interviews. By drawing on existing metaphors of Internet experiences we demonstrate that music-streaming...

  7. Tracking Gendered Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eriksson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent features of digital music services is the provision of personalized music recommendations that come about through the profiling of users and audiences. Based on a range of "bot experiments," this article investigates if, and how, gendered patterns in music recommendations are provided by the streaming service Spotify. While our experiments did not give any strong indications that Spotify assigns different taste profiles to male and female users, the study showed that male artists were highly overrepresented in Spotify's music recommendations; an issue which we argue prompts users to cite hegemonic masculine norms within the music industries. Although the results should be approached as historically and contextually contingent, we argue that they point to how gender and gendered tastes may be constituted through the interplay between users and algorithmic knowledge-making processes, and how digital content delivery may maintain and challenge gender relations and gendered power differentials within the music industries. Seen through the lens of critical research on software, music and gender performativity, the experiments thus provide insights into how gender is shaped and attributed meaning as it materializes in contemporary music streams.

  8. The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070171

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 wi...

  9. Neonates need tailored drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegaert, Karel

    2013-02-08

    Drugs are very strong tools used to improve outcome in neonates. Despite this fact and in contrast to tailored perfusion equipment, incubators or ventilators for neonates, we still commonly use drug formulations initially developed for adults. We would like to make the point that drug formulations given to neonates need to be tailored for this age group. Besides the obvious need to search for active compounds that take the pathophysiology of the newborn into account, this includes the dosage and formulation. The dosage or concentration should facilitate the administration of low amounts and be flexible since clearance is lower in neonates with additional extensive between-individual variability. Formulations need to be tailored for dosage variability in the low ranges and also to the clinical characteristics of neonates. A specific focus of interest during neonatal drug development therefore is a need to quantify and limit excipient exposure based on the available knowledge of their safety or toxicity. Until such tailored vials and formulations become available, compounding practices for drug formulations in neonates should be evaluated to guarantee the correct dosing, product stability and safety.

  10. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  11. Glass formulation requirements for DWPF coupled operations using crystalline silicotitanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.; Andrews, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The design basis DWPF flowsheet couples the vitrification of two waste streams: (1) a washed sludge and (2) a hydrolyzed sodium tetraphenylborate precipitate product, PHA. The PHA contains cesium-137 which had been precipitated from the tank supernate with sodium tetraphenylborate. Smaller amounts of strontium and plutonium adsorbed on sodium titanate are also present with the PHA feed. Currently, DWPF is running a sludge-only flowsheet while working towards solutions to the problems encountered with In Tank Precipitation (ITP). The sludge loading for the sludge-only flowsheet and for the anticipated coupled operations is 28 wt% on an oxide basis. For the coupled operation, it is essential to balance the treatment of the two waste streams such that no supernate remains after immobilization of all the sludge. An alternative to ITP and sodium titanate is the removal of Cs-137, Sr-90, and plutonium from the tank supernate by ion exchange using crystalline silicotitanate (CST). This material has been shown to effectively sorb these elements from the supernate. It is also known that CST sorbs plutonium. The loaded CST could then be immobilized with the sludge during vitrification. It has recently been demonstrated that CST loadings approaching 70 wt% for a CST-only glass can be achieved using a borosilicate glass formulation which can be processed by the DWPF melter. Initial efforts on coupled waste streams with simulated DWPF sludge show promise that a borosilicate glass formulation can incorporate both sludge and CST. This paper presents the bases for research efforts to develop a glass formulation which will incorporate sludge and CST at loadings appropriate for DWPF operation

  12. Microcanonical formulation of quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazaki, A.

    1984-03-01

    A microcanonical formulation of Euclidean quantum field theories is presented. In the formulation, correlation functions are given by a microcanonical ensemble average of fields. Furthermore, the perturbative equivalence of the formulation and the standard functional formulation is proved and the equipartition low is derived in our formulation. (author)

  13. Morphology of a Wetland Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu; Andrle

    1997-11-01

    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  14. System optimization for continuous on-stream elemental analysis using low-output isotopic neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, R.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    In continuous on-stream neutron activation analysis, the material to be analyzed may be continuously recirculated in a closed loop system between an activation source and a shielded detector. In this paper an analytical formulation of the detector response for such a system is presented. This formulation should be useful in optimizing the system design parameters for specific applications. A study has been made of all parameters that influence the detector response during on-stream analysis. Feasibility applications of the method to solutions of manganese and vanadium using a 5 μg 252 Cf neutron source are demonstrated. (author)

  15. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  16. ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  17. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  18. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  20. Industrial-Strength Streaming Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky

    1997-01-01

    Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…

  1. Data streams: algorithms and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muthukrishnan, S

    2005-01-01

    ... massive data sets in general. Researchers in Theoretical Computer Science, Databases, IP Networking and Computer Systems are working on the data stream challenges. This article is an overview and survey of data stream algorithmics and is an updated version of [175]. S. Muthukrishnan Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, muthu@cs...

  2. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. Here, data streams have been viewed as a flow of low-level data items, e.g., sensor readings or IP packet data. Stream query languages have mostly been SQL-based, with the STREAM and TelegraphCQ lang...

  3. Stream Deniable-Encryption Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Moldovyan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for stream deniable encryption of secret message is proposed, which is computationally indistinguishable from the probabilistic encryption of some fake message. The method uses generation of two key streams with some secure block cipher. One of the key streams is generated depending on the secret key and the other one is generated depending on the fake key. The key streams are mixed with the secret and fake data streams so that the output ciphertext looks like the ciphertext produced by some probabilistic encryption algorithm applied to the fake message, while using the fake key. When the receiver or/and sender of the ciphertext are coerced to open the encryption key and the source message, they open the fake key and the fake message. To disclose their lie the coercer should demonstrate possibility of the alternative decryption of the ciphertext, however this is a computationally hard problem.

  4. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  5. Pilot-Streaming: Design Considerations for a Stream Processing Framework for High-Performance Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Luckow; Peter Kasson; Shantenu Jha

    2016-01-01

    This White Paper (submitted to STREAM 2016) identifies an approach to integrate streaming data with HPC resources. The paper outlines the design of Pilot-Streaming, which extends the concept of Pilot-abstraction to streaming real-time data.

  6. Linear triangle finite element formulation for multigroup neutron transport analysis with anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillie, R.A.; Robinson, J.C.

    1976-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures.

  7. Linear triangle finite element formulation for multigroup neutron transport analysis with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Robinson, J.C.

    1976-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures

  8. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  9. Dynamical modeling of tidal streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2014-01-01

    I present a new framework for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams. The framework consists of simple models for the initial action-angle distribution of tidal debris, which can be straightforwardly evolved forward in time. Taking advantage of the essentially one-dimensional nature of tidal streams, the transformation to position-velocity coordinates can be linearized and interpolated near a small number of points along the stream, thus allowing for efficient computations of a stream's properties in observable quantities. I illustrate how to calculate the stream's average location (its 'track') in different coordinate systems, how to quickly estimate the dispersion around its track, and how to draw mock stream data. As a generative model, this framework allows one to compute the full probability distribution function and marginalize over or condition it on certain phase-space dimensions as well as convolve it with observational uncertainties. This will be instrumental in proper data analysis of stream data. In addition to providing a computationally efficient practical tool for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams, the action-angle nature of the framework helps elucidate how the observed width of the stream relates to the velocity dispersion or mass of the progenitor, and how the progenitors of 'orphan' streams could be located. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework crucially depends on the ability to calculate action-angle variables for any orbit in any gravitational potential. A novel method for calculating actions, frequencies, and angles in any static potential using a single orbit integration is described in the Appendix.

  10. Interpreting streaming biosignals : in search of best approaches to augmenting mobile health monitoring with machine learning for adaptive clinical decision support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; Mendes Batista, R.J.; Bults, Richard G.A.; op den Akker, Harm; Widya, I.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Tönis, Thijs; Tonis, T.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2011-01-01

    We investigate Body Area Networks for ambulant patient monitoring. As well as sensing physiological parameters, BAN applications may provide feedback to patients. Automating formulation of feedback requires realtime analysis and interpretation of streaming biosignals and other context and knowledge

  11. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  12. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  13. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  14. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  15. Curcumin nanodisks: formulation and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Mistuni; Singh, Amareshwar T. K.; Xu, Wenwei; Sulchek, Todd; Gordon, Leo I.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Nanodisks (ND) are nanoscale, disk-shaped phospholipid bilayers whose edge is stabilized by apolipoproteins. In the present study, ND were formulated with the bioactive polyphenol, curcumin, at a 6:1 phospholipid:curcumin molar ratio. Atomic force microscopy revealed that curcumin-ND are particles with diameters

  16. Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gron, O.

    1981-01-01

    Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

  17. Hamiltonian formulation of the supermembrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Sezgin, E.; Tanii, Y.

    1987-06-01

    The Hamiltonian formulation of the supermembrane theory in eleven dimensions is given. The covariant split of the first and second class constraints is exhibited, and their Dirac brackets are computed. Gauge conditions are imposed in such a way that the reparametrizations of the membrane with divergence free 2-vectors are unfixed. (author). 10 refs

  18. Knowledge discovery from data streams

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Internet age and the increased use of ubiquitous computing devices, the large volume and continuous flow of distributed data have imposed new constraints on the design of learning algorithms. Exploring how to extract knowledge structures from evolving and time-changing data, Knowledge Discovery from Data Streams presents a coherent overview of state-of-the-art research in learning from data streams.The book covers the fundamentals that are imperative to understanding data streams and describes important applications, such as TCP/IP traffic, GPS data, sensor networks,

  19. Waste streams from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Ericsson, A.-M.

    1978-03-01

    The three main products from reprocessing operations are uranium, plutonium and vitrified high-level-waste. The purpose of this report is to identify and quantify additional waste streams containing radioactive isotops. Special emphasis is laid on Sr, Cs and the actinides. The main part, more than 99 % of both the fission-products and the transuranic elements are contained in the HLW-stream. Small quantities sometimes contaminate the U- and Pu-streams and the rest is found in the medium-level-waste

  20. Effects of 2 fungicide formulations on microbial and macroinvertebrate leaf decomposition under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria; Smalling, Kelly L.; Hladik, Michelle; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic fungi contribute significantly to the decomposition of leaves in streams, a key ecosystem service. However, little is known about the effects of fungicides on aquatic fungi and macroinvertebrates involved with leaf decomposition. Red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves were conditioned in a stream to acquire microbes (bacteria and fungi), or leached in tap water (unconditioned) to simulate potential reduction of microbial biomass by fungicides. Conditioned leaves were exposed to fungicide formulations QUILT (azoxystrobin + propiconazole) or PRISTINE (boscalid + pyraclostrobin), in the presence and absence of the leaf shredder, Hyalella azteca (amphipods; 7-d old at start of exposures) for 14 d at 23 °C. QUILT formulation (~ 0.3 μg/L, 1.8 μg/L, 8 μg/L) tended to increase leaf decomposition by amphipods (not significant) without a concomitant increase in amphipod biomass, indicating potential increased consumption of leaves with reduced nutritional value. PRISTINE formulation (~ 33 μg/L) significantly reduced amphipod growth and biomass (p<0.05), effects similar to those observed with unconditioned controls. The significant suppressive effects of PRISTINE on amphipod growth, and the trend towards increased leaf decomposition with increasing QUILT concentration, indicate the potential for altered leaf decay in streams exposed to fungicides. Further work is needed to evaluate fungicide effects on leaf decomposition under conditions relevant to stream ecosystems, including temperature shifts and pulsed exposures to pesticide mixtures.

  1. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  2. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, Steven [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-23

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  3. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  4. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  5. STREAMS - Technology Programme. Yearbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The STREAMS Technology Programme addresses municipal waste. Municipal waste is composed of waste from households and small businesses. The programme focuses on five areas Waste prevention, Collection, transportation, and management of waste streams, Waste treatment technologies, Waste recycling into raw materials and new products, Landfill technologies. The development projects of the STREAMS Programme utilize a number of different technologies, such as biotechnology, information technology, materials technology, measurement and analysis, and automation technology. Finnish expertise in materials recycling technologies and related electronics and information technology is extremely high on a worldwide scale even though the companies represent SMEs. Started in 2001, the STREAMS programme has a total volume of 27 million euros, half of which is funded by Tekes. The programme runs through the end of 2004. (author)

  6. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. On-stream analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.; Watt, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    An outline of some commercially available on-stream analysis systems in given. Systems based on x-ray tube/crystal spectrometers, scintillation detectors, proportional detectors and solid-state detectors are discussed

  8. nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, S. R.; Valett, H. M.; Webster, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer ((NO3)-N-15-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient ...

  9. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  10. Langevin formulation of quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncadelli, M.

    1989-03-01

    We first show that nonrelativistic quantum mechanics formulated at imaginary-(h/2 π) can formally be viewed as the Fokker-Planck description of a frictionless brownian motion, which occurs (in general) in an absorbing medium. We next offer a new formulation of quantum mechanics, which is basically the Langevin treatment of this brownian motion. Explicitly, we derive a noise-average representation for the transition probability W(X'',t''|X',t'), in terms of the solutions to a Langevin equation with a Gaussian white-noise. Upon analytic continuation back to real-(h/2 π),W(X'',t''|X',t') becomes the propagator of the original Schroedinger equation. Our approach allows for a straightforward application to quantum dynamical problems of the mathematical techniques of classical stochastic processes. Moreover, computer simulations of quantum mechanical systems can be carried out by using numerical programs based on the Langevin dynamics. (author). 19 refs, 1 tab

  11. Optimization of chlorphenesin emulgel formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Magdy I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation of chlorphenesin (CHL) using 2 types of gelling agents: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934. The influence of the type of the gelling agent and the concentration of both the oil phase and emulsifying agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgels was investigated using a 23 factorial design. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, antifungal activi...

  12. Process for humidifying a gaseous fuel stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederquist, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel gas stream for a fuel cell is humidified by a recirculating hot liquid water stream using the heat of condensation from the humidified stream as the heat to vaporize the liquid water. Humidification is accomplished by directly contacting the liquid water with the dry gas stream in a saturator to evaporate a small portion of water. The recirculating liquid water is reheated by direct contact with the humidified gas stream in a condenser, wherein water is condensed into the liquid stream. Between the steps of humidifying and condensing water from the gas stream it passes through the fuel cell and additional water, in the form of steam, is added thereto

  13. A New Optimization Strategy to Improve Design of Hydrogen Network Based Formulation of Hydrogen Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. S. Birjandi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a shortcut model for formulating hydrogen consumers in hydrogen network based on inlet/outlet flow rate and inlet/outlet hydrogen purity. The formulation procedure is obtained using nonlinear regression of industrial data and represents the relationship between the flow rate and purity of outlet and inlet streams. The proposed model can estimate outlet flow rate and purity of hydrogen by changing inlet flow rate and purity of hydrogen. The shortcut model is used to achieve optimal operation of consumers and it optimizes hydrogen network design.

  14. Fish populations in Plynlimon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Crisp

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.

  15. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  16. Perfume formulation: words and chats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Céline

    2008-06-01

    What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!

  17. Formulation of soy oil products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerfel, John B.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments different formulations of soy oil products such as salad and cooking oils, margarine, shortenings, commercial shortenings, frying shortenings, and fluid shortenings. Hydrogenation and its influence on final products is also included.

    El trabajo presenta diferentes formulaciones a base de aceite de soja tales como aceites para ensalada y cocinado, margarina, grasas sólidas (shortenings, grasas sólidas comerciales, grasas sólidas para frituras y grasas fluidas. Hace también referencia al proceso de hidrogenación y a sus efectos en los productos finales.

  18. Formulation and Characterization of Sustained Release Floating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate sustained release gastroretentive microballoons of metformin hydrochloride with the objective of improving its bioavailability. Methods: Microballoons of metformin hydrochloride were formulated by solvent evaporation and diffusion method using varying mixtures of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ...

  19. Bioequivalence assessment of two formulations of ibuprofen

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Talla, Zeyad; Akrawi, Sabah H; Tolley, Luke T; Sioud, Salim H; Zaater, Mohammed F; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the relative bioavailability of two formulations of ibuprofen. The first formulation was Doloraz , produced by Al-Razi Pharmaceutical Company, Amman, Jordan. The second forumulation was Brufen , manufactured by Boots

  20. Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab

  1. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...

  2. Stream ciphers and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cusick, Thomas W; Renvall, Ari R

    2004-01-01

    This is the unique book on cross-fertilisations between stream ciphers and number theory. It systematically and comprehensively covers known connections between the two areas that are available only in research papers. Some parts of this book consist of new research results that are not available elsewhere. In addition to exercises, over thirty research problems are presented in this book. In this revised edition almost every chapter was updated, and some chapters were completely rewritten. It is useful as a textbook for a graduate course on the subject, as well as a reference book for researchers in related fields. · Unique book on interactions of stream ciphers and number theory. · Research monograph with many results not available elsewhere. · A revised edition with the most recent advances in this subject. · Over thirty research problems for stimulating interactions between the two areas. · Written by leading researchers in stream ciphers and number theory.

  3. Streaming simplification of tetrahedral meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Huy T; Callahan, Steven P; Lindstrom, Peter; Pascucci, Valerio; Silva, Cláudio T

    2007-01-01

    Unstructured tetrahedral meshes are commonly used in scientific computing to represent scalar, vector, and tensor fields in three dimensions. Visualization of these meshes can be difficult to perform interactively due to their size and complexity. By reducing the size of the data, we can accomplish real-time visualization necessary for scientific analysis. We propose a two-step approach for streaming simplification of large tetrahedral meshes. Our algorithm arranges the data on disk in a streaming, I/O-efficient format that allows coherent access to the tetrahedral cells. A quadric-based simplification is sequentially performed on small portions of the mesh in-core. Our output is a coherent streaming mesh which facilitates future processing. Our technique is fast, produces high quality approximations, and operates out-of-core to process meshes too large for main memory.

  4. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  5. Performance Evaluation of Abrasive Grinding Wheel Formulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on the formulation and manufacture of abrasive grinding wheel using locally formulated silicon carbide abrasive grains. Six local raw material substitutes were identified through pilot study and with the initial mix of the identified materials, a systematic search for an optimal formulation of silicon ...

  6. Optimization of chlorphenesin emulgel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Magdy I

    2004-10-11

    This study was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation of chlorphenesin (CHL) using 2 types of gelling agents: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934. The influence of the type of the gelling agent and the concentration of both the oil phase and emulsifying agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgels was investigated using a 2(3) factorial design. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, antifungal activity, and stability. Commercially available CHL topical powder was used for comparison. All the prepared emulgels showed acceptable physical properties concerning color, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, and pH value. They also exhibited higher drug release and antifungal activity than the CHL powder. It was found that the emulsifying agent concentration had the most pronounced effect on the drug release from the emulgels followed by the oil phase concentration and finally the type of the gelling agent. The drug release from all the emulgels was found to follow diffusion-controlled mechanism. Rheological studies revealed that the CHL emulgels exhibited a shear-thinning behavior with thixotropy. Stability studies showed that the physical appearance, rheological properties, drug release, and antifungal activity in all the prepared emulgels remained unchanged upon storage for 3 months. As a general conclusion, it was suggested that the CHL emulgel formulation prepared with HPMC with the oil phase concentration in its low level and emulsifying agent concentration in its high level was the formula of choice since it showed the highest drug release and antifungal activity.

  7. Pollutant transport in natural streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hayes, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to estimate the downstream effect of chemical and radioactive pollutant releases to tributary streams and rivers. The one-dimensional dispersion model was employed along with a dead zone model to describe stream transport behavior. Options are provided for sorption/desorption, ion exchange, and particle deposition in the river. The model equations are solved numerically by the LODIPS computer code. The solution method was verified by application to actual and simulated releases of radionuclides and other chemical pollutants. (U.S.)

  8. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  9. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  10. Report - Melter Testing of New High Bismuth HLW Formulations VSL-13R2770-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The primary objective of the work described was to test two glasses formulated for a high bismuth waste stream on the DM100 melter system. Testing was designed to determine processing characteristics and production rates, assess the tendency for foaming, and confirm glass properties. The glass compositions tested were previously developed to maintain high waste loadings and processing rates while suppressing the foaming observed in previous tests

  11. Stream-processing pipelines: processing of streams on multiprocessor architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    In this paper we study the timing aspects of the operation of stream-processing applications that run on a multiprocessor architecture. Dependencies are derived for the processing and communication times of the processors in such a system. Three cases of real-time constrained operation and four

  12. CAMS: OLAPing Multidimensional Data Streams Efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Alfredo

    In the context of data stream research, taming the multidimensionality of real-life data streams in order to efficiently support OLAP analysis/mining tasks is a critical challenge. Inspired by this fundamental motivation, in this paper we introduce CAMS (C ube-based A cquisition model for M ultidimensional S treams), a model for efficiently OLAPing multidimensional data streams. CAMS combines a set of data stream processing methodologies, namely (i) the OLAP dimension flattening process, which allows us to obtain dimensionality reduction of multidimensional data streams, and (ii) the OLAP stream aggregation scheme, which aggregates data stream readings according to an OLAP-hierarchy-based membership approach. We complete our analytical contribution by means of experimental assessment and analysis of both the efficiency and the scalability of OLAPing capabilities of CAMS on synthetic multidimensional data streams. Both analytical and experimental results clearly connote CAMS as an enabling component for next-generation Data Stream Management Systems.

  13. Salamander occupancy in headwater stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E.H.C.; Green, L.E.; Lowe, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. Stream ecosystems exhibit a highly consistent dendritic geometry in which linear habitat units intersect to create a hierarchical network of connected branches. 2. Ecological and life history traits of species living in streams, such as the potential for overland movement, may interact with this architecture to shape patterns of occupancy and response to disturbance. Specifically, large-scale habitat alteration that fragments stream networks and reduces connectivity may reduce the probability a stream is occupied by sensitive species, such as stream salamanders. 3. We collected habitat occupancy data on four species of stream salamanders in first-order (i.e. headwater) streams in undeveloped and urbanised regions of the eastern U.S.A. We then used an information-theoretic approach to test alternative models of salamander occupancy based on a priori predictions of the effects of network configuration, region and salamander life history. 4. Across all four species, we found that streams connected to other first-order streams had higher occupancy than those flowing directly into larger streams and rivers. For three of the four species, occupancy was lower in the urbanised region than in the undeveloped region. 5. These results demonstrate that the spatial configuration of stream networks within protected areas affects the occurrences of stream salamander species. We strongly encourage preservation of network connections between first-order streams in conservation planning and management decisions that may affect stream species.

  14. Formulation development for PREPP concreted waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Welch, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    Analysis of variance and logistic regression techniques have been used to develop models describing the effects of formulation variables and their interactions on compressive strength, solidification, free-standing water, and workability of hydraulic cement grouts incorporating simulated Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) wastes. These models provide the basis for specifications of grout formulations to solidify these wastes. The experimental test matrix, formulation preparation, and test methods employed are described. The development of analytical models for formulation behavior and the conclusions drawn regarding appropriate formulation variable ranges are discussed. 13 references, 9 figures, 15 tables

  15. Analysis of streaming media systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia services have been popping up at tremendous speed in recent years. A large number of these multimedia streaming systems are introduced to the consumer market. Internet Service Providers, Telecommunications Operators, Service/Content Providers, and end users are interested in the

  16. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Kosinka, Jin; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these 'stretch-free' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  18. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear reactor cavity streaming shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, R.J.; Stephen, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The upper portion of a nuclear reactor vessel supported in a concrete reactor cavity has a structure mounted below the top of the vessel between the outer vessel wall and the reactor cavity wall which contains hydrogenous material which will attenuate radiation streaming upward between vessel and the reactor cavity wall while preventing pressure buildup during a loss of coolant accident

  20. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  1. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple distribu......A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  2. Energy policy formulation for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, T.

    1981-01-01

    Pakistan is a low income, low energy consumption country. In view of the close interdependence between economic growth and energy consumption, she will need increasing energy supplies in order to maintain her economic growth. This paper develops an energy sector optimization model for the Pakistan economy, which consists of production models for five energy industries, ie oil, gas, coal, electricity (including electricity generated in nuclear power plants) and non-commercial fuels. The model is first used to forecast energy balances for the period 1975 - 2006. The model is then employed to formulate a long-term comprehensive energy policy for Pakistan. Finally the suggested policy is compared with the current official energy programme. (author)

  3. On Scalar Energy: Mathematical Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathout, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of electromagnetic waves (EMW), which exists only in vacuum of the empty space, will be discussed and mathematically formulated in this paper. The mathematical existence of this energy was first proposed in a series of groundbreaking equations by Scottish Mathematician, James Clerk Maxwell, in the mid of 1800 and 39;s. This energy is called scalar energy. It is characterized by both particle and wave like. The waves of this energy are called longitudinal EMW to distinguish them from transverse EM, the kind we are familiar with in our daily life. Teslas name of this energy is scalar energy or zero point energy. It is aimed at this paper to explain more details and to verify the scalar EM concept in vacuum.

  4. Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic measurements of noise radiated from a heated, three-stream, co-annular exhaust system operated at subsonic conditions are presented. The experiments were conducted for a range of core, bypass, and tertiary stream temperatures and pressures. The nozzle system had a fan-to-core area ratio of 2.92 and a tertiary-to-core area ratio of 0.96. The impact of introducing a third stream on the radiated noise for third-stream velocities below that of the bypass stream was to reduce high frequency noise levels at broadside and peak jet-noise angles. Mid-frequency noise radiation at aft observation angles was impacted by the conditions of the third stream. The core velocity had the greatest impact on peak noise levels and the bypass-to-core mass flow ratio had a slight impact on levels in the peak jet-noise direction. The third-stream jet conditions had no impact on peak noise levels. Introduction of a third jet stream in the presence of a simulated forward-flight stream limits the impact of the third stream on radiated noise. For equivalent ideal thrust conditions, two-stream and three-stream jets can produce similar acoustic spectra although high-frequency noise levels tend to be lower for the three-stream jet.

  5. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  6. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  7. Wave mode instabilities in a two-stream free-electron laser with a background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadrifard, Shabnam; Maraghechi, B; Mohsenpour, T

    2013-01-01

    A theory is presented for a two-stream free-electron laser (FEL) with a background plasma. A dispersion relation (DR) for the unstable couplings of wave modes is derived using fluid formulation. This DR is solved numerically to find the unstable modes and their growth rate. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams as well as the background plasma on the FEL resonance and the two-stream instability is studied. It is shown that their separate as well as combined effects can increase the growth rates. (paper)

  8. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  9. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Modification and channelization of streams and rivers have been conducted extensively throughout the world during the past century. Subsequently, much effort has been directed at re-creating the lost habitats and thereby improving living conditions for aquatic organisms. However, as restoration...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in...

  10. A survey on Big Data Stream Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... huge amount of stream like telecommunication systems. So, there ... streams have many challenges for data mining algorithm design like using of ..... A. Bifet and R. Gavalda, "Learning from Time-Changing Data with. Adaptive ...

  11. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  12. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  13. Modeling nutrient in-stream processes at the watershed scale using Nutrient Spiralling metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcé, R.; Armengol, J.

    2009-07-01

    One of the fundamental problems of using large-scale biogeochemical models is the uncertainty involved in aggregating the components of fine-scale deterministic models in watershed applications, and in extrapolating the results of field-scale measurements to larger spatial scales. Although spatial or temporal lumping may reduce the problem, information obtained during fine-scale research may not apply to lumped categories. Thus, the use of knowledge gained through fine-scale studies to predict coarse-scale phenomena is not straightforward. In this study, we used the nutrient uptake metrics defined in the Nutrient Spiralling concept to formulate the equations governing total phosphorus in-stream fate in a deterministic, watershed-scale biogeochemical model. Once the model was calibrated, fitted phosphorus retention metrics where put in context of global patterns of phosphorus retention variability. For this purpose, we calculated power regressions between phosphorus retention metrics, streamflow, and phosphorus concentration in water using published data from 66 streams worldwide, including both pristine and nutrient enriched streams. Performance of the calibrated model confirmed that the Nutrient Spiralling formulation is a convenient simplification of the biogeochemical transformations involved in total phosphorus in-stream fate. Thus, this approach may be helpful even for customary deterministic applications working at short time steps. The calibrated phosphorus retention metrics were comparable to field estimates from the study watershed, and showed high coherence with global patterns of retention metrics from streams of the world. In this sense, the fitted phosphorus retention metrics were similar to field values measured in other nutrient enriched streams. Analysis of the bibliographical data supports the view that nutrient enriched streams have lower phosphorus retention efficiency than pristine streams, and that this efficiency loss is maintained in a wide

  14. Recurrent and Dynamic Models for Predicting Streaming Video Quality of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampis, Christos G; Li, Zhi; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Bovik, Alan C

    2018-07-01

    Streaming video services represent a very large fraction of global bandwidth consumption. Due to the exploding demands of mobile video streaming services, coupled with limited bandwidth availability, video streams are often transmitted through unreliable, low-bandwidth networks. This unavoidably leads to two types of major streaming-related impairments: compression artifacts and/or rebuffering events. In streaming video applications, the end-user is a human observer; hence being able to predict the subjective Quality of Experience (QoE) associated with streamed videos could lead to the creation of perceptually optimized resource allocation strategies driving higher quality video streaming services. We propose a variety of recurrent dynamic neural networks that conduct continuous-time subjective QoE prediction. By formulating the problem as one of time-series forecasting, we train a variety of recurrent neural networks and non-linear autoregressive models to predict QoE using several recently developed subjective QoE databases. These models combine multiple, diverse neural network inputs, such as predicted video quality scores, rebuffering measurements, and data related to memory and its effects on human behavioral responses, using them to predict QoE on video streams impaired by both compression artifacts and rebuffering events. Instead of finding a single time-series prediction model, we propose and evaluate ways of aggregating different models into a forecasting ensemble that delivers improved results with reduced forecasting variance. We also deploy appropriate new evaluation metrics for comparing time-series predictions in streaming applications. Our experimental results demonstrate improved prediction performance that approaches human performance. An implementation of this work can be found at https://github.com/christosbampis/NARX_QoE_release.

  15. A comparison of Fick and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion formulations in PEMFC gas diffusion layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Michael; Wetton, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the mathematical formulations of Fick and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion in the context of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell cathode gas diffusion layers. The simple Fick law with a diagonal diffusion matrix is an approximation of Maxwell-Stefan. Formulations of diffusion combined with mass-averaged Darcy flow are considered for three component gases. For this application, the formulations can be compared computationally in a simple, one dimensional setting. Despite the models' seemingly different structure, it is observed that the predictions of the formulations are very similar on the cathode when air is used as oxidant. The two formulations give quite different results when the Nitrogen in the air oxidant is replaced by helium (this is often done as a diagnostic for fuel cells designs). The two formulations also give quite different results for the anode with a dilute Hydrogen stream. These results give direction to when Maxwell-Stefan diffusion, which is more complicated to implement computationally in many codes, should be used in fuel cell simulations.

  16. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  17. Stream dynamics: An overview for land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard H. Heede

    1980-01-01

    Concepts of stream dynamics are demonstrated through discussion of processes and process indicators; theory is included only where helpful to explain concepts. Present knowledge allows only qualitative prediction of stream behavior. However, such predictions show how management actions will affect the stream and its environment.

  18. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  19. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  20. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  1. Academic Self-Concepts in Ability Streams: Considering Domain Specificity and Same-Stream Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…

  2. The long term response of stream flow to climatic warming in headwater streams of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy B. Jones; Amanda J. Rinehart

    2010-01-01

    Warming in the boreal forest of interior Alaska will have fundamental impacts on stream ecosystems through changes in stream hydrology resulting from upslope loss of permafrost, alteration of availability of soil moisture, and the distribution of vegetation. We examined stream flow in three headwater streams of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) in...

  3. Slag-based saltstone formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Approximately 400 x 10 6 liters of low-level alkaline salt solution will be treated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) prior to disposal in concrete vaults at SRP. Treatment involves removal of CS + and Sr +2 followed by solidification and stabilization of potential contaminants in saltstone, a hydrated ceramic waste form. Chromium, technetium, and nitrate releases from saltstone can be significantly reduced by substituting hydraulic blast furnace slag for portland cement in the formulation designs. Slag-based mixes are also compatible with Class F fly ash used in saltstone as a functional extender to control heat of hydration and reduce permeability. A monolithic waste form is produced by the hydration of the slag and fly ash. Soluble ion release (NO 3 - ) is controlled by the saltstone microstructure. Chromium and technetium are less leachable from slag mixes compared to cement-based waste forms because these species are chemically reduced to a lower valence state by ferrous iron in the slag and precipitated as relatively insoluble phases, such as CR(OH) 3 and TcO 2 . 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Slag-based saltstone formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    Approximately 400 x 10 6 L of low-level alkaline salt solution will be treated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) prior to disposal in concrete vaults at SRP. Treatment involves removal of Cs + and Sr +2 , followed by solidification and stabilization of potential contaminants in saltstone, a hydrated ceramic wasteform. Chromium, technetium, and nitrate releases from saltstone can be significantly reduced by substituting hydraulic blast furnace slag for portland cement in the formulation designs. Slag-based mixes are also compatible with the Class F flyash used in saltstone as a functional extender to control heat of hydration and reduce permeability. (Class F flyash is also locally available at SRP.) A monolithic wasteform is produced by the hydration of the slag and flyash. Soluble ion release (NO 3- ) is controlled by the saltstone microstructure. Chromium and technetium are less leachable from slag mixes because these species are chemically reduced to a lower valence state by ferrous iron in the slag and are precipitated as relatively insoluble phases, such as Cr(OH) 3 and TcO 2 . 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Policy formulation of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Akihiro

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, the new policy formulation for public acceptance of the new consideration on the location of electric power generation has been set and applied. The planning and the enforcement being conducted by local public organizations for the local economic build-up with plant location and also the adjustement of the requirements for fishery are two main specific characters in this new policy. The background of this new public acceptance policy, the history and the actual problems about the compensation for the location of power generation plants are reviewed. One new proposal, being recommended by the Policy and Science Laboratory to MITI in 1977 is explained. This is based on the method of promoting the location of power generation plants by public participation placing the redevelopment of regional societies as its basis. The problems concerning the industrial structures in farm villages, fishing villages and the areas of commerce and industry should be systematized, and explained from the viewpoint of outside impact, the characteristics of local areas and the location problems in this new proposal. Finally, the location process and its effectiveness should be put in order. (Nakai, Y.)

  6. Hamiltonian formulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1983-07-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has become a principal tool for understanding nonlinear processes, including disruptions, in tokamak plasmas. Although analytical studies of RMHD turbulence have been useful, the model's impressive ability to simulate tokamak fluid behavior has been revealed primarily by numerical solution. The present work describes a new analytical approach, not restricted to turbulent regimes, based on Hamiltonian field theory. It is shown that the nonlinear (ideal) RMHD system, in both its high-beta and low-beta versions, can be expressed in Hanmiltonian form. Thus a Poisson bracket, [ , ], is constructed such that each RMHD field quantitity, xi/sub i/, evolves according to xi/sub i/ = [xi/sub i/,H], where H is the total field energy. The new formulation makes RMHD accessible to the methodology of Hamiltonian mechanics; it has lead, in particular, to the recognition of new RMHD invariants and even exact, nonlinear RMHD solutions. A canonical version of the Poisson bracket, which requires the introduction of additional fields, leads to a nonlinear variational principle for time-dependent RMHD

  7. STREAM: A First Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    to derive a programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich agile software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to achieve two things: to help novice......Programming is recognized as one of seven grand challenges in computing education. Decades of research have shown that the major problems novices experience are composition-based—they may know what the individual programming language constructs are, but they do not know how to put them together....... Despite this fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming education research hardly address the issue of teaching the skills needed for systematic development of programs. We provide a conceptual framework for incremental program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which unifies best...

  8. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  9. Formulation of disperse systems science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tadros, Tharwat F

    2014-01-01

    This book presents comprehensively the science and technology behind the formulation of disperse systems like emulsions, suspensions, foams and others. Starting with a general introduction, the book covers a broad range of topics like the role of different classes of surfactants, stability of disperse systems, formulation of different dispersions, evaluation of formulations and many more. Many examples are included, too. Written by the experienced author and editor Tharwart Tadros, this book is indispensable for every scientist working in the field.

  10. Formulated arthropod cadavers for pest suppression

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Pesticidal and/or antimicrobial biological agent-infected arthropod cadavers are formulated by applying a coating agent once on the surface of the cadaver which either (a) prevents the cadavers from sticking together and/or rupturing or (b) acts as an adhesive for a powder or granule applied to the cadaver to prevent sticking and rupturing. The formulated cadavers maintain or improve infectivity, reproducibility, and survivability. The formulated cadavers can be partially desiccated to improv...

  11. Multiple excitation of supports - Part 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeao, A.C.N.R.; Barbosa, H.J.C.

    1980-12-01

    The formulation and the solution of a simple specific problem of support movement are presented. The formulation is extended to the general case of infinitesimal elasticity where the approximated solutions are obtained by the variational formulation with spatial discretization by Finite Element Method. Finally, the present usual numerical techniques for the treatment of the resulting ordinary differential equations system are discused: Direct integration, Modal overlap, Spectral response. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Superspace formulation of new nonlinear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1983-07-01

    The superspace formulation of two classes of supersymmetric nonlinear σ-models are presented. Two alternative N=1 superspace formulations are given for the d=2 supersymmetric nonlinear σ-models with Killing vector potentials: (a) formulation uses an active central charge and, (b) formulation uses a spurion superfield without inducing a classical breakdown of supersymmetry. The N=2 vector multiplet is used to construct a new class of d=4 nonlinear σ-models which when reduced to d=2 possess N=4 supersymmetry. Implications of these two classes of nonlinear σ-models for N>=4 superfield supergravity are discussed. (author)

  13. Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Barouch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction, are calculated for volume elements of the solar wind as a function of the initial magnetic field direction, Phi 0 , and the initial speed gradient, (deltaV/deltaR) 0 . It is assumed that the velocity is constant and radial. These assumptions are approximately valid between approx.0.1 and 1.0 AU for many streams. Time profiles of n, B, and V are calculated for corotating streams, neglecting effects of pressure gradients. The compression and rarefaction of B depend sensitively on Phi 0 . By averaging over a typical stream, it is found that approx.r -2 , whereas does not vary in a simple way, consistent with deep space observations. Changes of field direction may be very large, depending on the initial angle; but when the initial angle at 0.1 Au is such that the base of the field line corotates with the Sun, the spiral angle is the preferred direction at 1 AU. The theory is also applicable to nonstationary flows

  14. StreamStats, version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Smith, Martyn J.; Guthrie, John D.; Steeves, Peter A.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kolb, Katharine R.; Thompson, Ryan F.; Santoro, Richard D.; Vraga, Hans W.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionStreamStats version 4, available at https://streamstats.usgs.gov, is a map-based web application that provides an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management, and engineering purposes. Developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the primary purpose of StreamStats is to provide estimates of streamflow statistics for user-selected ungaged sites on streams and for USGS streamgages, which are locations where streamflow data are collected.Streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent flood, the mean flow, and the 7-day 10-year low flow, are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. For example, estimates of the 1-percent flood (which is exceeded, on average, once in 100 years and has a 1-percent chance of exceedance in any year) are used to create flood-plain maps that form the basis for setting insurance rates and land-use zoning. This and other streamflow statistics also are used for dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; permitting of water withdrawals and wastewater and industrial discharges; hydropower facility design and regulation; and setting of minimum allowed streamflows to protect freshwater ecosystems. Streamflow statistics can be computed from available data at USGS streamgages depending on the type of data collected at the stations. Most often, however, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no streamflow data are available to determine the statistics.

  15. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2017-03-01

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Animal models for auditory streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons’ response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044022

  17. A Context-Aware Adaptive Streaming Media Distribution System in a Heterogeneous Network with Multiple Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yepeng Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of streaming media transmission in a heterogeneous network from a multisource server to home multiple terminals. In wired network, the transmission performance is limited by network state (e.g., the bandwidth variation, jitter, and packet loss. In wireless network, the multiple user terminals can cause bandwidth competition. Thus, the streaming media distribution in a heterogeneous network becomes a severe challenge which is critical for QoS guarantee. In this paper, we propose a context-aware adaptive streaming media distribution system (CAASS, which implements the context-aware module to perceive the environment parameters and use the strategy analysis (SA module to deduce the most suitable service level. This approach is able to improve the video quality for guarantying streaming QoS. We formulate the optimization problem of QoS relationship with the environment parameters based on the QoS testing algorithm for IPTV in ITU-T G.1070. We evaluate the performance of the proposed CAASS through 12 types of experimental environments using a prototype system. Experimental results show that CAASS can dynamically adjust the service level according to the environment variation (e.g., network state and terminal performances and outperforms the existing streaming approaches in adaptive streaming media distribution according to peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR.

  18. Global perspectives on the urban stream syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Booth, Derek B.; Capps, Krista A.; Smith, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Urban streams commonly express degraded physical, chemical, and biological conditions that have been collectively termed the “urban stream syndrome”. The description of the syndrome highlights the broad similarities among these streams relative to their less-impaired counterparts. Awareness of these commonalities has fostered rapid improvements in the management of urban stormwater for the protection of downstream watercourses, but the focus on the similarities among urban streams has obscured meaningful differences among them. Key drivers of stream responses to urbanization can vary greatly among climatological and physiographic regions of the globe, and the differences can be manifested in individual stream channels even through the homogenizing veneer of urban development. We provide examples of differences in natural hydrologic and geologic settings (within similar regions) that can result in different mechanisms of stream ecosystem response to urbanization and, as such, should lead to different management approaches. The idea that all urban streams can be cured using the same treatment is simplistic, but overemphasizing the tremendous differences among natural (or human-altered) systems also can paralyze management. Thoughtful integration of work that recognizes the commonalities of the urban stream syndrome across the globe has benefitted urban stream management. Now we call for a more nuanced understanding of the regional, subregional, and local attributes of any given urban stream and its watershed to advance the physical, chemical, and ecological recovery of these systems.

  19. Groundwater-stream-simulation experiments for the evaluation of the safety of proposed nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    A bench-scale experimental design which integrates repository components to simulate a groundwater stream infiltrating a breached repository is described in this paper. An experiment performed with a nuclear waste solid and one rock core is briefly summarized. The nuclear waste solid consists of borosilicate glass containing formulated nuclear waste and is the source of the leached radionuclides. The rock core used is of granite and serves as the adsorption medium for the leached radionuclides

  20. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  1. Advanced Query Formulation in Deductive Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Timo; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    1992-01-01

    Discusses deductive databases and database management systems (DBMS) and introduces a framework for advanced query formulation for end users. Recursive processing is described, a sample extensional database is presented, query types are explained, and criteria for advanced query formulation from the end user's viewpoint are examined. (31…

  2. Aerosol formulation and clinical efficacy of bronchodilators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanen, Pieter

    1998-01-01

    This thesis subject is the improvement of the formulation of inhaled aerosols. It is well known that the formulation of inhaled drugs is not optimal: the major part of the mass delivered does not reach the lower airways. This phenomenon is due to the particle size of the inhaled particles, which

  3. Hamiltonian formulation of anomaly free chiral bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Devecchi, F.P.; Zadra, A.

    1988-01-01

    Starting out of an anomaly free Lagrangian formulation for chiral scalars, which a Wess-Zumino Term (to cancel the anomaly), we formulate the corresponding hamiltonian problem. Ther we use the (quantum) Siegel invariance to choose a particular, which turns out coincide with the obtained by Floreanini and Jackiw. (author) [pt

  4. Undefined cellulase formulations hinder scientific reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, Michael E; Abbas, Charles A; Baker, John O; Bayer, Edward A; Bomble, Yannick J; Brunecky, Roman; Chen, Xiaowen; Felby, Claus; Jeoh, Tina; Kumar, Rajeev; McCleary, Barry V; Pletschke, Brett I; Tucker, Melvin P; Wyman, Charles E; Decker, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    In the shadow of a burgeoning biomass-to-fuels industry, biological conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars in a cost-effective manner is key to the success of second-generation and advanced biofuel production. For the effective comparison of one cellulase preparation to another, cellulase assays are typically carried out with one or more engineered cellulase formulations or natural exoproteomes of known performance serving as positive controls. When these formulations have unknown composition, as is the case with several widely used commercial products, it becomes impossible to compare or reproduce work done today to work done in the future, where, for example, such preparations may not be available. Therefore, being a critical tenet of science publishing, experimental reproducibility is endangered by the continued use of these undisclosed products. We propose the introduction of standard procedures and materials to produce specific and reproducible cellulase formulations. These formulations are to serve as yardsticks to measure improvements and performance of new cellulase formulations.

  5. Retention and Migration of Fine Organic Particles within an Agricultural Stream: Toenepi, Waikato, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Davies-Colley, R.; Stott, R.; Sukias, J.; Nagels, J.; Sharp, A.; Packman, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Fine organic particle dynamics are important to stream biogeochemistry, ecology, and transport of contaminant microbes. These particles migrate downstream through a series of deposition and resuspension events, which results in a wide range of residence times. This retention influences biogeochemical processing and in-stream stores of contaminant microbes that may mobilize during flood events and present a hazard to downstream uses such as water supplies and recreation. We are conducting studies to gain insights into organic particle dynamics in streams, with a campaign of experiments and modeling. The results should improve understanding of nutrient (C, N, P) spiraling and fine sediment movement in streams, and have particular application to microbial hazards. We directly measure microbial transport by including the indicator organism, E. coli, as a tracer, which is compared to a fluorescent inert particle tracer and conservative solute to gain insight on both microbial ecology and waterborne disease transmission. We developed a stochastic model to describe the transport and retention of fine suspended particles in rivers, including advective delivery of particles to the streambed, transport through porewaters, and reversible filtration within the streambed. Because fine particles are only episodically transported in streams, with intervening periods at rest in the bed, this transport process violates conventional advection-dispersion assumptions. Instead we adopt a stochastic mobile-immobile model formulation to describe fine particle transport. We apply this model to measurements of particle transport from multiple tracer experiments in an agricultural stream in the Waikato dairy region of New Zealand, and use the model to improve interpretation of baseflow particle dynamics. Our results show the importance of the benthic and hyporheic regions and in-stream vegetation as a reservoir for fine organic particles in streams.

  6. Geospatial Image Stream Processing: Models, techniques, and applications in remote sensing change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Velasquez, Carlos Alberto

    Detection of changes in environmental phenomena using remotely sensed data is a major requirement in the Earth sciences, especially in natural disaster related scenarios where real-time detection plays a crucial role in the saving of human lives and the preservation of natural resources. Although various approaches formulated to model multidimensional data can in principle be applied to the inherent complexity of remotely sensed geospatial data, there are still challenging peculiarities that demand a precise characterization in the context of change detection, particularly in scenarios of fast changes. In the same vein, geospatial image streams do not fit appropriately in the standard Data Stream Management System (DSMS) approach because these systems mainly deal with tuple-based streams. Recognizing the necessity for a systematic effort to address the above issues, the work presented in this thesis is a concrete step toward the foundation and construction of an integrated Geospatial Image Stream Processing framework, GISP. First, we present a data and metadata model for remotely sensed image streams. We introduce a precise characterization of images and image streams in the context of remotely sensed geospatial data. On this foundation, we define spatially-aware temporal operators with a consistent semantics for change analysis tasks. We address the change detection problem in settings where multiple image stream sources are available, and thus we introduce an architectural design for the processing of geospatial image streams from multiple sources. With the aim of targeting collaborative scientific environments, we construct a realization of our architecture based on Kepler, a robust and widely used scientific workflow management system, as the underlying computational support; and open data and Web interface standards, as a means to facilitate the interoperability of GISP instances with other processing infrastructures and client applications. We demonstrate our

  7. Quantification of Groundwater Discharge in a Subalpine Stream Using Radon-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Avery

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the dry months of the water year in Mediterranean climates, groundwater influx is essential to perennial streams for sustaining ecosystem health and regulating water temperature. Predicted earlier peak flow due to climate change may result in decreased baseflow and the transformation of perennial streams to intermittent streams. In this study, naturally occurring radon-222 (222Rn was used as a tracer of groundwater influx to Martis Creek, a subalpine stream near Lake Tahoe, CA. Groundwater 222Rn is estimated based on measurements of 222Rn activity in nearby deep wells and springs. To determine the degassing constant (needed for quantification of water and gas flux, an extrinsic tracer, xenon (Xe, was introduced to the stream and monitored at eight downstream locations. The degassing constant for 222Rn is based on the degassing constant for Xe, and was determined to be 1.9–9.0 m/day. Applying a simple model in which stream 222Rn activity is a balance between the main 222Rn source (groundwater and sink (volatilization, the influx in reaches of the upstream portion of Martis Creek was calculated to be <1 to 15 m3/day/m, which cumulatively constitutes a significant portion of the stream discharge. Experiments constraining 222Rn emanation from hyporheic zone sediments suggest that this should be considered a maximum rate of influx. Groundwater influx is typically difficult to identify and quantify, and the method employed here is useful for identifying locations for focused stream flow measurements, for formulating a water budget, and for quantifying streamwater–groundwater interaction.

  8. The distribution of copper in stream sediments in an anomalous stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruin, D.

    1987-01-01

    Anomalous copper concentrations detected by the regional stream-sediment programme of the Geological Survey was investigated in a stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand. A follow-up disclosed the presence of malachite mineralization. However, additional stream-sediment samples collected from the 'anomalous' stream revealed an erratic distribution of copper and also that the malachite mineralization had no direct effect on the copper distribution in the stream sediments. Low partial-extraction yields, together with X-ray diffraction analyses, indicated that dispersion is mainly mechanical and that the copper occurs as cations in the lattice of the biotite fraction of the stream sediments. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. The distribution of copper in stream sediments in an anomalous stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruin, D

    1987-01-01

    Anomalous copper concentrations detected by the regional stream-sediment programme of the Geological Survey was investigated in a stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand. A follow-up disclosed the presence of malachite mineralization. However, additional stream-sediment samples collected from the 'anomalous' stream revealed an erratic distribution of copper and also that the malachite mineralization had no direct effect on the copper distribution in the stream sediments. Low partial-extraction yields, together with X-ray diffraction analyses, indicated that dispersion is mainly mechanical and that the copper occurs as cations in the lattice of the biotite fraction of the stream sediments. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Formulation of heat absorbing glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Casariego, Pedro

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In the thermal exchanges between buildings and environment, glazing is an element of major importance, for it largely influences the so-called Solar Heat Gain and Thermal Losses. These parameters can be modified by applying different type of coatings onto glass surface or by adding colorant compounds during glass melting. The latter is a cheaper way to control the Solar Heat Gain. The knowledge of the laws governing the interaction between colorant compounds and solar radiation, allows us to define glass formulations achieving specific aesthetic requirements and solar energy absorption. In this paper two examples of application of the modelling of glass colorants spectral absorptance are presented. First is addressed to obtaining a glass with high luminous transmittance and low solar energy transmittance, and the other one to obtaining a glass with neutral colour appearance and minimized solar energy transmittance. Calculation formulas are defined together with photometric properties so-obtained. These type of glasses are particularly suitable to be used as building and automotive glazing, for they retain the mechanical characteristics and possibilities of transformation of standard glass.

    En los intercambios de energía entre un edificio y el medio exterior, el vidrio es el elemento de mayor importancia, por su influencia en la Ganancia de Calor Solar y en las Pérdidas Térmicas. Estos parámetros pueden ser modificados mediante el depósito de capas sobre el vidrio o mediante la adición de compuestos absorbentes de la radiación solar. Esta última vía es la más económica para controlar la Ganancia de Calor Solar. El conocimiento de las leyes que gobiernan la interacción de los diversos colorantes con la radiación solar, permite definir formulaciones de vidrios con características especificas de tipo estético y de absorción energética. En este trabajo se presentan dos ejemplos de aplicación de esta modelización de las

  11. BLOSTREAM: A HIGH SPEED STREAM CIPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI H. KASHMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although stream ciphers are widely utilized to encrypt sensitive data at fast speeds, security concerns have led to a shift from stream to block ciphers, judging that the current technology in stream cipher is inferior to the technology of block ciphers. This paper presents the design of an improved efficient and secure stream cipher called Blostream, which is more secure than conventional stream ciphers that use XOR for mixing. The proposed cipher comprises two major components: the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG using the Rabbit algorithm and a nonlinear invertible round function (combiner for encryption and decryption. We evaluate its performance in terms of implementation and security, presenting advantages and disadvantages, comparison of the proposed cipher with similar systems and a statistical test for randomness. The analysis shows that the proposed cipher is more efficient, high speed, and secure than current conventional stream ciphers.

  12. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brignac, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl 2 O 4 , wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  13. Organic carbon spiralling in stream ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Mulholland, P J; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V

    1982-01-01

    The term spiralling has been used to describe the combined processes of cycling and longitudinal transport in streams. As a measure or organic carbon spiralling, we introduced organic carbon turnover length, S, defined as the average or expected downstream distance travelled by a carbon atom between its entry or fixation in the stream and its oxidation. Using a simple model for organic carbon dynamics in a stream, we show that S is closely related to fisher and Likens' ecosystem efficiency. Unlike efficiency, however, S is independent of the length of the study reach, and values of S determined in streams of differing lengths can be compared. Using data from three different streams, we found the relationship between S and efficiency to agree closely with the model prediction. Hypotheses of stream functioning are discussed in the context of organic carbeon spiralling theory.

  14. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  15. LHCb : The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  16. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  17. Standard test method for determining elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This test method covers the determination of trace, minor, and major elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) following an acid digestion of the specimen. Waste streams from manufacturing processes of nuclear and nonnuclear materials can be analyzed. This test method is applicable to the determination of total metals. Results from this test method can be used to characterize waste received by treatment facilities and to formulate appropriate treatment recipes. The results are also usable to process control within waste treatment facilities. This test method is applicable only to waste streams that contain radioactivity levels which do not require special personnel or environmental protection. A list of the elements determined in waste streams and the corresponding lower reporting limit is included

  18. On-stream chemical element monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averitt, O.R.; Dorsch, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and method for on-stream chemical element monitoring are described wherein a multiplicity of sample streams are flowed continuously through individual analytical cells and fluorescence analyses are performed on the sample streams in sequence, together with a method of controlling the time duration of each analysis as a function of the concomitant radiation exposure of a preselected perforate reference material interposed in the sample-radiation source path

  19. Smart Streaming for Online Video Services

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yipeng; Chiu, Dah Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth consumption is a significant concern for online video service providers. Practical video streaming systems usually use some form of HTTP streaming (progressive download) to let users download the video at a faster rate than the video bitrate. Since users may quit before viewing the complete video, however, much of the downloaded video will be "wasted". To the extent that users' departure behavior can be predicted, we develop smart streaming that can be used to improve user QoE with ...

  20. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52 published studies. Sixty-nine percent of the experiments were performed in first- and second-order streams, and 31% were performed in third- to fifth-order streams. Uptake lengths, Sw, of NH4 (median = 86 m) and PO4 (median = 96 m) were significantly different (α = 0.05) than NO3 (median = 236 m). Areal uptake rates of NH4 (median = 28 μg m-2 min-1) were significantly different than NO3 and PO4 (median = 15 and 14 μg m-2 min-1, respectively). There were significant differences among NH4, NO3, and PO4 uptake velocity (median = 5, 1, and 2 mm min-1, respectively). Correlation analysis results were equivocal on the effect of transient storage on nutrient spiraling. Application of these data to a stream network model showed that recycling (defined here as stream length ÷ Sw) of NH4 and NO3 generally increased with stream order, while PO4 recycling remained constant along a first- to fifth-order stream gradient. Within this hypothetical stream network, cumulative NH4 uptake decreased slightly with stream order, while cumulative NO3 and PO4 uptake increased with stream order. These data suggest the importance of larger rivers to nutrient spiraling and the need to consider how stream networks affect nutrient flux between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  1. Canonical operator formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrafarin, M.

    1992-09-01

    A novel formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is proposed which emphasises the fundamental role played by the Boltzmann constant k in fluctuations. The equivalence of this and the stochastic formulation is demonstrated. The k → 0 limit of this theory yields the classical deterministic description of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The new formulation possesses unique features which bear two important results namely the thermodynamic uncertainty principle and the quantisation of entropy production rate. Such a theory becomes indispensable whenever fluctuations play a significant role. (author). 7 refs

  2. Application of UV Imaging in Formulation Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yu; Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    defining formulation behavior after exposure to the aqueous environments and pharmaceutical performance is critical in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and quality control of drugs. UV imaging has been explored as a tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of drug dissolution...... related to the structural properties of the drug substance or formulation can be monitored. UV imaging is a non-intrusive and simple-to-operate analytical technique which holds potential for providing a mechanistic foundation for formulation development. This review aims to cover applications of UV...

  3. Formulation of 11-dimensional supergravity in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremmer, E.; Ferrara, S.

    1980-01-01

    We formulate on-shell 11-dimensional supergravity in superspace and express its equations of motion in terms of purely geometrical quantities. All torsion and curvature components are solved in terms of a single superfield Wsub(rstu), totally antisymmetric in its (flat vector) indices. The dimensional reduction of this formulation is expected to be related to the superspace formulation of N = 8 extended supergravity and might explain the origin of the hidden (local) SU(8) and (global) E 7 symmetries present in this theory. (orig.)

  4. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for problems to take on tractable forms. Aggregation may lead to loss of information, i.e. the aggregated formulation may be an approximation of the original problem. In branch-and-bound context, aggregation can also complicate branching, e.g. when...... optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on aggregated variables. We present a generic exact solution method to remedy the drawbacks of aggregation. It combines the original and aggregated formulations and applies Benders' decomposition. We apply the method to the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem....

  5. A robust mathematical formulation for multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Seid_2011_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2104 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Seid_2011_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...

  6. Testing the effects of in-stream sediment sources and sinks on simulated watershed sediment yield using the coupled U.S. Army Corps of Engineers GSSHA Model and SEDLIB Sediment Transport Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, I. E.; Downer, C. W.; Brown, G.; Pradhan, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model is the US Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE)'s only fully coupled overland/in-stream sediment transport model. While the overland sediment transport formulation in GSSHA is considered state of the art, the existing in-stream sediment transport formulation is less robust. A major omission in the formulation of the existing GSSHA in-stream model is the lack of in-stream sources of fine materials. In this effort, we enhanced the in-stream sediment transport capacity of GSSHA by linking GSSHA to the SEDLIB sediment transport library. SEDLIB was developed at the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) under the System Wide Water Resources Program (SWWRP) and Flood and Coastal (F&C) research program. It is designed to provide a library of sediment flux formulations for hydraulic and hydrologic models, such as GSSHA. This new version of GSSHA, with the updated in-stream sediment transport simulation capability afforded by the linkage to SEDLIB, was tested in against observations in an experimental watershed that had previously been used as a test bed for GSSHA. The results show a significant improvement in the ability to model in-stream sources of fine sediment. This improved capability will broaden the applicability of GSSHA to larger watersheds and watersheds with complex sediment dynamics, such as those subjected to fire hydrology.

  7. Structured multi-stream command language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.

    1982-12-01

    A multi-stream command language was implemented to provide the sequential and decision-making operations necessary to run the neutral-beam ion sources connected to the Doublet III tokamak fusion device. A multi-stream command language was implemented in Pascal on a Classic 7870 running under MAX IV. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to provide a brief description of the programs comprising the command language including the operating system interaction. Second, to give a description of the language syntax and commands necessary to develop a procedure stream. Third, to provide a description of the normal operating procedures for executing either the sequential or interactive streams

  8. About the theory of congested transport streams

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy GUK

    2009-01-01

    Talked about a theory, based on integrity of continuous motion of a transport stream. Placing of car and its speed is in a stream - second. Principle of application of the generalized methods of design and new descriptions of the states of transport streams opens up. Travelling and transport potentials are set, and also external capacity of the system a «transport stream» is an exergy, that allows to make differential equation and decide the applied tasks of organization of travelling motion....

  9. Stick-slip Cycles and Tidal Modulation of Ice Stream Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    The reactivation of a single dormant Antarctic ice stream would double the continent's mass imbalance. Despite importance of understanding the likelihood of such an event, direct observation of the basal processes that lead to the activation and stagnation of streaming ice are minimal. As the only ice stream undergoing stagnation, the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) occupies a central role in our understanding of these subglacial processes. Complicating matters is the observation, from GPS records, that the WIP experiences most of its motion during episodes of rapid sliding. These sliding events are tidally modulated and separated by 12 hour periods of quiescence. We conduct numerical simulations of ice stream stick-slip cycles. Our simulations include rate- and state-dependent frictional sliding, tidal forcing, inertia, upstream loading in a cross-stream, thickness-averaged formulation. Our principal finding is that ice stream motion may respond to ocean tidal forcing with one of two end member behaviors. In one limit, tidally modulated slip events have rupture velocities that approach the shear wave speed and slip events have a duration that scales with the ice stream width divided by the shear wave speed. In the other limit, tidal modulation results in ice stream sliding velocities with lower amplitude variation but at much longer timescales, i.e. semi-diurnal and longer. This latter behavior more closely mimics the behavior of several active ice streams (Bindschadler, Rutford). We find that WIP slip events exist between these two end member behaviors: rupture velocities are far below the inertial limit yet sliding occurs only episodically. The continuum of sliding behaviors is governed by a critical ice stream width over which slip event nucleate. When the critical width is much longer than the ice stream width, slip events are unable to nucleate. The critical width depends on the subglacial effective pressure, ice thickness, and frictional and elastic constitutive

  10. The Overview and Appliance of some Streaming Video software solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Qin , Yan

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic streaming media technology, the streaming media system structure, principles of streaming media technology; streaming media file formats and so on. After that, it discusses the use streaming media in distance education, broadband video on demand, Internet broadcasting, video conferences and a more detailed exposition in streaming media. As the existing technology has been unable to satisfy the increasing needs of the Internet users, the streaming media technol...

  11. Technical Status Report: Preliminary Glass Formulation Report for INEEL HAW. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.; Reamer, I.; Vienna, J.; Crum, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    Preliminary glass formulation work has been initiated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to support immobilization efforts of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) high activity waste (HAW). Based on current pretreatment flow sheet assumptions, several glasses were fabricated and tested using an average 'All Blend' waste stream composition which is dominated by the presence of ZrO 2 (i.e., approximately 80 wt percent). The results of this initial work show that immobilization via vitrification is a viable option for a specific INEEL HAW waste stream. Waste loadings of at least 19 wt percent can be achieved for the 'All Blend' stream while maintaining targeted processing and product performance criteria. This waste loading translates into a ZrO 2 content in excess of 15 wt percent in the final glass waste form. Frits developed for this work are based in the alkali borosilicate system. Although the results indicate that vitrification can be used to immobilize the 'All Blend' waste stream, the glass compositions are by no means optimized

  12. Interaction between stream temperature, streamflow, and groundwater exchanges in alpine streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, James E.

    1998-01-01

    Four alpine streams were monitored to continuously collect stream temperature and streamflow for periods ranging from a week to a year. In a small stream in the Colorado Rockies, diurnal variations in both stream temperature and streamflow were significantly greater in losing reaches than in gaining reaches, with minimum streamflow losses occurring early in the day and maximum losses occurring early in the evening. Using measured stream temperature changes, diurnal streambed infiltration rates were predicted to increase as much as 35% during the day (based on a heat and water transport groundwater model), while the measured increase in streamflow loss was 40%. For two large streams in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, annual stream temperature variations ranged from 0° to 25°C. In summer months, diurnal stream temperature variations were 30–40% of annual stream temperature variations, owing to reduced streamflows and increased atmospheric heating. Previous reports document that one Sierra stream site generally gains groundwater during low flows, while the second Sierra stream site may lose water during low flows. For August the diurnal streamflow variation was 11% at the gaining stream site and 30% at the losing stream site. On the basis of measured diurnal stream temperature variations, streambed infiltration rates were predicted to vary diurnally as much as 20% at the losing stream site. Analysis of results suggests that evapotranspiration losses determined diurnal streamflow variations in the gaining reaches, while in the losing reaches, evapotranspiration losses were compounded by diurnal variations in streambed infiltration. Diurnal variations in stream temperature were reduced in the gaining reaches as a result of discharging groundwater of relatively constant temperature. For the Sierra sites, comparison of results with those from a small tributary demonstrated that stream temperature patterns were useful in delineating discharges of bank storage following

  13. Chemical-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper presents a software, the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory (virtual PPD-lab) and the virtual experimental scenarios for design/verification of consumer oriented liquid formulated products where the software can be used. For example, the software can be employed for the design......, the additives and/or their mixtures (formulations). Therefore, the experimental resources can focus on a few candidate product formulations to find the best product. The virtual PPD-lab allows various options for experimentations related to design and/or verification of the product. For example, the selection...... design, model adaptation). All of the above helps to perform virtual experiments by blending chemicals together and observing their predicted behaviour. The paper will highlight the application of the virtual PPD-lab in the design and/or verification of different consumer products (paint formulation...

  14. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  15. Emulsifying Formulation of Rosuvastatin Calcium for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solubility study, liquid formulations were prepared using LAS/Capryol 90: Maisine 35-1 as oil phase and. Tween 20 with ... evaluated for globule size, zeta potential, and emulsion properties. ..... surfactants which decreases the electrostatic.

  16. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunikazu Moribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.

  17. Dynamic psychiatry and the psychodynamic formulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    processes and psychiatric disorders are biological, the range ... The formulation furthermore helps with the initial orientation towards the patient: it anticipates and predicts how the patient ..... contributed to problems with his sexual identity.

  18. Formulation of Thermosensitive Hydrogel Containing Cyclodextrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials. Chitosan (deacetylation degree, DDA = 80 %) was obtained from HiMedia Laboratories Pvt. ... Sterile formulations were ... Chilled β-GP aqueous solution (sterilized through ..... generally decreasing away from the center of the tumor.

  19. Current advances on polynomial resultant formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Surajo; Aris, Nor'aini; Ahmad, Shamsatun Nahar

    2017-08-01

    Availability of computer algebra systems (CAS) lead to the resurrection of the resultant method for eliminating one or more variables from the polynomials system. The resultant matrix method has advantages over the Groebner basis and Ritt-Wu method due to their high complexity and storage requirement. This paper focuses on the current resultant matrix formulations and investigates their ability or otherwise towards producing optimal resultant matrices. A determinantal formula that gives exact resultant or a formulation that can minimize the presence of extraneous factors in the resultant formulation is often sought for when certain conditions that it exists can be determined. We present some applications of elimination theory via resultant formulations and examples are given to explain each of the presented settings.

  20. Formulation and Characterization of Biodegradable Medicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PEG)-600, tributyl citrate, PEG-200, PEG-300, PEG-400, PEG-4000, triethyl citrate and castor oil. The gum formulations were characterized for the following parameters: texture profile analysis (TPA), biodegradation, in vitro drug release using a ...

  1. A simplectic formulation of relativistic particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulczyjew, W.M.

    1976-12-01

    Particle mechanics is formulated in terms of symplectic relations and infinitesimal symplectic relations. Generating functions of symplectic relations are shown to be classical counterparts of Green's functions of wave mechanics. (orig.) [de

  2. A sympletic formulation of relativistic particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulczyjew, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Particle mechanics is formulated in terms of sympletic relations and infinitesimal symplectic relations. Generating functions of symplectic relations are shown to be classical counterparts of Green's functions of wave mechanics. (author)

  3. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Shifting stream planform state decreases stream productivity yet increases riparian animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venarsky, Michael P.; Walters, David M.; Hall, Robert O.; Livers, Bridget; Wohl, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    In the Colorado Front Range (USA), disturbance history dictates stream planform. Undisturbed, old-growth streams have multiple channels and large amounts of wood and depositional habitat. Disturbed streams (wildfires and logging tested how these opposing stream states influenced organic matter, benthic macroinvertebrate secondary production, emerging aquatic insect flux, and riparian spider biomass. Organic matter and macroinvertebrate production did not differ among sites per unit area (m−2), but values were 2 ×–21 × higher in undisturbed reaches per unit of stream valley (m−1 valley) because total stream area was higher in undisturbed reaches. Insect emergence was similar among streams at the per unit area and per unit of stream valley. However, rescaling insect emergence to per meter of stream bank showed that the emerging insect biomass reaching the stream bank was lower in undisturbed sites because multi-channel reaches had 3 × more stream bank than single-channel reaches. Riparian spider biomass followed the same pattern as emerging aquatic insects, and we attribute this to bottom-up limitation caused by the multi-channeled undisturbed sites diluting prey quantity (emerging insects) reaching the stream bank (riparian spider habitat). These results show that historic landscape disturbances continue to influence stream and riparian communities in the Colorado Front Range. However, these legacy effects are only weakly influencing habitat-specific function and instead are primarily influencing stream–riparian community productivity by dictating both stream planform (total stream area, total stream bank length) and the proportional distribution of specific habitat types (pools vs riffles).

  5. A Statistical Method to Predict Flow Permanence in Dryland Streams from Time Series of Stream Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Arismendi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent and ephemeral streams represent more than half of the length of the global river network. Dryland freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to changes in human-related water uses as well as shifts in terrestrial climates. Yet, the description and quantification of patterns of flow permanence in these systems is challenging mostly due to difficulties in instrumentation. Here, we took advantage of existing stream temperature datasets in dryland streams in the northwest Great Basin desert, USA, to extract critical information on climate-sensitive patterns of flow permanence. We used a signal detection technique, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs, to extract information from daily time series of stream temperature to diagnose patterns of stream drying. Specifically, we applied HMMs to time series of daily standard deviation (SD of stream temperature (i.e., dry stream channels typically display highly variable daily temperature records compared to wet stream channels between April and August (2015–2016. We used information from paired stream and air temperature data loggers as well as co-located stream temperature data loggers with electrical resistors as confirmatory sources of the timing of stream drying. We expanded our approach to an entire stream network to illustrate the utility of the method to detect patterns of flow permanence over a broader spatial extent. We successfully identified and separated signals characteristic of wet and dry stream conditions and their shifts over time. Most of our study sites within the entire stream network exhibited a single state over the entire season (80%, but a portion of them showed one or more shifts among states (17%. We provide recommendations to use this approach based on a series of simple steps. Our findings illustrate a successful method that can be used to rigorously quantify flow permanence regimes in streams using existing records of stream temperature.

  6. A statistical method to predict flow permanence in dryland streams from time series of stream temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Dunham, Jason B.; Heck, Michael; Schultz, Luke; Hockman-Wert, David

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent and ephemeral streams represent more than half of the length of the global river network. Dryland freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to changes in human-related water uses as well as shifts in terrestrial climates. Yet, the description and quantification of patterns of flow permanence in these systems is challenging mostly due to difficulties in instrumentation. Here, we took advantage of existing stream temperature datasets in dryland streams in the northwest Great Basin desert, USA, to extract critical information on climate-sensitive patterns of flow permanence. We used a signal detection technique, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), to extract information from daily time series of stream temperature to diagnose patterns of stream drying. Specifically, we applied HMMs to time series of daily standard deviation (SD) of stream temperature (i.e., dry stream channels typically display highly variable daily temperature records compared to wet stream channels) between April and August (2015–2016). We used information from paired stream and air temperature data loggers as well as co-located stream temperature data loggers with electrical resistors as confirmatory sources of the timing of stream drying. We expanded our approach to an entire stream network to illustrate the utility of the method to detect patterns of flow permanence over a broader spatial extent. We successfully identified and separated signals characteristic of wet and dry stream conditions and their shifts over time. Most of our study sites within the entire stream network exhibited a single state over the entire season (80%), but a portion of them showed one or more shifts among states (17%). We provide recommendations to use this approach based on a series of simple steps. Our findings illustrate a successful method that can be used to rigorously quantify flow permanence regimes in streams using existing records of stream temperature.

  7. The Boltzmann equation in the difference formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szoke, Abraham [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brooks III, Eugene D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    First we recall the assumptions that are needed for the validity of the Boltzmann equation and for the validity of the compressible Euler equations. We then present the difference formulation of these equations and make a connection with the time-honored Chapman - Enskog expansion. We discuss the hydrodynamic limit and calculate the thermal conductivity of a monatomic gas, using a simplified approximation for the collision term. Our formulation is more consistent and simpler than the traditional derivation.

  8. Limitations of high dose carrier based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Stewart; Traini, Daniela; Tweedie, Alan; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Young, Paul M

    2018-06-10

    This study was performed to investigate how increasing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content within a formulation affects the dispersion of particles and the aerosol performance efficiency of a carrier based dry powder inhalable (DPI) formulation, using a custom dry powder inhaler (DPI) development rig. Five formulations with varying concentrations of API beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) between 1% and 30% (w/w) were formulated as a multi-component carrier system containing coarse lactose and fine lactose with magnesium stearate. The morphology of the formulation and each component were investigated using scanning electron micrographs while the particle size was measured by laser diffraction. The aerosol performance, in terms of aerodynamic diameter, was assessed using the British pharmacopeia Apparatus E cascade impactor (Next generation impactor). Chemical analysis of the API was observed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Increasing the concentration of BDP in the blend resulted in increasing numbers and size of individual agglomerates and densely packed BDP multi-layers on the surface of the lactose carrier. BDP present within the multi-layer did not disperse as individual primary particles but as dense agglomerates, which led to a decrease in aerosol performance and increased percentage of BDP deposition within the Apparatus E induction port and pre-separator. As the BDP concentration in the blends increases, aerosol performance of the formulation decreases, in an inversely proportional manner. Concurrently, the percentage of API deposition in the induction port and pre-separator could also be linked to the amount of micronized particles (BDP and Micronized composite carrier) present in the formulation. The effect of such dose increase on the behaviour of aerosol dispersion was investigated to gain greater insight in the development and optimisation of higher dosed carrier-based formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Chemicals-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property mea...... on the design of an insect repellent lotion will show that the software is an essential instrument in decision making, and that it reduces time and resources since experimental efforts can be focused on one or few product alternatives....

  10. Comments on alternate formulations for preequilibrium decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1978-01-01

    The physical and mathematical differences of several formulations for preequilibrium decay are discussed. Mathematical models and examples are presented or referred to in order to illustrate what the author believes to be errors in the exciton formulation as being due to improper inclusion of spectator effects. An earlier work of Gadioli et al. is reinterpreted, and quotations therein to work of the present author are corrected

  11. Seasonal dynamics of ichthyodiversity in a hill stream of the Darjeeling Himalaya, West Bengal, india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Acharjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The small torrential spring-fed hill-stream Relli in the Darjeeling Himalaya of West Bengal was studied from March 2007 to February 2009 to assess seasonal dynamics and diversity of fish populations.  The study revealed that the stream sustained 25 rheophilic cold water fish species from 15 genera and five families having ornamental, food and sport value.  Seven omnivorous species were abundantly found, and the array of juveniles and sub adults suggests this stream is used as a breeding and nursery ground for some species.  The stream harboured fish with unique modifications such as adhesive structures.  Analysis of monthly data indicate that abundance and diversity indices increased slightly during April–May and sharply during October–November, indicating significant seasonal variations with the low diversity observed during monsoon months reflecting environmental stresses.  Evenness was high in all sampling sites, and inversely related to the dominance index of ichthyofauna.  The density and diversity of fish assemblages along the gradient of the stream may be interrupted due to anthropogenic disturbances.  Our study provides baseline data which may be helpful for conservation and management of fish species, and in formulating fishery policy. 

  12. The coevent formulation of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallden, Petros

    2013-01-01

    Understanding quantum theory has been a subject of debate from its birth. Many different formulations and interpretations have been proposed. Here we examine a recent novel formulation, namely the coevents formulation. It is a histories formulation and has as starting point the Feynman path integral and the decoherence functional. The new ontology turns out to be that of a coarse-grained history. We start with a quantum measure defined on the space of histories, and the existence of zero covers rules out single-history as potential reality (the Kochen Specker theorem casted in histories form is a special case of a zero cover). We see that allowing coarse-grained histories as potential realities avoids the previous paradoxes, maintains deductive non-contextual logic (alas non-Boolean) and gives rise to a unique classical domain. Moreover, we can recover the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory with the use of the Cournot's principle. This formulation, being both a realist formulation and based on histories, is well suited conceptually for the purposes of quantum gravity and cosmology.

  13. An herbal formulation for hemorrhoids treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehdari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hemorrhoids is the most painful rectal disease. Straining and pregnancy seem playing chief roles in the development of hemorrhoids. Symptoms of hemorrhoids may include bleeding, inflammation and pain. Despite current medical efforts, many discomforts of hemorrhoids have not been handled. The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate Itrifal-e muqil (IM tablet to achieve desired pharmaceutical properties. Method: Quality control tests of Allium ampeloperasum L, Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks Engl., Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellerica Retz. were performed. Afterwards, different formulations were prepared and their physical properties were evaluated. Subsequently, the formulation was coated and its physicochemical characteristics were assessed. Result: All of the herbs demonstrated good results in quality control tests according to United State Pharmacopeia (USP. Formulation-1 that was completely prepared based on explained manufacturing process of IM in traditional medicine manuscripts did not show suitable pharmaceutical properties. Among different formulations, Formulation-3 that consisted of A. ampeloperasum, C. mukul, P. emblica, T. chebula and T. bellerica, displayed best outcomes through different tests. Conclusion: Modern pharmaceutical approaches can excellently be adapted for IM preparations.

  14. An ecohydrological stream type cassification of intermittent and ephemeral streams in the Southwestern United States 2397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephemeral and intermittent streams are the predominant fluvial forms in arid and semi-arid environments. Various studies have shown biological and habitat diversity in these lands to be considerably higher along stream corridors in comparison to adjacent uplands, yet knowledge of how these streams f...

  15. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  16. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L Eggert; Judy L. Meyer; Jackson R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance,...

  17. Evaluation of the streaming-matrix method for discrete-ordinates duct-streaming calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, B.A.; Urban, W.T.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new deterministic streaming technique called the Streaming Matrix Hybrid Method (SMHM) is applied to two realistic duct-shielding problems. The results are compared to standard discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo calculations. The SMHM shows promise as an alternative deterministic streaming method to standard discrete-ordinates

  18. Leaf litter processing in West Virginia mountain streams: effects of temperature and stream chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquelyn M. Rowe; William B. Perry; Sue A. Perry

    1996-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter detrital processing in headwater streams, which receive the majority of their nutrient input as terrestrial leaf litter. Early placement of experimental leaf packs in streams, one month prior to most abscission, was used as an experimental manipulation to increase stream temperature during leaf pack breakdown. We studied leaf...

  19. Robust Watermarking of Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Polyák

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark. 

  20. Streaming Multiframe Deconvolutions on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. A.; Budavári, T.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulence distorts all ground-based observations, which is especially detrimental to faint detections. The point spread function (PSF) defining this blur is unknown for each exposure and varies significantly over time, making image analysis difficult. Lucky imaging and traditional co-adding throws away lots of information. We developed blind deconvolution algorithms that can simultaneously obtain robust solutions for the background image and all the PSFs. It is done in a streaming setting, which makes it practical for large number of big images. We implemented a new tool that runs of GPUs and achieves exceptional running times that can scale to the new time-domain surveys. Our code can quickly and effectively recover high-resolution images exceeding the quality of traditional co-adds. We demonstrate the power of the method on the repeated exposures in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Stripe 82.

  1. Streaming Algorithms for Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Hachenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    this problem in a streaming setting, where we only have a limited amount of storage, so that we cannot store all the points. We analyze the competitive ratio of our algorithms, allowing resource augmentation: we let our algorithm maintain a simplification with 2k (internal) points and compare the error of our...... simplification to the error of the optimal simplification with k points. We obtain the algorithms with O(1) competitive ratio for three cases: convex paths, where the error is measured using the Hausdorff distance (or Fréchet distance), xy-monotone paths, where the error is measured using the Hausdorff distance...... (or Fréchet distance), and general paths, where the error is measured using the Fréchet distance. In the first case the algorithm needs O(k) additional storage, and in the latter two cases the algorithm needs O(k 2) additional storage....

  2. Unified formulation for inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, O.J.G.; Ziebell, L.F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, Peter H.

    2002-01-01

    A local dispersion relation that describes inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range is derived following a procedure that correctly describes energy exchange between waves and particles in inhomogeneous media, correcting some inherent ambiguities associated with the standard formalism found in the literature. Numerical solutions of this improved dispersion relation show that it constitutes a unified formulation for the instabilities in the lower-hybrid range, describing the so-called modified two-stream instability, excited by the ion cross-field drift, including the ion Weibel instability, and also describing the lower-hybrid drift instability, which is due to inhomogeneity effects on the electron population

  3. Cryptanalysis of the full Spritz stream cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Isobe, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Spritz is a stream cipher proposed by Rivest and Schuldt at the rump session of CRYPTO 2014. It is intended to be a replacement of the popular RC4 stream cipher. In this paper we propose distinguishing attacks on the full Spritz, based on a short-term bias in the first two bytes of a keystream an...

  4. Predicting quality of experience in multimedia streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkovski, V.; Oredope, A.; Liotta, A.; Cuadra Sánchez, A.

    2009-01-01

    Measuring and predicting the user’s Quality of Experience (QoE) of a multimedia stream is the first step towards improving and optimizing the provision of mobile streaming services. This enables us to better understand how Quality of Service (QoS) parameters affect service quality, as it is actually

  5. Flooding in ephemeral streams: incorporating transmission losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream flow in semiarid lands commonly occurs as a form of flash floods in dry ephemeral stream beds. The goal of this research is to couple hydrological and hydraulic models treats channel transmission losses and test the methodology in the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). For h...

  6. Organism-substrate relationships in lowland streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolkamp, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A field and laboratory study on the microdistribution of bottom dwelling macroinvertebrates to investigate the role of the stream substrate In the development and preservation of the macroinvertebrate communities in natural, undisturbed lowland streams is described. Field data on bottom substrates

  7. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. However, the query languages have mostly been SQL-based and aimed for low-level analysis of base data; therefore, there has been little work on supporting OLAP-like queries that provide rea...

  8. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; Philip J. Howell

    2009-01-01

    Small, wadeable streams comprise the majority of habitats available to fishes in fluvial networks. Wadeable streams are generally less than 1 m deep, and fish can be sampled without the use of water craft. Cold waters are defined as having mean 7-d summer maximum water temperatures of less than 20°C and providing habitat for coldwater fishes.

  9. Round-Robin Streaming with Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yao; Vingelmann, Peter; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2012-01-01

    We consider three types of application layer coding for streaming over lossy links: random linear coding, systematic random linear coding, and structured coding. The file being streamed is divided into sub-blocks (generations). Code symbols are formed by combining data belonging to the same...

  10. Streaming for Mathematics in Victorian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Streaming (or ability grouping) for mathematics learning is a contentious issue. It can also be considered an issue of equity or social justice as some students may be adversely affected by the practice. Currently, the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) does not appear to have clear guidelines on streaming.…

  11. Salmon carcass movements in forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper

    2009-01-01

    The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...

  12. THE PAL 5 STAR STREAM GAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hetherington, Nathan; Grillmair, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s –1 within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

  13. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  14. Neotropical Amphibian Declines Affect Stream Ecosystem Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, S.; Pringle, C. M.; Bixby, R. J.; Whiles, M. R.; Lips, K. R.; Brenes, R.; Colon-Gaud, J. C.; Kilham, S.; Hunte-Brown, M.

    2005-05-01

    Global declines of amphibians are well documented, yet effects of these dramatic losses on ecosystem structure and function are poorly understood. As part of a larger collaborative project, we compared two upland Panamanian streams. Both streams are biologically and geologically similar; however, one stream (Fortuna) has recently experienced almost complete extirpation of stream-dwelling frogs, while the other (Cope) still has intact populations. We experimentally excluded tadpoles from localized areas in each stream. We then compared chlorophyll a, algal community composition, ash-free dry mass (AFDM), inorganic matter, and insect assemblages in control and exclusion areas. Additionally, we sampled the natural substrate of both streams monthly for chlorophyll a, algal community composition, AFDM, and inorganic matter. At Cope, chlorophyll a, AFDM, and inorganic matter were greater in areas where tadpoles were excluded than in their presence. Numbers of dominant algal species (e.g., Nupela praecipua and Eunotia siolii) were greater in the exclusion versus control treatments. Monthly sampling of natural substrate indicated higher chlorophyll a and AFDM at Cope compared to Fortuna. Our data suggest that stream-dwelling anuran larvae have significant impacts on algal communities. These results also have implications for predicting the relevance of short-term experimental manipulations to long-term, whole-stream processes.

  15. Shifting stream planform state decreases stream productivity yet increases riparian animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venarsky, Michael P.; Walters, David M.; Hall, Robert O.; Livers, Bridget; Wohl, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    In the Colorado Front Range (USA), disturbance history dictates stream planform. Undisturbed, old-growth streams have multiple channels and large amounts of wood and depositional habitat. Disturbed streams (wildfires and logging production, emerging aquatic insect flux, and riparian spider biomass. Organic matter and macroinvertebrate production did not differ among sites per unit area (m−2), but values were 2 ×–21 × higher in undisturbed reaches per unit of stream valley (m−1 valley) because total stream area was higher in undisturbed reaches. Insect emergence was similar among streams at the per unit area and per unit of stream valley. However, rescaling insect emergence to per meter of stream bank showed that the emerging insect biomass reaching the stream bank was lower in undisturbed sites because multi-channel reaches had 3 × more stream bank than single-channel reaches. Riparian spider biomass followed the same pattern as emerging aquatic insects, and we attribute this to bottom-up limitation caused by the multi-channeled undisturbed sites diluting prey quantity (emerging insects) reaching the stream bank (riparian spider habitat). These results show that historic landscape disturbances continue to influence stream and riparian communities in the Colorado Front Range. However, these legacy effects are only weakly influencing habitat-specific function and instead are primarily influencing stream–riparian community productivity by dictating both stream planform (total stream area, total stream bank length) and the proportional distribution of specific habitat types (pools vs riffles).

  16. Stream Response to an Extreme Defoliation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Loffredo, J.; Addy, K.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Berdanier, A. B.; Schroth, A. W.; Inamdar, S. P.; Bowden, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme climatic events are known to profoundly impact stream flow and stream fluxes. These events can also exert controls on insect outbreaks, which may create marked changes in stream characteristics. The invasive Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) experiences episodic infestations based on extreme climatic conditions within the northeastern U.S. In most years, gypsy moth populations are kept in check by diseases. In 2016 - after successive years of unusually warm, dry spring and summer weather -gypsy moth caterpillars defoliated over half of Rhode Island's 160,000 forested ha. No defoliation of this magnitude had occurred for more than 30 years. We examined one RI headwater stream's response to the defoliation event in 2016 compared with comparable data in 2014 and 2015. Stream temperature and flow was gauged continuously by USGS and dissolved oxygen (DO) was measured with a YSI EXO2 sonde every 30 minutes during a series of deployments in the spring, summer and fall from 2014-2016. We used the single station, open channel method to estimate stream metabolism metrics. We also assessed local climate and stream temperature data from 2009-2016. We observed changes in stream responses during the defoliation event that suggest changes in ET, solar radiation and heat flux. Although the summer of 2016 had more drought stress (PDSI) than previous years, stream flow occurred throughout the summer, in contrast to several years with lower drought stress when stream flow ceased. Air temperature in 2016 was similar to prior years, but stream temperature was substantially higher than the prior seven years, likely due to the loss of canopy shading. DO declined dramatically in 2016 compared to prior years - more than the rising stream temperatures would indicate. Gross Primary Productivity was significantly higher during the year of the defoliation, indicating more total fixation of inorganic carbon from photo-autotrophs. In 2016, Ecosystem Respiration was also higher and Net

  17. Motion of shocks through interplanetary streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Scudder, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A model for the motion of flare-generated shocks through interplanetary streams is presented, illustrating the effects of a stream-shock interaction on the shock strength and geometry. It is a gas dynamic calculation based on Whitham's method and on an empirical approximation for the relevant characteristics of streams. The results show that the Mach number of a shock can decrease appreciably to near unity in the interaction region ahead of streams and that the interaction of a spherically symmetric shock with a spiral-shaped corotating stream can cause significant distortions of the initial shock front geometry. The geometry of the February 15--16, 1967, shock discussed by Lepping and Chao (1972) is qualitatively explained by this model

  18. The composition of corotating energetic particle streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, R.E.; von Rosenvinge, T.T.; McDonald, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    The relative abundances of 1.5--23 MeV per nucleon ions in corotating nucleon streams are compared with ion abundances in particle events associated with solar flares and with solar and solar wind abundances. He/O and C/O ratios are found to be a factor of the order 2--3 greater in corotating streams than in flare-associated events. The distribution of H/He ratios in corotating streams is found to be much narrower and of lower average value than in flare-associated events. H/He in corotating energetic particle streams compares favorably in both lack of variability and numerical value with H/He in high-speed solar wind plasma streams. The lack of variability suggests that the source population for the corotating energetic particles is the solar wind, a suggestion consistent with acceleration of the corotating particles in interplanetary space

  19. The ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina; Bengtsson, Mia M; Romani, Anna M; Packmann, Aaron I

    2016-04-01

    Streams and rivers form dense networks, shape the Earth's surface and, in their sediments, provide an immensely large surface area for microbial growth. Biofilms dominate microbial life in streams and rivers, drive crucial ecosystem processes and contribute substantially to global biogeochemical fluxes. In turn, water flow and related deliveries of nutrients and organic matter to biofilms constitute major constraints on microbial life. In this Review, we describe the ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms and highlight the influence of physical and ecological processes on their structure and function. Recent advances in the study of biofilm ecology may pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the effects of climate and environmental change on stream biofilms and the biogeochemistry of stream ecosystems.

  20. StreamExplorer: A Multi-Stage System for Visually Exploring Events in Social Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Chen, Zhutian; Sun, Guodao; Xie, Xiao; Cao, Nan; Liu, Shixia; Cui, Weiwei

    2017-10-18

    Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present StreamExplorer to facilitate the visual analysis, tracking, and comparison of a social stream at three levels. At a macroscopic level, StreamExplorer uses a new glyph-based timeline visualization, which presents a quick multi-faceted overview of the ebb and flow of a social stream. At a mesoscopic level, a map visualization is employed to visually summarize the social stream from either a topical or geographical aspect. At a microscopic level, users can employ interactive lenses to visually examine and explore the social stream from different perspectives. Two case studies and a task-based evaluation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of StreamExplorer.Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present Stream

  1. Formulation studies for mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Simay; Aytekin, Eren; Yavuz, Burçin; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Ünlü, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) recently have gained much attention to fulfill the needs for pediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. Aim of this study was to develop new ODT formulations containing mirtazapine, an antidepressant drug molecule having bitter taste, by using simple and inexpensive preparation methods such as coacervation, direct compression and to compare their characteristics with those of reference product (Remereon SolTab). Coacervation method was chosen for taste masking of mirtazapine. In vitro characterization studies such as diameter and thickness, weight variation, tablet hardness, tablet friability and disintegration time were performed on tablet formulations. Wetting time and in vitro dissolution tests of developed ODTs also studied using 900 mL 0.1 N HCl medium, 900 mL pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or 900 mL pH 4.5 acetate buffer at 37 ± 0.2 °C as dissolution medium. Ratio of Eudragit® E-100 was chosen as 6% (w/w) since the dissolution profile of A1 (6% Eudragit® E-100) was found closer to the reference product than A2 (4% Eudragit® E-100) and A3 (8% Eudragit® E-100). Group D, E and F formulations were presented better results in terms of disintegration time. Dissolution results indicated that Group E and F formulations showed optimum properties in all three dissolution media. Formulations D1, D4, D5, E3, E4, F1 and F5 found suitable as ODT formulations due to their favorable disintegration times and dissolution profiles. Developed mirtazapine ODTs were found promising in terms of showing the similar characteristics to the original formulation.

  2. TURVA-2012: Formulation of radionuclide release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, Nuria; Hjerpe, Thomas; Snellman, Margit; Ikonen, Ari; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This paper gives a summary of the scenarios and the methodology followed in formulating them as described in TURVA-2012: Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios (Posiva, 2013). The scenarios are further analysed in TURVA-2012: Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment (Posiva, 2012a, 2012b). The formulation of scenarios takes into account the safety functions of the main barriers of the repository system and the uncertainties in the features, events, and processes (FEP) that may affect the entire disposal system (i.e. repository system plus the surface environment) from the emplacement of the first canister until the far future. In the report TURVA-2012: Performance Assessment (2012d), the performance of the engineered and natural barriers has been assessed against the loads expected during the evolution of the repository system and the site. Uncertainties have been identified and these are taken into account in the formulation of radionuclide release scenarios. The uncertainties in the FEP and evolution of the surface environment are taken into account in formulating the surface environment scenarios used ultimately in estimating radiation exposure. Formulating radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system links the reports Performance Assessment and Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System. The formulation of radionuclide release scenarios for the surface environment brings together biosphere description and the surface environment FEP and is the link to the assessment of the surface environment scenarios summarised in TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment. (authors)

  3. Lipid Based Formulations of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS Class II Drugs: Strategy, Formulations, Methods and Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoltýsová I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in pharmaceuticals differ by their physico-chemical properties and their bioavailability therefore varies. The most frequently used and most convenient way of administration of medicines is oral, however many drugs are little soluble in water. Thus they are not sufficiently effective and suitable for such administration. For this reason a system of lipid based formulations (LBF was developed. Series of formulations were prepared and tested in water and biorelevant media. On the basis of selection criteria, there were selected formulations with the best emulsification potential, good dispersion in the environment and physical stability. Samples of structurally different drugs included in the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS were obtained, namely Griseofulvin, Glibenclamide, Carbamazepine, Haloperidol, Itraconazol, Triclosan, Praziquantel and Rifaximin, for testing of maximal saturation in formulations prepared from commercially available excipients. Methods were developed for preparation of formulations, observation of emulsification and its description, determination of maximum solubility of drug samples in the respective formulation and subsequent analysis. Saturation of formulations with drugs showed that formulations 80 % XA and 20 % Xh, 35 % XF and 65 % Xh were best able to dissolve the drugs which supports the hypothesis that it is desirable to identify limited series of formulations which could be generally applied for this purpose.

  4. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Spawn, Seth A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr−1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  5. Hydraulic Properties related to Stream Reaeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivoglou, E. C.; Wallace, J. R. [School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1970-09-15

    The paper reports the results of recent and current field tracer experiments designed to investigate the relationships between the reaeration capacity of a flowing stream and the stream's hydraulic properties. The purpose of the studies is to develop models for the accurate prediction of stream reaeration capacity on the basis of observation of the associated hydraulic properties. The ability of a flowing stream to absorb oxygen from the overlying atmosphere is the principal process by which the stream is able to recover its dissolved oxygen resources once they have been depleted by bacterial degradation of organic wastes. Accurate knowledge of stream reaeration capacity is therefore a necessity in determining the required degree of waste treatment, and the associated costs, in any specific case. Oxygen absorption can only occur at the air-water interface, hence reaeration is a direct function of the rate of surface water replacement due to turbulent mixing. The latter is not directly observable, and so reaeration capacity has not been observable before the quite recent development of a gaseous radiotracer technique for field measurement of reaeration. This procedure involves the simultaneous use of three tracers, namely a fluorescent dye for time of flow, tritiated water for accurate dispersion measurement, and dissolved krypton-85 for measurement of gas transfer. Field results obtained by this technique are highly reproducible. Field tracer studies of the reaeration capacities of three medium-sized streams have been conducted over a total of about fifty river miles. Associated hydraulic properties such as stream flow, cross-sectional area, depth, velocity, hydraulic gradient and dispersion have also been measured. Features such as waterfalls, rapids and pools are included, and more than eighty observations of the reaeration capacities of individual stream reaches have been made. The paper reports the observed relationships between stream reaeration capacity and

  6. Hydraulic properties related to stream reaeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivoglou, E C; Wallace, J R [School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1970-09-15

    The paper reports the results of recent and current field tracer experiments designed to investigate the relationships between the reaeration capacity of a flowing stream and the stream's hydraulic properties. The purpose of the studies is to develop models for the accurate prediction of stream reaeration capacity on the basis of observation of the associated hydraulic properties. The ability of a flowing stream to absorb oxygen from the overlying atmosphere is the principal process by which the stream is able to recover its dissolved oxygen resources once they have been depleted by bacterial degradation of organic wastes. Accurate knowledge of stream reaeration capacity is therefore a necessity in determining the required degree of waste treatment, and the associated costs, in any specific case. Oxygen absorption can only occur at the air-water interface, hence reaeration is a direct function of the rate of surface water replacement due to turbulent mixing. The latter is not directly observable, and so reaeration capacity has not been observable before the quite recent development of a gaseous radiotracer technique for field measurement of reaeration. This procedure involves the simultaneous use of three tracers, namely a fluorescent dye for time of flow, tritiated water for accurate dispersion measurement, and dissolved krypton-85 for measurement of gas transfer. Field results obtained by this technique are highly reproducible. Field tracer studies of the reaeration capacities of three medium-sized streams have been conducted over a total of about fifty river miles. Associated hydraulic properties such as stream flow, cross-sectional area, depth, velocity, hydraulic gradient and dispersion have also been measured. Features such as waterfalls, rapids and pools are included, and more than eighty observations of the reaeration capacities of individual stream reaches have been made. The paper reports the observed relationships between stream reaeration capacity and

  7. High-Level Waste Glass Formulation Model Sensitivity Study 2009 Glass Formulation Model Versus 1996 Glass Formulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsher, J.D.; Meinert, F.L.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the differences between two HLW glass formulation models (GFM): The 1996 GFM and 2009 GFM. A glass formulation model is a collection of glass property correlations and associated limits, as well as model validity and solubility constraints; it uses the pretreated HLW feed composition to predict the amount and composition of glass forming additives necessary to produce acceptable HLW glass. The 2009 GFM presented in this report was constructed as a nonlinear optimization calculation based on updated glass property data and solubility limits described in PNNL-18501 (2009). Key mission drivers such as the total mass of HLW glass and waste oxide loading are compared between the two glass formulation models. In addition, a sensitivity study was performed within the 2009 GFM to determine the effect of relaxing various constraints on the predicted mass of the HLW glass.

  8. Formulation of Sustained-Release Diltiazem Matrix Tablets Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    surface, their drug release behavior appears simple, but ... matrix material for the formulation of ..... formulation F5 (,) and reference formulations. ( , □). 0. 50. 100. 150. 200. 250. 300. 0. 3. 6 .... Coviello T, Matricardi P, Marianecci C, Alhaique F.

  9. Scaling measurements of metabolism in stream ecosystems: challenges and approaches to estimating reaeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, W. B.; Parker, S.; Song, C.

    2016-12-01

    Stream ecologists have used various formulations of an oxygen budget approach as a surrogate to measure "whole-stream metabolism" (WSM) of carbon in rivers and streams. Improvements in sensor technologies that provide reliable, high-frequency measurements of dissolved oxygen concentrations in adverse field conditions has made it much easier to acquire the basic data needed to estimate WSM in remote locations over long periods (weeks to months). However, accurate estimates of WSM require reliable measurements or estimates of the reaeration coefficient (k). Small errors in estimates of k can lead to large errors in estimates of gross ecosystem production and ecosystem respiration and so the magnitude of the biological flux of CO2 to or from streams. This is an especially challenging problem in unproductive, oligotrophic streams. Unfortunately, current methods to measure reaeration directly (gas evasion) are expensive, labor-intensive, and time-consuming. As a consequence, there is a substantial mismatch between the time steps at which we can measure reaeration versus most of the other variables required to calculate WSM. As a part of the NSF Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research Project we have refined methods to measure WSM in Arctic streams and found a good relationship between measured k values and those calculated by the Energy Dissipation Model (EDM). Other researchers have also noted that this equation works well for both low- and high-order streams. The EDM is dependent on stream slope (relatively constant) and velocity (which is related to discharge or stage). These variables are easy to measure and can be used to estimate k a high frequency (minutes) over large areas (river networks). As a key part of the NSF MacroSystems Biology SCALER project we calculated WSM for multiple reaches in nested stream networks in six biomes across the United States and Australia. We calculated k by EDM and fitted k via a Bayesian model for WSM. The relationships between

  10. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Han, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heat-map. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  11. Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming.

  12. Introduction to stream: An Extensible Framework for Data Stream Clustering Research with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hahsler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, data streams have become an increasingly important area of research for the computer science, database and statistics communities. Data streams are ordered and potentially unbounded sequences of data points created by a typically non-stationary data generating process. Common data mining tasks associated with data streams include clustering, classification and frequent pattern mining. New algorithms for these types of data are proposed regularly and it is important to evaluate them thoroughly under standardized conditions. In this paper we introduce stream, a research tool that includes modeling and simulating data streams as well as an extensible framework for implementing, interfacing and experimenting with algorithms for various data stream mining tasks. The main advantage of stream is that it seamlessly integrates with the large existing infrastructure provided by R. In addition to data handling, plotting and easy scripting capabilities, R also provides many existing algorithms and enables users to interface code written in many programming languages popular among data mining researchers (e.g., C/C++, Java and Python. In this paper we describe the architecture of stream and focus on its use for data stream clustering research. stream was implemented with extensibility in mind and will be extended in the future to cover additional data stream mining tasks like classification and frequent pattern mining.

  13. The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment—Influences of human activities on streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Coles, James F.

    2018-04-16

    Healthy streams and the fish and other organisms that live in them contribute to our quality of life. Extensive modification of the landscape in the Midwestern United States, however, has profoundly affected the condition of streams. Row crops and pavement have replaced grasslands and woodlands, streams have been straightened, and wetlands and fields have been drained. Runoff from agricultural and urban land brings sediment and chemicals to streams. What is the chemical, physical, and biological condition of Midwestern streams? Which physical and chemical stressors are adversely affecting biological communities, what are their origins, and how might we lessen or avoid their adverse effects?In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment to evaluate how human activities affect the biological condition of Midwestern streams. In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Rivers and Streams Assessment, the USGS sampled 100 streams, chosen to be representative of the different types of watersheds in the region. Biological condition was evaluated based on the number and diversity of fish, algae, and invertebrates in the streams. Changes to the physical habitat and chemical characteristics of the streams—“stressors”—were assessed, and their relation to landscape factors and biological condition was explored by using mathematical models. The data and models help us to better understand how the human activities on the landscape are affecting streams in the region.

  14. Formulation of lubricating grease using Beeswax thickener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, N.; Japar, A.; Aizudin, M.; Aziz, A.; Najib Razali, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The issues on environmental pollution has brought the industries to seek the alternative green solutions for lubricating grease formulation. The significant challenges in producing modified grease are in which considering the chosen thickener as one of the environmental friendly material. The main purposes of the current research were to formulate lubricant grease using different types of base oils and to study the effect of thickener on the formulated lubricant grease. Used oil and motor oil were used as the base oils for the grease preparation. Beeswax and Damar were used as thickener and additive. The grease is tested based on its consistency, stability and oil bleeding. The prepared greases achieved grease consistency of grade 2 and 3 except for grease with unfiltered used oil. Grease formulated with used oil and synthetic oil tend to harden and loss its lubricating ability under high temperature compared to motor oil’ grease. Grease modification using environmental friendly thickener were successfully formulated but it is considered as a low temperature grease as the beeswax have low melting point of 62°C-65°C.

  15. Bioequivalence assessment of two formulations of ibuprofen

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Talla, Zeyad

    2011-10-19

    Background: This study assessed the relative bioavailability of two formulations of ibuprofen. The first formulation was Doloraz , produced by Al-Razi Pharmaceutical Company, Amman, Jordan. The second forumulation was Brufen , manufactured by Boots Company, Nottingham, UK. Methods and results: A prestudy validation of ibuprofen demonstrated long-term stability, freeze-thaw stability, precision, and accuracy. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. After overnight fasting, the two formulations (test and reference) of ibuprofen (100 mg ibuprofen/5 mL suspension) were administered as a single dose on two treatment days separated by a one-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were drawn for a period of 14 hours. Serum harvested from the blood samples was analyzed for the presence of ibuprofen by high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from serum concentrations for both formulations. The 90% confidence intervals of the ln-transformed test/reference treatment ratios for peak plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) parameters were found to be within the predetermined acceptable interval of 80%-125% set by the US Food and Drug Administration. Conclusion: Analysis of variance for peak plasma concentrations and AUC parameters showed no significant difference between the two formulations and, therefore, Doloraz was considered bioequivalent to Brufen. 2011 Al-Talla et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

  16. Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the

  17. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  18. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream in Edo ... has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the ... Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo Stream.

  19. Cyclodextrins as excipients in tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Jaime; Adeoye, Oluwatomide; Cabral-Marques, Helena Maria; Lobo, José Manuel Sousa

    2018-04-22

    This paper aims to provide a critical review of cyclodextrins as excipients in tablet formulations, highlighting: (i) the principal pharmaceutical applications of cyclodextrins; (ii) the most relevant technological aspects in pharmaceutical formulation development; and (iii) the actual regulatory status of cyclodextrins. Moreover, several illustrative examples are presented. Cyclodextrins can be used as complexing excipients in tablet formulations for low-dose drugs. By contrast, for medium-dose drugs and/or when the complexation efficiency is low, the methods to enhance the complexation efficiency play a key part in reducing the cyclodextrin quantity. In addition, these compounds are used as fillers, disintegrants, binders and multifunctional direct compression excipients of the tablets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. STRATEGY FORMULATION PROCESS AND INNOVATION PERFORMANCE NEXUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Nwachukwu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the link between strategy formulation process and innovation performance indicators in microfinance banks in Nigeria (MFBs. 100 employees of leading microfinance banks were randomly selected for this study. 80 questionnaires were returned but only 76 were found usable for the analysis. Regression analysis technique was used in examining the nature of the relationships of the variables and for hypotheses testing. The authors used exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha to test for the validity and reliability of the questionnaires. The results show that strategy formulation process has a positive effect on process innovation performance, product innovation performance and marketing innovation performance. Thus, all the three hypotheses tested were supported. The authors, therefore, concludes that a systematic strategy formulation process is necessary for firms to achieve and sustain process innovation performance, product innovation performance and marketing innovation performance. This study proposed suggestion for further studies.

  1. Formulating viscous hydrodynamics for large velocity gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Viscous corrections to relativistic hydrodynamics, which are usually formulated for small velocity gradients, have recently been extended from Navier-Stokes formulations to a class of treatments based on Israel-Stewart equations. Israel-Stewart treatments, which treat the spatial components of the stress-energy tensor τ ij as dynamical objects, introduce new parameters, such as the relaxation times describing nonequilibrium behavior of the elements τ ij . By considering linear response theory and entropy constraints, we show how the additional parameters are related to fluctuations of τ ij . Furthermore, the Israel-Stewart parameters are analyzed for their ability to provide stable and physical solutions for sound waves. Finally, it is shown how these parameters, which are naturally described by correlation functions in real time, might be constrained by lattice calculations, which are based on path-integral formulations in imaginary time

  2. Ecological health in the Nation's streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daren M.; Woodside, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic biological communities, which are collections of organisms, are a direct measure of stream health because they indicate the ability of a stream to support life. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a national assessment of stream health by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The assessment was unique in that it integrated the condition of three biological communities—algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish—as well as measures of streamflow modification, pesticides, nutrients, and other factors. At least one biological community was altered at 83 percent of assessed streams, and the occurrence of altered communities was highest in urban streams. Streamflows were modified at 86 percent of assessed streams, and increasing severity of streamflow modification was associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities. Agricultural and urban land use in watersheds may contribute pesticides and nutrients to stream waters, and increasing concentrations of these chemicals were associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities.

  3. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit

    2016-11-02

    Programmable switches make it easier to perform flexible network monitoring queries at line rate, and scalable stream processors make it possible to fuse data streams to answer more sophisticated queries about the network in real-time. Unfortunately, processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have network monitoring in the context of streaming; yet, previous work has not closed the loop in a way that allows network operators to perform streaming analytics for network monitoring applications at scale. To achieve this objective, Sonata allows operators to express a network monitoring query by considering each packet as a tuple and efficiently partitioning each query between the switches and the stream processor through iterative refinement. Sonata extracts only the traffic that pertains to each query, ensuring that the stream processor can scale traffic rates of several terabits per second. We show with a simple example query involving DNS reflection attacks and traffic traces from one of the world\\'s largest IXPs that Sonata can capture 95% of all traffic pertaining to the query, while reducing the overall data rate by a factor of about 400 and the number of required counters by four orders of magnitude. Copyright 2016 ACM.

  4. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish

    2014-07-01

    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  5. Quality models for audiovisual streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Truong Cong; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Cheon Seog; Ro, Yong Man

    2006-01-01

    Quality is an essential factor in multimedia communication, especially in compression and adaptation. Quality metrics can be divided into three categories: within-modality quality, cross-modality quality, and multi-modality quality. Most research has so far focused on within-modality quality. Moreover, quality is normally just considered from the perceptual perspective. In practice, content may be drastically adapted, even converted to another modality. In this case, we should consider the quality from semantic perspective as well. In this work, we investigate the multi-modality quality from the semantic perspective. To model the semantic quality, we apply the concept of "conceptual graph", which consists of semantic nodes and relations between the nodes. As an typical of multi-modality example, we focus on audiovisual streaming service. Specifically, we evaluate the amount of information conveyed by a audiovisual content where both video and audio channels may be strongly degraded, even audio are converted to text. In the experiments, we also consider the perceptual quality model of audiovisual content, so as to see the difference with semantic quality model.

  6. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Bechqito, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  7. Fast algorithm for automatically computing Strahler stream order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfear, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient algorithm was developed to determine Strahler stream order for segments of stream networks represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The algorithm correctly assigns Strahler stream order in topologically complex situations such as braided streams and multiple drainage outlets. Execution time varies nearly linearly with the number of stream segments in the network. This technique is expected to be particularly useful for studying the topology of dense stream networks derived from digital elevation model data.

  8. Acoustofluidics 14: Applications of acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Martin; Green, Roy; Ohlin, Mathias

    2012-07-21

    In part 14 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics--exploiting ultrasonic standing wave forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation", we provide a qualitative description of acoustic streaming and review its applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. The paper covers boundary layer driven streaming, including Schlichting and Rayleigh streaming, Eckart streaming in the bulk fluid, cavitation microstreaming and surface-acoustic-wave-driven streaming.

  9. RAACFDb: Rheumatoid arthritis ayurvedic classical formulations database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Thoufic Ali, A M; Agrawal, Aakash; Sajitha Lulu, S; Mohana Priya, A; Vino, S

    2017-02-02

    In the past years, the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has undergone remarkable changes in all therapeutic modes. The present newfangled care in clinical research is to determine and to pick a new track for better treatment options for RA. Recent ethnopharmacological investigations revealed that traditional herbal remedies are the most preferred modality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, several ayurvedic modes of treatments and formulations for RA are not much studied and documented from Indian traditional system of medicine. Therefore, this directed us to develop an integrated database, RAACFDb (acronym: Rheumatoid Arthritis Ayurvedic Classical Formulations Database) by consolidating data from the repository of Vedic Samhita - The Ayurveda to retrieve the available formulations information easily. Literature data was gathered using several search engines and from ayurvedic practitioners for loading information in the database. In order to represent the collected information about classical ayurvedic formulations, an integrated database is constructed and implemented on a MySQL and PHP back-end. The database is supported by describing all the ayurvedic classical formulations for the treatment rheumatoid arthritis. It includes composition, usage, plant parts used, active ingredients present in the composition and their structures. The prime objective is to locate ayurvedic formulations proven to be quite successful and highly effective among the patients with reduced side effects. The database (freely available at www.beta.vit.ac.in/raacfdb/index.html) hopefully enables easy access for clinical researchers and students to discover novel leads with reduced side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Formulation and stability testing of photolabile drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, H H

    2001-08-28

    Exposure of a drug to irradiation can influence the stability of the formulation, leading to changes in the physicochemical properties of the product. The influence of excipients of frequently used stabilizers is often difficult to predict and, therefore, stability testing of the final preparation is important. The selection of a protective packaging must be based on knowledge about the wavelength causing the instability. Details on drug photoreactivity will also be helpful in order to minimize side-effects and/or optimize drug targeting by developing photoresponsive drug delivery systems. This review focuses on practical problems related to formulation and stability testing of photolabile drugs.

  11. Controlled-release tablet formulation of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N K; Kulkarni, K; Talwar, N

    1992-04-01

    Guar (GG) and Karaya gums (KG) alone and in combination with hydroxy-propylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were evaluated as release retarding materials to formulate a controlled-release tablet dosage form of isoniazid (1). In vitro release of 1 from tablets followed non-Fickian release profile with rapid initial release. Urinary excretion studies in normal subjects showed steady-state levels of 1 for 13 h. In vitro and in vivo data correlated (r = 0.9794). The studies suggested the potentiality of GG and KG as release retarding materials in formulating controlled-release tablet dosage forms of 1.

  12. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for transforming problems into taking more tractable forms. Aggregated formulations can, though, have drawbacks: some information may get lost in the aggregation and { put in a branch-and-bound context { branching may become very di_cult and even....... The paper includes general considerations on types of problems for which the method is of particular interest. Furthermore, we prove the correctness of the procedure and consider how to include extensions such as cutting planes and advanced branching strategies....

  13. Quaternionic formulation of the exact parity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumby, S.P.; Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R.

    1996-02-28

    The exact parity model (EPM) is a simple extension of the standard model which reinstates parity invariance as an unbroken symmetry of nature. The mirror matter sector of the model can interact with ordinary matter through gauge boson mixing, Higgs boson mixing and, if neutrinos are massive, through neutrino mixing. The last effect has experimental support through the observed solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. In the paper it is shown that the exact parity model can be formulated in a quaternionic framework. This suggests that the idea of mirror matter and exact parity may have profound implications for the mathematical formulation of quantum theory. 13 refs.

  14. Quaternionic formulation of the exact parity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumby, S.P.; Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The exact parity model (EPM) is a simple extension of the standard model which reinstates parity invariance as an unbroken symmetry of nature. The mirror matter sector of the model can interact with ordinary matter through gauge boson mixing, Higgs boson mixing and, if neutrinos are massive, through neutrino mixing. The last effect has experimental support through the observed solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. In the paper it is shown that the exact parity model can be formulated in a quaternionic framework. This suggests that the idea of mirror matter and exact parity may have profound implications for the mathematical formulation of quantum theory. 13 refs

  15. A morphological comparison of narrow, low-gradient streams traversing wetland environments to alluvial streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu, Michael C

    2002-12-01

    Twelve morphological features from research on alluvial streams are compared in four narrow, low-gradient wetland streams located in different geographic regions (Connecticut, Indiana, and Wisconsin, USA). All four reaches differed in morphological characteristics in five of the features compared (consistent bend width, bend cross-sectional shape, riffle width compared to pool width, greatest width directly downstream of riffles, and thalweg location), while three reaches differed in two comparisons (mean radius of curvature to width ratio and axial wavelength to width ratio). The remaining five features compared had at least one reach where different characteristics existed. This indicates the possibility of varying morphology for streams traversing wetland areas further supporting the concept that the unique qualities of wetland environments might also influence the controls on fluvial dynamics and the development of streams. If certain morphological features found in streams traversing wetland areas differ from current fluvial principles, then these varying features should be incorporated into future wetland stream design and creation projects. The results warrant further research on other streams traversing wetlands to determine if streams in these environments contain unique morphology and further investigation of the impact of low-energy fluvial processes on morphological development. Possible explanations for the morphology deviations in the study streams and some suggestions for stream design in wetland areas based upon the results and field observations are also presented.

  16. Time-Based Data Streams: Fundamental Concepts for a Data Resource for Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beth A. Plale

    2009-10-10

    Real time data, which we call data streams, are readings from instruments, environmental, bodily or building sensors that are generated at regular intervals and often, due to their volume, need to be processed in real time. Often a single pass is all that can be made on the data, and a decision to discard or keep the instance is made on the spot. Too, the stream is for all practical purposes indefinite, so decisions must be made on incomplete knowledge. This notion of data streams has a different set of issues from a file, for instance, that is byte streamed to a reader. The file is finite, so the byte stream is becomes a processing convenience more than a fundamentally different kind of data. Through the duration of the project we examined three aspects of streaming data: the first, techniques to handle streaming data in a distributed system organized as a collection of web services, the second, the notion of the dashboard and real time controllable analysis constructs in the context of the Fermi Tevatron Beam Position Monitor, and third and finally, we examined provenance collection of stream processing such as might occur as raw observational data flows from the source and undergoes correction, cleaning, and quality control. The impact of this work is severalfold. We were one of the first to advocate that streams had little value unless aggregated, and that notion is now gaining general acceptance. We were one of the first groups to grapple with the notion of provenance of stream data also.

  17. Test Summary Report Vitrification Demonstration of an Optimized Hanford C-106/AY-102 Waste-Glass Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goles, Ronald W.; Buchmiller, William C.; Hymas, Charles R.; MacIsaac, Brett D.

    2002-01-01

    In order to further the goal of optimizing Hanford?s HLW borosilicate flowsheet, a glass formulation effort was launched to develop an advanced high-capacity waste form exhibiting acceptable leach and crystal formation characteristics. A simulated C-106/AY-102 waste envelop inclusive of LAW pretreatment products was chosen as the subject of these nonradioactive optimization efforts. To evaluate this optimized borosilicate waste formulation under continuous dynamic vitrification conditions, a research-scale Joule-heated ceramic melter was used to demonstrate the advanced waste form?s flowsheet. The main objectives of this melter test was to evaluate (1) the processing characteristics of the newly formulated C-106/AY-102 surrogate melter-feed stream, (2) the effectiveness of sucrose as a glass-oxidation-state modifier, and (3) the impact of this reductant upon processing rates

  18. How and Why Does Stream Water Temperature Vary at Small Spatial Scales in a Headwater Stream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. C.; Gannon, J. P.; Kelleher, C.

    2017-12-01

    The temperature of stream water is controlled by climatic variables, runoff/baseflow generation, and hyporheic exchange. Hydrologic conditions such as gaining/losing reaches and sources of inflow can vary dramatically along a stream on a small spatial scale. In this work, we attempt to discern the extent that the factors of air temperature, groundwater inflow, and precipitation influence stream temperature at small spatial scales along the length of a stream. To address this question, we measured stream temperature along the perennial stream network in a 43 ha catchment with a complex land use history in Cullowhee, NC. Two water temperature sensors were placed along the stream network on opposite sides of the stream at 100-meter intervals and at several locations of interest (i.e. stream junctions). The forty total sensors recorded the temperature every 10 minutes for one month in the spring and one month in the summer. A subset of sampling locations where stream temperature was consistent or varied from one side of the stream to the other were explored with a thermal imaging camera to obtain a more detailed representation of the spatial variation in temperature at those sites. These thermal surveys were compared with descriptions of the contributing area at the sample sites in an effort to discern specific causes of differing flow paths. Preliminary results suggest that on some branches of the stream stormflow has less influence than regular hyporheic exchange, while other tributaries can change dramatically with stormflow conditions. We anticipate this work will lead to a better understanding of temperature patterns in stream water networks. A better understanding of the importance of small-scale differences in flow paths to water temperature may be able to inform watershed management decisions in the future.

  19. Navier-Stokes equations by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portella, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program to solve the Navier-Stokes equations by using the Finite Element Method is implemented. The solutions variables investigated are stream-function/vorticity in the steady case and velocity/pressure in the steady state and transient cases. For steady state flow the equations are solved simultaneously by the Newton-Raphson method. For the time dependent formulation, a fractional step method is employed to discretize in time and artificial viscosity is used to preclude spurious oscilations in the solution. The element used is the three node triangle. Some numerical examples are presented and comparisons are made with applications already existent. (Author) [pt

  20. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  1. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to formulate sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B by controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a “passive carrier” in targeted antifungal therapy. Methods: Sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B were prepared by controlled ...

  2. [Optimization of formulations for dietetic pastry products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, M; Uquiche, E; Brito, G; Cancino, M

    2000-03-01

    Optimized formulations of dietetic pastry products such as cake and sponge cake premixes were formulated using the surface response methodology. % Emulsifier agent and baking time were the selected independent variables for cake, as well as % emulsifier agent % chlorinated flour the variables selected for sponge cake. Three different level of each variable summing up thirteen experimental formulae of each product were assessed to optimize the variables that could have some influence in the sensory characteristics of these dietetic products. The total sensory quality was determined for both dietetic products using the composite scoring test and a panel of 18 trained judges. Looking at the contour graphic and considering economic aspects the best combination of variables for cake formulation was 2% emulsifier agent and 48 minutes for baking time, With respect to sponge cake, the best combination was 6% emulsifier agent and 48% chlorinated flour. Shelf life studies showed that both dietetic formulations remained stable during storage conditions of 75 days at 30 degrees C. During this period, significant differences in sensory characteristics were not found (p pastry products had good acceptability, and open up marketing opportunities for new products with potential health benefits to consumers.

  3. Facile Colorimetric Determination of Duloxetine in Formulations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DX). Methods: Ion-pair spectrophotometric method was employed for the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DX) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations using acidic dye methyl orange (MO) as ion-pairing agent at pH 4 (phthalate buffer). The yellow ion-pair complex ...

  4. Engaged Problem Formulation in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2016-01-01

    problems requires a more substantial engagement with the different stakeholders, especially when their problems are ill structured and situated in complex organizational settings. On this basis, we present an engaged approach to formulating IS problems with, not for, IS practitioners. We have come...

  5. Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on Serum Vitamins and Trace Elements in Male Rats. AA Iyanda, JI Anetor, DP Oparinde, FAA Adeniyi. Abstract. Methionine is an effective antidote in the treatment of paracetamol-induced toxicity but at large doses it has been reported to induce or aggravate a ...

  6. State-Space Formulation for Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marin, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new state-space approach for temporal analysis of electrical circuits. The method systematically obtains the state-space formulation of nondegenerate linear networks without using concepts of topology. It employs nodal/mesh systematic analysis to reduce the number of undesired variables. This approach helps students to…

  7. Yang-Mills formulation of interacting strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun

    1988-06-01

    A suggestion that the theory of interacting open bosonic string be reformulated as a generalised Yang-Mills theory is further elucidated. Moreover, a serious reservation regarding the ordering of operators in the earlier 'proof' of equivalence between the new and standard formulations is now removed. (author)

  8. Initial value formulation of higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The initial value problem is considered for the conformally coupled scalar field and higher derivative gravity, by expressing the equations of each theory in harmonic coordinates. For each theory it is shown that the (vacuum) equations can take the form of a diagonal hyperbolic system with constraints on the initial data. Consequently these theories possess well-posed initial value formulations

  9. Release Properties of Paracetamol Granulationa Formulated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theobroma cacao gum, TCG was derived as a dry powder from fresh fruits of Theobroma cacao. Various granulations of paracetamol were prepared with TCG at the concentrations of 0.5 – 4% w/w. Similar formulations were prepared using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, SCMC and acacia gums as standards. In each ...

  10. Probabilites in the general boundary formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeckl, Robert [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM, Campus Morelia, C.P. 58190, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    We give an introductory account of the general boundary formulation of quantum theory. We refine its probability interpretation and emphasize a conceptual and historical perspective. We give motivations from quantum gravity and illustrate them with a scenario for describing gravitons in quantum gravity.

  11. On fictitious domain formulations for Maxwell's equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahmen, W.; Jensen, Torben Klint; Urban, K.

    2003-01-01

    We consider fictitious domain-Lagrange multiplier formulations for variational problems in the space H(curl: Omega) derived from Maxwell's equations. Boundary conditions and the divergence constraint are imposed weakly by using Lagrange multipliers. Both the time dependent and time harmonic formu...

  12. Necessity of rethinking oral pediatric formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bar-Shalom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    by all patient groups, is needed, and an automated compounding concept is proposed. The finishing of the formulation is done at the dispensing pharmacy using an automated process. The individual components (pudding-like carrier, microencapsulated drug, and the dispensing robot and its software...

  13. Lagrangian formulation of classical BMT-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey; Deriglazov, Alexei; Guzman, Walberto

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The most popular classical theory of electron has been formulated by Bargmann, Michel and Telegdi (BMT) in 1959. The BMT equations give classical relativistic description of a charged particle with spin and anomalous magnetic momentum moving in homogeneous electro-magnetic field. This allows to study spin dynamics of polarized beams in uniform fields. In particular, first experimental measurements of muon anomalous magnetic momentum were done using changing of helicity predicted by BMT equations. Surprisingly enough, a systematic formulation and the analysis of the BMT theory are absent in literature. In the present work we particularly fill this gap by deducing Lagrangian formulation (variational problem) for BMT equations. Various equivalent forms of Lagrangian will be discussed in details. An advantage of the obtained classical model is that the Lagrangian action describes a relativistic spinning particle without Grassmann variables, for both free and interacting cases. This implies also the possibility of canonical quantization. In the interacting case, an arbitrary electromagnetic background may be considered, which generalizes the BMT theory formulated to the case of homogeneous fields. The classical model has two local symmetries, which gives an interesting example of constrained classical dynamics. It is surprising, that the case of vanishing anomalous part of the magnetic momentum is naturally highlighted in our construction. (author)

  14. A parcel formulation for Hamiltonian layer models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Oliver, M.

    Starting from the three-dimensional hydrostatic primitive equations, we derive Hamiltonian N-layer models with isentropic tropospheric and isentropic or isothermal stratospheric layers. Our construction employs a new parcel Hamiltonian formulation which describes the fluid as a continuum of

  15. Clinical pharmacology of novel anticancer drug formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies outlined in this thesis describe the impact of drug formulations on pharmacology of anticancer drugs. It consists of four parts and starts with a review describing the mechanisms of low oral bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and strategies for improvement of the bioavailability. The

  16. Comparative evaluation of organic formulations of Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted in the laboratory and farm of the Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, to explore the potentiality of various organic formulations of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf) and to manage bacterial wilt disease of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) under local conditions. Different organic ...

  17. Formulation and evaluation and terbutaline sulphate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the use of low rugosity lactose, product of controlled crystallization of this carrier, in the formulation of terbutaline sulphate and beclomethasone dipropionate dry powder inhalers. The deposition patterns obtained with inhalation mixtures consisting of the modified lactose and each of the micronised drugs ...

  18. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Martin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w gabapentin 0.75% (w/w Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w DMSO or 70% (w/w ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Natalie; Hiom, Sarah; Birchall, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w) gabapentin 0.75% (w/w) Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w) DMSO or 70% (w/w) ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w) gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations. PMID:28867811

  20. Engaged Problem Formulation in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2016-01-01

    “Is this the problem?”: the question that haunts many information systems (IS) researchers when they pursue work relevant to both practice and research. Nevertheless, a deliberate answer to this question requires more than simply asking the involved IS practitioners. Deliberately formulating...

  1. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-07-06

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  2. Application of UV Imaging in Formulation Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery is dependent on the drug substance dissolving in the body fluids, being released from dosage forms and transported to the site of action. A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the physicochemical properties of the active compound and pharmaceutical excipients defining formulation behavior after exposure to the aqueous environments and pharmaceutical performance is critical in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and quality control of drugs. UV imaging has been explored as a tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of drug dissolution and release with the characteristic feature of providing real-time visualization of the solution phase drug transport in the vicinity of the formulation. Events occurring during drug dissolution and release, such as polymer swelling, drug precipitation/recrystallization, or solvent-mediated phase transitions related to the structural properties of the drug substance or formulation can be monitored. UV imaging is a non-intrusive and simple-to-operate analytical technique which holds potential for providing a mechanistic foundation for formulation development. This review aims to cover applications of UV imaging in the early and late phase pharmaceutical development with a special focus on the relation between structural properties and performance. Potential areas of future advancement and application are also discussed.

  3. Stream Processing Using Grammars and Regular Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp

    disambiguation. The first algorithm operates in two passes in a semi-streaming fashion, using a constant amount of working memory and an auxiliary tape storage which is written in the first pass and consumed by the second. The second algorithm is a single-pass and optimally streaming algorithm which outputs...... as much of the parse tree as is semantically possible based on the input prefix read so far, and resorts to buffering as many symbols as is required to resolve the next choice. Optimality is obtained by performing a PSPACE-complete pre-analysis on the regular expression. In the second part we present...... Kleenex, a language for expressing high-performance streaming string processing programs as regular grammars with embedded semantic actions, and its compilation to streaming string transducers with worst-case linear-time performance. Its underlying theory is based on transducer decomposition into oracle...

  4. Authentication for Propulsion Test Streaming Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A streaming video system was developed and implemented at SSC to support various propulsion projects at SSC. These projects included J-2X and AJ-26 rocket engine...

  5. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  6. Noise Prediction Module for Offset Stream Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2011-01-01

    A Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) analysis of data acquired for an offset stream technology was presented. The data acquisition and concept development were funded under a Supersonics NRA NNX07AC62A awarded to Dimitri Papamoschou at University of California, Irvine. The technology involved the introduction of airfoils in the fan stream of a bypass ratio (BPR) two nozzle system operated at transonic exhaust speeds. The vanes deflected the fan stream relative to the core stream and resulted in reduced sideline noise for polar angles in the peak jet noise direction. Noise prediction models were developed for a range of vane configurations. The models interface with an existing ANOPP module and can be used or future system level studies.

  7. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  8. Radiation streaming with SAM-CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gangi, N.; Cohen, M.O.; Waluschka, E.; Steinberg, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    The SAM-CE Monte Carlo code has been employed to calculate doses, due to neutron streaming, on the operating floor and other locations of the Millstone Unit II Nuclear Power Facility. Calculated results were compared against measured doses

  9. Stream biomonitoring using macroinvertebrates around the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, Daniel F.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Chon, Tae Soo; Culp, Joseph; Harding, Jon S.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Robinson, Wayne A.; Strachan, Stephanie; Thirion, Christa; Hughes, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality agencies and scientists are increasingly adopting standardized sampling methodologies because of the challenges associated with interpreting data derived from dissimilar protocols. Here, we compare 13 protocols for monitoring streams from different regions and countries around the

  10. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  11. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  12. Stream sediment sampling and analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Means, J.L.; Voris, P.V.; Headington, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    The objectives were to sample and analyze sediments from upstream and downstream locations (relative to the Goodyear Atomic plant site) of three streams for selected pollutants. The three streams sampled were the Scioto River, Big Beaver Creek, and Big Run Creek. Sediment samples were analyzed for EPA's 129 priority pollutants (Clean Water Act) as well as isotopic uranium ( 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U) and technetium-99

  13. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  14. Rotenone persistence model for montane streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient and effective use of rotenone is hindered by its unknown persistence in streams. Environmental conditions degrade rotenone, but current label instructions suggest fortifying the chemical along a stream based on linear distance or travel time rather than environmental conditions. Our objective was to develop models that use measurements of environmental conditions to predict rotenone persistence in streams. Detailed measurements of ultraviolet radiation, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), substrate composition, amount of organic matter, channel slope, and travel time were made along stream segments located between rotenone treatment stations and cages containing bioassay fish in six streams. The amount of fine organic matter, biofilm, sand, gravel, cobble, rubble, small boulders, slope, pH, TDS, ORP, light reaching the stream, energy dissipated, discharge, and cumulative travel time were each significantly correlated with fish death. By using logistic regression, measurements of environmental conditions were paired with the responses of bioassay fish to develop a model that predicted the persistence of rotenone toxicity in streams. This model was validated with data from two additional stream treatment reaches. Rotenone persistence was predicted by a model that used travel time, rubble, and ORP. When this model predicts a probability of less than 0.95, those who apply rotenone can expect incomplete eradication and should plan on fortifying rotenone concentrations. The significance of travel time has been previously identified and is currently used to predict rotenone persistence. However, rubble substrate, which may be associated with the degradation of rotenone by adsorption and volatilization in turbulent environments, was not previously considered.

  15. Hydraulic Aspects of Vegetation Maintanence in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of the underwater vegetation on Danish streams and some of the consequences of vegetation maintenance. the influence of the weed on the hydraulic conditions is studied through experiments in a smaller stream and the effect of cutting channels through the weed...... is measured. A method for predicting the Manning's n as a function of the discharge conditions is suggested, and also a working hypothesis for predictions of the effect of channel cutting is presented....

  16. Bioequivalence assessment of two formulations of ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Talla ZA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zeyad A Al-Talla1, Sabah H Akrawi2, Luke T Tolley3, Salim H Sioud1, Mohammed F Zaater4, Abdul-Hamid M Emwas1 1Analytical and NMR Core Laboratories, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 2College of Pharmacy, Al-Ain University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL, USA; 4Department of Chemistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Background: This study assessed the relative bioavailability of two formulations of ibuprofen. The first formulation was Doloraz®, produced by Al-Razi Pharmaceutical Company, Amman, Jordan. The second forumulation was Brufen®, manufactured by Boots Company, Nottingham, UK. Methods and results: A prestudy validation of ibuprofen demonstrated long-term stability, freeze-thaw stability, precision, and accuracy. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. After overnight fasting, the two formulations (test and reference of ibuprofen (100 mg ibuprofen/5 mL suspension were administered as a single dose on two treatment days separated by a one-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were drawn for a period of 14 hours. Serum harvested from the blood samples was analyzed for the presence of ibuprofen by high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from serum concentrations for both formulations. The 90% confidence intervals of the ln-transformed test/reference treatment ratios for peak plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC parameters were found to be within the predetermined acceptable interval of 80%–125% set by the US Food and Drug Administration. Conclusion: Analysis of variance for peak plasma concentrations and AUC parameters showed no significant difference between the two formulations and

  17. Topical formulations with superoxide dismutase: influence of formulation composition on physical stability and enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mambro, Valéria M; Borin, Maria F; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2003-04-24

    Three different topical formulations were supplemented with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and evaluated concerning physical and chemical stabilities in order to determine the most stable formulation that would maintain SOD activity. Physical stability was evaluated by storing the formulation at room temperature, and at 37 and 45 degrees C for 28 days. Samples were collected at 7-day intervals for assessment of rheological behavior. Chemical stability was evaluated by the measurement of enzymatic activity in formulations stored at room temperature and at 45 degrees C for 75 days. The formulations showed a pseudoplastic behavior, with a flow index of less than 1. There was no significant difference in the initial values of flow index, hysteresis loop or minimum apparent viscosity. The simple emulsion and the one stabilized with hydroxyethylcellulose showed decreased viscosity by the 21st day and with higher temperature, but no significant changes concerning the presence of SOD. Although there were no significant changes concerning storage time or temperature, the formulation stabilized with hydroxyethylcellulose showed a marked loss of SOD activity. The addition of SOD to the formulations studied did not affect their physical stability. Simple emulsions or emulsions stabilized with carboxypolymethylene seem to be better bases for enzyme addition than emulsion stabilized with hydroxyethylcellulose.

  18. Information Behavior on Social Live Streaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheibe, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, a new type of synchronous social networking services (SNSs has emerged—social live streaming services (SLSSs. Studying SLSSs is a new and exciting research field in information science. What information behaviors do users of live streaming platforms exhibit? In our empirical study we analyzed information production behavior (i.e., broadcasting as well as information reception behavior (watching streams and commenting on them. We conducted two quantitative investigations, namely an online survey with YouNow users (N = 123 and observations of live streams on YouNow (N = 434. YouNow is a service with video streams mostly made by adolescents for adolescents. YouNow users like to watch streams, to chat while watching, and to reward performers by using emoticons. While broadcasting, there is no anonymity (as in nearly all other WWW services. Synchronous SNSs remind us of the film The Truman Show, as anyone has the chance to consciously broadcast his or her own life real-time.

  19. STREAMS - Supporting Underrepresented Groups in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Knighton, K.; Johnson, A.

    2009-12-01

    In Fall 2008, STREAMS (Supporting Talented and Remarkable Environmental And Marine Science students) Scholarship initiative began at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg, the only public university in Pinellas County. STREAMS is a partnership between the University of South Florida St. Petersburg’s (USFSP) Environmental Science and Policy Program and University of South Florida’s (USF) College of Marine Science. The STREAMS Student Scholarship Program has facilitated increased recruitment, retention, and graduation of USFSP environmental science and USF marine science majors. The STREAMS program has increased opportunities for minorities and women to obtain undergraduate and graduate degrees, gain valuable research experience and engage in professional development activities. STREAMS scholars have benefited from being mentored by USFSP and USF faculty and as well as MSPhDs students and NSF Florida-Georgia LSAMP Bridge to Doctorate graduate fellows. In addition, STREAMS has facilitated activities designed to prepare student participants for successful Earth system science-related careers. We will elucidate the need for this initiative and vision for the collaboration.

  20. REVISED STREAM CODE AND WASP5 BENCHMARK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K

    2005-01-01

    STREAM is an emergency response code that predicts downstream pollutant concentrations for releases from the SRS area to the Savannah River. The STREAM code uses an algebraic equation to approximate the solution of the one dimensional advective transport differential equation. This approach generates spurious oscillations in the concentration profile when modeling long duration releases. To improve the capability of the STREAM code to model long-term releases, its calculation module was replaced by the WASP5 code. WASP5 is a US EPA water quality analysis program that simulates one-dimensional pollutant transport through surface water. Test cases were performed to compare the revised version of STREAM with the existing version. For continuous releases, results predicted by the revised STREAM code agree with physical expectations. The WASP5 code was benchmarked with the US EPA 1990 and 1991 dye tracer studies, in which the transport of the dye was measured from its release at the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam downstream to Savannah. The peak concentrations predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±20.0%. The transport times of the dye concentration peak predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±3.6%. These benchmarking results demonstrate that STREAM should be capable of accurately modeling releases from SRS outfalls

  1. Controlling the acoustic streaming by pulsed ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    We propose a technique based on pulsed ultrasounds for controlling, reducing to a minimum observable value the acoustic streaming in closed ultrasonic standing wave fluidic resonators. By modifying the number of pulses and the repetition time it is possible to reduce the velocity of the acoustic streaming with respect to the velocity generated by the continuous ultrasound mode of operation. The acoustic streaming is observed at the nodal plane where a suspension of 800nm latex particles was focused by primary radiation force. A mixture of 800nm and 15μm latex particles has been also used for showing that the acoustic streaming is hardly reduced while primary and secondary forces continue to operate. The parameter we call "pulse mode factor" i.e. the time of applied ultrasound divided by the duty cycle, is found to be the adequate parameter that controls the acoustic streaming. We demonstrate that pulsed ultrasound is more efficient for controlling the acoustic streaming than the variation of the amplitude of the standing waves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. South Stream Project and the Ukrainian Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ioana Banciu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to develop an analysis of the South Stream project in view of the Ukrainian crisis. We cannot put aside the internal factor as Ukraine is facing serious internal issues such as corruption and instability, therefore Russia’s invasion of Ukraine can not be simply ignored in this pipeline project. The article uses mostly facts that happened throughout last years, as well as for and against declarations in the case of the South Stream project and its mother Russia. When we hear about South Stream, we think of Russia and since 2007, this pipeline has encouraged Putin’s faith in energy superpower. A good point to start with was to gather all declarations since then and cover all actions that regard the South Stream game. In Russian foreign policy for the South Stream race, Soft Power was used more than enough and it has recently made room for Hard Power, which is the Ukraine never ending episode. Insights of the South Stream story have been lately related both softly and hardly, this is the reason why I have chosen to analyse both sides in order to complete the energy landscape.

  3. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  4. Impact of stream restoration on flood waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtes, J.; Doyle, M.

    2008-12-01

    Restoration of channelized or incised streams has the potential to reduce downstream flooding via storing and dissipating the energy of flood waves. Restoration design elements such as restoring meanders, reducing slope, restoring floodplain connectivity, re-introducing in-channel woody debris, and re-vegetating banks and the floodplain have the capacity to attenuate flood waves via energy dissipation and channel and floodplain storage. Flood discharge hydrographs measured up and downstream of several restored reaches of varying stream order and located in both urban and rural catchments are coupled with direct measurements of stream roughness at various stages to directly measure changes to peak discharge, flood wave celerity, and dispersion. A one-dimensional unsteady flow routing model, HEC-RAS, is calibrated and used to compare attenuation characteristics between pre and post restoration conditions. Modeled sensitivity results indicate that a restoration project placed on a smaller order stream demonstrates the highest relative reduction in peak discharge of routed flood waves compared to one of equal length on a higher order stream. Reductions in bed slope, extensions in channel length, and increases in channel and floodplain roughness follow restoration placement with the watershed in relative importance. By better understanding how design, scale, and location of restored reaches within a catchment hydraulically impact flood flows, this study contributes both to restoration design and site decision making. It also quantifies the effect of reach scale stream restoration on flood wave attenuation.

  5. The Stream-Catchment (StreamCat) and Lake-Catchment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsLake and stream conditions respond to both natural and human-related landscape features. Characterizing these features within contributing areas (i.e., delineated watersheds) of streams and lakes could improve our understanding of how biological conditions vary spatially and improve the use, management, and restoration of these aquatic resources. However, the specialized geospatial techniques required to define and characterize stream and lake watersheds has limited their widespread use in both scientific and management efforts at large spatial scales. We developed the StreamCat and LakeCat Datasets to model, predict, and map the probable biological conditions of streams and lakes across the conterminous US (CONUS). Both StreamCat and LakeCat contain watershed-level characterizations of several hundred natural (e.g., soils, geology, climate, and land cover) and anthropogenic (e.g., urbanization, agriculture, mining, and forest management) landscape features for ca. 2.6 million stream segments and 376,000 lakes across the CONUS, respectively. These datasets can be paired with field samples to provide independent variables for modeling and other analyses. We paired 1,380 stream and 1,073 lake samples from the USEPAs National Aquatic Resource Surveys with StreamCat and LakeCat and used random forest (RF) to model and then map an invertebrate condition index and chlorophyll a concentration, respectively. Results/ConclusionsThe invertebrate

  6. PROXY-BASED PATCHING STREAM TRANSMISSION STRATEGY IN MOBILE STREAMING MEDIA SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Jianxin; Lei Zhengxiong; Ma Xutao; Zhu Xiaomin

    2006-01-01

    A mobile transmission strategy, PMPatching (Proxy-based Mobile Patching) transmission strategy is proposed, it applies to the proxy-based mobile streaming media system in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) network. Performance of the whole system can be improved by using patching stream to transmit anterior part of the suffix that had been played back, and by batching all the demands for the suffix arrived in prefix period and patching stream transmission threshold period. Experimental results show that this strategy can efficiently reduce average network transmission cost and number of channels consumed in central streaming media server.

  7. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, J.M.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffman, D.P.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The plasma hearth process (PHP) presented in this report has been tested at a facility at Ukiah, California, in a cooperative effort between the Department of Energy (DOE), Science Applications International Corporation, Inc., and ReTech, Inc. The electrically heated plasma gas is used to destroy organic materials and bind radionuclides and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals in the glassy slag. Proof-of-principle tests were conducted successfully using nonhazardous and non-radioactive materials placed in 30-gal steel drums. On-line analyses of the gaseous effluents indicated complete combustion; emissions of CO, NO x , and particulates were low. The process also produced highly stable solid waste forms. The experiments for the next phase have been planned employing surrogates for the hazardous and radioactive components of the simulated waste streams. Natural cerium oxide is selected to simulate the behavior of radioactive actinide and transuranium elements, while natural cesium chloride is simulated for the study of relatively volatile radioactive fission products. For RCRA organics, naphthalene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene are semivolatile compounds selected to represent significant challenges to thermal destruction, whereas chlorobenzene is selected for the study of relatively volatile organics. Salts of chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium are chosen to represent the twelve regulated toxic metals for emission and partitioning studies. The simulated waste packages presented in the text do not necessarily represent an individual waste stream within the DOE complex; rather, they were formulated to represent the most probable components in generic waste stream categories

  8. Indexes of contamination for characterization of continental waters and discharges. Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Restrepo R; Cardenosa, M

    1999-01-01

    Contamination indexes (ICO) for characterization of natural water bodies and industrial discharges have been formulated in previous works by Ramirez, et al, 1997 in this work, complementary indexes not correlated with other ICOS previously developed are established thus resulting in a complementary tool to be applied in the interpretation and characterization on continental surface water bodies. First, a pH index (ICOpH) is obtained to determine ph incidence on water quality interpretation. A temperature index (ICOTEM) is also obtained to evaluate effluent incidence on receiving water bodies. ICOTEM is based on temperature difference of the wastewater discharge and the water body. Finally, indexes for the evaluation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons are also developed based on data collected on sediments and fish tissue samples. These hydrocarbon compounds are highly viable to accumulate and produce long-term detrimental effects on living organisms. These latter indexes have been developed based on data of nearly 130 samples collected during monitoring campaigns in streams and water bodies affected by discharges of the petroleum industry or by accidental spills of crude oil or hydrocarbon by-products in Colombian streams; its also possible that anthropic influence other than petroleum discharges might be affecting the streams included in the monitoring campaigns

  9. A Streams-Based Framework for Defining Location-Based Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Xuegang, Huang

    2007-01-01

    n infrastructure is emerging that supports the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to mobile users. Such services involve novel database queries, and the database research community is quite active in proposing techniques for the efficient processing of such queries. In parallel to this......, the management of data streams has become an active area of research. While most research in mobile services concerns performance issues, this paper aims to establish a formal framework for defining the semantics of queries encountered in mobile services, most notably the so-called continuous queries...... that are particularly relevant in this context. Rather than inventing an entirely new framework, the paper proposes a framework that builds on concepts from data streams and temporal databases. Definitions of example queries demonstrates how the framework enables clear formulation of query semantics and the comparison...

  10. Towards A Streams-Based Framework for Defining Location-Based Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xuegang; Jensen, Christian S.

    2004-01-01

    An infrastructure is emerging that supports the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to mobile users. Such services involve novel database queries, and the database research community is quite active in proposing techniques for the effi- cient processing of such queries. In parallel...... to this, the management of data streams has become an active area of research. While most research in mobile services concerns performance issues, this paper aims to establish a formal framework for defining the semantics of queries encountered in mobile services, most notably the so-called continuous...... queries that are particularly relevant in this context. Rather than inventing an entirely new framework, the paper proposes a framework that builds on concepts from data streams and temporal databases. Definitions of example queries demonstrates how the framework enables clear formulation of query...

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of Streaming Jet Pervaded Internally by Varying Transverse Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfaisal A. Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Magnetohydrodynamic stability of a streaming cylindrical model penetrated by varying transverse magnetic field has been discussed. The problem is formulated, the basic equations are solved, upon appropriate boundary conditions the eigenvalue relation is derived and discussed analytically, and the results are verified numerically. The capillary force is destabilizing in a small axisymmetric domain 0<<1 and stabilizing otherwise. The streaming has a strong destabilizing effect in all kinds of perturbation. The toroidal varying magnetic field interior the fluid has no direct effect at all on the stability of the fluid column. The axial exterior field has strong stabilizing effect on the model. The effect of all acting forces altogether could be identified via the numerical analysis of the stability theory of the present model.

  12. Relative Linkages of Stream Dissolved Oxygen with the Hydroclimatic and Biogeochemical Drivers across the Gulf Coast of U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreslase, A. K.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamics of coastal stream water quality is influenced by a multitude of interacting environmental drivers. A systematic data analytics approach was employed to determine the relative linkages of stream dissolved oxygen (DO) with the hydroclimatic and biogeochemical variables across the Gulf Coast of U.S.A. Multivariate pattern recognition techniques of PCA and FA, alongside Pearson's correlation matrix, were utilized to examine the interrelation of variables at 36 water quality monitoring stations from USGS NWIS and EPA STORET databases. Power-law based partial least square regression models with a bootstrap Monte Carlo procedure (1000 iterations) were developed to estimate the relative linkages of dissolved oxygen with the hydroclimatic and biogeochemical variables by appropriately resolving multicollinearity (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.58-0.94). Based on the dominant drivers, stations were divided into four environmental regimes. Water temperature was the dominant driver of DO in the majority of streams, representing most the northern part of Gulf Coast states. However, streams in the southern part of Texas and Florida showed a dominant pH control on stream DO. Further, streams representing the transition zone of the two environmental regimes showed notable controls of multiple drivers (i.e., water temperature, stream flow, and specific conductance) on the stream DO. The data analytics research provided profound insight to understand the dynamics of stream DO with the hydroclimatic and biogeochemical variables. The knowledge can help water quality managers in formulating plans for effective stream water quality and watershed management in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Keywords Data analytics, coastal streams, relative linkages, dissolved oxygen, environmental regimes, Gulf Coast, United States.

  13. Joint Optimized CPU and Networking Control Scheme for Improved Energy Efficiency in Video Streaming on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woong Jo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Video streaming service is one of the most popular applications for mobile users. However, mobile video streaming services consume a lot of energy, resulting in a reduced battery life. This is a critical problem that results in a degraded user’s quality of experience (QoE. Therefore, in this paper, a joint optimization scheme that controls both the central processing unit (CPU and wireless networking of the video streaming process for improved energy efficiency on mobile devices is proposed. For this purpose, the energy consumption of the network interface and CPU is analyzed, and based on the energy consumption profile a joint optimization problem is formulated to maximize the energy efficiency of the mobile device. The proposed algorithm adaptively adjusts the number of chunks to be downloaded and decoded in each packet. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the energy efficiency when compared with the existing algorithms.

  14. Resource synergy in stream periphyton communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Walter [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Fanta, S.E. [University of Illinois; Roberts, Brian J [ORNL; Francoeur, Steven N. [Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI

    2011-03-01

    1. Light and nutrients play pivotal roles in determining the growth of autotrophs, yet the potential for synergistic interactions between the two resources in algal communities is poorly understood, especially in stream ecosystems. In this study, light and phosphorus were manipulated in large experimental streams to examine resource colimitation and synergy in stream periphyton. 2. Whole-stream metabolism was simultaneously limited by light and phosphorus. Increasing the supply of either light or phosphorus resulted in significant increases in primary production and the transformation of the streams from heterotrophy to autotrophy. 3. Resource-driven changes in periphyton community structure occurred in concert with changes in production. Algal assemblages in highly shaded streams were composed primarily of small diatoms such as Achnanthidium minutissima, whereas larger diatoms such as Melosira varians predominated at higher irradiances. Phosphorus enrichment had relatively little effect on assemblage structure, but it did substantially diminish the abundance of Meridion circulare, a diatom whose mucilaginous colonies were conspicuously abundant in phosphorus-poor, high-light streams. Bacterial biomass declined relative to algal biomass with increases in primary productivity, regardless of whether the increases were caused by light or phosphorus. 4. Synergistic effects on primary production appeared to occur because the availability of one resource facilitated the utilization of the other. Light increased the abundance of large diatoms, which are known to convert high concentrations of nutrients into primary production more effectively than smaller taxa. Phosphorus enrichment led to the replacement of Meridion circulare by non-mucilaginous taxa in phosphorus-enriched streams, and we hypothesize that this change enabled more efficient use of light in photosynthesis. Higher ratios of chlorophyll a : biomass in phosphorus-enriched streams may have also led to more

  15. THE ORBIT OF THE ORPHAN STREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberg, Heidi Jo; Willett, Benjamin A.; Yanny, Brian; Xu Yan

    2010-01-01

    We use recent Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) spectroscopy and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and SEGUE imaging data to measure the sky position, distance, and radial velocities of stars in the tidal debris stream that is commonly referred to as the 'Orphan Stream'. We fit orbital parameters to the data and find a prograde orbit with an apogalacticon, perigalacticon, and eccentricity of 90 kpc, 16.4 kpc, and e = 0.7, respectively. Neither the dwarf galaxy UMa II nor the Complex A gas cloud has velocities consistent with a kinematic association with the Orphan Stream. It is possible that Segue-1 is associated with the Orphan Stream, but no other known Galactic clusters or dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way lie along its orbit. The detected portion of the stream ranges from 19 to 47 kpc from the Sun and is an indicator of the mass interior to these distances. There is a marked increase in the density of Orphan Stream stars near (l, b) = (253 0 , 49 0 ), which could indicate the presence of the progenitor at the edge of the SDSS data. If this is the progenitor, then the detected portion of the Orphan Stream is a leading tidal tail. We find blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars and F turnoff stars associated with the Orphan Stream. The turnoff color is (g - r) 0 = 0.22. The BHB stars have a low metallicity of [Fe/H] WBG = -2.1. The orbit is best fit to a halo potential with a halo plus disk mass of about 2.6 x 10 11 M sun , integrated to 60 kpc from the Galactic center. Our fits are done to orbits rather than full N-body simulations; we show that if N-body simulations are used, the inferred mass of the galaxy would be slightly smaller. Our best fit is found with a logarithmic halo speed of v halo = 73 ± 24 km s -1 , a disk+bulge mass of M(R 11 M sun , and a halo mass of M(R 11 M sun . However, we can find similar fits to the data that use a Navarro-Frenk-White halo profile or that have smaller disk masses and correspondingly larger

  16. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  17. Residence-time framework for modeling multicomponent reactive transport in stream hyporheic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, S. L.; Coon, E. T.; Brooks, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Process-based models for transport and transformation of nutrients and contaminants in streams require tractable representations of solute exchange between the stream channel and biogeochemically active hyporheic zones. Residence-time based formulations provide an alternative to detailed three-dimensional simulations and have had good success in representing hyporheic exchange of non-reacting solutes. We extend the residence-time formulation for hyporheic transport to accommodate general multicomponent reactive transport. To that end, the integro-differential form of previous residence time models is replaced by an equivalent formulation based on a one-dimensional advection dispersion equation along the channel coupled at each channel location to a one-dimensional transport model in Lagrangian travel-time form. With the channel discretized for numerical solution, the associated Lagrangian model becomes a subgrid model representing an ensemble of streamlines that are diverted into the hyporheic zone before returning to the channel. In contrast to the previous integro-differential forms of the residence-time based models, the hyporheic flowpaths have semi-explicit spatial representation (parameterized by travel time), thus allowing coupling to general biogeochemical models. The approach has been implemented as a stream-corridor subgrid model in the open-source integrated surface/subsurface modeling software ATS. We use bedform-driven flow coupled to a biogeochemical model with explicit microbial biomass dynamics as an example to show that the subgrid representation is able to represent redox zonation in sediments and resulting effects on metal biogeochemical dynamics in a tractable manner that can be scaled to reach scales.

  18. RStorm: Developing and Testing Streaming Algorithms in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data, consisting of indefinitely evolving sequences, are becoming ubiquitous in many branches of science and in various applications. Computer scientists have developed streaming applications such as Storm and the S4 distributed stream computing platform1 to deal with data streams.

  19. RStorm : Developing and testing streaming algorithms in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data, consisting of indefinitely evolving sequences, are becoming ubiquitous in many branches of science and in various applications. Computer scientists have developed streaming applications such as Storm and the S4 distributed stream computing platform1 to deal with data streams.

  20. Sampling, Splitting and Merging in Coinductive Stream Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Niqui (Milad); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan); C. Bolduc; J. Desharnais; B. Ktari

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of \\emph{stream calculus} and \\emph{stream circuits} for defining and

  1. Sampling, splitting and merging in coinductive stream calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Niqui (Milad); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of stream calculus and stream circuits for defining and proving properties

  2. Slope failure as an upslope source of stream wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel. Miller

    2013-01-01

    Large woody debris is recognized as an important component of stream geomorphology and stream ecosystem function, and forest-land management is recognized as an important control on the quantity (and size and species distributions) of wood available for recruitment to streams. Much of the wood present in streams comes from adjacent forests, and riparian management...

  3. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  4. POLA RASIO KEUANGAN PADA SAAT UP STREAM DAN DOWN STREAM DI INDUSTRI REALESTAT YANG GO PUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sukardi Kodrat

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has purpose to explain differences on indicator financial ratio in up and down stream condition. This research uses real estate industries listed on Jakarta Stock Exchange as a sample. Sample selection is performed based on purposive sampling method with object to gain sample according to the research aim. Based on those criteria, there are 18 companies, which have fulfilling the conditions needed, starting from 1994 until 2002. The classification of business cycle on up and down stream conditions to used stock pricing indexes of property and real estate which calculated by arithmatic mean method. Based on those criteria, the classifications from 1994 until 1997 are represented by up stream condition and from 1998 until 2002 are represented by down stream condition. The result shows indicators: profitability ratios, gross margin ratios, capital turnover ratios, asset to equity ratios, growth ratios, liquidity ratios, leverage ratios, and cash flow ratios are different in up and down stream conditions, both simultaneously and partially. Simultaneously, there is a significant difference between up and down stream condition with wilks lambda of 0,346 and p value of 0,000. This research shows financial ratio indicator has differences on business cycle. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitan ini mempunyai tujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan indikator rasio keuangan pada kondisi up stream dan down stream. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel pada industri di sektor properti yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Jakarta. Pemilihan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Purposive Sampling yaitu sampel diambil berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria tertentu yang sesuai dengan tujuan penelitian ini. Berdasarkan kriteria tersebut, terdapat 18 perusahaan yang dapat dijadikan sampel mulai tahun 1994 sampai dengan 2002. Untuk menentukan perubahan business cycle pada kondisi up stream dan down stream dilakukan dengan menggunakan indeks harga saham di sektor properti

  5. Local normal vector field formulation for periodic scattering problems formulated in the spectral domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, M.C.; Setija, Irwan

    2017-01-01

    We present two adapted formulations, one tailored to isotropic media and one for general anisotropic media, of the normal vector field framework previously introduced to improve convergence near arbitrarily shaped material interfaces in spectral simulation methods for periodic scattering geometries.

  6. Formulation of Pine Tar Antidandruff Shampoo Assessment and Comparison With Some Commercial Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gharavi

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pine tar shampoo as a new antidandruff formulation is presented. Assessment of antidandruff preparations has been hampered by the lack of standardized schedules, and reliable methods of evaluation.Some antidandruff agents such as : Zinc pyri-thione pine tar, selenium sulphide and (sulfure were used in shampoos. Samples were coded as numbers 1,2 formulated by us and 3,4 formulated commercially. The grading scheme based on 10 point scale, and corneocyte count was carried out on 50 selected volunte¬ers. Corneocyte count and fungal study proved that pine tor shampoo is effective against pityrosporum ovale. Draize lest was used for determination of the irritancy potential of the samples. Results showed that samples numbered 1,2 were relatively innocous in comparison with the others. I urthermore,s kin sensitination test on rabbit also confirmed the results obtained by Draize test. Consumer judgments proved that all formulations were acceptable.

  7. Design and formulation of nano-sized spray dried efavirenz. Part I: Influence of formulation parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katata, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available statistical design with an L8 orthogonal array, was implemented to optimise the formulation parameters of PCL-EFV nanoparticles. The types of sugar (lactose or trehalose), surfactant concentration and solvent (dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) were chosen...

  8. Streaming Seismograms into Earth-Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    background motions, interesting and formulate good questions related to the signal details. A few minutes at the beginning of class reviewing the activity between classes and a few minutes when an earthquake occurs provide valuable discussion points related to earthquake science and seismic-wave propagation. Other tools discussed are related to global earthquake geography, with self-updating global maps of earthquakes (Epicentral, a MacOS and iOS application). When a signal first shows up on the EMMA seismogram display, students can invest a few minutes estimating the event's general location (and checking the signal character - relative arrival times, dispersion, etc). When a location is posted by an appropriate authority (e.g. the U. S. Geological Survey) the student's estimates can be checked and discussed. Additionally, Epicentral for MacOS presents a self-updated Twitter stream that can light up substantially when a felt earthquake occurs. Although the language of many of the tweeters can be colorful, the results are interesting and instant. The inclusion of these tools takes some time away from traditional lectures, but helps produce a dynamic, thought-provoking classroom experience.

  9. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, Chopin

    2011-01-01

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  10. Formulation of diclofenac for dermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Choon Fu; Lane, Majella E

    2014-10-01

    Diclofenac (DF) was first synthesized in the 1960's and is currently available as ophthalmic, oral, parenteral, rectal and skin preparations. This review focuses on the administration of DF to the skin. As a member of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) group of drugs the primary indications of DF are for the management of inflammation and pain but it is also used to treat actinic keratosis. The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) provide an overview of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of DF following oral and topical administration; (ii) examine critically the various formulation approaches which have been investigated to enhance dermal delivery of DF; and (iii) identify new formulation strategies for enhanced DF skin penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-22

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  12. Principles of ration formulation for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Feeding standards as practiced in developed countries could be misleading when non-conventional feed resources are used in formulating rations for ruminant livestock in developing countries. They tend to reject the poor quality feeds that are available in vast quantities. The non-availability of good quality forage throughout the year and the need to optimise the efficiency of utilisation of locally available feed resources have lead to the application of basic nutritional principles when considering ration formulation. The alternative approach to the use of feeding standards would be to ensure that the production system matches the available resources. The development of feed supplementation strategies based on locally available feed resources require the understanding of the relative roles and nutrient needs of the two-compartment system represented by the micro-organisms in the rumen and the host animal. (author)

  13. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Canonical formulation of general-relativistic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    With the birth of quantum field theory in the late twenties physicists decided that nature could not be half classical and half quantum, and that the gravitational field ought to be quanticized, just as the electromagnetic field had been. One could accept the group of differomorphisms as a fundamental characteristic of general relativity (and indeed of all general-relativistic theories), and proceed to construct a quantum field-theory that was adapted to that group. Quantization would be attempted by way of a Hamiltonian formulation of the (classical) theory, and quantum commutation relations be patterned after the Poisson brackets arising in that formulation. This program is usually called the canonical quantization program, whereas the weak-field approach is known as covariant quantization. The first steps, conceived entirely within the framework of the classical theory, turned out to be beset with technical and conceptual difficulties, which today are essentially resolved. In this paper the author traces out these initial steps

  15. Planar multibody dynamics formulation, programming and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nikravesh, Parviz E

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Multibody Mechanical Systems Types of Analyses Methods of Formulation Computer Programming Application Examples Unit System Remarks Preliminaries Reference Axes Scalars and Vectors Matrices Vector, Array, and Matrix Differentiation Equations and Expressions Remarks Problems Fundamentals of Kinematics A Particle Kinematics of a Rigid Body Definitions Remarks Problems Fundamentals of Dynamics Newton's Laws of Motion Dynamics of a Body Force Elements Applied Forces Reaction Force Remarks Problems Point-Coordinates: Kinematics Multipoint

  16. Alternative formulations of the electricity tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    According to EFTA's surveillance authority ESA, the current form of the electricity tax may have a competition distorting effect since only the industry and a few other sectors are exempt from it. This document discusses four alternative formulations of the electricity tax: same tax for all business sectors and households, defining a maximum payment for each firm, introduce a tax on power transmission, or have taxation only on power used for heating.

  17. Formulation and Evaluation of Bioadhesive Cyproheptadine Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The shear stress of 3 % solution of HPMC was greater than that of an equivalent concentration of Carbopol 934P. The values of K, n, R2 and detachment force for the optimized formulation (F0) were 0.269, 0.696, 0.964 and 0.066 Newton (N), respectively, and showed good correlation with the predicted values, thus ...

  18. Ising formulations of many NP problems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.

  19. Ising formulations of many NP problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eLucas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.

  20. Microcanonical ensemble formulation of lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, D.J.E.; Rahman, A.

    1982-01-01

    A new formulation of lattice gauge theory without explicit path integrals or sums is obtained by using the microcanonical ensemble of statistical mechanics. Expectation values in the new formalism are calculated by solving a large set of coupled, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations. The average plaquette for compact electrodynamics calculated in this fashion agrees with standard Monte Carlo results. Possible advantages of the microcanonical method in applications to fermionic systems are discussed

  1. Path Integral Formulation of Anomalous Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Rudolf; Eule, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    We present the path integral formulation of a broad class of generalized diffusion processes. Employing the path integral we derive exact expressions for the path probability densities and joint probability distributions for the class of processes under consideration. We show that Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRWs) are included in our framework. A closed expression for the path probability distribution of CTRWs is found in terms of their waiting time distribution as the solution of a Dyson ...

  2. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF A HERBAL SHAMPOO

    OpenAIRE

    Gouri Kumar Dash* and Noor Husna Nazirah Binti A. Razak

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed at formulating and evaluating a complete herbal shampoo containing only traditionally used plant materials. The shampoo contained extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Phyllanthus emblica, Sapindus mukorossi, Acacia concinna and fresh juice of Aloe vera. The physicochemical parameters such as colour, clarity, pH, skin irritation, percentage of solid contents, dirt dispersion, foaming ability and foam stability, wetting time and c...

  3. Prednisone raw material characterization and formulation development

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Henrique Toehwé; Livia Deris Prado; Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Solid dosage forms for oral use, particularly tablets, are the most highly used dosage forms in therapy because they are easily administered, have high productivity and relatively low cost and provide a more stable drug to form a semi-solid net. Numerous parameters influence the quality of the final dosage form. In this study, the dissolution profile of 20-mg prednisone tablets bioequivalent to the reference product and three test formulations were evaluated using stability testing. ...

  4. Trigger chemistries for better industrial formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsuan-Chin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Possanza, Catherine M; Zimmerman, Steven C; Cheng, Jianjun; Moore, Jeffrey S; Harris, Keith; Katz, Joshua S

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, innovations and consumer demands have led to increasingly complex liquid formulations. These growing complexities have provided industrial players and their customers access to new markets through product differentiation, improved performance, and compatibility/stability with other products. One strategy for enabling more complex formulations is the use of active encapsulation. When encapsulation is employed, strategies are required to effect the release of the active at the desired location and time of action. One particular route that has received significant academic research effort is the employment of triggers to induce active release upon a specific stimulus, though little has translated for industrial use to date. To address emerging industrial formulation needs, in this review, we discuss areas of trigger release chemistries and their applications specifically as relevant to industrial use. We focus the discussion on the use of heat, light, shear, and pH triggers as applied in several model polymeric systems for inducing active release. The goal is that through this review trends will emerge for how technologies can be better developed to maximize their value through industrial adaptation.

  5. What is Quantum Mechanics? A Minimal Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, R.; Hohenberg, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a minimal formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, by which is meant a formulation which describes the theory in a succinct, self-contained, clear, unambiguous and of course correct manner. The bulk of the presentation is the so-called "microscopic theory", applicable to any closed system S of arbitrary size N, using concepts referring to S alone, without resort to external apparatus or external agents. An example of a similar minimal microscopic theory is the standard formulation of classical mechanics, which serves as the template for a minimal quantum theory. The only substantive assumption required is the replacement of the classical Euclidean phase space by Hilbert space in the quantum case, with the attendant all-important phenomenon of quantum incompatibility. Two fundamental theorems of Hilbert space, the Kochen-Specker-Bell theorem and Gleason's theorem, then lead inevitably to the well-known Born probability rule. For both classical and quantum mechanics, questions of physical implementation and experimental verification of the predictions of the theories are the domain of the macroscopic theory, which is argued to be a special case or application of the more general microscopic theory.

  6. Development of formulation device for periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Oba, Takuma; Watanabe, Norio; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    In addition to providing standard surgical treatment that removes the plaque and infected tissues, medications that can regenerate periodontal tissue are also required in the treatment of periodontal disease. As a form of regenerative medication, various growth factors are expected to be used while treating periodontal disease. A protein-like growth factor is often developed as a lyophilized product with dissolution liquid, considering its instability in the solution state. We have clarified that the formulation for periodontal disease needs to be viscous. When the lyophilized product was dissolved using a sticky solution, various problems were encountered, difficulty in dissolving and air bubbles, for example, and some efforts were needed to prepare the formulation. In this research, to identify the problem of preparing a viscous formulation, a lyophilized product (placebo) and sticky liquid were prepared by using vial and ampoule as the conventional containers. Based on these problems, a prototype administration device was developed, and its functionality was confirmed. As a result, it was suggested that the device with a useful mixing system that could shorten the preparation time was developed.

  7. Stream temperature responses to timber harvest and best management practices—findings from the ODF RipStream project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy D. Groom

    2013-01-01

    Studies over the past 40 years have established that riparian buff er retention along streams protects against stream temperature increase. Th is protection is neither universal nor complete; some buff ered streams still warm, while other streams’ temperatures remain stable. Oregon Department of Forestry developed riparian rules in the Forest Practices Act (FPA) to...

  8. Characteristics of radioactive waste streams generated in HTGR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a study concerned with identification and characterization of radioactive waste streams from an HTGR fuel reprocessing plant. Approximate quantities of individual waste streams as well as pertinent characteristics of selected streams have been estimated. Most of the waste streams are unique to HTGR fuel reprocessing. However, waste streams from the solvent extraction system and from the plant facilities do not differ greatly from the corresponding LWR fuel reprocessing wastes

  9. Self-focusing relativistic electron streams in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A relativistic electron stream propagating through a dense plasma induces current and charge densities which determine how the stream can self-focus. Magnetic self-focusing is possible because stream-current neutralization, although extensive, is not complete. Electric self-focusing can occur because the stream charge becomes overneutralized when the net current is smaller than a critical value. Under some circumstances, the latter process can cause the stream to focus into a series of electron bunches

  10. A survey of systems for massive stream analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Maninder Pal; Hoque, Mohammad A.; Tarkoma, Sasu

    2016-01-01

    The immense growth of data demands switching from traditional data processing solutions to systems, which can process a continuous stream of real time data. Various applications employ stream processing systems to provide solutions to emerging Big Data problems. Open-source solutions such as Storm, Spark Streaming, and S4 are the attempts to answer key stream processing questions. The recent introduction of real time stream processing commercial solutions such as Amazon Kinesis, IBM Infospher...

  11. Emergency response capability for pollutant releases to streams and rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Watts, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Stream-river models have been developed which provide an accurate prediction of normal and accidental pollutant releases to streams and rivers. Stream parameters are being developed for the Savannah River Plant streams and the Savannah River to allow quick response in case of an accidental release of radioactive material. These data are stored on permanent disk storage for quick access via the JOSHUA operating system. This system provides an efficient and flexible emergency response capability for pollutant releases to streams and rivers

  12. Streaming Media Seminar--Effective Development and Distribution of Streaming Multimedia in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainhart, Robert; Gerraughty, James; Anderson, Kristine M.

    2004-01-01

    Concisely defined, "streaming media" is moving video and/or audio transmitted over the Internet for immediate viewing/listening by an end user. However, at Saint Francis University's Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas (CERMUSA), streaming media is approached from a broader perspective. The working definition includes…

  13. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  14. MEKANISME SEGMENTASI LAJU BIT PADA DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Audy Bazly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  15. The role of remediation, natural alkalinity sources and physical stream parameters in stream recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Natalie A; DeRose, Lisa; Korenowsky, Rebekah; Bowman, Jennifer R; Lopez, Dina; Johnson, Kelly; Rankin, Edward

    2013-10-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) negatively impacts not only stream chemistry, but also aquatic biology. The ultimate goal of AMD treatment is restoration of the biological community, but that goal is rarely explicit in treatment system design. Hewett Fork in Raccoon Creek Watershed, Ohio, has been impacted by historic coal mining and has been treated with a calcium oxide doser in the headwaters of the watershed since 2004. All of the acidic inputs are isolated to a 1.5 km stretch of stream in the headwaters of the Hewett Fork watershed. The macroinvertebrate and fish communities have begun to recover and it is possible to distinguish three zones downstream of the doser: an impaired zone, a transition zone and a recovered zone. Alkalinity from both the doser and natural sources and physical stream parameters play a role in stream restoration. In Hewett Fork, natural alkaline additions downstream are higher than those from the doser. Both, alkaline additions and stream velocity drive sediment and metal deposition. Metal deposition occurs in several patterns; aluminum tends to deposit in regions of low stream velocity, while iron tends to deposit once sufficient alkalinity is added to the system downstream of mining inputs. The majority of metal deposition occurs upstream of the recovered zone. Both the physical stream parameters and natural alkalinity sources influence biological recovery in treated AMD streams and should be considered in remediation plans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 7Q10 flows for SRS streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Transport Group of the Environmental Technology Section was requested to predict the seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) for the SRS streams based on historical stream flow records. Most of the historical flow records for the SRS streams include reactor coolant water discharged from the reactors and process water released from the process facilities. The most straight forward way to estimate the stream daily natural flow is to subtract the measured upstream reactor and/or facility daily effluents from the measured downstream daily flow. Unfortunately, this method does not always work, as indicated by the fact that sometimes the measured downstream volumetric flow rates are lower than the reactor effluent volumetric flow rates. For those cases that cannot be analyzed with the simple subtracting method, an alternative method was used to estimate the stream natural flows by statistically separating reactor coolant and process water flow data. The correlation between the calculated 7Q10 flows and the watershed areas for Four Mile Branch and Pen Branch agrees with that calculated by the USGS for Upper Three Runs and Lower Three Runs Creeks. The agreement between these two independent calculations lends confidence to the 7Q10 flow calculations presented in this report

  17. Streaming instabilities in a collisional dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    A pair of low-frequency electrostatic modes, which are very similar to those experimentally observed by Praburam and Goree [Phys. Plasmas 3, 1212 (1996)], are found to exist in a dusty plasma with a significant background neutral pressure and background ion streaming. One of these two modes is the dust-acoustic mode and the other one is a new mode which is due to the combined effects of the ion streaming and ion--neutral collisions. It has been shown that in the absence of the ion streaming, the dust-acoustic mode is damped due to the combined effects of the ion--neutral and dust--neutral collisions and the electron--ion recombination onto the dust grain surface. This result disagrees with Kaw and Singh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 423 (1997)], who reported collisional instability of the dust-acoustic mode in such a dusty plasma. It has also been found that a streaming instability with the growth rate of the order of the dust plasma frequency is triggered when the background ion streaming speed relative to the charged dust particles is comparable or higher than the ion--thermal speed. This point completely agrees with Rosenberg [J. Vac. Soc. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)

  18. Are Urban Stream Restoration Plans Worth Implementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvilinna, Auri; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Hjerppe, Turo

    2017-01-01

    To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services. We used the contingent valuation method to assess the social acceptability of a policy-level water management plan in the city of Helsinki, Finland, and the values placed on improvements in a set of ecosystem services, accounting for preference uncertainty. According to our study, the action plan would provide high returns on restoration investments, since the benefit-cost ratio was 15-37. Moreover, seventy-two percent of the respondents willing to pay for stream restoration chose "I want to conserve streams as a part of urban nature for future generations" as the most motivating reason. Our study indicates that the water management plan for urban streams in Helsinki has strong public support. If better marketed to the population within the watershed, the future projects could be partly funded by the local residents, making the projects easier to accomplish. The results of this study can be used in planning, management and decision making related to small urban watercourses.

  19. Streaming potential near a rotating porous disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieve, Dennis C; Sides, Paul J

    2014-09-23

    Theory and experimental results for the streaming potential measured in the vicinity of a rotating porous disk-shaped sample are described. Rotation of the sample on its axis draws liquid into its face and casts it from the periphery. Advection within the sample engenders streaming current and streaming potential that are proportional to the zeta potential and the disk's major dimensions. When Darcy's law applies, the streaming potential is proportional to the square of the rotation at low rate but becomes invariant with rotation at high rate. The streaming potential is invariant with the sample's permeability at low rate and is proportional to the inverse square of the permeability at high rate. These predictions were tested by determining the zeta potential and permeability of the loop side of Velcro, a sample otherwise difficult to characterize; reasonable values of -56 mV for zeta and 8.7 × 10(-9) m(2) for the permeability were obtained. This approach offers the ability to determine both the zeta potential and the permeability of materials having open structures. Compressing them into a porous plug is unnecessary. As part of the development of the theory, a convenient formula for a flow-weighted volume-averaged space-charge density of the porous medium, -εζ/k, was obtained, where ε is the permittivity, ζ is the zeta potential, and k is the Darcy permeability. The formula is correct when Smoluchowski's equation and Darcy's law are both valid.

  20. Jet Noise Scaling in Dual Stream Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2010-01-01

    Power spectral laws in dual stream jets are studied by considering such flows a superposition of appropriate single-stream coaxial jets. Noise generation in each mixing region is modeled using spectral power laws developed earlier for single stream jets as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. Similarity arguments indicate that jet noise in dual stream nozzles may be considered as a composite of four single stream jets representing primary/secondary, secondary/ambient, transition, and fully mixed zones. Frequency filter are designed to highlight spectral contribution from each jet. Predictions are provided at an area ratio of 2.0--bypass ratio from 0.80 to 3.40, and are compared with measurements within a wide range of velocity and temperature ratios. These models suggest that the low frequency noise in unheated jets is dominated by the fully mixed region at all velocity ratios, while the high frequency noise is dominated by the secondary when the velocity ratio is larger than 0.80. Transition and fully mixed jets equally dominate the low frequency noise in heated jets. At velocity ratios less than 0.50, the high frequency noise from primary/bypass becomes a significant contributing factor similar to that in the secondary/ambient jet.

  1. In-stream Physical Heterogeneity, Rainfall Aided Flushing, and Discharge on Stream Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pattiyage I A; Wai, Onyx W H

    2015-08-01

    Implications of instream physical heterogeneity, rainfall-aided flushing, and stream discharge on water quality control have been investigated in a headwater stream of a climatic region that has contrasting dry and wet seasons. Dry (low flow) season's physical heterogeneity showed a positive correlation with good water quality. However, in the wet season, physical heterogeneity showed minor or no significance on water quality variations. Furthermore, physical heterogeneity appeared to be more complementary with good water quality subsequent to rainfall events. In many cases stream discharge was a reason for poor water quality. For the dry season, graywater inputs to the stream could be held responsible. In the wet season, it was probably the result of catchment level disturbances (e.g., regulation of ephemeral freshwater paths). Overall, this study revealed the importance of catchment-based approaches on water quality improvement in tandem with in-stream approaches framed on a temporal scale.

  2. Java parallel secure stream for grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Chen, Y.; Watson, W.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of high speed wide area networks makes grid computing a reality. However grid applications that need reliable data transfer still have difficulties to achieve optimal TCP performance due to network tuning of TCP window size to improve the bandwidth and to reduce latency on a high speed wide area network. The authors present a pure Java package called JPARSS (Java Parallel Secure Stream) that divides data into partitions that are sent over several parallel Java streams simultaneously and allows Java or Web applications to achieve optimal TCP performance in a gird environment without the necessity of tuning the TCP window size. Several experimental results are provided to show that using parallel stream is more effective than tuning TCP window size. In addition X.509 certificate based single sign-on mechanism and SSL based connection establishment are integrated into this package. Finally a few applications using this package will be discussed

  3. Activity Based Costing in Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to integrate Value Stream Map (VSM with the cost aspects. A value stream map provides a blueprint for implementing lean manufacturing concepts by illustrating information and materials flow in a value stream. The objective of the present work is to integrate the various cost aspects. The idea is to introduce a cost line, which enhances the clarity in decision making. The redesigned map proves to be effective in highlighting the improvement areas, in terms of quantitative data. TAKT time calculation is carried out to set the pace of production. Target cost is set as a bench mark for product cost. The results of the study indicates that implementing VSM led to reduction in the following areas: processing lead time by 34%, processing cycle time was reduced by 35%, Inventory level by 66% and product cost from Rs 137 to Rs 125. It was found that adopting VSM in a small scale industry can make significant improvements.

  4. Data Stream Clustering With Affinity Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang; Furtlehner, Cyril; Germain-Renaud, Cecile; Sebag, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Data stream clustering provides insights into the underlying patterns of data flows. This paper focuses on selecting the best representatives from clusters of streaming data. There are two main challenges: how to cluster with the best representatives and how to handle the evolving patterns that are important characteristics of streaming data with dynamic distributions. We employ the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm presented in 2007 by Frey and Dueck for the first challenge, as it offers good guarantees of clustering optimality for selecting exemplars. The second challenging problem is solved by change detection. The presented StrAP algorithm combines AP with a statistical change point detection test; the clustering model is rebuilt whenever the test detects a change in the underlying data distribution. Besides the validation on two benchmark data sets, the presented algorithm is validated on a real-world application, monitoring the data flow of jobs submitted to the EGEE grid.

  5. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  6. Data Stream Clustering With Affinity Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-07-09

    Data stream clustering provides insights into the underlying patterns of data flows. This paper focuses on selecting the best representatives from clusters of streaming data. There are two main challenges: how to cluster with the best representatives and how to handle the evolving patterns that are important characteristics of streaming data with dynamic distributions. We employ the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm presented in 2007 by Frey and Dueck for the first challenge, as it offers good guarantees of clustering optimality for selecting exemplars. The second challenging problem is solved by change detection. The presented StrAP algorithm combines AP with a statistical change point detection test; the clustering model is rebuilt whenever the test detects a change in the underlying data distribution. Besides the validation on two benchmark data sets, the presented algorithm is validated on a real-world application, monitoring the data flow of jobs submitted to the EGEE grid.

  7. Electrogravitational stability of oscillating streaming fluid cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Alfaisal A.

    2011-01-01

    The electrogravitational instability of on oscillating streaming fluid cylinder under the action of the selfgravitating, capillary and electrodynamic forces has been discussed. The model is governed by the Mathieu second order integro-differential equation. Some limiting cases are recovering from the present general one. The capillary force is destabilizing in a small axisymmetric domain 0< x<1 and stabilizing otherwise. In the absence of electric fields, we found that the model is unstable in a small domain while it is selfgravitating stable in all other domains. The presence of the electric field led to the presence of a great number of stable waves. The electric field has a strong stabilizing influence on the selfgravitating instability of the model. The capillary force has a strong destabilizing influence on the selfgravitating instability of the model. Generally, the uniform stream supports the unstable waves, while the oscillating streaming has stability tendency.

  8. Programmable stream prefetch with resource optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2013-01-08

    A stream prefetch engine performs data retrieval in a parallel computing system. The engine receives a load request from at least one processor. The engine evaluates whether a first memory address requested in the load request is present and valid in a table. The engine checks whether there exists valid data corresponding to the first memory address in an array if the first memory address is present and valid in the table. The engine increments a prefetching depth of a first stream that the first memory address belongs to and fetching a cache line associated with the first memory address from the at least one cache memory device if there is not yet valid data corresponding to the first memory address in the array. The engine determines whether prefetching of additional data is needed for the first stream within its prefetching depth. The engine prefetches the additional data if the prefetching is needed.

  9. Mining Building Metadata by Data Stream Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Emil; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2016-01-01

    to handle data streams with only slightly similar patterns. We have evaluated Metafier with points and data from one building located in Denmark. We have evaluated Metafier with 903 points, and the overall accuracy, with only 3 known examples, was 94.71%. Furthermore we found that using DTW for mining...... ways to annotate sensor and actuation points. This makes it difficult to create intuitive queries for retrieving data streams from points. Another problem is the amount of insufficient or missing metadata. We introduce Metafier, a tool for extracting metadata from comparing data streams. Metafier...... enables a semi-automatic labeling of metadata to building instrumentation. Metafier annotates points with metadata by comparing the data from a set of validated points with unvalidated points. Metafier has three different algorithms to compare points with based on their data. The three algorithms...

  10. Advanced content delivery, streaming, and cloud services

    CERN Document Server

    Sitaraman, Ramesh Kumar; Robinson, Dom

    2014-01-01

    While other books on the market provide limited coverage of advanced CDNs and streaming technologies, concentrating solely on the fundamentals, this book provides an up-to-date comprehensive coverage of the state-of-the-art advancements in CDNs, with a special focus on Cloud-based CDNs. The book includes CDN and media streaming basics, performance models, practical applications, and business analysis. It features industry case studies, CDN applications, and open research issues to aid practitioners and researchers, and a market analysis to provide a reference point for commercial entities. The book covers Adaptive Bitrate Streaming (ABR), Content Delivery Cloud (CDC), Web Acceleration, Front End Optimization (FEO), Transparent Caching, Next Generation CDNs, CDN Business Intelligence and more.

  11. Temporal Segmentation of MPEG Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Calic

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Many algorithms for temporal video partitioning rely on the analysis of uncompressed video features. Since the information relevant to the partitioning process can be extracted directly from the MPEG compressed stream, higher efficiency can be achieved utilizing information from the MPEG compressed domain. This paper introduces a real-time algorithm for scene change detection that analyses the statistics of the macroblock features extracted directly from the MPEG stream. A method for extraction of the continuous frame difference that transforms the 3D video stream into a 1D curve is presented. This transform is then further employed to extract temporal units within the analysed video sequence. Results of computer simulations are reported.

  12. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  13. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  14. Methanotrophy in surface sediments of streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Pramateftaki, Paraskevi; Peter, Hannes; Battin, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Because streams are often found to be supersaturated in methane (CH4), they are considered as atmospheric sources of this greenhouse gas. However, little is known about the processes driving CH4 cycling in these environments, i.e. production, consumption and fluxes. CH4 is thought to be produced in deeper anoxic sediments, before it migrates up to reach the oxic stream water, where it can be oxidized by methanotrophs. In order to gain insights into this process, we investigated 14 different streams across Switzerland. We characterized the chemistry of surface and sediment waters by measuring dissolved chemical profiles. We also sampled surface sediments and determined methanotrophic rates with laboratory incubations and Michaelis-Menten modeling. Interestingly, rates were strongly correlated with the CH4 concentrations in stream waters, rather than in sediment waters. This indicates that methantrophic populations feed on CH4 from the surface streamwater, even though CH4 concentrations are higher in the sediment waters. Methanotrophy rates were also correlated with Crenothrix counts (based on 16S rRNA sequencing), a strict methanotroph, while this latter was correlated with pmoA counts (based on quantitative PCR), a gene involved in methanotrophy. These results show that Crenothrix genera are the most active methanotrophs in surface sediments of streams, and can represent more than 2% of microbial communities. Remarkably, the dominating Crenothrix species was detected in all 14 samples. This work allows the assessment of in situ methanotrophic rates, of the environmental parameters driving this process, and of the microbial populations carrying it out, and thus brings useful insights about carbon cycling in streams.

  15. Retrofit of heat exchanger networks with pressure recovery of process streams at sub-ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Viviani C.; Ravagnani, Mauro A.S.S.; Caballero, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New mathematical model for heat exchanger networks retrofit with pressure recovery. • Optimal heat and work integration applied to the retrofit of sub-ambient processes. • Streams pressure manipulation is used to enhance heat integration of the system. • Compressors and turbines can act on a coupling shaft and/or as stand-alone equipment. • Use of smaller amount of cold utilities, reducing significantly the operational costs. - Abstract: This paper presents a new mathematical programming model for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks (HENs), wherein the pressure recovery of process streams is conducted to enhance heat integration. Particularly applied to cryogenic processes, HENs retrofit with combined heat and work integration is mainly aimed at reducing the use of expensive cold services. The proposed multi-stage superstructure allows the increment of the existing heat transfer area, as well as the use of new equipment for both heat exchange and pressure manipulation. The pressure recovery of streams is carried out simultaneously with the HEN design, such that the process conditions (streams pressure and temperature) are variables of optimization. The mathematical model is formulated using generalized disjunctive programming (GDP) and is optimized via mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), through the minimization of the retrofit total annualized cost, considering the turbine and compressor coupling with a helper motor. Three case studies are performed to assess the accuracy of the developed approach, including a real industrial example related to liquefied natural gas (LNG) production. The results show that the pressure recovery of streams is efficient for energy savings and, consequently, for decreasing the HEN retrofit total cost especially in sub-ambient processes

  16. Consequences of variation in stream-landscape connections for stream nitrate retention and export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, A. M.; Helton, A. M.; Grimm, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic and material connections among streams, the surrounding terrestrial landscape, and groundwater systems fluctuate between extremes in dryland watersheds, yet the consequences of this variation for stream nutrient retention and export remain uncertain. We explored how seasonal variation in hydrologic connection among streams, landscapes, and groundwater affect nitrate and ammonium concentrations across a dryland stream network and how this variation mediates in-stream nitrate uptake and watershed export. We conducted spatial surveys of stream nitrate and ammonium concentration across the 1200 km2 Oak Creek watershed in central Arizona (USA). In addition, we conducted pulse releases of a solution containing biologically reactive sodium nitrate, with sodium chloride as a conservative hydrologic tracer, to estimate nitrate uptake rates in the mainstem (Q>1000 L/s) and two tributaries. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations generally increased from headwaters to mouth in the mainstem. Locally elevated concentrations occurred in spring-fed tributaries draining fish hatcheries and larger irrigation ditches, but did not have a substantial effect on the mainstem nitrogen load. Ambient nitrate concentration (as N) ranged from below the analytical detection limit of 0.005 mg/L to 0.43 mg/L across all uptake experiments. Uptake length—average stream distance traveled for a nutrient atom from the point of release to its uptake—at ambient concentration ranged from 250 to 704 m and increased significantly with higher discharge, both across streams and within the same stream on different experiment dates. Vertical uptake velocity and aerial uptake rate ranged from 6.6-10.6 mm min-1 and 0.03 to 1.4 mg N m-2 min-1, respectively. Preliminary analyses indicate potentially elevated nitrogen loading to the lower portion of the watershed during seasonal precipitation events, but overall, the capacity for nitrate uptake is high in the mainstem and tributaries. Ongoing work

  17. Continental hydrosystem modelling: the concept of nested stream-aquifer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipo, N.; Mouhri, A.; Labarthe, B.; Biancamaria, S.; Rivière, A.; Weill, P.

    2014-08-01

    Coupled hydrological-hydrogeological models, emphasising the importance of the stream-aquifer interface, are more and more used in hydrological sciences for pluri-disciplinary studies aiming at investigating environmental issues. Based on an extensive literature review, stream-aquifer interfaces are described at five different scales: local [10 cm-~10 m], intermediate [~10 m-~1 km], watershed [10 km2-~1000 km2], regional [10 000 km2-~1 M km2] and continental scales [>10 M km2]. This led us to develop the concept of nested stream-aquifer interfaces, which extends the well-known vision of nested groundwater pathways towards the surface, where the mixing of low frequency processes and high frequency processes coupled with the complexity of geomorphological features and heterogeneities creates hydrological spiralling. This conceptual framework allows the identification of a hierarchical order of the multi-scale control factors of stream-aquifer hydrological exchanges, from the larger scale to the finer scale. The hyporheic corridor, which couples the river to its 3-D hyporheic zone, is then identified as the key component for scaling hydrological processes occurring at the interface. The identification of the hyporheic corridor as the support of the hydrological processes scaling is an important step for the development of regional studies, which is one of the main concerns for water practitioners and resources managers. In a second part, the modelling of the stream-aquifer interface at various scales is investigated with the help of the conductance model. Although the usage of the temperature as a tracer of the flow is a robust method for the assessment of stream-aquifer exchanges at the local scale, there is a crucial need to develop innovative methodologies for assessing stream-aquifer exchanges at the regional scale. After formulating the conductance model at the regional and intermediate scales, we address this challenging issue with the development of an

  18. STRIP: stream learning of influence probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutzkov, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    cascades, and developing applications such as viral marketing. Motivated by modern microblogging platforms, such as twitter, in this paper we study the problem of learning influence probabilities in a data-stream scenario, in which the network topology is relatively stable and the challenge of a learning...... algorithm is to keep up with a continuous stream of tweets using a small amount of time and memory. Our contribution is a number of randomized approximation algorithms, categorized according to the available space (superlinear, linear, and sublinear in the number of nodes n) and according to dierent models...

  19. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Batistoni, Paola; Obryk, Barbara; Popovichev, Sergey; Naish, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The results of the simulations were compared against experimental data obtained using thermoluminescence detectors and activation foils.

  20. Flow of a stream through a reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, K.

    1967-01-01

    If a reservoir is fed from a single source, which may not always be pure, the extent to which the inflowing stream mixes with the water in the reservoir is important for the quality of the water supplied by the reservoir. This question was investigated at the Lingese Reservoir, containing between one and two million cubic metres of water, in the Bergisches Land (North Rhine-Westphalia). The investigation was carried out at four different seasons so that the varying effects of the stream-water temperatures could be studied in relation to the temperature of the reservoir water. The stream was radioactively labelled at the point of inflow into the reservoir, and its flow through the reservoir was measured in length and depth from boats, by means of 1-m-long Geiger counters. In two cases the radioactivity of the outflowing water was also measured at fixed points. A considerable variety of intermixing phenomena were observed; these were mainly of limnological interest. The results of four experiments corresponding to the four different seasons are described in detail. They were as follows: (1) The mid-October experiment where the stream, with a temperature of 8.0 deg. C, was a good 5 deg. C colder than the water of the reservoir, whose temperature was almost uniform, ranging from 13.2 deg. C at the bed to 13.6 deg. C at the surface. (2) The spring experiment (second half of March), when the stream temperature was only 0.3 deg. C below that of the reservoir surface (7.8 deg. C), while the temperature of the bed was 5.8 deg. C. (3) The winter experiment (early December) where at first the temperature of the stream was approximately the same as that of the surface so that, once again, the stream at first flowed 1/2 - 1 m below the surface. During the almost wind-free night a sudden fall in temperature occurred, and the air temperature dropped from 0 deg. C to -12 deg. C. (4) The summer experiment (end of July to mid-August) when the stream was nearly 1 deg. C colder than

  1. Investigating methods of stream planform identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohberg, M. M.; Lusk, K.; Miller, D.; Stonedahl, F.; Stonedahl, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    Stream planforms are used to map scientific measurements, estimate volumetric discharge, and model stream flow. Changes in these planforms can be used to quantify erosion and water level fluctuations. This research investigated five cost-effective methods of identifying stream planforms: (1) consumer-grade digital camera GPS (2) multi-view stereo 3D scene reconstruction (using Microsoft Photosynth (TM)) (3) a cross-sectional measurement approach (4) a triangulation-based measurement approach and (5) the 'square method' - a novel photogrammetric procedure which involved floating a large wooden square in the stream, photographing the square and banks from numerous angles and then using the square to correct for perspective and extract the outline (using custom post-processing software). Data for each of the five methods was collected at Blackhawk Creek in Davenport, Iowa. Additionally we placed 30 control points near the banks of the stream and measured 88 lengths between these control points. We measured or calculated the locations of these control points with each of our five methods and calculated the average percent error associated with each method using the predicted control point locations. The effectiveness of each method was evaluated in terms of accuracy, affordability, environmental intrusiveness, and ease of use. The camera equipped with GPS proved to be a very ineffective method due to an extremely high level of error, 289%. The 3D point cloud extracted from Photosynth was missing markers for many of the control points, so the error calculation (which yielded 11.7%) could only be based on five of the 88 lengths and is thus highly uncertain. The two non-camera methods (cross-sectional and triangulation measurements) resulted in low percent error (2.04% and 1.31% respectively) relative to the control point lengths, but these methods were very time consuming, exhausting, and only provided low resolution outlines. High resolution data collection would

  2. Extensive preclinical investigation of polymersomal formulation of doxorubicin versus Doxil-mimic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibolandi, Mona; Abnous, Khalil; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Sahar; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-10-28

    Due to the severe cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin, its usage is limited. This shortcoming could be overcome by modifying pharmacokinetics of the drugs via preparation of various nanoplatforms. Doxil, a well-known FDA-approved nanoplatform of doxorubicin as antineoplastic agent, is frequently used in clinics in order to reduce cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. Since Doxil shows some shortcomings in clinics including hand and food syndrome and very slow release pattern thus, there is a demand for the development and preparation of new doxorubicin nanoformulation with fewer side effects. The new formulation of the doxorubicin, synthesized previously by our group was extensively examined in the current study. This new formulation is doxorubicin encapsulated in PEG-PLGA polymersomes (PolyDOX). The main aim of the study was to compare the distribution and treatment efficacy of a new doxorubicin-polymersomal formulation (PolyDOX) with regular liposomal formulation (Doxil-mimic) in murine colon adenocarcinoma model. Additionally, the pathological, hematological changes, pharmacodynamics, biodistribution, tolerated dose and survival rate in vivo were evaluated and compared. Murine colon cancer model was induced by subcutaneous inoculation of BALB/c mice with C26 cells. Afterwards, either Doxil-mimic or PolyDOX was administered intravenously. The obtained results from biodistribution study showed a remarkable difference in the distribution of drugs in murine organs. In this regard, Doxil-mimic exhibited prolonged (48h) presence within liver tissues while PolyDOX preferentially accumulate in tumor and the presence in liver 48h post-treatment was significantly lower than that of Doxil-mimic. Obtained results demonstrated comparable final length of life for mice receiving either Doxil-mimic or PolyDOX formulations whereas tolerated dose of mice receiving Doxil-mimic was remarkably higher than those receiving PolyDOX. Therapeutic efficacy of formulation in term of tumor growth rate

  3. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.

  4. Role reductants in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [Univ. of New Brunswick (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Lab.; Raghavan, P.S. [Madras Christian Coll., Chennai (India); Gopalan, R. [Madras Christian Coll., Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-10-01

    Iron(III) oxides are the major corrosion products formed in boiling water reactors. The iron(III) oxides are of two types, namely hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dissolution of these oxides is in no way simple because of the labile nature of the Fe(III)-O bond towards the chelants. The leaching of metal ions is partially controlled by reductive dissolution. In order to understand the role of the reductant, it is essential to study the dissolution behaviour of a system like Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which does not contain any Fe{sup 2+} in the crystal lattice. The present study was carried out with {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and dilute chemical decontamination (DCD) formulations containing ascorbic acid and citric acid with the addition of Fe(II)-L as a reductant. The chelants used for the dissolution process were nitrilotriacetic acid, 2,6-pyridinedicorboxylic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was chosen since the earlier studies revealed that the dissolution kinetics of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is slow and it is difficult to dissolve even by strong complexing agents, whereas {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolution is comparatively easier. This is due to the structural difference between these two oxides. The studies also revealed that the dissolution was partly influenced by the nature of the chelating agents but mainly controlled by the power of the reductants used in the formulation. The dissolution behaviour of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} under various experimental conditions is discussed and compared with that of magnetite in order to arrive at a suitable mechanism for the dissolution of iron oxides and emphasize the role of reductants in DCD formulations. (orig.)

  5. Random path formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncadelli, M.

    1993-01-01

    Quantum amplitudes satisfy (almost) the same calculus that probabilities obey in the theory of classical stochastic diffusion processes. As a consequence of this structural analogy, a new formulation of (nonrelativistic) quantum mechanics naturally arises as the quantum counterpart of the Langevin description of (classical) stochastic diffusion processes. Quantum fluctuations are simulated here by a Fresnel white noise (FWN), which is a (real) white noise with imaginary diffusion constant, whose functional (pseudo) measure yields the amplitude distribution for its configurations. Central to this approach is the idea that classical dynamical trajectories in configuration space are perturbed by the FWN. Hence, a single (arbitrary) classical dynamical path gets replaced by a family of quantum random paths (QRPs) - one for each FWN sample - all originating from the same space-time point (x', t'). The QRPs are the basic objects of the present formulation and are given by a Langevin equation with the FWN, whose drift is controlled by a (arbitrary) solution to the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation. So, our approach is manifestly based on classical dynamics. Now, a transition amplitude is associated with each QRP: it gives the amplitude that a particle starting from (x', t') will reach (x'', t'') by travelling just along the considered QRP. The quantum mechanical propagator (x'', t'' modul x', t') then emerges as the FWN average of the transition amplitude along a QRP. Thus, quantum mechanics looks like classical mechanics as perturbed by the FWN. The general structure of this formulation is discussed in detail, along with some practical and conceptual implications. (author). 14 refs

  6. Formulation of optimal international freight transport objective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jarašūnienė

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available To increase the attraction of Lithuania as a transit country striving to promote carriers' border crossing activities and facilitate customs clearance procedures as well as freight delivery to clients it is necessary to identify the main obstacles, to analyse them and to select adequate measures and means for their elimination. Therefore, on the basis of the formulation of transport freight management objective, as well as basing on the assessment of indeterminacy of external impacts, it would be possible to deduce the main causes of idle time of transport means in customs, to estimate the dependence of service time in proportion to transport flow.

  7. Variational formulation of the Gardner's restacking algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The incompressibility of the phase flow of Hamiltonian wave-plasma interactions restrains the class of realizable wave-driven transformations of the particle distribution. After the interaction, the distribution remains composed of the original phase-space elements, or local densities, which are only rearranged (''restacked'') by the wave. A variational formalism is developed to study the corresponding limitations on the energy and momentum transfer. A case of particular interest is a toroidal plasma immersed in a dc magnetic field. The restacking algorithm by Gardner [Phys. Fluids 6, 839 (1963)] is formulated precisely. The minimum energy state for a plasma with a given current is determined

  8. Canonical formulation of IIB D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, K.

    1998-01-01

    We find Wess-Zumino actions for kappa invariant type IIB D-branes in explicit forms. A simple and compact expression is obtained by the use of spinor variables which are defined as power series of differential forms. Using the Wess-Zumino actions we develop the canonical formulation and find the complete set of the constraint equations for generic type IIB Dp-branes. The conserved global supersymmetry charges are determined and the algebra containing the central charges can be obtained explicitly. (orig.)

  9. A geometric formulation of exceptional field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosque, Pascal du [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Hassler, Falk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB #3255, 120 E. Cameron Ave., Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); City University of New York, The Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University, Pupin Hall, 550 West 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lüst, Dieter [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Malek, Emanuel [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    We formulate the full bosonic SL(5) exceptional field theory in a coordinate-invariant manner. Thereby we interpret the 10-dimensional extended space as a manifold with SL(5)×ℝ{sup +}-structure. We show that the algebra of generalised diffeomorphisms closes subject to a set of closure constraints which are reminiscent of the quadratic and linear constraints of maximal seven-dimensional gauged supergravities, as well as the section condition. We construct an action for the full bosonic SL(5) exceptional field theory, even when the SL(5)×ℝ{sup +}-structure is not locally flat.

  10. Preparation and characterization of Slow Release Formulations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alginate beads and characterize the resulting slow release formulations (SRFs) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Two sets of formulations were made by extrusion into 0.25 M calcium ...

  11. StreamQRE: Modular Specification and Efficient Evaluation of Quantitative Queries over Streaming Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamouras, Konstantinos; Raghothaman, Mukund; Alur, Rajeev; Ives, Zachary G; Khanna, Sanjeev

    2017-06-01

    Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions. The former allows the programmer to employ relational constructs to partition the input data by keys and to integrate data streams from different sources, while the latter can be used to exploit the logical hierarchy in the input stream for modular specifications. We first present the core language with a small set of combinators, formal semantics, and a decidable type system. We then show how to express a number of common patterns with illustrative examples. Our compilation algorithm translates the high-level query into a streaming algorithm with precise complexity bounds on per-item processing time and total memory footprint. We also show how to integrate approximation algorithms into our framework. We report on an implementation in Java, and evaluate it with respect to existing high-performance engines for processing streaming data. Our experimental evaluation shows that (1) StreamQRE allows more natural and succinct specification of queries compared to existing frameworks, (2) the throughput of our implementation is higher than comparable systems (for example, two-to-four times greater than RxJava), and (3) the approximation algorithms supported by our implementation can lead to substantial memory savings.

  12. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J Bruce; Eggert, Susan L; Meyer, Judy L; Webster, Jackson R

    2015-05-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance, biomass, and secondary production in rockface (RF) and mixed substrates (MS) of forested headwater streams. Using a mesh canopy covering the entire treatment stream, we examined effects of litter ex'clusion, small- and large-wood removal, and addition of artificial wood (PVC) and leaves of varying quality on organic matter standing crops and invertebrate community structure and function. We assessed differences in functional feeding group distribution between substrate types as influenced by organic matter manipulations and long-term patterns of predator and prey production in manipulated vs. reference years. Particulate organic matter standing crops in MS of the treatment stream declined drastically with each successive year of litter exclusion, approaching zero after three years. Monthly invertebrate biomass and annual secondary production was positively related to benthic organic matter in the MS habitats. Rockface habitats exhibited fewer changes than MS habitats across all organic matter manipulations. With leaf addition, the patterns of functional group distribution among MS and RF habitats returned to patterns seen in reference streams. Secondary production per unit organic matter standing crop was greatest for the leaf addition period, followed by the reference streams, and significantly less for the litter exclusion and wood removal periods. These data indicate that the limited organic matter remaining in the stream following litter exclusion and wood removal was more refractory than that in the reference streams, whereas the added leaf material was more labile and readily converted into

  13. Formulation and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Controlled-Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A coating layer was then applied with a mixture of HPMC, ethylcellulose, shellac, and HPMC phthalate. The effect of several formulation variables on in vitro drug release was studied; furthermore, the drug release kinetics of the optimized formulation was evaluated. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation ...

  14. Super-Group Field Cosmology in Batalin-Vilkovisky Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we study the third quantized super-group field cosmology, a model in multiverse scenario, in Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. Further, we propose the superfield/super-antifield dependent BRST symmetry transformations. Within this formulation we establish connection between the two different solutions of the quantum master equation within the BV formulation.

  15. Standardization Of A Siddha Formulation Amukkara Curanam By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amukkara curanam, a Siddha formulation, currently used in all types of gastric disorders, rheumatic pain, insomnia and sexual insufficiency, was investigated for the estimation of the marker compounds, withaferine A and piperine contents in a prepared standard formulation and a commercial formulation by using HPTLC ...

  16. Studies on the antimicrobial properties of formulated creams and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their performances were compared with those of standard antiseptic creams and ointments. The results of agar diffusion studies on cream and ointment formulations revealed that the topical bases used to disperse the medicaments could significantly affect the antimicrobial effectiveness of the formulation. Formulations ...

  17. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  18. Herbal antihyperlipidemic formulation of cocoa tea: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize a formulation containing an ethanol extract of Camellia ptilophylla leaves (cocoa tea), with a focus on antihyperlipidemic and anti-obesity activities. Methods: An aloe vera–based formulation of an ethanol extract of cocoa tea (C. ptilophylla) was prepared. The formulation was given ...

  19. A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a

  20. Animal Diet Formulation with Floating Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H Nasseri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of milk production, the highest cost relates to animal feed. Based on reports provided by the experts, around seventy percent of dairy livestock costs included feed costs. In order to minimize the total price of livestock feed, according to the limits of feed sources in each region or season, and also the transportation and maintenance costs and ultimately milk price reduction, optimization of the livestock nutrition program is an essential issue. Because of the uncertainty and lack of precision in the optimal food ration done with existing methods based on linear programming, there is a need to use appropriate methods to meet this purpose. Therefore, in this study formulation of completely mixed nutrient diets of dairy cows is done by using a fuzzy linear programming in early lactation. Application of fuzzy optimization method and floating price make it possible to formulate and change the completely mixed diets with adequate safety margins. Therefore, applications of fuzzy methods in feed rations of dairy cattle are recommended to optimize the diets. Obviously, it would be useful to design suitable software, which provides the possibility of using floating prices to set feed rations by the use of fuzzy optimization method.

  1. The covariant formulation of f ( T ) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krššák, Martin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N

    2016-01-01

    We show that the well-known problem of frame dependence and violation of local Lorentz invariance in the usual formulation of f ( T ) gravity is a consequence of neglecting the role of spin connection. We re-formulate f ( T ) gravity starting from, instead of the ‘pure tetrad’ teleparallel gravity, the covariant teleparallel gravity, using both the tetrad and the spin connection as dynamical variables, resulting in a fully covariant, consistent, and frame-independent version of f ( T ) gravity, which does not suffer from the notorious problems of the usual, pure tetrad, f ( T ) theory. We present the method to extract solutions for the most physically important cases, such as the Minkowski, the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) and the spherically symmetric ones. We show that in covariant f ( T ) gravity we are allowed to use an arbitrary tetrad in an arbitrary coordinate system along with the corresponding spin connection, resulting always in the same physically relevant field equations. (paper)

  2. Comparison of different formulations of vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.M.F.; Khalil, K.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD) is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases and vitamin D deficiency prevalence is frightening in most parts of the world including Pakistan. Therefore, supplementations of vitamin D are used in the population at high risk for the prevention and the treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D supplementation comes in various formulations both oral and intramuscular. Cholecalciferol is the most commonly used preparation which is given through these routes of administration. There is need to study the fact that how much vitamin D levels are raised after administration of these different formulations as this can be a pivotal factor in determining dosage and route of vitamin D3. Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on 320 cases and compared the efficacy of various Vitamin D3 preparations in raising Vitamin D levels conducted in Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Services Hospital, Lahore from February to July, 2016. Blood serum was drawn for vitamin D level in the cases at the time of presentation and after treatment. Results: Three hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in study and divided into four groups (A, B, C, D). There was no significant difference between groups (A, B, C, D) in change in vitamin d levels after 3 months of treatment (p-Value 0.446). Conclusion: Different preparations of vitamin D are equally effective in raising vitamin D levels at 12 weeks. However, there is a need to conduct large scale studies to further validate these results. (author)

  3. Statistical formulation of gravitational radiation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    A new formulation of the radiation-reaction problem is proposed, which is simpler than alternatives which have been used before. The new approach is based on the initial-value problem, uses approximations which need be uniformly valid only in compact regions of space-time, and makes no time-asymmetric assumptions (no a priori introduction of retarded potentials or outgoing-wave asymptotic conditions). It defines radiation reaction to be the expected evolution of a source obtained by averaging over a statistical ensemble of initial conditions. The ensemble is chosen to reflect one's complete lack of information (in real systems) about the initial data for the radiation field. The approach is applied to the simple case of a weak-field, slow-motion source in general relativity, where it yields the usual expressions for radiation reaction when the gauge is chosen properly. There is a discussion of gauge freedom, and another of the necessity of taking into account reaction corrections to the particle-conservation equation. The analogy with the second law of thermodynamics is very close, and suggests that the electromagnetic and thermodynamic arrows of time are the same. Because the formulation is based on the usual initial-value problem, it has no spurious ''runaway'' solutions

  4. Terbinafine: novel formulations that potentiate antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Chen, X; Guan, S

    2015-03-01

    Terbinafine, an orally and topically active antifungal agent, has been available for the treatment of dermatophytic infections and onychomycosis for more than a decade. In addition, oral administration has been shown to be associated with drug-drug interactions, hepatotoxicity, low concentration at the infected sites, gastrointestinal and systemic side effects and other adverse effects. Since topical drug delivery can provide higher patient compliance, allow immediate access to the infected site and reduce unwanted systemic drug exposure, an improved topical drug delivery approach with high permeability, sustained release and prolonged retainment could overcome the limitations and side effects caused by oral administration. Conventional topical formulations cannot keep the drug in the targeted sites for a long duration of time and hence a novel drug delivery that can avoid the side effects while still providing sustained efficacy in treatment should be developed. This brief review of novel formulations based on polymers and nanostructure carriers provides insight into the efficacy and topical delivery of terbinafine. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  5. Stabilisation de la formule des traces tordue

    CERN Document Server

    Moeglin, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Ce travail en deux volumes donne la preuve de la stabilisation de la formule des trace tordue. Stabiliser la formule des traces tordue est la méthode la plus puissante connue actuellement pour comprendre l'action naturelle du groupe des points adéliques d'un groupe réductif, tordue par un automorphisme, sur les formes automorphes de carré intégrable de ce groupe. Cette compréhension se fait en réduisant le problème, suivant les idées de Langlands, à des groupes plus petits munis d'un certain nombre de données auxiliaires; c'est ce que l'on appelle les données endoscopiques. L'analogue non tordu a été résolu par J. Arthur et dans ce livre on suit la stratégie de celui-ci. Publier ce travail sous forme de livre permet de le rendre le plus complet possible. Les auteurs ont repris la théorie de l'endoscopie tordue développée par R. Kottwitz et D. Shelstad et par J.-P. Labesse. Ils donnent tous les arguments des démonstrations même si nombre d'entre eux se trouvent déjà dans les travaux d'Ar...

  6. Cumulative irritation potential of topical retinoid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James J; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Localized irritation can limit treatment success with topical retinoids such as tretinoin and adapalene. The factors that influence irritant reactions have been shown to include individual skin sensitivity, the particular retinoid and concentration used, and the vehicle formulation. To compare the cutaneous tolerability of tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel (TMG) with that of adapalene 0.3% gel and a standard tretinoin 0.025% cream. The results of 2 randomized, investigator-blinded studies of 2 to 3 weeks' duration, which utilized a split-face method to compare cumulative irritation scores induced by topical retinoids in subjects with healthy skin, were combined. Study 1 compared TMG 0.04% with adapalene 0.3% gel over 2 weeks, while study 2 compared TMG 0.04% with tretinoin 0.025% cream over 3 weeks. In study 1, TMG 0.04% was associated with significantly lower cumulative scores for erythema, dryness, and burning/stinging than adapalene 0.3% gel. However, in study 2, there were no significant differences in cumulative irritation scores between TMG 0.04% and tretinoin 0.025% cream. Measurements of erythema by a chromameter showed no significant differences between the test formulations in either study. Cutaneous tolerance of TMG 0.04% on the face was superior to that of adapalene 0.3% gel and similar to that of a standard tretinoin cream containing a lower concentration of the drug (0.025%).

  7. Projecting India's energy requirements for policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Karandikar, Vivek; Rana, Ashish; Dani, Prasanna

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy has to have a long-term perspective. To formulate it one needs to know the contours of energy requirements and options. Different approaches have been followed in literature, each with their own problems. A top down econometric approach provides little guidance on policies, while a bottom up approval requires too much knowledge and too many assumptions. Using top-down econometric approach for aggregate overall benchmarking and a detailed activity analysis model, Integrated Energy System Model, for a few large sectors, provides a unique combination for easing the difficulties of policy formulation. The model is described in this paper. Eleven alternate scenarios are built, designed to map out extreme points of feasible options. Results show that even after employing all domestic energy resource to their full potential, there will be a continued rise of fossil fuel use, continued importance of coal, and continued rise of import dependence. Energy efficiency emerges as a major option with a potential to reduce energy requirement by as much as 17%. Scenario results point towards pushing for development of alternative sources. (author)

  8. Factors for formulating strategies for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This publication focusses on factors which are important for formulating a strategy for environmental restoration. In parallel to this effort, the IAEA has conducted activities in related areas which have been reported in companion reports dealing with (1) the characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes and (2) available technology for cleanup and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. Additionally, follow-up activities will focus on two other areas, viz. planning and management options for cleanup of contaminated groundwater, and post-restoration monitoring of decommissioned sites. In a separate initiative the IAEA has developed preliminary guidance on radiological criteria for determining when cleanup action is needed and for deciding on when areas have been cleaned up to a sufficient extent. It is also concerned with radioactive contamination of soils, groundwaters, structures and biota which may have the potential for harm to people. It is intended that it will serve as an important source of information and data on the key factors to be considered in the formulation of an environmental restoration strategy

  9. Stream remediation following a gasoline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Reiter, G.A.; Challenger, G.

    2000-01-01

    On June 10, 1999, a pipe ruptured on the Olympic Pipe Line causing the release, explosion and fire of up to one million litres of gasoline in Bellingham, Washington. It affected approximately 5 km of the Whatcom Creek ecosystem. Following the incident, several concurrent activities in the source area and downstream occurred. This paper discussed the remediation of the affected stream bed sections. During the period July 6 - August 16, an interagency project was implemented. It involved mechanical, manual, and hydraulic in-situ treatment techniques to remove the gasoline from the stream bed and the banks. In addition, a series of controlled, hydraulic flushes were conducted. The sluice or control gates at the head of the Whatcom Creek were opened each night, and bigger flushes took place before and after the treatments. Simultaneously, water and sediment were sampled and analysed. The data obtained provided information on the state of the initial stream water and stream sediment and on the effects that the remediation had had. The residual gasoline was successfully removed from the sediments and river banks in six weeks. No downstream movement of the released gasoline towards Bellingham was detected. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  10. Stream-crossing structure for deer fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Blair; James A. Hays; Louis Brunett

    1963-01-01

    Stream crossings are the most vulnerable points in a deer-proof fence. When an inadequately constructed crossing washes out, enclosed deer may escape and unwanted animals enter. Structures of the type described here have withstood 2 years of frequent, severe flooding in the pine-hardwood hills of central Louisiana.

  11. Streaming Media for Web Based Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Chad; Rizzo, Frank; Bangert, Linda

    This paper discusses streaming media for World Wide Web-based training (WBT). The first section addresses WBT in the 21st century, including the Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) standard that allows multimedia content such as text, pictures, sound, and video to be synchronized for a coherent learning experience. The second…

  12. The Chameleon Architecture for Streaming DSP Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, N.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Platzner, M.; Wolkotte, P.T.; Teich, J.; Holzenspies, P.K.F.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Heysters, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    We focus on architectures for streaming DSP applications such as wireless baseband processing and image processing. We aim at a single generic architecture that is capable of dealing with different DSP applications. This architecture has to be energy efficient and fault tolerant. We introduce a

  13. Quality of experience models for multimedia streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkovski, V.; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.; Cuadra Sánchez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how quality is perceived by viewers of multimedia streaming services is essential for efficient management of those services. Quality of Experience (QoE) is a subjective metric that quantifies the perceived quality, which is crucial in the process of optimizing tradeoff between quality

  14. Stream temperature investigations: field and analytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the user of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Stream Network Temperature Model (SNTEMP). Planning a temperature study is discussed in terms of understanding the management objectives and ensuring that the questions will be accurately answered with the modeling approach being used. A sensitivity analysis of SNTEMP is presented to illustrate which input variables are most important in predicting stream temperatures. This information helps prioritize data collection activities, highlights the need for quality control, focuses on which parameters can be estimated rather than measured, and offers a broader perspective on management options in terms of knowing where the biggest temperature response will be felt. All of the major input variables for stream geometry, meteorology, and hydrology are discussed in detail. Each variable is defined, with guidance given on how to measure it, what kind of equipment to use, where to obtain it from another agency, and how to calculate it if the data are in a form other than that required by SNTEMP. Examples are presented for the various forms in which water temperature, discharge, and meteorological data are commonly found. Ranges of values for certain input variables that are difficult to measure of estimate are given. Particular attention is given to those variables not commonly understood by field biologists likely to be involved in a stream temperature study. Pertinent literature is cited for each variable, with emphasis on how other people have treated particular problems and on results they have found.

  15. Microbial incorporation of nitrogen in stream detritus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Sanzone; Jennifer L. Tank; Judy L. Meyer; Patrick J. Mulholland; Stuart E.G. Findlay

    2001-01-01

    We adapted the chloroform fumigation method to determine microbial nitrogen (N) and microbial incorporation of 15N on three common substrates [leaves, wood and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM)] in three forest streams. We compared microbial N and 15 content of samples collected during a 6-week15N-NH...

  16. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit; Birkner, Rü diger; Canini, Marco; Feamster, Nick; Mac-Stoker, Chris; Willinger, Walter

    2016-01-01

    , processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have

  17. Event Streams Clustering Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Bouali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Data streams are usually of unbounded lengths which push users to consider only recent observations by focusing on a time window, and ignore past data. However, in many real world applications, past data must be taken in consideration to guarantee the efficiency, the performance of decision making and to handle data streams evolution over time. In order to build a selectively history to track the underlying event streams changes, we opt for the continuously data of the sliding window which increases the time window based on changes over historical data. In this paper, to have the ability to access to historical data without requiring any significant storage or multiple passes over the data. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for clustering multiple data streams using incremental support vector machine and data representative points’ technique. The algorithm uses a sliding window model for the most recent clustering results and data representative points to model the old data clustering results. Our experimental results on electromyography signal show a better clustering than other present in the literature

  18. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  19. Climate change and alpine stream biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotaling, Scott; Finn, Debra S.; Joseph Giersch, J.

    2017-01-01

    micro- to macroscopic organisms and genes to communities. Herein, we describe the current state of alpine stream biology from an organism-focused perspective. We begin by reviewing seven standard and emerging approaches that combine to form the current state of the discipline. We follow with a call...

  20. Learning from medical data streams: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira Rodrigues, P.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Gaber, M.M.; Gama, J.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical practice and research are facing a new challenge created by the rapid growth of health information science and technology, and the complexity and volume of biomedical data. Machine learning from medical data streams is a recent area of research that aims to provide better knowledge

  1. Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Coronal holes and interplanetary disturbances are important aspects of the physics of the Sun and heliosphere. Interplanetary disturbances are identified as an increase in the density turbulence compared with the ambient solar wind. Erupting stream disturbances are transient large-scale structures of ...

  2. Staying in "the stream of life"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgitte; Delmar, Charlotte; Dolmer, Ilone

    2009-01-01

    Staying in the stream of life is about being the author of one's own meaningful life. It takes into account life phenomena embodied in the maintenance aspect of health care; dignity in relation to identity and integrity; and an understanding of the dialectical relation between frailty and strength....

  3. Zips : mining compressing sequential patterns in streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Calders, T.G.K.; Yang, J.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Chau, D.H.; Vreeken, J.; Leeuwen, van M.; Faloutsos, C.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a streaming algorithm, based on the minimal description length (MDL) principle, for extracting non-redundant sequential patterns. For static databases, the MDL-based approach that selects patterns based on their capacity to compress data rather than their frequency, was shown to be

  4. Operational Waste Stream Assumption for TSLCC Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, S.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the background and basis for the operational waste stream used in the 2000 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This document has been developed in accordance with its Development Plan (CRWMS MandO 2000a), and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''

  5. Applications of on-stream analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Benefits of on-stream analysis include increased metal recovery, reduced consumption of reagents, increases in concentrate grade and savings in labour. A poorly designed analysis zone can give rise to incorrect assays as a result of segregation or excessive or variable aeration

  6. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Notea, A.

    1977-01-01

    The planning of a system for monitoring Pu contaminated solid waste streams, from the nuclear fuel cycle, is considered on the basis of given facility waste management program. The inter relations between the monitoring system and the waste management objectives are stressed. Selection criteria with pertinent data of available waste monitors are given. Example of monitoring systems planning are presented and discussed

  7. Live Streaming | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Live Streaming. Watch Academy events live here! There are no live events currently happening. Watch out this space for updates or suscribe to our YouTube channel by clicking here. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  8. Carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry across stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymore, A.; Kaushal, S.; McDowell, W. H.; Kortelainen, P.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Johnes, P.; Dodds, W. K.; Johnson, S.; Brookshire, J.; Spencer, R.; Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Helton, A. M.; Barnes, R.; Argerich, A.; Haq, S.; Sullivan, P. L.; López-Lloreda, C.; Coble, A. A.; Daley, M.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are altering carbon and nitrogen concentrations in surface waters globally. The stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen regulates important watershed biogeochemical cycles; however, controls on carbon and nitrogen ratios in aquatic environments are poorly understood. Here we use a multi-biome and global dataset (tropics to Arctic) of stream water chemistry to assess relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate, ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), providing a new conceptual framework to consider interactions between DOC and the multiple forms of dissolved nitrogen. We found that across streams the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) pool is comprised of very little ammonium and as DOC concentrations increase the TDN pool shifts from nitrate to DON dominated. This suggests that in high DOC systems, DON serves as the primary source of nitrogen. At the global scale, DOC and DON are positively correlated (r2 = 0.67) and the average C: N ratio of dissolved organic matter (molar ratio of DOC: DON) across our data set is approximately 31. At the biome and smaller regional scale the relationship between DOC and DON is highly variable (r2 = 0.07 - 0.56) with the strongest relationships found in streams draining the mixed temperate forests of the northeastern United States. DOC: DON relationships also display spatial and temporal variability including latitudinal and seasonal trends, and interactions with land-use. DOC: DON ratios correlated positively with gradients of energy versus nutrient limitation pointing to the ecological role (energy source versus nutrient source) that DON plays with stream ecosystems. Contrary to previous findings we found consistently weak relationships between DON and nitrate which may reflect DON's duality as an energy or nutrient source. Collectively these analyses demonstrate how gradients of DOC drive compositional changes in the TDN pool and reveal a high degree of variability in the C: N ratio

  9. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.

    2017-05-22

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.

  10. Glass formulation development and testing for the vitrification of DWPF HLW sludge coupled with crystalline silicotitanate (CST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.; Workman, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    An alternative to the In Tank Precipitation and sodium titanate processes at the Savannah River Site is the removal of cesium, strontium, and plutonium from the tank supernate by ion exchange using crystalline silicotitanate (CST). This inorganic material has been shown to effectively and selectively sorb these elements from supernate. The loaded CST could then be immobilized with High-Level Waste (HLW) sludge during vitrification. Initial efforts on the development of a glass formulation for a coupled waste stream indicate that reasonable loadings of both sludge and CST can be achieved in glass

  11. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Streams - Wadeable Streams Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  12. Stream hydraulics and temperature determine the metabolism of geothermal Icelandic streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demars B. O.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystem metabolism plays a critical role in planetary biogeochemical cycling. Stream benthic habitat complexity and the available surface area for microbes relative to the free-flowing water volume are thought to be important determinants of ecosystem metabolism. Unfortunately, the engineered deepening and straightening of streams for drainage purposes could compromise stream natural services. Stream channel complexity may be quantitatively expressed with hydraulic parameters such as water transient storage, storage residence time, and water spiralling length. The temperature dependence of whole stream ecosystem respiration (ER, gross primary productivity (GPP and net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP − ER has recently been evaluated with a “natural experiment” in Icelandic geothermal streams along a 5–25 °C temperature gradient. There remained, however, a substantial amount of unexplained variability in the statistical models, which may be explained by hydraulic parameters found to be unrelated to temperature. We also specifically tested the additional and predicted synergistic effects of water transient storage and temperature on ER, using novel, more accurate, methods. Both ER and GPP were highly related to water transient storage (or water spiralling length but not to the storage residence time. While there was an additional effect of water transient storage and temperature on ER (r2 = 0.57; P = 0.015, GPP was more related to water transient storage than temperature. The predicted synergistic effect could not be confirmed, most likely due to data limitation. Our interpretation, based on causal statistical modelling, is that the metabolic balance of streams (NEP was primarily determined by the temperature dependence of respiration. Further field and experimental work is required to test the predicted synergistic effect on ER. Meanwhile, since higher metabolic activities allow for higher pollutant degradation or uptake

  13. On Reducing Delay in Mesh-Based P2P Streaming: A Mesh-Push Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Xue, Kaiping; Hong, Peilin

    The peer-assisted streaming paradigm has been widely employed to distribute live video data on the internet recently. In general, the mesh-based pull approach is more robust and efficient than the tree-based push approach. However, pull protocol brings about longer streaming delay, which is caused by the handshaking process of advertising buffer map message, sending request message and scheduling of the data block. In this paper, we propose a new approach, mesh-push, to address this issue. Different from the traditional pull approach, mesh-push implements block scheduling algorithm at sender side, where the block transmission is initiated by the sender rather than by the receiver. We first formulate the optimal upload bandwidth utilization problem, then present the mesh-push approach, in which a token protocol is designed to avoid block redundancy; a min-cost flow model is employed to derive the optimal scheduling for the push peer; and a push peer selection algorithm is introduced to reduce control overhead. Finally, we evaluate mesh-push through simulation, the results of which show mesh-push outperforms the pull scheduling in streaming delay, and achieves comparable delivery ratio at the same time.

  14. Transformation of QSPA plasma streams in longitudinal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.; Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Kulik, N.V.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this work is analysis of efficiency of QSPA powerful plasma streams transportation in longitudinal magnetic field in dependence on operational mode of accelerator and plasma stream parameters

  15. A Function-Based Framework for Stream Assessment & Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report lays out a framework for approaching stream assessment and restoration projects that focuses on understanding the suite of stream functions at a site in the context of what is happening in the watershed.

  16. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  17. EFFECTS OF STREAM RESTORATION ON DENITRIFICATION In AN URBANIZING WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased delivery of nitrogen due to urbanization and stream ecosystem degradation is contributing to eutrophication in coastal regions of the eastern United States. We tested whether geomorphic restoration involving hydrologic “reconnection” of a stream to its floodplain could ...

  18. Best Management Practices Monitoring Guide for Stream Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Best Management Practices Monitoring Guide for Stream Systems provides guidance on establishing a water quality monitoring program that will demonstrate the effectiveness of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce nonpoint source pollution in stream systems.

  19. Factoring stream turbulence into global assessments of nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Stanley B; Azizian, Morvarid; Cook, Perran; Boano, Fulvio; Rippy, Megan A

    2018-03-16

    The discharge of excess nitrogen to streams and rivers poses an existential threat to both humans and ecosystems. A seminal study of headwater streams across the United States concluded that in-stream removal of nitrate is controlled primarily by stream chemistry and biology. Reanalysis of these data reveals that stream turbulence (in particular, turbulent mass transfer across the concentration boundary layer) imposes a previously unrecognized upper limit on the rate at which nitrate is removed from streams. The upper limit closely approximates measured nitrate removal rates in streams with low concentrations of this pollutant, a discovery that should inform stream restoration designs and efforts to assess the effects of nitrogen pollution on receiving water quality and the global nitrogen cycle. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  20. Nord-Stream-Antrag stösst auf Ablehnung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Nord Stream küsib Eestilt taas uuringuluba. 2007 ei rahuldanud vabariigi valitsus Nord Stream AG uurimisloa taotlust. Andrus Ansip ja Mart Laar on seisukohal, et tuleks jääda kord tehtud otsuse juurde