WorldWideScience

Sample records for stray capacitances c0

  1. Stray capacitances in the watt balance operation: electrostatic forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Mana, G.

    2014-01-01

    In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil creates a difference in electric potentials between the coil and magnet, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results of a fin......In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil creates a difference in electric potentials between the coil and magnet, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results...

  2. Sensitivity Analysis and Stray Capacitance of Helical Flux Compression Generator with Multi Layer Filamentary Conductor in Rectangular Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Mosleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to calculate the equivalent stray capacitance (SC of n-turn of the helical flux compression generator (HFCG coil with multi layer conductor wire filaments (MLCWF in the form of rectangular cross-section. This approach is based on vespiary regular hexagonal (VRH model. In this method, wire filaments of the generator coil are separated into many very small similar elementary cells. By the expanded explosion in the liner and move explosion to the end of the liner, the coil turns number will be reduced. So, the equivalent SC of the HFCG will increase. The results show that by progress of explosion and decrease of the turns’ number in the generator coil total capacitance of the generator increases until the explosion reaches to the second turn. When only one turn remains in the circuit, a decrease occurs in the total capacitance of the generator.

  3. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  4. Stray light analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fest, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Stray light is defined as unwanted light in an optical system, a familiar concept for anyone who has taken a photograph with the sun in or near their camera's field of view. This book addresses stray light terminology, radiometry, and the physics of stray light mechanisms, such as surface roughness scatter and ghost reflections. The most-efficient ways of using stray light analysis software packages are included. The book also demonstrates how the basic principles are applied in the design, fabrication, and testing phases of optical system development.

  5. Capacitive divider for output voltage measurement of intense electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Desheng; Yi Lingzhi; Yu Binxiong; Hong Zhiqiang; Liu Jinliang

    2012-01-01

    A kind of simple-mechanism, easy-disassembly self-integrating capacitive divider used for measuring diode output voltage of intense electron beam accelerator (IEBA) is developed. The structure of the capacitive divider is described, and the capacitance value of the capacitive divider is calculated by theoretical analysis and electromagnetic simulation. The dependence of measurement voltage on electrical parameters such as stray capacitance, earth capacitance of front resistance is obtained by PSpice simulation. Measured waveforms appear overshoot phenomenon when stray capacitance of front resistance is larger, and the wavefront will be affected when earth capacitance of front resistance is larger. The diode output voltage waveforms of intense electron beam accelerator, are measured by capacitive divider and calibrated by water resistance divider, which is accordance with that measured by a resistive divider, the division ratio is about 563007. The designed capacitive divider can be used to measure high-voltage pulse with 100 ns full width at half maximum. (authors)

  6. Transparent Flexible Active Faraday Cage Enables In Vivo Capacitance Measurement in Assembled Microsensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Rajamani, Rajesh; Sezen, Serdar

    2017-10-01

    Capacitive micro-sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and pressure sensors are increasingly used in the modern electronic world. However, the in vivo use of capacitive sensing for measurement of pressure or other variables inside a human body suffers from significant errors due to stray capacitance. This paper proposes a solution consisting of a transparent thin flexible Faraday cage that surrounds the sensor. By supplying the active sensing voltage simultaneously to the deformable electrode of the capacitive sensor and to the Faraday cage, the stray capacitance during in vivo measurements can be largely eliminated. Due to the transparency of the Faraday cage, the top and bottom portions of a capacitive sensor can be accurately aligned and assembled together. Experimental results presented in the paper show that stray capacitance is reduced by a factor of 10 by the Faraday cage, when the sensor is subjected to a full immersion in water.

  7. Rf Discharge Impedance Measurements Using a New Method to Determine the Stray Impedances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hoog, de F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The impedance of a capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge in a tubular fluorescent lamp filled with neon and mercury is measured. The stray impedances in the electrical network are determined using a new method that requires no extra instruments. The reflection of power is used to determine

  8. STRAY - An interactive program for the computation of stray radiation in infrared telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1987-01-01

    The STRAY program to model the amount of stray radiation reaching the focal plane of a well-baffled telescope is described. The STRAY telescope model is addressed, including the aperture shade, barrel baffle, optics, mirror sectioning and chopping, and off-axis points in focal plane. The possible illumination paths are shown, and calculation options using STRAY are discussed. The stored data and computational aspects of STRAY are addressed. STRAY is compared to the MINI-APART model, and applications of STRAY are described.

  9. Study of \\Omega_c^0 and \\Omega_c^{*0} Baryons at Belle

    OpenAIRE

    Solovieva, E.; Chistov, R.; Collaboration, for the Belle

    2008-01-01

    We report results from a study of the charmed double strange baryons \\Omega_c^0 and \\Omega_c^{*0} at Belle. The \\Omega_c^0 is reconstructed using the \\Omega_c^0 --> \\Omega^- \\pi^+ decay mode, and its mass is measured to be (2693.6 \\pm 0.3 {+1.8 \\atop -1.5}) MeV/c^2. The \\Omega_c^{*0} baryon is reconstructed in the \\Omega_c^0 \\gamma mode. The mass difference M_{\\Omega_c^{*0}} - M_{\\Omega_c^0} is measured to be (70.7 \\pm 0.9 {+0.1 \\atop -0.9}) MeV/c^2. The analysis is performed using 673 fb^{-1...

  10. Stray energy transfer during endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward L; Madani, Amin; Overbey, Douglas M; Kiourti, Asimina; Bojja-Venkatakrishnan, Satheesh; Mikami, Dean J; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Arcomano, Todd R; Robinson, Thomas N

    2017-10-01

    Endoscopy is the standard tool for the evaluation and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. While the risk of complication is low, the use of energy devices can increase complications by 100-fold. The mechanism of increased injury and presence of stray energy is unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine if stray energy transfer occurs during endoscopy and if so, to define strategies to minimize the risk of energy complications. A gastroscope was introduced into the stomach of an anesthetized pig. A monopolar generator delivered energy for 5 s to a snare without contacting tissue or the endoscope itself. The endoscope tip orientation, energy device type, power level, energy mode, and generator type were varied to mimic in vivo use. The primary outcome (stray current) was quantified as the change in tissue temperature (°C) from baseline at the tissue closest to the tip of the endoscope. Data were reported as mean ± standard deviation. Using the 60 W coag mode while changing the orientation of the endoscope tip, tissue temperature increased by 12.1 ± 3.5 °C nearest the camera lens (p energy transfer (p = 0.04 and p = 0.002, respectively) as did utilizing the low-voltage cut mode (6.6 ± 0.5 °C, p energy transfer compared to a standard generator (1.5 ± 3.5 °C vs. 9.5 ± 0.8 °C, p energy is transferred within the endoscope during the activation of common energy devices. This could result in post-polypectomy syndrome, bleeding, or perforation outside of the endoscopist's view. Decreasing the power, utilizing low-voltage modes and/or an impedance-monitoring generator can decrease the risk of complication.

  11. Relating c 0 conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guruswamy, S.; Ludwig, A.W.W.

    1998-03-01

    A 'canonical mapping' is established between the c = -1 system of bosonic ghosts at the c = 2 complex scalar theory and, a similar mapping between the c = -2 system of fermionic ghosts and the c = 1 Dirac theory. The existence of this mapping is suggested by the identity of the characters of the respective theories. The respective c 0 theories share the same space of states, whereas the spaces of conformal fields are different. Upon this mapping from their c 0) complex scalar and the Dirac theories inherit hidden nonlocal sl(2) symmetries. (author)

  12. Generalized Friedland's theorem for C0-semigroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichon, Dariusz; Jung, Il Bong; Stochel, Jan

    2008-07-01

    Friedland's characterization of bounded normal operators is shown to hold for infinitesimal generators of C0-semigroups. New criteria for normality of bounded operators are furnished in terms of Hamburger moment problem. All this is achieved with the help of the celebrated Ando's theorem on paranormal operators.

  13. Stray light reduction for Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Doebele, H.F.; Muraoka, K.

    1999-01-01

    In order to perform Thomson scattering in a gas discharge tube, the reduction of stray light is very important because of the very small Thomson cross-section. By introducing a sodium absorption cell as a notch filter, we can reduce the measured stray light considerably. Then we have to use a dye

  14. Human body capacitance: static or dynamic concept? [ESD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1998-01-01

    A standing human body insulated from ground by footwear and/or floor covering is in principle an insulated conductor and has, as such, a capacitance, i.e. the ability to store a charge and possibly discharge the stored energy in a spark discharge. In the human body, the human body capacitance (HBC...... when a substantial part of the flux extends itself through badly defined stray fields. Since the concept of human body capacitance is normally used in a static (electric) context, it is suggested that the HBC be determined by a static method. No theoretical explanation of the observed differences...

  15. Improved capacitance sensor with variable operating frequency for scanning capacitance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joonhyung; Kim, Joonhui; Jeong, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Euy-Kyu; Seok Kim, Yong; Kang, Chi Jung; Park, Sang-il

    2005-01-01

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has been gaining attention for its capability to measure local electrical properties in doping profile, oxide thickness, trapped charges and charge dynamics. In many cases, stray capacitance produced by different samples and measurement conditions affects the resonance frequency of a capacitance sensor. The applications of conventional SCM are critically limited by the fixed operating frequency and lack of tunability in its SCM sensor. In order to widen SCM application to various samples, we have developed a novel SCM sensor with variable operating frequency. By performing variable frequency sweep over the band of 160 MHz, the SCM sensor is tuned to select the best and optimized resonance frequency and quality factor for each sample measurement. The fundamental advantage of the new variable frequency SCM sensor was demonstrated in the SCM imaging of silicon oxide nano-crystals. Typical sensitivity of the variable frequency SCM sensor was found to be 10 -19 F/V

  16. STRAY DOG DETECTION IN WIRED CAMERA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prashanth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing surveillance systems impose high level of security on humans but lacks attention on animals. Stray dogs could be used as an alternative to humans to carry explosive material. It is therefore imperative to ensure the detection of stray dogs for necessary corrective action. In this paper, a novel composite approach to detect the presence of stray dogs is proposed. The captured frame from the surveillance camera is initially pre-processed using Gaussian filter to remove noise. The foreground object of interest is extracted utilizing ViBe algorithm. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG algorithm is used as the shape descriptor which derives the shape and size information of the extracted foreground object. Finally, stray dogs are classified from humans using a polynomial Support Vector Machine (SVM of order 3. The proposed composite approach is simulated in MATLAB and OpenCV. Further it is validated with real time video feeds taken from an existing surveillance system. From the results obtained, it is found that a classification accuracy of about 96% is achieved. This encourages the utilization of the proposed composite algorithm in real time surveillance systems.

  17. Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, L; Ferrari, G; Sampietro, M; Casuso, I; MartInez, E; Samitier, J; Gomila, G

    2006-01-01

    Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution (∼1 aF) of a nano-structured oxide thin film, using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy, is reported. Capacitance images are shown to follow the topographic profile of the oxide closely, with nanometre vertical resolution. A comparison between experimental data and theoretical models shows that the capacitance variations observed in the measurements can be mainly associated with the capacitance probed by the tip apex and not with positional changes of stray capacitance contributions. Capacitance versus distance measurements further support this conclusion. The application of this technique to the characterization of samples with non-voltage-dependent capacitance, such as very thin dielectric films, self-assembled monolayers and biological membranes, can provide new insight into the dielectric properties at the nanoscale

  18. Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, L [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 (Italy); Ferrari, G [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 (Italy); Sampietro, M [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 (Italy); Casuso, I [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/MartIi Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); MartInez, E [Plataforma de Nanotecnologia, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/ Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028-Barcelona (Spain); Samitier, J [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/MartIi Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomila, G [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/MartIi Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-28

    Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution ({approx}1 aF) of a nano-structured oxide thin film, using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy, is reported. Capacitance images are shown to follow the topographic profile of the oxide closely, with nanometre vertical resolution. A comparison between experimental data and theoretical models shows that the capacitance variations observed in the measurements can be mainly associated with the capacitance probed by the tip apex and not with positional changes of stray capacitance contributions. Capacitance versus distance measurements further support this conclusion. The application of this technique to the characterization of samples with non-voltage-dependent capacitance, such as very thin dielectric films, self-assembled monolayers and biological membranes, can provide new insight into the dielectric properties at the nanoscale.

  19. Observation of Ξc0 semileptonic decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.; Cronstroem, H.I.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R.P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Reidenbach, M.; Reiner, R.; Schroeder, H.; Schulz, H.D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Appuhn, R.D.; Hast, C.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Toepfer, D.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D.; Britton, D.I.; Charlesworth, C.E.K.; Edwards, K.W.; Hyatt, E.R.F.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Patel, P.M.; Prentice, J.D.; Saull, P.R.B.; Seidel, S.C.; Tzamariudaki, K.; Van de Water, R.G.; Yoon, T.S.; Ressing, D.; Schmidtler, M.; Schneider, M.; Schubert, K.R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.

    1992-12-01

    Observation of the semileptonic decay of the charmed baryon Ξ c 0 in the decay channel Ξ c 0 → Ξ - l + X has been made using the ARGUS detector at the e + e - storage ring DORIS II at DESY. The cross section times branching ratio was found to be σ(e + e - → Ξ c 0 X).BR(Ξ c 0 → Ξ - l + X) = 0.74±0.24±0.09 pb. (orig.)

  20. Asymmetric flows over symmetric surfaces: capacitive coupling in induced-charge electro-osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansuripur, T S [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Pascall, A J; Squires, T M [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)], E-mail: squires@engineering.ucsb.edu

    2009-07-15

    We report curious asymmetric induced-charge electro-osmotic (ICEO) flows over a symmetric, planar gate electrode under applied ac electric fields, whereas symmetric, counter-rotating rolls are expected. Furthermore, the asymmetric component of the flow is consistently directed towards the grounded electrode. We propose that capacitive coupling of the gate electrode to the microscope stage-a comparatively large equipotential surface that acts effectively as a ground-is responsible for this symmetry breaking. This stray capacitance drives the formation of a double layer whose zeta potential is proportional to the potential drop from the electrolyte directly above the gate electrode to the external stage. Therefore, the charge in this 'stray' double layer varies in phase with the driving field, resulting in a rectified, steady flow as with standard ICEO. We experimentally vary the stray capacitance, the electric potential of the stage and the location of the gate electrode, and find that the effect on the stray flow is qualitatively consistent with the predictions of the proposed mechanism. In the process, we demonstrate that capacitive coupling offers an additional means of manipulating fluid flow over a polarizable surface.

  1. Asymmetric flows over symmetric surfaces: capacitive coupling in induced-charge electro-osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansuripur, T S; Pascall, A J; Squires, T M

    2009-01-01

    We report curious asymmetric induced-charge electro-osmotic (ICEO) flows over a symmetric, planar gate electrode under applied ac electric fields, whereas symmetric, counter-rotating rolls are expected. Furthermore, the asymmetric component of the flow is consistently directed towards the grounded electrode. We propose that capacitive coupling of the gate electrode to the microscope stage-a comparatively large equipotential surface that acts effectively as a ground-is responsible for this symmetry breaking. This stray capacitance drives the formation of a double layer whose zeta potential is proportional to the potential drop from the electrolyte directly above the gate electrode to the external stage. Therefore, the charge in this 'stray' double layer varies in phase with the driving field, resulting in a rectified, steady flow as with standard ICEO. We experimentally vary the stray capacitance, the electric potential of the stage and the location of the gate electrode, and find that the effect on the stray flow is qualitatively consistent with the predictions of the proposed mechanism. In the process, we demonstrate that capacitive coupling offers an additional means of manipulating fluid flow over a polarizable surface.

  2. False capacitance of supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ragoisha, G. A.; Aniskevich, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    Capacitance measurements from cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic chronopotentiometry and calculation of capacitance from imaginary part of impedance are widely used in investigations of supercapacitors. The methods assume the supercapacitor is a capacitor, while real objects correspond to different equivalent electric circuits and show various contributions of non-capacitive currents to the current which is used for calculation of capacitance. Specific capacitances which are presented in F g-1...

  3. Development of an Intelligent Capacitive Mass Sensor Based on Co-axial Cylindrical Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir ABU AL AISH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear, robust and intelligent capacitive mass sensor made of a co-axial cylindrical capacitor. It is designed such that the mass under measurement is directly proportional to the capacitance of the sensor. The average value of the output voltage of a capacitance to voltage converter is proportional to the capacitance of the sensor. The output of the converter is measured and displayed, as mass, with the help of microcontroller. The results are free from the effect of stray capacitances which cause errors at low values of capacitances. Developed sensor is linear, free from errors due to temperature and highly flexible in design. The proto-type of the mass sensor can weigh up to 4 kilogram only.

  4. Influence of stray light for divertor spectroscopy in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Shin; Veshchev, Evgeny; Lisgo, Steve; Barnsley, Robin; Morgan, Philip; Walsh, Michael; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Sugie, Tatsuo; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The influence of stray light in the divertor spectroscopy system in ITER is quantitatively investigated using a ray tracing simulation. Simulation results show that the stray light is negligible at positions in the divertor where the plasma emission is strong. However, it is also shown that the stray light can be significantly greater than the real signal if the plasma intensity is low. Deuterium and beryllium emissions are used for the assessment; for beryllium cases in particular, since the emission profile may be non-uniform in the divertor region, the influence of stray light can be non-negligible at some positions, e.g., above the divertor dome

  5. Inverse operator of the generator of a C0-semigroup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomilko, A.M.; Zwart, Heiko J.; Tomilov, Y

    2007-01-01

    Let $A$ be the generator of a uniformly bounded $C_0$-semigroup in a Banach space $X$ such that $A$ has a trivial kernel and a dense range. The question whether $A^{-1}$ is a generator of a $C_0$-semigroup is considered. It is shown that the answer is negative in general for $X = \\ell_p$, $p \\in (1,

  6. Monitoring dc stray current corrosion at sheet pile structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Steel is discarded by railway owners as a material for underground structures near railway lines, due to uncertainty over increased corrosion by DC stray currents stemming from the traction power system. This paper presents a large scale field test in which stray currents interference of a sheet

  7. Switchless charge-discharge circuit for electrical capacitance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryszyn, J; Smolik, W T; Radzik, B; Olszewski, T; Szabatin, R

    2014-01-01

    The main factor limiting the performance of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an extremely low value of inter-electrode capacitances. The charge-discharge circuit is a well suited circuit for a small capacitance measurement due to its immunity to noise and stray capacitance, although it has a problem associated with a charge injected by the analogue switches, which results in a dc offset. This paper presents a new diode-based circuit for capacitance measurement in which a charge transfer method is realized without switches. The circuit was built and tested in one channel configuration with 16 multiplexed electrodes. The performance of the elaborated circuit and a comparison with a classic charge-discharge circuit are presented. The elaborated circuit can be used for sensors with inter-electrode capacitances not lower than 10 fF. The presented approach allows us to obtain a similar performance to the classic charge-discharge circuit, but has a simplified design. A lack of the need to synchronize the analogue switches in the transmitter and the receiver part of this circuit could be a desirable feature in the design of measurement systems integrated with electrodes. (paper)

  8. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, Nora [School of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); O' Hare, Neil [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Gormley, John [School of Physiotherapy, Trinity College Dublin, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2004-07-07

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.

  9. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, Nora; O'Hare, Neil; Gormley, John

    2004-01-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists

  10. Energy Harvesting from the Stray Electromagnetic Field around the Electrical Power Cable for Smart Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah

    For wireless sensor node (WSN) applications, this paper presents the harvesting of energy from the stray electromagnetic field around an electrical power line. Inductive and capacitive types of electrodynamic energy harvesters are developed and reported. For the produced energy harvesters, solid core and split-core designs are adopted. The inductive energy harvester comprises a copper wound coil which is produced on a mild steel core. However, the capacitive prototypes comprise parallel, annular discs separated by Teflon spacers. Moreover, for the inductive energy harvesters' wound coil and core, the parametric analysis is also performed. A Teflon housing is incorporated to protect the energy harvester prototypes from the harsh environmental conditions. Among the inductive energy harvesters, prototype-5 has performed better than the other harvesters and produces a maximum rms voltage of 908 mV at the current level of 155 A in the power line. However, at the same current flow, the capacitive energy harvesters produce a maximum rms voltage of 180 mV. The alternating output of the prototype-5 is rectified, and a super capacitor (1 F, 5.5 V) and rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium, 3.8 V) are charged with it. Moreover, with the utilization of a prototype-5, a self-powered wireless temperature sensing and monitoring system for an electrical transformer is also developed and successfully implemented.

  11. A New Wide Frequency Band Capacitance Transducer with Application to Measuring Metal Fill Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael DEABES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel low cost, high frequency circuit for measuring capacitance is proposed in this paper. This new capacitance measuring circuit is able to measure small coupling capacitance variations with high stray-immunity. Hence, it could be used in many potential applications such as measuring the metal fill time in the Lost Foam Casting (LFC process and Electrical Capacitive Tomography (ECT system. The proposed circuit is based on differential charging/discharging method using current feedback amplifier and a synchronous demodulation stage. The circuit has a wide high frequency operating range with zero phase shift; hence multiple circuits can work at different frequencies simultaneously to measure the capacitance. The non-ideal characteristic of the circuit has been analyzed and the results verified through LTSpice simulation. Results from the tests on a prototype and a simulation elucidate the practicality of the proposed circuit.

  12. Current source enhancements in Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) to cancel unwanted capacitive effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshani, Ali; Bach, Thomas; Chatwin, Chris; Xiang, Liangzhong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has emerged as a non-invasive imaging modality to detect and quantify functional or electrical properties related to the suspicious tumors in cancer screening, diagnosis and prognosis assessment. A constraint on EIS systems is that the current excitation system suffers from the effects of stray capacitance having a major impact on the hardware subsystem as the EIS is an ill-posed inverse problem which depends on the noise level in EIS measured data and regularization parameter in the reconstruction algorithm. There is high complexity in the design of stable current sources, with stray capacitance reducing the output impedance and bandwidth of the system. To confront this, we have designed an EIS current source which eliminates the effect of stray capacitance and other impacts of the capacitance via a variable inductance. In this paper, we present a combination of operational CCII based on a generalized impedance converter (OCCII-GIC) with a current source. The aim of this study is to use the EIS system as a biomedical imaging technique, which is effective in the early detection of breast cancer. This article begins with the theoretical description of the EIS structure, current source topologies and proposes a current conveyor in application of a Gyrator to eliminate the current source limitations and its development followed by simulation and experimental results. We demonstrated that the new design could achieve a high output impedance over a 3MHz frequency bandwidth when compared to other types of GIC circuits combined with an improved Howland topology.

  13. Observation of B0 -> chi_c0 K*0 and Evidence of B+ -> chi_c0 K*+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, : B.

    2008-08-13

    The authors present the observation of the decay B{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup 0} as well as evidence of B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}, with an 8.9 and a 3.6 standard deviation significance, respectively, using a data sample of 454 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B meson factory located at the Standard Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The measured branching fractions are: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup 0}) = (1.7 {+-} 0.3 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4} and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}) = (1.4 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4}, where the first quoted errors are statistical and the second are systematic. They obtain a branching fraction upper limit of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}) < 2.1 x 10{sup -4} at the 90% confidence level.

  14. On the Prime Ideals of C[0,1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    between algebra and geometry. It is well known that the set C[0, 1] of real-valued continuous functions on the closed interval [0, 1] has a natural ring structure. Its maximal ide- als are known to be points. Here we show that although there exist prime ideals which are not maximal, the zero set is again a singleton. In par-.

  15. On the Prime Ideals of C [0, 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that the set C[0, 1] of real-valuedcontinuous functions on the closed interval [0, 1]has a natural ring structure. Its maximal idealsare known to be points. Here we show thatalthough there exist prime ideals which are notmaximal, the zero set is again a singleton. In particular,each prime ideal is contained in a ...

  16. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii among Stray and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Bohn T. Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. It is widespread in the environment and infects a variety of warm-blooded animals, causing miscarriages and birth problems. Previous studies in the Philippines have determined the seropositivity of T. gondii in humans. However, the seroprevalence of the parasite among household pets, par ticularly its feline def initive host, remains insufficient . This study aimed to: (1 determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies among domestic and stray cats in the Philippines; and, (2 to analyze the risk factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples from 59 domestic and stray cats were collected and tested for T. gondii seropositivity using a commercially available indirect ELISA kit, while pet owners and handlers were given questionnaires about their cats. Thirteen or 22.03% of the cats were seropositive to T. gondii, and risk factor analysis revealed a significant difference between domestic and stray cats with regard to diet (p = 0.026, OR = 8.333, c = 0.299 and domestication (p = 0.039, OR = 5.000, c = 0.276. Cats fed with table food tested 31.43% seropositive compared to the 4.35% of those fed with cat food, whereas 33.33% of the stray cats were seropositive compared to 7.69% for domestic cats. Odds ratio test showed that the risk factors studied were associated with higher likelihood of T. gondii seropositivity. These results implicate diet and environment in the transmission dynamics of T. gondii among cats.

  17. Specific methodology for capacitance imaging by atomic force microscopy: A breakthrough towards an elimination of parasitic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Ivan [Laboratoire de Génie Électrique de Paris (LGEP), UMR 8507 CNRS-Supélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Paris 06 Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Concept Scientific Instruments, ZA de Courtaboeuf, 2 rue de la Terre de Feu, 91940 Les Ulis (France); Chrétien, Pascal; Schneegans, Olivier; Houzé, Frédéric, E-mail: houze@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Génie Électrique de Paris (LGEP), UMR 8507 CNRS-Supélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Paris 06 Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-02-24

    On the basis of a home-made nanoscale impedance measurement device associated with a commercial atomic force microscope, a specific operating process is proposed in order to improve absolute (in sense of “nonrelative”) capacitance imaging by drastically reducing the parasitic effects due to stray capacitance, surface topography, and sample tilt. The method, combining a two-pass image acquisition with the exploitation of approach curves, has been validated on sets of calibration samples consisting in square parallel plate capacitors for which theoretical capacitance values were numerically calculated.

  18. Stray light characteristics of the diffractive telescope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dun; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Wei; Wu, Shibin; Fan, Bin; Wu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Diffractive telescope technology is an innovation solution in construction of large light-weight space telescope. However, the nondesign orders of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) may affect the imaging performance as stray light. To study the stray light characteristics of a diffractive telescope, a prototype was developed and its stray light analysis model was established. The stray light characteristics including ghost, point source transmittance, and veiling glare index (VGI) were analyzed. During the star imaging test of the prototype, the ghost images appeared around the star image as the exposure time of the charge-coupled device improving, consistent with the simulation results. The test result of VGI was 67.11%, slightly higher than the calculated value 57.88%. The study shows that the same order diffraction of the diffractive primary lens and correcting DOE is the main factor that causes ghost images. The stray light sources outside the field of view can illuminate the image plane through nondesign orders diffraction of the primary lens and contributes to more than 90% of the stray light flux on the image plane. In summary, it is expected that these works will provide some guidance for optimizing the imaging performance of diffractive telescopes.

  19. The ionisation balance of C0 to C+4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, H.; Storey, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    The ionisation balance for the ions C 0 -C +4 has been calculated for 10 8 -3 ] 12 and 2 x 10 4 K 5 K. The presence of metastable terms is included in the calculation of the collisional dielectronic recombination and ionisation coefficients. The influence of the observed solar radiation field on the ionisation balance is investigated. Changes in that field do strongly influence the results. (orig.) [de

  20. Design and test of a capacitance detection circuit based on a transimpedance amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Linfeng; Zhang Wendong; He Changde; Zhang Rui; Song Jinlong; Xue Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) capacitance detection circuit aimed at detecting micro-capacitance, which is caused by ultrasonic stimulation applied to the capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). In the capacitance interface, a TIA is adopted to amplify the received signal with a center frequency of 400 kHz, and finally detect ultrasound pressure. The circuit has a strong anti-stray property and this paper also studies the calculation of compensation capacity in detail. To ensure high resolution, noise analysis is conducted. After optimization, the detected minimum ultrasound pressure is 2.1 Pa, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the former. The test results showed that the circuit was sensitive to changes in ultrasound pressure and the distance between the CMUT and stumbling block, which also successfully demonstrates the functionality of the developed TIA of the analog-front-end receiver. (paper)

  1. Timelike Completeness as an Obstruction to C 0-Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Gregory J.; Ling, Eric; Sbierski, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The study of low regularity (in-)extendibility of Lorentzian manifolds is motivated by the question whether a given solution to the Einstein equations can be extended (or is maximal) as a weak solution. In this paper we show that a timelike complete and globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold is C 0-inextendible. For the proof we make use of the result, recently established by Sämann (Ann Henri Poincaré 17(6):1429-1455, 2016), that even for continuous Lorentzian manifolds that are globally hyperbolic, there exists a length-maximizing causal curve between any two causally related points.

  2. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  3. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  4. Stray light field dependence for large astronomical space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Bowers, Charles W.

    2017-09-01

    Future large astronomical telescopes in space will have architectures that expose the optics to large angular extents of the sky. Options for reducing stray light coming from the sky range from enclosing the telescope in a tubular baffle to having an open telescope structure with a large sunshield to eliminate solar illumination. These two options are considered for an on-axis telescope design to explore stray light considerations. A tubular baffle design will limit the sky exposure to the solid angle of the cone in front of the telescope set by the aspect ratio of the baffle length to Primary Mirror (PM) diameter. Illumination from this portion of the sky will be limited to the PM and structures internal to the tubular baffle. Alternatively, an open structure design will allow a large portion of the sky to directly illuminate the PM and Secondary Mirror (SM) as well as illuminating sunshield and other structure surfaces which will reflect or scatter light onto the PM and SM. Portions of this illumination of the PM and SM will be scattered into the optical train as stray light. A Radiance Transfer Function (RTF) is calculated for the open architecture that determines the ratio of the stray light background radiance in the image contributed by a patch of sky having unit radiance. The full 4π steradian of sky is divided into a grid of patches, with the location of each patch defined in the telescope coordinate system. By rotating the celestial sky radiance maps into the telescope coordinate frame for a given pointing direction of the telescope, the RTF may be applied to the sky brightness and the results integrated to get the total stray light from the sky for that pointing direction. The RTF data generated for the open architecture may analyzed as a function of the expanding cone angle about the pointing direction. In this manner, the open architecture data may be used to directly compare to a tubular baffle design parameterized by allowed cone angle based on the

  5. Fast and accurate modeling of stray light in optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Claude

    2017-11-01

    The first problem to be solved in most optical designs with respect to stray light is that of internal reflections on the several surfaces of individual lenses and mirrors, and on the detector itself. The level of stray light ratio can be considerably reduced by taking into account the stray light during the optimization to determine solutions in which the irradiance due to these ghosts is kept to the minimum possible value. Unhappily, the routines available in most optical design software's, for example CODE V, do not permit all alone to make exact quantitative calculations of the stray light due to these ghosts. Therefore, the engineer in charge of the optical design is confronted to the problem of using two different software's, one for the design and optimization, for example CODE V, one for stray light analysis, for example ASAP. This makes a complete optimization very complex . Nevertheless, using special techniques and combinations of the routines available in CODE V, it is possible to have at its disposal a software macro tool to do such an analysis quickly and accurately, including Monte-Carlo ray tracing, or taking into account diffraction effects. This analysis can be done in a few minutes, to be compared to hours with other software's.

  6. Stray radiation and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R. J.; Harned, R.; Breault, R. P.; Malugin, R.

    1981-01-01

    Stray light control is a major consideration in the design of infrared cryogenically cooled telescopes such as the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The basic design of the baffle system, and the placement, shape, and coating of the secondary support struts for the telescope subsystem are described. The intent of this paper is to highlight the stray light problems encountered while designing the system, and to illustrate how computer analysis can be a useful design aid. Scattering measurements of the primary mirror, and a full system level scatter measurement are presented. Comparisons of predicted performance with the measured results are also presented.

  7. Aerial firing and stray bullet injuries: a rising tide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Asad; Tahir, Syed Mohammad; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Shaikh, Abdul Razaque; Siddique, Akmal Jamal

    2015-04-01

    Aerial firing is shooting, using fire arm, into the air usually during a celebration. This observational study aimed to quantify magnitude and impact of stray bullet injuries by aerial firing at surgical emergencies of the Liaquat University Hospital (a university hospital), Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from January 2009 to December 2010 (2 years). During the study period, 144 firearm injuries due to stray bullet reported to the A and E departments of the university hospital. All patients referred to surgical unit providing emergency cover on that day irrespective of the severity of the injury for medico-legal reasons. For this study, the cases were divided into those having trivial injury and do not require any active surgical intervention and those having serious injury mandating surgical intervention. One hundred and two cases of stray bullet injury sustained trivial injury and followed as outpatients after an overnight period of indoor hospitalization; however, 42 patients with stray bullet injuries requiring surgical intervention were hospitalized. The most common events leading to aerial firing and stray bullet injuries were marriage ceremonies, followed by a political rallies and New Year celebrations. Stray bullet injury also reported after aerial firing on cricket/hockey team victories, Pakistan Independence Day (14th August), cultural day in Sindh and Basant (Kite) festival in Punjab. The most frequent sites with serious stray bullet injury were chest (15), head and neck (10), abdomen (9) and limbs (8), respectively. Surgical interventions performed included chest intubation, exploration of wound tract to retrieve bullet if lodged superficially and was palpable, laparotomy to managed intra-abdominal injury, reduction of fracture site followed by reconstruction, flap reconstruction and graft for nonhealing wound. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19 days. No mortality was observed in this series of patients. We conclude that the prevalence of aerial

  8. The quality of stray radiation in the ovarian region in diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.; Fiebach, B.J.O.; Fischer, P.G.; Loehr, E.

    1976-01-01

    Dose measurements (LiF-TLD) and recordings of stray radiation spectra (Ge(Li)-Detectors) in a phantom show that shielding of the ovaries against stray radiation is advisable even though the effectivity of this measure decreases at higher tube voltages. The exposure of the ovaries to stray radiation increases with increasing tube voltage; the radiation quality of the stray radiation is, for the most part, independent of the filter value. (orig./AK) [de

  9. Prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites in stray dogs in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 246 faecal samples were collected between October 2015 to February 2016, 154 from stray dogs in Harare and 92 from rural dogs in Arcturas, Goromonzi and Christon Bank. The samples were examined by flotation and sedimentation methods and helminth eggs identified and EPG counted. Of the 246 samples, ...

  10. Stray dog meat consumption and rabies | Wiwanitkit | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stray dog meat consumption and rabies. V Wiwanitkit. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v14i3.41 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  11. Membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions

  12. Capacitance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landskron, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO 2 into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Capacitance for carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landskron, Kai [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO{sub 2} into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Detecting stray microwaves and nonequilibrium quasiparticles in thin films by single-electron tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saira, Olli-Pentti; Maisi, Ville; Kemppinen, Antti; Möttönen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka

    2013-03-01

    Superconducting thin films and tunnel junctions are the building blocks of many state-of-the-art technologies related to quantum information processing, microwave detection, and electronic amplification. These devices operate at millikelvin temperatures, and - in a naive picture - their fidelity metrics are expected to improve as the temperature is lowered. However, very often one finds in the experiment that the device performance levels off around 100-150 mK. In my presentation, I will address three common physical mechanisms that can cause such saturation: stray microwaves, nonequilibrium quasiparticles, and sub-gap quasiparticle states. The new experimental data I will present is based on a series of studies on quasiparticle transport in Coulomb-blockaded normal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction devices. We have used a capacitively coupled SET electrometer to detect individual quasiparticle tunneling events in real time. We demonstrate the following record-low values for thin film aluminum: quasiparticle density nqp < 0 . 033 / μm3 , normalized density of sub-gap quasiparticle states (Dynes parameter) γ < 1 . 6 ×10-7 . I will also discuss some sample stage and chip designs that improve microwave shielding.

  15. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  16. Stray-electron accumulation and effects in HIF accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Furman, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Stoltz, P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Stray electrons can be introduced in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. Electron accumulation is impacted by the ion beam potential, accelerating fields, multipole magnetic fields used for beam focus, and the pulse duration. We highlight the distinguishing features of heavy-ion accelerators as they relate to stray-electron issues, and present first results from a sequence of simulations to characterize the electron cloud that follows from realistic ion distributions. Also, we present ion simulations with prescribed random electron distributions, undertaken to begin to quantify the effects of electrons on ion beam quality

  17. Individual monitoring in high-energy stray radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the lack of passive or active devices that could be considered as personal dosemeters in high-energy stray fields one can at present only perform individual monitoring around high energy accelerators. Of all detectors currently available it is shown that the NTA film is the most suitable method for individually monitoring the neutron exposure of more than 3000 persons regularly, reliably, and cost effectively like at CERN. (author)

  18. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis infection in stray dogs from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bogićević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with worldwide distribution. With regards to the population of stray dogs, the disease is facilitated due to their lifestyle and the lack of anti-parasitic protection. The aim of this study was to provide serological data on the presence of a specific Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs, originating from 7 municipalities in Serbia. During the period from April 2013 to June 2014, 217 canine sera were submitted to the laboratory of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade. An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was performed to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (cut off, 1:50. Seropositive dogs were found in 5 out of 7 counties with a seroprevalence varying from 3.57% to 20% and an overall seroprevalence of 11.06% (24/217. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of infection and the host age or gender. Results showed that stray dogs contribute to maintaining and spreading of Ehrlichia canis in Serbia. Due to the close relationship between people and dogs, it is of great importance to constantly monitor and improve prevention of this disease.

  19. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-07

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications.

  20. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F

    2005-01-01

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications

  1. Usage of ray tracing transfer matrix to mitigate the stray light for ITER spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, S.; Veshchev, E.; Barnsley, R.; Walsh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Stray light formed by the reflection of photons on inner wall from a bright divertor region can be a serious issue in spectroscopic measurement systems in ITER. In this study, we propose a method to mitigate the influence of stray light using a ray tracing analysis. Usually, a ray tracing simulation requires a time consuming runs. We constructed transfer matrices based on the ray tracing simulation results and used them to demonstrate the influence of stray light. It is shown that the transfer matrix can be used to reconstruct the emission profile by considering the influence of the stray light without any additional ray tracing runs. Mitigation of the stray light in ITER divertor impurity monitor was demonstrated, and a method of prediction of the stray light level for the scrape off layer spectroscopy from divertor region was proposed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Capacitance of circular patch resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, G.; Verolino, L.; Naples Univ.; Panariello, G.; Vaccaro, V.G.; Naples Univ.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper the capacitance of the circular microstrip patch resonator is computed. It is shown that the electrostatic problem can be formulated as a system of dual integral equations, and the most interesting techniques of solutions of these systems are reviewed. Some useful approximated formulas for the capacitance are derived and plots of the capacitance are finally given in a wide range of dielectric constants

  3. WIDESPREAD OF STRAY DOGS: METHODS FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM IN CERTAIN REGIONS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamed Katica; Nedzad Gradascevic; Nejra Hadzimusic; Zarema Obradovic; Ramo Mujkanovic; Esad Mestric; Senad Coloman; Muhamed Dupovac

    2017-01-01

    Stray dogs are the ones not microchipped, which live across the streets and other public surfaces unattended, and so represent a serious public-health problem. Lack of human support for the stray dogs causes a range of problems - from territorial status to ensuring food. Such conditions force them to activate a self-preservation mechanism and return to natural behavioral patterns. Regarding the fact that several thousands of stray dogs were recorded in observed regions of Bosnia and Herze...

  4. Identification and mitigation of stray laser light in the Thomson scattering system on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, C. M.; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Falkowski, A. F.; Morton, L. A.; Thomas, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) records excessive levels of stray Nd:YAG laser light. Stray light saturates the 1064 nm spectral channel in all polychromators, which prevents absolute electron density measurements via Rayleigh scattering calibration. Furthermore, stray light contaminates adjacent spectral channels for r/a ≥ 0.75, which renders the diagnostic unable to make electron temperature measurements at these radii. In situ measurements of stray light levels during a vacuum vessel vent are used to identify stray light sources and strategies for reduction of stray light levels. Numerical modeling using Zemax OpticStudio supports these measurements. The model of the vacuum vessel and diagnostic includes synthetic collection optics to enable direct comparison of measured and simulated stray light levels. Modeling produces qualitatively similar stray light distributions to MST measurements, and quantifies the mitigation effects of stray light mitigation strategies prior to implementation.

  5. Identification and mitigation of stray laser light in the Thomson scattering system on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, C. M., E-mail: cjacobson@wisc.edu; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Falkowski, A. F.; Morton, L. A.; Thomas, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) records excessive levels of stray Nd:YAG laser light. Stray light saturates the 1064 nm spectral channel in all polychromators, which prevents absolute electron density measurements via Rayleigh scattering calibration. Furthermore, stray light contaminates adjacent spectral channels for r/a ≥ 0.75, which renders the diagnostic unable to make electron temperature measurements at these radii. In situ measurements of stray light levels during a vacuum vessel vent are used to identify stray light sources and strategies for reduction of stray light levels. Numerical modeling using Zemax OpticStudio supports these measurements. The model of the vacuum vessel and diagnostic includes synthetic collection optics to enable direct comparison of measured and simulated stray light levels. Modeling produces qualitatively similar stray light distributions to MST measurements, and quantifies the mitigation effects of stray light mitigation strategies prior to implementation.

  6. A method to measure internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; Li, Zhou; He, Fengyun; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-03-01

    The suppression level of internal stray radiation is a key criterion for infrared imaging systems, especially for high-precision cryogenic infrared imaging systems. To achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures, a measurement method, which is based on radiometric calibration, is presented in this paper. First of all, the calibration formula is deduced considering the integration time, and the effect of ambient temperature on internal stray radiation is further analyzed in detail. Then, an approach is proposed to measure the internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures. By calibrating the system under two ambient temperatures, the quantitative relation between the internal stray radiation and the ambient temperature can be acquired, and then the internal stray radiation of the cryogenic infrared imaging system under various ambient temperatures can be calculated. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can be used to measure internal stray radiation with high accuracy at various ambient temperatures and integration times. The proposed method has some advantages, such as simple implementation and the capability of high-precision measurement. The measurement results can be used to guide the stray radiation suppression and to test whether the internal stray radiation suppression performance meets the requirement or not.

  7. Modeling and Characterization of Capacitive Elements With Tissue as Dielectric Material for Wireless Powering of Neural Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Reza; Marefat, Fatemeh; Sodagar, Amir M; Mohseni, Pedram

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on the modeling and characterization of capacitive elements with tissue as the dielectric material, representing the core building block of a capacitive link for wireless power transfer to neural implants. Each capacitive element consists of two parallel plates that are aligned around the tissue layer and incorporate a grounded, guarded, capacitive pad to mitigate the adverse effect of stray capacitances and shield the plates from external interfering electric fields. The plates are also coated with a biocompatible, insulating, coating layer on the inner side of each plate in contact with the tissue. A comprehensive circuit model is presented that accounts for the effect of the coating layers and is validated by measurements of the equivalent capacitance as well as impedance magnitude/phase of the parallel plates over a wide frequency range of 1 kHz-10 MHz. Using insulating coating layers of Parylene-C at a thickness of and Parylene-N at a thickness of deposited on two sets of parallel plates with different sizes and shapes of the guarded pad, our modeling and characterization results accurately capture the effect of the thickness and electrical properties of the coating layers on the behavior of the capacitive elements over frequency and with different tissues.

  8. A novel capacitive micro-accelerometer with grid strip capacitances and sensing gap alterable capacitances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Linxi; Chen Jindan; Huo Weihong; Li Yongjie; Sun Lingling; Yan Haixia

    2009-01-01

    The comb capacitances fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (RIE) process have high aspect ratio which is usually smaller than 30: 1 for the complicated process factors, and the combs are usually not parallel due to the well-known micro-loading effect and other process factors, which restricts the increase of the seismic mass by increasing the thickness of comb to reduce the thermal mechanical noise and the decrease of the gap of the comb capacitances for increasing the sensitive capacitance to reduce the electrical noise. Aiming at the disadvantage of the deep RIE, a novel capacitive micro-accelerometer with grid strip capacitances and sensing gap alterable capacitances is developed. One part of sensing of inertial signal of the micro-accelerometer is by the grid strip capacitances whose overlapping area is variable and which do not have the non-parallel plate's effect caused by the deep RIE process. Another part is by the sensing gap alterable capacitances whose gap between combs can be reduced by the actuators. The designed initial gap of the alterable comb capacitances is relatively large to depress the effect of the maximum aspect ratio (30 : 1) of deep RIE process. The initial gap of the capacitance of the actuator is smaller than the one of the comb capacitances. The difference between the two gaps is the initial gap of the sensitive capacitor. The designed structure depresses greatly the requirement of deep RIE process. The effects of non-parallel combs on the accelerometer are also analyzed. The characteristics of the micro-accelerometer are discussed by field emission microscopy (FEM) tool ANSYS. The tested devices based on slide-film damping effect are fabricated, and the tested quality factor is 514, which shows that grid strip capacitance design can partly improve the resolution and also prove the feasibility of the designed silicon-glass anodically bonding process.

  9. Capacitive gauging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for gauging physical dimensions of solid or tubular bodies (e.g. a nuclear fuel pellet) comprises a capacitive transducer having electrodes forming diametrically arranged pairs of capacitors and means for connecting the pairs, preferably sequentially, in an arm of a four arm electrical network. For circumferential scanning of a solid body along its length, the body is moved along a path of travel through head assembly including the transducer by means of plungers with the axis of the body being coincident with the axis of the transducer. As the body moves through the transducer the diametrically arranged pairs of capacitors scan the surface to result in a surface profile of the body. For scanning the bore of a pipe or tube the transducer is inserted as a probe and moved along the bore of the pipe or tube, means being provided for maintaining the probe coaxial with the pipe or tube. (author)

  10. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging...... polypropylene film capacitor can be the equivalent capacitive load. Because of the voltage dependent characteristic, X7R MLCC cannot be used to replace the DEAP actuator. However, this type of capacitor can be used to substitute the capacitive actuator with voltage dependent property at the development phase....

  11. Measurement of stray EC radiation on W7-AS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, F.; Hirsch, M.; Cirant, S.; Erckmann, V.; Granucci, G.; Kasparek, W.; Laqua, H. P.; Muzzini, V.; Nowak, S.; Radau, S.

    2001-10-01

    In the framework of a collaboration between IFP-CNR Milano, IPP Garching/Greifswald and IPF Stuttgart, a set of four millimeterwave probes has been installed in W7-AS stellarator at selected positions of the inner vessel wall. Their purpose is to observe RF stray radiation during operation in presence of strong level of Electron Cyclotron (EC) waves, used for plasma start-up, heating and current drive. The aim of these measurements is to benchmark two complementary theoretical models for the distribution of the stray radiation in the vessel. From these codes, quantitative predictions are expected for the spatial distribution of the RF wall load and the RF-impact on in-vessel components in large future devices such as W7-X and, possibly, ITER. This input is important to optimize the wall armour and select rf-compatible in-vessel materials. We present first measurements from different heating and startup scenarios, with up to 800 kW of injected power at 140 GHz and different launching geometries. An analysis of measurements performed on FTU using a previous version of sniffer probe is also presented.

  12. Evaluation of stray radiofrequency radiation emitted by electrosurgical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, M; Maggi, S

    2006-01-01

    Electrosurgery refers to the passage of a high-frequency, high-voltage electrical current through the body to achieve the desired surgical effects. At the same time, these procedures are accompanied by a general increase of the electromagnetic field in an operating room that may expose both patients and personnel to relatively high levels of radiofrequency radiation. In the first part of this study, we have taken into account the radiation emitted by different monopolar electrosurgical devices, evaluating the electromagnetic field strength delivered by an electrosurgical handle and straying from units and other electrosurgical accessories. As a summary, in the worst case a surgeon's hands are exposed to a continuous and pulsed RF wave whose magnetic field strength is 0.75 A m -1 (E-field 400 V m -1 ). Occasionally stray radiation may exceed ICNIRP's occupational exposure guidelines, especially close to the patient return plate. In the second part of this paper, we have analysed areas of particular concern to prevent electromagnetic interference with some life-support devices (ventilators and electrocardiographic devices), which have failed to operate correctly. Most clinically relevant interference occurred when an electrosurgery device was used within 0.3 m of medical equipment. In the appendix, we suggest some practical recommendations intended to minimize the potential for electromagnetic hazards due to therapeutic application of RF energy

  13. Carbon Nanotubes on Titanium Substrates for Stray Light Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Getty, Stephanie; Quijada, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for growing carbon nanotubes on a titanium substrate, which makes the nano tubes ten times blacker than the current state-of-the-art paints in the visible to near infrared. This will allow for significant improvement of stray light performance in scientific instruments, or any other optical system. Because baffles, stops, and tubes used in scientific observations often undergo loads such as vibration, it is critical to develop this surface treatment on structural materials. This innovation optimizes the carbon nano - tube growth for titanium, which is a strong, lightweight structural material suitable for spaceflight use. The steps required to grow the nanotubes require the preparation of the surface by lapping, and the deposition of an iron catalyst over an alumina stiction layer by e-beam evaporation. In operation, the stray light controls are fabricated, and nanotubes (multi-walled 100 microns in length) are grown on the surface. They are then installed in the instruments or other optical devices.

  14. Measurement of stray EC radiation on W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, F.; Cirant, S.; Granucci, G.; Muzzini, V.; Nowak, S.; Hirsch, M.; Erckmann, V.; Laqua, H.P.; Radau, S.; Kasparek, W.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of a collaboration between IFP-CNR Milano, IPP Garching/Greifswald and IPF Stuttgart, a set of four millimeterwave probes has been installed in W7-AS stellarator at selected positions of the inner vessel wall. Their purpose is to observe RF stray radiation during operation in presence of strong level of Electron Cyclotron (EC) waves, used for plasma start-up, heating and current drive. The aim of these measurements is to benchmark two complementary theoretical models for the distribution of the stray radiation in the vessel. From these codes, quantitative predictions are expected for the spatial distribution of the RF wall load and the RF-impact on in-vessel components in large future devices such as W7-X and, possibly, ITER. This input is important to optimize the wall armour and select rf-compatible in-vessel materials. We present first measurements from different heating and startup scenarios, with up to 800 kW of injected power at 140 GHz and different launching geometries. An analysis of measurements performed on FTU using a previous version of sniffer probe is also presented

  15. A degradation model for stray current induced corrosion in underground reinforced concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of stray currents on durability and reinforcement corrosion of underground concrete structures. Cathodic protection of underground pipelines are stationary sources of stray current interference with concrete, and rail traction systems are non-stationary sources. The

  16. Stray current vs anodic polarization in reinforced mortar: a comparative study on steel corrosion behaviour in both regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2015-01-01

    Stray current arising from direct current electrified traction systems and then circulat-ing in reinforced concrete structures may initiate corrosion or even accelerate existing corrosion processes on embedded reinforcement. Therefore, stray-current induced corrosion of nearby reinforced concrete

  17. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  18. Electrolytic corrosion of water pipeline system in the remote distance from stray currents—Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Zakowski​

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case study of corrosion failure of urban water supply system caused by the harmful effects of stray currents was presented. The failure occurred at a site distant from the sources of these currents namely the tramway and railway traction systems. Diagnosis revealed the stray currents flow to pipeline over a remote distance of 800/1000 m from the point of failure. At the point of failure stray currents flowed from the pipeline to the ground through external insulation defects, causing the process of electrolytic corrosion of the metal. Long distance between the affected section of the pipeline and the sources of stray currents excludes the typical protection against stray currents in the form of electrical polarized drainage. Corrosion protection at this point can be achieved by using the earthing electrodes made of magnesium, which will also provide cathodic current protection as galvanic anode.

  19. The Capacitive Magnetic Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyatkov, D. O.; Yurchenko, A. V.; Balashov, V. B.; Yurchenko, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of a study of sensitive element magnetic field sensor are represented in this paper. The sensor is based on the change of the capacitance with an active dielectric (ferrofluid) due to the magnitude of magnetic field. To prepare the ferrofluid magnetic particles are used, which have a followingdispersion equal to 50 brand 5BDSR. The dependence of the sensitivity of the capacitive element from the ferrofluid with different dispersion of magnetic particles is considered. The threshold of sensitivity and sensitivity of a measuring cell with ferrofluid by a magnetic field was determined. The experimental graphs of capacitance change of the magnitude of magnetic field are presented.

  20. Virtual electrical capacitance tomography sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Yang, W Q

    2005-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an effective technique for elucidating the distribution of dielectric materials inside closed pipes or vessels. This paper describes a virtual electrical capacitance tomography (VECT) system, which can simulate a range of sensor and hardware configurations and material distributions. A selection of popular image reconstruction algorithms has been made available and image error and capacitance error tools enable their performance to be evaluated and compared. Series of frame-by-frame results can be stored for simulating real-time dynamic flows. The system is programmed in Matlab with DOS functions. It is convenient to use and low-cost to operate, providing an effective tool for engineering experiment

  1. Banach C*-algebras not containing a subspace isomorphic to C0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, B.

    1989-09-01

    If X is a locally Hausdorff space and C 0 (X) the Banach algebra of continuous functions defined on X vanishing at infinity, we showed that a subalgebra A of C 0 (X) is finite dimensional if it does not contain a subspace isomorphic to the Banach space C 0 of convergent to zero complex sequences. In this paper we extend this result to noncommutative Banach C*-algebras and Banach* algebras. 10 refs

  2. Some aspects of stray losses in large power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Zvonimir

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some results of the investigation of stray losses in power transformers that are caused by high-current loops. The investigation was focused on: a) additional losses in tank cover around high-current bushings and the way of their reduction, b) extra leakage flux and additional losses due to high current delta-connections. The insertion of nonmagnetic gaps between the phase bushings reduces the extra cover losses more than three times. A nonmagnetic plate around the high-current bushings reduces these extra losses practically to zero. The extra losses due to the high-current delta-connections could be significant for the transformer loss level. These extra losses could be controlled (reduced) by the design layout of the delta-connections. (Author)

  3. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  4. ON THE INVERSION OF STOKES PROFILES WITH LOCAL STRAY-LIGHT CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining the magnetic properties of non-resolved structures in the solar photosphere is always challenging and problems arise because the inversion is carried out through the numerical minimization of a merit function that depends on the proposed model. We investigate the reliability of inversions in which the stray-light contamination is obtained from the same observations as a local average. In this case, we show that it is fundamental to include the covariance between the observed Stokes profiles and the stray-light contamination. The ensuing modified merit function of the inversion process penalizes large stray-light contaminations simply because of the presence of positive correlations between the observables and the stray light, fundamentally produced by spatially variable systematics. We caution that if the wrong merit function is used, artificially large stray-light contaminations might be inferred. Since this effect disappears if the stray-light contamination is obtained as an average over the full field of view, we recommend taking into account stray-light contamination using a global approach.

  5. Pitfalls and artifacts in measuring absorption spectra and kinetics: the effect of stray light in the UV and red regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czapski, Gideon; Ozeri, Yair; Goldstein, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Effects of stray light on absorption spectrum and kinetics are discussed. The extent of the stray light depends on the light source, monochromator, wavelength set by the instrument and the absorption of the sample at this wavelength. Effects of the stray light on the shape of the spectrum and the extinction coefficients are shown. Methods for determining the existence and extent of stray light are suggested and are especially relevant for studies using pulse radiolysis, flash photolysis, and stopped-flow techniques. The literature examples for artifacts due to stray light are presented for kinetics and absorption spectra

  6. Stray current monitoring at Nuremberg subway; Streustromueberwachung bei der U-Bahn Nuernberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, M.; Halfmann, U.; Schneider, E. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). TS EL EN 2; Roesch, N. [VAG Verkehrs-AG Nuernberg, FA/SA - Starkstromanlagen, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    Operating DC traction systems requires protective measures against the effects of stray currents. Damage by corrosion could occur both at railway and third party installations. The continuous effectiveness of protective measures needs to be monitored and recorded during revenue operation, and shall be capable to be demonstrated to supervising authorities. Measuring the rail-to-earth potential within the traction network under operational conditions, combined with centralized analysis, visualization, signaling and archiving is a straightforward and efficient method of stray current monitoring. For more than one year, the stray current monitoring system SITRAS SMS {sup registered} has been undergoing successful field application at the Nuremberg Subway. (orig.)

  7. Convergence of highly parallel stray field calculation using the fast multipole method on irregular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmesi, P.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Suess, D.

    2018-05-01

    Fast stray field calculation is commonly considered of great importance for micromagnetic simulations, since it is the most time consuming part of the simulation. The Fast Multipole Method (FMM) has displayed linear O(N) parallelization behavior on many cores. This article investigates the error of a recent FMM approach approximating sources using linear—instead of constant—finite elements in the singular integral for calculating the stray field and the corresponding potential. After measuring performance in an earlier manuscript, this manuscript investigates the convergence of the relative L2 error for several FMM simulation parameters. Various scenarios either calculating the stray field directly or via potential are discussed.

  8. Observation of an Excited Charm Baryon OmegaC* Decaying to OmegaC0 Gamma

    OpenAIRE

    The BABAR Collaboration; Aubert, B.

    2006-01-01

    We report the first observation of an excited singly-charm baryon OmegaC* (css) in the radiative decay OmegaC0 Gamma, where the OmegaC0 baryon is reconstructed in the decays to the final states Omega-pi+, Omega-pi+pi0, Omega-pi+pi-pi+, and Cascade-K-pi+pi+. This analysis is performed using a dataset of 230.7 fb$-1} collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The mass difference between the OmegaC* and the OmegaC0 baryons...

  9. C0-semigroups of linear operators on some ultrametric Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toka Diagana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available C0-semigroups of linear operators play a crucial role in the solvability of evolution equations in the classical context. This paper is concerned with a brief conceptualization of C0-semigroups on (ultrametric free Banach spaces E. In contrast with the classical setting, the parameter of a given C0-semigroup belongs to a clopen ball Ωr of the ground field K. As an illustration, we will discuss the solvability of some homogeneous p-adic differential equations.

  10. Bioenergetics of mammalian sperm capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    After ejaculation, the mammalian male gamete must undergo the capacitation process, which is a prerequisite for egg fertilization. The bioenergetics of sperm capacitation is poorly understood despite its fundamental role in sustaining the biochemical and molecular events occurring during gamete activation. Glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are the two major metabolic pathways producing ATP which is the primary source of energy for spermatozoa. Since recent data suggest that spermatozoa have the ability to use different metabolic substrates, the main aim of this work is to present a broad overview of the current knowledge on the energy-producing metabolic pathways operating inside sperm mitochondria during capacitation in different mammalian species. Metabolism of glucose and of other energetic substrates, such as pyruvate, lactate, and citrate, is critically analyzed. Such knowledge, besides its obvious importance for basic science, could eventually translate into the development of novel strategies for treatment of male infertility, artificial reproduction, and sperm selection methods.

  11. Simplified magnetic circuit for the calculation of the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarin, P.; Piovan, R. [Associazioni EURATOM-ENEA-CNR-Univ. di Padova (Italy). Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione

    1995-12-31

    Significant toroidal magnetic field perturbations, stray flux at the shell gaps and current mismatching in the coils of the toroidal field winding are measured during the start-up and the flat-top phases of RFX. These phenomena are consistent with large and wall locked MHD modes: at first some m = 1 modes evolve separately one after the other, afterwards they concur to a wide and localized plasma perturbation that persists during the flat-top. These perturbations are heavily influenced by the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps. Hence a magnetic circuit that mainly considers the magnetic reluctance of the conducting shell gaps has been developed in order to estimate this stray flux and, therefore, to evaluate the stabilizing capability of the shell. The observation of the MHD modes, the description of the equivalent magnetic network, the estimation of the stray flux and the comparison with the experimental measurements are reported in the paper.

  12. Simplified magnetic circuit for the calculation of the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collarin, P.; Piovan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant toroidal magnetic field perturbations, stray flux at the shell gaps and current mismatching in the coils of the toroidal field winding are measured during the start-up and the flat-top phases of RFX. These phenomena are consistent with large and wall locked MHD modes: at first some m = 1 modes evolve separately one after the other, afterwards they concur to a wide and localized plasma perturbation that persists during the flat-top. These perturbations are heavily influenced by the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps. Hence a magnetic circuit that mainly considers the magnetic reluctance of the conducting shell gaps has been developed in order to estimate this stray flux and, therefore, to evaluate the stabilizing capability of the shell. The observation of the MHD modes, the description of the equivalent magnetic network, the estimation of the stray flux and the comparison with the experimental measurements are reported in the paper

  13. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szwabe

    2017-03-01

    Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  14. Symptoms and Cognitive Effects of Exposure to Magnetic Stray Fields of MRI Scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vocht, Frank Gérard de

    2006-01-01

    People working routinely with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems report a number of symptoms related to their presence in the inhomogeneous static magnetic fields (the stray field) surrounding these scanners. Experienced symptoms and neurobehavioral performance among engineers manufacturing

  15. Counteracting Animal Homelessness and Providing Care for Stray Animals as a Task of a Commune

    OpenAIRE

    Szalewska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of Polish binding law acts allows one to assume that, on normative level, the obligation of public administration to provide care for stray animals is deeply embedded. Both the Animal Protection Act, as well as the Act on Maintaining Cleanliness, indicate the tasks of a commune in the scope of providing care for stray animals, catching homeless animals and counteracting their homelessness. Simultaneously, the analysis of jurisdiction, and inquiries as well as considerations emerg...

  16. Observation of an Excited Charm Baryon Omega*C Decaying to OmegaC0 Gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B

    2006-01-01

    The authors report the first observation of an excited singly-charmed baryon (Omega)* c (css) in the radiative decay (Omega) c 0 γ, where the (Omega) c 0 baryon is reconstructed in the decays to the final states (Omega) - π + , (Omega) - π + π 0 , (Omega) - π + π - π + , and Ξ - K - π + π + . This analysis is performed using a dataset of 230.7 fb -1 collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The mass difference between the (Omega)* c and the (Omega) c 0 baryons is measured to be 70.8 ± 1.0(stat) ± 1.1(syst) MeV/c 2 . They also measure the ratio of inclusive production cross sections of (Omega)* c and (Omega) c 0 in e + e - annihilation

  17. The degree of C0-sufficiency of analytic function germs with respect to an ideal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Tien Son

    2006-07-01

    Let f:(C 2 , 0) → (C, 0) be an analytic function germ of two complex variables and let I be an ideal of C{x,y). We give some formulae for the degree of C 0 -sufficiency of f with respect to I. When I is the maximal ideal we retrieve a result of T.C. Kuo and Y.C. Lu. (author)

  18. The Disturbing Effect of the Stray Magnetic Fields on Magnetoimpedance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The disturbing effect of the stray magnetic fields of Fe-based amorphous ribbons on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI sensor has been investigated systematically in this paper. Two simple methods were used for examining the disturbing effect of the stray magnetic fields of ribbons on the GMI sensor. In order to study the influence of the stray magnetic fields on the GMI effect, the square-shaped amorphous ribbons were tested in front, at the back, on the left and on the top of a meander-line GMI sensor made up of soft ferromagnetic films, respectively. Experimental results show that the presence of ribbons in front or at the back of GMI sensor shifts the GMI curve to a lower external magnetic field. On the contrary, the presence of ribbons on the left or on the top of the GMI sensor shifts the GMI curve to a higher external magnetic field, which is related to the coupling effect of the external magnetic field and the stray magnetic fields. The influence of the area and angle of ribbons on GMI was also studied in this work. The GMI sensor exhibits high linearity for detection of the stray magnetic fields, which has made it feasible to construct a sensitive magnetometer for detecting the typical stray magnetic fields of general soft ferromagnetic materials.

  19. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

  20. Renorming c0 and closed, bounded, convex sets with fixed point property for affine nonexpansive mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezir, Veysel; Mustafa, Nizami

    2017-04-01

    In 2008, P.K. Lin provided the first example of a nonreflexive space that can be renormed to have fixed point property for nonexpansive mappings. This space was the Banach space of absolutely summable sequences l1 and researchers aim to generalize this to c0, Banach space of null sequences. Before P.K. Lin's intriguing result, in 1979, Goebel and Kuczumow showed that there is a large class of non-weak* compact closed, bounded, convex subsets of l1 with fixed point property for nonexpansive mappings. Then, P.K. Lin inspired by Goebel and Kuczumow's ideas to give his result. Similarly to P.K. Lin's study, Hernández-Linares worked on L1 and in his Ph.D. thesis, supervisored under Maria Japón, showed that L1 can be renormed to have fixed point property for affine nonexpansive mappings. Then, related questions for c0 have been considered by researchers. Recently, Nezir constructed several equivalent norms on c0 and showed that there are non-weakly compact closed, bounded, convex subsets of c0 with fixed point property for affine nonexpansive mappings. In this study, we construct a family of equivalent norms containing those developed by Nezir as well and show that there exists a large class of non-weakly compact closed, bounded, convex subsets of c0 with fixed point property for affine nonexpansive mappings.

  1. Measurement of the branching fraction for ψ(3770→γχc0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ablikim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing a data set of 2.92 fb−1 of e+e− collision data taken at s=3.773 GeV and 106.41×106 ψ(3686 decays taken at s=3.686 GeV with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, we measure the branching fraction and the partial decay width for ψ(3770→γχc0 to be B(ψ(3770→γχc0=(6.88±0.28±0.67×10−3 and Γ[ψ(3770→γχc0]=(187±8±19 keV, respectively. These are the most precise measurements to date.

  2. PCR-Based Molecular Characterization of Toxocara spp. Using Feces of Stray Cats: A Study from Southwest Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Rahim, Fakher; Tavalla, Mahdi; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequ...

  3. Triboelectricity in capacitive biopotential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartzek, Tobias; Lammersen, Thomas; Eilebrecht, Benjamin; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2011-05-01

    Capacitive biopotential measurements suffer from strong motion artifacts, which may result in long time periods during which a reliable measurement is not possible. This study examines contact electrification and triboelectricity as possible reasons for these artifacts and discusses local triboelectric effects on the electrode-body interface as well as global electrostatic effects as common-mode interferences. It will be shown that most probably the triboelectric effects on the electrode-body interface are the main reason for artifacts, and a reduction of artifacts can only be achieved with a proper design of the electrode-body interface. For a deeper understanding of the observed effects, a mathematical model for triboelectric effects in highly isolated capacitive biopotential measurements is presented and verified with experiments. Based on these analyses of the triboelectric effects on the electrode-body interface, different electrode designs are developed and analyzed in order to minimize artifacts due to triboelectricity on the electrode-body interface. © 2011 IEEE

  4. A study on protozoan infections (Giardia, Entamoeba, Isoapora and Cryptosporidium in stray dogs in Ilam province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kakekhani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia, Entamoeba, Isospora and Cryptosporidium are important protozoan parastites that caused diarrhea in human and animals. In the present study, fecal samples were collected fresh, directly from the rectum of 112 stray dogs in Ilam province. Giardia and Entamoeba were concentrated by using the formalin ether sedimentation method followed by the trichrome and iodine staining technique andCryptosporidium  oocysts  were  concentrated  by  using  the  formalin  ether  sedimentation  method  followed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Of 112 stray dogs, protozoan infections were detected from feces of 46 dogs (41.07% that Giardia infection was detected from feces of 21 dogs (18.75%, Isospora 17 (15.17%, Cryptosporidium 8 (7.14% and synchronization infection to 2 protozoan in 9 dogs (8.03% and to 3 protozoan in 3 (2.67%. In the present study not observed to Entamoeba. No statistically significant differences in prevalence of protozoan parasites occurred between female (34.21 % and male (55.5 % stray dogs (p>0/05. But statistically significant differences in prevalence occurred between 1≥0 and 0 ≥1 stray dogs (p>0/05. So that stray dogs of Ilam province can cause infection of human water and food sources.

  5. [Influence of different multifocal intraocular lens concepts on retinal stray light parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmer, A; Rabsilber, T M; Mannsfeld, A; Sanchez, M J; Holzer, M P; Auffarth, G U

    2011-10-01

    Multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL) are known to induce various photic phenomena depending on the optical principle. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between stray light measurements performed with the C-Quant (Oculus, Germany) and the results of a subjective patient questionnaire. In this study three different MIOLs were compared: AMO ReZoom (refractive design, n=10), AMO ZM900 (diffractive design, n=10) and Oculentis Mplus (near segment design, n=10). Cataract and refractive patients were enrolled in the study. Functional results were evaluated at least 3 months postoperatively followed by stray light measurements and a subjective questionnaire. Surgery was performed for all patients without complications. The three groups were matched for age, IOL power and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). Significantly different stray light (median) values log(s) were found (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05): 1.12 log (refractive), 1.13 log (segment) and 1.28 log (diffractive). The subjective questionnaire did not show differences in glare perception but refractive MIOL patients noticed more halos surrounding light sources than the diffractive and segment MIOL patients. Stray light and subjective photopic phenomena do not show any basic correlation. Measurements in patients with refractive MIOLs showed less stray light than near segment or diffractive MIOLs. However, refractive MIOLs induced more halos compared to the other groups analyzed.

  6. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraili, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.

  7. Seroepidemiological survey of helminthic parasites of stray dogs in Sari City, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Ishirzad; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Amouei, Afsaneh; Mobedi, Iraj

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of helminthic parasites in stray dogs' population especially zoonotic infections and to identify potential risk factors in the different areas of Sari city in Caspian area, north of Iran. During the period from April to September 2007, 50 stray dogs were collected from urban areas of Sari city. Recovered parasites were fixed in alcohol and stained by carmine then observed by microscope. The taxonomic study was carried out by measuring different parts of the body of helminthes and statistical tests were performed using the Chi-square test. A total of 27 adult and 23 juvenile stray dogs were collected and the overall prevalence rate of infection was 90%. The three most common helminthes were Toxocara canis (60%), Ancylostoma caninum (46%) and Dipylidium caninum (36%). Other parasites were Uncinaria stenocephala (12%), Taenia hydatigena (6%), Spirocerca lupi (6%), Dirofilaria immitis (6%), Toxascaris leonina (2%), Rictularia sp. (2%), Taenia ovis (2%) and Taenia taeniformis (2%). Five species of zoonotic helminthes recovered were T. canis, A. caninum, U. stenocephala, D. caninum and D. immitis. Hookworm infections (58%) were more common significantly in the young stray dogs (p caninum, T. canis and U. stenocephala, there was significant difference between juvenile and adult dogs (p < 0.05). The results highlight the potential role of stray dogs for transmission of helminthic parasites particularly zoonotic parasites that are a significant risk to human health.

  8. A new protocol for extraction of C 0 t-1 DNA from rice | Yan | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C0t-1 DNA, enriched for repetitive DNA sequences, has been proved to be valuable in the studies of plant species differentiation and genome evolution. A new protocol to steadily obtain the aimed range of DNA fragments has been developed by shearing the genomic DNA with the digest system containing DNase ...

  9. Experimental observations of stray current effects on steel fibres embedded in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, A.O.S.; Carsana, M.; Geiker, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that stray direct current can cause corrosive damage over time to bar reinforced concrete, but knowledge on the consequences to steel fibre reinforced concrete is limited. This paper presents analyses and corresponding results from an experimental program (parametric study) investigat......It is known that stray direct current can cause corrosive damage over time to bar reinforced concrete, but knowledge on the consequences to steel fibre reinforced concrete is limited. This paper presents analyses and corresponding results from an experimental program (parametric study......) investigating the conditions required for current to be picked up by embedded steel fibres or reinforcement (rebars). The experiments showed that there is a clear ‘length effect’ related to the susceptibility of stray current being picked up by embedded steel (fibres or rebars): the shorter the reinforcement...

  10. The impact of microwave stray radiation to in-vessel diagnostic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Hathiramani, D.; Baldzuhn, J.; Biedermann, C.; Cardella, A.; Erckmann, V.; König, R.; Köppen, M.; Zhang, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Oosterbeek, J.; Brand, H. von der; Parquay, S. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, department Technische Natuurkunde, working group for Plasma Physics and Radiation Technology, Den Doelch 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jimenez, R. [Centro de Investigationes Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technológicas, Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Collaboration: W7-X Teasm

    2014-08-21

    Microwave stray radiation resulting from unabsorbed multiple reflected ECRH / ECCD beams may cause severe heating of microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, ceramics and cable insulations. In view of long-pulse operation of WENDELSTEIN-7X the MIcrowave STray RAdiation Launch facility, MISTRAL, allows to test in-vessel components in the environment of isotropic 140 GHz microwave radiation at power load of up to 50 kW/m{sup 2} over 30 min. The results show that both, sufficient microwave shielding measures and cooling of all components are mandatory. If shielding/cooling measures of in-vessel diagnostic components are not efficient enough, the level of stray radiation may be (locally) reduced by dedicated absorbing ceramic coatings on cooled structures.

  11. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Microchip identification has become an important tool to reunite stray dogs and cats with their owners, and is now compulsory in most states of Australia. Improvement of the microchipping system in Australia is limited by a lack of published Australian data documenting the problems experienced by shelter staff when using microchip data to contact the owner of a stray animal. In this study we determine the character and frequency of inaccurate microchip data to identify weaknesses in the current microchipping system. This information could be used to develop strategies that increase the accuracy of microchip data that will increase the reclaiming of stray animals. Abstract A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of

  12. Study of the exclusive production of the Meson $ \\chi_{c0}$ in CMS / LHC Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silva Ramos Carneiro, Marilia

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the central exclusive pro duction of the c 0 meson in pp collisions at p s = 7 TeV in the CMS detector at the LHC collider. The c 0 is a c c meson state with the same quantum numb ers as the Higgs b oson, so it's observation is a go o d opp ortunity to test the exclusive pro duction mechanism. We b egin with a brief description of the Standard Mo del, diraction physics and the exp erimental environment. The analysis was done using data collected in 2010 by CMS. We p erformed eciency studies using real data and a sample of simulated Monte Carlo events and a preliminary estimation of the cross section

  13. Controlling stray electric fields on an atom chip for experiments on Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, D.; Machluf, S.; Soudijn, M. L.; Naber, J. B.; van Druten, N. J.; van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.

    2018-02-01

    Experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces must necessarily deal with the high sensitivity of Rydberg atoms to (stray) electric fields that typically emanate from adsorbates on the surface. We demonstrate a method to modify and reduce the stray electric field by changing the adsorbate distribution. We use one of the Rydberg excitation lasers to locally affect the adsorbed dipole distribution. By adjusting the averaged exposure time we change the strength (with the minimal value less than 0.2 V /cm at 78 μ m from the chip) and even the sign of the perpendicular field component. This technique is a useful tool for experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces, including atom chips.

  14. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  15. An approach to evaluate capacitance, capacitive reactance and resistance of pivoted pads of a thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Har

    1992-07-01

    A theoretical approach is developed for determining the capacitance and active resistance between the interacting surfaces of pivoted pads and thrust collar, under different conditions of operation. It is shown that resistance and capacitive reactance of a thrust bearing decrease with the number of pads times the values of these parameters for an individual pad, and that capacitance increases with the number of pads times the capacitance of an individual pad. The analysis presented has a potential to diagnose the behavior of pivoted pad thrust bearings with the angle of tilt and the ratio of film thickness at the leading to trailing edge, by determining the variation of capacitance, resistance, and capacitive reactance.

  16. Experimental validation of a method for removing the capacitive leakage artifact from electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buendia, R; Seoane, F; Gil-Pita, R

    2010-01-01

    Often when performing electrical bioimpedance (EBI) spectroscopy measurements, the obtained EBI data present a hook-like deviation, which is most noticeable at high frequencies in the impedance plane. The deviation is due to a capacitive leakage effect caused by the presence of stray capacitances. In addition to the data deviation being remarkably noticeable at high frequencies in the phase and the reactance spectra, the measured EBI is also altered in the resistance and the modulus. If this EBI data deviation is not properly removed, it interferes with subsequent data analysis processes, especially with Cole model-based analyses. In other words, to perform any accurate analysis of the EBI spectroscopy data, the hook deviation must be properly removed. Td compensation is a method used to compensate the hook deviation present in EBI data; it consists of multiplying the obtained spectrum, Z meas (ω), by a complex exponential in the form of exp(–jωTd). Although the method is well known and accepted, Td compensation cannot entirely correct the hook-like deviation; moreover, it lacks solid scientific grounds. In this work, the Td compensation method is revisited, and it is shown that it should not be used to correct the effect of a capacitive leakage; furthermore, a more developed approach for correcting the hook deviation caused by the capacitive leakage is proposed. The method includes a novel correcting expression and a process for selecting the proper values of expressions that are complex and frequency dependent. The correctness of the novel method is validated with the experimental data obtained from measurements from three different EBI applications. The obtained results confirm the sufficiency and feasibility of the correcting method

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of TiC0.5 reinforced copper matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengqi; Zhai, Hongxiang; Huang, Zhenying; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yang; Li, Shibo; Li, Cuiwei

    2013-01-01

    Cu–Al alloy matrix composites containing in-situ TiC 0.5 particles were fabricated by sintering of a mixture of Cu and Ti 2 AlC powders at 1150 °C for 60 min in Ar atmosphere. The micron-sized Ti 2 AlC particles were decomposed into submicron TiC 0.5 grains during the sintering process, meanwhile, Al atoms entered into Cu to form Cu–Al alloy matrix. It was shown that the Cu–Al alloy matrix also consisted of ultrafine grains. Compression tests indicate TiC 0.5 particles can improve mechanical properties significantly, and the ductility maintains at a comparatively high level. The fracture strength of 40Ti 2 AlC/Cu sample reaches 1126 MPa with 12.8% fracture strain. The 20Ti 2 AlC/Cu and 30Ti 2 AlC/Cu samples keep undamaged even after the strain of 26.7%

  18. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties

  19. Effect of stray current on corrosion behavior of reinforcing steel: importance of cell geometry and orientation with respect to the electrical field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Stray current circulating in reinforced concrete structures may initiate corrosion or accelerate existing corrosion processes on embedded reinforcement. In some cases, the range of dangerous or unwanted interactions of stray currents under favorable conditions (environment), is much broader than is

  20. Aspheric surface measurement using capacitive probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Yuan, Daocheng; Li, Shaobo

    2017-02-01

    With the application of aspheres in optical fields, high precision and high efficiency aspheric surface metrology becomes a hot research topic. We describe a novel method of non-contact measurement of aspheric surface with capacitive probe. Taking an eccentric spherical surface as the object of study, the averaging effect of capacitive probe measurement and the influence of tilting the capacitive probe on the measurement results are investigated. By comparing measurement results from simultaneous measurement of the capacitive probe and contact probe of roundness instrument, this paper indicates the feasibility of using capacitive probes to test aspheric surface and proposes the compensation method of measurement error caused by averaging effect and the tilting of the capacitive probe.

  1. Flexible PVDF ferroelectric capacitive temperature sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naveed

    2015-08-02

    In this paper, a capacitive temperature sensor based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) capacitor is explored. The PVDF capacitor is characterized below its Curie temperature. The capacitance of the PVDF capacitor changes vs temperature with a sensitivity of 16pF/°C. The linearity measurement of the capacitance-temperature relation shows less than 0.7°C error from a best fit straight line. An LC oscillator based temperature sensor is demonstrated based on this capacitor.

  2. Ultrahigh Temperature Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Robust, miniaturized sensing systems are needed to improve performance, increase efficiency, and track system health status and failure modes of advanced propulsion systems. Because microsensors must operate in extremely harsh environments, there are many technical challenges involved in developing reliable systems. In addition to high temperatures and pressures, sensing systems are exposed to oxidation, corrosion, thermal shock, fatigue, fouling, and abrasive wear. In these harsh conditions, sensors must be able to withstand high flow rates, vibration, jet fuel, and exhaust. In order for existing and future aeropropulsion turbine engines to improve safety and reduce cost and emissions while controlling engine instabilities, more accurate and complete sensor information is necessary. High-temperature (300 to 1,350 C) capacitive pressure sensors are of particular interest due to their high measurement bandwidth and inherent suitability for wireless readout schemes. The objective of this project is to develop a capacitive pressure sensor based on silicon carbon nitride (SiCN), a new class of high-temperature ceramic materials, which possesses excellent mechanical and electric properties at temperatures up to 1,600 C.

  3. Capacitive Feedthroughs for Medical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Sven; Tass, Peter A; Hauptmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Important technological advances in the last decades paved the road to a great success story for electrically stimulating medical implants, including cochlear implants or implants for deep brain stimulation. However, there are still many challenges in reducing side effects and improving functionality and comfort for the patient. Two of the main challenges are the wish for smaller implants on one hand, and the demand for more stimulation channels on the other hand. But these two aims lead to a conflict of interests. This paper presents a novel design for an electrical feedthrough, the so called capacitive feedthrough, which allows both reducing the size, and increasing the number of included channels. Capacitive feedthroughs combine the functionality of a coupling capacitor and an electrical feedthrough within one and the same structure. The paper also discusses the progress and the challenges of the first produced demonstrators. The concept bears a high potential in improving current feedthrough technology, and could be applied on all kinds of electrical medical implants, even if its implementation might be challenging.

  4. The mechanism of fast-gate opening in ClC-0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Anita M; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Maduke, Merritt

    2007-10-01

    ClC-0 is a chloride channel whose gating is sensitive to both voltage and chloride. Based on analysis of gating kinetics using single-channel recordings, a five-state model was proposed to describe the dependence of ClC-0 fast-gate opening on voltage and external chloride (Chen, T.-Y., and C. Miller. 1996. J. Gen. Physiol. 108:237-250). We aimed to use this five-state model as a starting point for understanding the structural changes that occur during gating. Using macroscopic patch recordings, we were able to reproduce the effects of voltage and chloride that were reported by Chen and Miller and to fit our opening rate constant data to the five-state model. Upon further analysis of both our data and those of Chen and Miller, we learned that in contrast to their conclusions, (a) the features in the data are not adequate to rule out a simpler four-state model, and (b) the chloride-binding step is voltage dependent. In order to be able to evaluate the effects of mutants on gating (described in the companion paper, see Engh et al. on p. 351 of this issue), we developed a method for determining the error on gating model parameters, and evaluated the sources of this error. To begin to mesh the kinetic model(s) with the known CLC structures, a model of ClC-0 was generated computationally based on the X-ray crystal structure of the prokaryotic homolog ClC-ec1. Analysis of pore electrostatics in this homology model suggests that at least two of the conclusions derived from the gating kinetics analysis are consistent with the known CLC structures: (1) chloride binding is necessary for channel opening, and (2) chloride binding to any of the three known chloride-binding sites must be voltage dependent.

  5. Gastrointestinal Helminths and Ectoparasites in the Stray Cats (Felidae: Felis catus) of Ahar Municipality, Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAKHCHALI, Mohammad; HAJIPOUR, Nasser; MALEKZADEH-VIAYEH, Reza; ESMAEILNEJAD, Bijan; NEMATI-HARAVANI, Taher; FATHOLLAHZADEH, Mohammad; JAFARI, Rasool

    2017-01-01

    Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran. Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection. Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3%) and 31/51 (60.78%), respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (PDipylidium caninum (29.41%), T. hydatigena (19.6%)) were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9). Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80%) and C. canis (20%) were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection. Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region. PMID:28761492

  6. Measurement of stray neutron doses inside the treatment room from a proton pencil beam scanning system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mojzeszek, N.; Farah, J.; Klodowska, M.; Ploc, Ondřej; Stolarczyk, L.; Waligorski, M. P. R.; Olko, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2017), s. 80-84 ISSN 1120-1797 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : secondary neutrons * proton therapy * pencil beam scanning systtems * out-of-field doses * stray neutron doses * TEPC Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging Impact factor: 1.990, year: 2016

  7. Internal stray radiation measurement for cryogenic infrared imaging systems using a spherical mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-06-10

    Internal stray radiation is a key factor that influences infrared imaging systems, and its suppression level is an important criterion to evaluate system performance, especially for cryogenic infrared imaging systems, which are highly sensitive to thermal sources. In order to achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation, an approach is proposed, which is based on radiometric calibration using a spherical mirror. First of all, the theory of spherical mirror design is introduced. Then, the calibration formula considering the integration time is presented. Following this, the details regarding the measurement method are presented. By placing a spherical mirror in front of the infrared detector, the influence of internal factors of the detector on system output can be obtained. According to the calibration results of the infrared imaging system, the output caused by internal stray radiation can be acquired. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to validate the theory proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the measurement results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the proposed theories are valid and can be employed in practical applications. The proposed method can achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation at arbitrary integration time and ambient temperatures. The measurement result can be used to evaluate whether the suppression level meets the system requirement.

  8. Experimental Study on the Influence of AC Stray Current on the Cathodic Protection of Buried Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingmiao Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The size of the damaged area of the coating and its position on the pipeline impacted the cathodic protection potential, and there was a damaged area of the greatest impact value. When damaged area was 300 mm2, the IR drop was the largest, and this situation could easily lead to inadequate protection; when the parallel spacing between pipeline and interference source was unchanged, the measured value curves of cathodic protection potential presented “U” shaped trend with the increasing stray current interference intensity. Under certain parallel spacing between pipeline and interference source, high alternating stray current intensity would cause serious negative offsets, so that the overprotection of the pipeline occurred, and make the coating crack; there was a parallel threshold length. When less than the threshold, the pipe-ground potential increases rapidly with the parallel length increasing. In order to judge whether a pipeline was interference by AC stray current and the risk of stray current corrosion, we should make a comprehensive analysis of the cathodic protection energizing potential, the switch-off potential, AC pipe-soil potential, IR drops, and so on.

  9. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites in stray and shelter cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Figueiredo Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasingly urban nature of the population has led many people to choose independent pets, such as cats. This situation has also made it possible for these animals to be abandoned, thus increasing the numbers of cats on the streets and in shelters. These animals can act as a source of infection for other hosts. Between 2014 and 2015, the frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and stray cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro was analyzed. Ninety-one fecal samples were collected from captive cats and 172 from stray cats. Centrifugal sedimentation and flotation techniques were used. The frequency of parasites among the stray cats was 77.3%, and this was significantly higher than the frequency observed in captive cats (49.5%. Helminths were detected more frequently, and hookworms were the parasites most detected. Toxocara cati, Cystoisospora sp. and Dipylidium caninum were also detected. No statistical difference in the frequency of parasites was observed between the sexes among the captive cats. However, among the stray cats, males (85.5% presented higher positivity than females (71.8%. The high frequency of hookworms, which are the agent for “cutaneous larva migrans” in humans, shows the need to control parasitic infections among the cats studied.

  11. The Design, Construction and Test of stray light suppression baffles for the CHAMP satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass, to be delivered from IAU to the CHAMP project, requires some kind of stray-light suppressing shade to be mounted in front of the lens, in order to minimize the thermal impact and to maximize the performance envelope when subjected to non-stellar external light sources...

  12. Stray light correction on array spectroradiometers for optical radiation risk assessment in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlier-Salsi, A

    2014-01-01

    The European directive 2006/25/EC requires the employer to assess and, if necessary, measure the levels of exposure to optical radiation in the workplace. Array spectroradiometers can measure optical radiation from various types of sources; however poor stray light rejection affects their accuracy. A stray light correction matrix, using a tunable laser, was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). As tunable lasers are very expensive, the purpose of this study was to implement this method using only nine low power lasers; other elements of the correction matrix being completed by interpolation and extrapolation. The correction efficiency was evaluated by comparing CCD spectroradiometers with and without correction and a scanning double monochromator device as reference. Similar to findings recorded by NIST, these experiments show that it is possible to reduce the spectral stray light by one or two orders of magnitude. In terms of workplace risk assessment, this spectral stray light correction method helps determine exposure levels, with an acceptable degree of uncertainty, for the majority of workplace situations. The level of uncertainty depends upon the model of spectroradiometers used; the best results are obtained with CCD detectors having an enhanced spectral sensitivity in the UV range. Thus corrected spectroradiometers require a validation against a scanning double monochromator spectroradiometer before using them for risk assessment in the workplace. (paper)

  13. Stray dog and cat laws and enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voslářvá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing numbers of stray dogs and cats have posed serious public-health, socioeconomic, political and animal-welfare problems in many EU countries. Stray animal population control is a complex issue and there are no easy solutions. Recognising the importance of the issue the European Commission has, since 2007, actively contributed to the elaboration of the first global welfare standards for the control of dog populations in the framework of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE. Problem-solving approaches vary in different countries as there is no common European Community legislation dealing with stray animal control. In this paper the authors describe the characteristics of the stray dog and cat problem in general and focus on existing European legislation. A comparative overview of policies and measures in place in the Czech Republic and in Italy is made to observe the differences between the two countries and understand the different needs in each, considering their historical and social differences (i.e. a post-communist eastern country vs a western country and founder member of what is now the European Union.

  14. A review on stray current-induced steel corrosion in infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    Metallic corrosion can cause substantial damage at various levels and in almost all types of infrastructure. For metallic corrosion to occur, a certain external environment and the presence of corrodents are the prerequisites. Stray current-induced corrosion, however, is a rather underestimated

  15. Comment on "Density functional theory is straying from the path toward the exact functional"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Medvedev et al (Reports, 6 January 2017, p. 49) argue that recent density functionals stray from the path toward exactness. This conclusion rests on very compact 1s2 and 1s22s2 systems favored by the Hartree-Fock picture. Comparison to actual energies for the same systems indicates that the "stra...

  16. Comparison of stray light in spectrometer systems using a low cost monochromatic light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental setup that is under development for automated stray light characterization of spectrometers. The setup uses a tuneable monochromator which enables this characterization on relatively cost low equipment. We present the measured line spread functions for two spectrometers...

  17. Stray light correction on array spectroradiometers for optical radiation risk assessment in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlier-Salsi, A

    2014-12-01

    The European directive 2006/25/EC requires the employer to assess and, if necessary, measure the levels of exposure to optical radiation in the workplace. Array spectroradiometers can measure optical radiation from various types of sources; however poor stray light rejection affects their accuracy. A stray light correction matrix, using a tunable laser, was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). As tunable lasers are very expensive, the purpose of this study was to implement this method using only nine low power lasers; other elements of the correction matrix being completed by interpolation and extrapolation. The correction efficiency was evaluated by comparing CCD spectroradiometers with and without correction and a scanning double monochromator device as reference. Similar to findings recorded by NIST, these experiments show that it is possible to reduce the spectral stray light by one or two orders of magnitude. In terms of workplace risk assessment, this spectral stray light correction method helps determine exposure levels, with an acceptable degree of uncertainty, for the majority of workplace situations. The level of uncertainty depends upon the model of spectroradiometers used; the best results are obtained with CCD detectors having an enhanced spectral sensitivity in the UV range. Thus corrected spectroradiometers require a validation against a scanning double monochromator spectroradiometer before using them for risk assessment in the workplace.

  18. Phase transformations in titanium oxycarbide TiC0.545O0.08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Em, V.T.; Savenko, B.N.; Batdemberel, G.

    2003-01-01

    Phase transformations in titanium oxycarbide TiC 0.545 O 0.08 have been studied by the methods of neutron diffraction and X-ray structure analysis. It was established that the ordered cubic structure δ ' (sp. gr. Fd3m) of the oxycarbide sample is the low-temperature ordered phase existing up to 990 K. The order-disorder phase transition (990 K) results in the formation of an ordered trigonal structure (sp. gr. R3-barm or P3 1 21). The α-Ti-phase is separated at the temperature 1020 K. The order-disorder phase transition was found at T = 1040 K

  19. Observation of Five New Narrow Ω_{c}^{0} States Decaying to Ξ_{c}^{+}K^{-}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Baranov, A; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Beiter, A; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Beranek, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Chubykin, A; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Dembinski, H-P; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Nezza, P; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziewiecki, M; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez, G; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greim, R; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Huard, Z-C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Klimkovich, T; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Kopecna, R; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kotriakhova, S; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, T; Li, Y; Li, Z; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Lionetto, F; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Pappenheimer, C; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poli Lener, M; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Ponce, S; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, C; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Gonzalo, D; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schreiner, H F; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevens, H; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Stramaglia, M E; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Verlage, T A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Winn, M A; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-05-05

    The Ξ_{c}^{+}K^{-} mass spectrum is studied with a sample of pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.3  fb^{-1}, collected by the LHCb experiment. The Ξ_{c}^{+} is reconstructed in the decay mode pK^{-}π^{+}. Five new, narrow excited Ω_{c}^{0} states are observed: the Ω_{c}(3000)^{0}, Ω_{c}(3050)^{0}, Ω_{c}(3066)^{0}, Ω_{c}(3090)^{0}, and Ω_{c}(3119)^{0}. Measurements of their masses and widths are reported.

  20. Observation of five new narrow $\\Omega_c^0$ states decaying to $\\Xi^+_c K^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Li, Zhuoming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Chen; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Gonzalo, David; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-05-02

    The $\\Xi^+_c K^-$ mass spectrum is studied with a sample of $pp$ collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.3 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment. The $\\Xi^+_c$ is reconstructed in the decay mode $pK^- \\pi^+$. Five new, narrow excited $\\Omega_c^0$ states are observed: the $\\Omega_c (3000)^0$, $\\Omega_c (3050)^0$, $\\Omega_c (3066)^0$, $\\Omega_c (3090)^0$, and $\\Omega_c (3119)^0$. Measurements of their masses and widths are reported.

  1. A new interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC of capacitive liquid level sensor in the rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Qin, Yao; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2017-11-01

    A new capacitive liquid level sensing interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC has been designed. This ASIC realized the detection of the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor, which converts the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor to voltage. The chip is fabricated in a standard 0.5μm CMOS process. The test results show that the linearity of capacitance detection of the ASIC is 0.05%, output noise is 3.7aF/Hz (when the capacitance which will be detected is 40 pF), the stability of capacitance detection is 7.4 × 10-5pF (1σ, 1h), the output zero position temperature coefficient is 4.5 uV/∘C. The test results prove that this interface ASIC can meet the requirement of high accuracy capacitance detection. Therefore, this interface ASIC can be applied in capacitive liquid level sensing and capacitive humidity sensing field.

  2. Graphitization of boron predeposited 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonogi, Yuta; Aoki, Yuki; Hirayama, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have tried to dope the B atoms into epitaxial graphene during the graphene growing process. ► The B induced changes in the surface were characterized by low-energy electron microscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling icroscopy. ► No obvious B atoms doping evidence into the graphene was observed. - Abstract: We examined the substitutional doping of B atoms into epitaxial graphene on the SiC(0 0 0 1) surface. B atoms were deposited on the SiC(0 0 0 1) surface in advance of the growth of graphene. The B-induced changes in the surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized at the four thermal treatment stages in the growth of graphene (at 1120, 1370, 1520, and 1770 K) by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The B atoms were found to hinder the formation of a spatially uniform graphene layer. However, local deformation of the graphene lattice, which should be observed if B atoms are successfully doped substitutionally, was not observed in STM.

  3. Study of Intestinal Helminthes of Stray Dogs and Thir Public Heath Importance in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Rahmati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal helminthesof dogs are a serious threat to human health and may cause dangerous diseases such as: hydatidosis and visceral larva migrans, that which cause severe complications in human. Th aim of this study was to determine the prevalenceof intestinal helminthes of stray dogs in Hamadan city, Iran.. Methods: A total of 103 stray dogswere shot in the inner and around of the city in year 2015. Following necropsy, the intestines' contents of dogs were examined for helminthes macroscopically. Thn, the collected worms, aftr washing with saline,were counted and identifid according to being Nematode, Cestodeor Acantcephala. Thn, collected Nematodes were put in glass containers containing 70% ethanol-glycerine and Cestodes aftr processing on slides were put in the 10% formalin. To identify the species of helminthes, the Cestodes were stained using carmine acid and Nematodes were cleared in lacto-phenol. Results: Result indicated that, 74(71.8%stray dogs were infected at least by one species of intestinal helminthes. Th species of parasites were as follows: Echinococcus granulosus 37.9%, Dipylidium caninum 51.5%, Toxocara canis 19.4%, Taenia hydatigena 24.3%, T. multiceps 2.9%, T. ovis 1.9%, Mesocest oideslineatus 4.9%, and Acantho cephala 5.8%. Thre was no association between insex, season and region with prevalence of intestinal helminthes (P 0.05 between the prevalence of intestinal helminthes and dogs' age. Conclusions: Ths study indicatesd that,infection rate of helminthes in stray dogs is washigh in Hamadan city. Thse parasites are important in terms of human health and economic aspects. Threfore, it is more essential that public health authoritiesto develop control strategies for stray dogs population.

  4. The split delivery capacitated team orienteering problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.; Hertz, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we study the capacitated team orienteering problem where split deliveries are allowed. A set of potential customers is given, each associated with a demand and a profit. The set of customers to be served by a fleet of capacitated vehicles has to be identified in such a way that the

  5. Capacitance densitometer for flow regime identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, R.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a capacitance densitometer for determining the flow regime of a two-phase flow system. A two-element capacitance densitometer is used in conjunction with a conventional single-beam gamma densitometer to unambiguously identify the prevailing flow regime and the average density of a flowing fluid

  6. Design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changhai; Han Kuixia; Wang Fei

    2003-01-01

    The article introduces the theory of infrasonic generation and reception of nuclear explosion. An idea of the design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver using CPLD technology is given in it. Compare with the single capacitance infrasonic receiver, sensitivity of the improved receiver can be improved scores of times, dynamic range can be improved largely, and the whole performance gets improvement a lots

  7. Novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Fiorini, P.; De Raedt, W.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching devices implementing an electrically floating metal layer covering the dielectric to ensure intimate contact with the bridge in the down state. This results in an optimal switch down capacitance and allows optimisation of the down/up

  8. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  9. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  10. Scanning Capacitance Microscopy | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy. Top Right: Image of p-type and n-type material, obtained 'fingers' of light-colored n-type material on a yellow and blue background representing p-type material material, obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy, in a sample semiconductor device; the image shows

  11. Capacitive Biosensors and Molecularly Imprinted Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, Gizem; Mattiasson, Bo

    2017-02-17

    Capacitive biosensors belong to the group of affinity biosensors that operate by registering direct binding between the sensor surface and the target molecule. This type of biosensors measures the changes in dielectric properties and/or thickness of the dielectric layer at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Capacitive biosensors have so far been successfully used for detection of proteins, nucleotides, heavy metals, saccharides, small organic molecules and microbial cells. In recent years, the microcontact imprinting method has been used to create very sensitive and selective biorecognition cavities on surfaces of capacitive electrodes. This chapter summarizes the principle and different applications of capacitive biosensors with an emphasis on microcontact imprinting method with its recent capacitive biosensor applications.

  12. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Martín G., E-mail: mggonza@fi.uba.ar [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), C1425FQB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D. [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-04-15

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N{sup 2}, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  13. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Martín G.; Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N"2, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  14. Barged/In-river steelhead migrant data - Evaluation of methods to reduce straying rates of barged juvenile steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this study are to develop methods to reduce wandering and straying of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that are collected and barged from the Snake River...

  15. Laboratory data on Snake River steelhead - Evaluation of methods to reduce straying rates of barged juvenile steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this study are to develop methods to reduce wandering and straying of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that are collected and barged from the Snake River...

  16. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegemann, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Stegemann@bam.de [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko [HZB Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Kreutzbruck, Marc [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); IKT, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  17. Searching for O-X-B mode-conversion window with monitoring of stray microwave radiation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Laqua, H. P.; Nagasaki, K.; Inagaki, S.; Notake, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Mutoh, T.; LHD Experimental Group

    2006-01-01

    In the Large Helical Device, the stray microwave radiation is monitored by using so-called sniffer probes during electron cyclotron heating. In monitoring the stray radiation, we changed the microwave beam injection angle and search the O-X-B mode-conversion window to excite electron Bernstein waves (EBWs). When the microwave beam is injected toward the vicinity of the predicted O-X-B mode-conversion window, the electron temperature rises in the central part of overdense plasmas. In that case, the stray radiation level near the injection antenna becomes low. These results indicate that monitoring the stray radiation near the injection antenna is helpful in confirming the effectiveness of excitation of EBWs simply without precise analysis

  18. A miniature electrical capacitance tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, T. A.; Phua, T. N.; Reichelt, L.; Pawlowski, A.; Kneer, R.

    2006-08-01

    The paper describes a miniature electrical capacitance tomography system. This is based on a custom CMOS silicon integrated circuit comprising eight channels of signal conditioning electronics to source drive signals and measure voltages. Electrodes are deposited around a hole that is fabricated, using ultrasonic drilling, through a ceramic substrate and has an average diameter of 0.75 mm. The custom chip is interfaced to a host computer via a bespoke data acquisition system based on a microcontroller, field programmable logic device and wide shift register. This provides fast capture of up to 750 frames of data prior to uploading to the host computer. Data capture rates of about 6000 frames per second have been achieved for the eight-electrode sensor. This rate could be increased but at the expense of signal to noise. Captured data are uploaded to a PC, via a RS232 interface, for off-line imaging. Initial tests are reported for the static case involving 200 µm diameter rods that are placed in the sensor and for the dynamic case using the dose from an inhaler.

  19. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  20. A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in northern region of Nile delta, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E Khalafalla

    Full Text Available A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%, Toxascaris leonina (5%, Dipylidium caninum (5%, Capillaria spp. (3%, Taenia taeniformis (22% and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%, four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%, Sarcocyst spp. (1%, Isospora spp. (2% and Giardia spp. (2% and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2% and mites eggs (13%. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region.

  1. Stray light suppression in the Goddard IRAM 2-Millimeter Observer (GISMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, E. H.; Benford, D. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J. G.; Wollack, E. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) is an 8x16 Transition Edge Sensor (TES) array of bolometers built as a pathfinder for TES detector development efforts at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. GISMO has been used annually at the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) 30 meter telescope since 2007 under engineering time and was opened in the spring of 2012 to the general astronomical community. The spring deployment provided an opportunity to modify elements of the room temperature optics before moving the instrument to its new permanent position in the telescope receiver cabin. This allowed for the possibility to extend the cryostat, introduce improved cold baffling and thus further optimize the stray light performance for final astronomical use of the instrument, which has been completed and validated. We will demonstrate and discuss several of the methods used to quantify and limit the influence of stray light in the GISMO camera.

  2. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E

    2005-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected with FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence for FIV in cats from Ottawa is similar to that found in other nonrandom studies of cats in North America.

  3. A Survey Study on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Stray Cats in Northern Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Reda E.

    2011-01-01

    A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:21760884

  4. Stray cats are more frequently infected with zoonotic protists than pet cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvac, Martin; Hofmannova, Lada; Ortega, Ynes; Holubova, Nikola; Horcickova, Michaela; Kicia, Marta; Hlaskova, Lenka; Kvetonova, Dana; Sak, Bohumil; McEvoy, John

    2017-12-06

    Faecal samples were collected from cats kept as pets (n = 120) and stray cats (n = 135) in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis (Kunstler, 1882), Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Le Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Lavergne, Ravisse et Modigliani, 1985 by PCR analysis of the small-subunit of rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis) and ITS (microsporidia) genes. Sequence analysis of targeted genes revealed the presence of C. felis Iseki, 1979, G. intestinalis assemblage F, E. cuniculi Levaditi, Nicolau et Schoen, 1923 genotype II, and E. bieneusi genotype D. There was no correlation between the occurrence of detected parasites and sex, presence of diarrhoea or drug treatment (drug containing pyrantel and praziquantel). Compared to pet cats (7%), stray cats (30%) were statistically more frequently infected with protist parasites and overall may present a greater risk to human health.

  5. Investigations of prevalence of antibodies to B.canis in stray dogs in territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers investigations of stray dogs in the territory of the city of Belgrade. A total of 184 blood serum samples were examined for the presence of antibodies specific to Brucella canis. The method of slow agglutination in a test tube with 2- mercaptoethanol was used in the diagnostic procedure. Of the 184 examined serums, 49 (26.63% had a titer of 1/50, 25 serums had a titer of 1/100 (13.58%, while 20 serums had a titer equal to or bigger than 1/200 (10.87%. Furthermore, 15 samples of full blood from serologiclly negative animals were also presented for isolation. The bacteriological finding for these samples was negative. The obtained results indicate that the number of seropositive stray dogs in the territory of Belgrade is extremely high and that 10.87% of the testes animals are definitely infected with Brucella canis.

  6. Detection of Hepatozoon canis in stray dogs and cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Rungphisutthipongse, Opart; Maruyama, Soichi; Schaefer, John J; Stich, Roger W

    2006-10-01

    A rapidly increasing stray animal population in Bangkok has caused concern regarding transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if stray animals in Bangkok are a potential reservoir of Hepatozoon, a genus of tick-borne parasites that has received little attention in Thailand. Blood samples were collected from stray companion animals near monasteries in 42 Bangkok metropolitan districts. Both dogs and cats were sampled from 26 districts, dogs alone from 4 districts and cats alone from 12 districts. Samples were collected from a total of 308 dogs and 300 cats. Light microscopy and an 18 S rRNA gene-based PCR assay were used to test these samples for evidence of Hepatozoon infection. Gamonts were observed in blood smears for 2.6% of dogs and 0.7% of cats by microscopy. The PCR assay detected Hepatozoon in buffy coats from 11.4% of dogs and 32.3% of cats tested. The prevalence of infection was the same between male and female dogs or cats, and PCR-positive dogs and cats were found in 36.6% and 36.8% of the districts surveyed, respectively. There was an association between the percentages of PCR-positive dogs and cats in districts where both host species were sampled. Sequences of representative amplicons were closest to those reported for H. canis. These results represent the first molecular confirmation that H. canis is indigenous to Thailand. The unexpectedly high prevalence of Hepatozoon among stray cats indicates that their role in the epizootiology of hepatozoonosis should be investigated.

  7. Gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Brazil): high infection risk for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Heukelbach, Jörg; Pothmann, David; Rückert, Sonja

    2010-08-01

    Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization, dogs were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of parasites. Faecal samples were collected and analysed using merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration method. A total of nine different parasite species were found, including five endoparasite (one protozoan, one cestode and three nematode species) and four ectoparasite species (two flea, one louse and one tick species). In the intestinal content, 3,162 specimens of four helminth species were found: Ancylostoma caninum (prevalence, 95.7%), Dipylidium caninum (45.7%), Toxocara canis (8.7%) and Trichuris vulpis (4.3%). A total of 394 ectoparasite specimens were identified, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus (prevalence, 100.0%), Heterodoxus spiniger (67.4%), Ctenocephalides canis (39.1%) and Ctenocephalides felis (17.4%). In the faeces, intestinal parasites were detected in 38 stray dogs (82.6%), including oocysts of Giardia sp. (2.2%) and eggs of the nematode A. caninum (82.6%). Neither eggs nor larval stages of D. caninum, T. canis or T. vulpis were detected in dog faeces. Sensitivity of faecal examination for A. caninum was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 72.0-94.3) but zero percentage for the other intestinal helminth species. Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible.

  8. Gastrointestinal Helminths and Ectoparasites in the Stray Cats (Felidae: Felis catus of Ahar Municipality, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad YAKHCHALI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran.Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection.Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3% and 31/51 (60.78%, respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (P<0.05. Of the 282 isolated helminths, three species of nematodes (Toxocara cati (86.3%, T. leonina (11.77%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (5.9% and four species of cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis (64.7%, Mesocestoides lineatus (49.02%, Dipylidium caninum (29.41%, T. hydatigena (19.6% were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9. Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80% and C. canis (20% were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection.Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region.

  9. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, M.; Honecker, F.; Monaco, F.; Schmid-Lorch, D.; Schütz, H.; Stober, J.; Wagner, D.

    2012-09-01

    Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  10. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  11. Generation of strong inhomogeneous stray fields by high-anisotropy permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samofalov, V.N. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: samofalov@kpi.kharkov.ua; Ravlik, A.G. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Belozorov, D.P. [National Scientific Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Techonology, NAS of Ukraine, 1 Akademicheskaja St., 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Avramenko, B.A. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2004-10-01

    Magnetic stray fields for systems of permanent magnets with high magnetic anisotropy are calculated and measured. It is shown that intensity of these fields exceeds value of an induction of a material of magnets in some time. Besides, these fields are characterized by high gradients, and size H-bar H can reach values up to10{sup 10}-10{sup 11}Oe{sup 2}/cm. Estimations of extremely achievable fields and their gradients are made.

  12. Decoding of digital magnetic recording with longitudinal magnetization of a tape from a magneto-optical image of stray fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskii, F. V.; Mansvetova, E. G.

    2017-05-01

    For digital magnetic recording of encoded information with longitudinal magnetization of the tape, the connection between the domain structure of a storage medium and magneto-optical image of its stray fields obtained using a magnetic film with a perpendicular anisotropy and a large Faraday rotation has been studied. For two-frequency binary code without returning to zero, an algorithm is developed, that allows uniquely decoding of the information recorded on the tape based on analysis of an image of stray fields.

  13. A PARASITOLOGIC AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF HEPATOZOON CANIS INFECTION IN STRAY DOGS IN NORTHEAST OF IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Ali; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2018-05-15

    Canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, is a tick-borne disease in domestic and wild dogs that is transmitted by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. The aim of the study was to detect H. canis in stray dogs in Iran using blood smear examination and molecular techniques. From October 2014 to September 2015, 150 EDTA blood samples were collected from stray dogs in the northeast region of Iran. Blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Hepatozoon gamonts; whole blood was evaluated by PCR, with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Hepatozoon spp. Gamonts were observed in the neutrophils of 5/150 (3.3%) blood smears, whereas Hepatozoon spp. 18S rDNA was detected in 12/150 (8.0%) blood samples from stray dogs. There was a good agreement between microscopy and PCR methods. (Kappa= 0.756). The highest rate of infection was seasonally detected in the summer (pHepatozoon spp infection was not significant by gender and age factors (p>0.05). The alignment analysis of the sequenced samples showed ≥99% similarity with other nucleotide sequences of Hepatozoon spp. in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree also revealed that the nucleotide sequences in this study were clustered in the H. canis clade and different from the H. felis and H. americanum clades. According to the results, it is concluded that H. canis infection is present among dogs in northeastern region of Iran.

  14. An epidemiological survey on intestinal helminths of stray dogs in Mashhad, North-east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamapour, Seyed Rasoul; Borji, Hassan; Nagibi, Abolghasem

    2015-06-01

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in stray dogs in the northeast of Iran, with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to human. In this experiment, a total of 72 adult and 18 juvenile stray dogs were collected and necropsied for the presence of helminth parasites from October 2011 to August 2012. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 86 % (95 % CI: 79.2-92.8 %). The observed helminths of the gastrointestinal tract were listed as follows: Toxocara canis (29 %), Toxascaris leonina (7 %), Ancylostoma caninum (2 %), Taenia hydatigena (43 %), Dipylidium caninum (39 %), Echinococcus granulosus (38 %), Mesocestoides lineatus (16 %), Taenia multiceps (11 %), Taenia ovis (3 %). There were no significant differences for the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths between female (83.6 %) and male (89.7 %) and between young (89 %) and adult (72.2 %) animals. However, the prevalence of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and D. caninum showed an increasing trend with increasing host age, significantly. Based on our data, it is important to point out the presence of zoonotic agents, namely E. granulosus and T. canis in stray dogs in the investigated area. Due to its impact on public health, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive methods.

  15. THE SOCIETY’S PERCEPTION OF THE LIFE QUALITY AND POPULATION CONTROL OF STRAY DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Fernando Batista Moutinho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian municipalities there is an overpopulation of stray dogs, which causes problems to the urban order, the environment and the public health, in addition to mistreatment to these dogs. In such context we foresee the need of developing actions targeting the population control of these animals. This essay aims at knowing the perception of social actors, such as managers of entities responsible for control actions, managers of NGOs working with animal protection and population in general with respect to the life quality and population control of stray dogs. Questionnaires were used on samples of individuals of these three groups and the data thereof were analyzed with descriptive statistics techniques and frequency comparison. The results allowed us to conclude that the society’s perception of population control and life quality of these animals bear important differences under the viewpoint of the three evaluated groups; however, they also bear significant similarities, especially with respect to the perception of the responsibility for the development of population control actions, the acceptance of using public funds intended to public health in control actions, the classification of such population density as large and the poor life quality of these animals. population control, social perception, stray dog.,

  16. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  17. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lancaster

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258 and cats (n = 6950 entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37% had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%, all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%, and the microchip not registered (14%. A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%. The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats.

  18. IMPLEMENTASI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN TWO STAY TWO STRAY DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS KELAS V SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf Setia Wardana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of mathematics are to equip students with the ability to think logically, analytical, systematically, critically, and creatively, as well as the ability to cooperate. Based on observations in elementary school, there are 40% of students have not reached KKM and students have lack of critical abilities to understand math problems, and they have low activity of the study. One of models that can be applied is Two Stay Two Stray. The study used True Experimental Design with Posttest-Only Control Design. The population in this study was all fifth grade students of SD Negeri Semarang Rejosari 03. Data of critical thinking skills of the students in average on test of critical thinking skills mastery was 3.31 ≥ 2.67, it can be said to have a complete description. The conclusion is a model of Two Stay Two Stray being effective for critical thinking skills and mathematics learning outcomes of fifth grade students in SD Negeri Rejosari 03 Semarang. Keywords: two stay two stray model, critical thinking ability.

  19. Resistive and Capacitive Based Sensing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winncy Y. Du

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resistive and capacitive (RC sensors are the most commonly used sensors. Their applications span homeland security, industry, environment, space, traffic control, home automation, aviation, and medicine. More than 30% of modern sensors are direct or indirect applications of the RC sensing principles. This paper reviews resistive and capacitive sensing technologies. The physical principles of resistive sensors are governed by several important laws and phenomena such as Ohm’s Law, Wiedemann-Franz Law; Photoconductive-, Piezoresistive-, and Thermoresistive Effects. The applications of these principles are presented through a variety of examples including accelerometers, flame detectors, pressure/flow rate sensors, RTDs, hygristors, chemiresistors, and bio-impedance sensors. The capacitive sensors are described through their three configurations: parallel (flat, cylindrical (coaxial, and spherical (concentric. Each configuration is discussed with respect to its geometric structure, function, and application in various sensor designs. Capacitance sensor arrays are also presented in the paper.

  20. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  1. Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Porada, S.; Omosebi, A.; Liu, K.L.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Landon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI

  2. Capacitance and surface of carbons in supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato Ortega, Belén; Suárez Fernández, Loreto; Guardia, Laura; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused in the missing link between the specific surface area of carbons surface and their electrochemical capacitance. Current protocols used for the characterization of carbons applied in supercapacitors electrodes induce inconsistencies in the values of the interfacial capacitance (in F m−2), which is hindering the optimization of supercapacitors. The constraints of both the physisorption of N2 at 77 K and the standard methods used for the isotherm analysis frequently lead...

  3. Development of electrical capacitance sensor for tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasif Mohd Zain; Jaafar Abdullah; Ismail Mustapha; Sazrol Azizee Ariff; Susan Maria Sipaun; Lojius Lombigit

    2004-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is one of the successful methods for imaging 2-phase liquid/gas mixture in oil pipelines and solids/gas mixture in fluidized bed and pneumatic conveying system for improvement of process plants. This paper presents the design development of an electrical capacitance sensor for use with an ECT system. This project is aimed at developing a demonstration ECT unit to be used in the oil pipe line. (Author)

  4. Automatic Power Factor Correction Using Capacitive Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Anant Kumar Tiwari,; Mrs. Durga Sharma

    2014-01-01

    The power factor correction of electrical loads is a problem common to all industrial companies. Earlier the power factor correction was done by adjusting the capacitive bank manually [1]. The automated power factor corrector (APFC) using capacitive load bank is helpful in providing the power factor correction. Proposed automated project involves measuring the power factor value from the load using microcontroller. The design of this auto-adjustable power factor correction is ...

  5. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  6. An efficient C0 FE model for the analysis of composites and sandwich laminates with general layup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Singh

    Full Text Available A C0 continuous finite element model is developed to model the refined higher order shear deformation theory. The proposed element is an upgraded version of an element based on higher order shear deformation theory. The C0 continuity of the present element is compensated in the stiffness matrix calculations. The computational efficiency is achieved by the C0 continuous finite element model by satisfying the inter-laminar shear stress continuity at the interfaces and zero transverse shear stress conditions at plate top and bottom. The performance of the upgraded element is illustrated with many numerical examples.

  7. Carbon flow electrodes for continuous operation of capacitive deionization and capacitive mixing energy generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Bryjak, M.; Presser, V.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Weingarth, D.

    2014-01-01

    Capacitive technologies, such as capacitive deionization and energy harvesting based on mixing energy (“capmix” and “CO2 energy”), are characterized by intermittent operation: phases of ion electrosorption from the water are followed by system regeneration. From a system application point of view,

  8. Uniqueness of a pre-generator for $C_0$-semigroup on a general locally convex vector space

    OpenAIRE

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Wu, Liming

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose is to generalize a theorem of Arendt about uniqueness of $C_0$-semigroups from Banach space setting to the general locally convex vector spaces, more precisely, we show that cores are the only domains of uniqueness for $C_0$-semigroups on locally convex spaces. As an application, we find a necessary and sufficient condition for that the mass transport equation has one unique $L^1(\\R^d,dx)$ weak solution.

  9. C, N co-doped TiO_2/TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 composite coatings prepared from TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 powder using ball milling followed by oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Liang; Wang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Yaoqing; Li, Qianqian; Guan, Sujun; Zhao, Qian; Cheng, Lijun; Lu, Yun; Liu, Jizi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2/TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 coatings were prepared by ball milling followed by oxidation. • In situ co-doping of C and N with simultaneous TiO_2 formation was observed. • Improved photocatalytic activity under UV/visible light was noticed. • Synergism in co-doping and heterojunction formation promoted carrier separation. - Abstract: Ball milling followed by heat oxidation was used to prepared C, N co-doped TiO_2 coatings on the surfaces of Al_2O_3 balls from TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 powder. The as-prepared coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis). The results show that continuous TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 coatings were formed after ball milling. C, N co-doped TiO_2/TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 composite coatings were prepared after the direct oxidization of TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 coatings in the atmosphere. However, TiO_2 was hardly formed in the surface layer of TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 coatings within a depth less than 10 nm during the heat oxidation of TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 coatings in carbon powder. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activity evaluation of these coatings was conducted under the irradiation of UV and visible light. All the coatings showed photocatalytic activity in the degradation of MB no matter under the irradiation of UV or visible light. The C, N co-doped TiO_2/TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 composite coatings showed the most excellent performance. The enhancement under visible light irradiation should attribute to the co-doping of carbon and nitrogen, which enhances the absorption of visible light. The improvement of photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation should attribute to the synergistic effect of C, N co-doping, the formation of rutile-anatase mixed phases and the TiO_2/TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 composite microstructure.

  10. Shielding of the NBI boxes against W7-X magnetic stray fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kick, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Kick@arcor.de; Sielanko, Juliusz [Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Pl. M. C. Sklodowskie 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Heinemann, Bernd; Riedl, Rudolf; Speth, Eckehart; Staebler, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), besides ECRH, is foreseen as one of the main heating devices at the W7-X stellarator currently under construction at IPP Greifswald, Germany. In a final stage 20 MW of NBI heating power will be installed generated by two NBI boxes of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) type. Since magnetic fields generally affect the trajectories of charged particles, essentially all the NBI boxes - including ion sources, acceleration sections, neutralisers and deflection magnets - must be shielded against the stray fields of W7-X. In the magnetic stray fields of W7-X there exist significant radial and toroidal components whereas at tokamaks the vertical components are dominant. The power loads on the ion dump and the protecting structures of the deflecting magnets and the beam lines caused by residual beam ions, therefore, will be strongly different. Thus the shielding concept of AUG cannot simply be taken over, but must be carefully redesigned in order to remain below the critical power limits. New modelling calculations of the magnetic shielding, the ion trajectories and the resulting power loads have been carried out for the 'high iota' and 'low shear' experimental scenarios of W7-X. The fields taken for these calculations are modelled by averaging the calculated W7-X stray fields on the one hand, and by fields generated by two-hypothetical-planar coils perpendicular to the x-y plane, on the other hand. The shielding concept for W7-X mainly consist of iron plates in the outer side regions of the boxes and as little magnetic material as possible inside the boxes.

  11. Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

    2014-05-01

    Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy.

  12. It’s a Dog’s Life: International Tourists’ Perceptions of the Stray Dog Population of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Strickland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the international tourists’ perception of the stray dog population of Bhutan as little or no mention of the increasing stray dog population and their impact on tourism has been documented. After personally visiting the Kingdom on many occasions, it is evident that the stray dog population is increasing in dog numbers in major cities. The problems arising are negative comments by tourists relating to the stray dog population that are starting to appear in social media that may impact the visitor experience and the perception of Bhutan’s tourism industry. Veterinary science is aware of both increasing dog populations and the control of diseases such as Rabies however the author can find no evidence regarding challenges for the tourism industry. The problem is aided by no local veterinary clinics, no laws regarding dog governance, little funding for sterilization programs and being predominately a Buddhist country that cannot ‘cull’ animals. Using qualitative analysis from international tourist focus groups who were visiting Bhutan, this study highlights the perceptions of tourists regarding the stray dog population and how it may impact on visitor expectations. The paper suggests options that local government, Bhutanese nationals and visitors can do to assist the issue based on visitor feedback. Future research may include comparisons with other cities or countries to examine if it is a global issue or unique to Bhutan.

  13. Identification of Zoonotic Parasites isolated from Stray Dogs in Bojnurd County Located in North-East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Arzamani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dog can represent as an important source of zoonotic disease and important health problem for human. They can carry dangerous parasitic diseases such as hydatidosis, toxocariasis and Coenurus cerebralis to humans and animals. This study was performed in order to determine the prevalence and intensity of zoonotic parasites among stray dogs from Bojnurd, the capital city of North Khorasan province in North West of Iran. During a program performing by Bojnurd municipal on the slow killing of stray dogs, 32 dogs from Jun 2013 till March 2015 were selected. At necropsy their alimentary canals were removed and to identify the species of helminthes, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Intestinal protozoan parasites were detected with parasitological methods. 28 (87.5% of 32 stray dogs infected at least with one helminth. Seven species of cestodes were isolated from examined dogs and three species of nematode were detected. Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. detected from fecal samples. This is the first study of the prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs in this area. It seems control of bearing stray dogs can help human health and reduction economic losses caused by stray dog’s zoonotic parasites.

  14. PCR-based molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. using feces of stray cats: a study from Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Rahim, Fakher; Tavalla, Mahdi; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Of the 140 fecal samples that were randomly collected from public environments during the months of January to May 2012, 45% were found to harbour Toxocara spp. eggs. The highest prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in the central area of Ahvaz city (28.6%). T. canis eggs were found in 4 (6.34%) of the 63 positive samples. Stray cats are found in parks, playgrounds, and other public places and may be a potential contamination risk. Identification of Toxocara spp. using molecular methods is sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of parasites and identify the different Toxocara spp. in feces. The relatively high prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection may continue to increase due to lack of effective environmental hygiene control in Iran. Consequently, there is a need to plan adequate programs to detect, identify, and control this infection as well as stray cats in the region.

  15. PCR-based molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. using feces of stray cats: a study from Southwest Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Khademvatan

    Full Text Available Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. Of the 140 fecal samples that were randomly collected from public environments during the months of January to May 2012, 45% were found to harbour Toxocara spp. eggs. The highest prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in the central area of Ahvaz city (28.6%. T. canis eggs were found in 4 (6.34% of the 63 positive samples. Stray cats are found in parks, playgrounds, and other public places and may be a potential contamination risk. Identification of Toxocara spp. using molecular methods is sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of parasites and identify the different Toxocara spp. in feces. The relatively high prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection may continue to increase due to lack of effective environmental hygiene control in Iran. Consequently, there is a need to plan adequate programs to detect, identify, and control this infection as well as stray cats in the region.

  16. Capacitive behavior of highly-oxidized graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszewski, Mateusz; Mianowski, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    Capacitive behavior of a highly-oxidized graphite is presented in this paper. The graphite oxide was synthesized using an oxidizing mixture of potassium chlorate and concentrated fuming nitric acid. As-oxidized graphite was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed with respect to the oxygen content and the species of oxygen-containing groups. Electrochemical measurements were performed in a two-electrode symmetric cell using KOH electrolyte. It was shown that prolonged oxidation causes an increase in the oxygen content while the interlayer distance remains constant. Specific capacitance increased with oxygen content in the electrode as a result of pseudo-capacitive effects, from 0.47 to 0.54 F/g for a scan rate of 20 mV/s and 0.67 to 1.15 F/g for a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Better cyclability was observed for the electrode with a higher oxygen amount.

  17. Negative capacitance in a ferroelectric capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Islam; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-02-01

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of a phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here, we report the observation of negative capacitance in a thin, epitaxial ferroelectric film. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time--in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. Analysis of this 'inductance'-like behaviour from a capacitor presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material and could pave the way for completely new applications.

  18. Carbon nanofiber supercapacitors with large areal capacitances

    KAUST Repository

    McDonough, James R.

    2009-01-01

    We develop supercapacitor (SC) devices with large per-area capacitances by utilizing three-dimensional (3D) porous substrates. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) functioning as active SC electrodes are grown on 3D nickel foam. The 3D porous substrates facilitate a mass loading of active electrodes and per-area capacitance as large as 60 mg/ cm2 and 1.2 F/ cm2, respectively. We optimize SC performance by developing an annealing-free CNF growth process that minimizes undesirable nickel carbide formation. Superior per-area capacitances described here suggest that 3D porous substrates are useful in various energy storage devices in which per-area performance is critical. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Induced radioactivity of materials by stray radiation fields at an electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Rokni, S H; Gwise, T; Liu, J C; Roesler, S

    2002-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, aluminum, copper and iron were irradiated in the stray radiation field generated by the interaction of a 28.5 GeV electron beam in a copper-dump in the Beam Dump East facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The specific activity induced in the samples was measured by gamma spectroscopy and other techniques. In addition, the isotope production in the samples was calculated with detailed Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. The calculated activities are compared to the experimental values and differences are discussed.

  20. Some observations on stray magnetic fields and power outputs from short-wave diathermy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R.W.M.; Dunscombe, P.B.

    1984-04-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in the possible hazards arising from the use of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Relatively large and potentially hazardous fields are to be found in the vicinity of short-wave and microwave equipment used in physiotherapy departments to produce therapeutic temperature rises. This note reports the results of measurements of the stray magnetic field and power output of a conventional short-wave diathermy unit when applied to tissue-equivalent phantoms. The dependence of these quantities on the variables, i.e. power setting of the unit, capacitor plate size, phantom size and phantom-capacitor plate separation, are discussed.

  1. A report on the alimentary canal helminthic infestation of stray and pet dogs in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Gharedaghi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available From September to December 2007, fecal specimens of 100 stray and pet dogs in Tabriz were examined by saturated salt flotation and Telmann sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infestation. Helminth infestation was encountered in 31 (31% of the fecal samples examined. The eggs of two different cestodes and three different nematodes were identified in the contaminated fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as Taenia hydatigena (4%, Dipylidium caninum (6%, Toxocara canis (10%, Ancylostoma caninum (6% and Trichuris vulpis (5%. No trematoda eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study.

  2. Humoral immune response to Dipylidium caninum infection of stray dogs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J W; Liao, W T

    2002-04-02

    Two kinds of homogeneous proglottid, mature and gravid, of Dipylidium caninum were used as the antigens for immunodiagnosis of canine dipylidiosis in stray dogs in Tainan, Taiwan. The ELISA was performed on 30 serum samples; 24 from dipylidiosis, four from ancylostomosis and two from toxocariosis. The ELISA have specificity and sensitive of 100 and 50% for mature proglottid extract, and 75 and 100%, respectively, for gravid proglottid extract. EITB technique showed two major peptide bands of 94.8 and 97.9kDa were recognized in the sera pool of infected dogs.

  3. A Choice Experiment Analysis of the Management of the Stray Dog Population in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Siettou, Christina; Fraser, Iain; Fraser, Rob

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a pilot study investigating the public’s view on the pet overpopulation problem. The Choice Experiment aims to understand the UK public’s awareness of the issue, its views and its willingness to participate and pay for a reduction in the rate of animals being “put to sleep”. Our preliminary results indicate that the public are willing to pay to keep healthy stray dogs alive for longer in Local Authority kennels beyond the current seven day statutory per...

  4. Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Beijing strain infection in a stray dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D.C. Parsons

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in dogs is rarely reported and has not previously been documented in South Africa. A case of a stray Maltese crossbreed dog with extensive multifocal pulmonary tuberculosis due to M. tuberculosis is described. Pulmonary granulomas in this case were poorly encapsulated and contained large numbers of acid-fast bacteria, highlighting the potential for infected companion animals to excrete the pathogen. Treatment of canine tuberculosis is generally not advised, and for this reason, euthanasia of diseased animals must be advocated in most instances. Physicians and veterinarians must be aware that companion animals with active disease caused by M. tuberculosis could act as a potential source of infection.

  5. Electrochemical capacitance performance of titanium nitride nanoarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Suzhou Research Institute of Southeast University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Yong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Du, Hongxiu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Suzhou Research Institute of Southeast University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • TiN nanoarray is formed by a nitridation process of TiO{sub 2} in ammonia atmosphere. • TiN nanoarray exhibits much higher EDLC capacitance than TiO{sub 2} nanoarray. • The specific capacitance of TiN nanoarray achieves a high level of 99.7 mF cm{sup −2}. • A flexible solid-state supercapacitor is constructed by TiN nanoarray and PVA gel. -- Abstract: In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) nanoarrays with a short nanotube and long nanopore structure have been prepared by an anodization process of ultra thin titanium foil in ethylene glycol (EG) solution containing ammonium fluoride, subsequent calcination process in an air atmosphere, and final nitridation process in an ammonia atmosphere. The morphology and microstructure characterization has been conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties have been investigated through cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectrum measurements. The electrochemical capacitance performance has been investigated by galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements in the acidic, neural and alkali electrolyte solution. Well-defined TiN nanoarrays contribute a much higher capacitance performance than titania (TiO{sub 2}) in the supercapacitor application due to the extraordinarily improved electrical conductivity. Such an electrochemical capacitance can be further enhanced by increasing aspect ratio of TiN nanoarray from short nanotubes to long nanopores. A flexible supercapacitor has been constructed using two symmetrical TiN nanoarray electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel electrolyte with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–KCl–H{sub 2}O–EG. Such a supercapacitor has a highly improved potential window and still keeps good electrochemical energy storage. TiN nanoarray with a high aspect ratio can act well as an ultra thin film electrode material of flexible supercapacitor to contribute a superior capacitance performance.

  6. Capacitance level probe, Type FSK 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, W.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the capacitive level probe, Type FSK 88, is to supervise the level within vessels continuously and to signalize alterations immediately. Since 1987 the level probe is installed in the pool for burn up fuel elements and in the reactor containment sump of BWRs, PWRs and WWERs. The capacitive level probe of type FSK 88 was qualified for Loss of Coolant Accidents and seismic events according to international rules. The measuring principle takes credit from the fact that the dielectric with different dielectric constants in a condensator changes the capacity of the condensator. (Authors)

  7. Detecting size and shape of bodies capacitatively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1980-01-01

    The size and shape of a body is determined by rolling it between the plates of capacitors and measuring the capacitance changes. A capacitor comprising two parallel, spaced wires inclined to the rolling direction and above and below the rolling body scans sections of the body along its longitudinal axis, another determines the body's lengths and a third comprising two non-parallel wires determines the position of the body. The capacitance changes are compared with those produced by a body of known size and shape so that the size and shape of the body can be determined. (author)

  8. Production of $\\Xi_{c}^{0}$ and $\\Xi_{b}$ in Z decays and lifetime measurement of $\\Xi_{b}$

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2005-01-01

    The charmed strange baryon Xi_c^0 was searched for in the decay channel Xi_c^0 -> Xi- pi+, and the beauty strange baryon Xi_b in the inclusive channel Xi_b -> Xi- l- anti-nu X, using the 3.5 million hadronic Z events collected by the DELPHI experiment in the years 1992--1995. The Xi- was reconstructed through the decay Xi- -> Lambda pi-, using a constrained fit method for cascade decays. An iterative discriminant analysis was used for the Xi_c^0 and Xi_b selection. The production rates were measured to be f_{Xi_c^0} x BR(Xi_c^0 -> Xi- pi+)= (4.7 +/- 1.4 (stat.) +/- 1.1 (syst.))10^{-4} per hadronic Z decay, and BR(b -> Xi_b) x BR(Xi_b -> Xi- l- X)= (3.0 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.3 (syst.))10^{-4} for each lepton species (electron or muon). The lifetime of the Xi_b baryon was measured to be tau_{Xi_b} = 1.45{^{+0.55}_{-0.43}} (stat.) +/- 0.13 (syst.) ps. A combination with the previous DELPHI lifetime measurement gives tau_{Xi_b} = 1.48{^{+0.40}_{-0.31}} (stat.) +/- 0.12 (syst.) ps.

  9. Molecular detection of blood pathogens and their impacts on levels of packed cell volume in stray dogs from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Piratae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of blood parasite infection in stray dogs by PCR technique and the association between levels of packed cell volume (PCV and blood parasitic infection in stray dogs. Methods: A total of 65 blood samples were collected from stray dogs in animal quarantine station from Mahasarakham, Thailand to evaluate the levels of PCV before molecular screening for tick-borne pathogens infection. Results: Stray dogs were positive with one or more pathogens in 44 (67.69% out of 65 blood samples. Ehrlichia canis [43.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 38.1–48.1] was the most common blood pathogen found infecting in stray dogs in Mahasarakham Province, followed by Anaplasma platys (29.2%, 95% CI: 24.2–34.2, Hepatozoon canis (12.3%, 95% CI: 7.3–17.3 and Babesia canis vogeli (6.2%, 95% CI: 1.2–11.2, respectively. Moreover, co-infections with two pathogens were identified in 11 (16.9% of dogs examined and two (2.9% dogs were coinfections with three pathogens. Statistically significant relationship between the PCV levels and Ehrlichia canis infection was found (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study indicated that blood pathogens are spreading in stray dogs and they are potentially high risk of agent transmission to human via exposure with tick vectors. It was also the first report of Anaplasma platys infection in dogs in north-eastern part of Thailand.

  10. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandee Tun

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%, in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%, Toxocara (11.1%, Trichuris (8.4%, Spirometra (7.4% and Ascaris (2.4%. The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001. Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%-31%, consisting of hookworms (16.6%, Ascaris (4% and Toxocara (2.4%. The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  11. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Sandee; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  12. Antibody Detection to Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV in stray cats in Ahvaz, southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosallanejad, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of FIV in stray cat's population of Ahvaz different area. Serum samples were collected from 90 cats from 2005 to 2007. The studied cats were divided into two age groups (3 years and based on clinical signs (such as lymphadenopathy, periodontal diseases, gingivitis, abscess and cashecsi into two groups also. The results were analyzed using Fischer's exact test and Chi-square analysis. Prevalence to FIV antibodies in these cats was 15.55% (14 of 90 by means of ELISA Test Kit, indicating that this virus is present in the ecosystem. The infection had more prevalence in cats above 3 years (78.6%; 11 of 14 compared with cats less than 3 years (21.4%; 3 of 14. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between different age groups (P0.05. Three out of 12 cases (25% which had clinical signs and 11 out of 78 cases (14.1% which hadn’t clinical signs were seropositive. There was no significant difference between the two groups also (P>0.05. This study showed that FIV exist among cat's population of Ahvaz area and separation of companion and stray cats is very important for prevention of disease transmission to companion cats.

  13. A survey of ectoparasite infestations in stray dogs of Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Jeong Hyun; Kwon, Jung Kee; Cho, Ho Seong; Cho, Kyoung Oh; Lee, Yu Jin; Abd El-Aty, A M; Abdel-Aty, A M; Shin, Sung Shik

    2008-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the incidence of ectoparasite infestation among stray dogs in Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea. A total of 103 stray dogs collected in the Animal Shelter of Gwang-ju City from November 2003 to August 2005 were investigated in this study. Ectoparasites of one or more genera were detected in 45.6% (47 / 103) of the dogs examined for dermatologic lesions and/or skin scrapings (from 3-5 affected areas). Otodectes cynotis was found to be the most frequent parasite (22.3%, 23 / 103), followed by Sarcoptes scabiei var canis (19.4%, 20 / 103), Ctenocephalides canis (6.8%, 7 / 103), Demodex canis (4.9%, 5 / 103), and Trichodectes canis (1.0%, 1 / 103). Monospecific infestation was found in 83.0% (39 / 47) of the affected dogs, whereas concurrent infestations with 2 or more ectoparasites per animal were found in 17.0% (8 / 47) of the affected dogs. Trichodectes canis is reported for the first time in the Republic of Korea. Dogs less than 1 yr old were more heavily infected than other age groups (66.7%), and small-sized dogs of less than 3 kg body weight were more heavily infected than larger dogs (41.7%).

  14. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

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    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  15. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Meshgi, B; Dehghan, M; Bokaie, S

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production. Methods During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Results Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80%) harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80%) followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%), Toxocara canis (22%), Mesocestoides lineatus (12%), Taenia multiceps (10%) and Dipylidium caninum (4%). The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1–3) except for that of E. granulosus (645). No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001) as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001). Conclusion Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths reported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes. PMID:22347264

  16. Community perception regarding rabies prevention and stray dog control in urban slums in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Mrudu; Riyaz Basha, S; Thangaraj, Selvi

    2012-12-01

    The lack of community awareness about rabies control is a major issue that thwarts efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess community knowledge and attitudes about rabies, rabies prevention and stray dog control in an urban slum community and (2) to determine the factors that influence rabies awareness in urban slums. Using a systematic random sampling strategy, 185 participants were selected from 8 urban slums. The data were collected by direct interview using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. In the study population, 74.1% of the participants had heard about rabies, and 54.1% knew that rabies is a fatal disease. Only 33.5% of the interviewees felt that people in the community had a role to play in controlling the stray dog population. Gender, age and educational status were significantly associated with rabies awareness. Our study indicates that there are gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of individuals living in urban slums regarding rabies prevention and control. Efforts to promote awareness should be targeted at men, older people and uneducated individuals. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlling trapping potentials and stray electric fields in a microfabricated ion trap through design and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Doret, S; Amini, Jason M; Wright, Kenneth; Volin, Curtis; Killian, Tyler; Ozakin, Arkadas; Denison, Douglas; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C-S; Slusher, Richart E; Harter, Alexa W

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information processing with trapped ions have demonstrated the need for new ion trap architectures capable of holding and manipulating chains of many (>10) ions. Here we present the design and detailed characterization of a new linear trap, microfabricated with scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) techniques, that is well-suited to this challenge. Forty-four individually controlled dc electrodes provide the many degrees of freedom required to construct anharmonic potential wells, shuttle ions, merge and split ion chains, precisely tune secular mode frequencies, and adjust the orientation of trap axes. Microfabricated capacitors on dc electrodes suppress radio-frequency pickup and excess micromotion, while a top-level ground layer simplifies modeling of electric fields and protects trap structures underneath. A localized aperture in the substrate provides access to the trapping region from an oven below, permitting deterministic loading of particular isotopic/elemental sequences via species-selective photoionization. The shapes of the aperture and radio-frequency electrodes are optimized to minimize perturbation of the trapping pseudopotential. Laboratory experiments verify simulated potentials and characterize trapping lifetimes, stray electric fields, and ion heating rates, while measurement and cancellation of spatially-varying stray electric fields permits the formation of nearly-equally spaced ion chains. (paper)

  18. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  19. Stray-field-induced Faraday contributions in wide-field Kerr microscopy and -magnetometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markó, D.; Soldatov, I.; Tekielak, M.; Schäfer, R.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic domain contrast in wide-field Kerr microscopy on bulk specimens can be substantially distorted by non-linear, field-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective lens that are caused by stray-field components emerging from the specimen. These Faraday contributions, which were detected by Kerr-magnetometry on grain-oriented iron–silicon steel samples, are thoroughly elaborated and characterized. They express themselves as a field-dependent gray-scale offset to the domain contrast and in highly distorted surface magnetization curves if optically measured in a wide field Kerr microscope. An experimental method to avoid such distortions is suggested. In the course of these studies, a low-permeability part in the surface magnetization loop of slightly misoriented (110)-surfaces in iron–silicon sheets was discovered that is attributed to demagnetization effects in direction perpendicular to the sheet surface. - Highlights: • Magnetizing a finite sample in a Kerr microscope leads to sample-generated stray-fields. • They cause non-linear, field- and position-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective. • This leads to a modulation of the Kerr contrast and to distorted MOKE loops. • A method to compensate these Faraday rotations is presented

  20. Effects of stray lights on Faraday rotation measurement for polarimeter-interferometer system on EAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z Y; Liu, H Q; Ding, W X; Chen, J; Brower, D L; Lian, H; Wang, S X; Li, W M; Yao, Y; Zeng, L; Jie, Y X

    2018-01-01

    A double-pass radially view 11 chords polarimeter-interferometer system has been operated on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak and provides important current profile information for plasma control. Stray light originating from spurious reflections along the optical path (unwanted reflections from various optical components/mounts and transmissive optical elements such as windows, waveplates, and lens as well as the detectors) and also direct feedback from the retro-reflector used to realize the double-pass configuration can both contribute to contamination of the Faraday rotation measurement accuracy. Modulation of the Faraday rotation signal due to the interference from multiple reflections is observable when the interferometer phase (plasma density) varies with time. Direct reflection from the detector itself can be suppressed by employing an optical isolator consisting of a λ/4-waveplate and polarizer positioned in front of the mixer. A Faraday angle oscillation during the density ramping up (or down) can be reduced from 5°-10° to 1°-2° by eliminating reflections from the detector. Residual modulation arising from misalignment and stray light from other sources must be minimized to achieve accurate measurements of Faraday rotation.

  1. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function /BRDF/ measurements of stray light suppression coatings for the Space Telescope /ST/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of black coatings used on stray light suppression systems for the Space Telescope (ST). The ST stray light suppression requirement is to reduce earth, moon, and sun light in the focal plane to a level equivalent to one 23 Mv star per square arcsecond, an attenuation of 14 orders of magnitude. It is impractical to verify the performance of a proposed baffle system design by full scale tests because of the large size of the ST, so that a computer analysis is used to select the design. Accurate computer analysis requires a knowledge of the diffuse scatter at all angles from the surface of the coatings, for all angles of incident light. During the early phases of the ST program a BRDF scanner was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center to study the scatter from black materials; the measurement system is described and the results of measurements on samples proposed for use on the ST are presented.

  2. Observation of χc 2→η'η' and χc 0 ,2→η η'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Albrecht, M.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bai, Y.; Bakina, O.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. G.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, S.; Gu, Y. T.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jin, Y.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Khan, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Koch, L.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K. J.; Li, Kang; Li, Ke; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Huihui; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Ke; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Meng, Z. X.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Morello, G.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Papenbrock, M.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrino, J.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Pitka, A.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, J. J.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Richter, M.; Ripka, M.; Rolo, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, J. J.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Sowa, C.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, L.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. K.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, G. Y.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Tiemens, M.; Tsednee, B. T.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zongyuan; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Y. J.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xie, Y. H.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhou, Y. X.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    Using a sample of 448.1 ×106 ψ (3686 ) events collected with the BESIII detector in 2009 and 2012, we study the decays χc 0 ,2→η'η' and η η' . The decays χc 2→η'η' , χc 0→η η' and χc 2→η η' are observed for the first time with statistical significances of 9.6 σ , 13.4 σ and 7.5 σ , respectively. The branching fractions are determined to be B (χc 0→η'η')=(2.19 ±0.03 ±0.14 )×10-3 , B (χc 2→η'η')=(4.76 ±0.56 ±0.38 )×10-5 , B (χc 0→η η')=(8.92 ±0.84 ±0.65 )×10-5 and B (χc 2→η η')=(2.27 ±0.43 ±0.25 )×10-5 , where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. The precision for the measurement of B (χc 0→η'η') is significantly improved compared to previous measurements. Based on the measured branching fractions, the role played by the doubly and singly Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka disconnected transition amplitudes for χc 0 ,2 decays into pseudoscalar meson pairs can be clarified.

  3. Capacitors and Resistance-Capacitance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanian, Norman; Root, Augustin A.

    This programed textbook was developed under a contract with the United States Office of Education as Number 5 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is divided into three parts--(1) capacitors, (2) voltage-current relationships, and (3) simple resistance-capacitance networks. (DH)

  4. Thermodynamic cycle analysis for capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an ion removal technology based on temporarily storing ions in the polarization layers of two oppositely positioned electrodes. Here we present a thermodynamic model for the minimum work required for ion separation in the fully reversible case by describing the ionic

  5. Performance relations in Capacitive Deionization systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, van B.

    2010-01-01

    Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is a relatively new deionization technology based on the temporary storage of ions on an electrically charged surface. By directing a flow between two oppositely charged surfaces, negatively charged ions will adsorb onto the positively charged surface, and positively

  6. Flexible PVDF ferroelectric capacitive temperature sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naveed; Omran, Hesham; Yao, Yingbang; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity of 16pF/°C. The linearity measurement of the capacitance-temperature relation shows less than 0.7°C error from a best fit straight line. An LC oscillator based temperature sensor is demonstrated based on this capacitor.

  7. Comparison of gate capacitance extraction methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazmi, S.N.R.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, many new capacitance-voltage measurement approaches have been presented in literature. New approaches became necessary with the rapidly increasing gate current density in newer CMOS generations. Here we present a simulation platform using Silvaco software, to describe the full chain

  8. Inside-out electrical capacitance tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard-Rasmussen, Jimmy; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate the construction of an ‘inside-out’ sensor geometry for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). The inside-out geometry has the electrodes placed around a tube, as usual, but measuring ‘outwards’. The flow between the electrodes and an outer tube is reconstructed...

  9. Overview of capacitive couplings in windings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, N.; Encica, L.; Paulides, J.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of electrical machines (EMs) with variable-frequency drives (VFDs) results in electromagnetic interference (EMI). At high frequencies (HFs) of conducted EMI, the impedance of an EM insulation system fed from a VFD is small due to the parasitic capacitive couplings. Thus, the conducted EMI

  10. Capacitive system detects and locates fluid leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Electronic monitoring system automatically detects and locates minute leaks in seams of large fluid storage tanks and pipelines covered with thermal insulation. The system uses a capacitive tape-sensing element that is adhesively bonded over seams where fluid leaks are likely to occur.

  11. Highly sensitive micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with reduced hysteresis and low parasitic capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Fragiacomo, Giulio; Hansen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a capacitive pressure sensor that has a large capacitance signal and a high sensitivity of 76 pF/bar in touch mode operation. Due to the large signal, problems with parasitic capacitances are avoided and hence it is possible to integrate the sensor...... bonding to create vacuum cavities. The exposed part of the sensor is perfectly flat such that it can be coated with corrosion resistant thin films. Hysteresis is an inherent problem in touch mode capacitive pressure sensors and a technique to significantly reduce it is presented....... with a discrete components electronics circuit for signal conditioning. Using an AC bridge electronics circuit a resolution of 8 mV/mbar is achieved. The large signal is obtained due to a novel membrane structure utilizing closely packed hexagonal elements. The sensor is fabricated in a process based on fusion...

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization, and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a

  13. Remarks on the existence of copies of c_0 and l_\\infty in the space cabv(λ, E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Emmanuele

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available We present some results essentially showing that cabv(λ, E lives inside cabv(λ, E if and only if l_\\infty lives inside cabv(λ, E. Some applications of this result to other questions (existence of complemented copies of c0 and lifting of the Gelfand-Phillips property are given.

  14. Topology Optimization of Nano-Mechanical Cantilever Sensors Using a C0 Discontinuous Galerkin-Type Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Evgrafov, Anton; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a C0 discontinuous Galerkin method for topology optimization of nano-mechanical sensors, namely temperature, surface stress, and mass sensors. The sensors are modeled using classical thin plate theory, which requires C1 basis functions in the standard finite element method...

  15. Quantum capacitance of the armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 2. Quantum capacitance of the ... Abstract. The quantum capacitance, an important parameter in the design of nanoscale devices, is derived for armchair-edge single-layer graphene nanoribbon with semiconducting property. The quantum capacitance ...

  16. Theoretical investigation on structural stability of InN thin films on 3C-SiC(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takumi; Akiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori

    2008-01-01

    The structural stability of InN thin films on 3C-SiC(0 0 1) substrate is systematically investigated based on an empirical interatomic potential, which incorporates electrostatic energy due to covalent bond charges and ionic charges. The calculated energy differences among coherently grown 3C-InN(0 0 1), 3C-InN(0 0 1) with misfit dislocations (MDs), and 2H-InN(0 0 0 1) imply that the coherently grown 3C-InN(0 0 1) is stable when the film thickness is less than 7 monolayers (MLs) while 2H-InN(0 0 0 1) is stabilized for the thickness beyond 8 MLs. This is because InN layers in 2H-InN(0 0 0 1) are fully relaxed by one MD. The analysis of atomic configuration at the 3C-InN(0 0 1)/3C-SiC(0 0 1) interfaces reveals that the coordination number of interfacial atoms is quite different from that in the bulk region. Thus, 3C-InN(0 0 1) with MDs on 3C-SiC(0 0 1) is always metastable over entire range of film thickness, consistent with the successful fabrication of 2H-InN(0 0 0 1) on 3C-SiC(0 0 1) by the molecular beam epitaxy. These results suggest that the mismatch in atomic arrangements at the interface crucially affects the structural stability of InN thin films on 3C-SiC(0 0 1) substrate

  17. Effects of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings.Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy young participants were examined by automated kinetic perimetry (Octopus 900 using Goldmann stimuli III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e. Each stimulus was presented with a velocity of 3°/s at 24 meridians with 15° intervals. Four levels of intraocular stray light were induced using non-white opacity filter (WOF filters and WOFs applied to the clear plastic eye covers of the participants. The visual acuity, pupil diameter, isopter area, and kinetic sensitivity of each meridian were analyzed for each WOF density.Visual acuity deteriorated with increasing WOF densities (p < 0.01. With a visual acuity of 0.1 LogMAR units, the isopter areas for III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e decreased by -32.7 degree2 (-0.2%, -255.7 degree2 (-2.6%, -381.2 degree2 (-6.2%, -314.8 degree2 (-12.8%, and -59.2 degree2 (-15.2%, respectively; kinetic sensitivity for those stimuli decreased by -0.1 degree (-0.1%, -0.8 degree (-1.4%, -1.6 degree (-3.7%, -2.7 degree (-9.7%, and -1.7 degree (-16.2%, respectively. The pupil diameter with each WOF density was not significantly different.Kinetic perimetry measurements with a high-intensity stimulus (i.e., III4e were unaffected by intraocular stray light. In contrast, measurements with the I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e stimuli, especially I2e and I1e, were affected. Changes in the shape of the isopter resulting from opacity must be monitored, especially in cases of smaller and lower-intensity stimuli.

  18. Liquid phase interaction in TiC0,5N0,5-TiNi-Mo and TiC0,5N0,5-TiNi-Ti-Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarova, L.Kh; Grigorov, I.G.; Zajnulin, Yu.G.

    1998-01-01

    Using the methods of X ray diffraction analysis, electron microscopy and X ray spectrum microanalysis a study was made into specific features of phase and structure formation in alloys TiC 0,5 N 0,5 -TiNi-Mo and TiC 0,5 N 0,5 -TiNi-Mo in the presence of a liquid phase at temperatures of 1380-1600 deg C. It is revealed that the physical and chemical processes taking place during the liquid-phase sintering result in the formation of a three-phase alloy consisting of nonstoichiometric titanium carbonitride TiC 0.5-x N 0.5-x , a molybdenum base solid solution of titanium, nickel and carbon Mo(Ti, Ni, C) and one of two intermetallic compounds, either TiNi or Ni 3 Ti. Metallic element concentration in individual phase constituents of the alloy is determined by means of X ray spectrum microanalysis

  19. MRI-related static magnetic stray fields and postural body sway: a double-blind randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Lotte E; Slottje, Pauline; Kingma, Herman; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-07-01

    We assessed postural body sway performance after exposure to movement induced time-varying magnetic fields in the static magnetic stray field in front of a 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Using a double blind randomized crossover design, 30 healthy volunteers performed two balance tasks (i.e., standing with eyes closed and feet in parallel and then in tandem position) after standardized head movements in a sham, low exposure (on average 0.24 T static magnetic stray field and 0.49 T·s(-1) time-varying magnetic field) and high exposure condition (0.37 T and 0.70 T·s(-1)). Personal exposure to static magnetic stray fields and time-varying magnetic fields was measured with a personal dosimeter. Postural body sway was expressed in sway path, area, and velocity. Mixed-effects model regression analysis showed that postural body sway in the parallel task was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by exposure on all three measures. The tandem task revealed the same trend, but did not reach statistical significance. Further studies are needed to investigate the possibility of independent or synergetic effects of static magnetic stray field and time-varying magnetic field exposure. In addition, practical safety implications of these findings, e.g., for surgeons and others working near magnetic resonance imaging scanners need to be investigated. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farah, J.; Mares, V.; Romero-Exposito, M.; Trinkl, S.; Domingo, C.; Dufek, V.; Klodowska, M.; Kubančák, Ján; Knezevic, Z.; Ploc, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2015), s. 2572-2584 ISSN 0094-2405 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : scanning proton therapy * measurement of stray neutrons * spectrometry * ambient dose eyuivalent * intercomparison Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.496, year: 2015

  1. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite.

  2. PENGARUH PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TWO STAY TWO STRAY BERPENDEKAT AN SETS TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR KIMIA SISWA SMA NEGERI 1 COMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Setiawan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran kooperatif two stay two stray berpendekatan SETS terhadap hasil belajar siswa. Desain eksperimen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah quasi experimental design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif two stay two stray berpendekatan SETS berpengaruh signitikan terhadap hasil belajar pada materi pokok teori asam basa dengan kontribusi koefisien determinasi sebesar 25%. Selain itu, pembelajaran juga mencapai ketuntasan belajar klasikal sebesar 37 dari 43 siswa, sehingga pembelajaran tersebut termasuk efektif.This study aimed to determine the effect of two stay two stray cooperative learning with SETS approach on student learning outcomes. Experimental design used in this study is a quasi experimental design. The results showed that two stay two stray cooperative learning with SETS approach have a significant effect on learning outcomes in acid-base theory of the subject matter with the contribution of the determination coefficient of 25%. In addition, the study also achieved mastery learning classical by 37 of the 43 students, so that it includes effective learning.

  3. What's in a name? Perceptions of stray and feral cat welfare and control in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Mark J; Campbell, Joanna; Adams, Nigel J

    2011-01-01

    New Zealanders (n = 354) rated the acceptability of lethal and nonlethal cat control methods and the importance of conservation and welfare. Lethal control was more acceptable for feral cats than strays; for nonlethal control, the inverse was true. More than concern for the welfare of cats subjected to control, perceived conservation benefits, risk of disease transfer, and companion cat welfare dictated the acceptability of control measures. Similarly, the welfare consideration for groups of cats differed, transitioning from companion (highest) to feral (lowest). Differences in attitudes toward acceptability of control methods were evident. In particular, nonhuman animal professionals ranked lethal control as more acceptable than did nonanimal professionals. Cat caregivers (owners) considered both conservation and welfare issues of greater importance than did nonowners. Owners ranked the acceptability of nonlethal control methods higher for stray cats, but not feral, than did nonowners. This research indicates that the use of the terms stray and feral may have significant impact on cats in New Zealand. There is also a greater consideration of conservation values than of welfare in stray and feral cat control.

  4. Radiation protection measurements with the variance-covariance method in the stray radiation fields from photon and proton therapy facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillhök, J.; Persson, L.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2017-01-01

    , the dose-average lineal energy, the dose-average quality factor and the dose equivalent. The neutron component measured by the detectors at the proton beam was studied through Monte Carlo simulations using the code MCNP6. In the photon beam the stray absorbed dose ranged between 0.3 and 2.4 μGy per monitor...

  5. Possibility of reducing stray losses and parasitic torques in two-phase emergency feeding of induction motors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří; Chomát, Miroslav; Klíma, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2006), s. 109-131 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/04/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : induction motor * emergency operation of electrical drives * stray losses Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. An estimate of the radiation-induced cancer risk from the whole-body stray radiation exposure in neutron radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    1980 BEIR III risk factors have been used to estimate the secondary cancer risks from the whole-body stray radiation exposures occurring in neutron radiotherapy. Risks were calculated using linear, linear-quadratic and quadratic dose-response models for the gamma component of the stray radiation. The linear dose-response model was used to calculate risk for the neutron component of the stray radiation. These estimates take into consideration for the first time the age and sex distribution of patients undergoing neutron therapy. Changes in risk as a function of the RBE (10-100) assigned to the stray neutron radiation component have also been assessed. Excess risks in neutron-treated patients have been compared with excess risks for photon-treated patients and with the expected incidence of cancer in a normal population having the same age and sex distribution. Results indicate that it will be necessary to tolerate a higher incidence of secondary cancers in patients undergoing fast neutron therapy than is the case with conventional photon therapy. For neutron RBEs of less than 50 the increased risk is only a fraction of the normal expected incidence of cancer in this population. Comparison of the radiation-induced risk with reported normal tissue complication rates in the treatment volume indicates that the excess cancer risk is substantially lower than the risk from other late normal tissue effects. (author)

  7. Compressed magnetic flux amplifier with capacitive load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuetzer, O.M.

    1980-03-01

    A first-order analysis is presented for a compressed magnetic flux (CMF) current amplifier working into a load with a capacitive component. Since the purpose of the investigation was to gain a general understanding of the arrangement, a number of approximations and limitations were accepted. The inductance of the transducer varies with time; the inductance/resistance/capacitance (LRC) circuit therefore is parametric and solutions are different for the stable regime (high C), the oscillation regime (low C), and the transition case. Solutions and performance depend strongly on circuit boundary conditions, i.e., energization of the circuit by either an injected current or by an applied capacitor charge. The behavior of current and energy amplification for the various cases are discussed in detail. A number of experiments with small CMF devices showed that the first-order theory presented predicts transducer performance well in the linear regime

  8. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  9. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0.......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  10. Reduction of ballistic spin scattering in a spin-FET using stray electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemnes, G A; Manolescu, A; Gudmundsson, V

    2012-01-01

    The quasi-bound states which appear as a consequence of the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling, introduce a strongly irregular behavior of the spin-FET conductance at large Rashba parameter. Moreover, the presence of the bulk inversion asymmetry, i.e. the Dresselhaus SO coupling, may compromise the spin-valve effect even at small values of the Rashba parameter. However, by introducing stray electric fields in addition to the SO couplings, we show that the effect of the SO induced quasi-bound states can be tuned. The oscillations of the spin-resolved conductance become smoother and the control of the spin-FET characteristics becomes possible. For the calculations we employ a multi-channel scattering formalism, based on the R-matrix method extended to spin transport, in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus SO couplings.

  11. Specific feature of magnetooptical images of stray fields of magnets of various geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. E.; Koveshnikov, A. V.; Andreev, S. V.

    2017-08-01

    Specific features of magnetooptical images (MOIs) of stray fields near the faces of prismatic hard magnetic elements have been studied. Attention has primarily been focused on MOIs of fields near faces oriented perpendicular to the magnetic moment of hard magnetic elements. With regard to the polar sensitivity, MOIs have practically uniform brightness and geometrically they coincide with the figures of the bases of the elements. With regard to longitudinal sensitivity, MOIs consist of several sectors, the number of which is determined by the number of angles of the image. Each angle is divided by the bisectrix into two sectors of different brightnesses; therefore, the MOI of a triangular magnet consists of three sectors. A rectangle consists of four sectors separated by the bisectrices of the interior angles. In all types of figures, these lines converge at the center of the figure and form a singular point of the source or sink type.

  12. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and intestinal parasites in stray cats from Nigde, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengi Dündar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated by the Sabin-Feldman Dye test (SFDT in 72 stray cats from Nigde, Turkey. A total of 55 (76.4% of the analysed sera had antibodies to T. gondii. The seropositivity of T. gondii was 77.1% in male and 75.7% in female cats (P>0.05. Faeces of these cats were also examined by zinc sulphate flotation method for the presence of parasite oocysts and eggs of other parasites. Two protozoan parasites were identified as Isospora spp. (12.5% and Eimeria spp. (4.1% in cats. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any faecal samples analysed. Two parasitic helminth species were observed: Toxocara cati (15.2% and Toxascaris leonina (20.8%. These common ascarids were recorded for the first time in cats from Nigde.

  13. A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.

    2011-03-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.

  14. Countering the stray magnetic field of the CUSP trap by using additional coils

    CERN Document Server

    Thole, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The ASACUSA experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN tries to measure the Hyperfine Structure (HFS) of Antihydrogen (H ̄) using a Rabi spectroscopy set-up. In measuring this HFS it will yield a very precise test of CPT-symmetry. For this set-up to work a homogeneous magnetic field is needed in the cavity where the Hyperfine transition of H ̄ occurs. Due to the stray fields from the CUSP trap, where H ̄ is produced, additional coils are needed to counter these fields. It is found, using COMSOL simulations, that two coils are suitable for this. Leading to a relative standard deviation of the magnetic field of σB/B = 1.06%.

  15. Neutron measurements in the stray field produced by 158 GeV/c lead ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Nava, E.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses measurements carried out at CERN in the stray radiation field produced by 158 GeV/c 208 Pb 82+ ions. The purpose was to test and intercompare the response of several detectors, mainly neutron measuring devices, and to determine the neutron spectral fluence as well as the microdosimetric (absorbed dose and dose equivalent) distributions in different locations around the shielding. Both active instruments and passive dosimeters were employed, including different types of Andersson-Braun rem counters, a tissue equivalent proportional counter, a set of superheated drop detectors, a Bonner sphere system and different types of ion chambers. Activation measurements with 12 C plastic scintillators and with 32 S pellets were also performed to assess the neutron yield of high energy lead ions interacting with a thin gold target. The results are compared with previous measurements and with measurements made during proton runs. (author)

  16. Development of a contactless capacitive immunosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Perruche, Brice Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, a label-free, contactless and capacitive immunosensor is developed using impedance spectroscopy, in the aim to perform low-cost immunoassays. Chapter 1 puts this work in perspective with some existing techniques, while a presentation of impedance theory used in this work is carried out in chapter 2. In Chapter 3, numerical simulations using a commercial finite element method software is carried out. The response of coplanar and fa...

  17. Adding Resistances and Capacitances in Introductory Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, C. J.; Llewellyn, R. A.

    2005-09-01

    All introductory physics textbooks, with or without calculus, cover the addition of both resistances and capacitances in series and in parallel as discrete summations. However, none includes problems that involve continuous versions of resistors in parallel or capacitors in series. This paper introduces a method for solving the continuous problems that is logical, straightforward, and within the mathematical preparation of students at the introductory level.

  18. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwabe, Katarzyna; Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2017-03-22

    The main source of many zoonoses is soil contaminated with feline and canine faeces. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray dogs and cats adopted in Lodz shelter (Poland). In total, 163 faecal samples were collected from 95 dogs and 68 cats from 2011 to 2012. The samples were processed by sedimentation techniques using Mini Parasep®SF. Six parasite genera belonging to protozoa, cestoda, and nematoda, were found in dogs, while eight were found in cats. Out of the 163 fecal samples, 37.4% were positive for the presence at least one species of intestinal parasites. The majority of positive dog samples contained eggs from Toxocara and Trichuris genera, and the family Ancylostomatidae, while Toxocara and Taenia eggs, as well as Cystoisospora oocysts, predominated in cat faeces. A significantly higher prevalence of parasites was noted in cats (48.5%) than in dogs (29.5%) (χ2=6.15, P=0.013). The Toxocara genus was the most prevalent parasite in both populations; eggs were found in 27.9% and 16.8% of cats and dogs, respectively. Animals younger than 12 months of age showed higher infection rates with Toxocara, but differences were not statistically significant. The average numbers of Toxocara eggs/gram of faeces in positive puppy and kitten samples were over 5 and 7 times higher than in older dogs and cats, respectively. Mixed infection were found in dogs (5.3%) and cats (8.8%). Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  19. Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors for Bartonella Infection in Tunisian Stray Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhiria, Jaber; Chomel, Bruno B; Ben Hamida, Taoufik; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Fleischman, Drew A; Christopher, Mary M; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Farver, Thomas B

    2017-06-01

    Bartonellae are blood-borne and vector-transmitted pathogens, some are zoonotic, which have been reported in several Mediterranean countries. Transmission from dogs to humans is suspected, but has not been clearly demonstrated. Our objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella bovis (as a proxy for Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii) in stray dogs from Tunisia, identify the Bartonella species infecting the dogs and evaluate potential risk factors for canine infection. Blood samples were collected between January and November 2013 from 149 dogs in 10 Tunisian governorates covering several climatic zones. Dog-specific and geographic variables were analyzed as potential risk factors for Bartonella spp. seropositivity and PCR-positivity. DNA was extracted from the blood of all dogs and tested by PCR for Bartonella, targeting the ftsZ and rpoB genes. Partial sequencing was performed on PCR-positive dogs. Twenty-nine dogs (19.5%, 95% confidence interval: 14-27.4) were seropositive for one or more Bartonella species, including 17 (11.4%) for B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, 14 (9.4%) for B. henselae, 13 (8.4%) for B. clarridgeiae, and 7 (4.7%) for B. bovis. Statistical analysis revealed a few potential risk factors, mainly dog's age and breed, latitude and average winter temperature. Twenty-two (14.8%) dogs, including 8 of the 29 seropositive dogs, were PCR-positive for Bartonella based on the ftsZ gene, with 18 (81.8%) of these 22 dogs also positive for the rpoB gene. Partial sequencing showed that all PCR-positive dogs were infected with Candidatus B. merieuxii. Dogs from arid regions and regions with cold average winter temperatures were less likely to be PCR-positive than dogs from other climatic zones. The widespread presence of Bartonella spp. infection in Tunisian dogs suggests a role for stray dogs as potential reservoirs of Bartonella species in Tunisia.

  20. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingnan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The inductive element associated with each capacitive sensor can be surface-mounted inductors, integrated microstrip inductors or metamaterial-inspired structures. We show that by using metamaterial split-ring structures coupled to a microstrip line, the quality factor of each resonance can be greatly improved compared to conventional surface-mounted or microstrip meander inductors. With such a microstrip-coupled split-ring design, more sensing elements can be integrated in the same frequency spectrum, and the sensitivity can be greatly improved.

  1. Capacitive Structures for Gas and Biological Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Sapsanis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The semiconductor industry was benefited by the advances in technology in the last decades. This fact has an impact on the sensors field, where the simple transducer was evolved into smart miniaturized multi-functional microsystems. However, commercially available gas and biological sensors are mostly bulky, expensive, and power-hungry, which act as obstacles to mass use. The aim of this work is gas and biological sensing using capacitive structures. Capacitive sensors were selected due to its design simplicity, low fabrication cost, and no DC power consumption. In the first part, the dominant structure among interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), fractal curves (Peano and Hilbert) and Archimedean spiral was investigated from capacitance density perspective. The investigation consists of geometrical formula calculations, COMSOL Multiphysics simulations and cleanroom fabrication of the capacitors on a silicon substrate. Moreover, low-cost fabrication on flexible plastic PET substrate was conducted outside cleanroom with rapid prototyping using a maskless laser etching. The second part contains the humidity, Volatile Organic compounds (VOCs) and Ammonia sensing of polymers, Polyimide and Nafion, and metal-organic framework (MOF), Cu(bdc)2.xH2O using IDEs and tested in an automated gas setup for experiment control and data extraction. The last part includes the biological sensing of C - reactive protein (CRP) quantification, which is considered as a biomarker of being prone to cardiac diseases and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein quantification, which is used as a reference for quantifying unknown proteins.

  2. Micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuecheng

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. They offer performance advantages of wide bandwidth and sensitivity that have heretofore been attainable. In addition, micromachining technology, which has benefited from the fast-growing microelectronics industry, enables cMUT array fabrication and electronics integration. This thesis describes the design and fabrication of micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer arrays. The basic transducer electrical equivalent circuit is derived from Mason's theory. The effects of Lamb waves and Stoneley waves on cross coupling and acoustic losses are discussed. Electrical parasitics such as series resistance and shunt capacitance are also included in the model of the transducer. Transducer fabrication technology is systematically studied. Device dimension control in both vertical and horizontal directions, process alternatives and variations in membrane formation, via etch and cavity sealing, and metalization as well as their impact on transducer performance are summarized. Both 64 and 128 element 1-D array transducers are fabricated. Transducers are characterized in terms of electrical input impedance, bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, impulse response and angular response, and their performance is compared with theoretical simulation. Various schemes for cross coupling reduction is analyzed, implemented, and verified with both experiments and theory. Preliminary results of immersion imaging are presented using 64 elements 1-D array transducers for active source imaging.

  3. Neutron diffraction study of the formation of ordered antiphase domains in cubic titanium carbide TiC0.60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidirov, I.; Parpiev, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    A series of superstructural reflections (described within the sp. gr. Fd3m) are found to be split into three symmetric parts in the neutron powder diffraction pattern of titanium carbide TiC 0.60 annealed at a temperature of 600°C. No splitting of superstructural reflections is observed in the neutron diffraction pattern of TiC 0.60 annealed at relatively high temperatures (780°C). This phenomenon can be explained by that fact that the ordering of carbon atoms at relatively high temperatures (780°C) is accompanied by the formation of randomly oriented rather large antiphase domains (APDs) (450 Å). At relatively low temperatures (600°C), stacking faults arise in the arrangement of partially ordered carbon atoms. In this case, relatively small ordered APDs (290 Å) are formed, along with disordered ones.

  4. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2016-05-23

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\bar c s \\bar s$. Among other results, we argue that $Y(4140)$ is a $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state that has been not been seen in two-photon fusion largely as a consequence of the Landau-Yang theorem.

  5. First measurement of Ξc0 production in pp collisions at √{ s } = 7 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Ali, Y.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altenkamper, L.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andreou, D.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartsch, E.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Bratrud, L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Chandra, S.; Chang, B.; Chang, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Chowdhury, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovská, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Souza, R. D.; Degenhardt, H. F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Ding, Y.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Doremalen, L. V. R.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dudi, S.; Duggal, A. K.; Dukhishyam, M.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; Germain, M.; Ghosh, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosa, F.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guittiere, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Haque, M. R.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hassan, H.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Hernandez, E. G.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hills, C.; Hippolyte, B.; Hohlweger, B.; Horak, D.; Hornung, S.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Iddon, J. P.; Iga Buitron, S. A.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Islam, M. S.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jaelani, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jercic, M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karczmarczyk, P.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Ketzer, B.; Khabanova, Z.; Khan, P.; Khan, S.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Khuntia, A.; Kielbowicz, M. M.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Kreis, L.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kundu, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lai, Y. S.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lavicka, R.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lehner, S.; Lehrbach, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, X.; Li, X. L.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lim, B.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lindsay, S. W.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Litichevskyi, V.; Liu, A.; Llope, W. J.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Loncar, P.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Luhder, J. R.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, J. A. L.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Masson, E.; Mastroserio, A.; Mathis, A. M.; Matuoka, P. F. T.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Mikhaylov, K.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, A. P.; Mohanty, B.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Montes, E.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Myers, C. J.; Myrcha, J. W.; Nag, D.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Narayan, A.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Negrao de Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Nesbo, S. V.; Neskovic, G.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nobuhiro, A.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, H.; Ohlson, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pacik, V.; Pagano, D.; Paić, G.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Panebianco, S.; Papikyan, V.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Pathak, S. P.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira, L. G.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Pezzi, R. P.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pliquett, F.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pozdniakov, V.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Rana, D. B.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ratza, V.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Røed, K.; Rogalev, R.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Rokita, P. S.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosas, E. D.; Roslon, K.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Rotondi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rueda, O. V.; Rui, R.; Rumyantsev, B.; Rustamov, A.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Saha, S. K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandoval, A.; Sarkar, A.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Sas, M. H. P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schaefer, B.; Scheid, H. S.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M. O.; Schmidt, M.; Schmidt, N. V.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sett, P.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shahoyan, R.; Shaikh, W.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shirinkin, S.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silaeva, S.; Silvermyr, D.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Sputowska, I.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stocco, D.; Storetvedt, M. M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thakur, D.; Thakur, S.; Thomas, D.; Thoresen, F.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Toppi, M.; Torres, S. R.; Tripathy, S.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Tropp, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Umaka, E. N.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vermunt, L.; Vernet, R.; Vértesi, R.; Vickovic, L.; Vigolo, S.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Voscek, D.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Wagner, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wegrzynek, A.; Weiser, D. F.; Wenzel, S. C.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Willsher, E.; Windelband, B.; Witt, W. E.; Xu, R.; Yalcin, S.; Yamakawa, K.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yun, E.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zmeskal, J.; Zou, S.; Alice Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    The production of the charm-strange baryon Ξc0 is measured for the first time at the LHC via its semileptonic decay into eΞ+-νe in pp collisions at √{ s } = 7 TeV with the ALICE detector. The transverse momentum (pT) differential cross section multiplied by the branching ratio is presented in the interval 1 c0 baryon production relative to the D0 meson production is compared to predictions of event generators with various tunes of the hadronisation mechanism, which are found to underestimate the measured cross-section ratio.

  6. Calculation of secondary capacitance of compact Tesla pulse transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Binxiong; Liu Jinliang

    2013-01-01

    An analytic expression of the secondary capacitance of a compact Tesla pulse transformer is derived. Calculated result by the expression shows that two parts contribute to the secondary capacitance, namely the capacitance between inner and outer magnetic cores and the attached capacitance caused by the secondary winding. The attached capacitance equals to the capacitance of a coaxial line which is as long as the secondary coil, and whose outer and inner diameters are as large as the inner diameter of the outer magnetic and the outer diameter of the inner magnetic core respectively. A circuital model for analyzing compact Tesla transformer is built, and numeric calculation shows that the expression of the secondary capacitance is correct. Besides, a small compact Tesla transformer is developed, and related test is carried out. Test result confirms the calculated results by the expression derived. (authors)

  7. Capacitive Sensing of Glucose in Electrolytes Using Graphene Quantum Capacitance Varactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Ma, Rui; Zhen, Xue V; Kudva, Yogish C; Bühlmann, Philippe; Koester, Steven J

    2017-11-08

    A novel graphene-based variable capacitor (varactor) that senses glucose based on the quantum capacitance effect was successfully developed. The sensor utilizes a metal-oxide-graphene varactor device structure that is inherently compatible with passive wireless sensing, a key advantage for in vivo glucose sensing. The graphene varactors were functionalized with pyrene-1-boronic acid (PBA) by self-assembly driven by π-π interactions. Successful surface functionalization was confirmed by both Raman spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage characterization of the devices. Through glucose binding to the PBA, the glucose concentration in the buffer solutions modulates the level of electrostatic doping of the graphene surface to different degrees, which leads to capacitance changes and Dirac voltage shifts. These responses to the glucose concentration were shown to be reproducible and reversible over multiple measurement cycles, suggesting promise for eventual use in wireless glucose monitoring.

  8. Two-photon widths of the chi(c0,2) states and helicity analysis for chi(c2) -> gamma gamma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a data sample of 106 X 10(6) psi' events collected with the BESIII detector, the decays psi' -> gamma chi(c0,2), chi(c0,2) -> gamma gamma are studied to determine the two-photon widths of the chi(c0,2) states. The two-photon decay branching fractions are determined to be B(chi(c0) -> gamma

  9. A current driven capacitively coupled chlorine discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shuo; Gudmundsson, J T

    2014-01-01

    The effect of driving current, driving frequency and secondary electrons on capacitively coupled chlorine discharge is systematically investigated using a hybrid approach consisting of a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation and a volume-averaged global model. The driving current is varied from 20 to 80 A m −2 , the driving frequency is varied from 13.56 to 60 MHz and the secondary electron emission coefficient is varied from 0.0 to 0.4. Key plasma parameters including electron energy probability function, electron heating rate, ion energy and angular distributions are explored and their variations with control parameters are analyzed and compared with other discharges. Furthermore, we extend our study to dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled chlorine discharge by adding a low-frequency current source and explore the effect of the low-frequency source on the discharge. The low-frequency current density is increased from 0 to 4 A m −2 . The flux of Cl 2 + ions to the surface increases only slightly while the average energy of Cl 2 + ions to the surface increases almost linearly with increasing low-frequency current, which shows possible independent control of the flux and energy of Cl 2 + ions by varying the low-frequency current in a DF capacitively coupled chlorine discharge. However, the increase in the flux of Cl + ions with increasing low-frequency current, which is mainly due to the increased dissociation fraction of the background gas caused by extra power supplied by the low-frequency source, is undesirable. (paper)

  10. CMOS MEMS capacitive absolute pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narducci, M; Tsai, J; Yu-Chia, L; Fang, W

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a capacitive pressure sensor using a commercial 0.18 µm CMOS (complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) process and postprocess. The pressure sensor is capacitive and the structure is formed by an Al top electrode enclosed in a suspended SiO 2 membrane, which acts as a movable electrode against a bottom or stationary Al electrode fixed on the SiO 2 substrate. Both the movable and fixed electrodes form a variable parallel plate capacitor, whose capacitance varies with the applied pressure on the surface. In order to release the membranes the CMOS layers need to be applied postprocess and this mainly consists of four steps: (1) deposition and patterning of PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) oxide to protect CMOS pads and to open the pressure sensor top surface, (2) etching of the sacrificial layer to release the suspended membrane, (3) deposition of PECVD oxide to seal the etching holes and creating vacuum inside the gap, and finally (4) etching of the passivation oxide to open the pads and allow electrical connections. This sensor design and fabrication is suitable to obey the design rules of a CMOS foundry and since it only uses low-temperature processes, it allows monolithic integration with other types of CMOS compatible sensors and IC (integrated circuit) interface on a single chip. Experimental results showed that the pressure sensor has a highly linear sensitivity of 0.14 fF kPa −1 in the pressure range of 0–300 kPa. (paper)

  11. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.

    2005-01-01

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints

  12. Understanding the Capacitance of PEDOT:PSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, Anton V.; Wijeratne, Kosala; Mitraka, Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is the most studied and explored mixed ion-electron conducting polymer system. PEDOT:PSS is commonly included as an electroactive conductor in various organic devices, e.g., supercapacitors, displays, transistors, and energy......-converters. In spite of its long-term use as a material for storage and transport of charges, the fundamentals of its bulk capacitance remain poorly understood. Generally, charge storage in supercapacitors is due to formation of electrical double layers or redox reactions, and it is widely accepted that PEDOT...

  13. Spectral response analysis of PVDF capacitive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ramírez, B.; García-Segundo, C.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the spectral response to ultrasound waves in water of low-noise capacitive sensors based on PVDF polymer piezoelectric films. First, we analyze theoretically the mechanical-to-electrical transduction as a function of the frequency of ultrasonic signals and derive an analytic expression of the sensor's transfer function. Then we present experimental results of the frequency response of a home-made PDVF in water to test signals from 1 to 20 MHz induced by a commercial hydrophone powered by a signal generator and compare with our theoretical model.

  14. Capacitive tool standoff sensor for dismantlement tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Liu, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    A capacitive sensing technology has been applied to develop a Standoff Sensor System for control of robotically deployed tools utilized in Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) activities. The system combines four individual sensor elements to provide non-contact, multiple degree-of-freedom control of tools at distances up to five inches from a surface. The Standoff Sensor has been successfully integrated to a metal cutting router and a pyrometer, and utilized for real-time control of each of these tools. Experiments demonstrate that the system can locate stationary surfaces with a repeatability of 0.034 millimeters

  15. Study on effective MOSFET channel length extracted from gate capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Katsuhiro; Terada, Kazuo; Fujisaka, Hisato

    2018-01-01

    The effective channel length (L GCM) of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is extracted from the gate capacitances of actual-size MOSFETs, which are measured by charge-injection-induced-error-free charge-based capacitance measurement (CIEF CBCM). To accurately evaluate the capacitances between the gate and the channel of test MOSFETs, the parasitic capacitances are removed by using test MOSFETs having various channel sizes and a source/drain reference device. A strong linear relationship between the gate-channel capacitance and the design channel length is obtained, from which L GCM is extracted. It is found that L GCM is slightly less than the effective channel length (L CRM) extracted from the measured MOSFET drain current. The reason for this is discussed, and it is found that the capacitance between the gate electrode and the source and drain regions affects this extraction.

  16. Energy law preserving C0 finite element schemes for phase field models in two-phase flow computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jinsong; Lin Ping; Liu Chun; Wang Qi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study phase-field models for multi-phase flow computation. → We develop an energy-law preserving C0 FEM. → We show that the energy-law preserving method work better. → We overcome unphysical oscillation associated with the Cahn-Hilliard model. - Abstract: We use the idea in to develop the energy law preserving method and compute the diffusive interface (phase-field) models of Allen-Cahn and Cahn-Hilliard type, respectively, governing the motion of two-phase incompressible flows. We discretize these two models using a C 0 finite element in space and a modified midpoint scheme in time. To increase the stability in the pressure variable we treat the divergence free condition by a penalty formulation, under which the discrete energy law can still be derived for these diffusive interface models. Through an example we demonstrate that the energy law preserving method is beneficial for computing these multi-phase flow models. We also demonstrate that when applying the energy law preserving method to the model of Cahn-Hilliard type, un-physical interfacial oscillations may occur. We examine the source of such oscillations and a remedy is presented to eliminate the oscillations. A few two-phase incompressible flow examples are computed to show the good performance of our method.

  17. Dispersion capacitive de l'interface H2SO4/Pt Capacitive dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences Exactes. Université des .... d'un comportement idéal de la capacité. Au vu .... Figure 2 : Photographie de la cellule Pt/0,5 MH2SO4 (fabriquée par Verre-Lab Constantine) plongée dans un bain.

  18. Accurate sizing of supercapacitors storage system considering its capacitance variation.

    OpenAIRE

    Trieste , Sony; Bourguet , Salvy; Olivier , Jean-Christophe; Loron , Luc; Le Claire , Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper highlights the energy errors made for the design of supercapacitors used as a main energy source. First of all, the paper presents the two definitions of capacitance of a capacitance-voltage dependent material. The number of supercapacitors is important for the application purchasing cost. That is why the paper introduces an analytical model and an electrical model along with an identification method for the capacitance variation. This variation is presented...

  19. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaledian

    2014-01-01

    schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

  20. Programmable differential capacitance-to-voltage converter for MEMS accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, G.; Sánchez-Azqueta, C.; Gimeno, C.; Aldea, C.; Celma, S.

    2017-05-01

    Capacitive MEMS sensors exhibit an excellent noise performance, high sensitivity and low power consumption. They offer a huge range of applications, being the accelerometer one of its main uses. In this work, we present the design of a capacitance-to-voltage converter in CMOS technology to measure the acceleration from the capacitance variations. It is based on a low-power, fully-differential transimpedance amplifier with low input impedance and a very low input noise.

  1. The activation of hydrogen by a high nuclearity metal cluster complex. The synthesis and structural characterization of Ru6(C0)15(μ-C0)2(μ3-H)2(μ4-S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.D.; Babin, J.E.; Tasi, M.; Wolfe, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    This hexanuclear dihydride is prepared by reaction of hexaruthenium cluster with hydrogen (1 atm/80 0 C) for 15 minutes in 96% yield. It is characterized by IR, 1 H NMR and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined. There are two formula equivalents in the asymmetric crystal unit. Both molecules contain similar structures that consist of square-pyramidal clusters of five ruthenium atoms with a quadruply bridging sulfido ligand across the square base and a Ru (CO) 4 group across an edge of the square base. Both molecules possess two triply bridging hydride ligands that were located and refined and found to occupy adjacent triangular faces on the square pyramid. The complex is decomposed by C0. 11 refs

  2. Experimental investigation of the ECRH stray radiation during the start-up phase in Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseev, Dmitry; Laqua, Heinrich; Marsen, Stefan; Stange, Torsten; Braune, Harald; Erckmann, Volker; Gellert, Florian; Oosterbeek, Johann Wilhelm; Wenzel, Uwe

    2017-07-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) is the main heating mechanism in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X). W7-X is equipped with five absolutely calibrated sniffer probes that are installed in each of the five modules of the device. The sniffer probes monitor energy flux of unabsorbed ECRH radiation in the device and interlocks are fed with the sniffer probe signals. The stray radiation level in the device changes significantly during the start-up phase: plasma is a strong microwave absorber and during its formation the stray radiation level in sniffer probes reduces by more than 95%. In this paper, we discuss the influence of neutral gas pressure and gyrotron power on plasma breakdown processes.

  3. Optimization of the coplanar interdigital capacitive sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunzhi; Zhan, Zheng; Bowler, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    Interdigital capacitive sensors are applied in nondestructive testing and material property characterization of low-conductivity materials. The sensor performance is typically described based on the penetration depth of the electric field into the sample material, the sensor signal strength and its sensitivity. These factors all depend on the geometry and material properties of the sensor and sample. In this paper, a detailed analysis is provided, through finite element simulations, of the ways in which the sensor's geometrical parameters affect its performance. The geometrical parameters include the number of digits forming the interdigital electrodes and the ratio of digit width to their separation. In addition, the influence of the presence or absence of a metal backplane on the sample is analyzed. Further, the effects of sensor substrate thickness and material on signal strength are studied. The results of the analysis show that it is necessary to take into account a trade-off between the desired sensitivity and penetration depth when designing the sensor. Parametric equations are presented to assist the sensor designer or nondestructive evaluation specialist in optimizing the design of a capacitive sensor.

  4. Design of electrical capacitance tomography sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wuqiang

    2010-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) has been developed since the late 1980s for visualization and measurement of a permittivity distribution in a cross section using a multi-electrode capacitance sensor. While the hardware and image reconstruction algorithms for ECT have been published extensively and the topics have been reviewed, few papers have been published to discuss ECT sensors and the design issues, which are crucial for a specific application. This paper will briefly discuss the principles of ECT sensors, but mostly will address key issues for ECT sensor design, with reference to some existing ECT sensors as a good understanding of the key issues would help optimization of the design of ECT sensors. The key issues to be discussed include the number and length of electrodes, the use of external and internal electrodes, implications of wall thickness, earthed screens (including the outer screen, axial end screens and radial screens), driven guard electrodes, dealing with high temperature and high pressure, twin planes for velocity measurement by cross correlation and limitations in sensor diameter. While conventional ECT sensors are circular with the electrodes in a single plane or in twin planes, some non-conventional ECT sensors, such as square, conical and 3D sensors, will also be discussed. As a practical guidance, the procedure to fabricate an ECT sensor will be given. In the end are summary and discussion on future challenges, including re-engineering of ECT sensors. (topical review)

  5. Stray Cats Gastrointestinal Parasites and its Association With Public Health in Ahvaz City, South Western of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Rahim, Fakher; Hashemitabar, Mahamoud; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Tavalla, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cats are the hosts for some zoonotic parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. which are important in medicine and veterinary. Studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites of cats have received little attention in south west of Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of parasites in stray cats in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: Random sampling was carried out from January to May 2012. One hundred and forty fecal samples from stray cats were examined using sucrose flotation method. Results: Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 121 of the 140 (86.4%) examined samples. The parasites detected in stray cats were Toxocara spp. (45%, 63/140), Isospora spp. (21.4%, 30/140), nematode larvae (21.4%, 30/140), Taenia spp. (18.6%, 26/140), Sarcocystis spp. (17.1%, 24/140), Eimeria spp. (15%, 21/140), Blastocystis spp. (14.3%, 20/140), Giardia spp, (10.7%, 15/140), Physaloptera spp. (7.1%, 10/140), and amoeba cyst (5.7%, 8/140) respectively. The prevalence of infection by Joyexiella spp. and hook worms (4.3%, 6/140), for example, Dipylidium caninum (2.9%, 4/140) was similar; and the prevalence of infection by T. gondii and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was similar (1.4%, 2/140). Conclusions: Since the prevalence of zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites such as Toxocara spp. in stray cats is high, there is a need to plan adequate programs to control these zoonotic parasites. PMID:25485047

  6. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, F. R.; Negrisoli, M. E. M.; Franco, C. V.

    2003-01-01

    With the growth of several areas in modem society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that f...

  7. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  8. Toxocara nematodes in stray cats from shiraz, southern iran: intensity of infection and molecular identification of the isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattaneh Mikaeili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara is a common nematode of cats in different parts of Iran. Despite the close association of cats with human, no attempt has been done so far for molecular identification of this nematode in the country. Therefore, current study was performed on identification of some isolates of Toxocara from stray cats in Shiraz, Fars Province, Southern Iran, based on morphological and molecular approaches, and also determination of intensity of infection.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 stray cats trapped from different geographical areas of Shiraz in 2011. Adult male and female worms were recovered from digestive tract after dissection of cats. Morphological features using existing keys and PCR-sequencing of ITS-rDNA region and pcox1 mitochondrial l gene were applied for the delineating the species of the parasites.Eight out of 30 cats (26.7% were found infected with Toxocara nematodes. All the isolates were confirmed as Toxocara cati based on morphological features and the sequence of ribosomal and mitochondrial targets. Intensity of infection ranged from one to a maximum of 39 worms per cat, with a mean of 10.25±12.36, and higher abundance of female nematodes.The most prevalent ascaridoid nematode of stray cats in the study area was T. cati and female nematodes were more abundant than that of males. This issue has important role in spreading of eggs in the environment and impact on human toxocariasis.

  9. A Preliminary Study on the Helminth Fauna in Necropsied Stray Cats (Felis catus in Beni-Suef, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stray cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of endoparasites, particularly helminths, due to predating a wide range of both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, often of veterinary and zoonotic importance. Therefore, a total of 62 stray cats were necropsied in Beni-Suef province, Egypt and examined for helminth parasites. The overall prevalence of infection was 87.0%. The recovered helminths consisted of 10 species of trematodes (Heterophyes heterophyes, Pygidiopsis summa, H. nocens, Echinochasmus liliputanus, Alaria sp., Procerovum varium, Ascocotyle sp., Haplorchis sp., Prohemistomum vivax, Euparadistomum herpestesi, five cestodes (Dipylidium caninum, Diplopylidium acanthoterta, D. nolleri, Joyeuxiella sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and two nematodes (Toxascaris leonina and larvae of Anisakis simplex. The most prevalent helminths were Dipylidium caninum (62.9%, Toxascaris leonina (33.8%, Diplopylidium nolleri (22.5% and Echinochasmus liliputanus (6.45%. Thirty (48.39% cats were co-infected by one species, 22 (35.48% by two and three (4.84% by more than two species. It has been found that cats aged more than 3 years were the most infected. Both male and female cats were parasitized. The infection was the most prevalent in both summer and autumn. In conclusion, veterinarians must highlight more attention towards both stray and domestic cats, as they are considered reservoir hosts for a wide host range of parasites, particularly helminths, and the zoonotic importance of such parasites should be taken on consideration.

  10. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in household and stray dogs in rural areas of Hamadan, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardarian, K; Maghsood, A H; Ghiasian, S A; Zahirnia, A H

    2015-06-01

    Zoonotic parasitic infections are a major global public and veterinary health problem and widespread among dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray and household dogs in the rural areas of Hamadan district. During 2012, 1,500 fresh fecal samples from 243 household and 1,257 stray dogs were examined by using direct wet mount, simple zinc sulfate flotation, and Lugol's solution staining. Of 1,500 dogs, 20.4% were positive for intestinal parasites. Helminthes eggs were more frequently found in fecal samples than protozoan cysts or trophozoites (15.9% vs. 4.5%, respectively). Toxocara canis was the most frequently detected parasite, with a prevalence of 6.3%, followed by Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (2.9%), Isospora spp. (2.7%), and Toxascaris leonina (2.6%). Helminthes and protozoa were significantly more prevalent in household dogs than in stray dogs (Pparasites indicated that people residing in this area are at risk of exposure to these potentially hazardous zoonotic pathogens. Mass education of the general population is highly recommended to increase awareness of the potential for horizontal transmission of these parasitic infections from dogs to humans.

  11. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H; Warner, Nathaniel R; Down, Adrian; Poreda, Robert J; Osborn, Stephen G; Zhao, Kaiguang; Karr, Jonathan D

    2013-07-09

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes gas wells (P = 0.0006). Ethane was 23 times higher in homes gas wells (P = 0.0013); propane was detected in 10 water wells, all within approximately 1 km distance (P = 0.01). Of three factors previously proposed to influence gas concentrations in shallow groundwater (distances to gas wells, valley bottoms, and the Appalachian Structural Front, a proxy for tectonic deformation), distance to gas wells was highly significant for methane concentrations (P = 0.007; multiple regression), whereas distances to valley bottoms and the Appalachian Structural Front were not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P gas wells was the only statistically significant factor (P gas (4)He to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases.

  12. Fauna of Zoontic Parasites of Stray Dogs in Yasouj Suburbs in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Moshfe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Dogs are among the closest animals to human residents and can by useful for human. A few of zoontic diseases are prevalent in Iran. Dogs are the reservoirs of many of these zoonosis and a major role in transmission of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic parasitic fauna of stray dogs in Yasuj Materials & Methods: In this descriptive study which was conducted at Yasuj suburbs in 2008, 25 dogs’ corpses were necropsied and their tissues were studied for parasitic infections. Collected parasites were placed in special containers and stained for genus and species diagnosis based on their morphological features. The collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software, using descriptive analysis. Results: Of the 25 studied corpses, 23 dogs were infected with at least one parasite. Helminthic infections of dogs were consisted of: Taenia hydatigena, Mesocestoides sp., Echinococcus granulosus, Dipylidium caninum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus and Spirocerca lupi. Conclusion: Four of six detected helminthes in in dogs in this study are zoonotic parasites which are important in human diseases. Among them larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus which causes hydatid cyst disease in human is very important. Control programs should be implemented in this region to prevent these zoonotic diseases.

  13. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ravicini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Results Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3% had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5% were positive for FCV RNA (six cats, Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats, FHV-1 DNA (three cats or C felis DNA (three cats. Conclusions and relevance This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.

  14. Kinetics of growing the disordered antiphase domains in titanium carbohydride TiC0.50H0.21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidirov, I.; Sotvoldiev, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    For establishing formation and growth laws of the disordered nanostructures (the antiphase domains) in the nonstoichiometric titanium carbohydride with cubic NaCl type structure we quenched the titanium carbohydride TiC 0.50 H 0.21 from 1000 deg C followed by annealing at 500, 600, 700, 800 deg C with 24 hour ageing. Neutron diffraction patterns were recorded after each annealing temperature. The half-width of the superstructure (111) reflection is shown to decrease with increasing the annealing temperature that testified on the disordered nanostructure size growing with temperature. The sizes of the disordered nanostructure formed at various temperatures and their dependence D = f(T) were determined on the basis of the neutron diffraction data. (authors)

  15. Solar Cell Capacitance Determination Based on an RLC Resonant Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Adrian Cotfas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The capacitance is one of the key dynamic parameters of solar cells, which can provide essential information regarding the quality and health state of the cell. However, the measurement of this parameter is not a trivial task, as it typically requires high accuracy instruments using, e.g., electrical impedance spectroscopy (IS. This paper introduces a simple and effective method to determine the electric capacitance of the solar cells. An RLC (Resistor Inductance Capacitor circuit is formed by using an inductor as a load for the solar cell. The capacitance of the solar cell is found by measuring the frequency of the damped oscillation that occurs at the moment of connecting the inductor to the solar cell. The study is performed through simulation based on National Instruments (NI Multisim application as SPICE simulation software and through experimental capacitance measurements of a monocrystalline silicon commercial solar cell and a photovoltaic panel using the proposed method. The results were validated using impedance spectroscopy. The differences between the capacitance values obtained by the two methods are of 1% for the solar cells and of 9.6% for the PV panel. The irradiance level effect upon the solar cell capacitance was studied obtaining an increase in the capacitance in function of the irradiance. By connecting different inductors to the solar cell, the frequency effect upon the solar cell capacitance was studied noticing a very small decrease in the capacitance with the frequency. Additionally, the temperature effect over the solar cell capacitance was studied achieving an increase in capacitance with temperature.

  16. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  17. A capacitive bioelectrode for recording electrophysiological signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Garcia, E.; Mujica Ascencio, S.; Rosa Vazquez, J. M.de la; Stolik Isakina, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a gel-free sensor with on-board electrode design, which capacitive couples to the skin to detect the electrical activity in the body. The integrated sensor is manufactured on a standard printed circuit board within 2.2 cm diameter enclosure that can operate through fabric or other insulation. The electrode includes amplification (60db gain) and passive band pass filtering (0.5 to 100 Hz). Active shielding surrounding the sensor plate is used to reduce noise pickup. The input referred noise, measured over the electrode bandwidth is 4 μV rms at 0.2 mm sensor distance, and 16 μV rms at 1.2 mm distance trough two cotton cloths. The bioelectrodes were coupled to the scalp trough hair for EEG signals (with 80 db gain), and coupled to the chest through clothing for ECG signals. The recorded signals show well performance of the designed bielectrode. (Author)

  18. Vertically aligned BCN nanotubes with high capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyamperumal, Eswaramoorthi; Wang, Shuangyin; Dai, Liming

    2012-06-26

    Using a chemical vapor deposition method, we have synthesized vertically aligned BCN nanotubes (VA-BCNs) on a Ni-Fe-coated SiO(2)/Si substrate from a melamine diborate precursor. The effects of pyrolysis conditions on the morphology and thermal property of grown nanotubes, as well as the nanostructure and composition of an individual BCN nanotube, were systematically studied. It was found that nitrogen atoms are bonded to carbons in both graphitic and pyridinic forms and that the resultant VA-BCNs grown at 1000 °C show the highest specific capacitance (321.0 F/g) with an excellent rate capability and high durability with respect to nonaligned BCN (167.3 F/g) and undoped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (117.3 F/g) due to synergetic effects arising from the combined co-doping of B and N in CNTs and the well-aligned nanotube structure.

  19. Developments of capacitance stabilised etalon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R. A.; Foster, M.; Thwaite, C.; Thompson, C. K.; Rees, D.; Bakalski, I. V.; Pereira do Carmo, J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes a high-resolution optical filter (HRF) suitable for narrow bandwidth filtering in LIDAR applications. The filter is composed of a broadband interference filter and a narrowband Fabry-Perot etalon based on the capacitance stabilised concept. The key requirements for the HRF were a bandwidth of less than 40 pm, a tuneable range of over 6 nm and a transmission greater than 50%. These requirements combined with the need for very high out-of-band rejection (greater than 50 dB in the range 300 nm to 1200 nm) drive the design of the filter towards a combination of high transmission broadband filter and high performance tuneable, narrowband filter.

  20. Capacitive Neutralization Dialysis for Direct Energy Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Yi; Ou-Yang, Wei; Bastos Sales, Bruno; Sun, Zhuo; Liu, Fei; Zhao, Ran

    2017-08-15

    Capacitive neutralization dialysis energy (CNDE) is proposed as a novel energy-harvesting technique that is able to utilize waste acid and alkaline solutions to produce electrical energy. CNDE is a modification based on neutralization dialysis. It was found that a higher NaCl concentration led to a higher open-circuit potential when the concentrations of acid and alkaline solutions were fixed. Upon closing of the circuit, the membrane potential was used as a driving force to move counter ions into the electrical double layers at the electrode-liquid interface, thereby creating an ionic current. Correspondingly, in the external circuit, electrons flow through an external resistor from one electrode to the other, thereby generating electrical energy directly. The influence of external resistances was studied to achieve greater energy extraction, with the maximum output of 110 mW/m 2 obtained by employing an external resistance of 5 Ω together with the AC-coated electrode.

  1. The capacitated team orienteering problem with incomplete service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, Claudia; Bianchessi, Nicola; Speranza, M. Grazia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the capacitated version of the Team Orienteering Problem (TOP), that is the Capacitated TOP (CTOP) and the impact of relaxing the assumption that a customer, if served, must be completely served. We prove that the profit collected by the CTOP with Incomplete Service (CTOP-IS)

  2. Clean energy generation using capacitive electrodes in reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, David; Bajracharya, S.; Bastos Sales, B.; Saakes, Michel; Hamelers, B.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2013-01-01

    Capacitive reverse electrodialysis (CRED) is a newly proposed technology to generate electricity from mixing of salt water and fresh water (salinity gradient energy) by using a membrane pile as in reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive electrodes. The salinity difference between salt water and

  3. Electric field theory and the fallacy of void capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the capacitance of a gaseous void is discussed as applied to electrical insulation science. The most pertinent aspect of the capacitance definition is that of reference to a single-valued potential difference between surfaces. This implies that these surfaces must be surfaces...

  4. Nanoscale capacitance: A quantum tight-binding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Wu, Jian; Li, Yang; Lu, Jun-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Landauer-Buttiker formalism with the assumption of semi-infinite electrodes as reservoirs has been the standard approach in modeling steady electron transport through nanoscale devices. However, modeling dynamic electron transport properties, especially nanoscale capacitance, is a challenging problem because of dynamic contributions from electrodes, which is neglectable in modeling macroscopic capacitance and mesoscopic conductance. We implement a self-consistent quantum tight-binding model to calculate capacitance of a nano-gap system consisting of an electrode capacitance C‧ and an effective capacitance Cd of the middle device. From the calculations on a nano-gap made of carbon nanotube with a buckyball therein, we show that when the electrode length increases, the electrode capacitance C‧ moves up while the effective capacitance Cd converges to a value which is much smaller than the electrode capacitance C‧. Our results reveal the importance of electrodes in modeling nanoscale ac circuits, and indicate that the concepts of semi-infinite electrodes and reservoirs well-accepted in the steady electron transport theory may be not applicable in modeling dynamic transport properties.

  5. A Review of High Voltage Drive Amplifiers for Capacitive Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lina; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the high voltage amplifiers, which are used to drive capacitive actuators. The amplifiers for both piezoelectric and DEAP (dielectric electroactive polymer) actuator are discussed. The suitable topologies for driving capacitive actuators are illustrated in detail...

  6. Large Capacitance Measurement by Multiple Uses of MBL Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sook; Chae, Min; Kim, Jung Bog

    2010-01-01

    A recent article by Morse described interesting electrostatics experiments using an MBL charge sensor. In this application, the charge sensor has a large capacitance compared to the charged test object, so nearly all charges can be transferred to the sensor capacitor from the capacitor to be measured. However, the typical capacitance of commercial…

  7. Measurement Error Estimation for Capacitive Voltage Transformer by Insulation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurement errors of a capacitive voltage transformer (CVT are relevant to its equivalent parameters for which its capacitive divider contributes the most. In daily operation, dielectric aging, moisture, dielectric breakdown, etc., it will exert mixing effects on a capacitive divider’s insulation characteristics, leading to fluctuation in equivalent parameters which result in the measurement error. This paper proposes an equivalent circuit model to represent a CVT which incorporates insulation characteristics of a capacitive divider. After software simulation and laboratory experiments, the relationship between measurement errors and insulation parameters is obtained. It indicates that variation of insulation parameters in a CVT will cause a reasonable measurement error. From field tests and calculation, equivalent capacitance mainly affects magnitude error, while dielectric loss mainly affects phase error. As capacitance changes 0.2%, magnitude error can reach −0.2%. As dielectric loss factor changes 0.2%, phase error can reach 5′. An increase of equivalent capacitance and dielectric loss factor in the high-voltage capacitor will cause a positive real power measurement error. An increase of equivalent capacitance and dielectric loss factor in the low-voltage capacitor will cause a negative real power measurement error.

  8. Capacitive-discharge-pumped copper bromide vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, V B; Fedorov, V F; Troitskii, V O; Gubarev, F A; Evtushenko, Gennadii S

    2007-01-01

    A copper bromide vapour laser pumped by a high-frequency capacitive discharge is developed. It is shown that, by using of a capacitive discharge, it is possible to built a sealed off metal halide vapour laser of a simple design allowing the addition of active impurities into the working medium. (letters)

  9. Biasing of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliano, Giosue; Matrone, Giulia; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) represent an effective alternative to piezoelectric transducers for medical ultrasound imaging applications. They are microelectromechanical devices fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques, developed in the last two decades in many laboratories. The interest for this novel transducer technology relies on its full compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology that makes it possible to integrate on the same chip the transducers and the electronics, thus enabling the realization of extremely low-cost and high-performance devices, including both 1-D or 2-D arrays. Being capacitive transducers, CMUTs require a high bias voltage to be properly operated in pulse-echo imaging applications. The typical bias supply residual ripple of high-quality high-voltage (HV) generators is in the millivolt range, which is comparable with the amplitude of the received echo signals, and it is particularly difficult to minimize. The aim of this paper is to analyze the classical CMUT biasing circuits, highlighting the features of each one, and to propose two novel HV generator architectures optimized for CMUT biasing applications. The first circuit proposed is an ultralow-residual ripple (generator that uses an extremely stable sinusoidal power oscillator topology. The second circuit employs a commercially available integrated step-up converter characterized by a particularly efficient switching topology. The circuit is used to bias the CMUT by charging a buffer capacitor synchronously with the pulsing sequence, thus reducing the impact of the switching noise on the received echo signals. The small area of the circuit (about 1.5 cm 2 ) makes it possible to generate the bias voltage inside the probe, very close to the CMUT, making the proposed solution attractive for portable applications. Measurements and experiments are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approaches presented.

  10. Capacitive sensor for engine oil deterioration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Harish; Bewoor, Anand

    2018-04-01

    A simple system or mechanism for engine Oil (lubricating oil) deterioration monitoring is a need. As engine oil is an important element in I C engines and it is exposed to various strains depending on the operating conditions. If it becomes contaminated with dirt and metal particles, it can become too thick or thin and loses its protective properties, leads to unwanted friction. In turn, to avoid an engine failure, the oil must be changed before it loses its protective properties, which may be harmful to engine which deteriorates vehicle performance. At the same time, changing the lubricant too early, cause inefficient use of already depleting resources, also unwanted impact on the environment and economic reasons. Hence, it will be always helpful to know the quality of the oil under use. With this objective, the research work had been undertaken to develop a simple capacitance sensor for quantification of the quality of oil under use. One of the investigated parameter to quantify oil degradation is Viscosity (as per standard testing procedure: DIN 51562-1). In this research work, an alternative method proposed which analyzing change in capacitance of oil, to quantify the quality of oil underuse and compared to a conventional standard method. The experimental results reported in this paper shows trend for the same. Engine oil of grade SAE 15W40 used for light-duty vehicle, vans and passenger cars is used for experimentation. Suggested method can form a base for further research to develop a cost-effective method for indicating the time to change in engine oil quality have been presented.

  11. Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ya' akobovitz, A. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Bedewy, M. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hart, A. J. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-02-02

    Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices.

  12. Interdigitated electrodes as impedance and capacitance biosensors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, N. S.; Ramli, M. M.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Halin, D. S. C.; Isa, S. S. M.; Talip, L. F. A.; Danial, N. S.; Murad, S. A. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) are made of two individually addressable interdigitated comb-like electrode structures. IDEs are one of the most favored transducers, widely utilized in technological applications especially in the field of biological and chemical sensors due to their inexpensive, ease of fabrication process and high sensitivity. In order to detect and analyze a biochemical molecule or analyte, the impedance and capacitance signal need to be obtained. This paper investigates the working principle and influencer of the impedance and capacitance biosensors. The impedance biosensor depends on the resistance and capacitance while the capacitance biosensor influenced by the dielectric permittivity. However, the geometry and structures of the interdigitated electrodes affect both impedance and capacitance biosensor. The details have been discussed in this paper.

  13. Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya'akobovitz, A.; Bedewy, M.; Hart, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices

  14. Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'akobovitz, A.; Bedewy, M.; Hart, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices.

  15. Generating the exponentially stable C_{0}-semigroup in a nonhomogeneous string equation with damping at the end

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Rzepnicki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small vibrations of a nonhomogeneous string of length one with left end fixed and right one moving with damping are described by the one-dimensional wave equation \\[\\begin{cases} v_{tt}(x,t - \\frac{1}{\\rho}v_{xx}(x,t = 0, x \\in [0,1], t \\in [0, \\infty,\\\\ v(0,t = 0, v_x(1,t + hv_t(1,t = 0, \\\\ v(x,0 = v_0(x, v_t(x,0 = v_1(x,\\end{cases}\\] where \\(\\rho\\ is the density of the string and \\(h\\ is a complex parameter. This equation can be rewritten in an operator form as an abstract Cauchy problem for the closed, densely defined operator B acting on a certain energy space H. It is proven that the operator B generates the exponentially stable \\(C_0\\-semigroup of contractions in the space H under assumptions that \\(\\text{Re}\\; h \\gt 0\\ and the density function is of bounded variation satisfying \\(0 \\lt m \\leq \\rho(x\\ for a.e. \\(x \\in [0, 1]\\.

  16. Detection of small number of Giardia in biological materials prepared from stray dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailikia, Leila; Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Shayan, Parviz; Amininia, Narges

    2017-12-20

    Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoa with intermittent and low shedding especially in dogs, and the detection of Giardia is accompanied with problems such as sampling and diagnostic method. The objective of this study was to detection of Giardia in biological materials with low number of parasite using parasitological and molecular methods, and also to determine whether the examined stray dogs harbor known zoonotic genotype of Giardia. For this aim 85 fecal and duodenal samples were studied from which 1 was positive by Trichrome staining of stool, 4 were positive by staining of duodenal samples. The nested PCR analysis with primers derived from 18 SrRNA showed that the specific PCR product could be amplified in 4 stool and 4 duodenal samples. All positive samples in staining analysis were also positive in nested PCR. No amplification could be observed by nested PCR with primers derived from β giardin gene due to the single copy of gene. Interestingly, the extracted DNA from old fixed stained Giardia positive smears could be also amplified with primers derived from 18SrRNA gene. The sequence analysis of nested PCR products showed that they belong to the genotype D. In conclusion, it is to denote that the Trichrome or Giemsa methods were not suitable for the detection of small number of this parasite in stool and the nested PCR with primers derived from 18S rRNA gene can replace the traditional methods successfully. For detection of Giardia in stool, primers derived from β giardin will not be recommended.

  17. Geographic distribution of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in stray dogs of eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ciucă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in the eastern part of Romania to assess the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Plasma samples were collected from 458 stray dogs hosted in shelters in 8 counties and tested serologically for the presence of heartworm. In addition, 45 blood samples from dogs of a shelter in Galati city were examined by the modified Knott and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The immmunological assay showed a heartworm infection prevalence of 8.9% in the dogs. Optical density results for positive samples ranged between 0.217 and 2.683. Geographical information systems (GIS were used to produce overlays of distribution maps of D. immitis prevalence and predictive maps based on temperature suitability. High prevalence of D. immitis was found in the central East up to the northern border of the country, i.e. Galati county (60%, followed by the counties of Vaslui (12.0% and Iasi (7.7%. Out of 45 samples examined using the Knott test, 23 were positive for circulating microfilariae (51.1%, while 19 dogs were positive for D. immitis and 4 for both D. immitis and D. repens with the multiplex PCR test. The high prevalence for D. immitis shown in dogs in the Southeast (Galati, 42.2% also by multiplex PCR gave strong support to the results achieved by the serological tests. The present study confirms the ability of GIS to predict the distribution and epidemiology of dirofilariosis in different geographical territories as has been already demonstrated by the empirical epidemiological data obtained at the continental, national and intraregional levels.

  18. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, north-western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadiwos Abere

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2011 to April 2012 to determine the prevalence and species of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A total of 384 and 46 faecal samples were collected from pet and stray dogs, respectively and xamined by using standard coprologic techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth infection in pet and stray dogs was 75.26 and 84.78%, respectively. The detected parasites with their frequencies in pet dogs were Ancylostoma caninum (78.89%, Toxocara canis (39.79%, Dipylidium caninum (29.75%, Strongyloides stercoralis (29.06%, Taeniidae (23.87% and Trichuris vulpis (7.95%. Stray dogs were found more likely to be polyparasitized and presented higher prevalence of A. caninum, T. canis, S. stercoralis, Trichuris vulpis and Taeniidae (P < 0.05 than domiciled ones. Diphyllobothrium latum was detected only in 10.25% of stray dogs. Toxocara canis and A. caninum (P < 0.05 were detected more frequently in dogs with less than 6 months of age (P <0.05 than old age dogs. The sex or breed groups didn't significantly affect the prevalence of parasites. A significant variation was recorded (P < 0.05 between different feeding systems where higher prevalence was observed in uncontrolled feeding group (82.18% compared to controlled feeding (32.08%. Conclusion: Different gastrointestinal parasites in pet and stray dogs were identified in the study area that can potentially infect humans and cause serious public-health problems. Thus, concerted efforts should therefore be made to educate dog owners to embrace modern dog disease control programs and measures have to be taken on stray dogs. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 388-392

  19. Distribution of coronary arterial capacitance in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lader, A S; Smith, R S; Phillips, G C; McNamee, J E; Abel, F L

    1998-03-01

    The capacitative properties of the major left coronary arteries, left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), and left circumflex (LCX), were studied in 19 open-chest isolated dog hearts. Capacitance was determined by using ramp perfusion and a left ventricular-to-coronary shunt diastolic decay method; both methods gave similar results, indicating a minimal systolic capacitative component. Increased pericardial pressure (PCP), 25 mmHg, was used to experimentally alter transmural wall pressure. The response to increased PCP was different in the LAD vs. LCX; increasing PCP decreased capacitance in the LCX but increased capacitance in the LAD. This may have been due to the different intramural vs. epicardial volume distribution of these vessels and a decrease in intramural tension during increased PCP. Increased PCP decreased LCX capacitance by approximately 13%, but no changes in conductance or zero flow pressure intercept occurred in any of the three vessels, i. e., evidence against the waterfall theory of vascular collapse at these levels of PCP. Coronary arterial capacitance was also linearly related to perfusion pressure.

  20. Development trends of combined inductance-capacitance electromechanical energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karayan Hamlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the modern state of completely new direction of electromechanical science such as combined inductive-capacitive electromechanics is considered. The wide spectra of its possible practical applications and prospects for further development are analyzed. A new approach for mathematical description of transients in dualcon jugate dynamic systems is proposed. On the basis of the algorithm differential equations for inductive-capacitive compatible electromechanical energy converters are derived. The generalized Lagrangian theory of combined inductively-capacitive electric machines was developed as a union of generalized Lagrangian models of inductive and capacitive electro-mechanical energy converters developed on the basis of the basic principles of binary-conjugate electrophysics. The author gives equations of electrodynamics and electromechanics of combined inductive-capacitive electric machines in case there are active electrotechnical materials of dual purpose (ferroelectromagnets in the structure of their excitation system. At the same time, the necessary Lagrangian for combined inductive-capacitive forces was built using new technologies of interaction between inductive and capacitive subsystems. The joint solution of these equations completely determines the dynamic behavior and energy characteristics of the generalized model of combined machines of any design and in any modes of interaction of their functional elements

  1. High Voltage Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Capacitive Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    in the converter, including the most dominating parameters of the high voltage transformer viz., self-capacitance and leakage inductance. The specific capacitive load for this converter is a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, which can be used as an effective replacement for conventional actuators...... in a number of applications. In this paper, the discharging energy efficiency definition is introduced. The proposed converter has been experimentally tested with the film capacitive load and the DEAP actuator, and the experimental results are shown together with the efficiency measurements....

  2. Capacitive density measurement for supercritical hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Th; Haberstroh, Ch; Szoucsek, K.; Schott, S.; Kunze, K.

    2017-12-01

    A new approach for automotive hydrogen storage systems is the so-called cryo-compressed hydrogen storage (CcH2). It has a potential for increased energy densities and thus bigger hydrogen amounts onboard, which is the main attractiveness for car manufacturers such as BMW. This system has further advantages in terms of safety, refueling and cooling potential. The current filling level measurement by means of pressure and temperature measurement and subsequent density calculation faces challenges especially in terms of precision. A promising alternative is the capacitive gauge. This measuring principle can determine the filling level of the CcH2 tank with significantly smaller tolerances. The measuring principle is based on different dielectric constants of gaseous and liquid hydrogen. These differences are successfully leveraged in liquid hydrogen storage systems (LH2). The present theoretical analysis shows that the dielectric values of CcH2 in the relevant operating range are comparable to LH2, thus achieving similarly good accuracy. The present work discusses embodiments and implementations for such a sensor in the CcH2 tank.

  3. Design Considerations in Capacitively Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Heon; Ventzek, Peter; Ranjan, Alok

    2015-11-01

    Microelectronics industry has driven transistor feature size scaling from 10-6 m to 10-9 m during the past 50 years, which is often referred to as Moore's law. It cannot be overstated that today's information technology would not have been so successful without plasma material processing. One of the major plasma sources for the microelectronics fabrication is capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs). The CCP reactor has been intensively studied and developed for the deposition and etching of different films on the silicon wafer. As the feature size gets to around 10 nm, the requirement for the process uniformity is less than 1-2 nm across the wafer (300 mm). In order to achieve the desired uniformity, the hardware design should be as precise as possible before the fine tuning of process condition is applied to make it even better. In doing this procedure, the computer simulation can save a significant amount of resources such as time and money which are critical in the semiconductor business. In this presentation, we compare plasma properties using a 2-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model for different kinds of design factors that can affect the plasma uniformity. The parameters studied in this presentation include chamber accessing port, pumping port, focus ring around wafer substrate, and the geometry of electrodes of CCP.

  4. Hydrogen atom kinetics in capacitively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunomura, Shota; Katayama, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Isao

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogen (H) atom kinetics has been investigated in capacitively coupled very high frequency (VHF) discharges at powers of 16-780 mW cm-2 and H2 gas pressures of 0.1-2 Torr. The H atom density has been measured using vacuum ultra violet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS) with a micro-discharge hollow cathode lamp as a VUV light source. The measurements have been performed in two different electrode configurations of discharges: conventional parallel-plate diode and triode with an intermediate mesh electrode. We find that in the triode configuration, the H atom density is strongly reduced across the mesh electrode. The H atom density varies from ˜1012 cm-3 to ˜1010 cm-3 by crossing the mesh with 0.2 mm in thickness and 36% in aperture ratio. The fluid model simulations for VHF discharge plasmas have been performed to study the H atom generation, diffusion and recombination kinetics. The simulations suggest that H atoms are generated in the bulk plasma, by the electron impact dissociation (e + H2 \\to e + 2H) and the ion-molecule reaction (H2 + + H2 \\to {{{H}}}3+ + H). The diffusion of H atoms is strongly limited by a mesh electrode, and thus the mesh geometry influences the spatial distribution of the H atoms. The loss of H atoms is dominated by the surface recombination.

  5. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. To achieve this result, we reduce k-LocVRP to the following generalization of k median, which might be of independent interest. Given a metric (V, d), bound k...... median forest, which leads to a (12+E)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant E > 0. The algorithm for k median forest is t-swap local search, and we prove that it has locality gap 3 + 2 t ; this generalizes the corresponding result for k median [3]. Finally we consider the k median......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so...

  6. Ultrasensitive interdigitated capacitance immunosensor using gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Zeinabad, Hojjat; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Falahati, Mojtaba; Fathipour, Morteza; Azizi, Marzieh; Boutorabi, Seyed Mehdi

    2018-06-01

    Immunosensors based on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), have recently demonstrated significant improvements in the sensitivity of capacitance detection. Herein, a novel type of highly sensitive, compact and portable immunosensor based on a gold interdigital capacitor has been designed and developed for the rapid detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). To improve the efficiency of antibody immobilization and time-saving, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 2-mercaptoethylamine film was coated on IDEs. Afterwards, carboxyl groups on primary antibodies were activated through 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide and were immobilized on amino-terminated SAM for better control of the oriented immobilization of antibodies on gold IDEs. In addition, gold nanoparticles conjugated with a secondary antibody were used to enhance the sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited the sensitivity of 0.22 nF.pg ml–1, the linear range from 5 pg ml‑1 to 1 ng ml–1 and the detection limit of 1.34 pg ml‑1, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  7. Enhanced tunability of magneto-impedance and magneto-capacitance in annealed Metglas/PZT magnetoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Zhuang, Xin; Xu, Junran; Li, Jiefang; Zhang, Jitao; Srinivasan, G.; Viehland, D.

    2018-05-01

    This report is on a new class of magnetostatically tunable magneto-impedance and magneto-capacitance devices based on a composite of ferromagnetic Metglas and ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Layered magneto-electric (ME) composites with annealed Metglas and PZT were studied in a longitudinal in-plane magnetic field-transverse electric field (L-T) mode. It was found that the degree of tunability was dependent on the annealing temperature of Metglas. An impedance tunability (ΔZ/Z0) of ≥400% was obtained at the electromechanical resonance (EMR) frequency (fr) for a sample with Metglas layers annealed at Ta = 500oC. This tunability is a factor of two higher than for composites with Metglas annealed at 350oC. The tunability of the capacitance, (ΔC/C0), was found to be 290% and -135k% at resonance and antiresonance, respectively, for Ta = 500oC. These results provide clear evidence for improvement in static magnetic field tunability of impedance and capacitance of ME composites with the use of annealed Metglas and are of importance for their potential use in tunable electronic applications.

  8. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-03-01

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth.

  9. Stray field signatures of Néel textured skyrmions in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, A.; Almoalem, A.; Soumyanarayanan, Anjan; Tan, Anthony K. C.; Raju, M.; Panagopoulos, C.; Auslaender, O. M.

    2018-05-01

    Skyrmions are nanoscale spin configurations with topological properties that hold great promise for spintronic devices. Here, we establish their Néel texture, helicity, and size in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayer films by constructing a multipole expansion to model their stray field signatures and applying it to magnetic force microscopy images. Furthermore, the demonstrated sensitivity to inhomogeneity in skyrmion properties, coupled with a unique capability to estimate the pinning force governing dynamics, portend broad applicability in the burgeoning field of topological spin textures.

  10. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. in domestic and stray cats from Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Regañón, David; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Ayllón, Tania; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Baneth, Gad; Calleja-Bueno, Lydia; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Agulla, Beatriz; Sainz, Ángel

    2017-03-13

    Different species of apicomplexan protozoans of the genera Hepatozoon and Cytauxzoon can infect domestic cats, but their epidemiology and clinical relevance are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. and to identify associated risk factors and clinical and laboratory abnormalities in a population of cats from Madrid, Spain. Six hundred and forty-four client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain, were included in this study. DNA samples were analyzed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to detect a partial sequence of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. In order to evaluate possible associations between infection by these protozoans and epidemiological or clinical parameters, data were collected related to: the season of sample collection, age, gender, spayed/neutered status, breed, living area, lifestyle, outdoor access, contact with other animals, prey on wild animals, history of tick or flea infestation, travel history, ectoparasiticide treatment, previous blood transfusion, previous tetracycline administration in the last 60 days, Feline Leukemia virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status, positivity to other vector-borne diseases, the presence or absence of clinical signs and hematological or biochemical alterations. DNA of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. was amplified from the blood of 10 (1.6%) and 8 (1.2%) cats, respectively. Previous treatment with tetracyclines in the last 60 days, previous administration of blood transfusion, a decrease in haematocrit and an increase in creatinine were associated with Hepatozoon spp. infection. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was more frequent in samples collected during the winter months and in cats living in rural areas. This infection was associated with a FIV-positive status. Some of the cats that were positive for Hepatozoon spp. or Cytauxzoon sp. had been exposed to other vector

  11. A capacitive ECG array with visual patient feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilebrecht, Benjamin; Schommartz, Antje; Walter, Marian; Wartzek, Tobias; Czaplik, Michael; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) sensing is a promising technique for less constraining vital signal measurement and close to a commercial application. Even bigger trials testing the diagnostic significance were already done with single lead systems. Anyway, most applications to be found in research are limited to one channel and thus limited in its diagnostic relevance as only diseases coming along with a change of the heart rate can be diagnosed adequately. As a consequence the need for capacitive multi-channel ECGs combining the diagnostic relevance and the advantages of capacitive ECG sensing emerges. This paper introduces a capacitive ECG measurement system which allows the recording of standardized ECG leads according to Einthoven and Goldberger by means of an electrode array with nine electrodes.

  12. Fringe Capacitance of a Parallel-Plate Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to measure the forces between charged parallel plates, and determines the relationship among the effective electrode area, the measured capacitance values, and the electrode spacing of a parallel plate capacitor. (GA)

  13. Capacitance-Power-Hysteresis Trilemma in Nanoporous Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha A. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous supercapacitors are an important player in the field of energy storage that fill the gap between dielectric capacitors and batteries. The key challenge in the development of supercapacitors is the perceived trade-off between capacitance and power delivery. Current efforts to boost the capacitance of nanoporous supercapacitors focus on reducing the pore size so that they can only accommodate a single layer of ions. However, this tight packing compromises the charging dynamics and hence power density. We show via an analytical theory and Monte Carlo simulations that charging is sensitively dependent on the affinity of ions to the pores, and that high capacitances can be obtained for ionophobic pores of widths significantly larger than the ion diameter. Our theory also predicts that charging can be hysteretic with a significant energy loss per cycle for intermediate ionophilicities. We use these observations to explore the parameter regimes in which a capacitance-power-hysteresis trilemma may be avoided.

  14. Integration of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers to Microfluidic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius; Kodzius, Rimantas; Vanagas, Galius

    2013-01-01

    The design and manufacturing flexibility of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) makes them attractive option for integration with microfluidic devices both for sensing and fluid manipulation. CMUT concept is introduced here

  15. Investigation of capacitance characteristics in metal/high-k ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 4 May 2016; accepted 10 January 2017; published online 21 August 2017. Abstract. Capacitance vs. ... with high-k materials is the prime technological challenge. [2]. ... reliability of MOS devices are strongly dependent on the for-.

  16. Integration of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers to Microfluidic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius

    2013-10-22

    The design and manufacturing flexibility of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) makes them attractive option for integration with microfluidic devices both for sensing and fluid manipulation. CMUT concept is introduced here by presentin

  17. Low Power/Low Voltage Interface Circuitry for Capacitive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furst, Claus Efdmann

    This thesis focuses mainly on low power/low voltage interface circuits, implemented in CMOS, for capacitive sensors. A brief discussion of demands and possibilities for analog signal processing in the future is presented. Techniques for low power design is presented. This is done by analyzing power...... power consumption. It is shown that the Sigma-Delta modulator is advantageous when embedded in a feedback loop with a mechanical sensor. Here a micro mechanical capacitive microphone. Feedback and detection circuitry for a capacitive microphone is presented. Practical implementations of low power....../low voltage interface circuitry is presented. It is demonstrated that an amplifier optimized for a capacitive microphone implemented in a standard 0.7 micron CMOS technology competes well with a traditional JFET amplifier. Furthermore a low power/low voltage 3rd order Sigma-Delta modulator is presented...

  18. Capacitance-Power-Hysteresis Trilemma in Nanoporous Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alpha A; Vella, Dominic; Goriely, Alain; Kondrat, Svyatoslav

    2015-01-01

    Nanoporous supercapacitors are an important player in the field of energy storage that fill the gap between dielectric capacitors and batteries. The key challenge in the development of supercapacitors is the perceived trade-off between capacitance and power delivery. Current efforts to boost the capacitance of nanoporous supercapacitors focus on reducing the pore size so that they can only accommodate a single layer of ions. However, this tight packing compromises the charging dynamics and he...

  19. Conjugate Image Theory Applied on Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Minnaert; Nobby Stevens

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power transfer using a magnetic field through inductive coupling is steadily entering the market in a broad range of applications. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer using electric coupling might be preferable. In order to obtain a maximum power transfer efficiency, an optimal compensation network must be designed at the input and output ports of the capacitive wireless link. In this work, the conjugate image theory is applied to determine this opti...

  20. Current Progress of Capacitive Deionization for Removal of Pollutant Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Mahendra S.; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2016-08-01

    A mini review of a recently developing water purification technology capacitive deionization (CDI) applied for removal of pollutant ions is provided. The current progress of CDI for removal of different pollutant ions such as arsenic, fluoride, boron, phosphate, lithium, copper, cadmium, ferric, and nitrate ions is presented. This paper aims at motivating new research opportunities in capacitive deionization technology for removal of pollutant ions from polluted water.

  1. Capacitive Imaging For Skin Characterization and Solvent Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, P; Zhang, X; Bontozoglou, C

    2016-01-01

    Capacitive contact imaging has shown potential in measuring skin properties including hydration, micro relief analysis, as well as solvent penetration measurements . Through calibration we can also measure the absolute permittivity of the skin, and from absolute permittivity we then work out the absolute water content (or solvent content) in skin. In this paper, we present our latest study of capacitive contact imaging for skin characterization, i.e. skin hydration and skin damages etc. The r...

  2. New Type Multielectrode Capacitance Sensor for Liquid Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y R [China University of Petroleum (Huadong), Qingdao (China); Shi, A P [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Chen, G Q [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Chang, Y Y [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Hang, Z [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Liu, B M [Binzhou University, Binzhou (China)

    2006-10-15

    This paper introduces the design of a new type multielectrode capacitance sensor for liquid level. The system regards electric field sensor MC33794 as the core and applies microcontroller MC9S12DJ128 to realize intelligent liquid level monitoring system, which overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional capacitance sensor, improves on the anti-jamming ability and the measurement precision and simplifies the system structure. Finally, the paper sums up the design of the system.

  3. Capacitive Coupling in Double-Circuit Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Benesova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an algorithm for calculation of capacitances and charges on conductors in systems with earth wires and in double-circuit overhead lines with respect to phase arrangement. A balanced voltage system is considered. A suitable transposition of individual conductors enables to reduce the electric and magnetic fields in vicinity of overhead lines and to limit the inductive and capacitive linkage. The procedure is illustrated on examples the results of which lead to particular recommendations for designers.

  4. Introducing radiality constraints in capacitated location-routing problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Mirledy Toro Ocampo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a unified mathematical formulation for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP and for the Capacitated Location Routing Problem (CLRP, adopting radiality constraints in order to guarantee valid routes and eliminate subtours. This idea is inspired by formulations already employed in electric power distribution networks, which requires a radial topology in its operation. The results show that the proposed formulation greatly improves the convergence of the solver.

  5. Uncertainty quantification in capacitive RF MEMS switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pax, Benjamin J.

    Development of radio frequency micro electrical-mechanical systems (RF MEMS) has led to novel approaches to implement electrical circuitry. The introduction of capacitive MEMS switches, in particular, has shown promise in low-loss, low-power devices. However, the promise of MEMS switches has not yet been completely realized. RF-MEMS switches are known to fail after only a few months of operation, and nominally similar designs show wide variability in lifetime. Modeling switch operation using nominal or as-designed parameters cannot predict the statistical spread in the number of cycles to failure, and probabilistic methods are necessary. A Bayesian framework for calibration, validation and prediction offers an integrated approach to quantifying the uncertainty in predictions of MEMS switch performance. The objective of this thesis is to use the Bayesian framework to predict the creep-related deflection of the PRISM RF-MEMS switch over several thousand hours of operation. The PRISM switch used in this thesis is the focus of research at Purdue's PRISM center, and is a capacitive contacting RF-MEMS switch. It employs a fixed-fixed nickel membrane which is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage between the membrane and a pull-down electrode. Creep plays a central role in the reliability of this switch. The focus of this thesis is on the creep model, which is calibrated against experimental data measured for a frog-leg varactor fabricated and characterized at Purdue University. Creep plasticity is modeled using plate element theory with electrostatic forces being generated using either parallel plate approximations where appropriate, or solving for the full 3D potential field. For the latter, structure-electrostatics interaction is determined through immersed boundary method. A probabilistic framework using generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) is used to create surrogate models to mitigate the costly full physics simulations, and Bayesian calibration and forward

  6. Capacitance of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hengxing; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Zhenhua; Jung, Jeil; Zhu, Yanwu; Lu, Yalin; Zhang, Li Li; MacDonald, Allan H; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental electrical double-layer capacitances of porous carbon electrodes fall below ideal values, thus limiting the practical energy densities of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors. Here we investigate the origin of this behaviour by measuring the electrical double-layer capacitance in one to five-layer graphene. We find that the capacitances are suppressed near neutrality, and are anomalously enhanced for thicknesses below a few layers. We attribute the first effect to quantum capacitance effects near the point of zero charge, and the second to correlations between electrons in the graphene sheet and ions in the electrolyte. The large capacitance values imply gravimetric energy storage densities in the single-layer graphene limit that are comparable to those of batteries. We anticipate that these results shed light on developing new theoretical models in understanding the electrical double-layer capacitance of carbon electrodes, and on opening up new strategies for improving the energy density of carbon-based capacitors.

  7. Promotion of cooperation in the form C0C1D classified by 'degree grads' in a scale-free network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Li; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Huang, Zi-Gang; Sun, Jin-Tu; Yang, Lei; Wang, Ying-Hai; Do, Younghae

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the issue of the public goods game (PGG) on a heterogeneous graph. By introducing a new effective topology parameter, 'degree grads' ψ, we clearly classify the agents into three kinds, namely, C 0 , C 1 , and D. The mechanism for the heterogeneous topology promoting cooperation is discussed in detail from the perspective of C 0 C 1 D, which reflects the fact that the unreasoning imitation behaviour of C 1 agents, who are 'cheated' by the well-paid C 0 agents inhabiting special positions, stabilizes the formation of the cooperation community. The analytical and simulation results for certain parameters are found to coincide well with each other. The C 0 C 1 D case provides a picture of the actual behaviours in real society and thus is potentially of interest

  8. Factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Bolio, G M E

    2003-07-10

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico. The study was carried out in 200 stray dogs of Mérida capital city of Yucatán, Mexico. Four samples (head, thoracic-abdominal area, extremities and ear) were taken from each animal by skin scraping and examined microscopically in 10% KOH solution to detect the presence of mites. Mites were also collected from the external ear canal of dogs using cotton-tipped swabs. The prevalence of different mite species was calculated. A primary screening was performed using 2xK contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with PDemodex canis (23.0%) was the most frequent mite, followed by Sarcoptes scabei var. canis (7.0%) and Otodectes cynotis (3.5%). The following factors were found: body condition (bad, OR: 5.35, CI 95%: 1.66-17.3; regular, OR: 3.72, CI 95%: 1.39-9.99) and the presence of macroscopic lesions of dermatosis (OR: 42.80, CI 95%: 13.65-134.24).

  9. Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus taeniasis in stray dogs in the region of Constantine (North-East Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohil, K; Benchikh El Fegoun, M C; Gharbi, M

    2017-10-01

    In North Africa, the domestic dog is regarded as the main reservoir for infection by Echinococcus granulosus of domestic livestock and man. In Algeria, there is very little data on the rate of infestation of dogs, while the prevalence of E. granulosus in the definitive host is a very reliable marker of the potential risk of transmission of cystic tapeworm to humans and livestock. To find out this information, a survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of infection with E. granulosus in stray dogs in the region of Constantine (North-East Algeria). We autopsied and examined 120 stray dogs, 22 (18.3%) of which were infected with E. granulosus, with an average intensity of infestation of 249 worms. The prevalence in the area of survey was evaluated: 15.5% (14/90) and 26.6% (8/30) dogs were parasitized by E. granulosus in urban and rural areas respectively. The influence of age on the rate of infection was very marked. In addition, the appreciation of the prevalence of parasitism by cestodes as a whole showed that 56 (46.6%) animals out of 120 were infected. Facing such a situation of endemic tapeworm parasitism, with a potential risk of transmission to humans, there is an urgent need to take measures to control and break the epidemiological cycles of the parasite.

  10. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, F. R.; Negrisoli, M. E. M.; Franco, C. V.

    2003-01-01

    With the growth of several areas in modern society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO 4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that flow through the ground to close the loop between neighboring towers. Stray currents originate in the lightning rod cables of the power line towers, induced by the strong electromagnetic and electric fields of the energized power lines. The intensity and direction of those currents were measured, indicating substantial values of both their AC and DC components. The potential of the tower ground system, measured in the perpendicular direction of the main axis of the power line, was plotted as a function of the distance to the tower base. The results clearly indicated the tendency to corrosive attack in the anodic towers as reflected by the slope of the plot, whereas no signs of corrosion could be found in the reverse slope, confirming the visual inspection of the foundation. The profile of the potential plots could be changed providing the electric insulation of the lightning rod cable. (Author) 8 refs

  11. An assessment of the stray light in 25 years of Dobson total ozone data at Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulakis, J.; Varotsos, C.; Cracknell, A. P.; Tzanis, C.; Neofytos, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of the Dobson spectrophotometer No. 118 to stray light interference. In this regard, a series of total ozone content measurements were carried out in Athens, Greece for air-mass values (μ) extending up to μ = 5. The monochromatic-heterochromatic stray light derived by Basher's model was used in order to evaluate the specific instrumental parameters which determine if this instrument suffers from this problem or not. The results obtained indicate that the measurements made by the Dobson instrument of the Athens station for air mass values up to 2.5, underestimates the total ozone content by 3.5 DU in average, or about 1 % of the station's mean total ozone content (TOC). The comparison of the values of the same parameters measured 15 years ago with the present ones indicates the good maintenance of the Dobson spectrophotometer No. 118. This fact is of crucial importance because the variability of the daily total ozone observations collected by the Athens Dobson Station since 1989 has proved to be representative to the variability of the mean total ozone observed over the whole mid-latitude zone of the Northern Hemisphere. This stresses the point that the Athens total ozone station, being the unique Dobson station in south-eastern Europe, may be assumed as a ground truth station for the reliable conversion of the satellite radiance observations to total ozone measurements.

  12. Message Collision Avoidance Protocols for Detecting Stray Nodes in a Scuba Diving Group Using Ultrasonic Multi-Hop Message Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Kaido

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in underwater communication and some progress has been made in this area. However, underwater communication is still immature compared with terrestrial communication. A prime reason for this is that the underwater environment is intrinsically not suitable for propagation of electric waves. Instead, ultrasonic waves are mainly used for underwater communication. Since ultrasonic waves cannot provide sufficient communication speed or capacity, they cannot use existing network technologies, which assume use of radio waves. In particular, communication in shallow water is still an uncharted territory. Few communication technologies are employed in environments where people enjoy scuba diving. This paper addresses problems faced by recreational scuba divers. It proposes constructing an ad hoc mesh-shaped network between divers within a group and use ultrasonic waves as transmission media in order to enable the detection of a stray diver. It also proposes a communication protocol in which messages are relayed in multiple hops, and a message collision avoidance method, which is intended to reduce the rate of packet loss caused by message propagation delay. We have implemented the proposed methods in a network simulator, and compared them with an existing communication method that has no message collision avoidance function, in terms of the packet loss rate, the stray driver detection rate, and the rate of the ability to communicate in multiple hops.

  13. Microstructural characterization and compression properties of TiC0.61/Cu(Al) composite synthesized from Cu and Ti3AlC2 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhenying; Bonneville, Joel; Zhai, Hongxiang; Gauthier-Brunet, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Submicro-layered TiC 0.61 /Cu(Al) nanocomposite. • MAX phase. • High yield stress. • Deformation mechanism. - Abstract: A new submicro-layered TiC 0.61 /Cu(Al) composite has been prepared by hot-pressing a mixture of 50 vol.% Ti 3 AlC 2 and 50 vol.% Cu powders at 1150 °C and 30 MPa. It is shown that the initial reinforcement Ti 3 AlC 2 particles have, after synthesis, an unusual microstructure, which consists of submicron-thick layers of TiC 0.61 and Cu(Al) alloy. Both the width of the TiC 0.61 and Cu(Al) layers are ∼150 nm. Thus, the Ti 3 AlC 2 particles are decomposed into the TiC 0.61 phase, while the additional Al atoms provided by Ti 3 AlC 2 diffuse into the molten Cu matrix at high temperature. Compression tests were performed at constant strain rate in the temperature range 20–800 °C. The new designed TiC 0.61 /Cu(Al) composite has both a high yield stress, σ 0.2 measured at 0.2% strain offset, and a high ultimate compressive strength, σ UCS , which is attributed to strong interface bonding between TiC 0.61 and Cu(Al) phase. For instance, at 20 and 200 °C, σ 0.2 is 770 MPa and 700 MPa, while σ UCS is 1.18 GPa and 1 GPa, respectively. Plastic deformation takes place in the Cu(Al) matrix. Wavy slip lines are observed indicating that cross-slip could be the dominant deformation mechanism

  14. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Pedro; Duarte, Ana; Gil, Solange; Cartaxeiro, Clara; Malta, Manuel; Vieira, Sara; Tavares, Luis

    2014-04-23

    Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88).From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from

  15. Magnetoresistance properties of Fe0,2C0,8 composite materials pre and post gamma irradiated at 250 kGy dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunasfi; Setyo Purwanto; Wisnu A A

    2009-01-01

    Research about change of, magnetoresistance properties of Fe 0,2 C 0,8 composite materials pre and post gamma irradiation at a dose of 250 kGy was carried out. Fe 0,2 C 0,8 was prepared by mixing of Fe and C powder with the ratio of Fe : C set on 20:80 in weight %. In this research, the phase structure and magnetic properties of Fe 0,2 C 0,8 composite materials after 250 KGy dose of gamma irradiation have been measured and analyzed. The phase structure of Fe 0,2 C 0,8 was analyzed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), whole the magnetoresistance properties was characterized using Four Point Probe method. The analyzing results showed the decreasing of X-ray diffraction peak intensity, but also in the same time showed the increasing of magnetoresistance properties after gamma irradiation. The enhancement of magnetoresistance value reached 5 times at 7,5 kOe magnetic field. This enhancement was caused due to structure defect within Fe 0,2 C 0,8 composite initiated by interaction between radiation of gamma ray and composite materials that further causes a change of magnetic interaction intensity in this materials. (author)

  16. Electrosorption capacitance of nanostructured carbon-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chia-Hung; Liang, Chengdu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Dai, Sheng; Tsouris, Costas

    2006-10-01

    The fundamental mechanism of electrosorption of ions developing a double layer inside nanopores was studied via a combination of experimental and theoretical studies. A novel graphitized-carbon monolithic material has proven to be a good electrical double-layer capacitor that can be applied in the separation of ions from aqueous solutions. An extended electrical double-layer model indicated that the pore size distribution plays a key role in determining the double-layer capacitance in an electrosorption process. Because of the occurrence of double-layer overlapping in narrow pores, mesopores and micropores make significantly different contributions to the double-layer capacitance. Mesopores show good electrochemical accessibility. Micropores present a slow mass transfer of ions and a considerable loss of double-layer capacitance, associated with a shallow potential distribution inside pores. The formation of the diffuse layer inside the micropores determines the magnitude of the double-layer capacitance at low electrolyte concentrations and at conditions close to the point of zero charge of the material. The effect of the double-layer overlapping on the electrosorption capacitance can be reduced by increasing the pore size, electrolyte concentration, and applied potential. The results are relevant to water deionization.

  17. Capacitance-Based Frequency Adjustment of Micro Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bazant, M. Z.

    2010-03-01

    The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization, and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a salinity difference. Here, we present a unified mean-field theory for capacitive charging and desalination by ideally polarizable porous electrodes (without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions) valid in the limit of thin double layers (compared to typical pore dimensions). We illustrate the theory for the case of a dilute, symmetric, binary electrolyte using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model of the double layer, for which simple formulae are available for salt adsorption and capacitive charging of the diffuse part of the double layer. We solve the full GCS mean-field theory numerically for realistic parameters in capacitive deionization, and we derive reduced models for two limiting regimes with different time scales: (i) in the “supercapacitor regime” of small voltages and/or early times, the porous electrode acts like a transmission line, governed by a linear diffusion equation for the electrostatic potential, scaled to the RC time of a single pore, and (ii) in the “desalination regime” of large voltages and long times, the porous electrode slowly absorbs counterions, governed by coupled, nonlinear diffusion equations for the pore-averaged potential and salt concentration.

  19. cLite – A Capacitive Signal Conditioning IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krauss Gudrun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ZMD31210 cLite™ – a new member of the ZMDI’s Lite™ family of low-cost sensor signal conditioner (SSC integrated circuits – is described in this paper. The cLite™ is the first conditioner for capacitive sensors. Supporting sensor capacitances from 2 pF up to 260 pF, the new sensor signal conditioner covers a wide range of applications. An important aspect of conditioning a capacitance sensor input signal is the adaptation of the capacitive-to-digital converter (CDC input range to the sensor signal span and offset values in order to maximize accuracy. All typical features of the Lite™ family including the digital calibration math based on EEPROM-stored coefficients and a variety of outputs (I2C™, SPI, PDM, and programmable alarms are integrated in the cLite™ as well. Additional features including a sleep mode and low supply voltage range (down to 2.3 V support the low power concept. The paper focuses in particular on the capacitance sensor adaptation and high precision sensor conditioning.

  20. Capacitance-based frequency adjustment of micro piezoelectric vibration generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinhua; He, Qing; Li, Hong; Chu, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  1. What Do They Have That We Don't Have? Local Libraries and Distance Students: Why Do Students Stray and Can We Get Them Back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Michele; LaDell-Thomas, Julie

    2014-01-01

    A significant number of distance students report they "stray" from their home universities by using local libraries, despite the fact that distance education librarians work hard to provide customized resources and services tailored to their programs and needs. Are public libraries and special libraries able to meet the research needs of…

  2. Design and testing of a magnetic shield for the Thomson scattering photomultiplier tubes in the stray fields of the ERASMUS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desoppere, E.; Van Oost, G.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple coaxial shield system has been designed for the photomultiplier tubes of the ERASMUS tokamak Thomson scattering diagnostic. A stray field of 75 x 10 -4 T was reduced to 0.01 x 10 -4 T for a field parallel to the tube axis, and to 0.03 x 10 -4 T for a perpendicular field

  3. Enabling Junction Temperature Estimation via Collector-Side Thermo-Sensitive Electrical Parameters through Emitter Stray Inductance in High-Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Li, Wuhua; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes the adoption of the inherent emitter stray inductance LeE in high-power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules as a new dynamic thermo-sensitive electrical parameter (d-TSEP). Furthermore, a family of 14 derived dynamic TSEP candidates has been extracted and classified...

  4. Visualization of gas dissolution following upward gas migration in porous media: Technique and implications for stray gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Ven, C. J. C.; Mumford, Kevin G.

    2018-05-01

    The study of gas-water mass transfer in porous media is important in many applications, including unconventional resource extraction, carbon storage, deep geological waste storage, and remediation of contaminated groundwater, all of which rely on an understanding of the fate and transport of free and dissolved gas. The novel visual technique developed in this study provided both quantitative and qualitative observations of gas-water mass transfer. Findings included interaction between free gas architecture and dissolved plume migration, plume geometry and longevity. The technique was applied to the injection of CO2 in source patterns expected for stray gas originating from oil and gas operations to measure dissolved phase concentrations of CO2 at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data set is the first of its kind to provide high resolution quantification of gas-water dissolution, and will facilitate an improved understanding of the fundamental processes of gas movement and fate in these complex systems.

  5. Low-Energy Microfocus X-Ray Source for Enhanced Testing Capability in the Stray Light Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen; Kolodziejczak, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Research toward high-resolution, soft x-ray optics (mirrors and gratings) necessary for the next generation large x-ray observatories requires x-ray testing using a low-energy x-ray source with fine angular size (energy microfocus (approximately 0.1 mm spot) x-ray source from TruFocus Corporation that mates directly to the Stray Light Facility (SLF). MSFC X-ray Astronomy team members are internationally recognized for their expertise in the development, fabrication, and testing of grazing-incidence optics for x-ray telescopes. One of the key MSFC facilities for testing novel x-ray instrumentation is the SLF. This facility is an approximately 100-m-long beam line equipped with multiple x-ray sources and detectors. This new source adds to the already robust compliment of instrumentation, allowing MSFC to support additional internal and community x-ray testing needs.

  6. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M; Beck, P; Bedogni, R; Cale, E; Caresana, M; Domingo, C; Donadille, L; Dubourg, N; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernández, F; Ferrarini, M; Fiechtner, A; Fuchs, A; García, M J; Golnik, N; Gutermuth, F; Khurana, S; Klages, Th; Latocha, M; Mares, V; Mayer, S; Radon, T; Reithmeier, H; Rollet, S; Roos, H; Rühm, W; Sandri, S; Schardt, D; Simmer, G; Spurný, F; Trompier, F; Villa-Grasa, C; Weitzenegger, E; Wiegel, B; Wielunski, M; Wissmann, F; Zechner, A; Zielczyński, M

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005–2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with “complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces” and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Th...

  7. Fabrication of a printed capacitive air-gap touch sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Hwiwon; Lee, Sangyoon

    2018-05-01

    Unlike lithography-based processes, printed electronics does not require etching, which makes it difficult to fabricate electronic devices with an air gap. In this study, we propose a method to fabricate capacitive air-gap touch sensors via printing and coating. First, the bottom electrode was fabricated on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate using roll-to-roll gravure printing with silver ink. Then poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was spin coated to form a sacrificial layer. The top electrode was fabricated on the sacrificial layer by spin coating with a stretchable silver ink. The sensor samples were then put in a tetrabutylammonium (TBAF) bath to generate the air gap by removing the sacrificial layer. The capacitance of the samples was measured for verification, and the results show that the capacitance increases in proportion to the applied force from 0 to 2.5 N.

  8. CMOS capacitive biosensors for highly sensitive biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, An-Yu; Lu, Michael S-C

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic microbeads are widely used in biotechnology and biomedical research for manipulation and detection of cells and biomolecules. Most lab-on-chip systems capable of performing manipulation and detection require external instruments to perform one of the functions, leading to increased size and cost. This work aims at developing an integrated platform to perform these two functions by implementing electromagnetic microcoils and capacitive biosensors on a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) chip. Compared to most magnetic-type sensors, our detection method requires no externally applied magnetic fields and the associated fabrication is less complicated. In our experiment, microbeads coated with streptavidin were driven to the sensors located in the center of microcoils with functionalized anti-streptavidin antibody. Detection of a single microbead was successfully demonstrated using a capacitance-to-frequency readout. The average capacitance changes for the experimental and control groups were -5.3 fF and -0.2 fF, respectively.

  9. 3D capacitive tactile sensor using DRIE micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chiehtang; Chen, Rongshun

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a three dimensional micro capacitive tactile sensor that can detect normal and shear forces which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) bulk silicon micromachining. The tactile sensor consists of a force transmission plate, a symmetric suspension system, and comb electrodes. The sensing character is based on the changes of capacitance between coplanar sense electrodes. High sensitivity is achieved by using the high aspect ratio interdigital electrodes with narrow comb gaps and large overlap areas. The symmetric suspension mechanism of this sensor can easily solve the coupling problem of measurement and increase the stability of the structure. In this paper, the sensor structure is designed, the capacitance variation of the proposed device is theoretically analyzed, and the finite element analysis of mechanical behavior of the structures is performed.

  10. A microcontroller-based interface circuit for lossy capacitive sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverter, Ferran; Casas, Òscar

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses a low-cost microcontroller-based interface circuit for lossy capacitive sensors, i.e. sensors whose parasitic conductance (G x ) is not negligible. Such a circuit relies on a previous circuit also proposed by the authors, in which the sensor is directly connected to a microcontroller without using either a signal conditioner or an analogue-to-digital converter in the signal path. The novel circuit uses the same hardware, but it performs an additional measurement and executes a new calibration technique. As a result, the sensitivity of the circuit to G x decreases significantly (a factor higher than ten), but not completely due to the input capacitances of the port pins of the microcontroller. Experimental results show a relative error in the capacitance measurement below 1% for G x x ) shows the effectiveness of the circuit

  11. Theoretical investigations on the elastic and thermodynamic properties of Ti2AlC0.5N0.5 solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Y.L.; Sun, Z.M.; Hashimoto, H.; Barsoum, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    We have performed theoretical studies on the elastic and thermodynamic properties of the solid solution: Ti 2 AlC 0.5 N 0.5 . The lattice parameters, elastic constants, bulk, shear, Young's moduli, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature were calculated and compared with those of the end members, Ti 2 AlC and Ti 2 AlN. The temperature dependence of the bulk moduli, thermal expansion coefficient and specific heats of Ti 2 AlC 0.5 N 0.5 were obtained from the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The calculated elastic and thermodynamic properties were compared with experimental data.

  12. Morphological Alterations of the Surfaces of Enamel and Dentin of Deciduous Teeth Irradiated with Nd:YAG, C0(2)and Diode Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Mónica Rodrigues de; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Azevedo, Luciane H; Tanji, Edgar Y

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of C0(2), Nd:YAG and diode lasers on the enamel and dentin of deciduous human teeth. After the irradiations, the samples were duly prepared and set up on metallic bases, covered with gold and examined in the scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the irradiation with the C0(2) mode locked laser with 1.0 W power caused melting and irregularities with small cavities on the surface of the enamel. The irradiated area on the dentin surface appear...

  13. A cross section measurement of charm hyperons Ξc+ and Ξc0 in 250 GeV p/K/π-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.; Vergara, A.

    1995-01-01

    Fermilab Experiment 769 used a charge-selected, hadron beam of mean energy 250 GeV/c, composed of pions, kaons, and protons, impinging on beryllium, aluminum, copper and tungsten targets. Using a sample of approximately 4000 Ξ s - → Λ 0 π - decays, measurements of the charm baryon forward cross sections times branching ratio π ± N → Ξ c + X and π ± N → Ξ c 0 X are presented. Upper limits on α x BR are also determined for the states Ξ c + → Ξ s - π + π + and Ξ c 0 → Ξ s - π + produced in (p, π + , π - , K + , K - )-nucleon interactions

  14. Endoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran with Special Reference to Zoonotic Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Adinezadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To find out different species of helminthes and blood/tissue proto­zoan parasites of stray dogs and their potential role for transmission of zoonotic species to human in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast Iran, during 2008-2009.Methods: Totally, 100 stray dogs were selected among Mashhad municipal collection from different sites of the city. Internal organs were examined for any parasites. Helminthes were identified based on morphological characteristics. Smears prepared from peripheral blood as well as liver, spleen and any skin lesion were stained by Giemsa and examined microscopically. Samples obtained from spleen were aseptically cultured in three culture media including NNN, Schneider’s Drosophila (HIMEDIA and RPMI1640 (GIBCO for isolation of Leishmania spp. The titer of anti-Leishmania and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were measured by direct agglutination test (DAT and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, respectively.Results: 84% of dogs were infected at least with one species of intestinal helminthes. The species of parasites and rate of infection were as follows: Taenia hydatigena (61%, Dipylidium caninum (46%, Mesocestoides lineatus (19%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, Toxascaris leonina (53% and Toxocara canis (7%. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected by DAT in 8 dogs (8% at 1:320 titers and higher. Forty seven dogs (47% showed anti-Toxoplasma titer at 1:10 and 17 (17% showed titer of ≥1:100. No blood parasites were found in prepared blood smears.Conclusion: The high rate of parasitic infection and presence of zoonotic species

  15. Intrinsic Low Hysteresis Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Hysteresis has always been one of the main concerns when fabricating touch mode capacitive pressure sensors (TMCPS). This phenomenon can be fought at two different levels: during fabrication or after fabrication with the aid of a dedicated signal conditioning circuit. We will describe...... a microfabrication step that can be introduced in order to reduce drastically the hysteresis of this type of sensors without compromising their sensitivity. Medium-high range (0 to 10 bar absolute pressure) TMCPS with a capacitive signal span of over 100pF and less than 1 % hysteresis in the entire pressure range...

  16. [Impact of sperm capacitation on various populations of human spermatozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva Díaz, C; Suárez Juárez, M; Díaz, M A; Ayala Ruiz, A

    1989-02-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the impact of spermatic capacitation on different spermatozooa populations, 49 samples of semen, before and after in vitro spermatic capacitation with Ham F-10 medium, were studied; motility of cells was evaluated according to WHO criteria. There was diminution of percentage of immobile cells, 27.8 to 20.0, as well as increase in population of cells with more mobility, 28.6% to 39.1%. Both difference were statistically significant (p = less than 0.05 and p = less than 0.005, respectively). These data suggest that spermatic capacitacion activates "in cascade" all groups of gametes.

  17. A Multifunction Low-Power Preamplifier for MEMS Capacitive Microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawed, Syed Arsalan; Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Gottardi, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    A multi-function two-stage chopper-stabilized preamplifier (PAMP) for MEMS capacitive microphones (MCM) is presented. The PAMP integrates digitally controllable gain, high-pass filtering and offset control, adding flexibility to the front-end readout of MCMs. The first stage of the PAMP consists...... of a source-follower (SF) while the second-stage is a capacitive gain stage. The second-stage employs chopper-stabilization (CHS), while SF buffer shields the MCM sensor from the switching spurs. The PAMP uses M poly bias resistors for the second-stage, exploiting Miller effect to achieve flat audio...

  18. A multichannel portable ECG system with capacitive sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehler, M; Schilling, M; Ling, V; Melhorn, K

    2008-01-01

    Capacitive sensors can be employed for measuring the electrocardiogram of a human heart without electric contact with the skin. This configuration avoids contact problems experienced by conventional electrocardiography. In our studies, we integrated these capacitive electrocardiogram electrodes in a 15-sensor array and combined this array with a tablet personal computer. By placing the system on the patient's body, we can measure a 15-channel electrocardiogram even through clothes and without any preparation. The goal of this development is to provide a new diagnostic tool that offers the user a reproducible, easy access to a fast and spatially resolved diagnostic 'heart view'

  19. Development of Image Reconstruction Algorithms in electrical Capacitance Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Barcala Riveira, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) has not obtained a good development in order to be used at industrial level. That is due first to difficulties in the measurement of very little capacitances (in the range of femto farads) and second to the problem of reconstruction on- line of the images. This problem is due also to the small numbers of electrodes (maximum 16), that made the usual algorithms of reconstruction has many errors. In this work it is described a new purely geometrical method that could be used for this purpose. (Author) 4 refs

  20. A method for determining the branching ratio for the superallowed decay: 10C(0+, gs)→10B(0+, 1.74 MeV)+e++ν

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroupa, M.A.; Freedman, S.J.; Barker, P.H.; Ferguson, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a new way of determining the strength of the superallowed branch of the β-decay of 10 C, 10 C(0 + , gs) → 10 B(0 + , 1.74 MeV) + e + + ν. Precise knowledge of the branching ratio is needed to compute the experimental ft-value and the weak vector coupling constant. (orig.)

  1. On the fine spectrum of the generalized difference operator B(r,s over the sequence spaces c0 and c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilâl Altay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We determine the fine spectrum of the generalized difference operator B(r,s defined by a band matrix over the sequence spaces c0 and c, and derive a Mercerian theorem. This generalizes our earlier work (2004 for the difference operator Δ, and includes as other special cases the right shift and the Zweier matrices.

  2. Finite-element simulations of coupling capacitances in capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)755510

    2017-01-01

    Capacitively coupled hybrid silicon pixel-detector assemblies are under study for the vertex detector at the proposed future CLIC linear electron-positron collider. The assemblies consist of active CCPDv3 sensors, with 25 μm pixel pitch implemented in a 180 nm High- Voltage CMOS process, which are glued to the CLICpix readout ASIC, with the same pixel pitch and processed in a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology. The signal created in the silicon bulk of the active sensors passes a two-stage amplifier, in each pixel, and gets transferred as a voltage pulse to metal pads facing the readout chip (ROC). The coupling of the signal to the metal pads on the ROC side proceeds through the capacitors formed between the two chips by a thin layer of epoxy glue. The coupling strength and the amount of unwanted cross coupling to neighbouring pixels depends critically on the uniformity of the glue layer, its thickness and on the alignment precision during the flip-chip assembly process. Finite-element calculations of the coup...

  3. C0 and C1 N-terminal Ig domains of myosin binding protein C exert different effects on thin filament activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Samantha P; Belknap, Betty; Van Sciver, Robert E; White, Howard D; Galkin, Vitold E

    2016-02-09

    Mutations in genes encoding myosin, the molecular motor that powers cardiac muscle contraction, and its accessory protein, cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C), are the two most common causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Recent studies established that the N-terminal domains (NTDs) of cMyBP-C (e.g., C0, C1, M, and C2) can bind to and activate or inhibit the thin filament (TF). However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which NTDs modulate interaction of myosin with the TF remains unknown and the contribution of each individual NTD to TF activation/inhibition is unclear. Here we used an integrated structure-function approach using cryoelectron microscopy, biochemical kinetics, and force measurements to reveal how the first two Ig-like domains of cMyPB-C (C0 and C1) interact with the TF. Results demonstrate that despite being structural homologs, C0 and C1 exhibit different patterns of binding on the surface of F-actin. Importantly, C1 but not C0 binds in a position to activate the TF by shifting tropomyosin (Tm) to the "open" structural state. We further show that C1 directly interacts with Tm and traps Tm in the open position on the surface of F-actin. Both C0 and C1 compete with myosin subfragment 1 for binding to F-actin and effectively inhibit actomyosin interactions when present at high ratios of NTDs to F-actin. Finally, we show that in contracting sarcomeres, the activating effect of C1 is apparent only once low levels of Ca(2+) have been achieved. We suggest that Ca(2+) modulates the interaction of cMyBP-C with the TF in the sarcomere.

  4. Comparison of neutron scattering and DFM capacitance instruments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil water evaporation is an important parameter that needs to be accurately measured for the design of water-efficient agricultural systems. With this study, the abilities of the DFM capacitance probes and a neutron water meter (NWM) to measure evaporation from the soil surface were compared. Measured evaporation was ...

  5. CAPACITANCE OF SUPERCAPACITORS WITH ELECTRODES BASED ON CARBON NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    S.L Revo; B.I Rachiy; S Hamamda; T.G Avramenko; K.O Ivanenko

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the results of our research of the structure and practically important characteristics of a nanocomposite material on the basis of nanoporous carbon and thermally exfoliated graphite. This work shows that the use of the abovementioned composition in electrodes for supercapacitors allows to attain the level of their specific electrical capacitance at (155...160) F/g.

  6. Novel rf power sensor based on capacitive MEMS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, L.J.; Visser, Eelke; Sesé, J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Flokstra, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We present the theory, design, fabrication of and first measurements on a novel power for radio frequency (rf) signals, based on capacitive measurements. The novelty of this sensor is thtat it measures the force that is created between the rf signal and a grounded membrande suspended above the line

  7. Lightweight linear alternators with and without capacitive tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1993-06-01

    Permanent magnet excited linear alternators rated tens of kW and coupled to free-piston Stirling engines are presently viewed as promising candidates for long term generation of electric power in both space and terrestrial applications. Series capacitive cancellation of the internal inductive reactance of such alternators was considered a viable way to both increase power extraction and to suppress unstable modes of the thermodynamic oscillation. Idealized toroidal and cylindrical alternator geometries are used for a comparative study of the issues of specific mass and capacitive tuning, subject to stability criteria. The analysis shows that the stator mass of an alternator designed to be capacitively tuned is always greater than the minimum achievable stator mass of an alternator designed with no capacitors, assuming equal utilization of materials ratings and the same frequency and power to a resistive load. This conclusion is not substantially altered when the usually lesser masses of the magnets and of any capacitors are added. Within the reported stability requirements and under circumstances of normal materials ratings, this study finds no clear advantage to capacitive tuning. Comparative plots of the various constituent masses are presented versus the internal power factor taken as a design degree of freedom. The explicit formulas developed for stator core, coil, capacitor, and magnet masses and for the degree of magnet utilization provide useful estimates of scaling effects.

  8. An integrated energy-efficient capacitive sensor digital interface circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient 13-bit capacitive sensor interface circuit. The proposed design fully relies on successive approximation algorithm, which eliminates the need for oversampling and digital decimation filtering, and thus low-power consumption is achieved. The proposed architecture employs a charge amplifier stage to acheive parasitic insensitive operation and fine absolute resolution. Moreover, the output code is not affected by offset voltages or charge injection. The successive approximation algorithm is implemented in the capacitance-domain using a coarse-fine programmable capacitor array, which allows digitizing wide capacitance range in compact area. Analysis for the maximum achievable resolution due to mismatch is provided. The proposed design is insensitive to any reference voltage or current which translates to low temperature sensitivity. The operation of a prototype fabricated in a standard CMOS technology is experimentally verified using both on-chip and off-chip capacitive sensors. Compared to similar prior work, the fabricated prototype achieves and excellent energy efficiency of 34 pJ/step.

  9. Calibration of capacitance probe sensors using Electric Circuit Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleners, T.J.; Soppe, R.W.O.; Robinson, D.A.; Schaap, M.G.; Ayars, J.E.; Skaggs, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    Capacitance probe sensors are an attractive electromagnetic technique for estimating soil water content. There is concern, however, about the influence of soil salinity and soil temperature on the sensors. We present an electric circuit model that relates the sensor frequency to the permittivity of

  10. Simulation and optimization of a dc SQUID with finite capacitance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Waal, V.J.; Schrijner, P.; Llurba, R.

    1984-02-01

    This paper deals with the calculations of the noise an the optimization of the energy resolution of a dc SQUID with finite junction capacitance. Up to now noise calculations of dc SQUIDs were performed using a model without parasitic capacitances across the Josephson junctions. As the capacitances limit the performance of the SQUID, for a good optimization one must take them into account. The model consists of two coupled nonlinear second-order differential equations. The equations are very suitable for simulation with an analog circuit. We implemented the model on a hybrid computer. The noise spectrum from the model is calculated with a fast Fourier transform. A calculation of the energy resolution for one set of parameters takes about 6 min of computer time. Detailed results of the optimization are given for products of inductance and temperature of LT = 1.2 and 5 nHK. Within a range of ..beta.. and ..beta../sub c/ between 1 and 2, which is optimum, the energy resolution is nearly independent of these variables. In this region the energy resolution is near the value calculated without parasitic capacitances. Results of the optimized energy resolution are given as a function of LT between 1.2 and 10 nHK.

  11. Simulation and optimization of a dc SQUID with finite capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, V. J.; Schrijner, P.; Llurba, R.

    1984-02-01

    This paper deals with the calculations of the noise and the optimization of the energy resolution of a dc SQUID with finite junction capacitance. Up to now noise calculations of dc SQUIDs were performed using a model without parasitic capacitances across the Josephson junctions. As the capacitances limit the performance of the SQUID, for a good optimization one must take them into account. The model consists of two coupled nonlinear second-order differential equations. The equations are very suitable for simulation with an analog circuit. We implemented the model on a hybrid computer. The noise spectrum from the model is calculated with a fast Fourier transform. A calculation of the energy resolution for one set of parameters takes about 6 min of computer time. Detailed results of the optimization are given for products of inductance and temperature of LT=1.2 and 5 nH K. Within a range of β and β c between 1 and 2, which is optimum, the energy resolution is nearly independent of these variables. In this region the energy resolution is near the value calculated without parasitic capacitances. Results of the optimized energy resolution are given as a function of LT between 1.2 and 10 mH K.

  12. Conjugate Image Theory Applied on Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Minnaert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer using a magnetic field through inductive coupling is steadily entering the market in a broad range of applications. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer using electric coupling might be preferable. In order to obtain a maximum power transfer efficiency, an optimal compensation network must be designed at the input and output ports of the capacitive wireless link. In this work, the conjugate image theory is applied to determine this optimal network as a function of the characteristics of the capacitive wireless link, as well for the series as for the parallel topology. The results are compared with the inductive power transfer system. Introduction of a new concept, the coupling function, enables the description of the compensation network of both an inductive and a capacitive system in two elegant equations, valid for the series and the parallel topology. This approach allows better understanding of the fundamentals of the wireless power transfer link, necessary for the design of an efficient system.

  13. Capacitive technology for energy extraction from chemical potential differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastos Sales, B.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis introduces the principle of Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan Potential (CDP) to exploit salinity gradients. It also shows the fundamental characterization and improvements of CDP. An alternative application of this technology aimed at thermal gradients was tested.

  14. Resistance identification and rational process design in Capacitive Deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, Jouke; Zhao, R.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2016-01-01

    Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination employing porous carbon electrodes. To enhance the performance of CDI, identification of electronic and ionic resistances in the CDI cell is important. In this work, we outline a method to identify these resistances.

  15. Carbon nanotube yarns as strong flexible conductive capacitive electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Gebben, B.; Otto, M.J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn, consisting of 23 µm diameter CNT filaments, can be used as capacitive electrodes that are long, flexible, conductive and strong, for applications in energy and electrochemical water treatment. We measure the charge storage capacity as function of salt concentration, and

  16. Microfluidic desalination : capacitive deionization on chip for microfluidic sample preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Susan Helena

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the work described in this thesis is to implement the desalination technique capacitive deionization (CDI) on a microfluidic chip to improve the reproducibility in the analysis of biological samples for drug development. Secondly, microfluidic CDI allows for the in situ study of ion

  17. Probing 2D black phosphorus by quantum capacitance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuiri, Manabendra; Kumar, Chandan; Chakraborty, Biswanath; Gupta, Satyendra N; Naik, Mit H; Jain, Manish; Sood, A K; Das, Anindya

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures have emerged as a new class of materials, not only for fundamental physics but also for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Black phosphorus (BP) is a relatively new addition to this class of materials. Its strong in-plane anisotropy makes BP a unique material for making conceptually new types of electronic devices. However, the global density of states (DOS) of BP in device geometry has not been measured experimentally. Here, we report the quantum capacitance measurements together with the conductance measurements on an hBN-protected few-layer BP (∼six layers) in a dual-gated field effect transistor (FET) geometry. The measured DOS from our quantum capacitance is compared with density functional theory (DFT). Our results reveal that the transport gap for quantum capacitance is smaller than that in conductance measurements due to the presence of localized states near the band edge. The presence of localized states is confirmed by the variable range hopping seen in our temperature dependence conductivity. A large asymmetry is observed between the electron and hole side. This asymmetric nature is attributed to the anisotropic band dispersion of BP. Our measurements establish the uniqueness of quantum capacitance in probing the localized states near the band edge, hitherto not seen in conductance measurements. (paper)

  18. Lumped thermal capacitance analysis of transient heat conduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lumped thermal capacitance analysis has been undertaken to investigate the transient temperature variations, associated induced thermal stress distributions, and the structural integrity of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHAR R-1) vessel after 15 years of operation. The beltline configuration of the cylindrical vessel of the ...

  19. Energy consumption and constant current operation in membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, R.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a water desalination technology based on applying a cell voltage between two oppositely placed porous electrodes sandwiching a spacer channel that transports the water to be desalinated. In the salt removal step, ions are adsorbed at the carbon–water

  20. A Micro Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope with Adjustable Static Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Kong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel micro dynamically tuned gyroscope (MDTG with adjustable static capacitance. First, the principle of MDTG is theoretically analyzed. Next, some simulations under the optimized structure parameters are given as a reference for the mask design of the rotor wafer and electrode plates. As two key components, the process flows of the rotor wafer and electrode plates are described in detail. All the scanning electron microscopy (SEM photos show that the fabrication process is effective and optimized. Then, an assembly model is designed for the static capacitance adjustable MDTG, whose static capacitance can be changed by rotating the lower electrode plate support and substituting gasket rings of different thicknesses. Thus, the scale factor is easily changeable. Afterwards, the digitalized closed-loop measurement circuit is simulated. The discrete correction and decoupling modules are designed to make the closed-loop stable and cross-coupling effect small. The dual axis closed-loop system bandwidths can reach more than 60 Hz and the dual axis scale factors are completely symmetrical. All the simulation results demonstrate the proposed fabrication of the MDTG can meet the application requirements. Finally, the paper presents the test results of static and dynamic capacitance values which are consistent with the simulation values.

  1. Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...

  2. Production of pulsed electric fields using capacitively coupled electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.; Schwab, F. A. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that pulsed electric fields can be produced over extended volumes by taking advantage of the internal capacitances in a stacked array of electrodes. The design, construction, and performance of practical arrays are discussed. The prototype arrays involved fields of 100-1000 V/cm extending over several centimeters. Scaling to larger physical dimensions is straightforward.

  3. A capacitive device approach to gravitational wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mours, B.; Yvert, M.

    1988-05-01

    The possible use of a capacitive device to detect gravitational waves is discussed. Special emphasis is put on the detection of permanent periodic sources. The intrinsic properties of such a method, its sensitivity, directionality and its wide frequency band, makes it a very appealing one

  4. Investigation of capacitance characteristics in metal/high-k

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. C − V characteristic; high-k dielectric; interface state density; MIS structure; nanotechnology; TCAD simulation. Abstract. Capacitance vs. voltage ( C − V ) curves at AC high frequency of a metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) capacitorare investigated in this paper. Bi-dimensional simulations with Silvaco TCAD ...

  5. Topology Optimization of Stressed Capacitive RF MEMS Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, Mandy A.; Sigmund, Ole; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    2013-01-01

    Geometry design can improve a capacitive radio-frequency microelectromechanical system switch's reliability by reducing the impacts of intrinsic biaxial stresses and stress gradients on the switch's membrane. Intrinsic biaxial stresses cause stress stiffening, whereas stress gradients cause out-o...

  6. Three dimensional simulated modelling of diffusion capacitance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three dimensional (3-D) simulated modelling was developed to analyse the excess minority carrier density in the base of a polycrystalline bifacial silicon solar cell. The concept of junction recombination velocity was ado-pted to quantify carrier flow through the junction, and to examine the solar cell diffusion capacitance for ...

  7. Concentration Fluctuations and Capacitive Response in Dense Ionic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uralcan, Betul; Aksay, Ilhan A; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Limmer, David T

    2016-07-07

    We use molecular dynamics simulations in a constant potential ensemble to study the effects of solution composition on the electrochemical response of a double layer capacitor. We find that the capacitance first increases with ion concentration following its expected ideal solution behavior but decreases upon approaching a pure ionic liquid in agreement with recent experimental observations. The nonmonotonic behavior of the capacitance as a function of ion concentration results from the competition between the independent motion of solvated ions in the dilute regime and solvation fluctuations in the concentrated regime. Mirroring the capacitance, we find that the characteristic decay length of charge density correlations away from the electrode is also nonmonotonic. The correlation length first decreases with ion concentration as a result of better electrostatic screening but increases with ion concentration as a result of enhanced steric interactions. When charge fluctuations induced by correlated ion-solvent fluctuations are large relative to those induced by the pure ionic liquid, such capacitive behavior is expected to be generic.

  8. Water Desalination Using Capacitive Deionization with Microporous Carbon Electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Weinstein, L.; Dash, R.; Wal, van der A.F.; Bryjak, M.; Gogotsi, Y.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a water desalination technology in which salt ions are removed from brackish water by flowing through a spacer channel with porous electrodes on each side. Upon applying a voltage difference between the two electrodes, cations move to and are accumulated in

  9. The influence of fluorides on mouse sperm capacitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Šandera, M.; Jursová, M.; Vašínová, J.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 108, 1-2 (2008), s. 157-170 ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mouse spermatozoa * Capacitation * Fluorides Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.890, year: 2008

  10. The influence of fluorides on mouse sperm capacitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Šandera, M.; Jursová, M.; Vašinová, J.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 108, 1-2 (2008), s. 157-170 ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : mouse spermatozoa * capacitation * fluorides Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.890, year: 2008

  11. Rapid Prototyping of Tangibles with a Capacitive Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Esbensen, Morten; Kogutowska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    lays the capacitive surface and communication capa- bilities of a Microsoft TouchMouse, both of which are ap- propriated to fulfill the mentined requirements. Unlike ex- isting approaches for rapid prototyping of tangibles like the Arduino boards, using the Toki toolkit does not require de- velopers...

  12. RF-MEMS capacitive switches with high reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Charles L.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.; Sampath, Suresh; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Carpick, Robert W.; Hwang, James; Mancini, Derrick C.; Gudeman, Chris

    2013-09-03

    A reliable long life RF-MEMS capacitive switch is provided with a dielectric layer comprising a "fast discharge diamond dielectric layer" and enabling rapid switch recovery, dielectric layer charging and discharging that is efficient and effective to enable RF-MEMS switch operation to greater than or equal to 100 billion cycles.

  13. Capacitive sensing of droplets for microfluidic devices based on thermocapillary actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.-Z.; Darhuber, A.A.; Troian, S.M.; Wagner, S.

    2004-01-01

    The design and performance of a miniaturized coplanar capacitive sensor is presented whose electrode arrays can also function as resistive microheaters for thermocapillary actuation of liquid films and droplets. Optimal compromise between large capacitive signal and high spatial resolution is

  14. A Capacitance-Based Methodology for the Estimation of Piezoelectric Coefficients of Poled Piezoelectric Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to estimate the piezoelectric coefficients of bulk piezoelectric materials using simple capacitance measurements. The extracted values of d33 and d31 from the capacitance measurements were 506 pC/N and 247 p

  15. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, J., E-mail: jad.farah@irsn.fr; Trompier, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Pôle Radioprotection de l’Homme, BP17, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92260 (France); Mares, V.; Schinner, K.; Wielunski, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Romero-Expósito, M.; Domingo, C. [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain); Trinkl, S. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching 85748 (Germany); Dufek, V. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and National Radiation Protection Institute, Bartoškova 28, Prague 140 00 (Czech Republic); Klodowska, M.; Liszka, M.; Stolarczyk, L.; Olko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Kubancak, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute, Řež CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize stray radiation around the target volume in scanning proton therapy and study the performance of active neutron monitors. Methods: Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS WG9—Radiation protection in medicine) carried out a large measurement campaign at the Trento Centro di Protonterapia (Trento, Italy) in order to determine the neutron spectra near the patient using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) systems. In addition, the work focused on acknowledging the performance of different commercial active dosimetry systems when measuring neutron ambient dose equivalents, H{sup ∗}(10), at several positions inside (8 positions) and outside (3 positions) the treatment room. Detectors included three TEPCs—tissue equivalent proportional counters (Hawk type from Far West Technology, Inc.) and six rem-counters (WENDI-II, LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, a regular and an extended-range NM2B). Meanwhile, the photon component of stray radiation was deduced from the low-lineal energy transfer part of TEPC spectra or measured using a Thermo Scientific™ FH-40G survey meter. Experiments involved a water tank phantom (60 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}) representing the patient that was uniformly irradiated using a 3 mm spot diameter proton pencil beam with 10 cm modulation width, 19.95 cm distal beam range, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Results: Neutron spectrometry around the target volume showed two main components at the thermal and fast energy ranges. The study also revealed the large dependence of the energy distribution of neutrons, and consequently of out-of-field doses, on the primary beam direction (directional emission of intranuclear cascade neutrons) and energy (spectral composition of secondary neutrons). In addition, neutron mapping within the facility was conducted and showed the highest H{sup ∗}(10) value of ∼51 μSv Gy{sup −1}; this was measured at 1.15 m along the beam axis. H{sup ∗}(10) values

  16. EPR and transient capacitance studies on electron-irradiated silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Cheng, L. J.; Mooney, P. M.; Corbett, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    One and two ohm-cm solar cells irradiated with 1 MeV electrons at 30 C were studied using both EPR and transient capacitance techniques. In 2 ohm-cm cells, Si-G6 and Si-G15 EPR spectra and majority carrier trapping levels at (E sub V + 0.23) eV and (E sub V + 0.38) eV were observed, each of which corresponded to the divacancy and the carbon-oxygen-vacancy complex, respectively. In addition, a boron-associated defect with a minority carrier trapping level at (E sub C -0.27) eV was observed. In 1 ohm-cm cells, the G15 spectrum and majority carrier trap at (E sub V + 0.38) eV were absent and an isotropic EPR line appeared at g = 1.9988 (+ or - 0.0003); additionally, a majority carrier trapping center at (E sub V + 0.32) eV, was found which could be associated with impurity lithium. The formation mechanisms of these defects are discussed according to isochronal annealing data in electron-irradiated p-type silicon.

  17. On linear isometries of Banach lattices in C0( ) C0( ) C0( )-spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements are the same point in , and hence we must have T (S) = T (S ), which poses a real difficulty concerning the ..... 1S nor its image by a. A(S) (which is (A1 )|S in accordance with (6.1)) depend on the particular order we choose for the set S. We refer to S ↦→ a. A(S)(1S) as the action of the family a. A on the units 1S, ...

  18. 3D printed biomimetic whisker-based sensor with co-planar capacitive sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamare, John; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a whisker sensor for tactile purposes and which is fabricated by 3D printing. Read-out consists of a capacitive measurement of a co-planar capacitance which is affected by a dielectric that is driven into the electric field of the capacitance. The current

  19. A branch-and-cut-and-price algorithm for the mixed capacitated general routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Wøhlk, Sanne; Lysgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Mixed Capacitated General Routing Problem which is a combination of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem and the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem. The problem is also known as the Node, Edge, and Arc Routing Problem. We propose a Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm...

  20. Study of Bc+ decays to the K+K-π+ final state and evidence for the decay Bc+ →χc0π+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Everse, LA; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Coco, V.; David, P. N Y; De Bruyn, K.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Ketel, T.; Koopman, R. F.; Van Leerdam, J.; Merk, M.; Onderwater, C. J G; Raven, G.; Schiller, M.; Serra, N.; Snoek, H.; Storaci, B.; Syropoulos, V.; Van Tilburg, J.; Tolk, S.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.

    2016-01-01

    A study of Bc+→K+K-π+ decays is performed for the first time using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Evidence for the decay Bc+→χc0(→K+K-)π+ is reported with a significance of 4.0

  1. Neutron diffraction study on the crystal and magnetic structures of arc-melted PrFe10.5Mo1.1C0.4 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Honglin; Xue Yanjie; Zhang Baisheng; Mao Weihua; Yang Jinbo; Cheng Benpei; Yang Yingchang

    1999-01-01

    The crystal and magnetic structures, especially the site occupation of C atoms in the crystal cell of arc-melted PrFe 10.5 Mo 1.1 C 0.4 permanent magnetic alloy have been determined by means of powder neutron diffraction study. Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data indicates that Mo atoms prefers the 8i site, about 76 percent of the C atoms occupy the 8i substitution site, and the other part of C atoms enter the 2b interstitial site. The exact molecular formula should be Pr(Fe 10.575 Mo 1.250 C 0.1.75 C 0.055 . It seems that the site occupation of C atoms in the ThMn 12 -type carbides depends not only on the kind of substitutional transition metals, but also on the components of the substitutional transition metals in the compounds. There are still amount of work to make systematic studies on the relation between them. The effect of C atoms on the magnetic properties is also discussed. (author)

  2. Magnetic charge distribution and stray field landscape of asymmetric néel walls in a magnetically patterned exchange bias layer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingsem, Norbert; Ahrend, Florian; Vock, Silvia; Gottlob, Daniel; Krug, Ingo; Doganay, Hatice; Holzinger, Dennis; Neu, Volker; Ehresmann, Arno

    2017-12-01

    The 3D stray field landscape above an exchange bias layer system with engineered domain walls has been fully characterized by quantitative magnetic force microscopy (qMFM) measurements. This method is based on a complete quantification of the MFM tip’s imaging properties and the subtraction of its contribution from the measured MFM data by deconvolution in Fourier space. The magnetically patterned Ir17Mn83/Co70Fe30-exchange-bias-multilayers have been designed to contain asymmetric head-to-head (hh)/tail-to-tail (tt) Néel walls between domains of different magnetic anisotropies for potential use in guided particle transport. In the current application, qMFM reveals the effective magnetic charge profile on the surface of the sample—with high spatial resolution and in an absolute quantitative manner. These data enable to calculate the magnetostatic potential and the full stray field landscape above the sample surface. It has been successfully tested against: (i) micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization structure of a comparable exchange-bias layer system, (ii) measurements of the magnetization profile across the domain boundary with x-ray photoemission electron microscopy, and (iii) direct stray field measurements obtained by scanning Hall probe microscopy at elevated scan heights. This approach results in a quantitative determination of the stray field landscape at close distances to the sample surface, which will be of importance for remote magnetic particle transport applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. Furthermore, the highly resolving and quantitative MFM approach reveals details of the domain transition across the artificially structured phase boundary, which have to be attributed to a continuous change in the materials parameters across this boundary, rather than an abrupt one.

  3. Source-Sink Estimates of Genetic Introgression Show Influence of Hatchery Strays on Wild Chum Salmon Populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Jasper, James R.; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D.; Grant, W. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. H...

  4. SU-E-T-598: Parametric Equation for Quick and Reliable Estimate of Stray Neutron Doses in Proton Therapy and Application for Intracranial Tumor Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfrate, A; Farah, J; Sayah, R; Clairand, I [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-roses (France); De Marzi, L; Delacroix, S [Institut Curie Centre de Protontherapie d Orsay (CPO), Orsay (France); Herault, J [Centre Antoine Lacassagne (CAL) Cyclotron biomedical, Nice (France); Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); Bolch, W [Univ Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Development of a parametric equation suitable for a daily use in routine clinic to provide estimates of stray neutron doses in proton therapy. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) calculations using the UF-NCI 1-year-old phantom were exercised to determine the variation of stray neutron doses as a function of irradiation parameters while performing intracranial treatments. This was done by individually changing the proton beam energy, modulation width, collimator aperture and thickness, compensator thickness and the air gap size while their impact on neutron doses were put into a single equation. The variation of neutron doses with distance from the target volume was also included in it. Then, a first step consisted in establishing the fitting coefficients by using 221 learning data which were neutron absorbed doses obtained with MC simulations while a second step consisted in validating the final equation. Results: The variation of stray neutron doses with irradiation parameters were fitted with linear, polynomial, etc. model while a power-law model was used to fit the variation of stray neutron doses with the distance from the target volume. The parametric equation fitted well MC simulations while establishing fitting coefficients as the discrepancies on the estimate of neutron absorbed doses were within 10%. The discrepancy can reach ∼25% for the bladder, the farthest organ from the target volume. Finally, the validation showed results in compliance with MC calculations since the discrepancies were also within 10% for head-and-neck and thoracic organs while they can reach ∼25%, again for pelvic organs. Conclusion: The parametric equation presents promising results and will be validated for other target sites as well as other facilities to go towards a universal method.

  5. Interface state density evaluation of high quality hetero-epitaxial 3C–SiC(0 0 1) for high-power MOSFET applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzalone, R., E-mail: ruggero.anzalone@imm.cnr.it; Privitera, S.; Camarda, M.; Alberti, A.; Mannino, G.; Fiorenza, P.; Di Franco, S.; La Via, F.

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure shows the normalized capacitance (C/C{sub OX}) versus voltage (V) for the MOS capacitors on 3 μm, 7 μm thick 3C–SiC films and silicon (as reference), respectively. The shift of the curve respect to the reference is due to the presence of fixed and/or trapped charge in the oxide and interface trapped charge, due to the presence of interface states of density D{sub it}, located at the semiconductor/oxide interface. - Highlights: • We analyzed the flat-band voltage shift for different semiconductor epi-thickness. • The interface state density as a function of epi-defects was evaluated. • We observed the relationship between XRD and C–V results. • Epitaxial thickness influence on interface state density was evaluated. - Abstract: The effects of the crystal quality and surface morphology on the electrical properties of MOS capacitors have been studied in devices manufactured on 3C–SiC epitaxial layers grown on silicon (1 0 0) substrate. The interface state density, which represents one of the most important parameters, has been determined through capacitance measurements. A cross-correlation between high resolution X-ray diffraction, AFM analysis and electrical conductance measurements has allowed to determine the relationship between the crystalline quality and the interface state density. A decrease of the interface state density down to about 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} was observed with improving the crystalline quality.

  6. Stray dogs as indicators of Toxoplasma gondii distributed in the environment: the first report across an urban-rural gradient in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that is distributed world-wide and infects a variety of hosts. However, the prevalence of T. gondii in the environment (such as soil, water and food is largely unknown. Due to the technical difficulty in oocyst counting directly, an alternative assay using the serologic status of T. gondii in free-living animals, such as stray or free-living dogs, as an indicator, can be used to evaluate environmental contamination indirectly, as they are exposed to the same risk of infection as humans and other animals. Results In the present study, 231 stray or free-living dogs across an urban-rural gradient were examined to assess the frequency of T. gondii in the environment. Specific antibodies to T. gondii were found in 93 dogs (40.3% by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and no statistically significant differences were observed in seroprevalences of T. gondii between urban dogs (38.7% and rural dogs (41% (p > 0.05. Conclusions A high seroprevalence of T. gondii in stray or free-living dogs in the present study indicates that there would be a wide distribution and a constant infection pressure of T. gondii across an urban-rural gradient, and the oocysts of T. gondii in the environment would be an important source of infection for humans and other animals both in urban and rural areas in China.

  7. 3D Printing of Polymer-Bonded Rare-Earth Magnets With a Variable Magnetic Compound Fraction for a Predefined Stray Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Groenefeld, Martin; Schuschnigg, Stephan; Teliban, Iulian; Vogler, Christoph; Wautischer, Gregor; Windl, Roman; Suess, Dieter

    2017-08-25

    Additive manufacturing of polymer-bonded magnets is a recently developed technique, for single-unit production, and for structures that have been impossible to manufacture previously. Also, new possibilities to create a specific stray field around the magnet are triggered. The current work presents a method to 3D print polymer-bonded magnets with a variable magnetic compound fraction distribution. This means the saturation magnetization can be adjusted during the printing process to obtain a required external field of the manufactured magnets. A low-cost, end-user 3D printer with a mixing extruder is used to mix permanent magnetic filaments with pure polyamide (PA12) filaments. The magnetic filaments are compounded, extruded, and characterized for the printing process. To deduce the quality of the manufactured magnets with a variable magnetic compound fraction, an inverse stray field framework is developed. The effectiveness of the printing process and the simulation method is shown. It can also be used to manufacture magnets that produce a predefined stray field in a given region. This opens new possibilities for magnetic sensor applications. This setup and simulation framework allows the design and manufacturing of polymer-bonded permanent magnets, which are impossible to create with conventional methods.

  8. Comparison of the performance of different instruments in the stray neutron field around the CERN Proton Synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza, Eleni; Caresana, Marco; Cassell, Christopher; Colombo, Valeria; Damjanovic, Sanja; Gilardoni, Simone; Manessi, Giacomo Paolo; Pangallo, Michel; Perrin, Daniel; Silari, Marco

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses an intercomparison campaign carried out in several locations around the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The locations were selected in order to perform the measurements in different stray field conditions. Various neutron detectors were employed: ionisation chambers, conventional and extended range rem counters, both commercial and prototype ones, including a novel instrument called LUPIN, specifically conceived to work in pulsed fields. The attention was focused on the potential differences in the instrument readings due to dead-time losses that are expected to affect most commercial units. The results show that the ionisation chambers and LUPIN agree well with the expected H*(10) values, as derived from FLUKA simulations, showing no relevant underestimations even in strongly pulsed fields. On the contrary, the dead-time losses of the other rem counters induced an underestimation in pulsed fields that was more important for instruments characterised by a higher dead time. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Non-Destructive Monitoring of Charge-Discharge Cycles on Lithium Ion Batteries using 7Li Stray-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Joel A.; Dugar, Sneha; Zhong, Guiming; Dalal, Naresh S.; Zheng, Jim P.; Yang, Yong; Fu, Riqiang

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive method for in situ monitoring of electrochemical processes involved in charge/discharge cycling of batteries. Determining how the electrochemical processes become irreversible, ultimately resulting in degraded battery performance, will aid in developing new battery materials and designing better batteries. Here we introduce the use of an alternative in situ diagnostic tool to monitor the electrochemical processes. Utilizing a very large field-gradient in the fringe field of a magnet, stray-field-imaging (STRAFI) technique significantly improves the image resolution. These STRAFI images enable the real time monitoring of the electrodes at a micron level. It is demonstrated by two prototype half-cells, graphite∥Li and LiFePO4∥Li, that the high-resolution 7Li STRAFI profiles allow one to visualize in situ Li-ions transfer between the electrodes during charge/discharge cyclings as well as the formation and changes of irreversible microstructures of the Li components, and particularly reveal a non-uniform Li-ion distribution in the graphite. PMID:24005580

  10. Diagnosis of canine echinococcosis: comparison of coproantigen detection with necropsy in stray dogs and red foxes from northern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shehabi F.S.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used as a diagnostic test for Echinococcus granulosus infection by detecting coproantigens in 94 stray dogs Canis familiaris and eight red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from northern Jordan. The results were analyzed in relation to actual helminth infection as revealed by necropsy. The infection rate of dogs with E. granulosus was 13.8 % with a worm load ranging between 3 - > 10,000 per infected dog. In contrast, eight of 13 E. granulosus infected dogs were coproantigen positive (overall sensitivity 61.5 %. The sensitivity increased to 87.5 % and 100 % in dogs harboring > 20 and > 100 worms/dog, respectively. The specificity of coproantigen-ELISA was 91 %. The greatest cross-reactivity was found in dogs infected with Dipylidium caninum. The positive and negative predictive values for the coproantigen-ELISA test were 50 % and 94.2 %, respectively. Thus, a coproantigen negative dog is most probably truly negative for E. granulosus. In contrast, a coproantigen positive dog may not be truly positive for E. granulosus, except if it has a high worm burden of > 100 worms/animal.

  11. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

    2014-09-01

    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ≥ 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silari, M.; Agosteo, S.; Beck, P.; Bedogni, R.; Cale, E.; Caresana, M.; Domingo, C.; Donadille, L.; Dubourg, N.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernandez, F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Fuchs, A.; Garcia, M.J.; Golnik, N.; Gutermuth, F.; Khurana, S.; Klages, Th.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with 'complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces' and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. The paper describes in detail the detectors employed in the experiment, followed by a discussion of the results. A comparison is also made with the H*(10) values predicted by the Monte Carlo simulations and those measured by the BSS systems.

  13. Inverter-based successive approximation capacitance-to-digital converter

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2017-03-23

    An energy-efficient capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) is provided that utilizes a capacitance-domain successive approximation (SAR) technique. Unlike SAR analog- to-digital converters (ADCs), analysis shows that for SAR CDCs, the comparator offset voltage will result in signal-dependent and parasitic-dependent conversion errors, which necessitates an op-amp-based implementation. The inverter-based SAR CDC contemplated herein provides robust, energy-efficient, and fast operation. The inverter- based SAR CDC may include a hybrid coarse-fine programmable capacitor array. The design of example embodiments is insensitive to analog references, and thus achieves very low temperature sensitivity without the need for calibration. Moreover, this design achieves improved energy efficiency.

  14. Surfactant free nickel sulphide nanoparticles for high capacitance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhini, S.; Muralidharan, G.

    2018-04-01

    The surfactant free nickel sulphide nanoparticles were synthesized via facile hydrothermal method towards supercapacitor applications. The formation of crystalline spherical nanoparticles was confirmed through structural and morphological studies. Electrochemical behaviour of the electrode was analyzed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge studies (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The CV studies imply that specific capacitance of the electrode arises from a combination of surface adsorption and Faradic reaction. The NiS electrode delivered a specific capacitance of about 529 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 (GCD measurements). A profitable charge transfer resistance of 0.5 Ω was obtained from EIS. The 100 % of capacity retention even after 2000 repeated charge-discharge cycles could be observed in 2 M KOH electrolyte at a much larger rate of 30 A g-1. The experimental results suggest that nickel sulphide is a potential candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  15. Two models of the capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Borčinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP is to find a set of minimum total cost routes for a fleet of capacitated vehicles based at a single depot, to serve a set of customers. There exist various integer linear programming models of the CVRP. One of the main differences lies in the way to eliminate sub-tours, i.e. cycles that do not go through the depot. In this paper, we describe a well-known flow formulation of CVRP, where sub-tour elimination constraints have a cardinality exponentially growing with the number of customers. Then we present a mixed linear programming formulation with polynomial cardinality of sub-tour elimination constraints. Both of the models were implemented and compared on several benchmarks.

  16. Interface Layering Phenomena in Capacitance Detection of DNA with Biochips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Carrara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Reliable DNA detection is of great importance for the development of the Lab-on-chip technology. The effort of the most recent projects on this field is to integrate all necessary operations, such as sample preparation (mixing, PCR amplification together with the sensor user for DNA detection. Among the different ways to sense the DNA hybridization, fluorescence based detection has been favored by the market. However, fluorescence based approaches require that the DNA targets are labeled by means of chromophores. As an alternative label-free DNA detection method, capacitance detection was recently proposed by different authors. While this effect has been successfully demonstrated by several groups, the model used for data analysis is far too simple to describe the real behavior of a DNA sensor. The aim of the present paper is to propose a different electrochemical model to describe DNA capacitance detection.

  17. A flexible capacitive tactile sensing array with floating electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, M-Y; Huang, X-H; Ma, C-W; Yang, Y-J

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a capacitive tactile sensing array realized by using MEMS fabrication techniques and flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) technologies. The sensing array, which consists of two micromachined polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) structures and a FPCB, will be used as the artificial skin for robot applications. Each capacitive sensing element comprises two sensing electrodes and a common floating electrode. The sensing electrodes and the metal interconnect for signal scanning are implemented on the FPCB, while the floating electrode is patterned on one of the PDMS structures. This special design can effectively reduce the complexity of the device structure and thus makes the device highly manufacturable. The characteristics of the devices with different dimensions are measured and discussed. The corresponding scanning circuits are also designed and implemented. The tactile images induced by the PMMA stamps of different shapes are also successfully captured by a fabricated 8 × 8 array

  18. High resolution capacitance detection circuit for rotor micro-gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Ren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for rotor position detection of micro-gyroscopes include common exciting electrodes (single frequency and common sensing electrodes (frequency multiplex, but they have encountered some problems. So we present a high resolution and low noise pick-off circuit for micro-gyroscopes which utilizes the time multiplex method. The detecting circuit adopts a continuous-time current sensing circuit for capacitance measurement, and its noise analysis of the charge amplifier is introduced. The equivalent output noise power spectral density of phase-sensitive demodulation is 120 nV/Hz1/2. Tests revealed that the whole circuitry has a relative capacitance resolution of 1 × 10−8.

  19. Passive inference of collision frequency in magnetized capacitive argon discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binwal, S.; Joshi, J. K.; Karkari, S. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Nair, L.

    2018-03-01

    A non-invasive method of determining the collision frequency νm by measuring the net plasma impendence in a magnetized, capacitive-coupled, radio-frequency (rf) discharge circuit is developed. The collision frequency has been analytically expressed in terms of bulk plasma reactance, wherein standard sheath models have been used to estimate the reactance offered due to the capacitive rf sheaths at the discharge plates. The experimental observations suggest that in the un-magnetized case, νm remains constant over a range of rf current but steadily increases as the background pressure reduces. In the magnetized case, the collision frequency has been observed to decay with the increase in rf current while it remains unaffected by the background pressure. A qualitative discussion has been presented to explain these characteristics.

  20. Mesoporous nanocrystalline film architecture for capacitive storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce S.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Wang, John; Brezesinski, Torsten; Gruner, George

    2017-05-16

    A mesoporous, nanocrystalline, metal oxide construct particularly suited for capacitive energy storage that has an architecture with short diffusion path lengths and large surface areas and a method for production are provided. Energy density is substantially increased without compromising the capacitive charge storage kinetics and electrode demonstrates long term cycling stability. Charge storage devices with electrodes using the construct can use three different charge storage mechanisms immersed in an electrolyte: (1) cations can be stored in a thin double layer at the electrode/electrolyte interface (non-faradaic mechanism); (2) cations can interact with the bulk of an electroactive material which then undergoes a redox reaction or phase change, as in conventional batteries (faradaic mechanism); or (3) cations can electrochemically adsorb onto the surface of a material through charge transfer processes (faradaic mechanism).

  1. Investigation and Modeling of Capacitive Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Qi; Guo, Yong-Xin; Wu, Wen

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of the capacitive human body communication (HBC). The measurement of HBC channels is performed using a novel battery-powered system to eliminate the effects of baluns, cables and instruments. To verify the measured results, a numerical model incorporating the entire HBC system is established. Besides, it is demonstrated that both the impedance and path gain bandwidths of HBC channels is affected by the electrode configuration. Based on the analysis of the simulated electric field distribution, an equivalent circuit model is proposed and the circuit parameters are extracted using the finite element method. The transmission capability along the human body is also studied. The simulated results using the numerical and circuit models coincide very well with the measurement, which demonstrates that the proposed circuit model can effectively interpret the operation mechanism of the capacitive HBC.

  2. Modified allocation capacitated planning model in blood supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Vanany, I.; Arvitrida, N. I.

    2018-04-01

    Blood supply chain management (BSCM) is a complex process management that involves many cooperating stakeholders. BSCM involves four echelon processes, which are blood collection or procurement, production, inventory, and distribution. This research develops an optimization model of blood distribution planning. The efficiency of decentralization and centralization policies in a blood distribution chain are compared, by optimizing the amount of blood delivered from a blood center to a blood bank. This model is developed based on allocation problem of capacitated planning model. At the first stage, the capacity and the cost of transportation are considered to create an initial capacitated planning model. Then, the inventory holding and shortage costs are added to the model. These additional parameters of inventory costs lead the model to be more realistic and accurate.

  3. Torque magnetometry by use of capacitance type transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braught, M.C.; Pechan, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Interfacial anisotropy in magnetic multilayered samples comprised of nanometer thick magnetic layers alternating with non-magnetic layers is investigated by torque magnetometry in the temperature regime of 4 to 300K. The design, construction and use of a capacitance type transducer wherein the sample is mounted directly on with the plate of the capacitor, will be described. As a result the sample and transducer spatially coexist at the sample temperature in an applied external field, eliminating mechanical coupling from the cryogenic region to a remote room temperature transducer. The capacitor measuring the torque of the sample is paired with a reference capacitor. The difference between torque influenced capacitance and the reference is then determined by a differential transimpedance amplifier. Since both capacitors are physically identical variables such as temperature, vibration, orientation and external devices are minimized. Torques up to 300 dyne-cm can be measured with a sensitivity of 0.010 dyne-cm

  4. Vibration damping with negative capacitance shunts: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marneffe, B; Preumont, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes in detail the enhancement of piezoelectric stack transducers by means of the well known 'negative' capacitive shunting. The stability is thoroughly studied: starting from the electrical admittance curve of the transducer, a method is introduced that quantifies the stability margins of the shunted structure. Two different implementations (series vs parallel) are investigated, and the lack of robustness of the parallel one is demonstrated. Next, this technique is experimentally applied on a truss structure. Its performances are compared with those of passive shunt circuits and with those of an active control law, the so-called Integral Force Feedback or IFF. As expected, the damping introduced by the negative capacitance shunt is larger than the damping obtained with the passive shunts; it remains, however, one order of magnitude smaller than that obtained with the IFF

  5. Origin of Negative Capacitance in Bipolar Organic Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Quan; Crǎciun, N. Irina; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2018-03-01

    Negative differential capacitance (NC) occurring at low frequencies in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a poorly understood phenomenon. We study the origin of the NC effect by systematically varying the number of electron traps in OLEDs based on the polymeric semiconductor poly(p -phenylene vinylene). Increasing the electron trap density enhances the NC effect. The magnitude and observed decrease of the relaxation time is consistent with the (inverse) rate of trap-assisted recombination. The absence of NC in a nearly trap-free light-emitting diode unambiguously shows that trap-assisted recombination is the responsible mechanism for the negative contribution to the capacitance in bipolar organic diodes. Our results reveal that the NC effect can be exploited to quantitatively determine the number of traps in organic semiconductors in a nondestructive fashion.

  6. Spin-orbit controlled capacitance of a polar heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Kevin; Kopp, Thilo [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, EP VI, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Loder, Florian [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, EP VI and TP III, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Oxide heterostructures with polar films display special electronic properties, such as the electronic reconstruction at their internal interfaces with the formation of two-dimensional metallic states. Moreover, the electrical field from the polar layers is inversion-symmetry breaking and may generate a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) in the interfacial electronic system. We investigate the capacitance of a heterostructure in which a strong RSOC at a metallic interface is controlled by the electric field of a surface electrode. Such a structure is for example given by a LaAlO{sub 3} film on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate which is gated by a top electrode. We find that due to a strong RSOC the capacitance can be larger than the classical geometric value.

  7. On the hydrophilicity of electrodes for capacitive energy extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Cheng; East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai; Kong, Xian; Tsinghua University, Beijing; Liu, Honglai; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The so-called Capmix technique for energy extraction is based on the cyclic expansion of electrical double layers to harvest dissipative energy arising from the salinity difference between freshwater and seawater. Its optimal performance requires a careful selection of the electrical potentials for the charging and discharging processes, which must be matched with the pore characteristics of the electrode materials. While a number of recent studies have examined the effects of the electrode pore size and geometry on the capacitive energy extraction processes, there is little knowledge on how the surface properties of the electrodes affect the thermodynamic efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the Capmix processes using the classical density functional theory for a realistic model of electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions allow us to identify optimal operation parameters for capacitive energy extraction with porous electrodes of different surface hydrophobicity. Finally, in agreement with recent experiments, we find that the thermodynamic efficiency can be much improved by using most hydrophilic electrodes.

  8. Modeling of Perpendicularly Driven Dual-Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyu; Sun Peng; Zhao Shuangyun; Li Yang; Jiang Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed perpendicularly configured dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled plasmas (CCP). In this configuration, two pairs of electrodes are arranged oppositely, and the discharging is perpendicularly driven by two radio frequency (RF) sources. Particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) simulation showed that the configuration had some advantages as this configuration eliminated some dual frequency coupling effects. Some variation and potential application of the discharging configuration is discussed briefly. (paper)

  9. Effect of estrogens on boar sperm capacitation in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, Lukáš; Dostálová, Pavla; Dorosh, Andriy; Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2010), --- ISSN 1477-7827 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GD523/08/H064; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : capacitation * acrosome reaction * monoclonal antibody * estrogen * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2010

  10. Low Humidity Characteristics of Polymer-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Polymer-based capacitive humidity sensors emerged around 40 years ago; nevertheless, they currently constitute large part of sensors’ market within a range of medium (climatic and industrial) humidity 20−80%RH due to their linearity, stability and cost-effectiveness. However, for low humidity values (0−20%RH) that type of sensor exhibits increasingly nonlinear characteristics with decreasing of humidity values. This paper presents the results of some experimental trials of CMOS polymer-based ...

  11. Capacitive short circuit detection in transformer core laminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Carl A.; Duchesne, Stephane; Roger, Daniel; Vincent, Jean-Noel

    2008-01-01

    A capacitive measurement procedure is proposed that serves to detect burr-induced short circuits in transformer core laminations. The tests are conducted on stacks of transformer steel sheets as used for transformer core production and yield a short-circuit probability indicative of the additional eddy current losses to be expected. Applied during the assembly of transformer cores, the measurements can help to decide whether the burr treatment process is working efficiently or has to be readjusted

  12. Discontinuity of capacitance at the onset of surface superconductivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morawetz, K.; Lipavský, Pavel; Mareš, Jiří J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2009), 023032/1-023032/8 ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010404; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040; GA AV ČR IAA100100712 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : capacitance * surface supraconductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.312, year: 2009

  13. Sensitivity limits of capacitive transducer for gravitational wave resonant antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassan, M; Pizzella, G [Rome Tor Vergata Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica

    1996-12-01

    It is analyzed the performance of a resonant gravitational wave antenna equipped with a resonant, d.c. biased capacitive transducer, an untuned superconducting matching circuit and a d.c. Squid. It is derived simple relations for the detector energy sensitivity that serve as guidelines for device development and it is shown that, with reasonable improvements in Squid technology, an effective temperature for burst detection of 2miK can be achieved.

  14. Capacitive Sensors for Feedback Control of Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Darhuber, A. A.; Troian, S. M.; Wagner, S.

    2003-11-01

    Automation of microfluidic devices based on thermocapillary flow [1] requires feedback control and detection techniques for monitoring the location, and ideally also composition and volume of liquid droplets. For this purpose we have developed a co-planar capacitance technique with a sensitivity of 0.07 pF at a frequency of 370 kHz. The variation in capacitance due to the presence of a droplet is monitored by the output frequency of an RC relaxation oscillator consisting of two inverters, one resistor and one capacitor. We discuss the performance of this coplanar sensor as a function of the electrode dimensions and geometry. These geometric variables determine the electric field penetration depth within the liquid, which in our studies ranged from 30 to 450 microns. Numerical solutions for the capacitance corresponding to the exact fabricated geometry agree very well with experimental data. An approximate analytic solution, which ignores fringe field effects, provides a simple but excellent guide for design development. [1] A. A. Darhuber et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 657 (2003).

  15. Some applications of capacitance technology in nuclear reactor components inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper considers application of a capacitance measuring system that has overcome many of the original contraints, such as sensitivity to cable length, induced electric field and high acoustic noise, and illustrates the ease of use with examples of proven capability in severe environments of high temperature or high radiation. The Capacitance Displacement Transducer (CDT) measuring principle was originally developed as a working technique during the early years of full-scale, on-load refuelling trials performed in the Windscale Civil Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) test rig where it was necessary to measure the vibrational behaviour of fuel components in simulated reactor conditions. At that time, 1968-1969, no instrumentation existed that would measure displacement in the range 0 to 100 mms to an accuracy of 25x10 -3 mms, without physical contact, at temperatures of 600 0 C in high velocity gas, in high acoustic noise fields of 150 db's over cable lengths approaching 100 metres. The principles incorporated in the CDT overcome all these problems. The advantages inherent in this system have been extended to metrology applications in more recent years by the further development of the electronics to enable linear displacement measurement to be obtained between two capacitance plates whose separation varies, either by plate movement or by surface irregularity. This principle has been used to good effect in novel applications associated with the inspection of nominally inaccessible internal tube surfaces

  16. Plasma Treated Active Carbon for Capacitive Deionization of Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma treatment on commercial active carbon (AC was carried out in a capacitively coupled plasma system using Ar + 10% O2 at pressure of 4.0 Torr. The RF plasma power ranged from 50 W to 100 W and the processing time was 10 min. The carbon film electrode was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition. Micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed the highly increased disorder of sp2 C lattice for the AC treated at 75 W. An electrosorption capacity of 6.15 mg/g was recorded for the carbon treated at 75 W in a 0.1 mM NaCl solution when 1.5 V was applied for 5 hours, while the capacity of the untreated AC was 1.01 mg/g. The plasma treatment led to 5.09 times increase in the absorption capacity. The jump of electrosorption capacity by plasma treatment was consistent with the Raman spectra and electrochemical double layer capacitance. This work demonstrated that plasma treatment was a potentially efficient approach to activating biochar to serve as electrode material for capacitive deionization (CDI.

  17. Capacitive properties of polypyrrole/activated carbon composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porjazoska-Kujundziski Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy and polypyrrole / activated carbon (PPy / AC - composite films, with a thickness between 0.5 and 15 μm were performed in a three electrode cell containing 0.1 mol dm-3 Py, 0.5 mol dm-3 NaClO4 dissolved in ACN, and dispersed particles of AC (30 g dm-3. Electrochemical characterization of PPy and PPy / AC composites was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The linear dependences of the capacitance (qC, redox capacitance (qred, and limiting capacitance (CL of PPy and PPy / AC - composite films on their thickness (L, obtained by electrochemical and impedance analysis, indicate a nearly homogeneous distribution of the incorporated AC particles in the composite films (correlation coefficient between 0.991 and 0.998. The significant enhancement of qC, qred, and CL, was observed for composite films (for ∼40 ± 5% in respect to that of the “pure” PPy. The decreased values of a volume resistivity in the reduced state of the composite film, ρ = 1.3 ⋅ 106 Ω cm (for L = 7.5 μm, for two orders of magnitude, compared to that of PPy - film with the same thickness, ρ ∼ 108 Ω cm, was also noticed.

  18. DNA Nucleotides Detection via capacitance properties of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadempar, Nahid; Berahman, Masoud; Yazdanpanah, Arash

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper a new method is suggested to detect the DNA nucleotides on a first-principles calculation of the electronic features of DNA bases which chemisorbed to a graphene sheet placed between two gold electrodes in a contact-channel-contact system. The capacitance properties of graphene in the channel are surveyed using non-equilibrium Green's function coupled with the Density Functional Theory. Thus, the capacitance properties of graphene are theoretically investigated in a biological environment, and, using a novel method, the effect of the chemisorbed DNA nucleotides on electrical charges on the surface of graphene is deciphered. Several parameters in this method are also extracted including Electrostatic energy, Induced density, induced electrostatic potential, Electron difference potential and Electron difference density. The qualitative and quantitative differences among these parameters can be used to identify DNA nucleotides. Some of the advantages of this approach include its ease and high accuracy. What distinguishes the current research is that it is the first experiment to investigate the capacitance properties of gaphene changes in the biological environment and the effect of chemisorbed DNA nucleotides on the surface of graphene on the charge.

  19. Rough Electrode Creates Excess Capacitance in Thin-Film Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Solmaz; Cherry, Megan; Duijnstee, Elisabeth A; Le Corre, Vincent M; Qiu, Li; Hummelen, Jan C; Palasantzas, George; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2017-08-16

    The parallel-plate capacitor equation is widely used in contemporary material research for nanoscale applications and nanoelectronics. To apply this equation, flat and smooth electrodes are assumed for a capacitor. This essential assumption is often violated for thin-film capacitors because the formation of nanoscale roughness at the electrode interface is very probable for thin films grown via common deposition methods. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically show that the electrical capacitance of thin-film capacitors with realistic interface roughness is significantly larger than the value predicted by the parallel-plate capacitor equation. The degree of the deviation depends on the strength of the roughness, which is described by three roughness parameters for a self-affine fractal surface. By applying an extended parallel-plate capacitor equation that includes the roughness parameters of the electrode, we are able to calculate the excess capacitance of the electrode with weak roughness. Moreover, we introduce the roughness parameter limits for which the simple parallel-plate capacitor equation is sufficiently accurate for capacitors with one rough electrode. Our results imply that the interface roughness beyond the proposed limits cannot be dismissed unless the independence of the capacitance from the interface roughness is experimentally demonstrated. The practical protocols suggested in our work for the reliable use of the parallel-plate capacitor equation can be applied as general guidelines in various fields of interest.

  20. CMOS based capacitance to digital converter circuit for MEMS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotake, D. R.; Darji, A. D.

    2018-02-01

    Most of the MEMS cantilever based system required costly instruments for characterization, processing and also has large experimental setups which led to non-portable device. So there is a need of low cost, highly sensitive, high speed and portable digital system. The proposed Capacitance to Digital Converter (CDC) interfacing circuit converts capacitance to digital domain which can be easily processed. Recent demand microcantilever deflection is part per trillion ranges which change the capacitance in 1-10 femto farad (fF) range. The entire CDC circuit is designed using CMOS 250nm technology. Design of CDC circuit consists of a D-latch and two oscillators, namely Sensor controlled oscillator (SCO) and digitally controlled oscillator (DCO). The D-latch is designed using transmission gate based MUX for power optimization. A CDC design of 7-stage, 9-stage and 11-stage tested for 1-18 fF and simulated using mentor graphics Eldo tool with parasitic. Since the proposed design does not use resistance component, the total power dissipation is reduced to 2.3621 mW for CDC designed using 9-stage SCO and DCO.

  1. A reciprocity-based formula for the capacitance with quadrupolar electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sungbo [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A new capacitance formula for the practical design and characterization of quadrupolar electrode arrays with capacitive structures was derived based on the reciprocal theorem. The reciprocity-based capacitance formula agreed with the empirical equations established to estimate the capacitance of a single strip line or disk electrode compensating for the fringing field effect that occurs at the electrode edge. The reciprocity-based formula was applied to compute the capacitance measurable by using a quadrupolar square electrode array with a symmetric dipole-dipole configuration and was compared with the analytical equation established based on the image method assuming that the electrodes were points. The results showed that the capacitance of the quadrupolar electrodes was determined by the size of the quadrupolar electrodes relative to the separation distance between the electrodes and that the reciprocity-based capacitance formula was in agreement with the established analytical equation if the separated distance between the electrodes relative to the electrode size was large enough.

  2. A reciprocity-based formula for the capacitance with quadrupolar electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sungbo

    2011-01-01

    A new capacitance formula for the practical design and characterization of quadrupolar electrode arrays with capacitive structures was derived based on the reciprocal theorem. The reciprocity-based capacitance formula agreed with the empirical equations established to estimate the capacitance of a single strip line or disk electrode compensating for the fringing field effect that occurs at the electrode edge. The reciprocity-based formula was applied to compute the capacitance measurable by using a quadrupolar square electrode array with a symmetric dipole-dipole configuration and was compared with the analytical equation established based on the image method assuming that the electrodes were points. The results showed that the capacitance of the quadrupolar electrodes was determined by the size of the quadrupolar electrodes relative to the separation distance between the electrodes and that the reciprocity-based capacitance formula was in agreement with the established analytical equation if the separated distance between the electrodes relative to the electrode size was large enough.

  3. A comparison of the effects of C2-cyclosporine and C0-tacrolimus on renal function and cardiovascular risk factors in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S Joseph; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Famure, Olusegun; Park, Joseph; Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Chowdhury, Nizamuddin; Cole, Edward H; Fenton, Stanley S A; Cattran, Daniel C; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S; Cardella, Carl J

    2006-10-15

    There are few data directly comparing the effects of two-hour postingestion monitored cyclosporine (C2-CsA) vs. trough-monitored tacrolimus (C0-Tac) on renal function and cardiovascular risk factors. We studied 378 (202 C2-CsA vs. 176 C0-Tac) incident kidney transplant recipients in Toronto, Canada, from August 1, 2000 and December 31, 2003. Outcomes included changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at 1 and 6 months by modification of diet in renal disease four-variable equation), mean arterial pressure (MAP), total cholesterol (TC), and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) at six months posttransplant. The independent effect of treatment/monitoring strategies on continuous outcomes and time-to-NODM was modeled using linear and Cox regression, respectively. Mean eGFR was 59.5 vs. 62.9 ml/min at one month and 50.6 vs. 61.2 ml/min at six months for C2-CsA vs. C0-Tac, respectively. Multiple linear regression revealed the slope of eGFR to be 0.93 ml/min/month lower in C2-CsA patients. This was equivalent to an adjusted average eGFR difference of 4.64 ml/min between months one and six posttransplant. There was no significant difference in average MAP and TC. In a stepwise multivariable Cox model and a propensity score analysis, there was no significant association between the type of treatment/monitoring strategy and time-to-NODM. There was a greater decline in eGFR for patients on C2-CsA (vs. C0-Tac) between one and six months posttransplant. However, MAP, TC, and the risk of NODM were comparable in both treatment/monitoring groups. The long-term impact of short-term reductions in eGFR as a function of the type of treatment/monitoring strategy requires further study.

  4. Can root electrical capacitance be used to predict root mass in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, R C; Bengough, A G; Jones, H G; White, P J

    2013-07-01

    Electrical capacitance, measured between an electrode inserted at the base of a plant and an electrode in the rooting substrate, is often linearly correlated with root mass. Electrical capacitance has often been used as an assay for root mass, and is conventionally interpreted using an electrical model in which roots behave as cylindrical capacitors wired in parallel. Recent experiments in hydroponics show that this interpretation is incorrect and a new model has been proposed. Here, the new model is tested in solid substrates. The capacitances of compost and soil were determined as a function of water content, and the capacitances of cereal plants growing in sand or potting compost in the glasshouse, or in the field, were measured under contrasting irrigation regimes. Capacitances of compost and soil increased with increasing water content. At water contents approaching field capacity, compost and soil had capacitances at least an order of magnitude greater than those of plant tissues. For plants growing in solid substrates, wetting the substrate locally around the stem base was both necessary and sufficient to record maximum capacitance, which was correlated with stem cross-sectional area: capacitance of excised stem tissue equalled that of the plant in wet soil. Capacitance measured between two electrodes could be modelled as an electrical circuit in which component capacitors (plant tissue or rooting substrate) are wired in series. The results were consistent with the new physical interpretation of plant capacitance. Substrate capacitance and plant capacitance combine according to standard physical laws. For plants growing in wet substrate, the capacitance measured is largely determined by the tissue between the surface of the substrate and the electrode attached to the plant. Whilst the measured capacitance can, in some circumstances, be correlated with root mass, it is not a direct assay of root mass.

  5. Capacitance-voltage characterization of fully silicided gated MOS capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baomin; Ru Guoping; Jiang Yulong; Qu Xinping; Li Bingzong; Liu Ran

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement on fully silicided (FUSI) gated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors and the applicability of MOS capacitor models. When the oxide leakage current of an MOS capacitor is large, two-element parallel or series model cannot be used to obtain its real C-V characteristic. A three-element model simultaneously consisting of parallel conductance and series resistance or a four-element model with further consideration of a series inductance should be used. We employed the three-element and the four-element models with the help of two-frequency technique to measure the Ni FUSI gated MOS capacitors. The results indicate that the capacitance of the MOS capacitors extracted by the three-element model still shows some frequency dispersion, while that extracted by the four-element model is close to the real capacitance, showing little frequency dispersion. The obtained capacitance can be used to calculate the dielectric thickness with quantum effect correction by NCSU C-V program. We also investigated the influence of MOS capacitor's area on the measurement accuracy. The results indicate that the decrease of capacitor area can reduce the dissipation factor and improve the measurement accuracy. As a result, the frequency dispersion of the measured capacitance is significantly reduced, and real C-V characteristic can be obtained directly by the series model. In addition, this paper investigates the quasi-static C-V measurement and the photonic high-frequency C-V measurement on Ni FUSI metal gated MOS capacitor with a thin leaky oxide. The results indicate that the large tunneling current through the gate oxide significantly perturbs the accurate measurement of the displacement current, which is essential for the quasi-static C-V measurement. On the other hand, the photonic high-frequency C-V measurement can bypass the leakage problem, and get reliable low-frequency C-V characteristic, which can be used to

  6. Synthesis of carbon nitride powder by selective etching of TiC0.3N0.7 in chlorine-containing atmosphere at moderate temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Jian; Lu Jinjun

    2010-01-01

    We reported the synthesis of carbon nitride powder by extracting titanium from single inorganic precursor TiC 0.3 N 0.7 in chlorine-containing atmosphere at ambient pressure and temperature not exceeding 500 deg. C. The TiC 0.3 N 0.7 crystalline structure acted as a template, supplying active carbon and nitrogen atoms for carbon nitride when it was destroyed in chlorination. X-ray diffraction data showed that the obtained carbon nitride powders were amorphous, which was in good agreement with transmission electron microscope analysis. The composition and structure of carbon nitride powders were analyzed by employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results indicated that disorder structure was most likely for the carbon nitride powders and the N content depended greatly on the chlorination temperature. Thermal analysis in flowing N 2 indicated that the mass loss started from 300 deg. C and the complete decomposition occurred at around 650 deg. C, confirming the low thermal stability of the carbon nitride material.

  7. Study of $B^+_c$ decays to the $K^+K^-\\pi^+$ final state and evidence for the decay $B^+_c\\to\\chi_{c0}\\pi^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Su{á}rez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; D{é}l{é}age, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; F{ä}rber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; Garc{í}a Pardi{ñ}as, Juli{á}n; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gian{ì}, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier G{ö}ran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, V.V.; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa G{á}ndara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Gr{ü}nberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; G{ö}bel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adl{è}ne; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Leflat, Alexander; Lefran{ç}ois, Jacques; Lef{è}vre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean Fran{ç}ois; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, J{ö}rg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, Andr{é}; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mord{à}, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; M{ü}ller, Dominik; M{ü}ller, Janine; M{ü}ller, Katharina; M{ü}ller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, C{é}dric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stenzel Martins, Julian; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh T{â}m; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; V{á}zquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-11-30

    A study of $B_c^+\\to K^+K^-\\pi^+$ decays is performed for the first time using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8$ TeV. Evidence for the decay $B_c^+\\to\\chi_{c0}(\\to K^+K^-)\\pi^+$ is reported with a significance of 4.0 standard deviations, resulting in the measurement of $\\frac{\\sigma(B_c^+)}{\\sigma(B^+)}\\times\\mathcal{B}(B_c^+\\to\\chi_{c0}\\pi^+)$ to be $(9.8^{+3.4}_{-3.0}(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm 0.8(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-6}$. Here $\\mathcal{B}$ denotes a branching fraction while $\\sigma(B_c^+)$ and $\\sigma(B^+)$ are the production cross-sections for $B_c^+$ and $B^+$ mesons. An indication of $\\overline b c$ weak annihilation is found for the region $m(K^-\\pi^+)<1.834\\mathrm{\\,Ge\\kern -0.1em V\\!/}c^2$, with a significance of 2.4 standard deviations.

  8. Photoproduction asymmetries of the charm baryons Λc, Σc++ and Σc0 at the Fermilab experiment E831/focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Joao dos; Estrada, Cecilia Uribe; Sheaff, Marleigh

    2000-01-01

    Full text follows: In photon-hadron collisions, it is expected that charm quarks are produced by the photon-gluon process. This process at leading order (LO) in perturbative quantum chromo-dynamics (QCD) predicts symmetric distributions for charm/anticharm quark production. Asymmetries introduced by next to leading order (NLO) calculations are expected to be negligibly small. However, when the charm/articharm quarks hadronize, non perturbative effects in the recombination process may induce an asymmetry between charm and anticharm final states. The measurement of photoproduction asymmetries could provide valuable information on the hadronization process, which is one of the least understood phenomena in QCD. We present a study on the charm-anticharm photoproduction asymmetry using Λ c + /Λ c - , Σ c ++ /Σ c -- and Σ c 0 /Σ-bar c 0 baryon candidates. Data used is from the E831/FOCUS experiment, collected during 1996-1997 Fermilab fixed target run. The asymmetry is studied in intervals of p T 2 , p L , and x F for the case of Λ c baryons, while global values are extracted for the Σ c baryons, due to the lack of statistics. (author)

  9. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcicki, F. R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of several areas in modem society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that flow through the ground to close the loop between neighboring towers. Stray currents originate in the lightning rod cables of the power line towers, induced by the strong electromagnetic and electric fields of the energized power lines. The intensity and direction of those currents were measured, indicating substantial values of both their AC and DC components. The potential of the tower ground system, measured in the perpendicular direction of the main axis of the power line, was plotted as a function of the distance to the tower base. The results clearly indicated the tendency to corrosive attack in the anodic towers as reflected by the slope of the plot, whereas no signs of corrosion could be found in the reverse slope, confirming the visual inspection of the foundation. The profile of the potential plots could be changed providing the electric insulation of the lightning rod cable.

    Con el crecimiento de varias áreas en la sociedad moderna, la necesidad de generar y conducir la energía eléctrica a las grandes ciudades ha aumentado enormemente. La energía, normalmente, se transporta por cables sostenidos por torres de energía con base de acero galvanizado. Cuando las bases son subterráneas, pueden ocasionar altas tasas de corrosión. Estas, normalmente, se detectan por la medida convencional del potencial empleando un electrodo de referencia de Cu/CuSO4. Se cree que la corrosión es el resultado de corrientes perdidas que fluyen a través de la

  10. Effect of Plasma Membrane Semipermeability in Making the Membrane Electric Double Layer Capacitances Significant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-01-30

    Electric double layers (or EDLs) formed at the membrane-electrolyte interface (MEI) and membrane-cytosol interface (MCI) of a charged lipid bilayer plasma membrane develop finitely large capacitances. However, these EDL capacitances are often much larger than the intrinsic capacitance of the membrane, and all of these capacitances are in series. Consequently, the effect of these EDL capacitances in dictating the overall membrane-EDL effective capacitance C eff becomes negligible. In this paper, we challenge this conventional notion pertaining to the membrane-EDL capacitances. We demonstrate that, on the basis of the system parameters, the EDL capacitance for both the permeable and semipermeable membranes can be small enough to influence C eff . For the semipermeable membranes, however, this lowering of the EDL capacitance can be much larger, ensuring a reduction of C eff by more than 20-25%. Furthermore, for the semipermeable membranes, the reduction in C eff is witnessed over a much larger range of system parameters. We attribute such an occurrence to the highly nonintuitive electrostatic potential distribution associated with the recently discovered phenomena of charge-inversion-like electrostatics and the attainment of a positive zeta potential at the MCI for charged semipermeable membranes. We anticipate that our findings will impact the quantification and the identification of a large number of biophysical phenomena that are probed by measuring the plasma membrane capacitance.

  11. Bacterial and protozoal agents of feline vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. In addition to their veterinary importance, domestic cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some FVBD agents by acting as reservoirs and sentinels, a circumstance that requires a One Health approach. The aim of the present work was to molecularly detect feline vector-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance, and to assess associated risk factors in cats from southern Portugal. Methods Six hundred and forty-nine cats (320 domestic and 329 stray), from veterinary medical centres and animal shelters in southern Portugal, were studied. Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. infections were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood samples. Results One hundred and ninety-four (29.9%) cats were PCR-positive to at least one of the tested genera or complex of FVBD agents. Sixty-four (9.9%) cats were positive to Leishmania spp., 56 (8.6%) to Hepatozoon spp., 43 (6.6%) to Babesia spp., 35 (5.4%) to Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., 19 (2.9%) to Bartonella spp. and 14 (2.2%) to B. burgdorferi s.l. Thirty-three (5.1%) cats were positive to two (n = 29) or three (n = 4) genera/complex. Babesia vogeli, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon felis and Leishmania infantum were identified by DNA sequencing. Conclusions The occurrence of FVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic character, emphasizes the need to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities for the risk of infection. Control measures should be implemented to prevent the infection of cats, other vertebrate hosts and people. PMID:24655431

  12. Cognitive effects of head-movements in stray fields generated by a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Stevens, T; Glover, P; Sunderland, A; Gowland, P; Kromhout, H

    2007-05-01

    The study investigates the impact of exposure to the stray magnetic field of a whole-body 7 T MRI scanner on neurobehavioral performance and cognition. Twenty seven volunteers completed four sessions, which exposed them to approximately 1600 mT (twice), 800 mT and negligible static field exposure. The order of exposure was assigned at random and was masked by placing volunteers in a tent to hide their position relative to the magnet bore. Volunteers completed a test battery assessing auditory working memory, eye-hand co-ordination, and visual perception. During three sessions the volunteers were instructed to complete a series of standardized head movements to generate additional time-varying fields ( approximately 300 and approximately 150 mT.s(-1) r.m.s.). In one session, volunteers were instructed to keep their heads as stable as possible. Performance on a visual tracking task was negatively influenced (P<.01) by 1.3% per 100 mT exposure. Furthermore, there was a trend for performance on two cognitive-motor tests to be decreased (P<.10). No effects were observed on working memory. Taken together with results of earlier studies, these results suggest that there are effects on visual perception and hand-eye co-ordination, but these are weak and variable between studies. The magnitude of these effects may depend on the magnitude of time-varying fields and not so much on the static field. While this study did not include exposure above 1.6 T, it suggests that use of strong magnetic fields is not a significant confounder in fMRI studies of cognitive function. Future work should further assess whether ultra-high field may impair performance of employees working in the vicinity of these magnets. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  14. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Diakou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90% was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3% cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7% for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53 multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24% and Dipylidium caninum (2%, while a high number of examined animals (58.8% had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2% and Leishmania infantum (6.1%. DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  15. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  16. Percoll gradient-centrifuged capacitated mouse sperm have increased fertilizing ability and higher contents of sulfogalactosylglycerolipid and docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine compared to washed capacitated mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Anna; Vuong, Ngoc; Xu, Hongbin; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Xu, Min; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bou Khalil, Maroun; Kates, Morris; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj

    2005-03-01

    Although Percoll gradient centrifugation has been used routinely to prepare motile human sperm, its use in preparing motile mouse sperm has been limited. Here, we showed that Percoll gradient-centrifuged (PGC) capacitated mouse sperm had markedly higher fertilizing ability (sperm-zona pellucida [ZP] binding and in vitro fertilization) than washed capacitated mouse sperm. We also showed that the lipid profiles of PGC capacitated sperm and washed capacitated sperm differed significantly. The PGC sperm had much lower contents of cholesterol and phospholipids. This resulted in relative enrichment of male germ cell-specific sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a ZP-binding ligand, in PGC capacitated sperm, and this would explain, in part, their increased ZP-binding ability compared with that of washed capacitated sperm. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acyl chains revealed that PGC capacitated sperm were enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species containing highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22: 6n-3) being the predominant HUFA (42% of total hydrocarbon chains of PC). In contrast, the level of PC-HUFAs comprising arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6), and DHA in washed capacitated sperm was only 27%. Having the highest unsaturation degree among all HUFAs in PC, DHA would enhance membrane fluidity to the uppermost. Therefore, membranes of PGC capacitated sperm would undergo fertilization-related fusion events at higher rates than washed capacitated sperm. These results suggested that PGC mouse sperm should be used in fertilization experiments and that SGG and DHA should be considered to be important biomarkers for sperm fertilizing ability.

  17. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  18. Cross sections for 12C+12C→12C(0+2)+12C(g.s.) using breathing mode doorways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.U.; Beres, W.P.

    1982-01-01

    A previously derived projection operator method is applied to the calculation of the cross section for 12 C+ 12 C→ 12 C(0 + 2 )+ 12 C(g.s.) with a breathing mode model being used to describe the 0 + 2 (7.68 MeV) state of 12 C. The relationship to processes leading to alpha particle channels is discussed. The cross section for 12 C+ 12 C→ 12 C(3 - )+ 12 C(g.s.) is also calculated and possible correlations with inelastic scattering to the 0 + 2 and 2 + states of 12 C are discussed. The results for both 0 + 2 and 3 - inelastic scattering are in reasonable agreement with experiment

  19. Spatial variation of the number of graphene layers formed on the scratched 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaklung, J. [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Euaruksakul, C. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Meevasana, W., E-mail: worawat@g.sut.ac.th [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Songsiriritthigul, P. [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-03-01

    The unique properties of graphene can vary greatly depending on the number of graphene layers; therefore, spatial control of graphene thickness is desired to fully exploit these properties in promising new devices. Using low energy electron microscopy (LEEM), we investigate how scratches on the surface of 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) affect the epitaxial growth of graphene. Oscillations in the LEEM-image intensity as a function of electron energy (I-V LEEM analysis) show that the number of graphene layers clearly differs between regions of scratched and smooth substrate. The extent of the thicker graphene layers formed above scratches is found to be significantly larger than the width of the scratch itself. This finding can be implemented as an additional technique for spatially modulating graphene thickness.

  20. Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1): a review of growth, characterization, transfer doping and hydrogen intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedl, C; Coletti, C; Starke, U

    2010-01-01

    Graphene, a monoatomic layer of graphite, hosts a two-dimensional electron gas system with large electron mobilities which makes it a prospective candidate for future carbon nanodevices. Grown epitaxially on silicon carbide (SiC) wafers, large area graphene samples appear feasible and integration in existing device technology can be envisioned. This paper reviews the controlled growth of epitaxial graphene layers on SiC(0 0 0 1) and the manipulation of their electronic structure. We show that epitaxial graphene on SiC grows on top of a carbon interface layer that-although it has a graphite-like atomic structure-does not display the linear π-bands typical for graphene due to a strong covalent bonding to the substrate. Only the second carbon layer on top of this interface acts like monolayer graphene. With a further carbon layer, a graphene bilayer system develops. During the growth of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) the number of graphene layers can be precisely controlled by monitoring the π-band structure. Experimental fingerprints for in situ growth control could be established. However, due to the influence of the interface layer, epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) is intrinsically n-doped and the layers have a long-range corrugation in their density of states. As a result, the Dirac point energy where the π-bands cross is shifted away from the Fermi energy, so that the ambipolar properties of graphene cannot be exploited. We demonstrate methods to compensate and eliminate this structural and electronic influence of the interface. We show that the band structure of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) can be precisely tailored by functionalizing the graphene surface with tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) molecules. Charge neutrality can be achieved for mono- and bilayer graphene. On epitaxial bilayer graphene, where a band gap opens due to the asymmetric electric field across the layers imposed by the interface, the magnitude of this band gap

  1. Structural study of SiC(0 0 0 1)3x3 surface by surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Akimoto, K.; Ichimiya, A.; Hisada, Y.; Mukainakano, S.; Emoto, T.; Tajiri, H.; Takahashi, T.; Sugiyama, H.; Zhang, X.; Kawata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Surface structure of 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1)3x3 reconstruction has been studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. We compared the Patterson map obtained from experimental structure factors with calculated Patterson maps estimated from the models that had been proposed. As the result, the calculated Patterson maps of Kulakov et al.'s [Surf. Sci. 346 (1996) 49] and Starke and coworkers' models [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 758; Phys. Rev. B 58 (1998) 10806; Surf. Rev. Lett. 6 (1999) 1129; Appl. Surf. Sci. 162-163 (2000) 9; Phys. Rev. B 62 (2000) 10335] are relatively in good agreement with experimental one. Therefore, we conclude that there is high possibility that either Kulakov et al.'s or Starke and coworkers' models are reasonable as the actual 3x3 structure

  2. Remelting of aluminium with the addition of AlTi5B1 and AlTi3C0,15 grain refiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobešrek, M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It was found that concentration of boron in aluminium with the addition of AlTi5B1 grain refiner is decreasing during remelting as a consequence of TiB2 particles settling down due to gravity. TiB2 particles remained in aluminium after four remelts shows lower effect of grain refinement compared to non-remelted samples with the same TiB2 content. It was also found that TiC particles are still present in aluminium with the addition of AlTi3C0,15 grain refiner after four remelts and they probably participate in nucleation of α-Al grains.

  3. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, Shane W., E-mail: shane.w.lani@gmail.com, E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu, E-mail: levent.degertekin@me.gatech.edu; Sabra, Karim G. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Levent Degertekin, F. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  4. Correlated Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum-dot structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs) -- a biasdriven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach which accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling......) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multi-electron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters...... on Coulomb drag in CQD systems....

  5. Paradox in a non-linear capacitated transportation problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahiya Kalpana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a paradox in fixed charge capacitated transportation problem where the objective function is the sum of two linear fractional functions consisting of variables costs and fixed charges respectively. A paradox arises when the transportation problem admits of an objective function value which is lower than the optimal objective function value, by transporting larger quantities of goods over the same route. A sufficient condition for the existence of a paradox is established. Paradoxical range of flow is obtained for any given flow in which the corresponding objective function value is less than the optimum value of the given transportation problem. Numerical illustration is included in support of theory.

  6. Pulse power applications of silicon diodes in EML capacitive pulsers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, Rolf; McNab, Ian; Dobbie, Clyde; Bernhardt, Tom; Puterbaugh, Robert; Levine, Frank; Coradeschi, Tom; Rinaldi, Vito

    1993-01-01

    Crowbar diodes are used for increasing the energy transfer from capacitive pulse forming networks. They also prevent voltage reversal on the energy storage capacitors. 52 mm diameter diodes with a 5 kV reverse blocking voltage, rated 40 kA were successfully used for the 32 MJ SSG rail gun. An uprated diode with increased current capability and a 15 kV reverse blocking voltage has been developed. Transient thermal analysis has predicted the current ratings for different pulse length. Analysis verification is obtained from destructive testing.

  7. Electrical capacitance of fibrous carbon composites in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babel, Krzysztof [Institute of Chemical Wood Technology, Agricultural Academy in Poznan, ul. Wojska Polskiego 38/42, 60-637 Poznan (Poland); Jurewicz, Krzysztof [Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2002-06-20

    The aim of this work was the application of active carbon composites as electrode material for supercapacitors. We have produced and investigated composites from viscose cellulose fibers impregnated with novolak and resolic resins. Composition and porous structure of the composites were described and electrochemical properties determined by galvanostatic and potentiodynamic methods. Dependence of electrical capacitance on treatment procedure and some of the structural parameters was confirmed. The use of novolak resin for activation with carbon dioxide was more advantageous. Positive electrode revealed better performance in acidic conditions (185 F/g) while negative electrode in alkaline conditions (160 F/g)

  8. Green Synthesis of Boron Carbonitride with High Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Boron carbonitrides (BCN have attracted great interest in superhard or energy storage materials. In this work, thin BCN sheets were synthesized at 250 °C by a facile and green solvothermal method. The structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Based on the results of electrochemical experiments, the thin BCN sheet exhibited excellent capacitance performance (343.1 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g and cycling stability (90%, which showed high potential applications in supercapacitors.

  9. Floating electrode microelectromechanical system capacitive switches: A different actuation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, G.; Giacomozzi, F.; Papandreou, E.; Margesin, B.

    2011-08-01

    The paper investigates the actuation mechanism in floating electrode microelectromechanical system capacitive switches. It is demonstrated that in the pull-in state, the device operation turns from voltage to current controlled actuation. The current arises from Poole-Frenkel mechanism in the dielectric film and Fowler-Nordheim in the bridge-floating electrode air gap. The pull-out voltage seems to arise from the abrupt decrease of Fowler-Nordheim electric field intensity. This mechanism seems to be responsible for the very small difference with respect to the pull-in voltage.

  10. Effect of estrogens on boar sperm capacitation in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, Lukáš; Dostálová, Pavla; Dorosh, Andriy; Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 33, Supplement 1 (2010), s. 93-93 ISSN 0105-6263. [6th European Congress of And rology. 29.09.2010-01.10.2010, Athens] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/08/H064; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : spermatozoa * capacitation * monoclonal antibody * estrone * 17beta-estradiol * estriol * 17alpha-ethynylestradiol Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  11. Capacitive acoustic wave detector and method of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A capacitor having two substantially parallel conductive faces is acoustically coupled to a conductive sample end such that the sample face is one end of the capacitor. A non-contacting dielectric may serve as a spacer between the two conductive plates. The formed capacitor is connected to an LC oscillator circuit such as a Hartley oscillator circuit producing an output frequency which is a function of the capacitor spacing. This capacitance oscillates as the sample end coating is oscillated by an acoustic wave generated in the sample by a transmitting transducer. The electrical output can serve as an absolute indicator of acoustic wave displacement.

  12. Using MEMS Capacitive Switches in Tunable RF Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Danson John; Plett Calvin; Tait Niall

    2006-01-01

    A MEMS capacitive switch suitable for use in tunable RF amplifiers is described. A MEMS switch is designed, fabricated, and characterized with physical and RF measurements for inclusion in simulations. Using the MEMS switch models, a dual-band low-noise amplifier (LNA) operating at GHz and GHz, and a tunable power amplifier (PA) at GHz are simulated in m CMOS. MEMS switches allow the LNA to operate with 11 dB of isolation between the two bands while maintaining dB of gain and sub- dB no...

  13. Capacitive effects in IGBTs limiting their reliability under short circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2017-01-01

    The short-circuit oscillation mechanism in IGBTs is investigated in this paper by the aid of semiconductor device simulation tools. A 3.3-kV IGBT cell has been used for the simulations demonstrating that a single IGBT cell is able to oscillate together with the external circuit parasitic elements....... The work presented here through both circuit and device analysis, confirms that the oscillations can be understood with focus on the device capacitive effects coming from the interaction between carrier concentration and the electric field. The paper also shows the 2-D effects during one oscillation cycle...

  14. FPGA Based Low Power ROM Design Using Capacitance Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Meenakshi; Bansal, Neha; Saini, Rishita

    2015-01-01

    An ideal capacitor will not dissipate any power, but a real capacitor wil l have some power dissipation. In this work, we are going to design capacitance scaling based low power ROM design. In order to test the compatibility of this ROM design with latest i7 Processor, we are operating this ROM w...... in I/O Power, saving of 0.2% occur in Leakage Power, there will be a saving of 11.54% occur in Total Power. This design is implemented on Virtex-5 FPGA using Xilinx ISE and Verilog....

  15. Contrast distortion induced by modulation voltage in scanning capacitance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M. N.; Hu, C. W.; Chou, T. H.; Lee, Y. J.

    2012-08-01

    With a dark-mode scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM), we directly observed the influence of SCM modulation voltage (MV) on image contrasts. For electrical junctions, an extensive modulated area induced by MV may lead to noticeable changes in the SCM signal phase and intensity, resulting in a narrowed junction image and a broadened carrier concentration profile. This contrast distortion in SCM images may occur even if the peak-to-peak MV is down to 0.3 V. In addition, MV may shift the measured electrical junction depth. The balance of SCM signals components explain these MV-induced contrast distortions.

  16. Absolute Position Sensing Based on a Robust Differential Capacitive Sensor with a Grounded Shield Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple differential capacitive sensor is provided in this paper to measure the absolute positions of length measuring systems. By utilizing a shield window inside the differential capacitor, the measurement range and linearity range of the sensor can reach several millimeters. What is more interesting is that this differential capacitive sensor is only sensitive to one translational degree of freedom (DOF movement, and immune to the vibration along the other two translational DOFs. In the experiment, we used a novel circuit based on an AC capacitance bridge to directly measure the differential capacitance value. The experimental result shows that this differential capacitive sensor has a sensitivity of 2 × 10−4 pF/μm with 0.08 μm resolution. The measurement range of this differential capacitive sensor is 6 mm, and the linearity error are less than 0.01% over the whole absolute position measurement range.

  17. Contribution of Dielectric Screening to the Total Capacitance of Few-Layer Graphene Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Cheng; Jiang, De-en

    2016-03-03

    We apply joint density functional theory (JDFT), which treats the electrode/electrolyte interface self-consistently, to an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) based on few-layer graphene electrodes. The JDFT approach allows us to quantify a third contribution to the total capacitance beyond quantum capacitance (CQ) and EDL capacitance (CEDL). This contribution arises from the dielectric screening of the electric field by the surface of the few-layer graphene electrode, and we therefore term it the dielectric capacitance (CDielec). We find that CDielec becomes significant in affecting the total capacitance when the number of graphene layers in the electrode is more than three. Our investigation sheds new light on the significance of the electrode dielectric screening on the capacitance of few-layer graphene electrodes.

  18. A robust parasitic-insensitive successive approximation capacitance-to-digital converter

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present a capacitive sensor digital interface circuit using true capacitance-domain successive approximation that is independent of supply voltage. Robust operation is achieved by using a charge amplifier stage and multiple comparison technique. The interface circuit is insensitive to parasitic capacitances, offset voltages, and charge injection, and is not prone to noise coupling. The proposed design achieves very low temperature sensitivity of 25ppm/oC. A coarse-fine programmable capacitance array allows digitizing a wide capacitance range of 16pF with 12.5-bit quantization limited resolution in a compact area of 0.07mm2. The fabricated prototype is experimentally verified using on-chip sensor and off-chip MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. A robust parasitic-insensitive successive approximation capacitance-to-digital converter

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham; Arsalan, Muhammad; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a capacitive sensor digital interface circuit using true capacitance-domain successive approximation that is independent of supply voltage. Robust operation is achieved by using a charge amplifier stage and multiple comparison technique. The interface circuit is insensitive to parasitic capacitances, offset voltages, and charge injection, and is not prone to noise coupling. The proposed design achieves very low temperature sensitivity of 25ppm/oC. A coarse-fine programmable capacitance array allows digitizing a wide capacitance range of 16pF with 12.5-bit quantization limited resolution in a compact area of 0.07mm2. The fabricated prototype is experimentally verified using on-chip sensor and off-chip MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. © 2014 IEEE.

  20. Capacitive sensing of droplets for microfluidic devices based on thermocapillary actuation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian Z.; Darhuber, Anton A.; Troian, Sandra M.; Wagner, Sigurd

    2004-01-01

    The design and performance of a miniaturized coplanar capacitive sensor is presented whose electrode arrays can also function as resistive microheaters for thermocapillary actuation of liquid films and droplets. Optimal compromise between large capacitive signal and high spatial resolution is obtained for electrode widths comparable to the liquid film thickness measured, in agreement with supporting numerical simulations which include mutual capacitance effects. An interdigitated, variable wi...