WorldWideScience

Sample records for stratus ocean reference

  1. Stratus Ocean Reference Station (20 degs S, 85 degs W) Mooring Recovery and Deployment Cruise, STRATUS 8, R/V Ronald H. Brown Cruise 07-09, October 9, 2007-November 6, 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whelan, Sean; Lord, Jeff; Grados, Carmen; Yu, Lisan; Morales, Luis; Galbraith, Nancy; de Szoeke, Simon P; O'Leary, Megan; Weller, Robert; Bouchard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... During the October 2007 cruise on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities were recovery of the Stratus 7 WHOI surface mooring that had been deployed in October 2006, deployment of a new (Stratus...

  2. Stratus 12 Twelfth Setting of the Stratus Ocean Reference Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    to bottom sea floor. Last visual on S12. Short bathymetry survey. Watches resume for drifters launches and UCTD, with feedback from bridge prior to... pendant was shackled to that chain, and another 5-meter section of ½” chain was shackled to the anchor pendant . The mooring winch wound up these

  3. Stratus Ocean Reference Station (20 deg S, 85 deg W) Mooring Recovery and Deployment Cruise, R/V Ronald H. Brown Cruise 06-07, October 9-October 27, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bigorre, Sebastien; Weller, Robert; Lord, Jeff; Whelan, Sean; Galbraith, Nancy; Wolfe, Dan; Bariteau, Ludovic; Ghate, Virendra; Zajaczkovski, Uriel; Vera, Alvaro

    2007-01-01

    .... During the October 2006 cruise of NOAA's R/V Ronald H. Brown to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities where recovery of the Stratus 6 WHOI surface mooring that had been deployed in October...

  4. Stratus Ocean Reference Station (20 deg. S, 85 deg. W) : Mooring Recovery and Deployment Cruise, R/V Ronald H. Brown Cruise 05-05, September 26, 2005-October 21, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutto, Lara; Weller, Robert; Lord, Jeff; Smith, Jason; Bouchard, Paul; Fairall, Chris; Pezoa, Sergio; Bariteau, Ludovic; Lundquist, Jessica; Ghate, Virendra

    2006-01-01

    .... During the October 2005 cruise of NOAA's R/V Ronald H. Brown to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities were recovery of the WHOl surface mooring that had been deployed in December 2004, deployment of a new...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING STRATUS_85W_20S, in the South Pacific Ocean from 2006-10-16 to 2015-04-03 (NODC Accession 0100075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100075 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING STRATUS_85W_20S in the South Pacific Ocean from...

  6. Stratus 10: Tenth Setting of the Stratus Ocean Reference Station. Cruise RB-10-01 January 2 - January 30, 2010 Charleston, South Carolina - Valparaiso, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    data. Passed Florida Keys, turned south and crossed the Loop current. Swell from the west, choppy sea, cloudy then clearing in evening. Fire alarm...yr): 2 W/m2 (Colbo and Weller, 2009). Measurement is formed from one single snapshot each minute. 7) Barometric pressure Heise DXD ( Dresser ...have been crossing the ridge there because of a gap in the topography (Figures 5-9 and 5-13). A Seabeam survey was also done in anticipation of use

  7. Atmosphere-ocean ozone fluxes during the TexAQS 2006, STRATUS 2006, GOMECC 2007, GasEx 2008, and AMMA 2008 cruises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmig, D.; Lang, E.K.; Bariteau, L.; Boylan, P.; Fairall, C.W.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Hare, J.E.; Hueber, J.; Pallandt, M.

    2012-01-01

    A ship-based eddy covariance ozone flux system was deployed to investigate the magnitude and variability of ozone surface fluxes over the open ocean. The flux experiments were conducted on five cruises on board the NOAA research vessel Ronald Brown during 2006-2008. The cruises covered the Gulf of

  8. Cloud Processed CCN Suppress Stratus Cloud Drizzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within cloud droplets increases the sizes and decreases the critical supersaturation, Sc, of cloud residual particles that had nucleated the droplets. Since other particles remain at the same sizes and Sc a size and Sc gap is often observed. Hudson et al. (2015) showed higher cloud droplet concentrations (Nc) in stratus clouds associated with bimodal high-resolution CCN spectra from the DRI CCN spectrometer compared to clouds associated with unimodal CCN spectra (not cloud processed). Here we show that CCN spectral shape (bimodal or unimodal) affects all aspects of stratus cloud microphysics and drizzle. Panel A shows mean differential cloud droplet spectra that have been divided according to traditional slopes, k, of the 131 measured CCN spectra in the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) off the Central California coast. K is generally high within the supersaturation, S, range of stratus clouds (< 0.5%). Because cloud processing decreases Sc of some particles, it reduces k. Panel A shows higher concentrations of small cloud droplets apparently grown on lower k CCN than clouds grown on higher k CCN. At small droplet sizes the concentrations follow the k order of the legend, black, red, green, blue (lowest to highest k). Above 13 µm diameter the lines cross and the hierarchy reverses so that blue (highest k) has the highest concentrations followed by green, red and black (lowest k). This reversed hierarchy continues into the drizzle size range (panel B) where the most drizzle drops, Nd, are in clouds grown on the least cloud-processed CCN (blue), while clouds grown on the most processed CCN (black) have the lowest Nd. Suppression of stratus cloud drizzle by cloud processing is an additional 2nd indirect aerosol effect (IAE) that along with the enhancement of 1st IAE by higher Nc (panel A) are above and beyond original IAE. However, further similar analysis is needed in other cloud regimes to determine if MASE was

  9. Evaluating Surface Radiation Fluxes Observed From Satellites in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, R. T.; Zhang, B.; Weller, R. A.; Chen, W.

    2018-03-01

    This study is focused on evaluation of current satellite and reanalysis estimates of surface radiative fluxes in a climatically important region. It uses unique observations from the STRATUS Ocean Reference Station buoy in a region of persistent marine stratus clouds 1,500 km off northern Chile during 2000-2012. The study shows that current satellite estimates are in better agreement with buoy observations than model outputs at a daily time scale and that satellite data depict well the observed annual cycle in both shortwave and longwave surface radiative fluxes. Also, buoy and satellite estimates do not show any significant trend over the period of overlap or any interannual variability. This verifies the stability and reliability of the satellite data and should make them useful to examine El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability influences on surface radiative fluxes at the STRATUS site for longer periods for which satellite record is available.

  10. The StratusLab cloud distribution: Use-cases and support for scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, E.

    2012-04-01

    advantage of StratusLab cloud solutions. Interested users are welcomed to join StratusLab's user community by getting access to the reference cloud services deployed by the project and offered to the public.

  11. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  12. Stratus 9/VOCALS: Ninth Setting of the Stratus Ocean Reference Station & VOCALS Regional Experiment. Cruise RB-08-06, September 29-December 2, 2008. Leg 1: Charleston-Arica, September 29-November 3, 2008, Leg 2: Arica-Arica, November 9?December 2, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    per day and plots of the data are posted in near real-time to the web . To view the daily data, visit the NOAA PMEL Moored CO2 Website:http...is ultimately transmitted to NDBC where the data are subjected to automated quality-control checks and then posted on the NDBC web site. The data...signals for immediate dissemination to Sistema Nacional de Alarma de Maremotos (SNAM) in SHOA, via internet. The buoy, installed on the ocean’s

  13. A Heuristic Parameterization for the Integrated Vertical Overlap of Cumulus and Stratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungsu

    2017-10-01

    The author developed a heuristic parameterization to handle the contrasting vertical overlap structures of cumulus and stratus in an integrated way. The parameterization assumes that cumulus is maximum-randomly overlapped with adjacent cumulus; stratus is maximum-randomly overlapped with adjacent stratus; and radiation and precipitation areas at each model interface are grouped into four categories, that is, convective, stratiform, mixed, and clear areas. For simplicity, thermodynamic scalars within individual portions of cloud, radiation, and precipitation areas are assumed to be internally homogeneous. The parameterization was implemented into the Seoul National University Atmosphere Model version 0 (SAM0) in an offline mode and tested over the globe. The offline control simulation reasonably reproduces the online surface precipitation flux and longwave cloud radiative forcing (LWCF). Although the cumulus fraction is much smaller than the stratus fraction, cumulus dominantly contributes to precipitation production in the tropics. For radiation, however, stratus is dominant. Compared with the maximum overlap, the random overlap of stratus produces stronger LWCF and, surprisingly, more precipitation flux due to less evaporation of convective precipitation. Compared with the maximum overlap, the random overlap of cumulus simulates stronger LWCF and weaker precipitation flux. Compared with the control simulation with separate cumulus and stratus, the simulation with a single-merged cloud substantially enhances the LWCF in the tropical deep convection and midlatitude storm track regions. The process-splitting treatment of convective and stratiform precipitation with an independent precipitation approximation (IPA) simulates weaker surface precipitation flux than the control simulation in the tropical region.

  14. An Economical Analytical Equation for the Integrated Vertical Overlap of Cumulus and Stratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungsu

    2018-03-01

    By extending the previously proposed heuristic parameterization, the author derived an analytical equation computing the overlap areas between the precipitation (or radiation) areas and the cloud areas in a cloud system consisting of cumulus and stratus. The new analytical equation is accurate and much more efficient than the previous heuristic equation, which suffers from the truncation error in association with the digitalization of the overlap areas. Global test simulations with the new analytical formula in an offline mode showed that the maximum cumulus overlap simulates more surface precipitation flux than the random cumulus overlap. On the other hand, the maximum stratus overlap simulates less surface precipitation flux than random stratus overlap, which is due to the increase in the evaporation rate of convective precipitation from the random to maximum stratus overlap. The independent precipitation approximation (IPA) marginally decreases the surface precipitation flux, implying that IPA works well with other parameterizations. In contrast to the net production rate of precipitation and surface precipitation flux that increase when the cumulus and stratus are maximally and randomly overlapped, respectively, the global mean net radiative cooling and longwave cloud radiative forcing (LWCF) increase when the cumulus and stratus are randomly overlapped. On the global average, the vertical cloud overlap exerts larger impacts on the precipitation flux than on the radiation flux. The radiation scheme taking the subgrid variability of water vapor between the cloud and clear portions into account substantially increases the global mean LWCF in tropical deep convection and midlatitude storm track regions.

  15. The NIST natural-matrix radionuclide standard reference material program for ocean studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W.; Zhichao Lin; Zhongyu Wu; MacMahon, C.; Filliben, J.J.; Krey, P.; Feiner, M.; Harvey, J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the Low-level Working Group of the International Committee on Radionuclide Metrology met in Boston, MA (USA) to define the characteristics of a new set of environmental radioactivity reference materials. These reference materials were to provide the radiochemist with the same analytical challenges faced when assaying environmental samples. It was decided that radionuclide bearing natural materials should be collected from sites where there had been sufficient time for natural processes to redistribute the various chemically different species of the radionuclides. Over the succeeding years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in cooperation with other highly experienced laboratories, certified and issued a number of these as low-level radioactivity Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for fission and activation product and actinide concentrations. The experience of certifying these SRMs has given NIST the opportunity to compare radioanalytical methods and learn of their limitations. NIST convened an international workshop in 1994 to define the natural-matrix radionuclide SRM needs for ocean studies. The highest priorities proposed at the workshop were for sediment, shellfish, seaweed, fish flesh and water matrix SRMs certified for mBq per sample concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 Pu + 240 Pu. The most recent low-level environmental radionuclide SRM issued by NIST, Ocean Sediment (SRM 4357) has certified and uncertified values for the following 22 radionuclides: 40 K, 90 Sr, 129 I, 137 Cs, 155 Eu, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 212 Pb, 214 Bi, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 235 U, 237 Np, 238 U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu + 240 Pu, and 241 Am. The uncertainties for a number of the certified radionuclides are non-symmetrical and relatively large because of the non-normal distribution of reported values. NIST is continuing its efforts to provide the ocean studies community with additional natural matrix radionuclide SRMs. The freeze

  16. Relativistic radiative transfer in a moving stratus irradiated by a luminous flat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Relativistic radiative transfer in a geometrically thin stratus (sheet-like gaseous cloud with finite optical depth), which is moving at a relativistic speed around a luminous flat source, such as accretion disks, and is irradiated by the source, is examined under the special relativistic treatment. Incident radiation is aberrated and Doppler-shifted when it is received by the stratus, and emitted radiation is also aberrated and Doppler-shifted when it leaves the stratus. Considering these relativistic effects, we analytically obtain the emergent intensity as well as other radiative quantities in the purely scattering case for both infinite and finite strati. We mainly consider the frequency-integrated case, but also briefly show the frequency-dependent one. We also solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation numerically, and compare the results with the analytical solutions. In the infinite stratus, the mean intensity in the comoving and inertial frames decreases and becomes constant, as the stratus speed increases. The flux in the comoving frame decreases exponentially with the optical depth. The emergent intensity decreases as the speed increases, since the incident photons are redshifted at the bottom-side of the stratus. In the finite stratus, the mean intensity in the comoving and inertial frames quickly increases in the top-side region due to the aberrated photons. The flux in the comoving frame is positive in the range of 0 negative for β ≳ 0.5. The behavior of the emergent intensity is similar to that of the infinite case, although there is an irradiation effect caused by the aberrated photons.

  17. Scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Naoki; Maeda, Takahisa [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The role of atmospheric aerosols on the alternation of cloud radiative properties has widely been recognized since 1977 when Tomey and his coworkers have numerically demonstrated the effect of increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). At the same time, cloud processes are one of the most important factor in controlling the residence time of atmospheric aerosols through the wet removal process. The redistribution of the size and the composition of pre-cloud aerosols is also the important role of cloud process on the nature of atmospheric aerosols. In order to study these cloud-aerosol interaction phenomena, the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets is the first mechanism to be investigated. Among the several mechanisms for the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets, nucleation scavenging, is the potentially important process in the view of cloud-aerosol interactions. This critical supersaturation for a given radius of a particle can be theoretically calculated only for pure species, e.g., NaCl. However, a significant portion of the atmospheric aerosols is in the form of internal mixture of multiple components, such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and particulate elemental carbon. The knowledge acquired by field measurements is therefore essential on this subject. The present study focuses on the scavenging of major components of urban atmospheric aerosols, in particular the incorporation of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud. Particulate elemental carbon is the strongest light absorbing species in visible region, and has potential to change the optical property of cloud. On the basis of the measurements conducted at a mountain located in the suburb of Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan, some insights on the scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into cloud droplet will be presented

  18. Scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Naoki; Maeda, Takahisa [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The role of atmospheric aerosols on the alternation of cloud radiative properties has widely been recognized since 1977 when Tomey and his coworkers have numerically demonstrated the effect of increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). At the same time, cloud processes are one of the most important factor in controlling the residence time of atmospheric aerosols through the wet removal process. The redistribution of the size and the composition of pre-cloud aerosols is also the important role of cloud process on the nature of atmospheric aerosols. In order to study these cloud-aerosol interaction phenomena, the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets is the first mechanism to be investigated. Among the several mechanisms for the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets, nucleation scavenging, is the potentially important process in the view of cloud-aerosol interactions. This critical supersaturation for a given radius of a particle can be theoretically calculated only for pure species, e.g., NaCl. However, a significant portion of the atmospheric aerosols is in the form of internal mixture of multiple components, such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and particulate elemental carbon. The knowledge acquired by field measurements is therefore essential on this subject. The present study focuses on the scavenging of major components of urban atmospheric aerosols, in particular the incorporation of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud. Particulate elemental carbon is the strongest light absorbing species in visible region, and has potential to change the optical property of cloud. On the basis of the measurements conducted at a mountain located in the suburb of Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan, some insights on the scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into cloud droplet will be presented

  19. Comparison and interchangeability of macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT in myopic eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the difference of macular thickness measurements between stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT and Cirrus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA in the same myopic patient and to develop a conversion equation to interchange macular thickness obtained with these two OCT devices. METHODS: Eighty-nine healthy Chinese adults with spherical equivalent (SE ranging from -1.13 D to -9.63 D were recruited. The macular thickness was measured by Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT. The correlation between macular thickness and axial length and the agreement between two OCT measurements were evaluated. A formula was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. RESULTS: Average macular thickness measured with Stratus OCT (r=-0.280, P=0.008 and Cirrus OCT (r=-0.224, P=0.034 were found to be negatively correlated with axial length. No statistically significant correlation was found between axial length and central subfield macular thickness (CMT measured with Stratus OCT (r=0.191, P=0.073 and Cirrus OCT (r=0.169, P=0.113. The mean CMT measured with Cirrus OCT was 53.63±7.94 μm thicker than with Stratus OCT. The formula CMTCirrus OCT=78.328+0.874×CMTStratus OCT was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. CONCLUSION: Macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT were thicker than with Stratus OCT in myopic eyes. A formula can be used to interchange macular thickness measured with two OCT devices in myopic eyes. Studies with different OCT devices and larger samples are warranted to enable the comparison of macular values measured with different OCT devices.

  20. Equilibrium configuration of a stratus floating above accretion disks: Full-disk calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itanishi, Yusuke; Fukue, Jun

    2017-06-01

    We examine floating strati above a luminous accretion disk, supported by the radiative force from the entire disk, and calculate the equilibrium locus, which depends on the disk luminosity and the optical depth of the stratus. Due to the radiative transfer effect (albedo effect), the floating height of the stratus with a finite optical depth generally becomes high, compared with the particle case. In contrast to the case of the near-disk approximation, moreover, the floating height becomes yet higher in the present full-disk calculation, since the intense radiation from the inner disk is taken into account. As a result, when the disk luminosity normalized by the Eddington luminosity is ˜0.3 and the stratus optical depth is around unity, the stable configuration disappears at around r ˜ 50 rg, rg being the Schwarzschild radius, and the stratus would be blown off as a cloudy wind consisting of many strati with appropriate conditions. This luminosity is sufficiently smaller than the Eddington one, and the present results suggest that the radiation-driven cloudy wind can be easily blown off from the sub-Eddington disk, and this can explain various outflows observed in ultra-fast outflow objects as well as in broad-absorption-line quasars.

  1. Relationship between macular thickness measurement and signal strength using Stratus optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, Ori; Shapira, Yinon; Gershoni, Assaf; Vainer, Igor; Nemet, Arie Y; Geffen, Noa; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ori Segal,1 Yinon Shapira,2 Assaf Gershoni,1 Igor Vainer,2 Arie Y Nemet,1 Noa Geffen,1 Michael Mimouni2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel and the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel Purpose: To examine the relationship between signal strength and macular thickness as measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT)’s fast macular thickness protocol...

  2. The Wunstorf Drilling Project: Coring a Global Stratigraphic Reference Section of the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Wilmsen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wunstorf drilling project aims at establishing a high resolution stable isotope record for the black shale succession (OAE 2 of the CTBI and developing this into a globally applicable high resolutionbio- and chemostratigraphic reference section. Disciplines involved include micropaleontology (calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera, macropaleontology (ammonites, inoceramids, stable isotopes and cyclostratigraphy mainly based on borehole logging, multisensor core logging, and x-ray flflfluorescence (XRF scanning data. The combination of geochemical, paleontological, and logging data will allow high resolution chemo- and biostratigraphy for the CTBI which may in the future serve as an international standard.

  3. Physical feedbacks on stratus cloud amount resolve the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, C.; McCusker, K. E.; McDonald, V.

    2017-12-01

    Geological evidence suggests that Earth was mostly warm and not glaciated during the Archean, despite Earth receiving only around 80% of the present day amount of sunlight. 1-D models require higher abundances of greenhouse gases than geochemical proxies permit, whereas some 3-D models permit lower greenhouse gas inventories, but for reasons which are somewhat opaque. Here, we show that physically motivated changes to low cloud (stratus) amount likely played a large role in resolving the FYSP. The amount of stratus cloud is strongly linked to lower tropospheric stability [Slingo 1987; Woods and Bretherton 2006], with a stronger inversion at the planetary boundary layer trapping moisture and giving a higher stratus cloud fraction. By hypothesis, an Archean situation where the surface is heated less by sunlight and the atmosphere is heated more by absorption of thermal radiation with a stronger greenhouse, should feature a weaker inversion and less stable lower troposphere. Hence, with a weaker sun but stronger greenhouse, we expect less stratus clouds. To test this hypothesis, we run a set of carefully controlled General Circulation Model experiments using the Community Atmosphere Model. We change only the solar constant and CO2 mixing ratio, increasing CO2 and decreasing the solar constant so that the global mean surface temperature remains the same. We do not change anything else, so as to focus directly on a single hypothesis, and to keep the model as near to known conditions as possible. We find that at 80% of modern solar constant: (1) only 30,000 ppmv CO2 is required to maintain modern surface temperatures, versus the expectation of 80,000 ppmv from radiative forcing calculations. (2) The dominant change is to low cloud fraction, decreasing from 34% to 25%, with an associated reduction in short-wave cloud forcing of 20W/m/m. This can be set in the context of a 50W/m/m radiative deficit due to the weaker sun, so the cloud feedback contributes two-fifths of the

  4. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M. K.; van Beek, P.; Carvalho, F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified...... radionuclides include: 40K, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 234U, 238U, 239Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am for IAEA-410 and 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 239+240Pu for IAEA-412. The CRMs can be used for quality assurance and quality control purposes...

  5. Development and testing of an aerosol-stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, P.Q.; Meyers, M.P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Cotton, W.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this new project is to develop an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary layer clouds. Our approach is to create, test, and implement a bulk-microphysics/aerosol model using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites and large-eddy simulation (LES) explicit bin-resolving aerosol/microphysics models. The primary objectives of this work are twofold. First, we need the prediction of number concentrations of activated aerosol which are transferred to the droplet spectrum, so that the aerosol population directly affects the cloud formation and microphysics. Second, we plan to couple the aerosol model to the gas and aqueous-chemistry module that will drive the aerosol formation and growth. We begin by exploring the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations of Arctic stratus clouds over the North Slope CART site. These simulations using Colorado State University`s regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) will be useful in designing the structure of the cloud-resolving model and in interpreting data acquired at the North Slope site.

  6. Examining Influence of Fog and Stratus Clouds on Bishop Pine Water Budgets, Channel Islands, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D. T.; Still, C. J.; Williams, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    We present the first results from a project whose goal is to advance our basic understanding of the role that fog and persistent stratus clouds play in ecological processes in the California Channel Islands. Our work is focused on a population of Bishop Pines (Pinus muricata) on Santa Cruz Island (SCI), the largest, most topographically complex and most biologically diverse island along the California coast. This is the southernmost population (except for an outlier stand near San Vicente, Baja California), and tree growth appears to be water-limited in such a marginal habitat. We hypothesize that persistent fog and low stratus clouds enhance the water balance of these trees via direct water inputs (fog drip and foliar absorption) and reduced solar heating. To assess these possible effects, we have established weather stations and fog and rain collectors throughout the largest Bishop pine stand on SCI. Initial analysis of weather data shows dramatic differences in solar loading over short distances. We present data on the isotopic content (oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2) of water samples collected from winter 2003 to summer 2004. The samples we collected include fogwater, rainfall, water vapor, soil water, leaf and xylem water, and stream water. We also collected and analyzed leaf biomass and soil organic matter samples at periodic intervals for carbon-13 content. These latter data are evaluated in light of extensive leaf-level ecophysiological data collected in the field and as part of a parallel greenhouse study.

  7. 76 FR 70520 - Rovac Corp., RS Group of Companies, Inc., Rymer Foods, Inc. Stratus Services Group, Inc., Sun Cal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...., Rymer Foods, Inc. Stratus Services Group, Inc., Sun Cal Energy, Inc., Sun Motor International, Inc... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Sun Cal Energy, Inc. because it has not... Sun Motor International, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended...

  8. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, A.S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  9. Identification of fish populations with particular reference to the pelagic fish stocks of the Indian Ocean region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dwivedi, S.N.

    The most essential step in any fishery management is the identification of discrete fish populations. This is particularly important for the development of Indian Ocean pelagic fisheries. The simple signal character analysis of meristic or metric...

  10. Zooplankton studies with special reference to krill Euphausia superba Dana from fishing area 58 of Indian Ocean sector in Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.

    from 16 stations du r- ing the FIKEX (December 1995 to March 1996) of FORV Sagar Sampada to the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, covering within the geographical limits of latitude 58 ?00 minute to 61 ?17 minuteS and longitude 30 ?00 minute....22 to 8.03 ml 1 ? 1 ( x ? =7.68 ? 0.24). Zooplankton biomass values fluctuated widely du ring the present investigation. They were generally higher and varied between 9.79 and 303.62 ml 100 m ? 3 ( x ? =143.14 ? 77...

  11. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of macula from stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diagnosis of macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinilhaq; Widita, R

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of macular degeneration using a Stratus OCT with a fast macular thickness map (FMTM) method produced six B-scan images of macula from different angles. The images were converted into a retinal thickness chart to be evaluated by normal distribution percentile of data so that it can be classified as normal thickness of macula or as experiencing abnormality (e.g. thickening and thinning). Unfortunately, the diagnostic images only represent the retinal thickness in several areas of the macular region. Thus, this study is aims to obtain the entire retinal thickness in the macula area from Status OCT's output images. Basically, the volumetric image is obtained by combining each of the six images. Reconstruction consists of a series of processes such as pre-processing, segmentation, and interpolation. Linear interpolation techniques are used to fill the empty pixels in reconstruction matrix. Based on the results, this method is able to provide retinal thickness maps on the macula surface and the macula 3D image. Retinal thickness map can display the macula area which experienced abnormalities. The macula 3D image can show the layers of tissue in the macula that is abnormal. The system built cannot replace ophthalmologist in decision making in term of diagnosis. (paper)

  12. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of macula from stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diagnosis of macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinilhaq; Widita, R.

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of macular degeneration using a Stratus OCT with a fast macular thickness map (FMTM) method produced six B-scan images of macula from different angles. The images were converted into a retinal thickness chart to be evaluated by normal distribution percentile of data so that it can be classified as normal thickness of macula or as experiencing abnormality (e.g. thickening and thinning). Unfortunately, the diagnostic images only represent the retinal thickness in several areas of the macular region. Thus, this study is aims to obtain the entire retinal thickness in the macula area from Status OCT's output images. Basically, the volumetric image is obtained by combining each of the six images. Reconstruction consists of a series of processes such as pre-processing, segmentation, and interpolation. Linear interpolation techniques are used to fill the empty pixels in reconstruction matrix. Based on the results, this method is able to provide retinal thickness maps on the macula surface and the macula 3D image. Retinal thickness map can display the macula area which experienced abnormalities. The macula 3D image can show the layers of tissue in the macula that is abnormal. The system built cannot replace ophthalmologist in decision making in term of diagnosis.

  13. Direct Evidence of Reduction of Cloud Water after Spreading Diatomite Particles in Stratus Clouds in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial weather modification experiments have been intensively practiced in many years over China, and some progresses have been made, including more methodologies and advanced instruments. However, a challenge question still remains for providing convincing scientific evidence during these practices and experiments. This is a very difficult scientific issue, which is related to complicated cloud physical science, such as to accurately predict the large natural variability of cloud formation and precipitation. In this study, we report a clear evidence that the cloud water is reduced after spreading diatomite particles in stratus clouds during a field experiment in Beijing, China. The analysis shows that the diatomite particles (15–20 μm in radius are large and have strong hygroscopic property (absorbing cloud water. As a result, during the experiment, spreading large diatomite particles lead to downward motion (producing more stable atmospheric condition and reduction of cloud water. It is noted that due to lacks of instruments, this designed experiment only can provide a qualitative result (such as photo evidence, and no quantitative result can be drawn from this experiment.

  14. Reproducibility of measurements and variability of the classification algorithm of Stratus OCT in normal, hypertensive, and glaucomatous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Antón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Antón1,2,3, Marta Castany1,2, Marta Pazos-Lopez1,2, Ruben Cuadrado3, Ana Flores3, Miguel Castilla11Hospital de la Esperanza-Hospital del Mar (IMAS, Barcelona, Spain; 2Institut Català de la Retina (ICR, Barcelona, Spain. Glaucoma Department; 3Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiología Aplicada (IOBA, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, EspañaPurpose: To assess the reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL measurements and the variability of the probabilistic classification algorithm in normal, hypertensive and glaucomatous eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT.Methods: Forty-nine eyes (13 normal, 17 ocular hypertensive [OHT] and 19 glaucomatous of 49 subjects were included in this study. RNFL was determined with Stratus OCT using the standard protocol RNFL thickness 3.4. Three different images of each eye were taken consecutively during the same session. To evaluate OCT reproducibility, coefficient of variation (COV and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated for average thickness (AvgT, superior average thickness (Savg, and inferior average thickness (Iavg parameters. The variability of the results of the probabilistic classification algorithm, based on the OCT normative database, was also analyzed. The percentage of eyes with changes in the category assigned was calculated for each group.Results: The 50th percentile of COV was 2.96%, 4.00%, and 4.31% for AvgT, Savg, and Iavg, respectively. Glaucoma group presented the largest COV for all three parameters (3.87%, 5.55%, 7.82%. ICC were greater than 0.75 for almost all measures (except from the inferior thickness parameter in the normal group; ICC = 0.64, 95% CI 0.334–0.857. Regarding the probabilistic classification algorithm for the three parameters (AvgT, Savg, Iavg, the percentage of eyes without color-code category changes among the three images was as follows: normal group, 100%, 84.6% and 92%; OHT group, 89.5%, 52.7%, 79%; and

  15. Evaluation of Fog and Low Stratus Cloud Microphysical Properties Derived from In Situ Sensor, Cloud Radar and SYRSOC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Dupont

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The microphysical properties of low stratus and fog are analyzed here based on simultaneous measurement of an in situ sensor installed on board a tethered balloon and active remote-sensing instruments deployed at the Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research (SIRTA observatory (south of Paris, France. The study focuses on the analysis of 3 case studies where the tethered balloon is deployed for several hours in order to derive the relationship between liquid water content (LWC, effective radius (Re and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC measured by a light optical aerosol counter (LOAC in situ granulometer and Bistatic Radar System for Atmospheric Studies (BASTA cloud radar reflectivity. The well-known relationship Z = α × (LWCβ has been optimized with α ϵ [0.02, 0.097] and β ϵ [1.91, 2.51]. Similar analysis is done to optimize the relationship Re = f(Z and CDNC = f(Z. Two methodologies have been applied to normalize the particle-size distribution measured by the LOAC granulometer with a visible extinction closure (R² ϵ [0.73, 0.93] and to validate the LWC profile with a liquid water closure using the Humidity and Temperature Profiler (HATPRO microwave radiometer (R² ϵ [0.83, 0.91]. In a second step, these relationships are used to derive spatial and temporal variability of the vertical profile of LWC, Re and CDNC starting from BASTA measurement. Finally, the synergistic remote sensing of clouds (SYRSOC algorithm has been tested on three tethered balloon flights. Generally, SYRSOC CDNC and Re profiles agreed well with LOAC in situ and BASTA profiles for the studied fog layers. A systematic overestimation of LWC by SYRSOC in the top half of the fog layer was found due to fog processes that are not accounted for in the cloud algorithm SYRSOC.

  16. Preliminary Results from the First Deployment of a Tethered-Balloon Cloud Particle Imager Instrument Package in Arctic Stratus Clouds at Ny-Alesund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, P.; Stamnes, K.; Stamnes, J.; Zmarzly, P.; O'Connor, D.; Koskulics, J.; Hamre, B.

    2008-12-01

    A tethered balloon system specifically designed to collect microphysical data in mixed-phase clouds was deployed in Arctic stratus clouds during May 2008 near Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, at 79 degrees North Latitude. This is the first time a tethered balloon system with a cloud particle imager (CPI) that records high-resolution digital images of cloud drops and ice particles has been operated in cloud. The custom tether supplies electrical power to the instrument package, which in addition to the CPI houses a 4-pi short-wavelength radiometer and a met package that measures temperature, humidity, pressure, GPS position, wind speed and direction. The instrument package was profiled vertically through cloud up to altitudes of 1.6 km. Since power was supplied to the instrument package from the ground, it was possible to keep the balloon package aloft for extended periods of time, up to 9 hours at Ny- Ålesund, which was limited only by crew fatigue. CPI images of cloud drops and the sizes, shapes and degree of riming of ice particles are shown throughout vertical profiles of Arctic stratus clouds. The images show large regions of mixed-phase cloud from -8 to -2 C. The predominant ice crystal habits in these regions are needles and aggregates of needles. The amount of ice in the mixed-phase clouds varied considerably and did not appear to be a function of temperature. On some occasions, ice was observed near cloud base at -2 C with supercooled cloud above to - 8 C that was devoid of ice. Measurements of shortwave radiation are also presented. Correlations between particle distributions and radiative measurements will be analyzed to determine the effect of these Arctic stratus clouds on radiative forcing.

  17. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  18. A 25-month database of stratus cloud properties generated from ground-based measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Mace, Gerald G.; Long, Charles N.; Liljegren, James C.

    2000-01-01

    A 25-month database of the macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties of isolated and overcast low-level stratus clouds has been generated using a newly developed parameterization and surface measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement central facility in Oklahoma. The database (5-min resolution) includes two parts: measurements and retrievals. The former consist of cloud base and top heights, layer-mean temperature, cloud liquid water path, and solar transmission ratio measured by a ground-based lidar/ceilometer and radar pair, radiosondes, a microwave radiometer, and a standard Eppley precision spectral pyranometer, respectively. The retrievals include the cloud-droplet effective radius and number concentration and broadband shortwave optical depth and cloud and top-of-atmosphere albedos. Stratus without any overlying mid or high-level clouds occurred most frequently during winter and least often during summer. Mean cloud-layer altitudes and geometric thicknesses were higher and greater, respectively, in summer than in winter. Both quantities are positively correlated with the cloud-layer mean temperature. Mean cloud-droplet effective radii range from 8.1 μm in winter to 9.7 μm during summer, while cloud-droplet number concentrations during winter are nearly twice those in summer. Since cloud liquid water paths are almost the same in both seasons, cloud optical depth is higher during the winter, leading to greater cloud albedos and lower cloud transmittances. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union

  19. Comparison of CERES-MODIS stratus cloud properties with ground-based measurements at the DOE ARM Southern Great Plains site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Xi, Baike; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan

    2008-02-01

    Overcast stratus cloud properties derived for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site from March 2000 through December 2004. Retrievals from ARM surface-based data were averaged over a 1-h interval centered at the time of each satellite overpass, and the CERES-MODIS cloud properties were averaged within a 30 km × 30 km box centered on the ARM SGP site. Two data sets were analyzed: all of the data (ALL), which include multilayered, single-layered, and slightly broken stratus decks and a subset, single-layered unbroken decks (SL). The CERES-MODIS effective cloud heights were determined from effective cloud temperature using a lapse rate method with the surface temperature specified as the 24-h mean surface air temperature. For SL stratus, they are, on average, within the ARM radar-lidar estimated cloud boundaries and are 0.534 ± 0.542 km and 0.108 ± 0.480 km lower than the cloud physical tops and centers, respectively, and are comparable for day and night observations. The mean differences and standard deviations are slightly larger for ALL data, but not statistically different to those of SL data. The MODIS-derived effective cloud temperatures are 2.7 ± 2.4 K less than the surface-observed SL cloud center temperatures with very high correlations (0.86-0.97). Variations in the height differences are mainly caused by uncertainties in the surface air temperatures, lapse rates, and cloud top height variability. The biases are mainly the result of the differences between effective and physical cloud top, which are governed by cloud liquid water content and viewing zenith angle, and the selected lapse rate, -7.1 K km-1. On the basis of a total of 43 samples, the means and standard deviations of the differences between the daytime

  20. A Reference Section through the Lower Fast-spreading Oceanic Crust in the Wadi Gideah (Sumail ophiolite, Sultanate Oman): Drill Sites GT1A and GT2A within the ICDP Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Koepke, J.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.; Müller, T.; Mock, D.; Strauss, H.; Schuth, S.; Ildefonse, B.

    2017-12-01

    In the absence of a complete profile through fast-spreading oceanic crust in modern oceans, we established a reference profile through the whole paleocrust of the Sumail Ophiolite (Oman), which is regarded as the best analogue for fast-spreading oceanic crust on land. For establishing a coherent data set, we sampled the Wadi Gideah in the Wadi-Tayin massif from the mantle section up to the pillow basalts and performed different analytical and structural investigations on the same suite of samples (pool sample concept). The whole sample set contains about 400 samples focusing on both primary magmatic rocks and hydrothermal fault zones to characterize initial formation processes and cooling of the crust. The Wadi Gideah hosts the sites GT1A (lower crust) and GT2A (foliated / layered gabbro transition) where 400 m long cores have been drilled in the frame of the ICDP Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP). Thus, the Wadi Gideah crustal transect is well-suited for providing a reference frame for these two drill cores. Major and trace element data on minerals and rocks reveal in-situ crystallization in the deep crust, thus strongly supporting a hybrid accretion model that is characterized by sheeted sill intrusion in the lower part of the plutonic crust and gabbro glacier features in the upper section. This hybrid model is also supported by results on crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) of the minerals within the gabbros, which call for distinct formation mechanisms in the upper and lower gabbro sections. A requirement for our hybrid model is significant hydrothermal cooling in the lower crust for the consumption of the latent heat of crystallization. This was facilitated by channelled hydrothermal flow zones, preserved today in faulted zones of extensively altered gabbro cutting both layered and foliated gabbros. These gabbros show higher Sr87/Sr86 ratios if compared to the background gabbro, the presence of late stage minerals (amphibole, oxides, orthopyroxene

  1. Rapid Evolutionary Rates and Unique Genomic Signatures Discovered in the First Reference Genome for the Southern Ocean Salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Nathaniel K; Batta-Lona, Paola G; Trusiak, Sarah; Obergfell, Craig; Bucklin, Ann; O'Neill, Michael J; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2016-10-30

    A preliminary genome sequence has been assembled for the Southern Ocean salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea). Despite the ecological importance of this species in Antarctic pelagic food webs and its potential role as an indicator of changing Southern Ocean ecosystems in response to climate change, no genomic resources are available for S. thompsoni or any closely related urochordate species. Using a multiple-platform, multiple-individual approach, we have produced a 318,767,936-bp genome sequence, covering >50% of the estimated 602 Mb (±173 Mb) genome size for S. thompsoni Using a nonredundant set of predicted proteins, >50% (16,823) of sequences showed significant homology to known proteins and ∼38% (12,151) of the total protein predictions were associated with Gene Ontology functional information. We have generated 109,958 SNP variant and 9,782 indel predictions for this species, serving as a resource for future phylogenomic and population genetic studies. Comparing the salp genome to available assemblies for four other urochordates, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi and Oikopleura dioica, we found that S. thompsoni shares the previously estimated rapid rates of evolution for these species. High mutation rates are thus independent of genome size, suggesting that rates of evolution >1.5 times that observed for vertebrates are a broad taxonomic characteristic of urochordates. Tests for positive selection implemented in PAML revealed a small number of genes with sites undergoing rapid evolution, including genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and metabolic and immune process that may be reflective of both adaptation to polar, planktonic environments as well as the complex life history of the salps. Finally, we performed an initial survey of small RNAs, revealing the presence of known, conserved miRNAs, as well as novel miRNA genes; unique piRNAs; and mature miRNA signatures for varying developmental stages. Collectively, these

  2. Ocean Acidification | Smithsonian Ocean Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor ocean is affected. Such a relatively quick change in ocean chemistry doesn't give marine life, which

  3. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NCEI developed a new set of high-resolution...

  4. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisumaa, A.-M.; Pesant, S.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Delille, B.; Middelburg, J.J.; Orr, J.C.; Riebesell, U.; Tyrrell, T.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean

  5. Ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershott, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  6. Springer handbook of ocean engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Xiros, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The handbook is the definitive reference for the interdisciplinary field that is ocean engineering. It integrates the coverage of fundamental and applied material and encompasses a diverse spectrum of systems, concepts and operations in the maritime environment, as well as providing a comprehensive update on contemporary, leading-edge ocean technologies. Coverage includes but is not limited to; an overview of ocean science, ocean signals and instrumentation, coastal structures, developments in ocean energy technologies, and ocean vehicles and automation. The handbook will be of interest to practitioners in a range of offshore industries and naval establishments as well as academic researchers and graduate students in ocean, coastal, offshore, and marine engineering and naval architecture.

  7. A radiation closure study of Arctic stratus cloud microphysical properties using the collocated satellite-surface data and Fu-Liou radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Qiu, Shaoyue; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Rose, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Retrievals of cloud microphysical properties based on passive satellite imagery are especially difficult over snow-covered surfaces because of the bright and cold surface. To help quantify their uncertainties, single-layered overcast liquid-phase Arctic stratus cloud microphysical properties retrieved by using the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Edition 2 and Edition 4 (CERES Ed2 and Ed4) algorithms are compared with ground-based retrievals at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement North Slope of Alaska (ARM NSA) site at Barrow, AK, during the period from March 2000 to December 2006. A total of 206 and 140 snow-free cases (Rsfc ≤ 0.3), and 108 and 106 snow cases (Rsfc > 0.3), respectively, were selected from Terra and Aqua satellite passes over the ARM NSA site. The CERES Ed4 and Ed2 optical depth (τ) and liquid water path (LWP) retrievals from both Terra and Aqua are almost identical and have excellent agreement with ARM retrievals under snow-free and snow conditions. In order to reach a radiation closure study for both the surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation budgets, the ARM precision spectral pyranometer-measured surface albedos were adjusted (63.6% and 80% of the ARM surface albedos for snow-free and snow cases, respectively) to account for the water and land components of the domain of 30 km × 30 km. Most of the radiative transfer model calculated SW↓sfc and SW↑TOA fluxes by using ARM and CERES cloud retrievals and the domain mean albedos as input agree with the ARM and CERES flux observations within 10 W m-2 for both snow-free and snow conditions. Sensitivity studies show that the ARM LWP and re retrievals are less dependent on solar zenith angle (SZA), but all retrieved optical depths increase with SZA.

  8. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2016-01-01

    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...... of the archipelagic geological dynamics that can affect diversity at both the island and the archipelagic level. We also reaffirm that oceanic archipelagos are appropriate spatiotemporal units to frame analyses in order to understand large scale patterns of biodiversity....

  9. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  10. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Ocean acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gattuso, J.P; Hansson, L

    2011-01-01

    The fate of much of the CO 2 we produce will be to enter the ocean. In a sense, we are fortunate that ocean water is endowed with the capacity to absorb far more CO 2 per litre than were it salt free...

  12. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The sector covers the energy exploitation of all energy flows specifically supplied by the seas and oceans. At present, most efforts in both research and development and in experimental implementation are concentrated on tidal currents and wave power. 90% of today worldwide ocean energy production is represented by a single site: the Rance Tidal Power Plant. Ocean energies must face up two challenges: progress has to be made in finalizing and perfecting technologies and costs must be brought under control. (A.L.B.)

  13. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  14. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  15. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  16. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  17. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  18. Ocean Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brevik, Roy Schjølberg; Jordheim, Nikolai; Martinsen, John Christian; Labori, Aleksander; Torjul, Aleksander Lelis

    2017-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i Internasjonal Markedsføring fra ESADE i Spania, 2017 In this thesis we were going to answer the problem definition “which segments in the Spanish market should Ocean Quality target”. By doing so we started to collect data from secondary sources in order to find information about the industry Ocean Quality are operating in. After conducting the secondary research, we still lacked essential information about the existing competition in the aquaculture industry o...

  19. National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service, manages a network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) that provide...

  20. Trusted Silicon Stratus (TSS) Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    business case for a proposed Infrastructure-as-a- Service (IaaS)/ Software -as-a- Service ( SaaS ) cloud architecture. User desires for innovative pricing and...Public Physically Unclonable Function PUF Physically Unclonable Function SaaS Software -as-a- Service SIP Semiconductor Intellectual Property SNL...WORKSHOP NIMBIS SERVICES INCORPORATED FEBRUARY 2011 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT  ROME, NY 13441 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE  AIR FORCE

  1. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  2. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Nisumaa Anne-Marin; Pesant Stephane; Bellerby Richard G J; Delille Bruno; Middelburg Jack J; Orr James C; Riebesell Ulf; Tyrrell Toby; Wolf-Gladrow Dieter A; Gattuso Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and communities but few have provided details concerning full carbonate chemistry and complementary observations. Additional...

  3. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  4. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  5. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km 2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)

  6. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  7. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of ocean acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…

  8. Climate Reference Network Hourly02 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  9. Climate Reference Network Daily01 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  10. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  11. Ocean energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, R.H.; Justus, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  12. Proceedings of oceans '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Oceans '91 Conference. Topics addressed include: ocean energy conversion, marine communications and navigation, ocean wave energy conversion, environmental modeling, global climate change, ocean minerals technology, oil spill technology, and submersible vehicles

  13. Some sensitivities of a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, T.; Latif, M.; Burgers, G.; Wolff, J.O.

    1994-01-01

    A coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM is being developed for use in seasonal forecasting. As part of the development work, a number of experiments have been made to explore some of the sensitivities of the coupled model system. The overall heat balance of the tropics is found to be very sensitive to convective cloud cover. Adjusting the cloud parameterization to produce stable behaviour of the coupled model also leads to better agreement between model radiative fluxes and satellite data. A further sensitivity is seen to changes in low-level marine stratus, which is under-represented in the initial model experiments. An increase in this cloud in the coupled model produces a small improvement in both the global mean state and the phase of the east Pacific annual cycle. The computational expense of investigating such small changes is emphasized. An indication of model sensitivity to surface albedo is also presented. The sensitivity of the coupled GCM to initial conditions is investigated. The model is very sensitive, with tiny perturbations able to determine El Nino or non-El Nino conditions just six months later. This large sensitivity may be related to the relatively weak amplitude of the model ENSO cycle. (orig.)

  14. Ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubelet, Helene; Veyre, Philippe; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-09-01

    This brief publication first recalls and outlines that ocean acidification is expected to increase, and will result in severe ecological impacts (more fragile coral reefs, migration of species, and so on), and therefore social and economic impacts. This issue is particularly important for France who possesses the second exclusive maritime area in the world. The various impacts of ocean acidification on living species is described, notably for phytoplankton, coral reefs, algae, molluscs, and fishes. Social and economic impacts are also briefly presented: tourism, protection against risks (notably by coral reefs), shellfish aquaculture and fishing. Issues to be addressed by scientific research are evoked: interaction between elements of an ecosystem and between different ecosystems, multi-stress effects all along organism lifetime, vulnerability and adaptability of human societies

  15. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...

  16. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...

  17. Dotyophycus pacificum I. A. Abbott (Liagoraceae, Rhodophyta a new record for the Atlantic Ocean Dotyophycus pacificum Abbott (Liagoraceae, Rhodophyta nova referência para o oceano Atlântico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos de Castro Nunes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Dotyophycus pacificum I. A. Abbott were found during a survey of Rhodophyta on the coast of Bahia state. The samples were taken from 23-36 meters depth and the specimens found were studied in detail and compared to other morphologically similar species. This is the first time that the genus Dotyophycus is cited for the Atlantic Ocean.Durante estudo sobre as rodofíceas do litoral do estado da Bahia foram encontrados exemplares de Dotyophycus pacificum Abbott em coletas realizadas a 23-36 metros de profundidade. Os espécimes foram estudados detalhadamente e comparados a espécies morfologicamente semelhantes. Esta é a primeira ocorrência de D. pacificum para o oceano Atlântico.

  18. Effect of ocean acidification on the benthic foraminifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keul, N.; Langer, G.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.

    2013-01-01

    About 30% of the anthropogenically released CO2 is taken up by the oceans; such uptake causes surface ocean pH to decrease and is commonly referred to as ocean acidification (OA). Foraminifera are one of the most abundant groups of marine calcifiers, estimated to precipitate ca. 50 % of biogenic

  19. Planet Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  20. Experiments with a straightforward model for the spatial forecast of fog/low stratus clearance based on multi-source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reudenbach, Ch; Bendix, J.

    1998-09-01

    A straightforward model for the spatial calculation of the time of fog clearance is presented which is based on thermodynamic equations, spatial data sets such as NOAA-AVHRR satellite data, Digital Elevation Model, and horizontal and vertical meteorological observations. The model has been tested on two days with extended fog layers within the study area. The local validation of the model reveals an accuracy in fog clearance of 4 minutes by comparing the model result with meteorological observations. A spatial validation by means of a reference NOAA overpass indicates an under-estimation of the fog-covered area by the model of 2.9% at the time of the reference image. Five minutes before reference time, the spatial correspondence of the modelled and the reference fog coverage increases to 98.9%. The temporal deviation of uncoinciding pixels between reference and modelled fog image at reference time is less than ±30 minutes in 68% of the total number of fog-covered pixels and therefore matches the accuracy of local tephigram methods. However, for individual pixels a time error of up to ±60 minutes occurs for the time of fog clearance. Time errors are probably mainly due to an inaccurate estimation of fog thickness.

  1. Ocean plankton. Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Chaffron, Samuel; Kultima, Jens Roat; Labadie, Karine; Salazar, Guillem; Djahanschiri, Bardya; Zeller, Georg; Mende, Daniel R; Alberti, Adriana; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Costea, Paul I; Cruaud, Corinne; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Engelen, Stefan; Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Guidi, Lionel; Hildebrand, Falk; Kokoszka, Florian; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Poulain, Julie; Poulos, Bonnie T; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Sarmento, Hugo; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sullivan, Matthew B; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Raes, Jeroen; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer

    2015-05-22

    Microbes are dominant drivers of biogeochemical processes, yet drawing a global picture of functional diversity, microbial community structure, and their ecological determinants remains a grand challenge. We analyzed 7.2 terabases of metagenomic data from 243 Tara Oceans samples from 68 locations in epipelagic and mesopelagic waters across the globe to generate an ocean microbial reference gene catalog with >40 million nonredundant, mostly novel sequences from viruses, prokaryotes, and picoeukaryotes. Using 139 prokaryote-enriched samples, containing >35,000 species, we show vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with the human gut microbiome despite the physicochemical differences between these two ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  3. Modeling study on nuclide transport in ocean - an ocean compartment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Kyoung Won

    1991-01-01

    An ocean compartment model simulating transport of nuclides by advection due to ocean circulation and interaction with suspended sediments is developed, by which concentration breakthrough curves of nuclides can be calculated as a function of time. Dividing ocean into arbitrary number of characteristic compartments and performing a balance of mass of nuclides in each ocean compartment, the governing equation for the concentration in the ocean is obtained and a solution by the numerical integration is obtained. The integration method is specially useful for general stiff systems. For transfer coefficients describing advective transport between adjacent compartments by ocean circulation, the ocean turnover time is calculated by a two-dimensional numerical ocean method. To exemplify the compartment model, a reference case calculation for breakthrough curves of three nuclides in low-level radioactive wastes, Tc-99, Cs-137, and Pu-238 released from hypothetical repository under the seabed is carried out with five ocean compartments. Sensitivity analysis studies for some parameters to the concentration breakthrough curves are also made, which indicates that parameters such as ocean turnover time and ocean water volume of compartments have an important effect on the breakthrough curves. (Author)

  4. Ocean Acidification: a review of the current status of research and institutional developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Dedert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification is defined as the change in ocean chemistry driven by the oceanic uptake of chemical inputs to the atmosphere, including carbon, nitrogen and sulphur compounds. Ocean acidification is also referred to as ‘the other CO2 problem’ of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions

  5. Ocean Prediction Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA Weather Analysis & Forecasts of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis

  6. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  7. The Micropaleontological Reference Centers Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lazarus

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Micropaleontological Reference Centers (MRCscomprise large microfossil slide collections prepared from core samples obtained through the Deep Sea Drilling Project(DSDP and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP. The MRCs have been maintained for three decades, largely as a volunteer effort by a global network of curators at more than a dozen institutions (Fig.1, Table 1. They were originallyintended to provide a permanent micropaleontological archive for the DSDP; however, as their geographic and stratigraphic coverage has increased they have become increasingly valuable for research and teaching. This article describes the MRCs and their current usage, identifi es the need to maintain and improve the accuracy of the microfossil taxonomy upon which most DSDP and ODP geochronologyis based, and cites the potential for the future use of the MRCs by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP.

  8. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  9. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  10. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  11. People and Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

  12. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  13. Ocean Robotic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Oscar [Rutgers University

    2012-05-23

    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  14. Ocean Uses: California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation Biology Institute. The...

  15. Ethane ocean on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  16. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal

  17. Ocean Disposal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1972, Congress enacted the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act) to prohibit the dumping of material into...

  18. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  19. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  20. Ocean Acidification Product Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  1. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Observations from Datalogger

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Datalogger files are raw USCRN data. However, instead of being collected via satellite, the raw data are collected from station dataloggers (also referred to as...

  2. The open-ocean sensible heat flux and its significance for Arctic boundary layer mixing during early fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshan, Manisha; Wu, Dong L.

    2016-10-01

    The increasing ice-free area during late summer has transformed the Arctic to a climate system with more dynamic boundary layer (BL) clouds and seasonal sea ice growth. The open-ocean sensible heat flux, a crucial mechanism of excessive ocean heat loss to the atmosphere during the fall freeze season, is speculated to play an important role in the recently observed cloud cover increase and BL instability. However, lack of observations and understanding of the resilience of the proposed mechanisms, especially in relation to meteorological and interannual variability, has left a poorly constrained BL parameterization scheme in Arctic climate models. In this study, we use multi-year Japanese cruise-ship observations from R/V Mirai over the open Arctic Ocean to characterize the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) during early fall and investigate its contribution to BL turbulence. It is found that mixing by SSHF is favored during episodes of high surface wind speed and is also influenced by the prevailing cloud regime. The deepest BLs and maximum ocean-atmosphere temperature difference are observed during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus regime), yet, contrary to previous speculation, the efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low. On the other hand, the SSHF contributes significantly to BL mixing during the uplift (low pressure) followed by the highly stable (stratus) regime. Overall, it can explain ˜ 10 % of the open-ocean BL height variability, whereas cloud-driven (moisture and radiative) mechanisms appear to be the other dominant source of convective turbulence. Nevertheless, there is strong interannual variability in the relationship between the SSHF and the BL height which can be intensified by the changing occurrence of Arctic climate patterns, such as positive surface wind speed anomalies and more frequent conditions of uplift. This study highlights the need for comprehensive BL observations like the R/V Mirai for better understanding and

  3. The Open-Ocean Sensible Heat Flux and Its Significance for Arctic Boundary Layer Mixing During Early Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshan, Manisha; Wu, Dongliang

    2016-01-01

    The increasing ice-free area during late summer has transformed the Arctic to a climate system with more dynamic boundary layer (BL) clouds and seasonal sea ice growth. The open-ocean sensible heat flux, a crucial mechanism of excessive ocean heat loss to the atmosphere during the fall freeze season, is speculated to play an important role in the recently observed cloud cover increase and BL instability. However, lack of observations and understanding of the resilience of the proposed mechanisms, especially in relation to meteorological and interannual variability, has left a poorly constrained BL parameterization scheme in Arctic climate models. In this study, we use multiyear Japanese cruise-ship observations from RV Mirai over the open Arctic Ocean to characterize the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) during early fall and investigate its contribution to BL turbulence. It is found that mixing by SSHF is favored during episodes of high surface wind speed and is also influenced by the prevailing cloud regime. The deepest BLs and maximum ocean-atmosphere temperature difference are observed during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus regime), yet, contrary to previous speculation, the efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low. On the other hand, the SSHF contributes significantly to BL mixing during the uplift (low pressure) followed by the highly stable (stratus) regime. Overall, it can explain 10 of the open ocean BL height variability, whereas cloud-driven (moisture and radiative) mechanisms appear to be the other dominant source of convective turbulence. Nevertheless, there is strong interannual variability in the relationship between the SSHF and the BL height which can be intensified by the changing occurrence of Arctic climate patterns, such as positive surface wind speed anomalies and more frequent conditions of uplift. This study highlights the need for comprehensive BL observations like the RV Mirai for better understanding and

  4. Service design as an approach for recognizing blue ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Koskelo, Minna

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to show that service design as an approach can be utilized for discovering new market space, referred as blue ocean and new business opportunities, and thus to show that service design can be seen as an approach for bringing the new logic for value creation into strategic level. From the field of strategic management the theory of blue ocean strategy was chosen for presenting the strategic outcome and further since there are similarities be-tween blue ocean strategy approach ...

  5. OceanSITES TAO daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file contains daily real-time and delayed-mode in-situ data from one of the flux reference mooring sites in the tropical oceans. Included in this file are sea...

  6. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  7. Data assimilation in modeling ocean processes: A bibliographic study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mahadevan, R.; Fernandes, A.A.; Saran, A.K.

    An annotated bibliography on studies related to data assimilation in modeling ocean processes has been prepared. The bibliography listed here is not comprehensive and is not prepared from the original references. Information obtainable from...

  8. Stratification of zooplankton in the northwestern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.; Aravindakshan, P.N.

    Study on stratification of zooplankton in the north western Indian Ocean was carried out with special reference to its relative abundance and distribution. Samples were collected using multiple plankton net, during first cruise of ORV Sagar Kanya...

  9. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  10. The open-ocean sensible heat flux and its significance for Arctic boundary layer mixing during early fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganeshan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing ice-free area during late summer has transformed the Arctic to a climate system with more dynamic boundary layer (BL clouds and seasonal sea ice growth. The open-ocean sensible heat flux, a crucial mechanism of excessive ocean heat loss to the atmosphere during the fall freeze season, is speculated to play an important role in the recently observed cloud cover increase and BL instability. However, lack of observations and understanding of the resilience of the proposed mechanisms, especially in relation to meteorological and interannual variability, has left a poorly constrained BL parameterization scheme in Arctic climate models. In this study, we use multi-year Japanese cruise-ship observations from R/V Mirai over the open Arctic Ocean to characterize the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF during early fall and investigate its contribution to BL turbulence. It is found that mixing by SSHF is favored during episodes of high surface wind speed and is also influenced by the prevailing cloud regime. The deepest BLs and maximum ocean–atmosphere temperature difference are observed during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus regime, yet, contrary to previous speculation, the efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low. On the other hand, the SSHF contributes significantly to BL mixing during the uplift (low pressure followed by the highly stable (stratus regime. Overall, it can explain  ∼  10 % of the open-ocean BL height variability, whereas cloud-driven (moisture and radiative mechanisms appear to be the other dominant source of convective turbulence. Nevertheless, there is strong interannual variability in the relationship between the SSHF and the BL height which can be intensified by the changing occurrence of Arctic climate patterns, such as positive surface wind speed anomalies and more frequent conditions of uplift. This study highlights the need for comprehensive BL observations like the R/V Mirai for

  11. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  12. Ejecta from Ocean Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    Numerical simulations of deep-ocean impact provide some limits on the size of a projectile that will not mix with the ocean floor during a deep-ocean impact. For a vertical impact at asteroidal velocities (approx. 20 km/s), mixing is only likely when the projectile diameter is greater than 112 of the water depth. For oblique impacts, even larger projectiles will not mix with ocean floor silicates. Given the typical water depths of 4 to 5 km in deep-ocean basins, asteroidal projectiles with diameters as large as 2 or 3 km may commonly produce silicate ejecta that is composed only of meteoritic materials and seawater salts. However, the compressed water column beneath the projectile can still disrupt and shock metamorphose the ocean floor. Therefore, production of a separate, terrestrial ejecta component is not ruled out in the most extreme case. With increasing projectile size (or energy) relative to water depths, there must be a gradation between oceanic impacts and more conventional continental impacts. Given that 60% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceanic lithosphere and 500 m projectiles impact the Earth on 10(exp 5) y timescales, there must be hundreds of oceanic impact deposits in the sediment record awaiting discovery.

  13. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  14. Our Changing Oceans: All about Ocean Acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickwood, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of ocean acidification are global in scale. More research into ocean acidification and its consequences is needed. It is already known, for example, that there are regional differences in the vulnerability of fisheries to acidification. The combination of other factors, such as global warming, the destruction of habitats, overfishing and pollution, need to be taken into account when developing strategies to increase the marine environment’s resilience. Among steps that can be taken to reduce the impact is better protection of marine coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows, which will help protect fisheries. This recommendation was one of the conclusions of a three-day workshop attended by economists and scientists and organized by the IAEA and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco in November 2012. In their recommendations the workshop also stressed that the impact of increasing ocean acidity must be taken into account in the management of fisheries, particularly where seafood is a main dietary source

  15. Biophysical processes in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mc; Murtugudde, R.; Vialard, J.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Wiggert, J.D.; Hood, R.R.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    Ocean Biogeochemical Processes and Ecological Variability Geophysical Monograph Series 185 Copyright 200� by the American Geophysical Union. 10.102�/2008GM000768 Biophysical Processes in the Indian Ocean J. P. McCreary, 1 R. Murtugudde, 2 J. Vialard, 3...) also plots the upper-layer thickness, h 1 , from the model of McCreary et al. [1��3] (hereinafter referred to as MKM); h 1 simulates the structure of the top of the actual thermocline reasonably well, except that it is somewhat too thin from 5...

  16. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  17. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  18. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  19. Communicating Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Aaron; Selna, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Participation in a study circle through the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI) project enabled staff at the California Academy of Sciences to effectively engage visitors on climate change and ocean acidification topics. Strategic framing tactics were used as staff revised the scripted Coral Reef Dive program,…

  20. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  1. Ocean acidification postcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

  2. An inventory of Arctic Ocean data in the World Ocean Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweng, Melissa M.; Boyer, Tim P.; Baranova, Olga K.; Reagan, James R.; Seidov, Dan; Smolyar, Igor V.

    2018-03-01

    The World Ocean Database (WOD) contains over 1.3 million oceanographic casts (where cast refers to an oceanographic profile or set of profiles collected concurrently at more than one depth between the ocean surface and ocean bottom) collected in the Arctic Ocean basin and its surrounding marginal seas. The data, collected from 1849 to the present, come from many submitters and countries, and were collected using a variety of instruments and platforms. These data, along with the derived products World Ocean Atlas (WOA) and the Arctic Regional Climatologies, are exceptionally useful - the data are presented in a standardized, easy to use format and include metadata and quality control information. Collecting data in the Arctic Ocean is challenging, and coverage in space and time ranges from excellent to nearly non-existent. WOD continues to compile a comprehensive collection of Arctic Ocean profile data, ideal for oceanographic, environmental and climatic analyses (https://doi.org/10.7289/V54Q7S16" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.7289/V54Q7S16).

  3. The atmospheric boundary layer response to the dynamic new Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Ganeshan, M.

    2016-12-01

    The increasing ice-free area in the Arctic Ocean has transformed its climate system to one with more dynamic boundary layer clouds and seasonal sea ice. During the fall freeze season, the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) is a crucial mechanism for the loss of excessive ocean heat to the atmosphere, and it has been speculated to play an important role in the recent cloud cover increase and boundary layer (BL) instability observed in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. Based on multi-year Japanese cruise ship observations from the ice-strengthened R/V Mirai, we are able to characterize the late summer and early fall ocean-BL interactions in this region. Although the BL is found to be well-mixed more than 90% of the time, the SSHF can explain only 10% of the mixed layer height variability. It is the cloud-generated convective turbulence that apparently dominates BL mixing in this ice-free region, which is similar to previous in-situ observations (SHEBA, ASCOS) over sea ice. The SSHF, however, may contribute to BL instability during conditions of uplift (low-pressure), and the presence of the highly stable stratus cloud regime. The efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus cloud regime) despite an enhanced ocean-atmosphere temperature difference (ΔT). In general, surface-generated mixing is favored during episodes of high surface wind speeds as opposed to pronounced ΔT. Our analysis suggests a weak local response of the boundary layer stability to the loss of sea ice cover during late summer, which is masked by the strong influence of the large-scale circulation (and clouds). Apart from the fall season, we also studied the Arctic Ocean BL properties during the cold months (Nov-Apr) using multi-year satellite measurements (COSMIC RO). As the boundary layer is typically stable at this time, one might expect major differences in the nature of surface-atmosphere coupling compared to that observed during late

  4. Book review: Rogue waves in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    Rogue Waves in the Ocean (2009) is a follow-on text to Extreme Ocean Waves (2008) edited by Pelinovsky and Kharif, both published by Springer. Unlike the earlier text, which is a compilation of papers on a variety of extreme waves that was the subject of a scientific conference in 2007, Rogues Waves in the Ocean is written, rather than edited, by Kharif, Pelinovsky, and Slunyaev and is focused on rogue waves in particular. The book consists of six chapters covering 216 pages. As the subject matter of each chapter is distinct, references appear at the end of each chapter rather than at the end of the book. The preface shows how each of the chapters relates to the larger study of rogue waves. The result is a book with a nice mix of eyewitness observations, physical theory, and statistics.

  5. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  6. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  7. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  8. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  9. Oceans and Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  10. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  11. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  12. Loggerhead oceanic stage duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 222 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US...

  13. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  14. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  15. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  16. IODE OceanTeacher

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M.; Pikula, L.; Reed, G.

    2002-01-01

    The OceanTeacher website and CD-ROM publication have proven to be powerful and flexible tools for marine data and information management training. There are two segments of OceanTeacher: marine data management and marine information management. The IODE trainers have created an encyclopedic Resource Kit covering all aspects of the subjects. Through continual updates, the Kit provides the latest versions of popular public-domain software, documentation for global and regional datasets, docu...

  17. Modeling of oceanic vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman-Roisin, B.

    Following on a tradition of biannual meetings, the 5th Colloquium on the Modeling of Oceanic Vortices was held May 21-23, 1990, at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. The colloquium series, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, is intended to gather oceanographers who contribute to our understanding of oceanic mesoscale vortices via analytical, numerical and experimental modeling techniques.

  18. Wind Generated Ocean Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)......Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)...

  19. Handbook of ocean wave energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kofoed, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners in the wave energy sector.

  20. The Ocean: Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  1. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  2. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

    2009-08-15

    There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are

  3. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  4. Ocean Physicochemistry versus Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Góralski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    It is the dwindling ocean productivity which leaves dissolved carbon dioxide in the seawater. Its solubility is diminished by the rise in ocean water temperature (by one degree Celsius since 1910, according to IPCC). Excess carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere, while its growing concentration in seawater leads to ocean acidification. Ocean acidification leading to lowering pH of surface ocean water remains an unsolved problem of science. My today’s lecture will mark an attempt at ...

  5. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Nisumaa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and communities but few have provided details concerning full carbonate chemistry and complementary observations. Additionally, carbonate system variables are often reported in different units, calculated using different sets of dissociation constants and on different pH scales. Hence the direct comparison of experimental results has been problematic and often misleading. The need was identified to (1 gather data on carbonate chemistry, biological and biogeochemical properties, and other ancillary data from published experimental data, (2 transform the information into common framework, and (3 make data freely available. The present paper is the outcome of an effort to integrate ocean carbonate chemistry data from the literature which has been supported by the European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis (EUR-OCEANS and the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA. A total of 185 papers were identified, 100 contained enough information to readily compute carbonate chemistry variables, and 81 data sets were archived at PANGAEA – The Publishing Network for Geoscientific & Environmental Data. This data compilation is regularly updated as an ongoing mission of EPOCA.

    Data access: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.735138

  6. Red ocean vs blue ocean strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Λαΐνος, Ιάσονας

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the strategies that a company can adopt in order to get a competitive advantage over its rivals, and thus be successful (Red Ocean Strategies). We also tried to explain what actually entrepreneurship is, to be able to understand why the corporate strategies are formed as they do, and why companies are choosing to follow them. The following project is a part of our master thesis that we will present for the University of Piraeus for the MBA-TQM master department. The thesis...

  7. IAEA To Launch Centre On Ocean Acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is to launch a new centre this summer to address the growing problem of ocean acidification. Operated by the Agency's Monaco Environmental Laboratories, the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre will serve the scientific community - as well as policymakers, universities, media and the general public - by facilitating, promoting and communicating global actions on ocean acidification. Growing amounts of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere are being absorbed in the planet's oceans which increases their acidity. According to the experts, ocean acidification may render most regions of the ocean inhospitable to coral reefs by 2050 if atmospheric carbon dioxide levels continue to increase. This could lead to substantial changes in commercial fish stocks, threatening food security for millions of people as well as the multi-billion dollar fishing industry. International scientists have been studying the effect and possible responses, and the new centre will help coordinate their efforts. ''During the past five years, numerous multinational and national research projects on ocean acidification have emerged and significant research advances have been made,'' said Daud bin Mohamad, IAEA Deputy Director General for Nuclear Sciences and Applications. ''The time is now ripe to provide international coordination to gain the greatest value from national efforts and research investments.'' The centre will be supported by several IAEA Member States and through the Peaceful Uses Initiative, and it will be overseen by an Advisory Board consisting of leading institutions, including the U.N. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, the Fondation Prince Albert II de Monaco, the OA-Reference User Group, as well as leading scientists and economists in the field. The new centre will focus on international

  8. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  9. The ocean planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    The Blue Planet is 70% water, and all but 3% of it is salt water. Life on earth first evolved in the primordial soup of ancient seas, and though today's seas provide 99% of all living space on the planet, little is known about the world's oceans. However, the fact that the greatest threats to the integrity of our oceans come from land-based activities is becoming clear. Humankind is in the process of annihilating the coastal and ocean ecosystems and the wealth of biodiversity they harbor. Mounting population and development pressures have taken a grim toll on coastal and ocean resources. The trend arising from such growth is the chronic overexploitation of marine resources, whereby rapidly expanding coastal populations and the growth of cities have contributed to a rising tide of pollution in nearly all of the world's seas. This crisis is made worse by government inaction and a frustrating inability to enforce existing coastal and ocean management regulations. Such inability is mainly because concerned areas contain so many different types of regulations and involve so many levels of government, that rational planning and coordination of efforts are rendered impossible. Concerted efforts are needed by national governments and the international community to start preserving the ultimate source of all life on earth.

  10. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  11. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  12. Ocean acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornuelle, Bruce D; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was proposed in 1979 by Walter Munk and Carl Wunsch as an analogue to x-ray computed axial tomography for the oceans. The oceans are opaque to most electromagnetic radiation, but there is a strong acoustic waveguide, and sound can propagate for 10 Mm and more with distinct multiply-refracted ray paths. Transmitting broadband pulses in the ocean leads to a set of impulsive arrivals at the receiver which characterize the impulse response of the sound channel. The peaks observed at the receiver are assumed to represent the arrival of energy traveling along geometric ray paths. These paths can be distinguished by arrival time, and by arrival angle when a vertical array of receivers is available. Changes in ray arrival time can be used to infer changes in ocean structure. Ray travel time measurements have been a mainstay of long-range acoustic measurements, but the strong sensitivity of ray paths to range-dependent sound speed perturbations makes the ray sampling functions uncertain in real cases. In the ray approximation travel times are sensitive to medium changes only along the corresponding eigenrays. Ray theory is an infinite-frequency approximation, and its eikonal equation has nonlinearities not found in the acoustic wave equation. We build on recent seismology results (kernels for body wave arrivals in the earth) to characterize the kernel for converting sound speed change in the ocean to travel time changes using more complete propagation physics. Wave-theoretic finite frequency kernels may show less sensitivity to small-scale sound speed structure.

  13. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  14. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  15. Arctic Ocean Paleoceanography and Future IODP Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruediger

    2015-04-01

    Although the Arctic Ocean is a major player in the global climate/earth system, this region is one of the last major physiographic provinces on Earth where the short- and long-term geological history is still poorly known. This lack in knowledge is mainly due to the major technological/logistical problems in operating within the permanently ice-covered Arctic region which makes it difficult to retrieve long and undisturbed sediment cores. Prior to 2004, in the central Arctic Ocean piston and gravity coring was mainly restricted to obtaining near-surface sediments, i.e., only the upper 15 m could be sampled. Thus, all studies were restricted to the late Pliocene/Quaternary time interval, with a few exceptions. These include the four short cores obtained by gravity coring from drifting ice floes over the Alpha Ridge, where older pre-Neogene organic-carbon-rich muds and laminated biosiliceous oozes were sampled. Continuous central Arctic Ocean sedimentary records, allowing a development of chronologic sequences of climate and environmental change through Cenozoic times and a comparison with global climate records, however, were missing prior to the IODP Expedition 302 (Arctic Ocean Coring Expedition - ACEX), the first scientific drilling in the central Arctic Ocean. By studying the unique ACEX sequence, a large number of scientific discoveries that describe previously unknown Arctic paleoenvironments, were obtained during the last decade (for most recent review and references see Stein et al., 2014). While these results from ACEX were unprecedented, key questions related to the climate history of the Arctic Ocean remain unanswered, in part because of poor core recovery, and in part because of the possible presence of a major mid-Cenozoic hiatus or interval of starved sedimentation within the ACEX record. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, international, multidisciplinary expeditions and projects for scientific drilling/coring in the Arctic Ocean are needed. Key

  16. Radionuclides in the oceans inputs and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.; Germain, P.; Metivier, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after Chernobyl, following the decision by France to end nuclear weapon testing in the Pacific ocean, after the end of the OECD-NEA Coordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance programme related to low-level waste dumping in the deep ocean, and one hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity, the IPSN wanted to compile and review the available information on artificial radioactivity levels in seas and oceans. International experts have been invited to present data on inputs and inventories of radionuclides in the marine environment, and to describe the evolution of radioactivity levels in water, sediments and living organisms. Different sources of radionuclides present in the aquatic environment are described: atmospheric fallout before and after Chernobyl, industrial wastes, dumped wastes and ships, nuclear ship accidents, river inputs, earth-sea atmospheric transfers and experimental sites for nuclear testing. Radioactivity levels due to these sources are dealt with at ocean (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian) and sea level (Channel, North Sea, Irish Sea, Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea and Arctic seas). These data collected in the present book give an up-to-date assessment of radionuclide distributions which will be very useful to address scientific and wider public concerns about radionuclides found in the aquatic environment. It gives many references useful to those who want to deepen their understanding of particular aspects of marine radioecology. (authors)

  17. Reference samples for the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, F.J.

    1974-01-01

    A revised list of reference samples of interest to geoscientists has been extended to include samples for the agronomist, the archaeologist and the environmentalist. In addition to the source from which standard samples may be obtained, references or pertinent notes for some samples are included. The number of rock reference samples is now almost adequate, and the variety of ore samples will soon be sufficient. There are very few samples for microprobe work. Oil shales will become more important because of the outlook for world petroleum resources. The dryland equivalent of a submarine basalt might be useful in studies of sea-floor spreading and of the geochemistry of basalts. The Na- and K-feldspars of BCS (British Chemical Standards-Bureau of Analysed Samples), NBS (National Bureau of Standards), and ANRT (Association Kationale de la Recherche Technique) could serve as trace-element standards if such data were available. Similarly, the present NBS flint and plastic clays, as well as their predecessors, might be useful for archaeological pottery studies. The International Decade for Ocean Exploration may stimulate the preparation of ocean-water standards for trace elements or pollutants and a standard for manganese nodules. ?? 1974.

  18. An Ocean of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Doug

    2010-01-01

    For more than one hundred years teachers have paddled beside the great ocean of mathematical adventure. Between them they have taught millions of young people. A few have dived in and kept swimming, some have lingered on the shore playing in pools, but most have dipped their toes in and run like heck in the other direction never to return. There…

  19. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    roughly 28°S. The second is the Hawaiian Island Chain, extending to Midway Island at 28°N, 177°W and finally the Emperor Seamount chain running due...dimension array centered near Ascension. The climatology ocean (WOA09) showed very little seasonal dependence or change from the geodesic and this is

  20. Enhanced Ocean Scatterometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.

    2015-01-01

    An ocean scatterometer is an active microwave instrument which is designed to determine the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the sea surface. Scatterometers transmit pulses towards the sea surface and measure the reflected energy. The primary objective of spaceborne scatterometers is to

  1. Power from Ocean Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  2. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  3. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  4. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  5. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy

  6. The Ocean as a teaching tool: the first MOOC on Ocean Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Selvaggia; Santoro, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    Education its broader understanding (in both formal and informal settings) serves as a high potential channel to reach young citizens. As a lack of sufficient 'Ocean Literacy' has been identified in many countries, this clearly presents a barrier for citizens to engage in ocean responsible behaviour or consider ocean-related careers. In order to sensitize and enable teachers and students to incorporate ocean literacy into educational programmes we build up a first Massive Open Online Course on Emma Platform, an European Multiple MOOC Aggregator that provides a system for the delivery of free, open, online courses in multiple languages from different European universities. Almost 500 students were enrolled from all over the world and we proposed a multi-perspective approach building on the UNESCO experience in the field of education for sustainable development. The course had two sections: a narrative format which introduces to the Ocean Literacy principles, focusing on how to incorporate them into lessons with tips, advice, references and activities; and an interactive section with webinairs which covers contemporary and emerging issues such as seafood, marine pollution and human health, simulating a "real-world experiences" with a problems-solutions approach.

  7. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  8. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  9. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  10. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  11. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  12. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  13. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  14. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  15. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  16. Zoogeography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.S.

    The distribution pattern of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed on a within and between ocean patterns and is limited to species within a quite restricted sort of groups namely, Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda and Euphausiacea...

  17. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  18. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  19. OW ASCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard the EUMETSAT MetOp polar-orbiting satellite provides ocean surface wind observations by means of radar...

  20. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  1. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  2. ocean_city_md.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. The DTU15 MSS (Mean Sea Surface) and DTU15LAT (Lowest Astronomical Tide) reference surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars; Piccioni, Gaia

    in the Arctic Ocean for DTU10MSS and DTU13MSS.A new reference surface for off-shore vertical referencing is introduced. This is called the DTU15LAT.The surface is derived from the DTU15MSS and the DTU10 Global ocean tide to give a 19 year Lowest Astronomical Tide referenced to either the Mean sea surface...

  4. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  5. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  6. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  7. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  8. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  9. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  10. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  11. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  12. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  13. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  14. Energy from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role energy from rivers and oceans may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of using energy from rivers and oceans, hydropower assessment including resources, technology and costs, and environmental and regulatory issues, ocean thermal energy conversion including technology and costs and environmental issues, tidal power, and wave power

  15. Oceans and Human Health: A Rising Tide of Challenges and Opportunities for Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, L. E.; Mcdonough, N.; Austen, M.; Mee, L.; Moore, Michelle; Hess, Philipp; Depledge, M. H.; White, M.; Philippart, Katja; Bradbrook, P.; Smalley, A.

    2014-01-01

    The European Marine Board recently published a position paper on linking oceans and human health as a strategic research priority for Europe. With this position paper as a reference, the March 2014 Cornwall Oceans and Human Health Workshop brought together key scientists, policy makers, funders, business, and non governmental organisations from Europe and the US to review the recent interdisciplinary and cutting edge research in oceans and human health specifically the growing evidence of the...

  16. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of jets and planes...

  17. Ocean waves monitor system by inland microseisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. C.; Bouchette, F.; Chang, E. T. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Microseisms are continuous ground oscillations which have been wildly introduced for decades. It is well known that the microseismicity in the frequency band from 0.05 to about 1 Hz partly results from ocean waves, which has been first explained by Longuet-Higgins [1950]. The generation mechanism for such a microseismicity is based on nonlinear wave-wave interactions which drive pressure pulses within the seafloor. The resulting ground pressure fluctuations yield ground oscillations at a double frequency (DF) with respect to that of current ocean waves. In order to understand the characteristics of DF microseisms associated with different wave sources, we aim to analyze and interpret the spectra of DF microseisms by using the simple spectrum method [Rabinovich, 1997] at various inland seismometer along the Taiwan coast. This is the first monitoring system of ocean waves observed by inland seismometers in Taiwan. The method is applied to identify wave sources by estimating the spectral ratios of wave induced microseisms associated with local winds and typhoons to background spectra. Microseism amplitudes above 0.2 Hz show a good correlation with wind-driven waves near the coast. Comparison of microseism band between 0.1 and 0.2 Hz with buoys in the deep sea shows a strong correlation of seismic amplitude with storm generated waves, implying that such energy portion originates in remote regions. Results indicate that microseisms observed at inland sites can be a potential tool for the tracking of typhoon displacements and the monitoring of extreme ocean waves in real time. Real- time Microseism-Ocean Waves Monitoring Website (http://mwave.droppages.com/) Reference Rabinovich, A. B. (1997) "Spectral analysis of tsunami waves: Separation of source and topography effects," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 102, p. 12,663-12,676. Longuet-Higgins, M.S. (1950) "A theory of origin of microseisms," Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A. 243, pp. 1-35.

  18. NCEI Standard Product: World Ocean Database (WOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the world's largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  19. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  20. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  1. The Volvo Ocean Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 (www.volvooceanadventure.org). Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  2. Open ocean tide modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Two trends evident in global tidal modelling since the first GEOP conference in 1972 are described. The first centers on the incorporation of terms for ocean loading and gravitational self attraction into Laplace's tidal equations. The second centers on a better understanding of the problem of near resonant modelling and the need for realistic maps of tidal elevation for use by geodesists and geophysicists. Although new models still show significant differences, especially in the South Atlantic, there are significant similarities in many of the world's oceans. This allows suggestions to be made for future locations for bottom pressure gauge measurements. Where available, estimates of M2 tidal dissipation from the new models are significantly lower than estimates from previous models.

  3. Oceans and human health: a rising tide of challenges and opportunities for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, L.E.; McDonough, N.; Austen, M.; Mee, L.; Moore, M.; Hess, P.; Depledge, M.H.; White, M.; Philippart, K.; Bradbrook, P.; Smalley, A.

    2014-01-01

    The European Marine Board recently published a position paper on linking oceans and human health as a strategic research priority for Europe. With this position paper as a reference, the March 2014 Cornwall Oceans and Human Health Workshop brought together key scientists, policy makers, funders,

  4. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  5. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  6. Ocean Bottom Seismic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    EPR, the Clipperton and Orozco fracture zones , and along the coast of Mexico, were recorded for a two month period using ocean bottom seismometers...67. Tuthill, J.D., Lewis, B.R., and Garmany, J.D., 1981, Stonely waves, Lopez Island noise, and deep sea noise from I to 5 hz, Marine Geophysical...Patrol Pell Marine Science Library d/o Coast Guard R & D Center University of Rhode Island Avery Point Narragansett Bay Campus Groton, CT 06340

  7. Turbines in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-10-01

    It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami; here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

  8. Ocean Observations of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Don

    2016-01-01

    The ocean influences climate by storing and transporting large amounts of heat, freshwater, and carbon, and exchanging these properties with the atmosphere. About 93% of the excess heat energy stored by the earth over the last 50 years is found in the ocean. More than three quarters of the total exchange of water between the atmosphere and the earth's surface through evaporation and precipitation takes place over the oceans. The ocean contains 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and is at present acting to slow the rate of climate change by absorbing one quarter of human emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, cement production, deforestation and other land use change.Here I summarize the observational evidence of change in the ocean, with an emphasis on basin- and global-scale changes relevant to climate. These include: changes in subsurface ocean temperature and heat content, evidence for regional changes in ocean salinity and their link to changes in evaporation and precipitation over the oceans, evidence of variability and change of ocean current patterns relevant to climate, observations of sea level change and predictions over the next century, and biogeochemical changes in the ocean, including ocean acidification.

  9. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  10. Revisit ocean thermal energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.; Krock, H.J.; Oney, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The earth, covered more than 70.8% by the ocean, receives most of its energy from the sun. Solar energy is transmitted through the atmosphere and efficiently collected and stored in the surface layer of the ocean, largely in the tropical zone. Some of the energy is re-emitted to the atmosphere to drive the hydrologic cycle and wind. The wind field returns some of the energy to the ocean in the form of waves and currents. The majority of the absorbed solar energy is stored in vertical thermal gradients near the surface layer of the ocean, most of which is in the tropical region. This thermal energy replenished each day by the sun in the tropical ocean represents a tremendous pollution-free energy resource for human civilization. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology refers to a mechanical system that utilizes the natural temperature gradient that exists in the tropical ocean between the warm surface water and the deep cold water, to generate electricity and produce other economically valuable by-products. The science and engineering behind OTEC have been studied in the US since the mid-seventies, supported early by the U.S. Government and later by State and private industries. There are two general types of OTEC designs: closed-cycle plants utilize the evaporation of a working fluid, such as ammonia or propylene, to drive the turbine-generator, and open-cycle plants use steam from evaporated sea water to run the turbine. Another commonly known design, hybrid plants, is a combination of the two. OTEC requires relatively low operation and maintenance costs and no fossil fuel consumption. OTEC system possesses a formidable potential capacity for renewable energy and offers a significant elimination of greenhouse gases in producing power. In addition to electricity and drinking water, an OTEC system can produce many valuable by-products and side-utilizations, such as: hydrogen, air-conditioning, ice, aquaculture, and agriculture, etc. The potential of these

  11. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  12. Reference costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terraz, N.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of electric power production reference costs is used in France, even in the present case of over-capacity, for comparing the relative interest of the various means of power generation (nuclear plants, coal plants, hydroelectricity, gas combined cycles, etc.) and as an aid for future investment decisions. Reference costs show a sharp decrease between 1993 and 1997 due to advancements in nuclear plant operating ability and fossil fuel price decrease. Actuarial rates, plant service life, fuel costs and exchange rates are important parameters. The various costs from the research stage to the waste processing stages are discussed and the reference costs of the various power generation systems are presented and compared together with their competitiveness; the future of wind energy and cogeneration and the prospective of the renewal of nuclear plants at the 2010 horizon are also addressed

  13. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  14. Ocean Acidification from space: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Roberto; Shutler, Jamie; Land, Peter; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig; Reul, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon referred to as Ocean Acidification (OA) is gathering increasing attention as one of the major foci of climate-related research, for its profound impact at scientific and socio-economic level. To date, the majority of the scientific studies into the potential impacts of OA have focused on in-situ measurements, laboratory-controlled experiments and models simulations. Satellite remote sensing technology have yet to be fully exploited, despite it has been stressed it could play a significant role by providing synoptic and frequent measurements for investigating globally OA processes, also extending in-situ carbonate chemistry measurements on different spatial/temporal scales [1,2]. Within this context, the purpose of the recently completed ESA "Pathfinders - Ocean Acidification" project was to quantitatively and routinely estimate OA-related parameters by means of a blending of satellite observations and model outputs in five case-study regions (global ocean, Amazon plume, Barents sea, Greater Caribbean and Bay of Bengal). Satellite Ocean Colour, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) have been exploited, with an emphasis on the latter being the latest addition to the portfolio of satellite measured parameters. A proper merging of these different satellites products allows computing at least two independent proxies among the seawater carbonate system parameters: the partial pressure of CO2 in surface seawater (pCO2); the total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC), the total alkalinity (TA) and the surface ocean pH. In the project, efforts have been devoted to a systematic characterization of TA and DIC from space in the mentioned case-study regions; in this paper, also through the knowledge of these parameters, the objective is to come up with the currently best educated guess of the surface ocean pH [3] and Aragonite saturation state. This will also include an estimation of the achievable accuracy by propagating the errors in the

  15. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  16. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  17. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  18. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  19. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  20. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  1. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  2. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  3. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  4. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  5. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  6. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  7. Quantum frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufherr, T.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that only relative variables have physical meaning came to be known as Mach's principle. Carrying over this idea to quantum theory, has led to the consideration of finite mass, macroscopic reference frames, relative to which all physical quantities are measured. During the process of measurement, a finite mass observer receives a kickback, and this reaction of the measuring device is not negligible in quantum theory because of the quantization of the action. Hence, the observer himself has to be included in the system that is being considered. Using this as the starting point, a number of thought experiments involving finite mass observers is discussed which have quantum uncertainties in their time or in their position. These thought experiments serve to elucidate in a qualitative way some of the difficulties involved, as well as pointing out a direction to take in seeking solutions to them. When the discussion is extended to include more than one observer, the question of the covariance of the theory immediately arises. Because none of the frames of reference should be preferred, the theory should be covariant. This demand expresses an equivalence principle which here is extended to include reference frames which are in quantum uncertainties relative to each other. Formulating the problem in terms of canonical variables, the ensueing free Hamiltonian contains vector and scalar potentials which represent the kick that the reference frame receives during measurement. These are essentially gravitational type potentials, resulting, as it were, from the extension of the equivalence principle into the quantum domain

  8. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.; Donders, T.H.; Bijl, P.K.; Wagner, F.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  9. Virtual Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  10. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  11. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variation on human health. Health Conditions More than 1,200 health ...

  12. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  13. Advancing development of a limit reference point estimator for sea turtles, and evaluating methods for applying local management to highly migratory species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is developing tools for estimation of limit reference points for marine turtles. These tools are being applied initially to estimate a limit reference point...

  14. Global Ocean Sedimentation Patterns: Plate Tectonic History Versus Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Reynolds, E.; Olson, P.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global sediment data (Whittaker et al., 2013) and carbonate content data (Archer, 1996) allows examination of ocean sedimentation evolution with respect to age of the underlying ocean crust (Müller et al., 2008). From these data, we construct time series of ocean sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian ocean basins for the past 120 Ma. These time series are unique to each basin and reflect an integrated response to plate tectonics and climate change. The goal is to parameterize ocean sedimentation tied to crustal age for paleoclimate studies. For each basin, total sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate from 0.1 x 0.1 degree cells are binned according to basement crustal age; area-corrected moments (mean, variance, etc.) are calculated for each bin. Segmented linear fits identify trends in present-day carbonate deposition rates and changes in ocean sedimentation from 0 to 120 Ma. In the North and South Atlantic and Indian oceans, mean sediment thickness versus crustal age is well represented by three linear segments, with the slope of each segment increasing with increasing crustal age. However, the transition age between linear segments varies among the three basins. In contrast, mean sediment thickness in the North and South Pacific oceans are numerically smaller and well represented by two linear segments with slopes that decrease with increasing crustal age. These opposing trends are more consistent with the plate tectonic history of each basin being the controlling factor in sedimentation rates, rather than climate change. Unlike total sediment thickness, carbonate deposition rates decrease smoothly with crustal age in all basins, with the primary controls being ocean chemistry and water column depth.References: Archer, D., 1996, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 159-174.Müller, R.D., et al., 2008, Science, 319, 1357-1362.Whittaker, J., et al., 2013, Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst. DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20181

  15. Evaluation of radiative fluxes over the north Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Kumar, M. R.; Pinker, Rachel T.; Mathew, Simi; Venkatesan, R.; Chen, W.

    2018-05-01

    Radiative fluxes are a key component of the surface heat budget of the oceans. Yet, observations over oceanic region are sparse due to the complexity of radiation measurements; moreover, certain oceanic regions are substantially under-sampled, such as the north Indian Ocean. The National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, India, under its Ocean Observation Program has deployed an Ocean Moored Network for the Northern Indian Ocean (OMNI) both in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These buoys are equipped with sensors to measure radiation and rainfall, in addition to other basic meteorological parameters. They are also equipped with sensors to measure sub-surface currents, temperature, and conductivity from the surface up to a depth of 500 m. Observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) AQUA and TERRA satellites have been used to infer surface radiation over the north Indian Ocean. In this study, we focus only on the shortwave (SW↓) fluxes. The evaluations of the MODIS-based SW↓ fluxes against the RAMA observing network have shown a very good agreement between them, and therefore, we use the MODIS-derived fluxes as a reference for the evaluation of the OMNI observations. In an early deployment of the OMNI buoys, the radiation sensors were placed at 2 m above the sea surface; subsequently, the height of the sensors was raised to 3 m. In this study, we show that there was a substantial improvement in the agreement between the buoy observations and the satellite estimates, once the sensors were raised to higher levels. The correlation coefficient increased from 0.87 to 0.93, and both the bias and standard deviations decreased substantially.

  16. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  17. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  18. Monitoring of ocean storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2003-02-01

    It has been proposed that atmospheric CO2 accumulation could be slowed by capture of CO2 from point sources and subsequent storage of that CO2 in the ocean. If applied, such sequestration efforts would need to be monitored for compliance, effectiveness, and unintended consequences. Aboveground inspection and monitoring of facilities and practices, combined with ocean observations, could assure compliance with ocean sequestration guidelines and regulations. Ocean observations could be made using a variety of sensors mounted on moorings or underwater gliders. Long-term effectiveness and leakage to the atmosphere must be estimated from models, since on large spatial scales it will be impossible to observationally distinguish carbon stored by a project from variable concentrations of background carbon. Furthermore, the ocean naturally would absorb roughly 80% of fossil fuel CO2 released to the atmosphere within a millennium. This means that most of the CO2 sequestered in the ocean that leaks out to the atmosphere will be reabsorbed by the ocean. However, there is no observational way to distinguish remaining carbon from reabsorbed carbon. The science of monitoring unintended consequences in the deep ocean interior is at a primitive state. Little is understood about ecosystems of the deep ocean interior; and even less is understood about how those ecosystems would respond to added CO2. High priority research objectives should be (1) to improve our understanding of the natural ecosystems of the deep ocean, and (2) to improve our understanding of the response of these ecosystems to increased oceanic CO2 concentrations and decreased ocean pH.

  19. ``Frames of Reference'' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.

    1992-12-01

    The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of Reference,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of reference, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.

  20. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  1. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  2. Paleomagnetism continents and oceans

    CERN Document Server

    McElhinny, Michael W; Dmowska, Renata; Holton, James R; Rossby, H Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth''s crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 millionyears of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny''s book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologicreversals of the Earth''s magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first editio...

  3. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  4. Ocean bottom seismometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, William A., Jr.

    Seismometers have been placed on the ocean bottom for about 45 years, beginning with the work of Ewing and Vine [1938], and their current use to measure signals from earthquakes and explosions constitutes an important research method for seismological studies. Approximately 20 research groups are active in the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Japan, Canada, and the United States. A review of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) instrument characteristics and OBS scientific studies may be found in Whitmarsh and Lilwall [1984]. OBS instrumentation is also important for land seismology. The recording systems that have been developed have been generally more sophisticated than those available for land use, and several modern land seismic recording systems are based on OBS recording system designs.The instrumentation developed for OBS work was the topic of a meeting held at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in July 1982. This article will discuss the state of the art of OBS Technology, some of the problems remaining to be solved, and some of the solutions proposed and implemented by OBS scientists and engineers. It is not intended as a comprehensive review of existing instrumentation.

  5. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  6. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  7. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  8. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The weight of organs from autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults, children, and infants is presented for the purpose of approaching a Reference Japanese Man. The skeletal content and the daily intake of alkaline earth elements are given. A lower rate of transfer (K 2 ) to the thyroid gland of ingested radioiodine, as well as a remarkably shorter biological half-life than the data adopted by ICRP, is also proved as a result of this study. (author)

  9. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The detailed radiological assessment of any proposed operations for the disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep ocean sediments would require data describing expected embedment depths and spacing of the waste. In this study a theoretical model which predicts penetrator trajectories from launch through to rest in the sediment has been produced and has been used to generate data for environmental models. The trajectory model has been used to study the effects of small imperfections and launch parameters on the motion of a reference penetrator through water and sediment. The model predicts that the horizontal displacements of the penetrators' final resting places in the sediment from their launch positions at the ocean surface could be limited to less than 15m by twisting their tail fins uniformly by just one degree to induce spinning. The reference penetrator is predicted to achieve satisfactory embedment depth for all the cases considered including allowance for the effect of curved penetration paths in the seabed. However, the ability of the model to represent highly non-linear sediment penetration paths is demonstrated. Distribution histograms of seabed impact points relative to specific release points are presented. The area of seabed required is calculated. (author)

  10. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  11. The ocean circulation inverse problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch, C

    1996-01-01

    .... This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, understanding it dynamically, and even forecasting it through a quantitative combination of theory and observation...

  12. Reference handbook: Level detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand level measurement and detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: List three reasons for measuring level. Describe the basic operating principles of the sight glass. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading a sight glass. Describe the basic operating principles of a float level detector. Describe the basic operating principles of a bubbler level indicating system. Explain the differences between a wet and dry reference leg indicating system, and describe how each functions. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Level Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant

  13. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  14. Accuracy assessment of NOAA's daily reference evapotranspiration maps for the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides daily reference ET for the continental U.S. using climatic data from North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). This data provides large scale spatial representation for reference ET, which is essential for regional scal...

  15. Oceans 2.0 API: Programmatic access to Ocean Networks Canada's sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, M.; Ross, R.; Hoeberechts, M.; Pirenne, B.; MacArthur, M.; Jeffries, M. A.; Morley, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) is a not-for-profit society that operates and manages innovative cabled observatories on behalf of the University of Victoria. These observatories supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to various scientific instruments located in coastal, deep-ocean and Arctic environments. The data from the instruments are relayed to the University of Victoria where they are archived, quality-controlled and made freely available to researchers, educators, and the public. The Oceans 2.0 data management system currently contains over 500 terabytes of data collected over 11 years from thousands of sensors. In order to facilitate access to the data, particularly for large datasets and long-time series of high-resolution data, a project was started in 2016 create a comprehensive Application Programming Interface, the "Oceans 2.0 API," to provide programmatic access to all ONC data products. The development is part of a project entitled "A Research Platform for User-Defined Oceanographic Data Products," funded through CANARIE, a Canadian organization responsible for the design and delivery of digital infrastructure for research, education and innovation [1]. Providing quick and easy access to ONC Data Products from within custom software solutions, allows researchers, modelers and decision makers to focus on what is important: solving their problems, answering their questions and making informed decisions. In this paper, we discuss how to access ONC's vast archive of data programmatically, through the Oceans 2.0 API. In particular we discuss the following: Access to ONC Data Products Access to ONC sensor data in near real-time Programming language support Use Cases References [1] CANARIE. Internet: https://www.canarie.ca/; accessed March 6, 2017.

  16. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  17. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  18. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  19. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  20. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  1. VBScript pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  2. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  3. NUnit Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  4. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  5. Riding the ocean waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yemm, Richard

    2000-01-01

    It is claimed that important developments over the past five years mean that there will be a range of competing pre-commercial wave-energy systems by 2002. The generation costs should be on a par with biomass schemes and offshore wind systems. The environmental advantages of wave energy are extolled. Ocean Power Delivery (OPD) have produced a set of criteria to be satisfied for a successful wave power scheme and these are listed. OPD is responsible for the snake-like Pelamis device which is a semi-submerged articulated series of cylindrical sections connected through hinged joints. How the wave-induced movement of the hinges is used to generate electricity is explained. The system is easily installed and can be completely removed at the end of its life

  6. The Ocean deserts:salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their

    KAUST Repository

    Carton, Jim

    2011-04-09

    The Ocean deserts: salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their relationship to climate variability The high salinity near surface pools of the subtropical oceans are the oceanic deserts, with high levels of evaporation and low levels of precip

  7. An ocean current inversion accuracy analysis based on a Doppler spectrum model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Qingliu; ZHANG Youguang; LIN Mingsen; GONG Peng

    2017-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing is one of the most useful methods for observing the ocean parameters.The Doppler frequency or interferometric phase of the radar echoes can be used for an ocean surface current speed retrieval,which is widely used in spaceborne and airborne radars.While the effect of the ocean currents and waves is interactional.It is impossible to retrieve the ocean surface current speed from Doppler frequency shift directly.In order to study the relationship between the ocean surface current speed and the Doppler frequency shift,a numerical ocean surface Doppler spectrum model is established and validated with a reference.The input parameters of ocean Doppler spectrum include an ocean wave elevation model,a directional distribution function,and wind speed and direction.The suitable ocean wave elevation spectrum and the directional distribution function are selected by comparing the ocean Doppler spectrum in C band with an empirical geophysical model function (CDOP).What is more,the error sensitivities of ocean surface current speed to the wind speed and direction are analyzed.All these simulations are in Ku band.The simulation results show that the ocean surface current speed error is sensitive to the wind speed and direction errors.With VV polarization,the ocean surface current speed error is about 0.15 m/s when the wind speed error is 2 m/s,and the ocean surface current speed error is smaller than 0.3 m/s when the wind direction error is within 20° in the cross wind direction.

  8. Bringing an Ocean to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Mark W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a school program in which two sixth-grade science classes researched, created, and put together an ocean museum targeted at kindergarten through eighth graders who are geographically distanced from the ocean. Details the process for investigating topical areas, organizing teams of students, researching, writing, creating displays, and…

  9. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  10. Environmental science: Oceans lose oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen is essential to most life in the ocean. An analysis shows that oxygen levels have declined by 2% in the global ocean over the past five decades, probably causing habitat loss for many fish and invertebrate species. See Letter p.335

  11. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  12. AREVA - 2013 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, as well as estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Description of major risks confronting the company; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Situation and activities of the company and its subsidiaries; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Management and supervisory bodies; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of the management and supervisory bodies; 17 - Human resources information; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - Information on holdings; Appendix 1: report of the supervisory board chairman on the preparation and organization of the board's activities and internal control procedures; Appendix 2: statutory auditors' reports; Appendix 3: environmental report; Appendix 4: non-financial reporting methodology and independent third-party report on social, environmental and societal data; Appendix 5: ordinary and extraordinary general shareholders' meeting; Appendix 6: values charter; Appendix 7: table of concordance of the management report; glossaries

  13. Balinese Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Aryawibawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Balinese Frame of Reference. Wassmann and Dasen (1998 did a study on the acquisition of Balinese frames of reference. They pointed out that, in addition to the dominant use of absolute system, the use of relative system was also observed. This article aims at verifying Wassmann and Dasen’ study. Employing monolingual Balinese speakers and using linguistic and non-linguistic tasks, Aryawibawa (2010, 2012, 2015 showed that Balinese subjects used an absolute system dominantly in responding the two tasks, e.g. The man is north/south/east/west of the car. Unlike Wassmann and Dasen’s results, no relative system was used by the subjects in solving the tasks. Instead of the relative system, an intrinsic system was also observed in this study, even though it was unfrequent. The article concludes that the absolute system was dominantly employed by Balinese speakers in describing spatial relations in Balinese. The use of the system seems to affect their cognitive functions.

  14. Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10 - 6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  15. Economics of ocean ranching: experiences, outlook and theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ragnar Arnason

    2001-01-01

    "The author distinguishes between ocean fish farming and ocean ranching. The distinguishing characteristic of ocean ranching is that the released species are unassisted once released into the ocean...

  16. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  17. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  18. The Ocean State Report of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schuckmann, Karina

    2017-04-01

    COPERNICUS is the European Earth observation and monitoring programme, which aims to give the European Union autonomous and operational capability in space-based observation facilities (see the Sentinel missions) and in situ (measurements in the atmosphere, in the ocean and on the ground), and to operate six interlinked environmental monitoring services for the oceans, the atmosphere, territorial development, emergency situations, security and climate change. In this context, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service provides an open and free access to regular and systematic information about the physical state and dynamics of the ocean and marine ecosystems for the global ocean and six European regional seas. Mercator Ocean, the French center of global ocean analysis and forecast has been entrusted by the EU to implement and operate the Copernicus Marine Service. The first Ocean State Report Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service has been prepared, and is planned to appear at an annual basis (fall each year) as a unique reference for ocean state reporting. This report contains a state-of-the-art value-added synthesis of the ocean state for the global ocean and the European regional seas from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service data products and expert analysis. This activity is aiming to reach a wide audience -from the scientific community, over climate and environmental service and agencies, environmental reporting and bodies to the general public. We will give here an overview on the report, highlight main outcomes, and introduce future plans and developments.

  19. NCDC Punched Card Reference Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation for using and reading punched cards kept at the National Weather Records Center (NWRC, previous name for NCDC and NCEI). Many of these punched card...

  20. Hafnium isotope ratios of nine GSJ reference samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Takeshi; Nakai, Shun'ichi; Tatsuta, Riichiro

    2005-01-01

    176 Hf/ 177 Hf ratios of nine geochemical reference rocks from the Geological Survey of Japan, together with BIR-1 and BCR-2, were determined using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our data for BIR-1, BCR-2 and JB-1 are in agreement with those previously reported, demonstrating the appropriateness of the chemical procedure and isotopic measurement employed in this study. The reference rocks have a wide range of 176 Hf/ 177 Hf covering the field defined by various volcanic rocks, such as mid-ocean ridge basalts, ocean island basalts, and subduction related volcanic rocks. They are therefore suitable as rock standards for Hf isotope measurement of geological samples. (author)

  1. Ocean Uses: Oregon and Washington (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  2. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  3. Gravity Field Atlas of the S. Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Gravity Field Atlas of the Southern Ocean from GEOSAT is MGG Report 7. In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because...

  4. NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GODAS dataset is a real-time ocean analysis and a reanalysis. It is used for monitoring, retrospective analysis as well as for providing oceanic initial...

  5. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  6. HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) 3-day, daily forecast at approximately 9-km (1/12-degree)...

  7. AREVA 2009 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  8. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  9. Areva - 2016 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 36,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva

  10. A reference tristimulus colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2002-06-01

    A reference tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at NIST with a transmission-type silicon trap detector (1) and four temperature-controlled filter packages to realize the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) x(λ), y(λ) and z(λ) color matching functions (2). Instead of lamp standards, high accuracy detector standards are used for the colorimeter calibration. A detector-based calibration procedure is being suggested for tristimulus colorimeters wehre the absolute spectral responsivity of the tristimulus channels is determined. Then, color (spectral) correct and peak (amplitude) normalization are applied to minimize uncertainties caused by the imperfect realizations of the CIE functions. As a result of the corrections, the chromaticity coordinates of stable light sources with different spectral power distributions can be measured with uncertainties less than 0.0005 (k=1).

  11. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  12. Areva, reference document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance

  13. Areva reference document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance

  14. Recommended reference materials for realization of physicochemical properties density

    CERN Document Server

    Herington, E F G

    1976-01-01

    This book first presents the nomenclature and units used in the determination of densities of liquids and solids, followed by a general description of the apparatus and the methods used in the measurement of density, with particular reference to the pycnometric, hydrostatic weighing, magnetic float, and temperature flotation methods. The use of water as a density reference material is then explained, focusing on the isotopic composition of Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) and the absolute density of SMOW as a function of temperature. Problems due to the effect of pressure and dissolved gases o

  15. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  16. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Cetacean and Sound Mapping Effort: Continuing Forward with an Integrated Ocean Noise Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jolie; Ferguson, Megan; Gedamke, Jason; Hatch, Leila; Southall, Brandon; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To help manage chronic and cumulative impacts of human activities on marine mammals, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened two working groups, the Underwater Sound Field Mapping Working Group (SoundMap) and the Cetacean Density and Distribution Mapping Working Group (CetMap), with overarching effort of both groups referred to as CetSound, which (1) mapped the predicted contribution of human sound sources to ocean noise and (2) provided region/time/species-specific cetacean density and distribution maps. Mapping products were presented at a symposium where future priorities were identified, including institutionalization/integration of the CetSound effort within NOAA-wide goals and programs, creation of forums and mechanisms for external input and funding, and expanded outreach/education. NOAA is subsequently developing an ocean noise strategy to articulate noise conservation goals and further identify science and management actions needed to support them.

  17. Ocean One: A Robotic Avatar for Oceanic Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama; Yeh, Xiyang; Brantner, Gerald; Soe, Brian; Kim, Boyeon; Ganguly, Shameek; Stuart, Hannah; Wang, Shiquan; Cutkosky, Mark; Edsinger, Aaron; Mullins, Phillip; Barham, Mitchell; Voolstra, Christian R.; Salama, Khaled N.; L'Hour, Michel; Creuze, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The promise of oceanic discovery has long intrigued scientists and explorers, whether with the idea of studying underwater ecology and climate change or with the hope of uncovering natural resources and historic secrets buried deep in archaeological sites. This quest to explore the oceans requires skilled human access, yet much of the oceans are inaccessible to human divers; nearly ninetenths of the ocean floor is at 1 km or deeper [1]. Accessing these depths is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling threaten ecology and archaeological sites. While remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task, a robotic avatar could go where humans cannot and still embody human intelligence and intentions through immersive interfaces.

  18. Ocean One: A Robotic Avatar for Oceanic Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama

    2016-11-11

    The promise of oceanic discovery has long intrigued scientists and explorers, whether with the idea of studying underwater ecology and climate change or with the hope of uncovering natural resources and historic secrets buried deep in archaeological sites. This quest to explore the oceans requires skilled human access, yet much of the oceans are inaccessible to human divers; nearly ninetenths of the ocean floor is at 1 km or deeper [1]. Accessing these depths is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling threaten ecology and archaeological sites. While remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task, a robotic avatar could go where humans cannot and still embody human intelligence and intentions through immersive interfaces.

  19. 12. Oceans and coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paden, M.; Seligman, D.; Weber, M.

    1992-01-01

    The trends of the past 20 years show increasing coastal pollution, accelerated destruction of coastal marine habitats, and, in many areas, a declining catch of marine fish species that have been affected by overfishing and pollution. Stopping land-based pollution, especially pollutants from runoff, requires entering a new political arena, contesting powerful interests in agriculture and industry, and dealing with a nearly worldwide economic framework that allows land-based pollutant sources to dispose of their wastes in waterways at no direct cost. The paper discusses these topics under the following headings: pollution trends (nutrient pollution, human health problems, toxic chemical pollution); coastal habitat destruction (coral reef bleaching, threats to the ocean's surface); fisheries trends; aquaculture; a regional approach to preventing pollution [trends in marine pollution control, upstream activities that pollute coastal waters (logging, agriculture, dam construction and irrigation, cities and industry, air pollution)], vulnerability of coastal waters to pollution, coordinating pollution control (linking the land and the water), case studies of watershed/coastal management (Phuket Province, Thailand; the Chesapeake Bay; the Mediterranean)

  20. Radioactivity in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    While the revised ''Definition and Recommendations'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) restricts the dumping of the radioactive wastes that exceed specified concentration/mass limits, the acceptance of the concept of applying the release rate limits as developed by the IAEA provides a rational basis for further considering the emplacement of radioactive wastes in seabed as an attractive and acceptable alternative to terrestrial geological repositories. The technical basis for the present radiological assessment is on release rate limits and not on dumping rates. However, to meet the present requirements of the London Convention, it is necessary to express to Definition in terms of the concentration in a single site and the assumed upper limit on mass dumping rate at a single site of 100,000 tons/year with the added proviso of release rate limits for the finite ocean volume of 10 17 m 3 . This results in the concentration limits of a) 1 Ci/ton for α-emitters but limited to 10 -1 Ci/ton 226 Ra and supported 210 Po; b) 10 2 Ci/ton for β/γ-emitters with half-lives of at least 0.5 yr (excluding 3 H) and the mixtures of β/γ-emitters of unknown half-lives; and c) 10 6 Ci/ton for 3 H and the β/γ-emitters with half-lives less than 0.5 yr. (Yamashita, S.)

  1. Chaotic advection in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshel' , Konstantin V; Prants, Sergei V [V.I. Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far-Eastern Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-30

    The problem of chaotic advection of passive scalars in the ocean and its topological, dynamical, and fractal properties are considered from the standpoint of the theory of dynamical systems. Analytic and numerical results on Lagrangian transport and mixing in kinematic and dynamic chaotic advection models are described for meandering jet currents, topographical eddies in a barotropic ocean, and a two-layer baroclinic ocean. Laboratory experiments on hydrodynamic flows in rotating tanks as an imitation of geophysical chaotic advection are described. Perspectives of a dynamical system approach in physical oceanography are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. The ocean sampling day consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate...... the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our...

  3. Oceanic ferromanganese deposits: Future resources and past-ocean recorders

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Nair, R.R.; Parthiban, G.; Pattan, J.N.

    decades following the Mero's publication witnessed global "Nodule Rush". The technological leaders of those years like US, Germany, Japan, France, New-Zealand, and USSR have conducted major scientific expeditions to the Central Pacific to map...-Mn-(Cu+Ni+Co) in ferromanganese deposits from the Central Indian Ocean (Source: Jauhari, 1987). OCEANIC FERROMANGANESE DEPOSITS 45 DISTRIBUTION The nodules occur invariably in almost all the deep-sea basins witnessing low sedimentation rates. But abundant ore grade deposits...

  4. Operational Ocean Modelling with the Harvard Ocean Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    tno.nl TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV2008 A417 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) dr. F.P.A. Lam dr. ir. M.W. Schouten dr. L.A. te Raa...area of theory and implementation of numerical schemes and parameterizations, ocean models have grown from experimental tools to full-blown ocean...sound propagation through mesoscale features using 3-D coupled mode theory , Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA. 1992. [9] Robinson

  5. Oceanic Precondition and Evolution of the Indian Ocean Dipole Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Ueki, I.; Hase, H.; Mizuno, K.

    2008-12-01

    Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is one of the interannual climate variability in the Indian Ocean, associated with the negative (positive) SST anomaly in the eastern (western) equatorial region developing during boreal summer/autumn seasons. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been deploying TRITON buoys in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean since October 2001. Details of subsurface ocean conditions associated with IOD events were observed by the mooring buoys in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In the 2006 IOD event, large-scale sea surface signals in the tropical Indian Ocean associated with the positive IOD started in August 2006, and the anomalous conditions continued until December 2006. Data from the mooring buoys, however, captured the first appearance of the negative temperature anomaly at the thermocline depth with strong westward current anomalies in May 2006, about three months earlier than the development of the surface signatures. Similar appearance of negative temperature anomalies in the subsurface were also observed in 2007 and 2008, while the amplitude, the timing, and the relation to the surface layer were different among the events. The implications of the subsurface conditions for the occurrences of these IOD events are discussed.

  6. Ocean Acidification: Investigation and Presentation of the Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels on Seawater Chemistry and Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buth, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification refers to the process by which seawater absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, producing aqueous carbonic acid. Acidic conditions increase the solubility of calcium carbonate, threatening corals and other calcareous organisms that depend on it for protective structures. The global nature of ocean acidification and the…

  7. AREVA - 2012 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this Reference Document, of statutory auditors, and of a summary of financial information, this report address the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risk related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risks (related to political and economic conditions, to Group's structure, and to human resources). The next parts propose information about the issuer, a business overview (markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, customers and suppliers, group's strategy, operations), a brief presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of properties, plants and equipment (principal sites, environmental issues which may affect these items), analysis and comments on the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of capital resources, a presentation of research and development activities (programs, patents and licenses), a brief description of financial objectives and profit forecasts or estimates, a presentation of administration, management and supervision bodies, a description of the operation of corporate bodies, an overview of personnel, of principal shareholders, and of transactions with related parties, a more detailed presentation of financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. Addition information regarding share capital is given, as well as an indication of major contracts, third party information, available documents, and information on holdings

  8. Reference thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driggers, F.E.

    1978-08-01

    In the reference fuel cycle for the TFCT program, fissile U will be denatured by mixing with 238 U; the plants will be located in secure areas, with Pu being recycled within these secure areas; Th will be recycled with recovered U and Pu; the head end will handle a variety of core and blanket fuel assembly designs for LWRs and HWRs; the fuel may be a homogeneous mixture either of U and Th oxide pellets or sol-gel microspheres; the cladding will be Zircaloy; and MgO may be added to the fuel to improve Th dissolution. Th is being considered as the fertile component of fuel in order to increase proliferation resistance. Spent U recovered from Th-based fuels must be re-enriched before recycle to prevent very rapid buildup of 238 U. Stainless steel will be considered as a backup to Zircaloy cladding in case Zr is incompatible with commercial aqueous dissolution. Storage of recovered irradiated Th will be considered as a backup to its use in the recycle of recovered Pu and U. Estimates are made of the time for introducing the Th fuel cycle into the LWR power industry. Since U fuel exposures in LWRs are likely to increase from 30,000 to 50,000 MWD/MT, the Th reprocessing plant should also be designed for Th fuel with 50,000 MWD/MT exposure

  9. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  10. Uranium tailings reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of uranium tailings from Bancroft and Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from Beaverlodge and Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, have been prepared as compositional reference materials at the request of the National Uranium Tailings Research Program. The four samples, UTS-1 to UTS-4, were ground to minus 104 μm, each mixed in one lot and bottled in 200-g units for UTS-1 to UTS-3 and in 100-g units for UTS-4. The materials were tested for homogeneity with respect to uranium by neutron activation analysis and to iron by an acid-decomposition atomic absorption procedure. In a free choice analytical program, 18 laboratories contributed results for one or more of total iron, titanium, aluminum, calcium, barium, uranium, thorium, total sulphur, and sulphate for all four samples, and for nickel and arsenic in UTS-4 only. Based on a statistical analysis of the data, recommended values were assigned to all elements/constituents, except for sulphate in UTS-3 and nickel in UTS-4. The radioactivity of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210 in UTS-1 to UTS-4 and of thorium-232, radium-228, and thorium-228 in UTS-1 and UTS-2 was determined in a radioanalytical program composed of eight laboratories. Recommended values for the radioactivities and associated parameters were calculated by a statistical treatment of the results

  11. Oceanic and coastal dissolved iron observations from 1978-01-01 to 2004-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0067344)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Keith Moore observational dissolved Iron database. Moore expanded the original iron database complied by Parekh et al. (2005. The complete dataset with references to...

  12. The diversity of Indian Ocean Heterotardigrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto SANDULLI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about Indian Ocean tardigrades is quite scarce and in most cases refers to species in coastal coralline sediment and occasionally in abyssal mud. The present data concern species found in the intertidal sand of Coco and La Digue Islands in the Seychelles, previously unsampled for tardigrades, as well as species in subtidal sediment found at depths ranging between 1 and 60 m off the shores of the Maldive Atolls. These sediments are all very similar and consist of heterogeneous coralline sand, moderately or scarcely sorted. Sixteen species (three new to science were found in the Seychelles, belonging to Renaudarctidae, Stygarctidae, Halechiniscidae, Batillipedidae and Echiniscoididae. Diversity and evenness data are also interesting, with maximum values of H' = 2.59 and of J = 0.97. In the Maldives 25 species were found (two new to science belonging to Neostygarctidae, Stygarctidae, Halechiniscidae and Batillipedidae. Such a number of species, despite the low percentage of tardigrade fauna (only 0.6% of the total meiofauna, contributes to the high values of both diversity and evenness, with H' ranging between 1.5 and 2.6 and J between 0.6 and 1. The Indian Ocean tardigrade fauna currently numbers 31 species of Arthrotardigrada and 2 species of Echiniscoidida. In the present study, Arthrotardigrada are the most abundant and all the families are present except Neoarctidae. Halechiniscidae is present with all the sub-families (except Euclavartinae, thus contributing to the high diversity values. Furthermore, 18 species, representing more than 50% of the total marine tardigrade fauna, are new records for the Indian Ocean, including five species new to science.

  13. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  14. Coordination and Integration of Global Ocean Observing through JCOMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, D. M.; Meldrum, D. T.; Hill, K. L.; Charpentier, E.

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of the JCOMM Observations Coordination Group (OCG) is to provide technical coordination to implement fully integrated ocean observing system across the entire marine meteorology and oceanographic community. JCOMM OCG works in partnership with the Global Ocean Observing System, , which focusses on setting observing system requirements and conducting evalutions. JCOMM OCG initially focused on major global observing networks (e.g. Argo profiling floats, moored buoys, ship based observations, sea level stations, reference sites, etc), and is now expanding its horizon in recognition of new observing needs and new technologies/networks (e.g. ocean gliders). Over the next five years the JCOMM OCG is focusing its attention on integration and coordination in four major areas: observing network implementation particularly in response to integrated ocean observing requirements; observing system monitoring and metrics; standards and best practices; and improving integrated data management and access. This presentation will describe the scope and mission of JCOMM OCG; summarize the state of the global ocean observing system; highlight recent successes and resources for the research, prediction, and assessment communities; summarize our plans for the next several years; and suggest engagement opportunities.

  15. ONR Ocean Wave Dynamics Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    In anticipation of the start (in Fiscal Year 1988) of a new Office of Naval Research (ONR) Accelerated Research Initiative (ARI) on Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics, a workshop was held August 5-7, 1986, at Woods Hole, Mass., to discuss new ideas and directions of research. This new ARI on Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics is a 5-year effort that is organized by the ONR Physical Oceanography Program in cooperation with the ONR Fluid Mechanics Program and the Physical Oceanography Branch at the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA). The central theme is improvement of our understanding of the basic physics and dynamics of surface wave phenomena, with emphasis on the following areas: precise air-sea coupling mechanisms,dynamics of nonlinear wave-wave interaction under realistic environmental conditions,wave breaking and dissipation of energy,interaction between surface waves and upper ocean boundary layer dynamics, andsurface statistical and boundary layer coherent structures.

  16. Oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.

    This volume is an outcome of the presentation of selected 74 papers at the International Symposium on the Oceanography of the Indian Ocean held at National Institute of Oceanography during January 1991. The unique physical setting of the northern...

  17. Ocean tides for satellite geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    Spherical harmonic tidal solutions have been obtained at the frequencies of the 32 largest luni-solar tides using prior theory of the author. That theory was developed for turbulent, nonglobal, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing realistic bathymetry and linearized bottom friction; the oceans satisfy no-flow boundary conditions at coastlines. In this theory the eddy viscosity and bottom drag coefficients are treated as spatially uniform. Comparison of the predicted degree-2 components of the Mf, P1, and M2 tides with those from numerical and satellite-based tide models allows the ocean friction parameters to be estimated at long and short periods. Using the 32 tide solutions, the frequency dependence of tidal admittance is investigated, and the validity of sideband tide models used in satellite orbit analysis is examined. The implications of admittance variability for oceanic resonances are also explored.

  18. Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus (DOTS Plus) is a planning tool implemented at the ZOA, ZAN, and ZNY ARTCCs. It is utilized by Traffic Management Unit (TMU) personnel...

  19. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  20. Directional spectrum of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Gouveia, A; Nagarajan, R.

    This paper describes a methodology for obtaining the directional spectrum of ocean waves from time series measurement of wave elevation at several gauges arranged in linear or polygonal arrays. Results of simulated studies using sinusoidal wave...

  1. Laboratory Models of Ocean Circulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitehead, John

    1997-01-01

    ...). The subsequent studies were then split into two separate experiments involving convection in the two types of configurations which are likely to produce the very coldest water in the oceans, one...

  2. Seasonality in ocean microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J; Vergin, Kevin L

    2012-02-10

    Ocean warming occurs every year in seasonal cycles that can help us to understand long-term responses of plankton to climate change. Rhythmic seasonal patterns of microbial community turnover are revealed when high-resolution measurements of microbial plankton diversity are applied to samples collected in lengthy time series. Seasonal cycles in microbial plankton are complex, but the expansion of fixed ocean stations monitoring long-term change and the development of automated instrumentation are providing the time-series data needed to understand how these cycles vary across broad geographical scales. By accumulating data and using predictive modeling, we gain insights into changes that will occur as the ocean surface continues to warm and as the extent and duration of ocean stratification increase. These developments will enable marine scientists to predict changes in geochemical cycles mediated by microbial communities and to gauge their broader impacts.

  3. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  4. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: PURA syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TJ, Vreeburg M, Rouhl RPW, Stevens SJC, Stegmann APA, Schieving J, Pfundt R, van Dijk K, Smeets ... article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  6. Abyssal ocean overturning shaped by seafloor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lavergne, C.; Madec, G.; Roquet, F.; Holmes, R. M.; McDougall, T. J.

    2017-11-01

    The abyssal ocean is broadly characterized by northward flow of the densest waters and southward flow of less-dense waters above them. Understanding what controls the strength and structure of these interhemispheric flows—referred to as the abyssal overturning circulation—is key to quantifying the ocean’s ability to store carbon and heat on timescales exceeding a century. Here we show that, north of 32° S, the depth distribution of the seafloor compels dense southern-origin waters to flow northward below a depth of about 4 kilometres and to return southward predominantly at depths greater than 2.5 kilometres. Unless ventilated from the north, the overlying mid-depths (1 to 2.5 kilometres deep) host comparatively weak mean meridional flow. Backed by analysis of historical radiocarbon measurements, the findings imply that the geometry of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic basins places a major external constraint on the overturning structure.

  7. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  8. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  9. Areva - 2014 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 44,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva. Contents: 1 - Person responsible; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risk factors; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - information on holdings; appendix: Report of the Chairman of the Board of Directors on governance, internal control procedures and risk management, Statutory Auditors' report, Corporate social

  10. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details

  12. Oceans 2.0: Interactive tools for the Visualization of Multi-dimensional Ocean Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffard, B.; Valenzuela, M.; Conley, P.; MacArthur, M.; Tredger, S.; Guillemot, E.; Pirenne, B.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates ocean observatories on all three of Canada's coasts. The instruments produce 280 gigabytes of data per day with 1/2 petabyte archived so far. In 2015, 13 terabytes were downloaded by over 500 users from across the world. ONC's data management system is referred to as "Oceans 2.0" owing to its interactive, participative features. A key element of Oceans 2.0 is real time data acquisition and processing: custom device drivers implement the input-output protocol of each instrument. Automatic parsing and calibration takes place on the fly, followed by event detection and quality control. All raw data are stored in a file archive, while the processed data are copied to fast databases. Interactive access to processed data is provided through data download and visualization/quick look features that are adapted to diverse data types (scalar, acoustic, video, multi-dimensional, etc). Data may be post or re-processed to add features, analysis or correct errors, update calibrations, etc. A robust storage structure has been developed consisting of an extensive file system and a no-SQL database (Cassandra). Cassandra is a node-based open source distributed database management system. It is scalable and offers improved performance for big data. A key feature is data summarization. The system has also been integrated with web services and an ERDDAP OPeNDAP server, capable of serving scalar and multidimensional data from Cassandra for fixed or mobile devices.A complex data viewer has been developed making use of the big data capability to interactively display live or historic echo sounder and acoustic Doppler current profiler data, where users can scroll, apply processing filters and zoom through gigabytes of data with simple interactions. This new technology brings scientists one step closer to a comprehensive, web-based data analysis environment in which visual assessment, filtering, event detection and annotation can be integrated.

  13. Kerlinger's Criterial Referents Theory Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Birenbaum, Menucha

    1980-01-01

    Kerlinger's criterial referents theory of attitudes was tested cross-culturally by administering an education attitude referents summated-rating scale to 713 individuals in Israel. The response pattern to criterial and noncriterial referents was examined. Results indicated empirical cross-cultural validity of theory, but questioned measuring…

  14. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  15. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  16. Smithsonian Ocean Portal | Find Your Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor life. These two are in the middle of a courtship. VIEW ARCHIVE Ocean Optimism Success Stories in Ocean

  17. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  18. Ocean eddies and climate predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtman, Ben P; Perlin, Natalie; Siqueira, Leo

    2017-12-01

    A suite of coupled climate model simulations and experiments are used to examine how resolved mesoscale ocean features affect aspects of climate variability, air-sea interactions, and predictability. In combination with control simulations, experiments with the interactive ensemble coupling strategy are used to further amplify the role of the oceanic mesoscale field and the associated air-sea feedbacks and predictability. The basic intent of the interactive ensemble coupling strategy is to reduce the atmospheric noise at the air-sea interface, allowing an assessment of how noise affects the variability, and in this case, it is also used to diagnose predictability from the perspective of signal-to-noise ratios. The climate variability is assessed from the perspective of sea surface temperature (SST) variance ratios, and it is shown that, unsurprisingly, mesoscale variability significantly increases SST variance. Perhaps surprising is the fact that the presence of mesoscale ocean features even further enhances the SST variance in the interactive ensemble simulation beyond what would be expected from simple linear arguments. Changes in the air-sea coupling between simulations are assessed using pointwise convective rainfall-SST and convective rainfall-SST tendency correlations and again emphasize how the oceanic mesoscale alters the local association between convective rainfall and SST. Understanding the possible relationships between the SST-forced signal and the weather noise is critically important in climate predictability. We use the interactive ensemble simulations to diagnose this relationship, and we find that the presence of mesoscale ocean features significantly enhances this link particularly in ocean eddy rich regions. Finally, we use signal-to-noise ratios to show that the ocean mesoscale activity increases model estimated predictability in terms of convective precipitation and atmospheric upper tropospheric circulation.

  19. Life cycle assessment of ocean energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    UIHLEIN ANDREAS

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oceans offer a vast amount of renewable energy. Tidal and wave energy devices are currently the most advanced conduits of ocean energy. To date, only a few life cycle assessments for ocean energy have been carried out for ocean energy. This study analyses ocean energy devices, including all technologies currently being proposed, in order to gain a better understanding of their environmental impacts and explore how they can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply. Methods...

  20. Evaluation of Passive Containment Cooling System design of SMART built in GBS for ocean environment under the Fukushima Accident Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Gil; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jeong Ik; Lee, Kang Heon; Lee, Phil Seung [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The ONPP can be towed to the installation site after the SMART is constructed within the GBS in a dry dock. And, by incorporating IPSS (Integrated Passive Safety System), proposed by KAIST, in the ocean SMART the safety of the whole system will be significantly increased which can potentially eliminate any possibility of repeating Fukushima accident again. In recent years, KAIST research team is developing a very advanced concept of ocean NPPs which can avoid natural disasters while potentially increasing economy and enhancing public acceptance. Authors chose Korean small reactor, SMART as a reference system to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed ocean NPP. Ocean SMART is mounted on GBS (Gravity Based Structure)

  1. South African carbon observations: CO2 measurements for land, atmosphere and ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Feig, Gregor T

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available , Mudau AE, Monteiro PMS. South African carbon observations: CO2 measurements for land, atmosphere and ocean. S Afr J Sci. 2017;113(11/12), Art. #a0237, 4 pages. http://dx.doi. org/10.17159/sajs.2017/a0237 Carbon dioxide plays a central role in earth... References 1. Houghton RA. Balancing the global carbon budget. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci. 2007;35:313–347. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev. earth.35.031306.140057 2. Denman KL. Climate change, ocean processes and ocean iron fertilization. Mar Ecol Prog Ser...

  2. The Southern Ocean's role in ocean circulation and climate transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Stewart, A.; Hines, S.; Adkins, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The ventilation of deep and intermediate density classes at the surface of the Southern Ocean impacts water mass modification and the air-sea exchange of heat and trace gases, which in turn influences the global overturning circulation and Earth's climate. Zonal variability occurs along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Antarctic margins related to flow-topography interactions, variations in surface boundary conditions, and exchange with northern basins. Information about these zonal variations, and their impact on mass and tracer transport, are suppressed when the overturning is depicted as a two-dimensional (depth-latitude) streamfunction. Here we present an idealized, multi-basin, time-dependent circulation model that applies residual circulation theory in the Southern Ocean and allows for zonal water mass transfer between different ocean basins. This model efficiently determines the temporal evolution of the ocean's stratification, ventilation and overturning strength in response to perturbations in the external forcing. With this model we explore the dynamics that lead to transitions in the circulation structure between multiple, isolated cells and a three-dimensional, "figure-of-eight," circulation in which traditional upper and lower cells are interleaved. The transient model is also used to support a mechanistic explanation of the hemispheric asymmetry and phase lag associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events during the last glacial period. In particular, the 200 year lag in southern hemisphere temperatures, following a perturbation in North Atlantic deep water formation, depends critically on the migration of Southern Ocean isopycnal outcropping in response to low-latitude stratification changes. Our results provide a self-consistent dynamical framework to explain various ocean overturning transitions that have occurred over the Earth's last 100,000 years, and motivate an exploration of these mechanisms in more sophisticated climate models.

  3. Linked Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  4. Ocean acidification genetics - Genetics and genomics of response to ocean acidification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are applying a variety of genetic tools to assess the response of our ocean resources to ocean acidification, including gene expression techniques, identification...

  5. Ship track for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  6. Ship Track for The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the US Coast Guard icebreaker Healy during the "Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  7. Oceanic forcing of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Ryan J; Falter, James L

    2015-01-01

    Although the oceans play a fundamental role in shaping the distribution and function of coral reefs worldwide, a modern understanding of the complex interactions between ocean and reef processes is still only emerging. These dynamics are especially challenging owing to both the broad range of spatial scales (less than a meter to hundreds of kilometers) and the complex physical and biological feedbacks involved. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these processes, ranging from the small-scale mechanics of flow around coral communities and their influence on nutrient exchange to larger, reef-scale patterns of wave- and tide-driven circulation and their effects on reef water quality and perceived rates of metabolism. We also examine regional-scale drivers of reefs such as coastal upwelling, internal waves, and extreme disturbances such as cyclones. Our goal is to show how a wide range of ocean-driven processes ultimately shape the growth and metabolism of coral reefs.

  8. User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

  9. Java for dummies quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2012-01-01

    A reference that answers your questions as you move through your coding The demand for Android programming and web apps continues to grow at an unprecedented pace and Java is the preferred language for both. Java For Dummies Quick Reference keeps you moving through your coding while you solve a problem, look up a command or syntax, or search for a programming tip. Whether you're a Java newbie or a seasoned user, this fast reference offers you quick access to solutions without requiring that you wade through pages of tutorial material. Leverages the true reference format that is organized with

  10. Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph E; Körtzinger, Arne; Gruber, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Ocean warming and increased stratification of the upper ocean caused by global climate change will likely lead to declines in dissolved O2 in the ocean interior (ocean deoxygenation) with implications for ocean productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, and marine habitat. Ocean models predict declines of 1 to 7% in the global ocean O2 inventory over the next century, with declines continuing for a thousand years or more into the future. An important consequence may be an expansion in the area and volume of so-called oxygen minimum zones, where O2 levels are too low to support many macrofauna and profound changes in biogeochemical cycling occur. Significant deoxygenation has occurred over the past 50 years in the North Pacific and tropical oceans, suggesting larger changes are looming. The potential for larger O2 declines in the future suggests the need for an improved observing system for tracking ocean 02 changes.

  11. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike

    2012-01-04

    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  12. Ocean climate and seal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Daniel E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. Results The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Conclusion Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  13. Climate change feedbacks on future oceanic acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.; Matear, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Oceanic anthropogenic CO 2 uptake will decrease both the pH and the aragonite saturation state (Oarag) of seawater leading to an oceanic acidification. However, the factors controlling future changes in pH and Oarag are independent and will respond differently to oceanic climate change feedbacks such as ocean warming, circulation and biological changes. We examine the sensitivity of these two CO 2 -related parameters to climate change feedbacks within a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The ocean warming feedback was found to dominate the climate change responses in the surface ocean. Although surface pH is projected to decrease relatively uniformly by about 0.3 by the year 2100, we find pH to be insensitive to climate change feedbacks, whereas Oarag is buffered by ∼15%. Ocean carbonate chemistry creates a situation whereby the direct pH changes due to ocean warming are almost cancelled by the pH changes associated with dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations changes via a reduction in CO 2 solubility from ocean warming. We show that the small climate change feedback on future surface ocean pH is independent to the amount of ocean warming. Our analysis therefore implies that future projections of surface ocean acidification only need to consider future atmospheric CO 2 levels, not climate change induced modifications in the ocean

  14. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  15. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  16. GOCE Data for Ocean Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija

    and order. The method makes use of all available GOCE gradient data in addition to the global models and aims at improving the determination of Earth’s gravitational field in regional areas. Subsequently, the calculated equipotential surface, known as the geoid, is used together with measurements of sea...... surface height in a calculation of the Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT). This reflects the geostrophic ocean currents and leads to a better understanding of ocean mass and heat transfer. In regional geoid recovery from GOCE gradients, two methods are used, one of them being Least-Squares Collocation (LSC...

  17. Upper ocean physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Ram, P.S.

    This monograph is the outcome of an attempt by the authors to present a synthesis of the studies on physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in relation to air-sea interaction, monsoon/climate variability and biological productivity...

  18. Climate change feedbacks on future oceanic acidification

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, Ben I.; Matear, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic anthropogenic CO2 uptake will decrease both the pH and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) of seawater leading to an oceanic acidification. However, the factors controlling future changes in pH and Ωarag are independent and will respond differently to oceanic climate change feedbacks such as ocean warming, circulation and biological changes. We examine the sensitivity of these two CO2-related parameters to climate change feedbacks within a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The ocean ...

  19. The deep ocean under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems.

  20. Provenance Usage in the OceanLink Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Fils, D.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Janowicz, K.; Jones, M.; Krisnadhi, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Mickle, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Schildhauer, M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve thedissemination of scientific research. The OceanLink project, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is utilizing semantic technologies tointegrate geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Provenance is a vital componentin meeting both the scientific and engineering requirements of OceanLink. Provenance plays a key role in justification and understanding when presenting users with results aggregated from multiple sources. In the engineering sense, provenance enables the identification of new data and the ability to determine which data sources to query. Additionally, OceanLink will leverage human and machine computation for crowdsourcing, text mining, and co-reference resolution. The results of these computations, and their associated provenance, will be folded back into the constituent systems to continually enhance precision and utility. We will touch on the various roles provenance is playing in OceanLink as well as present our use of the PROV Ontology and associated Ontology Design Patterns.

  1. Moving Reference to the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlamery, Susan; Coffman, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explores the possibility of using Web contact center software to offer reference assistance to remote users. Discusses a project by the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System/Santiago Library System consortium to test contact center software and to develop a virtual reference network. (Author/LRW)

  2. Reference vectors in economic choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teycir Abdelghani GOUCHA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the introduction of notion of reference vector paves the way for a combination of classical and social approaches in the framework of referential preferences given by matrix groups. It is shown that individual demand issue from rational decision does not depend on that reference.

  3. "In Your Face" Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    1999-01-01

    Discusses changes in library reference service that have occurred with growing Internet use. Topics include the human factor that is still needed; the nature of reference questions; the goal of user self-sufficiency; the invisible nature of much of librarians' work; and providing real-time, interactive point-of-need service to remote users. (LRW)

  4. Technostress and the Reference Librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmith, John

    1992-01-01

    Defines "technostress" as the stress experienced by reference librarians who must constantly deal with the demands of new information technology and the changes they produce in the work place. Discussion includes suggested ways in which both organizations and individuals can work to reduce stress. (27 references) (LAE)

  5. Reference Services: A Handmaid's Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Clare

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of problems in library reference services focuses on the influence of gender roles. A historical overview of gender roles in the development of American librarianship is presented that highlights stereotyped views of and attitudes toward women, which the author suggests still have influences on librarianship today. (17 references) (LRW)

  6. Juvenile Osprey Navigation during Trans-Oceanic Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W Horton

    Full Text Available To compensate for drift, an animal migrating through air or sea must be able to navigate. Although some species of bird, fish, insect, mammal, and reptile are capable of drift compensation, our understanding of the spatial reference frame, and associated coordinate space, in which these navigational behaviors occur remains limited. Using high resolution satellite-monitored GPS track data, we show that juvenile ospreys (Pandion haliaetus are capable of non-stop constant course movements over open ocean spanning distances in excess of 1500 km despite the perturbing effects of winds and the lack of obvious landmarks. These results are best explained by extreme navigational precision in an exogenous spatio-temporal reference frame, such as positional orientation relative to Earth's magnetic field and pacing relative to an exogenous mechanism of keeping time. Given the age (<1 year-old of these birds and knowledge of their hatching site locations, we were able to transform Enhanced Magnetic Model coordinate locations such that the origin of the magnetic coordinate space corresponded with each bird's nest. Our analyses show that trans-oceanic juvenile osprey movements are consistent with bicoordinate positional orientation in transformed magnetic coordinate or geographic space. Through integration of movement and meteorological data, we propose a new theoretical framework, chord and clock navigation, capable of explaining the precise spatial orientation and temporal pacing performed by juvenile ospreys during their long-distance migrations over open ocean.

  7. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  8. The impact on ocean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear war would have less impact on ocean ecosystems than on terrestrial systems. But damage to coastal regions and estuaries might be substantial. This chapter discusses the distribution, effects, and hazards of fallout radionuclides in the ocean, and attempts to assess the impact on ocean ecosystems of dust particles in the atmosphere, ozone depletion, and temperature change following a nuclear war. The information offers some insight into the impact of such a war, but does not provide definitive predictions. Two other consequences, however, do have the potential for devastating effects upon marine ecosystems. It has been predicted that a 100-fold reduction in solar light intensity at the earth's surface due to particles in the atmosphere is possible; this would result in death to most of the phytoplankton and herbivorous zooplankton in more than half of the oceans of the Northern Hemisphere, and under some circumstances, depletion of ozone in the stratosphere by NOsub(X) could increase UV radiation at the earth's surface, the magnitude of the change being sufficient to seriously reduce the populations of organisms at the base of the food web. Temperature changes would be of little consequence. (U.K.)

  9. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  10. Meteorite impact in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelitz, R.

    1979-01-01

    In the present study, the dynamic of hypervelocity impacts and crater formation in water are examined with allowance for the unique properties of water. More precisely, the transient crater calculated is permitted to relax and act as a source of oceanic surface waves.

  11. The Health of the Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Edward D.

    International scientific literature is used to review relevant data concerning pollution of the world's oceans. Chapters 1, 8 and 9 address themselves to the problems of international control of marine pollution. Chapter 1 introduces the importance of the time factor, revealing information on how long it takes a pollutant to reach an undesirable…

  12. Artificial radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-10-01

    The report highlights the areas of major contributions that the nuclear era has made to the understanding of oceanography and the marine sciences, and in particular the application to the public health problems that arise through anthropogenic exploitation of the oceans for the disposal of radioactive materials

  13. Origin of the ``Ocean Bible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, W. H.

    2002-12-01

    ``The Oceans" is such a landmark for Sverdrup and the Scripps Institution that one ought to take a look at how it came about. The book came very close to NOT being written. Sverdrup was about to decline an invitation by Prentice Hall when his secretary persuaded him to accept. The contract called for 500-600 pages, it ended up with 1087 pages. Royalty was 10% (\\$0.27 to each author for the copy I purchased in 1943). Sverdrup had estimated a market of 550 copies. By the end of 1965 23,766 copies of the American edition alone had been sold. The book was completed in the early war years under very trying conditions for Sverdrup personally. When it did appear in print, a year after Pearl Harbor, the distribution was restricted to the continental United States because ``...it would be of great aid to the enemy should it fall into his hands." The book carries the mark of Sverdrup's lifelong emphasis on the synthesis of observations: ``we have preferred definite statements to mere enumeration of uncorrelated observations and conflicting interpretations." The result was a coherent presentation of ocean science, a remarkable achievement considering how badly the ocean was undersampled. I will describe my experience as a willing listener while Sverdrup was contemplating of how to organize Chapter XV: The Water Masses and Currents of the Oceans.

  14. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  15. Boundary Conditions, Data Assimilation, and Predictability in Coastal Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samelson, Roger M; Allen, John S; Egbert, Gary D; Kindle, John C; Snyder, Chris

    2007-01-01

    ...: The specific objectives of this research are to determine the impact on coastal ocean circulation models of open ocean boundary conditions from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE...

  16. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  17. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  18. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  19. Ocean disposal of radioactive waste: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes resulting from human activities and although no high level radioactive waste (HLW) has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste (LLW) have been dumped at more than 50 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. So far, samples of sea water, sediments and deep sea organisms collected on the various sites have not shown any excess in the levels of radionuclides above those due to nuclear weapons fallout except on certain occasions where caesium and plutonium were detected at higher levels in samples taken close to packages at the dumping site. Since 1957, the date of its first meeting to design methodologies to assess the safety of ''radioactive waste disposal into the sea'', the IAEA has provided guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. Since the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (referred to as the London Dumping Convention) came into force in 1975, the dumping of waste has been regulated on a global scale. The London Dumping Convention entrusted IAEA with specific responsibilities for the definition of high level radioactive wastes unsuitable for dumping at sea, and for making recommendations to national authorities for issuing special permits for ocean dumping of low level radioactive wastes. This paper presents a status report of immersion operations of low-level radioactive waste and the current studies the IAEA is undertaking on behalf of the LDC

  20. Interactive Visual Analysis within Dynamic Ocean Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkiewicz, T.

    2012-12-01

    The many observation and simulation based ocean models available today can provide crucial insights for all fields of marine research and can serve as valuable references when planning data collection missions. However, the increasing size and complexity of these models makes leveraging their contents difficult for end users. Through a combination of data visualization techniques, interactive analysis tools, and new hardware technologies, the data within these models can be made more accessible to domain scientists. We present an interactive system that supports exploratory visual analysis within large-scale ocean flow models. The currents and eddies within the models are illustrated using effective, particle-based flow visualization techniques. Stereoscopic displays and rendering methods are employed to ensure that the user can correctly perceive the complex 3D structures of depth-dependent flow patterns. Interactive analysis tools are provided which allow the user to experiment through the introduction of their customizable virtual dye particles into the models to explore regions of interest. A multi-touch interface provides natural, efficient interaction, with custom multi-touch gestures simplifying the otherwise challenging tasks of navigating and positioning tools within a 3D environment. We demonstrate the potential applications of our visual analysis environment with two examples of real-world significance: Firstly, an example of using customized particles with physics-based behaviors to simulate pollutant release scenarios, including predicting the oil plume path for the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. Secondly, an interactive tool for plotting and revising proposed autonomous underwater vehicle mission pathlines with respect to the surrounding flow patterns predicted by the model; as these survey vessels have extremely limited energy budgets, designing more efficient paths allows for greater survey areas.

  1. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  2. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  3. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  4. Sensitivity of ocean model simulation in the coastal ocean to the resolution of the meteorological forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2013-04-01

    identifying the causes. The length scales of most energetic dynamic features in both ocean and atmosphere are defined by the Rossby radius of deformation, which is about 1000 km (a typical size of a cyclone) in the atmosphere while only 10-20 km (a size of a mesoscale eddy) in a shallow sea. However sub-mesoscale atmospheric patterns such as patchiness in the cloud cover could result in smaller scale variations of both the wind and solar radiation hence creating a direct link of these smaller atmospheric features with the ocean mesoscale variability. The simulation has been performed using a version of POLCOMS numerical model (Enriquez et al, 2005). Tidal boundary conditions were taken from the Oregon State University European Shelf Tidal Model (Egbert et al, 2010) and the temperature/ salinity initial fields and boundary conditions were taken from the World Ocean Database (Boyer et al, 2004). The paper discusses what elements of the circulation and water column structure are mostly sensitive to the meteo-fields resolution. References Kara, A.B., Wallcraft, A.J., Hurlburt, H.E., Loh, W.-Y., 2009. Which surface atmospheric variable drives the seasonal cycle of sea surface temperature over the global ocean? Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, D05101. Boyer, .T, S. Levitus, H. Garcia, R. Locarnini, C. Stephens, and J. Antonov, T. Boyer, S. Levitus, H. Garcia, R. Locarnini, C. Stephens, and J. Antonov, 2004. Objective Analyses of Annual, Seasonal, and Monthly Temperature and Salinity for the World Ocean on a ¼ Grid. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 931-945. Egbert, G. D., S. Y. Erofeeva, and R. D. Ray, 2010. Assimilation of altimetry data for nonlinear shallow-water tides: quarter-diurnal tides of the Northwest European Shelf, Continental Shelf Research, 30, 668-679. Enriquez, C. E., G. I. Shapiro, A. J. Souza, and A. G. Zatsepin, 2005. Hydrodynamic modelling of mesoscale eddies in the Black Sea. Ocean Dyn., 55, 476-489. Georgy Shapiro, Dmitry Aleynik , Andrei

  5. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  6. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  7. Climate Ocean Modeling on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Cheng, B. N.; Chao, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in both understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting future climate change. However, modeling the ocean circulation at various spatial and temporal scales is a very challenging computational task.

  8. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  9. CTD Oceanographic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  10. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  11. Oceanographic Trawl Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  12. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at approximately 3-km resolution. While considerable...

  13. Marine information technology - Indian Ocean scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Navelkar, G.S.; Singh, K.

    Marine and coastal information is necessary for sound decision making about sustainable utilisation of our oceanic and coastal resources. Due to inadequate data management tools, lack of information technology benefits in the minds of the ocean...

  14. Cross Validating Ocean Prediction and Monitoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mooers, Christopher; Meinen, Christopher; Baringer, Molly; Bang, Inkweon; Rhodes, Robert C; Barron, Charlie N; Bub, Frank

    2005-01-01

    With the ongoing development of ocean circulation models and real-time observing systems, routine estimation of the synoptic state of the ocean is becoming feasible for practical and scientific purposes...

  15. Wave measurement in severe ocean currents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwan, S.G.; Suryavanshi, A.K.; Nayak, B.U.

    The measurement of ocean waves has been of particular interest, as wave data and understanding of wave phenomena are essential to ocean engineering, coastal engineering and to many marine operations. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa...

  16. Zooplankton Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  17. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 6-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding Guam at approximately 2-km resolution. While considerable effort has been...

  18. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Oahu at approximately 1-km resolution. While considerable...

  19. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) at approximately...

  20. World Ocean Atlas 2013 (NCEI Accession 0114815)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) is a set of objectively analyzed (1 degree grid and 1/4 degree grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved...

  1. OW NASA MODIS Aqua Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  2. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  3. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  4. References

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Achinstein, P. 1983. The Nature of Explanation (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Adler, J.E. 1997. ‘Lying, Deceiving, or Falsely Implicating’, The Journal of Philosophy, 94: 435–52. Adler, J.E. 2002. Belief’s Own Ethics (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). Alicke, M.D., J. Buckingham, E. Zell, & T. Davis. 2008. ‘Culpable Control and Counterfactual Reasoning in the Psychology of Blame’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34: 1371–78, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/014616720832159...

  5. References

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Aldridge, H., Kenway, P. and Born, T. (2015), ‘What Happened to Poverty Under the Coalition’. New Policy Institute. Armour, R. (2014) ‘Charity Shops Buck Trend’, http://thirdforcenews.org.uk,24 March 2014. Beatty, C. and Fothergill, S. (2016), The Uneven Impact of Welfare Reform. The Financial Losses to Places and People, Centre for Regional and Social Economic Research and Sheffield Hallam University, https://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/welfare-reform-2016_1.pdf Belfi...

  6. References

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2005) The Ethics of Identity, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ______ (2006). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, Norton, New York. Clarke, Charles (2006) ‛Global Citizens and Quality International Education: Enlarging the Role of the Commonwealth’. Speech delivered to the Royal Commonwealth Society, 15 November, 2006, London. Estlund, Cynthia (2003) Working Together: How Workplace Bonds Strengthen a Diverse Democracy, Oxford University Press, New...

  7. References:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain drain”'. Globalization and Health 2006, 2:12 doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-2-12. 3. Zijlstra, E., Broadhead, R. 2007. The College of Medicine in the. Republic of Malawi: towards sustainable staff development, Human. Resources for Health 2007, ...

  8. Japanese reference man 1988, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative description of physical properties and other characteristics of the human body is one of the basic data for estimating dose equivalent and calculating Annual Limit on Intake of radionuclides. The exact mass weight of organs and tissues are measured from about 1000 autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults and physical properties are obtained from recent Japanese Government publications. Japanese (Asian) Reference Man is completed by establishing the Normal Japanese, harmonizing with Caucasian Reference Man and coinciding with the ICRP Reference Man Task Group members concept. (author)

  9. Radium 226 in the deep north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, M.

    1986-01-01

    With reference to the distribution of radium-226 in the western equatorial and north-eastern deep Atlantic Ocean it was possible to establish structures in the correlations of radium-226 to its chemical homologue Ba and dissolved SiO 2 . An 11-box model of the deep Atlantic Ocean was used to obtain information on the size of the radium-226 and Ba sources. The soil source derives mainly from the dissolution of barite. For the first time, an evaluation of the radium-226 flow resulting from the dissolution of particulate matter is presented. The box model and the radium-226 concentrations measured put down the value as 23-46·10 -21 mol/m 2 s. (DG) [de

  10. The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Describing in detail the two-way interaction between wind and ocean waves, this book discusses ocean wave evolution in accordance with the energy balance equation. An extensive overview of nonlinear transfer is given, and the role of four-wave interactions in the generation of extreme events as well as the effects on ocean circulation is included. The volume will interest ocean wave modellers, physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers.

  11. Variational Data Assimilation for the Global Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ocean includes the Geoid (a fixed gravity equipotential surface ) as well as the MDT, which is not known accurately enough relative to the centimeter...scales, including processes that control the surface mixed layer, the formation of ocean eddies, meandering ocean J.A. Cummings (E3) nography Division...variables. Examples of this in the ocean are integral quantities, such as acous^B travel time and altimeter measures of sea surface height, and direct

  12. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  13. An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Gröcke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. During the early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and pericontinental shelves of Pangaea, and these sedimentary rocks are associated with a pronounced (ca. 7 ‰ negative (organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE which is thought to be the result of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle. For this reason, the lower Toarcian is thought to represent an oceanic anoxic event (the T-OAE. If the T-OAE was indeed a global event, an isotopic expression of this event should be found beyond the epi- and pericontinental Pangaean localities. To address this issue, the carbon isotope composition of organic matter (δ13Corg of lower Toarcian organic matter-rich cherts from Japan, deposited in the open Panthalassa Ocean, was analysed. The results show the presence of a major (>6 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg that, based on radiolarian biostratigraphy, is a correlative of the lower Toarcian negative CIE known from Pangaean epi- and pericontinental strata. A smaller negative excursion in δ13Corg (ca. 2 ‰ is recognized lower in the studied succession. This excursion may, within the current biostratigraphic resolution, represent the excursion recorded in European epicontinental successions close to the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary. These results from the open ocean realm suggest, in conjunction with other previously published datasets, that these Early Jurassic carbon cycle perturbations affected the active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric.

  14. Building a Global Ocean Science Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, G. A.; Tuddenham, P. T.; Pizziconi, R.

    2016-02-01

    It is imperative for ocean science education to be closely linked to ocean science research. This is especially important for research that addresses global concerns that cross national boundaries, including climate related issues. The results of research on these critical topics must find its way to the public, educators, and students of all ages around the globe. To facilitate this, opportunities are needed for ocean scientists and educators to convene and identify priorities and strategies for ocean science education. On June 26 and 27, 2015 the first Global Ocean Science Education (GOSE) Workshop was convened in the United States at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The workshop, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Science Exploration and Engagement (COSEE) and the College of Exploration, had over 75 participants representing 15 nations. The workshop addressed critical global ocean science topics, current ocean science research and education priorities, advanced communication technologies, and leveraging international ocean research technologies. In addition, panels discussed elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and public education across the ocean basins with emphasis on opportunities for international collaboration. Special presentation topics included advancements in tropical cyclone forecasting, collaborations among Pacific Islands, ocean science for coastal resiliency, and trans-Atlantic collaboration. This presentation will focus on workshop outcomes as well as activities for growing a global ocean science education network. A summary of the workshop report will also be provided. The dates and location for the 2016 GOES Workshop will be announced. See http://www.coexploration.net/gose/index.html

  15. Models for ecological models: Ocean primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, Christopher K.; Leeds, William B.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean accounts for more than 70% of planet Earth's surface, and it processes are critically important to marine and terrestrial life.  Ocean ecosystems are strongly dependent on the physical state of the ocean (e.g., transports, mixing, upwelling, runoff, and ice dynamics(.  As an example, consider the Coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) region.

  16. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  17. The oceanic literary reading mind : An impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, M.

    2016-01-01

    The mind and brain processes of the literary reading mind are most accurately defined as oceanic: the mind is an ocean. This is the essential premise that I put forward in my book Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the Oceanic Mind (Routledge, 2011).1 The statement is of

  18. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  19. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  20. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  1. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  2. Accuracy assessment of NOAA gridded daily reference evapotranspiration for the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides daily reference evapotranspiration (ETref) maps for the contiguous United States using climatic data from North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). This data provides large-scale spatial representation of ETref, which i...

  3. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  4. Ocean basin volume constraints on global sea level since the Jurassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the volume of the ocean basins, predominately via changes in the age-area distribution of oceanic lithosphere, have been suggested as the main driver for long-term eustatic sea-level change. As ocean lithosphere cools and thickens, ocean depth increases. The balance between the abundance of hot and buoyant crust along mid ocean ridges relative to abyssal plains is the primary driving force of long-term sea level changes. The emplacement of volcanic plateaus and chains as well as sedimentation contribute to raising eustatic sea level. Quantifying the average ocean basin depth through time primarily relies on the present day preserved seafloor spreading record, an analysis of the spatio-temporal record of plate boundary processes recorded on the continental margins adjacent to ocean basins as well as a consideration of the rules of plate tectonics, to reconstruct the history of seafloor spreading in the oceanic basins through time. This approach has been successfully applied to predict the magnitude and pattern of eustatic sea-level change since the Cretaceous (Müller et. al. 2008) but uncertainties in reconstructing mid ocean ridges and flanks increase back through time, given that we mainly depend on information preserved in preserved ocean crust. We have reconstructed the age-area distribution of oceanic lithosphere and the plate boundary configurations back to the Jurassic (200 Ma) in order to assess long-term sea-level change from amalgamation to dispersal of Pangaea. We follow the methodology presented in Müller et. al. (2008) but incorporate a new absolute plate motion model derived from Steinberger and Torsvik (2008) prior to 100 Ma, a merged Wessel et. al. (2006) and Wessel and Kroenke (2008) fixed Pacific hotspot reference frame, and a revised model for the formation of Panthalassa and the Cretaceous Pacific. Importantly, we incorporate a model for the break-up of the Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi plateaus between 120-86 Ma. We extend a

  5. Nuclear measurements and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the JRC programs on nuclear data, nuclear metrology, nuclear reference materials and non-nuclear reference materials. Budget restrictions and personnel difficulties were encountered during 1987. Fission properties of 235 U as a function of neutron energy and of the resonances can be successfully described on the basis of a three exit channel fission model. Double differential neutron emission cross-sections were accomplished on 7 Li and were started for the tritium production cross-section of 9 Be. Reference materials of uranium minerals and ores were prepared. Special nuclear targets were prepared. A batch of 250 g of Pu0 2 was characterized in view of certification as reference material for the elemental assay of plutonium

  6. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  7. Glacial-interglacial variability in ocean oxygen and phosphorus in a global biogeochemical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Palastanga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased transfer of particulate matter from continental shelves to the open ocean during glacials may have had a major impact on the biogeochemistry of the ocean. Here, we assess the response of the coupled oceanic cycles of oxygen, carbon, phosphorus, and iron to the input of particulate organic carbon and reactive phosphorus from shelves. We use a biogeochemical ocean model and specifically focus on the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. When compared to an interglacial reference run, our glacial scenario with shelf input shows major increases in ocean productivity and phosphorus burial, while mean deep-water oxygen concentrations decline. There is a downward expansion of the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, while the extension of the OMZ in the Pacific is slightly reduced. Oxygen concentrations below 2000 m also decline but bottom waters do not become anoxic. The model simulations show when shelf input of particulate organic matter and particulate reactive P is considered, low oxygen areas in the glacial ocean expand, but concentrations are not low enough to generate wide scale changes in sediment biogeochemistry and sedimentary phosphorus recycling. Increased reactive phosphorus burial in the open ocean during the LGM in the model is related to dust input, notably over the southwest Atlantic and northwest Pacific, whereas input of material from shelves explains higher burial fluxes in continental slope and rise regions. Our model results are in qualitative agreement with available data and reproduce the strong spatial differences in the response of phosphorus burial to glacial-interglacial change. Our model results also highlight the need for additional sediment core records from all ocean basins to allow further insight into changes in phosphorus, carbon and oxygen dynamics in the ocean on glacial-interglacial timescales.

  8. TclTk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Raines, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The Tcl/Tk combination is increasingly popular because it lets you produce sophisticated graphical interfaces with a few easy commands, develop and change scripts quickly, and conveniently tie together existing utilities or programming libraries. The Tcl/Tk Pocket Reference,a handy reference guide to the basic Tcl language elements, Tcl and Tk commands, and Tk widgets, is a companion volume to Tcl/Tk in a Nutshell.

  9. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  10. Plutonium chemistry of the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.

    1972-01-01

    Plutonium is a man-made element whose behavior in the marine environment is inadequately known at present. It has been studied intensively in connection with production of weapons and power sources and has been characterized as an extremely toxic substance. Nevertheless, only a few dozen measurements have been made of concentrations in seawater and in the associated organisms and sediments. The first of these were as recent as 1964. There are reasons to believe its chemical behavior in the ocean is different from what has been observed on land, and that it will be difficult to predict how plutonium will distribute itself in the ocean. The consequences of increased environmental concentrations of Pu are discussed

  11. The Ocean State Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ocean State Power is an independent partnership in the form of utility companies and private developers who have joined forces to build a gas-fired, combined cycle generating plant in Burrillville, Rhode Island. The initial capacity of the plant is expected to be approximately 250 MW, with a provision to double the size. Unit I will be on-line 2989/2990 with unit II shortly thereafter. The OSP equity group includes TransCanada PipeLines, Easter Utilities Associates, New England Electric System, Newport Electric and J. Makowski Associates. The author describes the project's major features and turns to a brief status report on the contracts and licenses. Ocean State Power came about because of; the rapid growth in demand for capacity in new England; the availability of a long-term supply of natural gas from Canada which has recently revised export policies and the inherent efficiency and reliability of combined cycle power generation

  12. Evidence and mechanism of Hurricane Fran-Induced ocean cooling in the Charleston Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lian; Pietrafesa, L. J.; Bohm, E.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.

    Evidence of enhanced sea surface cooling during and following the passage of Hurricane Fran in September 1996 over an oceanic depression located on the ocean margin offshore of Charleston, South Carolina (referred to as the Charleston Trough), [Pietrafesa, 1983] is documented. Approximately 4C° of sea surface temperature (SST) reduction within the Charleston Trough following the passage of Hurricane Fran was estimated based on SST imagery from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-14 polar orbiting satellite. Simulations using a three-dimensional coastal ocean model indicate that the largest SST reduction occurred within the Charleston Trough. This SST reduction can be explained by oceanic mixing due to storm-induced internal inertia-gravity waves.

  13. Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes in oceanic ferromanganese deposits and ocean floor basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Nions, R.K.; Carter, S.R.; Cohen, R.S.; Evensen, N.M.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Pb-, Nd-, and Sr-isotope compositions of oceanic ferromanganese deposits, together with the Nd- and Sr-isotope compositions of altered ocean-floor basalts, are here reported. These data are used to evaluate these metals as sources in both the oceans and ocean ferromanganese deposits and the extent to which ocean-floor basalts may be a source of, or a sink for, these metals. (author)

  14. Preventing blue ocean from turning into red ocean: A case study of a room escape game

    OpenAIRE

    Gündüz, Şafak

    2018-01-01

    The weariness of competitive business environment has made it one of the hot topics of recent business management literature to find ways to escape from the intense Red Ocean by creating a Blue Ocean where there is no competition. Rene and Mauborgne’s Blue Ocean Strategy (2004) provides a reasonable solution for this issue. Blue Ocean Strategy studies demonstrate that every blue ocean will eventually turn red due to fast entries into the market and the literature leaves a gap in understanding...

  15. The Phenomenom of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S.

    2017-12-01

    The earth is 70% and is protected by its atmosphere. The atmosphere is made up of several layers. The sunlight penetrates through the atmosphere and warms the earth surface. The earth's surface then in turn emits invisible infrared radiation back. As this radiation moves back up each layer absorbs some of it. Each layer then sends some of this energy back to earth again. When the layer becomes so thin the energy then escapes back into space. When we are adding more carbon dioxide to these layers we are causing the layers to absorb more of the energy and the radiation. This in turn causes the layers to become warmer since fewer radiation moves up through the layers and this energy bounces back to earth increasing the temperatures. The entire planet is taking on more of this energy and hence the temperatures are rising. The ocean plays a big rule in this change. It has prevented some of the CO2 from entering the earth's atmosphere. Oceans absorb about one third of the anthropogenic CO2 causing the phenomenon of ocean acidification and this comes at a huge cost to our marine environments. The CO2 is absorbed on the surface and then transferred into the deeper waters. Which causes it to be stuck for centuries before making its way back into the atmosphere. As the CO2 dissolves in seawater it causes the PH to lower. With a lowered PH water becomes more acidic. The Hydrogen ions decrease and become less active. With this process carbonic acid is formed. The ocean now is more acidic then it has ever been in the past 650,000 years. The increase in acidic levels has caused our marine life to adjust. Acidosis caused by the increase of carbonic acid in the body fluids means a lower pH in the blood. This changes is just the start to many health issues for these organism's.

  16. Life in the oceanic realms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    Keywords Phytoplankton,zooplankton,pri- mary and secondary producers, zooxanthellae. Chandralata Raghukumar is an emeritus scientist at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. After obtaining a PhD in plant pathology, she worked for 5 years on fungal... marine animals and plants were collected during such voyages by the researchers onboardthe vesselsandsystematicallydescribed. The HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin on board sailed around different oceans for nearly 4 years and this was the beginning...

  17. Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, P.; Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

  18. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This collapsed thunderstorm was observed over the open ocean (9.0N, 120.0E) between the Philippine island of Mindoro and Borneo, Malaysia. The cleared area in the center is the result of the clouds being driven from there by the sudden rush of katabatic air spreading downward and outward from the dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new though smaller storms are developing. The two small coral atolls are the Tubbataha Reefs.

  19. Ocean Literacy After-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinka, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Ocean Literacy is a topic that is often underrepresented in secondary school science curriculum. To combat this deficit, our School has partnered up with Hudson River Community Sailing (HRCS), a local organization in New York City that offers an after-school program to high-need high school students in the surrounding community. This organization has developed a 9th grade Sail Academy which allows students from participating public high schools to increase their proficiency in math and science by learning basic sailing, navigation, and boat building. Upon successfully completing the 9th grade Sail Academy curriculum, students enter the "First Mates Program" which offers a scaffolded set of youth development experiences that prepare students for college, career, leadership, and stewardship. This program is built in the context of a new Ocean Literacy Curriculum focused around 3 major topics within Ocean Literacy: Marine Debris, Meteorology, and Ecology (specifically water quality). The learning experiences include weekly data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing in the Hudson River adjacent to the HRCS Boathouse. Additionally there are weekly lessons engaging students in the fundamentals of each of the 3 topics and how they are also important in the lens of sailing. During the marine debris portion of the curriculum students identify sources of marine debris, impacts on the local environment, and study how debris can travel along the ocean currents leading in to larger garbage gyres. To supplement the curriculum, students embarked on a day trip to the Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility in Brooklyn, NY to learn how and where NYC receives its drinking water, how wastewater is treated, and how water quality in the local area can be easily influenced. While on the trip, students did their data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing at Newtown Creek, and then they compared their results

  20. The citation with reference and the citation as a reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Cunha Perrone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio objetiva estabelecer paralelos entre a citação acadêmica e a citação utilizada como referência, para a produção das obras ou projetos de arquitetura. O artigo discute o uso de figuras paradigmáticas ou significativas, transladadas ou amalgamadas nas obras de arquitetura, a partir do entendimento da citação como dado argumentativo e qualitativo. Investiga algumas de suas assimetrias e congruências em sua utilização na linguagem escrita, como transcrição direta ou como fonte interpretativa, reelaborada e incorporada como argumento em outro texto. Pondera que no ensinar, estudar e fazer arquitetura é preciso saber citar com referência, para poder citar como referência.

  1. Flagging optically shallow pixels for improved analysis of ocean color data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinna, L. I. W.; Werdell, J.; Knowles, D., Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean color remote-sensing is routinely used to derive marine geophysical parameters from sensor-observed water-leaving radiances. However, in clear geometrically shallow regions, traditional ocean color algorithms can be confounded by light reflected from the seafloor. Such regions are typically referred to as "optically shallow". When performing spatiotemporal analyses of ocean color datasets, optically shallow features such as coral reefs can lead to unexpected regional biases. Benthic contamination of the water-leaving radiance is dependent on bathymetry, water clarity and seafloor albedo. Thus, a prototype ocean color processing flag called OPTSHAL has been developed that takes all three variables into account. In the method described here, the optical depth of the water column at 547 nm, ζ(547), is predicted from known bathymetry and estimated inherent optical properties. If ζ(547) is less then the pre-defined threshold, a pixel is flagged as optically shallow. Radiative transfer modeling was used to identify the appropriate threshold value of ζ(547) for a generic benthic sand albedo. OPTSHAL has been evaluated within the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's L2GEN code. Using MODIS Aqua imagery, OPTSHAL was tested in two regions: (i) the Pedro Bank south-west of Jamaica, and (ii) the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. It is anticipated that OPTSHAL will benefit end-users when quality controlling derived ocean color products. Further, OPTSHAL may prove useful as a mechanism for switching between optically deep and shallow algorithms during ocean color processing.

  2. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  3. Practical global oceanic state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Carl; Heimbach, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    The problem of oceanographic state estimation, by means of an ocean general circulation model (GCM) and a multitude of observations, is described and contrasted with the meteorological process of data assimilation. In practice, all such methods reduce, on the computer, to forms of least-squares. The global oceanographic problem is at the present time focussed primarily on smoothing, rather than forecasting, and the data types are unlike meteorological ones. As formulated in the consortium Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO), an automatic differentiation tool is used to calculate the so-called adjoint code of the GCM, and the method of Lagrange multipliers used to render the problem one of unconstrained least-squares minimization. Major problems today lie less with the numerical algorithms (least-squares problems can be solved by many means) than with the issues of data and model error. Results of ongoing calculations covering the period of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, and including among other data, satellite altimetry from TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason-1, ERS- 1/2, ENVISAT, and GFO, a global array of profiling floats from the Argo program, and satellite gravity data from the GRACE mission, suggest that the solutions are now useful for scientific purposes. Both methodology and applications are developing in a number of different directions.

  4. Breaking of ocean surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanin, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)

  5. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wandelt

    Full Text Available The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1 the size of the factorization, 2 the time for factorization, and 3 the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%, factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s, and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB. Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization.

  6. The Vertical Profile of Ocean Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, R. M.; Nikurashin, M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.

    2014-12-01

    The upwelling of bottom waters through density surfaces in the deep ocean is not possible unless the sloping nature of the sea floor is taken into account. The bottom--intensified mixing arising from interaction of internal tides and geostrophic motions with bottom topography implies that mixing is a decreasing function of height in the deep ocean. This would further imply that the diapycnal motion in the deep ocean is downward, not upwards as is required by continuity. This conundrum regarding ocean mixing and upwelling in the deep ocean will be resolved by appealing to the fact that the ocean does not have vertical side walls. Implications of the conundrum for the representation of ocean mixing in climate models will be discussed.

  7. The international legal framework for the management of the global oceans social-ecological system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the international agreements in place for the protection of the environment and the regulation of human activities taking place in world's oceans and seas. 500 multilateral agreements were reviewed against a framework of reference, grounded on the theoretical approaches of

  8. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  9. Reference Librarian in Digital Environment:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Sohili

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The information explosion of the latter half of the twentieth century, gave rise to online databases and various information media that gradually impacted on the very physical environment of the library. It transformed the librarians’ role. Reference librarians are no exception. The present study aims to investigate the need or lack of need to reference librarians within the digital domains based on the views expressed by LIS authorities in Iran. It would attempt further, to identify the qualities required for such librarian should a need for her/his expressed. The research, while descriptive in nature, was based on analyzing the results obtained by the checklist devised by the authors. LIS Specialist sample was composed of 57 people who filled the checklist. Findings show that there is a significance between employing ICT and need for a reference librarian. LIS experts in Iran believe that introduction of ICT, especially Internet and the WWW not only didn’t decrease the need for such librarians, but has caused the reference librarian to attain a more important and better status than before. Findings further demonstrated that while Iran is not a signatory to the international copyright conventions, the Iranian reference librarians are fully committed to observing author’s copyright and intellectual rights and frown on using software crackers.

  10. Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands: an ocean testbed for ocean energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Javier; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín.; Llinás, Octavio

    2010-05-01

    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a Governmental Consortium aimed to build and operate an off-shore infrastructure to facilitate the deep sea research and speed up the technology associated. This Consortium is overseen by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Canarian Agency for Research and Innovation. The infrastructure consists of an oceanic platform located in an area with depths between 50-100 meters, close to the continental slope and four kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria, in the archipelago of the Canary Islands. The process of construction will start during the first months of 2010 and is expected to be finished in mid-year 2011. PLOCAN serves five strategic lines: an integral observatory able to explore from the deep ocean to the atmosphere, an ocean technology testbed, a base for underwater vehicles, an innovation platform and a highly specialized training centre. Ocean energy is a suitable source to contribute the limited mix-energy conformed in the archipelago of the Canary Islands with a total population around 2 million people unequally distributed in seven islands. Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife support the 80% of the total population with 800.000 people each. PLOCAN will contribute to develop the ocean energy sector establishing a marine testbed allowing prototypes testing at sea under a meticulous monitoring network provided by the integral observatory, generating valuable information to developers. Reducing costs throughout an integral project management is an essential objective to be reach, providing services such as transportation, customs and administrative permits. Ocean surface for testing activities is around 8 km2 with a depth going from 50 to 100 meters, 4km off the coast. Selected areas for testing have off-shore wind power conditions around 500-600 W/m2 and wave power conditions around 6 kW/m in the East coast and 10 kW/m in the North coast. Marine currents in the Canary Islands are

  11. Remote sensing of ocean surface currents: a review of what is being observed and what is being assimilated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio; García-Ladona, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    Ocean currents play a key role in Earth's climate - they impact almost any process taking place in the ocean and are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, no observing system is able to provide direct measurements of global ocean currents on synoptic scales. Consequently, it has been necessary to use sea surface height and sea surface temperature measurements and refer to dynamical frameworks to derive the velocity field. Second, the assimilation of the velocity field into numerical models of ocean circulation is difficult mainly due to lack of data. Recent experiments that assimilate coastal-based radar data have shown that ocean currents will contribute to increasing the forecast skill of surface currents, but require application in multidata assimilation approaches to better identify the thermohaline structure of the ocean. In this paper we review the current knowledge in these fields and provide a global and systematic view of the technologies to retrieve ocean velocities in the upper ocean and the available approaches to assimilate this information into ocean models.

  12. Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

  13. JavaScript programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Valentine, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    JavaScript Programmer's Reference is an invaluable resource that won't stray far from your desktop (or your tablet!). It contains detailed information on every JavaScript object and command, and combines that reference with practical examples showcasing how you can use those commands in the real world. Whether you're just checking the syntax of a method or you're starting out on the road to JavaScript mastery, the JavaScript Programmer's Reference will be an essential aid.  With a detailed and informative tutorial section giving you the ins and outs of programming with JavaScript and the DOM f

  14. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    largely unchanged during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum and were within non-pregnant reference intervals. However, levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, and IX increased markedly. Protein S activity decreased substantially, while free protein S decreased slightly and total......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  15. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  16. Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Ocean Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    the volcano Agua de Pau. //i ( ,.which nas eruted 5 tir-es in tile past 4.600 / ye,.rs, the last in 1563. Xumerous not springs S/ o3220 an’ soradic...complex. In a study layered structure and physical properties to of ophiolite complexes in southern Chile , de Wit ce those of oceanic crust...Spooner et al, 1977) and and Govett, 1973). A large lens, for example that S. Chile (Stern et al, 1976). Zeolite to amphib- at Skouriotissa, had a

  17. rf reference line for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system

  18. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  19. Sizewell 'B' PWR reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The reference design for a PWR power station to be constructed as Sizewell 'B' is presented in 3 volumes containing 14 chapters and in a volume of drawings. The report describes the proposed design and provides the basis upon which the safety case and the Pre-Construction Safety Report have been prepared. The station is based on a 3425MWt Westinghouse PWR providing steam to two turbine generators each of 600 MW. The layout and many of the systems are based on the SNUPPS design for Callaway which has been chosen as the US reference plant for the project. (U.K.)

  20. Electrical engineering a pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-Walter, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    This essential reference offers you a well-organized resource for accessing the basic electrical engineering knowledge you need for your work. Whether you're an experienced engineer who appreciates an occasional refresher in key areas, or a student preparing to enter the field, Electrical Engineering: A Pocket Reference provides quick and easy access to fundamental principles and their applications. You also find an extensive collection of time-saving equations that help simplify your daily projects.Supported with more than 500 diagrams and figures, 60 tables, and an extensive index, this uniq

  1. Perl/Tk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lidie, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The Perl/Tk Pocket Reference is a companion volume to Learning Perl/Tk, an O'Reilly Animal Guide. Learning Perl/Tk is a tutorial for Perl/Tk, the extension to Perl for creating graphical user interfaces. With Tk, Perl programs can be window-based rather than command-line based, with buttons, entry fields, listboxes, menus, scrollbars, balloons, tables, dialogs, and more. And Perl/Tk programs run on UNIX and Windows-based computers. This small book is a handy reference guide geared toward the advanced Perl/Tk programmer. Novice Perl/Tk programmers will find that its compact size gives th

  2. rf reference line for PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system.

  3. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  4. The new version of the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Sigma Ocean Model (INMSOM) for simulation of Global Ocean circulation and its variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Fomin, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present the improved version of the ocean general circulation sigma-model developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS). The previous version referred to as INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) is used as the oceanic component of the IPCC climate system model INMCM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Climate Model (Volodin et al 2010,2013). Besides, INMOM as the only sigma-model was used for simulations according to CORE-II scenario (Danabasoglu et al. 2014,2016; Downes et al. 2015; Farneti et al. 2015). In general, INMOM results are comparable to ones of other OGCMs and were used for investigation of climatic variations in the North Atlantic (Gusev and Diansky 2014). However, detailed analysis of some CORE-II INMOM results revealed some disadvantages of the INMOM leading to considerable errors in reproducing some ocean characteristics. So, the mass transport in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) was overestimated. As well, there were noticeable errors in reproducing thermohaline structure of the ocean. After analysing the previous results, the new version of the OGCM was developed. It was decided to entitle is INMSOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Sigma Ocean Model). The new title allows one to distingwish the new model, first, from its older version, and second, from another z-model developed in the INM RAS and referred to as INMIO (Institute of Numerical Mathematics and Institute of Oceanology ocean model) (Ushakov et al. 2016). There were numerous modifications in the model, some of them are as follows. 1) Formulation of the ocean circulation problem in terms of full free surface with taking into account water amount variation. 2) Using tensor form of lateral viscosity operator invariant to rotation. 3) Using isopycnal diffusion including Gent-McWilliams mixing. 4) Using atmospheric forcing computation according to NCAR methodology (Large and Yeager 2009). 5

  5. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Li

    Full Text Available Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  6. Deep Ocean Contribution to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L.; Sun, W.; Tang, H.; Wang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The ocean temperature and salinity change in the upper 2000m can be detected by Argo floats, so we can know the steric height change of the ocean. But the ocean layers above 2000m represent only 50% of the total ocean volume. Although the temperature and salinity change are small compared to the upper ocean, the deep ocean contribution to sea level might be significant because of its large volume. There has been some research on the deep ocean rely on the very sparse situ observation and are limited to decadal and longer-term rates of change. The available observational data in the deep ocean are too spares to determine the temporal variability, and the long-term changes may have a bias. We will use the Argo date and combine the situ data and topographic data to estimate the temperature and salinity of the sea water below 2000m, so we can obtain a monthly data. We will analyze the seasonal and annual change of the steric height change due to the deep ocean between 2005 and 2016. And we will evaluate the result combination the present-day satellite and in situ observing systems. The deep ocean contribution can be inferred indirectly as the difference between the altimetry minus GRACE and Argo-based steric sea level.

  7. An assessment of oceanic variability in the NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yan; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun [Climate Prediction Center, NCEP/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Huang, Boyin; Wen, Caihong [Climate Prediction Center, NCEP/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Wyle Information System, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Behringer, David; Nadiga, Sudhir [Environmental Modeling Center, NCEP/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2011-12-15

    At the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), a reanalysis of the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and land over the period 1979-2009, referred to as the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR), was recently completed. The oceanic component of CFSR includes many advances: (a) the MOM4 ocean model with an interactive sea-ice, (b) the 6 h coupled model forecast as the first guess, (c) inclusion of the mean climatological river runoff, and (d) high spatial (0.5 x 0.5 ) and temporal (hourly) model outputs. Since the CFSR will be used by many in initializing/validating ocean models and climate research, the primary motivation of the paper is to inform the user community about the saline features in the CFSR ocean component, and how the ocean reanalysis compares with in situ observations and previous reanalysis. The net ocean surface heat flux of the CFSR has smaller biases compared to the sum of the latent and sensible heat fluxes from the objectively analyzed air-sea fluxes (OAFlux) and the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-FD) than the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (R1) and NCEP/DOE reanalysis (R2) in both the tropics and extratropics. The ocean surface wind stress of the CFSR has smaller biases and higher correlation with the ERA40 produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts than the R1 and R2, particularly in the tropical Indian and Pacific Ocean. The CFSR also has smaller errors compared to the QuickSCAT climatology for September 1999 to October 2009 than the R1 and R2. However, the trade winds of the CFSR in the central equatorial Pacific are too strong prior to 1999, and become close to observations once the ATOVS radiance data are assimilated in late 1998. A sudden reduction of easterly wind bias is related to the sudden onset of a warm bias in the eastern equatorial Pacific temperature around 1998/1999. The sea surface height and top 300 m heat content (HC300) of

  8. Modelling the inorganic ocean carbon cycle under past and future climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    This study used a coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice model with an inorganic carbon component to examine the inorganic ocean carbon cycle with particular reference to how climate feedback influences future uptake. In the last 150 years, the increase in atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations have been higher than any time during the Earth's history. Although the oceans are the largest sink for carbon dioxide, it is not know how the ocean carbon cycle will respond to increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide concentrations in the future. Climate feedbacks could potentially reduce further uptake of carbon by the ocean. In addition to examining past climate transitions, including both abrupt and glacial-interglacial climate transitions, this study also examined the sensitivity of the inorganic carbon cycle to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were also projected under a range of global warming scenarios. Most simulations identified a transient weakening of the North Atlantic and increased sea surface temperatures (SST). These positive feedbacks act on the carbon system to reduce uptake. However, the ocean has the capacity to take up 65 to 75 per cent of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide increases. An analysis of climate feedback on future carbon uptake shows that oceans store 7 per cent more carbon when there are no climate feedbacks acting on the system. Sensitivity experiments using the Gent McWilliams parameterization for mixing associated with mesoscale eddies show a further 6 per cent increase in oceanic uptake. Inclusion of sea ice dynamics resulted in a 2 per cent difference in uptake. This study also examined changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration that occur during abrupt climate change events. Changes in ocean circulation and carbon solubility cause significant increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations when melt water episodes are simulated in both hemispheres. The response of the carbon

  9. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  10. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  11. Selected Reference Books of 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 40 recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Topics areas covered include philosophy, religion, language, literature, architecture, economics, law, area studies, Russia and the Soviet Union, women's studies, and Christopher Columbus. New editions and…

  12. Development of beta reference radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  13. Referent Communication in Chronic Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorowitz, David A.; Cohen, Bertram D.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty chronic schizophrenics (15 process and 15 reactive) and 15 normal control speakers described colors displayed in three-chip sets containing a referent and two nonreferent colors. Concludes that poor communication accuracy in long-term schizophrenics results from failure to include a self-editing stage as a part of the communication process.…

  14. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  15. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  16. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  17. Verification of SAP reference models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van B.F.; Jansen-Vullers, M.H.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Benatallah, B.; Casati, F.

    2005-01-01

    To configure a process-aware information system (e.g., a workflow system, an ERP system), a business model needs to be transformed into an executable process model. Due to similarities in these transformations for different companies, databases with reference models, such as ARIS for MySAP, have

  18. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  19. Expertise and Intuitions about Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Machery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many philosophers hold that experts’ semantic intuitions are more reliable and provide better evidence than lay people’s intuitions—a thesis commonly called “the Expertise Defense.” Focusing on the intuitions about the reference of proper names, this article critically assesses the Expertise Defense.

  20. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...

  1. Space-Time Reference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soffel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  2. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  3. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  4. Collective Management of Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Cynthia H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a one-year experiment with collective management--i.e., management in which decision-making rests with the department as a whole--in the Oberlin College Library reference department. The planning process, problems, and advantages and disadvantages of this style of management are discussed. Several questions are raised about the…

  5. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  6. Quick Reference for Financial Reporting

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    Quick Reference – Financial Reporting. 6. Complete FR3 - Payment Receipts, Foreign Exchange and Other Income Forms: a. Enter in Section 3A – Payment Receipt Form all payments received from IDRC. b. Use the Cash Exchange Form if the funds received from IDRC are held in a currency other than the project working ...

  7. Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1978-08-01

    The use of the Nuclear Structure References file by the Nuclear Data Project at ORNL is described. Much of the report concerns format information of interest only to those preparing input to the system or otherwise needing detailed knowledge of its internal structure. 17 figures

  8. IOC-CEC-ICES-WMO-ICSU ocean climate data workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Ocean Climate Data Workshop organized in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, on 18-21 February 1992 was attended by more than 100 people from 18 countries. The heart of the programme were three groupings of ''Case Studies'' in which scientists and data managers summarized findings on recent research projects and discussed data management aspects including recommendations for improvements needed for the future. Case studies were grouped into the following sessions: Monitoring Changes in the Ocean and Atmosphere; Data Archeology (Historical Data); Effect of Change in the Ocean and on the Life Cycle (Emphasis on Chemical and Biological Observations). A full range of technical matters associated with the collection and dissemination of data and meta-date were discussed. The topics covered were the problems associated with the increasing size of data sets like techniques for storage and retrieval of these data; increasing complexity of data (new data types especially in Chemistry and Biology, growing importance of meta-data and problems associated with the cost, formatting, storage and retrieval of this information); and for correlation of data sets across disciplinary lines, for instance development of a common geo-reference system

  9. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  10. Ocean impact on Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, Northeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Janin; Kanzow, Torsten; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Mayer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet by delivering heat to the marine-terminating outlet glaciers around Greenland. The largest of three outlet glaciers draining the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream is Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier (also referred to as 79 North Glacier). Historic observations showed that warm waters of Atlantic origin are present in the subglacial cavity below the 80 km long floating ice tongue of the Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and cause strong basal melt at the grounding line, but to date it has been unknown how those warm water enter the cavity. In order to understand how Atlantic origin waters carry heat into the subglacial cavity beneath Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, we performed bathymetric, hydrographic, and velocity observations in the vicinity of the main glacier calving front aboard RV Polarstern in summer 2016. The bathymetric multibeam data shows a 500 m deep and 2 km narrow passage downstream of a 310 m deep sill. This turned out to be the only location deep enough for an exchange of Atlantic waters between the glacier cavity and the continental shelf. Hydrographic and velocity measurements revealed a density driven plume in the vicinity of the glacier calving front causing a rapid flow of waters of Atlantic origin warmer 1°C into the subglacial cavity through the 500 m deep passage. In addition, glacially modified waters flow out of the glacier cavity below the 80 m deep ice base. In the vicinity of the glacier, the glacially modified waters form a distinct mixed layer situated above the Atlantic waters and below the ambient Polar water. At greater distances from the glacier this layer is eroded by lateral mixing with ambient water. Based on our observations we will present an estimate of the ocean heat transport into the subglacial cavity. In comparison with historic observations we find an increase in Atlantic water temperatures throughout the last 20 years. The resulting

  11. The deep ocean under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-13

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. The study of the ocean from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novogrudskii, B V; Skliarov, V E; Fedorov, K N; Shifrin, K S

    1978-01-01

    The application of earth satellites and manned spacecraft to the study of the world's oceans is reviewed. Attention is given to the atmospheric transfer function in the visible, near-IR, middle-IR and microwave regions and the use of satellites in ocean data acquisition and transmission systems. The measurement of sea level and the topography of the ocean surface by means of orbital radar altimeters is discussed, together with IR and microwave measurements of ocean surface temperature and the study of surface roughness, surface evidence of internal waves, oil pollution and ice fields. Consideration is also given to the determination of ocean chlorophyll content and color distribution, coastal region characteristics, ocean salinity and other biological parameters from space.

  13. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  14. Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.

    2004-01-01

    At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....

  15. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surfaceheights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection...... zone the measurements may deriveparameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have shown such results leading.The coming satellite missions, CYGNSS, COSMIC-2, and GEROS...

  16. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    responses as well. It, however, should be also noted here that the penetration depth beneath Site WPB is significantly smaller than that beneath Site NWP because the solar activity has been very low since 2006. References Ichiki, M., K. Baba, H. Toh and K. Fuji-ta, An overview of electrical conductivity structures of the crust and upper mantle beneath the northwestern Pacific, the Japanese Islands, and continental East Asia, Gondwana Research, 16, 545?562, doi:10.1016/j.gr.2009.04.007, 2009. Salisbury MH et al (2006) 2. Leg 195 Synthesis: Site 1201?A geological and geophysical section in the West Philippine Basin from the 660-km discontinuity to the mudline. Proc. Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Reports 195:27. Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191 (2000) Northwest Pacific seismic observatory and hammer drill tests, Proc. Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports 191. Toh, H., Y. Hamano and M. Ichiki, Long-term seafloor geomagnetic station in the northwest Pacific: A possible candidate for a seafloor geomagnetic observatory, Earth Planets Space, 58, 697-705, 2006. Toh, H., Y. Hamano, M. Ichiki and H. Utada, Geomagnetic observatory operates at the seafloor in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 85, 467/473, DOI: 10.1029/2004EO450003, 2004.

  17. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  18. Geobiological Responses to Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    During 240Ma of evolution, scleractinian corals survived major changes in ocean chemistry, yet recent concerns with rapid acidification after ca. 40Ma of almost constant oceanic pH have tended to distract attention from natural pH variation in coastal waters, where most corals and reefs occur. Unaltered skeletal environmental proxies reflect conditions experienced by individual organisms, with any variation on micro- habitat and micro-time scales appropriate for that individual's ecology, behavior and physiology, but proxy interpretation usually extrapolates to larger spatial (habitat, region to global) and temporal (seasonal, annual, interannual) scales. Therefore, predicting consequences of acidification for both corals and reefs requires greater understanding of: 1. Many potential indirect consequences of pH change that may affect calcification and/or carbonate accretion: e.g. an individual's developmental rates, growth, final size, general physiology and reproductive success; its population's distribution and abundance, symbionts, food availability, predators and pathogens; and its community and ecosystem services. 2. Potentially diverse responses to declining pH, ranging from non-evolutionary, rapid physiological changes (acclimation) or long term (seasonal to interannual) plasticity (acclimatization) of individuals, through genetic adaptation in local populations, and up to directional changes in species" characteristics and/or radiations/extinctions. 3. The evolutionary and environmental history of an organism's lineage, its ecological (own lifetime) exposure to environmental variation, and "pre-adaptation" via other factors acting on correlated characters.

  19. Climate change impact on future ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Elevated atmospheric C02 levels and associated uptake by the ocean is changing its carbon chemistry, leading to an acidification. The implications of future ocean acidification on the marine ecosystem are unclear but seemingly detrimental particularly to those organisms and phytoplankton that secrete calcium carbonate (like corals). Here we present new results from the Australian CSIRO General Circulation Model that predicts the changing nature of oceanic carbon chemistry in response to future climate change feedbacks (circulation, temperature and biological). We will discuss the implications of future ocean acidification and the potential implications on Australia's marine ecosystems

  20. Sustaining observations of the unsteady ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajka-Williams, E

    2014-09-28

    Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods of observing the oceans, scientists are moving from quantifying the 'state of the ocean' to monitoring its variability, and distinguishing the physical processes bringing signals of change. In this paper, I give a brief overview of the UK contributions to the physical oceanographic observations, and the role they have played in the wider global observing systems. While temperature and salinity are the primary measurements of physical oceanography, new transbasin mooring arrays also resolve changes in ocean circulation on daily timescales. Emerging technologies permit routine observations at higher-than-ever spatial resolutions. Following this, I then give a personal perspective on the future of sustained observations. New measurement techniques promise exciting discoveries concerning the role of smaller scales and boundary processes in setting the large-scale ocean circulation and the ocean's role in climate. The challenges now facing the scientific community include sustaining critical observations in the case of funding system changes or shifts in government priorities. These long records will enable a determination of the role and response of the ocean to climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.