WorldWideScience

Sample records for stratum corneum skin

  1. Stratum corneum biomarkers for inflammatory skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focusses on development of biomarkers, obtained by a non-invasive sampling method, for skin inflammatory diseases relevant for occupational settings; irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). In various studies, in which different

  2. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  3. Development of a stratum corneum substitute for in vitro percutaneous penetration studies : a skin barrier model comprising synthetic stratum corneum lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Miranda Wilhelmina de

    2006-01-01

    The research outlined in this thesis was focused on the development of a skin barrier model, which can substitute for stratum corneum in diffusion studies. This so-called stratum corneum substitute (SCS) was prepared with reconstituted SC lipids (cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides) on a

  4. Direct visualization of lipid domains in human skin stratum corneum's lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Norlen, Lars; Bagatolli, Luis

    2007-01-01

    scanning calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and two-photon excitation and laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. Here we show that hydrated bilayers of human skin stratum corneum lipids express a giant sponge-like morphology with dimensions corresponding to the global three......-dimensional morphology of the stratum corneum extracellular space. These structures can be directly visualized using the aforementioned fluorescence microscopy techniques. At skin physiological temperatures (28 degrees C-32 degrees C), the phase state of these hydrated bilayers correspond microscopically (radial...

  5. Characterization of skin friction coefficient, and relationship to stratum corneum hydration in a normal Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y H; Song, S P; Luo, W; Elias, P M; Man, M Q

    2011-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that some cutaneous biophysical properties vary with age, gender and body sites. However, the characteristics of the skin friction coefficient in different genders and age groups have not yet been well established. In the present study, we assess the skin friction coefficient in a larger Chinese population. A total of 633 subjects (300 males and 333 females) aged 0.15-79 years were enrolled. A Frictiometer FR 770 and Corneometer CM 825 (C&K MPA 5) were used to measure the skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration, respectively, on the dorsal surface of the hand, the forehead and the canthus. In the females, the maximum skin friction coefficients on both the canthus and the dorsal hand skin were observed around the age of 40 years. In the males, the skin friction coefficient on the dorsal hand skin gradually increased from 0 to 40 years of age, and changed little afterward. Skin friction coefficients on some body sites were higher in females than in age-matched males in some age groups. On the canthus and the dorsal hand skin of females, a positive correlation was found between skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration (p skin friction coefficient was positively correlated with stratum corneum hydration on the forehead and the dorsal hand skin (p skin friction coefficient varies with age, gender and body site, and positively correlates with stratum corneum hydration on some body sites. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Validation of Cyanoacrylate Method for Collection of Stratum Corneum in Human Skin for Lipid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, JM; Hellgren, Lars; Drachmann, Tue

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective: Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) are of major importance for the skin barrier function. Many different methods have been used for the collection of SC for the analysis of SC lipids. The objective of the present study was to validate the cyanoacrylate method for the col......Background and Objective: Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) are of major importance for the skin barrier function. Many different methods have been used for the collection of SC for the analysis of SC lipids. The objective of the present study was to validate the cyanoacrylate method...

  7. Sensitive skin at menopause; dew point and electrometric properties of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, F; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Fumal, I; Goffin, V; Paye, M; Piérard, G E

    1998-01-12

    A number of menopausal women experience skin sensitive to various environmental threats. Two panels of 15 menopausal women on or without HRT were compared. We studied the response of their stratum corneum to variations in environmental humidity, either in air or in response to an emollient. Environment dew point and electrometric measurements on the skin were recorded to search for correlations. Data show that the baseline stratum corneum hydration is influenced by the dew point. HRT improves the barrier function of the skin. The use of emollient further extends the improvement in the functional properties of skin in menopausal women. Both HRT and an emollient can counteract in part some of the deleterious effects of cold and dry weather.

  8. Stratum corneum hydration and skin surface pH in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knor, Tanja; Meholjić-Fetahović, Ajša; Mehmedagić, Aida

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing skin disease with genetic predisposition, which occurs most frequently in preschool children. It is considered that dryness and pruritus, which are always present in AD, are in correlation with degradation of the skin barrier function. Measurement of hydration and pH value of the stratum corneum is one of the noninvasive methods for evaluation of skin barrier function. The aim of the study was to assess skin barrier function by measuring stratum corneum hydration and skin surface pH of the skin with lesions, perilesional skin and uninvolved skin in AD patients, and skin in a healthy control group. Forty-two patients were included in the study: 21 young and adult AD patients and 21 age-matched healthy controls. Capacitance, which is correlated with hydration of stratum corneum and skin surface pH were measured on the forearm in the above areas by SM810/CM820/pH900 combined units (Courage AND Khazaka, Germany). The mean value of water capacitance measured in AD patients was 44.1 ± 11.6 AU (arbitrary units) on the lesions, 60.2 ± 12.4 AU on perilesional skin and 67.2 ± 8.8 AU on uninvolved skin. In healthy controls, the mean value was 74.1 ± 9.2 AU. The mean pH value measured in AD patients was 6.13 ± 0.52 on the lesions, 5.80 ± 0.41 on perilesional skin, and 5.54 ± 0.49 on uninvolved skin. In control group, the mean pH of the skin surface was 5.24 ± 0.40. The values of both parameters measured on lesional skin were significantly different (capacitance decreased and pH increased) from the values recorded on perilesional skin and uninvolved skin. The same held for the relation between perilesional and uninvolved skin. According to study results, the uninvolved skin of AD patients had significantly worse values of the measured parameters as compared with control group. The results of this study suggested the skin barrier function to be degraded in AD patients, which is specifically expressed in lesional skin.

  9. Stratum corneum lipids, skin barrier function and filaggrin mutations in patients with atopic eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars; Jungersted, JM

    2010-01-01

    chromatography. In addition, TEWL, erythema, skin hydration and pH were measured. In 27 of the 49 individuals, a 24-h irritation patch test with sodium lauryl sulphate was performed. For the analysis, both the AD group and the control group were stratified by FLG mutation status (FLGmut/FLGwt). Results......Background: Prior to the discovery of filaggrin (FLG) mutations, evidence for an impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis (AD) has been documented, and changes in ceramide profile, altered skin pH and increased trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) in patients with AD have been reported. Until now......, no studies have analysed stratum corneum (SC) lipids combined with skin barrier parameters in subjects of known FLG genotype. Methods: A cohort of 49 German individuals genotyped for the most common FLG mutations (R501X, 2282del4) had SC samples taken for lipid analysis by high-performance thin layer...

  10. Effect of vehicles and sodium lauryl sulphate on xenobiotic permeability and stratum corneum partitioning in porcine skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwe, Deon van der; Riviere, Jim E.

    2005-01-01

    Dermal contact with potentially toxic agricultural and industrial chemicals is a common hazard encountered in occupational, accidental spill and environmental contamination scenarios. Different solvents and chemical mixtures may influence dermal absorption. The effects of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) on the stratum corneum partitioning and permeability in porcine skin of 10 agricultural and industrial chemicals in water, ethanol and propylene glycol were investigated. The chemicals were phenol, p-nitrophenol, pentachlorophenol, methyl parathion, ethyl parathion, chlorpyrifos, fenthion, simazine, atrazine and propazine. SLS decreased partitioning into stratum corneum from water for lipophilic compounds, decreased partitioning from propylene glycol and did not alter partitioning from ethanol. SLS effects on permeability were less consistent, but generally decreased permeability from water, increased permeability from ethanol and had an inconsistent effect on permeability from propylene glycol. It was concluded that, for the compounds tested, partitioning into the stratum corneum was determined by the relative solubility of the solute in the donor solvent and the stratum corneum lipids. Permeability, however, reflected the result of successive, complex processes and was not predictable from stratum corneum partitioning alone. Addition of SLS to solvents altered partitioning and absorption characteristics across a range of compounds, which indicates that partition coefficients or skin permeability from neat chemical exposure should be used with caution in risk assessment procedures for chemical mixtures

  11. Penetration of gold nanoparticles across the stratum corneum layer of thick-Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Gayathri; Katiyar, Neeraj; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Shankarappa, Sahadev A

    2018-02-01

    Transdermal particulate penetration across thick-skin, such as that of palms and sole, is particularly important for drug delivery for disorders such as small fiber neuropathies. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery across skin is believed to have much translational applications, but their penetration especially through thick-skin, is not clear. This study specifically investigates the effectiveness of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for thick-skin penetration, especially across the stratum corneum (SC) as a function of particle size. The thick-skinned hind-paw of rat was used to characterize depth and distribution of AuNPs of varying sizes, namely, 22±3, 105±11, and 186±20nm. Epidermal penetration of AuNPs was characterized both, in harvested skin from the hind-paw using a diffusion chamber, as well as in vivo. Harvested skin segments exposed to 22nm AuNPs for only 3h demonstrated higher penetration (pthick-skin allows nanoparticle penetration and acts as a depot for release of AuNPs into circulation long after the initial exposure has ceased. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Cindy M.; Verberk, Maarten M.; Withagen, Carien E. T.; Jacobs, John J. L.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels

  13. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jongh, Cindy M; Verberk, Maarten M; Withagen, Carien E T; Jacobs, John J L; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-06-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels and the skin response to a single and a repeated irritation test. This study also aimed to determine changes in SC cytokine levels after repeated irritation. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema were measured in 20 volunteers after single 24-hr exposure to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and during and after repeated exposure to 0.1% SLS over a 3-week period. SC cytokine levels were measured from an unexposed skin site and from the repeatedly exposed site. Interleukin (IL)-1alpha decreased by 30% after repeated exposure, while IL-1RA increased 10-fold and IL-8 increased fourfold. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 values were predictors of TEWL and erythema after single exposure (r = 0.55-0.61). 6 subjects showed barrier recovery during repeated exposure. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 levels are likely to be indicators of higher skin irritability after single exposure to SLS. Barrier repair in some of the subjects might explain the lack of agreement between the TEWL response after single and repeated irritation.

  14. Relative uptake of minoxidil into appendages and stratum corneum and permeation through human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Jeffrey E; Ciotti, Susan; Weiner, Norman; Lockwood, Peter; Cross, Sheree E; Roberts, Michael S

    2010-02-01

    We examined uptake of the model therapeutic agent, minoxidil, into appendages, stratum corneum (SC), and through human skin, under the influence of different vehicles. Quantitative estimation of therapeutic drug deposition into all three areas has not previously been reported. Finite doses of minoxidil (2%, w/v) in formulations containing varying amounts of ethanol, propylene glycol (PG), and water (60:20:20, 80:20:0, and 0:80:20 by volume, respectively) were used. Minoxidil in SC (by tape stripping), appendages (by cyanoacrylate casting), and receptor fluid was determined by liquid scintillation counting. At early times (30 min, 2 h), ethanol-containing formulations (60:20:20 and 80:20:0) caused significantly greater minoxidil retention in SC and appendages, compared to the formulation lacking ethanol (0:80:20). A significant increase in minoxidil receptor penetration occurred with the PG-rich 0:80:20 formulation after 12 h. We showed that deposition of minoxidil into appendages, SC, and skin penetration into receptor fluid were similar in magnitude. Transport by the appendageal route is likely to be a key determinant of hair growth promotion by minoxidil. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Skin hydration: interplay between molecular dynamics, structure and water uptake in the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojumdar, Enamul Haque; Pham, Quoc Dat; Topgaard, Daniel; Sparr, Emma

    2017-11-16

    Hydration is a key aspect of the skin that influences its physical and mechanical properties. Here, we investigate the interplay between molecular and macroscopic properties of the outer skin layer - the stratum corneum (SC) and how this varies with hydration. It is shown that hydration leads to changes in the molecular arrangement of the peptides in the keratin filaments as well as dynamics of C-H bond reorientation of amino acids in the protruding terminals of keratin protein within the SC. The changes in molecular structure and dynamics occur at a threshold hydration corresponding to ca. 85% relative humidity (RH). The abrupt changes in SC molecular properties coincide with changes in SC macroscopic swelling properties as well as mechanical properties in the SC. The flexible terminals at the solid keratin filaments can be compared to flexible polymer brushes in colloidal systems, creating long-range repulsion and extensive swelling in water. We further show that the addition of urea to the SC at reduced RH leads to similar molecular and macroscopic responses as the increase in RH for SC without urea. The findings provide new molecular insights to deepen the understanding of how intermediate filament organization responds to changes in the surrounding environment.

  16. Sampling the stratum corneum for toxic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas R; Blattner, Collin M; Andersen, Rosa; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure is an important pathway in environmental health. Exposure comes from contaminated water, soil, treated surfaces, textiles, aerosolized chemicals, and agricultural products. It can occur in homes, schools, play areas, and work settings in the form of industrial sources, consumer products, or hazardous wastes. Dermal exposure is most likely to occur through contact with liquids, water, soil, sediment, and contaminated surfaces. The ability to detect and measure exposure to toxic materials on the skin is an important environmental health issue. The stratum corneum is the skin's first and principal barrier layer of protection from the outside world. It has a complex structure that can effectively protect against a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological contaminants. However, there are a variety of chemical agents that can damage the stratum corneum and the underlying epidermis, dermis and subcutis, and/or enter systemic circulation through the skin. There are numerous ways of sampling the stratum corneum for these toxic materials like abrasion techniques, biopsy, suction blistering, imaging, washing, wipe sampling, tape stripping, and spot testing. Selecting a method likely depends on the particular needs of the situation. Hence, there is a need to review practical considerations for their use in sampling the stratum corneum for toxins.

  17. A mechanistic insight into the mechanical role of the stratum corneum during stretching and compression of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Mendivil, Maria F; Page, Anton; Bressloff, Neil W; Limbert, Georges

    2015-09-01

    The study of skin biophysics has largely been driven by consumer goods, biomedical and cosmetic industries which aim to design products that efficiently interact with the skin and/or modify its biophysical properties for health or cosmetic benefits. The skin is a hierarchical biological structure featuring several layers with their own distinct geometry and mechanical properties. Up to now, no computational models of the skin have simultaneously accounted for these geometrical and material characteristics to study their complex biomechanical interactions under particular macroscopic deformation modes. The goal of this study was, therefore, to develop a robust methodology combining histological sections of human skin, image-processing and finite element techniques to address fundamental questions about skin mechanics and, more particularly, about how macroscopic strains are transmitted and modulated through the epidermis and dermis. The work hypothesis was that, as skin deforms under macroscopic loads, the stratum corneum does not experience significant strains but rather folds/unfolds during skin extension/compression. A sample of fresh human mid-back skin was processed for wax histology. Sections were stained and photographed by optical microscopy. The multiple images were stitched together to produce a larger region of interest and segmented to extract the geometry of the stratum corneum, viable epidermis and dermis. From the segmented structures a 2D finite element mesh of the skin composite model was created and geometrically non-linear plane-strain finite element analyses were conducted to study the sensitivity of the model to variations in mechanical properties. The hybrid experimental-computational methodology has offered valuable insights into the simulated mechanics of the skin, and that of the stratum corneum in particular, by providing qualitative and quantitative information on strain magnitude and distribution. Through a complex non-linear interplay

  18. Synchrotron X-ray scattering study on stratum corneum of skin. Toward applied research based upon basic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Ichiro; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto

    2008-01-01

    On considering the applied research on stratum corneum of skin, it is indispensable to know the structure at the molecular level. However, there is even now in a controversy among the researchers who are performing its X-ray scattering study. Here we introduce our solution for the two problems: One is the correlation between the lamellar structures and hydrocarbon-chain packings in intercellular lipid matrix and the other is the existence of water layers in the short lamellar structure. These studies have become possible for the first time by making good use of synchrotron small-angle/wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Based upon the structural evidence, we can further carry out the applied research in stratum corneum. (author)

  19. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: Differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    been damaged by either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or tape stripping, respectively, was determined and compared with that of to non-occluded pre-damaged skin. Skin barrier function was assessed by measurements of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema. In study A, stratum corneum lipids were...

  20. Assessing the relationship between vitamin D3 and stratum corneum hydration for the treatment of xerotic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Meghan

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin D(3) has been called the "sunshine" vitamin since the formation of vitamin D is mediated by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D(3) is linked to many health benefits, however serum levels of vitamin D(3) have been decreasing over the last few decades and the lower levels of vitamin D(3) may have consequences on normal physiology. We investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and stratum corneum conductance as well as the effect of topical application of cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) on dry skin. Eighty three subjects were recruited and blood serum levels and skin conductance measurements were taken after a one week washout. A correlation was observed between vitamin D levels and skin moisture content, individuals with lower levels of vitamin D had lower average skin moisture. Subsequently, a 3-week split leg, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was conducted on a subset of 61 of the above individuals who were identified with non-sufficient vitamin D serum levels. Topical supplementation with cholecalciferol significantly increased measurements of skin moisturization and resulted in improvements in subjective clinical grading of dry skin. Taken together our finding suggest a relationship between serum vitamin D(3) (25(OH)D) levels and hydration of the stratum corneum and further demonstrate the skin moisture benefit from topical application of vitamin D(3).

  1. [Impact of wet work on epidermal barrier (tewl and stratum corneum hydration) and skin viscoelasticity in nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Świcrczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota; Świerczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Kręcisz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are prone to develop hand eczema due to occupational exposure to irritants, including wet work. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of wet work on selected skin properties, reflecting epidermal barrier function--transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration--and additionally skin viscoelasticity, in nurses. Study subjects included 90 nurses employed in hospital wards. Measurements were carried out within the dorsal aspect of the dominant hand, using a Cutometer MPA 580 equipped with Tewameter TM 300 and Corneometer CM 825 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany) probes. Examina- tions took place on hospital premises. Similar measurements were performed in the control group of females non-exposed to irritants. In the examined group of nurses, mean TEWL was 15.5 g/h/m2 and was higher than in the control group (12.99 g/h/m2). After rejecting the extreme results, the difference between the groups proved to be statistically significant (p hydration was lower in the examined group (37.915) compared with the control group (40.05), but the difference was not sta tistically significant. Also results of viscoelasticity assessment showed no significant differences between studied groups. The results of the assessment of skin biophysical properties show that wet work exerts a moderately adverse impact on skin condition. A higher TEWL value and a lower stratum corneum hydration in workers exposed to irritants reflect an adverse impact of these factors on the epidermal barrier function.

  2. Stratum Corneum Lipids: Their Role for the Skin Barrier Function in Healthy Subjects and Atopic Dermatitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2016-01-01

    Human skin acts as a primary barrier between the body and its environment. Crucial for this skin barrier function is the lipid matrix in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC). Two of its functions are (1) to prevent excessive water loss through the epidermis and (2) to avoid that compounds from the environment permeate into the viable epidermal and dermal layers and thereby provoke an immune response. The composition of the SC lipid matrix is dominated by three lipid classes: cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides. These lipids adopt a highly ordered, 3-dimensional structure of stacked densely packed lipid layers (lipid lamellae): the lateral and lamellar lipid organization. The way in which these lipids are ordered depends on the composition of the lipids. One very common skin disease in which the SC lipid barrier is affected is atopic dermatitis (AD). This review addresses the SC lipid composition and organization in healthy skin, and elaborates on how these parameters are changed in lesional and nonlesional skin of AD patients. Concerning the lipid composition, the changes in the three main lipid classes and the importance of the carbon chain lengths of the lipids are discussed. In addition, this review addresses how these changes in lipid composition induce changes in lipid organization and subsequently correlate with an impaired skin barrier function in both lesional and nonlesional skin of these patients. Furthermore, the effect of filaggrin and mutations in the filaggrin gene on the SC lipid composition is critically discussed. Also, the breakdown products of filaggrin, the natural moisturizing factor molecules and its relation to SC-pH is described. Finally, the paper discusses some major changes in epidermal lipid biosynthesis in patients with AD and other related skin diseases, and how inflammation has a deteriorating effect on the SC lipids and SC biosynthesis. The review ends with perspectives on future studies in relation to

  3. Stratum corneum integrity as a predictor for peristomal skin problems in ostomates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybaek, H; Lophaven, Søren Nymand; Karlsmark, T

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peristomal skin problems are common, most often the result is disruption of the skin barrier and this may account for more than one in three visits to ostomy nurses. Therefore a specific assessment of individual risk factors relating to the skin barrier function would be of great...... interest. METHODS: Skin barrier integrity in ostomy patients with peristomal skin problems (PSP) was compared with that of ostomy patients with normal skin (controls) using transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Mechanical barrier disruption was determined by a tape stripping test and chemical barrier...

  4. Stratum corneum damage and ex vivo porcine skin water absorption - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch Lynggaard, C; Bang Knudsen, D; Jemec, G B E

    2009-01-01

    A simple ex vivo screening technique would be of interest for mass screening of substances for potential barrier disruptive qualities. Ex vivo water absorption as a marker of skin barrier integrity was studied on pig ear skin. Skin water absorption was quantified by weighing and weight changes were...... found to reflect prehydration barrier damage. It is suggested that this simple model may be elaborated to provide a rapid, economical screening tool for potential skin irritants....

  5. Evaluation of skin surface hydration state and barrier function of stratum corneum of dorsa of hands and heels treated with PROTECT X2 skin protective cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takahiro

    2012-06-01

    Skin roughness is a term commonly used in Japan to describe a poor skin condition related to a rough and dry skin surface that develops as a result of various damaging effects from the environment or skin inflammation. Recovery from skin roughness requires skin care for a long period, thus it is important to prevent development of such skin changes. PROTECT X2 contains agents used for a protective covering of the skin from frequent hand washing or use of alcohol-based disinfectants. These unique components are also thought to be effective to treat skin roughness of the dorsa of the hands and heels. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of PROTECT X2 to increase skin surface hydration state, as well as enhance the barrier function of the stratum corneum of the dorsa of the hands and heels in elderly individuals. A total of 8 elderly subjects and their caretakers without any skin diseases participated in the study. They applied PROTECT X2 by themselves to the dorsum area of 1 hand and heel 3 to 5 times daily for 1 month, while the opposite sides were left untreated. We measured stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before beginning treatment, then 1 week and 1 month after the start of treatment to compare between the treated and untreated skin. SC hydration state after applications of PROTECT X2 was 1.5- to 3.0-fold higher than that of the untreated skin in the dorsa of both hands and heels, indicating that the moisturizing ingredients accompanied by water were replenished in those areas where the cream was applied. Also, TEWL in the dorsum of the hands was 17.0-27.9% lower on the treated side, indicating improvement in SC barrier function. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that PROTECT X2 enhances water-holding in the SC and aids the barrier function of the skin in the dorsum of the hands. In addition, we consider that this formulation is useful for not only protecting the hands from the effects of such agents

  6. Interactions of inertial cavitation bubbles with stratum corneum lipid bilayers during low-frequency sonophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Ahmet; Mitragotri, Samir

    2003-12-01

    Interactions of acoustic cavitation bubbles with biological tissues play an important role in biomedical applications of ultrasound. Acoustic cavitation plays a particularly important role in enhancing transdermal transport of macromolecules, thereby offering a noninvasive mode of drug delivery (sonophoresis). Ultrasound-enhanced transdermal transport is mediated by inertial cavitation, where collapses of cavitation bubbles microscopically disrupt the lipid bilayers of the stratum corneum. In this study, we describe a theoretical analysis of the interactions of cavitation bubbles with the stratum corneum lipid bilayers. Three modes of bubble-stratum corneum interactions including shock wave emission, microjet penetration into the stratum corneum, and impact of microjet on the stratum corneum are considered. By relating the mechanical effects of these events on the stratum corneum structure, the relationship between the number of cavitation events and collapse pressures with experimentally measured increase in skin permeability was established. Theoretical predictions were compared to experimentally measured parameters of cavitation events.

  7. Evaluating Molecular Properties Involved in Transport of Small Molecules in Stratum Corneum: A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship for Skin Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Peng Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The skin permeability (Kp defines the rate of a chemical penetrating across the stratum corneum. This value is widely used to quantitatively describe the transport of molecules in the outermost layer of epidermal skin and indicate the significance of skin absorption. This study defined a Kp quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR based on 106 chemical substances of Kp measured using human skin and interpreted the molecular interactions underlying transport behavior of small molecules in the stratum corneum. The Kp QSAR developed in this study identified four molecular descriptors that described the molecular cyclicity in the molecule reflecting local geometrical environments, topological distances between pairs of oxygen and chlorine atoms, lipophilicity, and similarity to antineoplastics in molecular properties. This Kp QSAR considered the octanol-water partition coefficient to be a direct influence on transdermal movement of molecules. Moreover, the Kp QSAR identified a sub-domain of molecular properties initially defined to describe the antineoplastic resemblance of a compound as a significant factor in affecting transdermal permeation of solutes. This finding suggests that the influence of molecular size on the chemical’s skin-permeating capability should be interpreted with other relevant physicochemical properties rather than being represented by molecular weight alone.

  8. Evaluating Molecular Properties Involved in Transport of Small Molecules in Stratum Corneum: A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship for Skin Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Chen, Chan-Cheng; Huang, Chia-Wen; Chang, Yen-Ching

    2018-04-15

    The skin permeability ( Kp ) defines the rate of a chemical penetrating across the stratum corneum. This value is widely used to quantitatively describe the transport of molecules in the outermost layer of epidermal skin and indicate the significance of skin absorption. This study defined a Kp quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) based on 106 chemical substances of Kp measured using human skin and interpreted the molecular interactions underlying transport behavior of small molecules in the stratum corneum. The Kp QSAR developed in this study identified four molecular descriptors that described the molecular cyclicity in the molecule reflecting local geometrical environments, topological distances between pairs of oxygen and chlorine atoms, lipophilicity, and similarity to antineoplastics in molecular properties. This Kp QSAR considered the octanol-water partition coefficient to be a direct influence on transdermal movement of molecules. Moreover, the Kp QSAR identified a sub-domain of molecular properties initially defined to describe the antineoplastic resemblance of a compound as a significant factor in affecting transdermal permeation of solutes. This finding suggests that the influence of molecular size on the chemical's skin-permeating capability should be interpreted with other relevant physicochemical properties rather than being represented by molecular weight alone.

  9. Effect of detergents on the physico-chemical properties of skin stratum corneum: A two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Pashkovski, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Understanding the structural and dynamical features of skin is critical for advancing innovation in personal care and drug discovery. Synthetic detergent mixtures used in commercially available body wash products are thought to be less aggressive towards the skin barrier when compared...... to conventional detergents. The aim of this work is to comparatively characterize the effect of a mild synthetic cleanser mixture (SCM) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on the hydration state of the intercellular lipid matrix and on proton activity of excised skin stratum corneum (SC). METHOD: Experiments were...... performed using two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescent images of fluorescence reporters sensitive to proton activity and hydration of SC were obtained in excised skin and examined in presence and absence of SCM and SDS detergents. RESULTS: Hydration of the intercellular lipid matrix...

  10. Stratum Corneum Barrier Lipids in Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, V; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Rasmussen, G

    2000-01-01

    emerged. When the corneocyte reaches the transitional stage to the stratum corneum, the Odland bodies accumulate near the cell membrane and discharge their contents of lipid and enzymes. The lipids are reorganized into multiple long sheets of lamellar structures that embrace the keratinized corneocytes......, as seen in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier. In this study we draw the attention to the facts that the cholesteatoma epithelium is capable of producing not only cholesterol, but also several lipids, and that the lipid molecules are organized in multilamellar structures......Specimens from primary cholesteatomas were examined under the electron microscope using a lipid-retaining method that is best suited for intracellular lipids and a method that is best for intercellular lipids. In the stratum granulosum of the squamous epithelium, a large number of Odland bodies...

  11. Changes in hydration of the stratum corneum are the most suitable indicator to evaluate the irritation of surfactants on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, T; Shimotoyodome, Y; Nishijima, T; Sugata, K; Taguchi, H; Moriwaki, S

    2017-02-01

    Irritancy levels of surfactants on human skin have not been clarified completely. The relationships between skin damage and changes of skin properties caused by various surfactants were investigated using non-invasive measurements. Aqueous solutions of seven kinds of anionic, non-ionic, and amphoteric surfactants were exposed to the inside of forearm skin of 20 human subjects in two separate studies using the cup method. Hydration of the stratum corneum (SC), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pH, skin surface roughness, and contents of the SC were measured before and after one exposure and after five and nine consecutive exposures to various surfactants. The discontinuation ratio of subjects for testing in each surfactant was determined by skin irritation symptoms and was defined as the degree of skin damage. Significant changes were observed only in hydration, TEWL, and natural moisturizing factors (NMF) content in the SC following surfactant exposure. A significant correlation was observed between the discontinuation ratio of each surfactant and the changes of hydration, TEWL, and NMF. Especially, the change of SC hydration showed an excellent correlation with the discontinuation ratio both for single (r = 0.942, P hydration of the SC is equivalent to the skin damage caused by surfactants, and therefore is the most suitable indicator to evaluate the irritation of surfactants on the skin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    ) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2 months......Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate...

  13. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    ) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2 months...

  14. Plastic occlusion stress test as a model to investigate the effects of skin delipidization on the stratum corneum water holding capacity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, E; Herbst, R; Maibach, H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an in vivo model to study the effects of lipid removal on skin barrier. 16 subjects (age 41 +/- 8) were delipidized in vivo on the volar forearm using respectively ether/acetone (EA; 1:1) and chloroform/methanol (CM; 2:1). A third site served as control. Water holding capacity (WHC) was measured according to the plastic occlusion stress test (POST) procedure: the water desorption curve after removal of the occlusion was recorded in terms of skin surface water loss (SSWL) using an evaporimeter for 30 min. In the central part of the evaporation curve (bound water) the CM-treated site is significantly different from control and EA-treated sites (p rate of water from SC are higher in the CM-treated site (p evaporation of free water. We conclude that polar lipids have a key role in modulating barrier function and WHC of the stratum corneum. The POST can represent a useful in vivo model to study the effects of lipid extraction on skin function.

  15. Effect of Exercise-induced Sweating on facial sebum, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface pH in normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyu; Zhang, Guirong; Meng, Huimin; Li, Li

    2013-02-01

    Evidence demonstrated that sweat was an important factor affecting skin physiological properties. We intended to assess the effects of exercise-induced sweating on the sebum, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH of facial skin. 102 subjects (aged 5-60, divided into five groups) were enrolled to be measured by a combination device called 'Derma Unit SSC3' in their frontal and zygomatic regions when they were in a resting state (RS), at the beginning of sweating (BS), during excessive sweating (ES) and an hour after sweating (AS), respectively. Compared to the RS, SC hydration in both regions increased at the BS or during ES, and sebum increased at the BS but lower during ES. Compared to during ES, Sebum increased in AS but lower than RS. Compared to the RS, pH decreased in both regions at the BS in the majority of groups, and increased in frontal region during ES and in zygomatic region in the AS. There was an increase in pH in both regions during ES in the majority of groups compared to the BS, but a decrease in the AS compared to during ES. The study implies that even in summer, after we sweat excessively, lipid products should be applied locally in order to maintain stability of the barrier function of the SC. The study suggests that after a short term(1 h or less) of self adjustment, excessive sweat from moderate exercise will not impair the primary acidic surface pH of the facial skin. Exercise-induced sweating significantly affected the skin physiological properties of facial region. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Effectiveness of Sunscreen at Preventing Solar UV-Induced Alterations of Human Stratum Corneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, O.; Dauskardt, R.; Biniek, K.; Novoa, F.

    2012-12-01

    The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, protects the body from harmful environmental conditions by serving as a selective barrier. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the most common conditions the body encounters and is responsible for many negative skin responses, including compromised barrier function. UV exposure has dramatic effects on stratum corneum cell cohesion and mechanical integrity that are related to its effects on the stratum corneum's intercellular lipids. Hypothesis Sunscreen contains chemicals that absorb UV radiation to prevent the radiation from penetrating the skin. Thus, it is expected that the application of sunscreen on human stratum corneum will reduce UV-induced alterations of human stratum corneum. Procedures/Equipment Human tissue was processed in order to isolate the stratum corneum, the top layer of the epidermis. Double cantilever beam (DCB) testing was used to study the effect of UV radiation on human stratum corneum. Two different types of DCB samples were created: control DCB samples with the application of carrier and UV light to the stratum corneum and DCB samples with the application of sunscreen and UV light to the stratum corneum. For the control sample, one side of the stratum corneum was glued to a polycarbonate beam and carrier was applied. Then, the sample was placed 10 cm away from the UV lamp inside of the environmental chamber and were exposed to UV dosages of about 800 J/cm2. Once this step was complete, a second polycarbonate beam was glued to the other side of the stratum corneum. The steps were similar for the DCB sample that had sunscreen applied and that was exposed to UV light. After gluing one side of the stratum corneum to a polycarbonate beam, Octinoxate sunscreen was applied. The next steps were similar to those of the control sample. All DCB samples were then let out to dry for two hours in a dry box in order for the moisture from the lab to be extracted. Each DCB sample was tested

  17. Variation of skin surface pH, sebum content and stratum corneum hydration with age and gender in a large Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, M Q; Xin, S J; Song, S P; Cho, S Y; Zhang, X J; Tu, C X; Feingold, K R; Elias, P M

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests the importance of skin biophysical properties in predicting diseases and in developing appropriate skin care. The results to date of studies on skin surface pH, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and sebum content in both genders and at various ages have been inconclusive, which was in part due to small sample size. Additionally, little is known about the skin physical properties of Asian, especially Chinese, subjects. In the present study, we assess the difference in skin surface pH, sebum content and SC hydration at various ages and in both genders in a large Chinese population without skin diseases. 713 subjects (328 males and 385 females) aged 0.5-94 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided by age into 5 groups, i.e., 0-12, 13-35, 36-50, 51-70 and over 70 years old. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor was used to measure SC hydration, skin surface pH and sebum content on both the forehead and the forearms. In males, the highest sebum content was found on the forearm and the forehead in the age groups 36-50 (93.47 +/- 10.01 microg/cm(2)) and 51-70 years (9.16 +/- 1.95 microg/cm(2)), while in females, the highest sebum content was found on the forearm and the forehead in the age groups 13-35 (61.91 +/- 6.12 microg/cm(2)) and 51-70 years (7.54 +/- 2.55 microg/cm(2)). The forehead sebum content was higher in males aged 13-70 years than in age-matched females; the sebum content on the forehead in both males and females was higher than that on the forearm. Skin surface pH on the forehead of both males and females over the age of 70 years was higher than that in younger groups. SC hydration on the forehead in both males and females was lower above the age of 70, and the one in males aged 13-35 was higher than that in females (43.99 +/- 1.88 vs. 36.38 +/- 1.67 AU, p pH, sebum content and SC hydration vary with age, gender and body site. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Mechanics, morphology, and mobility in stratum corneum membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Peter; Das, Chinmay; Noro, Massimo

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of skin, and serves as a protective barrier against external agents, and to control moisture. It comprises keratin bodies (corneocytes) embedded in a matrix of lipid bilayers. Unlike the more widely studied phospholipid bilayers, the SC bilayers are typically in a gel-like state. Moreover, the SC membrane composition is radically different from more fluid counterparts: it comprises single tailed fatty acids, ceramides, and cholesterol; with many distinct ceramides possessing different lengths of tails, and always with two tails of different lengths. I will present insight from computer simulations into the morphology, mechanical properties, and diffusion (barrier) properties of these highly heterogeneous membranes. Our results provide some clue as to the design principles for the SC membrane, and is an excellent example of the use of wide polydispersity by natural systems.

  19. Electroporation of Skin Stratum Corneum Lipid Bilayer and Molecular Mechanism of Drug Transport: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh; Rai, Beena

    2018-04-30

    Skin electroporation has been used significantly to increase the drug permeation. However, molecular mechanism, which resulted in enhancement of flux through skin, is still not known. In this study, extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of skin lipids (made up of ceramide (CER), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acid (FFA)) have been performed at various external electric field. We show for the first time the pore formation in the skin lipid bilayer during the electroporation. We show the effect of applied external electrical field on the pore formation dynamics in lipid bilayer of different size and composition. The pore formation and resealing kinetics were different and was found to be highly dependent on the composition of skin lipid bilayer. The pore formation time decreased with increase in the bilayer size. The pore sustaining electric field was found to be in the range of 0.20-0.25 V/nm for equimolar CER, CHOL and FFA lipid bilayer. The skin lipid bilayer (1:1:1), sealed itself within 20 ns after the removal of external electric field. We also present the molecular mechanism of enhancement of drug permeation in the presence of external field as compared to the passive diffusion. The molecular level understanding obtained here could help in optimizing/designing the electroporation experiments for effective drug delivery. For a given skin composition and size of drug molecule, the combination of pore formation time and pore growth model can be used to know aproiri the desired electric field and time for application of electric field.

  20. Study on the lipid organization of stratum corneum lipid models by (cryo-) electron diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilgram, GSK; Pelt, AMEV; Oostergetel, GT; Koerten, HK; Bouwstra, JA

    The barrier function of the skin resides in the stratum corneum (SC), This outermost layer consists of protein-rich corneocytes and lipid-rich intercellular domains. These domains form the rate-limiting step for transepidermal water loss and the penetration of substances from the environment. To

  1. Stratum corneum molecular mobility in the presence of natural moisturizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Andersson, Jenny Marie; Pham, Quoc Dat; Nowacka, Agnieszka; Topgaard, Daniel; Sparr, Emma

    2014-07-07

    The outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), is a lipid-protein membrane that experiences considerable osmotic stress from a dry and cold climate. The natural moisturizing factor (NMF) comprises small and polar substances, which like osmolytes can protect living systems from osmotic stress. NMF is commonly claimed to increase the water content in the SC and thereby protect the skin from dryness. In this work we challenge this proposed mechanism, and explore the influence of NMF on the lipid and protein components in the SC. We employ natural-abundance (13)C solid-state NMR methods to investigate how the SC molecular components are influenced by urea, glycerol, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA), and urocanic acid (UCA), all of which are naturally present in the SC as NMF compounds. Experiments are performed with intact SC, isolated corneocytes and model lipids. The combination of NMR experiments provides molecularly resolved qualitative information on the dynamics of different SC lipid and protein components. We obtain completely novel molecular information on the interaction of these NMF compounds with the SC lipids and proteins. We show that urea and glycerol, which are also common ingredients in skin care products, increase the molecular mobility of both SC lipids and proteins at moderate relative humidity where the SC components are considerably more rigid in the absence of these compounds. This effect cannot be attributed to increased SC water content. PCA has no detectable effect on SC molecular mobility under the conditions investigated. It is finally shown that the more apolar compound, UCA, specifically influences the mobility of the SC lipid regions. The present results show that the NMF components act to retain the fluidity of the SC molecular components under dehydrating conditions in such a way that the SC properties remain largely unchanged as compared to more hydrated SC. These findings provide a new molecular insight into how small

  2. Hand eczema and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J. M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Index (HECSI), and skin barrier susceptibility was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after a 24-hour patch test with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results: No statistically significant difference was found between groups for the lipid analysis or for skin susceptibility to SLS. We...

  3. Differences in the stratum corneum of Indonesian infants and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Fujimura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Although understanding the stratum corneum (SC of infant skin is important to avoid skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, there has been no such investigation in Indonesian infants to date. Objective  To obtain a basic knowledge of SC characteristics in Indonesian infants in order to develop methods for infant-specific skin care and to prevent dermatitis and infection. Methods Seventy-two healthy, full term infants aged 1 to 24 months who were native Indonesians residing in Jakarta were enrolled in this study. Some of the mothers were also enrolled in the study as adults (n=30. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL and hydration of the SC (capacitance on the thigh, buttock, and upper arm were measured after sufficient acclimation in an air-conditioned room, in both infants and mothers. Results The SC hydration was significantly higher in infants than adults at all sites measured, including the buttocks, which is a diaper area. Infant TEWL values were also significantly higher than in adults at all sites. Hydration of the SC and TEWL values showed no significant correlation with age of infant for any site. The SC hydration and TEWL values of Indonesian infants did not decrease to adult values within 24 months, which indicates that the SC characteristics in infants continue to develop after 24 months of age. Conclusion  Indonesian infants aged 0-24 months have significantly higher SC hydration and TEWL values than Indonesian mothers. However, infant age has no correlation to SC hydration or to TEWL values.

  4. Stratum corneum profiles of inflammatory mediators in patch test reactions to common contact allergens and sodium lauryl sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, S. A.; Ljubojevic Hadzavdic, S.; Jakasa, I.; Franceschi, N.; Jurakić Tončić, R.; Marinović, B.; Brans, R.; Gibbs, S.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Rustemeyer, T.; Kezic, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated allergen-specific differences in the gene expression of inflammatory mediators in patch tested skin. Objectives To determine levels of various inflammatory mediators in the stratum corneum (SC) after patch testing with common contact allergens and the skin

  5. Dehydration of multilamellar fatty acid membranes: Towards a computational model of the stratum corneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermaid, Christopher M.; DeVane, Russell H.; Klein, Michael L.; Fiorin, Giacomo

    2014-12-01

    The level of hydration controls the cohesion between apposed lamellae of saturated free fatty acids found in the lipid matrix of stratum corneum, the outermost layer of mammalian skin. This multilamellar lipid matrix is highly impermeable to water and ions, so that the local hydration shell of its fatty acids may not always be in equilibrium with the acidity and relative humidity, which significantly change over a course of days during skin growth. The homeostasis of the stratum corneum at each moment of its growth likely requires a balance between two factors, which affect in opposite ways the diffusion of hydrophilic species through the stratum corneum: (i) an increase in water order as the lipid lamellae come in closer contact, and (ii) a decrease in water order as the fraction of charged fatty acids is lowered by pH. Herein molecular dynamics simulations are employed to estimate the impact of both effects on water molecules confined between lamellae of fatty acids. Under conditions where membrane undulations are energetically favorable, the charged fatty acids are able to sequester cations around points of contact between lamellae that are fully dehydrated, while essentially maintaining a multilamellar structure for the entire system. This observation suggests that the undulations of the fatty acid lamellae control the diffusion of hydrophilic species through the water phase by altering the positional and rotational order of water molecules in the embedded/occluded "droplets."

  6. Comparative SAXS and DSC study on stratum corneum structural organization in an epidermal cell culture model (ROC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Herre, Angela; Fahr, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    barrier similar to that of human stratum corneum is, however, a prerequisite. In this study, the stratum corneum lipid organization in an epidermal cell culture model based on rat epidermal keratinocytes (REK organotypic culture, ROC) was investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in dependence......Cell cultured skin equivalents present an alternative for dermatological in vitro evaluations of drugs and excipients as they provide the advantage of availability, lower variability and higher assay robustness compared to native skin. For penetration/permeation studies, an adequate stratum corneum...... and SC lipid organization. Cultivation for 21days resulted in further minor changes in the structural organization of ROC SC. The SAXS patterns of ROC SC had overall large similarities with that of human SC and point to the presence of a long periodicity phase with a repeat distance of about 122Å, e...

  7. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Occlusion of the skin is a risk factor for development of irritant contact dermatitis. Occlusion may, however, have a positive effect on skin healing. No consensus on the effect of occlusion has been reached.......Occlusion of the skin is a risk factor for development of irritant contact dermatitis. Occlusion may, however, have a positive effect on skin healing. No consensus on the effect of occlusion has been reached....

  8. Water distribution and related morphology in human stratum corneum at different hydration levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, J.A.; Graaff, de A.; Gooris, G.S.; Nijsse, J.; Wiechers, J.W.; Aelst, van A.C.

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on the water distribution in human stratum corneum and on the swelling of the corneocytes. For this purpose stratum corneum was hydrated to various levels and used either for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or for cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The images were analyzed

  9. Investigation of the cosmetic ingredient distribution in the stratum corneum using NanoSIMS imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, N.; Okamoto, M.; Katayama, Y.; Hosokawa, M.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of action of cosmetic ingredients, it is important to establish the distribution of the component agents within the epidermis of the skin. To date, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to detect cosmetic ingredients in the skin. However, it is technically difficult to investigate the distribution of the agents in the stratum corneum using TOF-SIMS. Therefore, an analytical method with higher spatial resolution is required. In this study, we investigated an imaging analysis technique based on NanoSIMS to detect cosmetic ingredients in the skin. Pig skin was used as a model for human skin. The sample was treated with a cosmetic formulation containing 15 N-labelled pseudo-ceramide (SLE). The sample was frozen with liquid nitrogen and cross-sections were cut using a cryomicrotome. As a result, the fine layer structure of the corneocytes was clearly observed by using NanoSIMS. Our studies indicate that SLE penetrates into the stratum corneum via an intercellular route. We conclude that application of NanoSIMS analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the function of cosmetic ingredients in the skin.

  10. The impact of ultraviolet therapy on stratum corneum ceramides and barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    therapy in dermatological patients on ceramides and skin barrier function.We found that UV light treatment does not change the ratio of important stratum corneum lipids, but we confirm earlier findings of decreased susceptibility to irritants after UV- therapy.......The ceramide profile as well as the barrier function is known to be deteriorated in atopic eczema and psoriasis, and ultraviolet (UV) light is known to improve the barrier function. The impact of UV light on ceramides, however, is not clarified.The aim of this study was to examine the effect of UV...

  11. The impact of ultraviolet therapy on stratum corneum ceramides and barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    therapy in dermatological patients on ceramides and skin barrier function. We found that UV light treatment does not change the ratio of important stratum corneum lipids, but we confirm earlier findings of decreased susceptibility to irritants after UV- therapy.......The ceramide profile as well as the barrier function is known to be deteriorated in atopic eczema and psoriasis, and ultraviolet (UV) light is known to improve the barrier function. The impact of UV light on ceramides, however, is not clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of UV...

  12. Modeling the Effects of Lipid Composition on Stratum Corneum Bilayers Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzil, J. Torin; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Kohandel, Mohammad; Foldvari, Marianna

    2011-11-01

    The advancement of dermal and transdermal drug delivery requires the development of delivery systems that are suitable for large protein and nucleic acid-based therapeutic agents. However, a complete mechanistic understanding of the physical barrier properties associated with the epidermis, specifically the membrane structures within the stratum corneum, has yet to be developed. Here, we describe the assembly and computational modeling of stratum corneum lipid bilayers constructed from varying ratios of their constituent lipids (ceramide, free fatty acids and cholesterol) to determine if there is a difference in the physical properties of stratum corneum compositions.

  13. Effect of stratum corneum heterogeneity, anisotropy, asymmetry and follicular pathway on transdermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2017-08-28

    The impact of the complex structure of the stratum corneum on transdermal penetration is not yet fully described by existing models. A quantitative and thorough study of skin permeation is essential for chemical exposure assessment and transdermal delivery of drugs. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy, asymmetry, follicular diffusion, and location of the main barrier of diffusion on percutaneous permeation. In the current study, the solution of the transient diffusion through a two-dimensional-anisotropic brick-and-mortar geometry of the stratum corneum is obtained using the commercial finite element program COMSOL Multiphysics. First, analytical solutions of an equivalent multilayer geometry are used to determine whether the lipids or corneocytes constitute the main permeation barrier. Also these analytical solutions are applied for validations of the finite element solutions. Three illustrative compounds are analyzed in these sections: diethyl phthalate, caffeine and nicotine. Then, asymmetry with depth and follicular diffusion are studied using caffeine as an illustrative compound. The following findings are drawn from this study: the main permeation barrier is located in the lipid layers; the flux and lag time of diffusion through a brick-and-mortar geometry are almost identical to the values corresponding to a multilayer geometry; the flux and lag time are affected when the lipid transbilayer diffusivity or the partition coefficients vary with depth, but are not affected by depth-dependent corneocyte diffusivity; and the follicular contribution has significance for low transbilayer lipid diffusivity, especially when flux between the follicle and the surrounding stratum corneum is involved. This study demonstrates that the diffusion is primarily transcellular and the main barrier is located in the lipid layers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Natural moisturizing factors (NMF) in the stratum corneum (SC). I. Effects of lipid extraction and soaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marisa; Visscher, Marty; Laruffa, Angela; Wickett, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Natural moisturizing factor (NMF) is essential for appropriate stratum corneum hydration, barrier homeostasis, desquamation, and plasticity. It is formed from filaggrin proteolysis to small, hygroscopic molecules including amino acids. We hypothesized that common lipid extraction and soaking in water would alter the level of NMF in the upper SC and its biophysical properties. A novel method of measuring and quantifying the amino acid components of NMF is presented. Adhesive tapes were used to collect samples of the stratum corneum (SC) and were extracted with 6mM perchloric acid for analysis by reverse-phase HPLC. HPLC results were standardized to the amount of protein removed by the tapes. An increase in NMF was found with increased SC depth. Also, the combination of extraction and soaking was found to increase NMF loss relative to control or to extraction or soaking alone. Our results indicate that common skin care practices significantly influence the water binding materials in the upper SC. The findings have implications for the evaluation and formulation of skin care products.

  15. Role of ascorbic acid in stratum corneum lipid models exposed to UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, Hagen; Böttcher, Roif; Pöppl, Andreas; Hoentsch, Joachim; Wartewig, Siegfried; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2002-07-01

    The effects of ascorbic acid on Stratum corneum lipid models following ultraviolet irradiation were studied adding iron ions as transition metal catalysts. Lipid peroxidation was quantified by the thiobarbituric acid assay. The qualitative changes were studied on a molecular level by mass spectrometry. To elucidate the nature of free radical involvement we carried out electron paramagnetic resonance studies. The influence of ascorbic acid on the concentration of hydroxyl radicals was examined using the spin trapping technique. Moreover, we checked the vitamin's ability to react with stable radicals. Ascorbic acid was found to have prooxidative effects in all lipid systems in a concentration dependent manner. The degradation products of ascorbic acid after its prooxidative action were detected. The concentration of the hydroxyl radicals in the Fenton assay was decreased by ascorbic acid. The quantification assay of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate showed reduced concentration levels of the stable radical caused by ascorbic acid. Considering human skin and its constant exposure to UV light and oxygen, an increased pool of iron ions in irradiated skin and the depletion of co-antioxidants, the administration of ascorbic acid in cosmetic formulations or in sunscreens could unfold adverse effects among the Stratum corneum lipids.

  16. Incomplete KLK7 Secretion and Upregulated LEKTI Expression Underlie Hyperkeratotic Stratum Corneum in Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Satomi; Kishibe, Mari; Minami-Hori, Masako; Honma, Masaru; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Junko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Murakami, Masamoto; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2017-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder. Chronic AD lesions present hyperkeratosis, indicating a disturbed desquamation process. KLK7 is a serine protease involved in the proteolysis of extracellular corneodesmosome components, including desmocollin 1 and corneodesmosin, which leads to desquamation. KLK7 is secreted by lamellar granules and upregulated in AD lesional skin. However, despite increased KLK7 protein levels, immunostaining and electron microscopy indicated numerous corneodesmosomes remaining in the uppermost layer of the stratum corneum from AD lesions. We aimed to clarify the discrepancy between KLK7 overexpression and retention of corneodesmosomes on AD corneocytes. Western blot analysis indicated abnormal corneodesmosin degradation patterns in stratum corneum from AD lesions. The KLK activity of tape-stripped corneocytes from AD lesions was not significantly elevated in in situ zymography, which was our new attempt to detect the protease activity more precisely than conventional assays. This ineffective KLK activation was associated with impaired KLK7 secretion from lamellar granules and increased expression of LEKTI in AD. Such imbalances in protease-protease inhibitor interactions could lead to abnormal proteolysis of corneodesmosomes and compact hyperkeratosis. Upregulated expression of LEKTI might be a compensatory mechanism to prevent further barrier dysfunction in AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The spectral stability of several sunscreening agents on stratum corneum sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Westerhof, W.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Ris, A. J.; Hische, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Synopsis Film layers of seventeen commercially available sunscreen products and sixteen active ingredients on stratum corneum sheets were spectrophotometrically monitored before and after simulated solar irradiation. Fixed irradiation doses were given within the daily terrestrial limits. From the

  18. Thermodynamic clarification of interaction between antiseptic compounds and lipids consisting of stratum corneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aki, Hatsumi; Kawasaki, Yuhsuke

    2004-01-01

    The interactions of antiseptic compounds with quaternary ammonium, such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzethonium chloride (BZC), dodecyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride (AEG), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), with components of the stratum corneum were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry at pH 7.5 and 25 deg. C. The different mechanisms for their permeation to stratum corneum were clarified. Cationic surfactants of BC and BZC bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with high affinity (10 5 -10 6 M -1 ) to extract endogenous cholesterol and its derivatives from the stratum corneum and penetrated via an intercellular route. CHG also bound to cholesterol and accumulated in the stratum corneum without removing endogenous cholesterol. On the other hand, an amphoteric surfactant of AEG seemed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer and bound to ceramide with its polar end close to the lipid polar heads by hydrophobic interaction

  19. Thermodynamic clarification of interaction between antiseptic compounds and lipids consisting of stratum corneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, Hatsumi; Kawasaki, Yuhsuke

    2004-06-24

    The interactions of antiseptic compounds with quaternary ammonium, such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzethonium chloride (BZC), dodecyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride (AEG), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), with components of the stratum corneum were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry at pH 7.5 and 25 deg. C. The different mechanisms for their permeation to stratum corneum were clarified. Cationic surfactants of BC and BZC bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with high affinity (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sup -1}) to extract endogenous cholesterol and its derivatives from the stratum corneum and penetrated via an intercellular route. CHG also bound to cholesterol and accumulated in the stratum corneum without removing endogenous cholesterol. On the other hand, an amphoteric surfactant of AEG seemed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer and bound to ceramide with its polar end close to the lipid polar heads by hydrophobic interaction.

  20. Dew point effect of cooled hydrogel pads on human stratum corneum biosurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Paquet, Philippe; Piérard, Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Cooled hydrogel pads are used to prevent overheating effects of laser therapy. They do not induce cold injuries to the skin, but their more subtle physiological effects have not been thoroughly studied. To describe the changes in transepidermal water loss and electrometric properties of the skin surface following application of cooled hydrogel pads. Measurements were performed on normal forearm skin of 27 healthy volunteers and on freshly excised skin from abdominoplasty. LaserAid hydrogel pads cooled to 4 degrees C were placed for 15 min on the forearm skin. Measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and electrometric properties (Corneometer, Nova DPM 900) were performed before application and after removal of the cooled pads. A consistent increase in corneometer units, dermal phase meter (DPM) values and TEWL were recorded at removal of the cooled hydrogel pads. Both the in vivo and in vitro assessments brought similar information. The similar changes disclosed in vitro and in vivo suggest that a common physical process is operating in these conditions. The observed phenomenon is opposite to the predicted events given by the Arrhenius law probably because of the combination of cooling and occlusion by the pads. A dew point effect (air temperature at which relative humidity is maximal) is likely involved in the moisture content of the stratum corneum. Thus, the biological impact of using cooling hydrogel pads during laser therapy is different from the effect of a cryogenic spray cooling procedure. The better preservation of the water balance in the stratum corneum by the cooled hydrogel pads could have a beneficial esthetic effect on laser treated areas. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. From observational to analytical morphology of the stratum corneum: progress avoiding hazardous animal and human testings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1,2 Justine Courtois,1 Caroline Ritacco,1 Philippe Humbert,2,3 Ferial Fanian,3 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont1,4,5 1Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC, Department of Clinical Sciences, Liège University, Liège, Belgium; 2University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 3Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Saint-Jacques, Besançon, France; 4Department of Dermatopathology, Unilab Lg, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium; 5Department of Dermatology, Regional Hospital of Huy, Huy, Belgium Background: In cosmetic science, noninvasive sampling of the upper part of the stratum corneum is conveniently performed using strippings with adhesive-coated discs (SACD and cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings (CSSSs. Methods: Under controlled conditions, it is possible to scrutinize SACD and CSSS with objectivity using appropriate methods of analytical morphology. These procedures apply to a series of clinical conditions including xerosis grading, comedometry, corneodynamics, corneomelametry, corneosurfametry, corneoxenometry, and dandruff assessment. Results: With any of the analytical evaluations, SACD and CSSS provide specific salient information that is useful in the field of cosmetology. In particular, both methods appear valuable and complementary in assessing the human skin compatibility of personal skincare products. Conclusion: A set of quantitative analytical methods applicable to the minimally invasive and low-cost SACD and CSSS procedures allow for a sound assessment of cosmetic effects on the stratum corneum. Under regular conditions, both methods are painless and do not induce adverse events. Globally, CSSS appears more precise and informative than the regular SACD stripping. Keywords: irritation, morphometry, quantitative morphology, stripping

  2. Evaluation of the interaction of surfactants with stratum corneum model membrane from Bothrops jararaca by DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, André Rolim; Lacerda, Aurea Cristina Lemos; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Lopes, Patrícia Santos; Kawano, Yoshio; Kaneko, Telma Mary

    2006-07-06

    The interaction of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) and lauryl alcohol ethoxylated (12 mol ethylene oxide) (LAE-12OE) was evaluated on the stratum corneum (SC) of shed snake skins from Bothrops jararaca, used as model membrane, and thermal characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Surfactant solutions were employed above of the critical micellar concentration (CMC) with treatment time of 8h. The SDS interaction with the SC model membrane has increased the characteristic transition temperature of 130 degrees C in approximately 10 degrees C for the water loss and keratin denaturation, indicating an augmentation of the water content. Samples treated with CTAC have a decrease of the water loss temperature, while, for the LAE-12OE treated samples, changes on the transition temperature have not been observed.

  3. Stratum Corneum Hydration and Skin Surface pH Variation Indicate that Organ Blood Flow Is Regulated by Meridian Activity at Certain Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fan Chuang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Day and night are regular occurrences in nature, and the organs and tissues in living bodies follow this cycle. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS at various time points regulates organ excitation to maintain healthy functions in the living body. The energy required from basal metabolism can be used to explain living organisms according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM concept of relationships between meridian directions and organs at various times (organs “at rest” and organs “in operation”. By monitoring skin reactions after applying a cream, we speculated regular blood flow changes, and established an animated hourglass-shaped trajectory diagram to visualize these changes. A combination of TCM and physiological perspectives were considered to explain how the cardiovascular system produces energy. These two perspectives were applied to interpret the correlation between the SNS and organ metabolism.

  4. The Human Stratum Corneum Prevents Small Gold Nanoparticle Penetration and Their Potential Toxic Metabolic Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles are being used in multiple applications, ranging from biomedical and skin care products (e.g., sunscreen through to industrial manufacturing processes (e.g., water purification. The increase in exposure has led to multiple reports on nanoparticle penetration and toxicity. However, the correlation between nanoparticle size and its penetration without physical/chemical enhancers through the skin is poorly understood—with studies instead focusing primarily on skin penetration under disrupted conditions. In this paper, we investigate the penetration and metabolic effects of 10 nm, 30 nm, and 60 nm gold nanoparticles within viable excised human skin after 24-hour exposure using multiphoton tomograph-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. After 24 hour treatment with the 10, 30, and 60 nm gold nanoparticles, there was no significant penetration detected below the stratum corneum. Furthermore, there were no changes in metabolic output (total NAD(PH in the viable epidermis posttreatment correlating with lack of penetration of nanoparticles. These results are significant for estimating topical nanoparticle exposure in humans where other model systems may overestimate the exposure of nanoparticles to the viable epidermis. Our data shows that viable human skin resists permeation of small nanoparticles in a size range that has been reported to penetrate deeply in other skin models.

  5. The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, J; Janssens, M; Gooris, G S; Bouwstra, J A

    2014-03-01

    The skin protects the body from unwanted influences from the environment as well as excessive water loss. The barrier function of the skin is located in the stratum corneum (SC). The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. This lipid matrix is crucial for the lipid skin barrier function. This paper provides an overview of the reported SC lipid composition and organization mainly focusing on healthy and diseased human skin. In addition, an overview is provided on the data describing the relation between lipid modulations and the impaired skin barrier function. Finally, the use of in vitro lipid models for a better understanding of the relation between the lipid composition, lipid organization and skin lipid barrier is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of Stratum Corneum Impedance Measurement in Non-Invasive Penetration Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to advances in telemedicine, mobile medical care, wearable health monitoring, and electronic skin, great efforts have been directed to non-invasive monitoring and treatment of disease. These processes generally involve disease detection from interstitial fluid (ISF instead of blood, and transdermal drug delivery. However, the quantitative extraction of ISF and the level of drug absorption are greatly affected by the individual’s skin permeability, which is closely related to the properties of the stratum corneum (SC. Therefore, measurement of SC impedance has been proposed as an appropriate way for assessing individual skin differences. In order to figure out the current status and research direction of human SC impedance detection, investigations regarding skin impedance measurement have been reviewed in this paper. Future directions are concluded after a review of impedance models, electrodes, measurement methods and systems, and their applications in treatment. It is believed that a well-matched skin impedance model and measurement method will be established for clinical and point-of care applications in the near future.

  7. Natural moisturizing factor components in the stratum corneum as biomarkers of filaggrin genotype: evaluation of minimally invasive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kezic, S.; Kammeyer, A.; Calkoen, F.; Fluhr, J. W.; Bos, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The carriers of loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) have reduced levels of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) in the stratum corneum. The concentration of NMF components which are formed by filaggrin protein breakdown in the stratum corneum might therefore be useful as a

  8. In vivo studies of aquaporins 3 and 10 in human stratum corneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Bomholt, Julie; Bajraktari, Niada

    2013-01-01

    migration and proliferation with consequences for the antimicrobial defense of the skin. AQP3 and AQP10 are aqua-glyceroporins, known to transport glycerol as well as water. AQP3 is the predominant AQP in human skin and has previously been demonstrated in the basal layer of epidermis in normal human skin......, but not in stratum corneum (SC). AQP10 has not previously been identified in human skin. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of AQP3 and AQP10 mRNA in keratinocytes. In this study, our aim was to investigate if these aquaporin proteins were actually present in human SC cells. This can be seen as a first...... step toward elucidating the possible functional role of AQP3 and AQP10 in SC hydration. Specifically we investigate the presence of AQP3 and AQP10 in vivo in human SC using “minimal-invasive” technique for obtaining SC samples. SC samples were obtained from six healthy volunteers. Western blotting...

  9. Modelling Formation of a Drug Reservoir in the Stratum Corneum and Its Impact on Drug Monitoring Using Reverse Iontophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Paulley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse iontophoresis is a relatively new technique for non-invasive drug monitoring in the body. It involves a small electrical current being passed through the skin to facilitate the movement of small charged ions and polar molecules on the skin's surface where the amount of drug can then be measured and hence an accurate estimate of the blood concentration can be made. In vivo studies for several molecules show that initially large amounts of drug are extracted from the body, which are unrelated to the magnitude of the blood concentration; over time the fluxes of extraction decrease to a level proportional to the steady state blood concentration. This suggests that, at first, the drug is being extracted from some source other than the blood; one such candidate for this source is the dead cells which form the stratum corneum. In this paper, we construct two related mathematical models; the first describes the formation of the drug reservoir in the stratum corneum as a consequence of repeated drug intake and natural death of skin cells in the body. The output from this model provides initial conditions for the model of reverse iontophoresis in which charged ions from both the blood and the stratum corneum reservoir compete for the electric current. Model parameters are estimated from data collected for lithium monitoring. Our models will improve interpretation of reverse iontophoretic data by discriminating the subdermal from the skin contribution to the fluxes of extraction. They also suggest that analysis of the skin reservoir might be a valuable tool to investigate patients' exposure to chemicals including therapeutic drugs.

  10. Lipid composition of the stratum corneum and cutaneous water loss in birds along an aridity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Champagne, Alex M.; Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Shtayyeh, Tamer; Tieleman, B. Irene; Hegemann, Arne; Clement, Michelle E.; Williams, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular and covalently bound lipids within the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis, are the primary barrier to cutaneous water loss (CWL) in birds. We compared CWL and intercellular SC lipid composition in 20 species of birds from desert and mesic environments.

  11. Interactions of Inertial Cavitation Bubbles with Stratum Corneum Lipid Bilayers during Low-Frequency Sonophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Tezel, Ahmet; Mitragotri, Samir

    2003-01-01

    Interactions of acoustic cavitation bubbles with biological tissues play an important role in biomedical applications of ultrasound. Acoustic cavitation plays a particularly important role in enhancing transdermal transport of macromolecules, thereby offering a noninvasive mode of drug delivery (sonophoresis). Ultrasound-enhanced transdermal transport is mediated by inertial cavitation, where collapses of cavitation bubbles microscopically disrupt the lipid bilayers of the stratum corneum. In...

  12. Ethnic differences in stratum corneum functions between Chinese and Thai infants residing in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Miyauchi, Yuki; Shima, Kyoko; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Palungwachira, Pakhawadee; Laohathai, Diane; Chanthothai, Jetchawa; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat

    2018-01-01

    Ethnic and racial differences in infant skin have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to establish whether there are ethnic differences and similarities in the stratum corneum (SC) functions of Thai and Chinese infants. Healthy infants 6 to 24 months of age (N = 60; 30 Thai, 30 Chinese) who resided in Bangkok, Thailand, were enrolled. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and SC hydration (capacitance) on the thigh, buttock, and upper arm were measured. Ceramide content was determined in the SC on the upper arm. SC hydration was not remarkably different between the two ethnicities at any site measured, but TEWL was significantly higher in Chinese infants than in Thai infants at all sites. Hydration of the SC was not significantly correlated with age in either ethnicity. TEWL had significant but weak correlations with age on the thigh and upper arm in Thai infants. Ceramide content was significantly higher in Chinese SC than in Thai SC. No relationship between ceramide content and TEWL or hydration was observed in either ethnicity. The significant differences in TEWL and ceramide contents between Chinese and Thai infant skin could prove useful in designing skin care and diapering products that are best suited for each ethnicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Hydration effects on the barrier function of stratum corneum lipids: Raman analysis of ceramides 2, III and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Jamal, Dima; Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2013-11-07

    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the skin; its barrier function is highly dependent on the composition and the structure as well as the organization of lipids in its extracellular matrix. Ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol represent the major lipid classes present in this matrix. They play an important role in maintaining the normal hydration levels required for the normal physiological function. Despite the advancement in the understanding of the structure, composition and the function of the stratum corneum (SC), the concern of "dry skin" remains important in dermatology and care research. Most studies focus on the quantification of water in the skin using different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, while the studies that investigate the effect of hydration on the quality of the barrier function of the skin are limited. Raman spectroscopy provides structural, conformational and organizational information that could help elucidate the effect of hydration on the barrier function of the skin. In order to assess the effect of relative humidity on the lipid barrier function; we used Raman spectroscopy to follow-up the evolution of the conformation and the organization of three synthetic ceramides (CER) differing from each other by the nature of their polar heads (sphingosine, phytosphingosine and α hydroxyl sphingosine), CER 2, III and 5 respectively. CER III and 5 showed a more compact and ordered organization with stronger polar interactions at intermediate relative humidity values, while CER 2 showed opposite tendencies to those observed with CER III and 5.

  14. Structure of lamellar lipid domains and corneocyte envelopes of murine stratum corneum. An X-ray diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.H.; Mirejovsky, D.; King, G.I.

    1988-01-01

    The lipid of the outermost layer of the skin is confined largely to the extracellular spaces surrounding the corneocytes of the stratum corneum where it forms a multilamellar adhesive matrix to act as the major permeability barrier of the skin. Knowledge of the molecular architecture of these intercellular domains is important for understanding various skin pathologies and their treatment, percutaneous drug delivery, and the cosmetic maintenance of the skin. The authors have surveyed by X-ray diffraction the structure of the intercellular domains and the extracted lipids of murine stratum corneum (SC) at 25, 45, and 70 0 C which are temperatures in the vicinity of known thermal phase transitions. The intercellular domains produce lamellar diffraction patterns with a Bragg spacing of 131 +/- 2 A. Lipid extracted from the SC and dispersed in excess water does not produce a simple lamellar diffraction pattern at any temperature studied, however. This and other facts suggest that another component, probably a protein, must be present to control the architecture of the intercellular lipid domains. They have also obtained diffraction patterns attributable to the protein envelopes of the corneocytes. The patterns suggest a β-pleated sheet organizational scheme. No diffraction patterns were observed that could be attributed to keratin

  15. Influence of DMPS on the water retention capacity of electroporated stratum corneum: ATR-FTIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sckolnick, Maria; Hui, Sek-Wen; Sen, Arindam

    2008-02-28

    Anionic lipids like phosphatidylserine are known to significantly enhance electroporation mediated transepidermal transport of polar solutes of molecular weights up to 10kDa. The underlying mechanism of the effect of anionic lipids on transdermal transport is not fully understood. The main barrier to transdermal transport lies within the intercellular lipid matrix (ILM) of the stratum corneum (SC) and our previous studies indicate that dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS) can perturb the packing of this lipid matrix. Here we report on our investigation on water retention in the SC following electroporation in the presence and the absence of DMPS. The water content in the outer most layers of the SC of full thickness porcine skin was determined using ATR-FTIR-spectroscopy. The results show that in the presence of DMPS, the SC remains in a state of enhanced hydration for longer periods after electroporation. This increase in water retention in the SC by DMPS is likely to play an important role in trans-epidermal transport, since improved hydration of the skin barrier can be expected to increase the partitioning of polar solutes and possibly the permeability.

  16. Effect of chemical permeation enhancers on stratum corneum barrier lipid organizational structure and interferon alpha permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Shadi H; Saliaj, Evi; Wettig, Shawn D; Dong, Chilbert; Ivanova, Marina V; Huzil, J Torin; Foldvari, Marianna

    2013-06-03

    The outermost layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum (SC), is composed of dead corneocytes embedded in an intercellular lipid matrix consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. The high level of organization within this matrix protects the body by limiting the permeation of most compounds through the skin. While essential for its protective functions, the SC poses a significant barrier for the delivery of topically applied pharmaceutical agents. Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) can increase delivery of small drug compounds into the skin by interacting with the intercellular lipids through physical processes including extraction, fluidization, increased disorder, and phase separation. However, it is not clear whether these same mechanisms are involved in delivery of biotherapeutic macromolecules, such as proteins. Here we describe the effect of three categories of CPEs {solvents [ethanol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (transcutol), oleic acid], terpenes [menthol, nerol, camphor, methyl salicylate], and surfactants [Tween 80, SDS, benzalkonium chloride, polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil (Cremophor RH40), didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), didecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)]} on the lipid organizational structure of human SC as determined by X-ray scattering studies. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies were conducted to correlate the degree of structural changes and hydrocarbon chain packing in SC lipids caused by these various classes of CPEs to the extent of permeation of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα), a 19 kDa protein drug, into human skin. With the exception of solvents, propylene glycol and ethanol, all classes of CPEs caused increased disordering of lamellar and lateral packing of lipids. We observed that the highest degree of SC lipid disordering was caused by surfactants (especially SDS, DDAB, and DTAB) followed by terpenes, such as nerol. Interestingly, in vitro skin permeation studies

  17. Permeabilization and recovery of the stratum corneum in vivo: the synergy of photomechanical waves and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; McAuliffe, D J; Kollias, N; Flotte, T J; Doukas, A G

    2001-01-01

    Photomechanical waves render the stratum corneum permeable and allow macromolecules to diffuse into the epidermis and dermis. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined action of photomechanical waves and sodium lauryl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, for transdermal delivery. A single photomechanical wave was applied to the skin of rats in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate. The sodium lauryl sulfate solution was removed and aqueous solutions of rhodamine-B dextran (40 kDa molecular weight) were applied to the skin at time points 2, 30, and 60 minutes post-exposure. The presence of rhodamine-B dextran in the skin was measured by fluorescence emission spectroscopy in vivo and fluorescence microscopy of frozen biopsies. The use of sodium lauryl sulfate delayed the recovery of the stratum corneum barrier and extended the time available for the diffusion of dextran through it. The combination of photomechanical waves and surfactants can enhance transdermal drug delivery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Further investigations on the role of ascorbic acid in stratum corneum lipid models after UV exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, Hagen; Böttcher, Rolf; Huschka, Christoph; Wohlrab, Wolfgang; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2005-08-01

    This study is the continuation of our research into vitamin C and its possible effects on human skin after topical administration. The effects of ascorbic acid, iron ions and UV irradiation on stratum corneum lipid models were investigated. The lipid models used were: a simple system (linolenic acid dispersion), a complex system (liposomes consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and linolenic acid) and complex systems with additionally incorporated ceramides (types III and IV). The lipid peroxidation was quantified by the thiobarbituric acid assay. A human adult low-calcium high-temperature (HaCaT) keratinocytes cell culture was used as a second in-vitro model. The amount of intracellular peroxides was determined by measuring the fluorescence intensity using the dihydrorhodamine 123 assay. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study the influence of ascorbic acid and iron ions on the signal intensity of 5-doxylstearic acid during UV exposure. Ascorbic acid showed prooxidative properties in the thiobarbituric acid assay whereas cell protection was measured in the HaCaT keratinocytes experiments. Electron paramagnetic resonance investigations revealed different extents of free radical production generated by iron ions, ascorbic acid and UV irradiation. In evaluating the results from this study new aspects of the mechanism of lipid damage caused by these three factors were suggested, transcending the simple redox behaviour of ascorbic acid.

  19. Presence and persistence of a highly ordered lipid phase state in the avian stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Pigg, Victoria A; Allen, Heather C; Williams, Joseph B

    2018-06-07

    To survive high temperatures in a terrestrial environment, animals must effectively balance evaporative heat loss and water conservation. In passerine birds, cutaneous water loss (CWL) is the primary avenue of water loss at thermoneutral temperatures and increases slightly as ambient temperature increases, indicating a change in the permeability of the skin. In the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin, lipids arranged in layers called lamellae serve as the primary barrier to CWL in birds. The permeability of these lamellae depends in large part on the ability of lipid molecules to pack closely together in an ordered orthorhombic phase state. However, as temperature increases, lipids of the SC become more disordered, and may pack in more permeable hexagonal or liquid crystalline phase states. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to monitor the phase state of lipids in the SC of house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) at skin temperatures ranging from 25 to 50°C. As temperature increased, lipids became slightly more disordered, but remained predominantly in the orthorhombic phase, consistent with the small increase in CWL observed in house sparrows as ambient temperature increases. These results differ considerably from studies on mammalian SC, which find a predominantly hexagonal arrangement of lipids at temperatures above 37°C, and the increased order in avian SC may be explained by longer lipid chain length, scarcity of cholesterol and the presence of cerebrosides. Our results lend further insight into the arrangement and packing of individual lipid molecules in avian SC. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Correlation of the penetration enhancement with the influence of an alcohol/tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) cosolvent system on the molecular structure of the stratum corneum of nude mouse skin as examined by microscopic FTIR/DSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yi-Bo; Ho, Hsiu-O.; Chen, Shin-Yi; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2009-10-01

    Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) is a water-soluble derivative of natural source of vitamin E, which possesses a dual nature of lipophilicity and hydrophilicity, similar to a surface-active agent. The penetration enhancement of estradiol by an ethanol and TPGS cosolvent system (EtOH/TPGS) has been confirmed. In this study, the correlation of the penetration enhancement with the influence of the EtOH/TPGS cosolvent system on biophysical changes of the stratum corneum (SC) as examined by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry differential scanning calorimetry (FTIR/DSC) was investigated. Thermotropic changes in the asymmetrical and symmetrical C-H stretching of hydrocarbon chains of lipids, and amide I and II bands that characterize the protein structure of the SC treated with different concentrations of the EtOH/TPGS cosolvent were examined in this investigation. Results demonstrated that a strong correlation of the influence on biophysical changes of the SC treated with the EtOH/TPGS cosolvent system with the penetration enhancement of estradiol by the corresponding cosolvent system was not evident. It was concluded that the incorporation of TPGS in the cosolvent system seemed only to have insignificantly modified the structural features of the SC. It was not obvious that the penetrant had encountered these modifications resulting in an improvement in the penetration of estradiol by TPGS.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of stratum corneum lipid mixtures: A multiscale perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy C; Iacovella, Christopher R; Leonhard, Anne C; Bunge, Annette L; McCabe, Clare

    2018-03-29

    The lipid matrix of the stratum corneum (SC) layer of skin is essential for human survival; it acts as a barrier to prevent rapid dehydration while keeping potentially hazardous material outside the body. While the composition of the SC lipid matrix is known, the molecular-level details of its organization are difficult to infer experimentally, hindering the discovery of structure-property relationships. To this end, molecular dynamics simulations, which give molecular-level resolution, have begun to play an increasingly important role in understanding these relationships. However, most simulation studies of SC lipids have focused on preassembled bilayer configurations, which, owing to the slow dynamics of the lipids, may influence the final structure and hence the calculated properties. Self-assembled structures would avoid this dependence on the initial configuration, however, the size and length scales involved make self-assembly impractical to study with atomistic models. Here, we report on the development of coarse-grained models of SC lipids designed to study self-assembly. Building on previous work, we present the interactions between the headgroups of ceramide and free fatty acid developed using the multistate iterative Boltzmann inversion method. Validation of the new interactions is performed with simulations of preassembled bilayers and good agreement between the atomistic and coarse-grained models is found for structural properties. The self-assembly of mixtures of ceramide and free fatty acid is investigated and both bilayer and multilayer structures are found to form. This work therefore represents a necessary step in studying SC lipid systems on multiple time and length scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lecithin-based microemulsions for targeted delivery of ceramide AP into the stratum corneum: formulation, characterizations, and in vitro release and penetration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, Fitsum F; Metz, Hendrik; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2013-02-01

    To improve the solubility and penetration of Ceramide AP (CER [AP]) into the stratum corneum that potentially restores the barrier function of aged and affected skin. CER [AP] microemulsions (MEs) were formulated using lecithin, Miglyol® 812 (miglyol) and water-1,2 pentandiol (PeG) mixture as amphiphilic, oily and hydrophilic components, respectively. The nanostructure of the MEs was revealed using electrical conductivity, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) was used to measure the sizes and shape of ME droplets. The release and penetration of the CER into the stratum corneum was investigated in vitro using a multi-layer membrane model. The MEs exhibited excellent thermodynamic stability (>2 years) and loading capacity (0.5% CER [AP]). The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of the MEs were obtained and PCS results showed that the droplets are spherical in shape and bigger in size. In vitro investigations showed that the MEs exhibited excellent rate and extent of release and penetration. Stable lecithin-based CER [AP] MEs that significantly enhance the solubility and penetration of CER [AP] into the stratum corneum were developed. The MEs also have better properties than the previously reported polyglycerol fatty acid surfactant-based CER [AP] MEs.

  3. Stratum corneum lipid organization as observed by atomic force, confocal and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlén, Lars; Plasencia Gil, Maria Inés; Bagatolli, Luis

    2008-01-01

    -related biophysical techniques (e.g. atomic force microscopy and confocal/two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy), it was recently shown that reconstituted membranes composed of extracted decontaminated human stratum corneum lipids do not form a fluid phase, but exclusively a single-gel phase that segregates...

  4. Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester and 5-aminolevulinic acid to normal nude mouse skin: Differences in protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics and the role of the stratum corneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, J. T.; Iani, V.; Star, W. M.; Sterenborg, H. J.; Moan, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important limitation of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodetection and photodynamic therapy is that the amount of the fluorescing and photosensitizing product protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) formed is limited. The reason for this Is probably the limited diffusion of ALA through the stratum

  5. Defects in Stratum Corneum Desquamation Are the Predominant Effect of Impaired ABCA12 Function in a Novel Mouse Model of Harlequin Ichthyosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Harlequin Ichthyosis is a severe skin disease caused by mutations in the human gene encoding ABCA12. Here, we characterize a novel mutation in intron 29 of the mouse Abca12 gene that leads to the loss of a 5' splice donor site and truncation of the Abca12 RNA transcript. Homozygous mutants of this smooth skin or smsk allele die perinatally with shiny translucent skin, typical of animal models of Harlequin Ichthyosis. Characterization of smsk mutant skin showed that the delivery of glucosylceramides and CORNEODESMOSIN was defective, while ultrastructural analysis revealed abnormal lamellar bodies and the absence of lipid lamellae in smsk epidermis. Unexpectedly, mutant stratum corneum remained intact when subjected to harsh chemical dissociation procedures. Moreover, both KALLIKREIN 5 and -7 were drastically decreased, with retention of desmoplakin in mutant SC. In cultured wild type keratinocytes, both KALLIKREIN 5 and -7 colocalized with ceramide metabolites following calcium-induced differentiation. Reducing the intracellular levels of glucosylceramide with a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor resulted in decreased secretion of KALLIKREIN proteases by wild type keratinocytes, but not by smsk mutant keratinocytes. Together, these findings suggest an essential role for ABCA12 in transferring not only lipids, which are required for the formation of multilamellar structures in the stratum corneum, but also proteolytic enzymes that are required for normal desquamation. Smsk mutant mice recapitulate many of the pathological features of HI and can be used to explore novel topical therapies against a potentially lethal and debilitating neonatal disease.

  6. Sunscreens with broad-spectrum absorption decrease the trans TO cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid in the human stratum corneum after multiple UV light exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krien, P.M.; Moyal, D.

    1994-01-01

    The trans to cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid (UCA) in skin is considered to play an important role in the mechanism of immunosuppression. We have investigated the effects of skin type and various sunscreens with low sun protection factor (SPF) on the UV-induced cis-UCA formation in human skin after exposure to artificial UV light. The rate of cis-UCA formation depends little on the skin type and is reduced by topical application of sunscreens. The rate of cis-UCA formation decreases with increasing SPF and only broad-spectrum, highly protective sunscreens offer protection against the UV-induced formation of cis-UCA, which accumulates in the stratum corneum after multiple UV exposures. A theoretical approach to estimate the distribution of cis-UCA after irradiation indicates that this compound may diffuse into the deeper layers of the epidermis with D ∼ 10 -17 m 2 /s, and that its elimination from the stratum corneum is mainly due to desquamation. (author)

  7. Investigation of cis-trans isomer dependent dermatotoxicokinetics of UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate through stratum corneum in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anežka; Bányiová, Katarína; Vrana, Branislav; Justan, Ivan; Čupr, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    2-Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) is one of the most used ultraviolet filters in personal care products. It undergoes cis/trans isomerization in sunlight, and there is limited toxicological understanding of the effects of the cis-isomer. It is known that two geometric isomers of one compound can have different physico-chemical properties and effects. However, there are no studies focusing on toxicokinetics of EHMC isomerization products to compare their potential difference in dermal exposure to cis-EHMC and trans-EHMC due to the difference in their dermatotoxicokinetics. In this study, dermal absorption of the parental trans-EHMC and its cis isomer was studied. A commercially available sunscreen lotion containing trans-EHMC and spiked with laboratory-prepared cis-EHMC was locally applied on the forearm skin of two volunteers. After 8 h of skin exposure, the stratum corneum (SC) layer was removed by tape stripping. The removed thickness of the SC was determined spectrophotometrically using a total protein assay. The concentration of both isomers in the removed SC was measured by HPLC-DAD. A new diffusion and permeability coefficient of both EHMC isomers in SC were determined by Fick's second law of diffusion in vivo. The difference in dermatotoxicokinetic parameters between the two isomers was not statistically significant. However, separate toxicological studies of isomeric forms and the determination of their dermatotoxicokinetic parameters are crucial for refinement of human risk assessment.

  8. Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Tfayli, Ali; Duplan, Hélène; Delalleau, Alexandre; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2013-07-21

    Skin hydration plays an important role in the optimal physical properties and physiological functions of the skin. Despite the advancements in the last decade, dry skin remains the most common characteristic of human skin disorders. Thus, it is important to understand the effect of hydration on Stratum Corneum (SC) components. In this respect, our interest consists in correlating the variations of unbound and bound water content in the SC with structural and organizational changes in lipids and proteins using a non-invasive technique: Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired on human SC at different relative humidity (RH) levels (4-75%). The content of different types of water, bound and free, was measured using the second derivative and curve fitting of the Raman bands in the range of 3100-3700 cm(-1). Changes in lipidic order were evaluated using νC-C and νC-H. To analyze the effect of RH on the protein structure, we examined in the Amide I region, the Fermi doublet of tyrosine, and the νasymCH3 vibration. The contributions of totally bound water were found not to vary with humidity, while partially bound water varied with three different rates. Unbound water increased greatly when all sites for bound water were saturated. Lipid organization as well as protein deployment was found to be optimal at intermediate RH values (around 60%), which correspond to the maximum of SC water binding capacity. This analysis highlights the relationship between bound water, the SC barrier state and the protein structure and elucidates the optimal conditions. Moreover, our results showed that increased content of unbound water in the SC induces disorder in the structures of lipids and proteins.

  9. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and mesic nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-10-07

    Intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, form a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. Previously, we measured cutaneous water loss (CWL) and lipid composition of the SC of adult house sparrows from two populations, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and another living in mesic Ohio. Adult desert house sparrows had a lower CWL, a lower proportion of free fatty acids, and a higher proportion of ceramides and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic sparrows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity of CWL and lipid composition of the SC in desert and mesic nestling house sparrows reared in low and high humidity and compared our results with previous work on adults. We measured CWL of nestlings and analyzed the lipid composition of the SC using thin-layer chromatography. We showed that nestling house sparrows from both localities had higher CWL than adults in their natural environment, a result of major modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response to opposed selection pressures, thermoregulation and water conservation, at different life stages, on which regulation of CWL plays a crucial role. Desert nestlings showed a greater degree of plasticity in CWL and lipid composition of the SC than did mesic nestlings, a finding consistent with the idea that organisms exposed to more environmental stress ought to be more plastic than individuals living in more benign environments.

  10. Sun-induced changes of stratum corneum hydration vary with age and gender in a normal Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhili; Song, Shunpeng; Luo, Wenhai; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sun-induced alteration of epidermal permeability barrier function varies with gender and age. In the present study, we assess the stratum corneum (SC) hydration in sun-exposed males and females. A total of 168 subjects (84 males and 84 females) aged 19-75 years were enrolled. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor was used to measure SC hydration. In comparison with non-sun exposure, sun exposure does not cause a significant change in SC hydration in either young males or young females, whereas in aged females, a significant reduction of SC hydration is seen on the forehead and the dorsal hand of sun-exposed subjects. SC hydration on the canthus of both aged males and aged females is significantly lower than that of young subjects. Additionally, SC hydration on the dorsal hand of aged females is also significantly lower as compared with young females. Sun-induced reduction of SC hydration is more evident on the dorsal hand of aged females than that of males (Phydration property vary with age and gender. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Lipid composition of the stratum corneum and cutaneous water loss in birds along an aridity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Shtayyeh, Tamer; Tieleman, B Irene; Hegemann, Arne; Clement, Michelle E; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-12-15

    Intercellular and covalently bound lipids within the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis, are the primary barrier to cutaneous water loss (CWL) in birds. We compared CWL and intercellular SC lipid composition in 20 species of birds from desert and mesic environments. Furthermore, we compared covalently bound lipids with CWL and intercellular lipids in the lark family (Alaudidae). We found that CWL increases in birds from more mesic environments, and this increase was related to changes in intercellular SC lipid composition. The most consistent pattern that emerged was a decrease in the relative amount of cerebrosides as CWL increased, a pattern that is counterintuitive based on studies of mammals with Gaucher disease. Although covalently bound lipids in larks did not correlate with CWL, we found that covalently bound cerebrosides correlated positively with intercellular cerebrosides and intercellular cholesterol ester, and intercellular cerebrosides correlated positively with covalently bound free fatty acids. Our results led us to propose a new model for the organization of lipids in the avian SC, in which the sugar moieties of cerebrosides lie outside of intercellular lipid layers, where they may interdigitate with adjacent intercellular cerebrosides or with covalently bound cerebrosides.

  12. Two dimensional finite element modelling for dynamic water diffusion through stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Perry; Imhof, Robert E

    2012-10-01

    Solvents penetration through in vivo human stratum corneum (SC) has always been an interesting research area for trans-dermal drug delivery studies, and the importance of intercellular routes (diffuse in between corneocytes) and transcellular routes (diffuse through corneocytes) during diffusion is often debatable. In this paper, we have developed a two dimensional finite element model to simulate the dynamic water diffusion through the SC. It is based on the brick-and-mortar model, with brick represents corneocytes and mortar represents lipids, respectively. It simulates the dynamic water diffusion process through the SC from pre-defined initial conditions and boundary conditions. Although the simulation is based on water diffusions, the principles can also be applied to the diffusions of other topical applied substances. The simulation results show that both intercellular routes and transcellular routes are important for water diffusion. Although intercellular routes have higher flux rates, most of the water still diffuse through transcellular routes because of the high cross area ratio of corneocytes and lipids. The diffusion water flux, or trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), is reversely proportional to corneocyte size, i.e. the larger the corneocyte size, the lower the TEWL, and vice versa. There is also an effect of the SC thickness, external air conditions and diffusion coefficients on the water diffusion through SC on the resulting TEWL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electroperturbation of human stratum corneum fine structure by high voltage pulses: a freeze-fracture electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoul, A; Tanojo, H; Préat, V; Bouwstra, J A; Spies, F; Boddé, H E

    1998-08-01

    Application of high voltage pulses (HVP) to the skin has been shown to promote the transdermal drug delivery by a mechanism involving skin electroporation. The aim of this study was to detect potential changes in lipid phase and ultrastructure induced in human stratum corneum by various HVP protocols, using differential thermal analysis and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Due to the time involved between the moment the electric field is switched off and the analysis, only "secondary" phenomena rather than primary events could be observed. A decrease in enthalpies for the phase transitions observed at 70 degrees C and 85 degrees C was detected by differential thermal analysis after HVP treatment. No changes in transition temperature could be seen. The freeze-fracture electron microscopy study revealed a dramatic perturbation of the lamellar ordering of the intercellular lipid after application of HVP. Most of the planes displayed rough surfaces. The lipid lamellae exhibited rounded off steps or a vanished stepwise order. There was no evidence for perturbation of the corneocytes content. In conclusion, the freeze-fracture electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis studies suggest that HVP application induces a general perturbation of the stratum corneum lipid ultrastructure.

  14. Stratum corneum profiles of inflammatory mediators in patch test reactions to common contact allergens and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, S A; Ljubojevic Hadzavdic, S; Jakasa, I; Franceschi, N; Jurakić Tončić, R; Marinović, B; Brans, R; Gibbs, S; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Rustemeyer, T; Kezic, S

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated allergen-specific differences in the gene expression of inflammatory mediators in patch tested skin. To determine levels of various inflammatory mediators in the stratum corneum (SC) after patch testing with common contact allergens and the skin irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). In total, 27 individuals who had previously patch tested positive to nickel, chromium, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) or para-phenylenediamine were retested and then patch tested with SLS and petrolatum, with petrolatum serving as the patch test control. At 72 h, the test sites were clinically graded and the SC samples collected on adhesive tape. The levels of 18 of the 32 quantified mediators differed significantly from that of the control patches for at least one of the tested substances. SLS and MCI/MI induced the largest number of immunomediators. Interleukin (IL)-16 levels were significantly higher in patch test reactions in all allergens than they were in the controls, while no significant difference was detected for SLS. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation was found between strength of patch test reaction and IL-1α levels. Cytokine profiles in the SC of patch tested skin did not show a distinct allergen-specific pattern. However, MCI/MI induced a larger and wider immune response than the other allergens, perhaps due to its potency as an irritant. The levels of IL-16 were significantly increased in patch test reactions to allergens but not to SLS; thus, they may help clinicians to differentiate between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Penetration route of functional molecules in stratum corneum studied by time-resolved small- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Ichiro; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto; Nakazawa, Hiromitsu; Obata, Yasuko; Inoue, Katsuaki

    2011-01-01

    We studied effects of functional molecules on corneocytes in stratum corneum using time-resolved small- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction after applying a functional molecule. From these results it was revealed that in the stratum corneum a typical hydrophilic molecule, ethanol, penetrates via the transcellular route and on the other hand a typical hydrophobic molecule, d-limonene, penetrates via the intercellular route.

  16. The effect of the chain length distribution of free fatty acids on the mixing properties of stratum corneum model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Masashi; Gooris, Gert S; Bito, Kotatsu; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2014-07-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a fundamental role in the barrier function of the skin. The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. The main lipid classes in the lipid matrix are ceramides (CERs), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acids (FFAs). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the chain length of FFAs on the thermotropic phase behavior and mixing properties of SC lipids. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman imaging spectroscopy were used to study the mixing properties using either protonated or deuterated FFAs. We selected SC model lipid mixtures containing only a single CER, CHOL and either a single FFA or a mixture of FFAs mimicking the FFA SC composition. The single CER consists of a sphingoid base with 18 carbon atoms and an acyl chain with a chain length of 24 carbon atoms. When using lignoceric acid (24 carbon atoms) or a mixture of FFAs, the CER and FFAs participated in mixed crystals, but hydration of the mixtures induced a slight phase separation between CER and FFA. The mixed crystalline structures did not phase separate during storage even up to a time period of 3months. When using palmitic acid (16 carbon atoms), a slight phase separation was observed between FFA and CER. This phase separation was clearly enhanced during hydration and storage. In conclusion, the thermotropic phase behavior and the mixing properties of the SC lipid mixtures were shown to strongly depend on the chain length and chain length distribution of FFAs, while hydration enhanced the phase separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sun-Induced Changes in Stratum Corneum Function Are Gender and Dose Dependent in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Fluhr, J.W.; Song, S.P.; Sun, Z.; Wang, H.; Shi, Y.J.; Elias, P.M.; Man, M.-Q.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that UVB radiation changes the epidermal permeability barrier and stratum corneum (SC) hydration. It is well known that sun exposure causes erythema, sunburn and melanoma. However, whether daily sun exposure alters SC integrity and epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown, especially in Chinese subjects. In the present study, we assess the SC integrity, SC hydration and epidermal permeability barrier function following various doses of sun exposure. A total of 258 subjects (124 males and 134 females) aged 18–50 years were enrolled. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka MPA5) was used to measure SC hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the forearms. In males, basal TEWL was higher with higher doses of sun exposure than with lower doses and control, whereas in females, basal TEWL was higher with lower doses of sun exposure than with higher doses and control. In the group with higher doses of sun exposure, TEWL in females was significantly lower than that in males. The barrier recovery was faster in females than in males in both control and lower-dose groups. In both males and females, barrier recovery was delayed with higher doses of sun exposure. In males, sun exposure did not alter SC hydration, while in females SC hydration was lower with lower doses of sun exposure as compared with control and higher doses of sun exposure. These results demonstrated that sun-induced changes in SC function and SC hydration vary with gender and the extent of sun exposure. PMID:20571289

  18. Cutaneous water loss and the development of the stratum corneum of nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from desert and mesic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation through the skin contributes to more than half of the total water loss in birds. Therefore, we expect the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL) to be crucial for birds, especially those that live in deserts, to maintain a normal state of hydration. Previous studies in adult birds showed that modifications of the lipid composition of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, were associated with changes in rates of CWL. However, few studies have examined the ontogeny of CWL and the lipids of the SC in nestling birds. In this study, we measured CWL and the lipid composition of the SC during development of nestlings from two populations of house sparrows, one from the deserts of Saudi Arabia and the other from mesic Ohio. We found that desert and mesic nestlings followed different developmental trajectories for CWL. Desert nestlings seemed to make a more frugal use of water than did mesic nestlings. To regulate CWL, nestlings appeared to modify the lipid composition of the SC during ontogeny. Our results also suggest a tighter regulation of CWL in desert nestlings, presumably as a result of the stronger selection pressures to which nestlings are exposed in deserts.

  19. Cutaneous water loss and covalently bound lipids of the stratum corneum in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.) from desert and mesic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Michelle E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-04-01

    Lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis of birds and mammals, provide a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The SC of birds consists of flat dead cells, called corneocytes, and two lipid compartments: an intercellular matrix and a monolayer of covalently bound lipids (CBLs) attached to the outer surface of the corneocytes. We previously found two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides, covalently bound to corneocytes in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.); these lipids were associated with cutaneous water loss (CWL). In this study, we collected adult and nestling house sparrows from Ohio and nestlings from Saudi Arabia, acclimated them to either high or low humidity, and measured their rates of CWL. We also measured CWL for natural populations of nestlings from Ohio and Saudi Arabia, beginning when chicks were 2 days old until they fledged. We then evaluated the composition of the CBLs of the SC of sparrows using thin layer chromatography. We found that adult house sparrows had a greater diversity of CBLs in their SC than previously described. During ontogeny, nestling sparrows increased the amount of CBLs and developed their CBLs differently, depending on their habitat. Acclimating nestlings to different humidity regimes did not alter the ontogeny of the CBLs, suggesting that these lipids represent a fundamental component of SC organization that does not respond to short-term environmental change.

  20. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimising Okara Soap Formulation for Stratum Corneum Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24–28% w/w), olive oil B (15–20% w/w), palm oil C (6–10% w/w), castor oil D (15–20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6–10% w/w), and okara F (2–7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible. PMID:25548777

  1. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimising Okara Soap Formulation for Stratum Corneum Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Payyadhah Borhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24–28% w/w, olive oil B (15–20% w/w, palm oil C (6–10% w/w, castor oil D (15–20% w/w, cocoa butter E (6–10% w/w, and okara F (2–7% w/w by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

  2. Non steady-state descriptions of drug permeation through stratum corneum. I. The biphasic brick-and-mortar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, M; Lieckfeldt, R; Wittum, G; Mazurkevich, G; Lee, G

    1996-03-01

    The diffusion equation should be solved for the non-steady-state problem of drug diffusion within a two-dimensional, biphasic stratum corneum membrane having homogeneous lipid and corneocyte phases. A numerical method was developed for a brick-and-mortar SC-geometry, enabling an explicit solution for time-dependent drug concentration within both phases. The lag time and permeability were calculated. It is shown how the barrier property of this model membrane depends on relative phase permeability, corneocyte alignment, and corneocyte-lipid partition coefficient. Additionally, the time-dependent drug concentration profiles within the membrane can be observed during the lag and steady-state phases. The model SC-membrane predicts, from purely morphological principles, lag times and permeabilities that are in good agreement with experimental values. The long lag times and very small permeabilities reported for human SC can only be predicted for a highly-staggered corneocyte geometry and corneocytes that are 1000 times less permeable than the lipid phase. Although the former conclusion is reasonable, the latter is questionable. The elongated, flattened corneocyte shape renders lag time and permeability insensitive to large changes in their alignment within the SC. Corneocyte/lipid partitioning is found to be fundamentally different to SC/donor partitioning, since increasing drug lipophilicity always reduces both lag time and permeability.

  3. How Sensitive Are Transdermal Transport Predictions by Microscopic Stratum Corneum Models to Geometric and Transport Parameter Input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jessica; Koo, Soh Myoung; Lape, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    While predictive models of transdermal transport have the potential to reduce human and animal testing, microscopic stratum corneum (SC) model output is highly dependent on idealized SC geometry, transport pathway (transcellular vs. intercellular), and penetrant transport parameters (e.g., compound diffusivity in lipids). Most microscopic models are limited to a simple rectangular brick-and-mortar SC geometry and do not account for variability across delivery sites, hydration levels, and populations. In addition, these models rely on transport parameters obtained from pure theory, parameter fitting to match in vivo experiments, and time-intensive diffusion experiments for each compound. In this work, we develop a microscopic finite element model that allows us to probe model sensitivity to variations in geometry, transport pathway, and hydration level. Given the dearth of experimentally-validated transport data and the wide range in theoretically-predicted transport parameters, we examine the model's response to a variety of transport parameters reported in the literature. Results show that model predictions are strongly dependent on all aforementioned variations, resulting in order-of-magnitude differences in lag times and permeabilities for distinct structure, hydration, and parameter combinations. This work demonstrates that universally predictive models cannot fully succeed without employing experimentally verified transport parameters and individualized SC structures. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolated human/animal stratum corneum as a partial model for 15 steps in percutaneous absorption: emphasizing decontamination, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xiaoying; Lamel, Sonia; Qiao, Peter; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-03-01

    Since the advent of World War II, governments and laboratories have made a concerted effort to improve prophylactic and therapeutic interventions counteracting cutaneously directed chemical warfare agents (CWA), and by inference, common industrial and consumer dermatotoxicants. In vitro percutaneous penetration assays, first utilized by Tregear in the 1940s and presently in various modifications, have been fundamental to this effort. Percutaneous penetration, often considered a simple one-step diffusion process, consists of at least 15 steps. The first part of this review covers the initial steps related to absorption and excretion kinetics, vehicle characteristics, and tissue disposition. Importantly, the partitioning behavior and stratum corneum (SC) diffusion by a wide physicochemical array of compounds shows that many compounds have similar diffusion coefficients determining their percutaneous absorption in vivo. After accounting for anatomical SC variation, the penetration flux value of a substance depends mainly on its SC/vehicle partition coefficient. Additionally, the SC acts as a 'reservoir' for topically applied molecules and application of tape stripping has been found to quantify the chemical remaining in the SC which can predict total molecular penetration in vivo. Decontamination is of particular concern and even expediting standard washing procedures after dermal chemical exposure often fails to remove chemicals. This overview summarizes knowledge of percutaneous penetration extending insights into the complexities of penetration, decontamination and potential newer assays that may be of practical importance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The use of D-optimal mixture design in optimising okara soap formulation for stratum corneum application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24-28% w/w), olive oil B (15-20% w/w), palm oil C (6-10% w/w), castor oil D (15-20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6-10% w/w), and okara F (2-7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

  6. In vivo confocal Raman microscopic determination of depth profiles of the stratum corneum lipid organization influenced by application of various oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, ChunSik; Schleusener, Johannes; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2017-08-01

    The intercellular lipids (ICL) of stratum corneum (SC) play an important role in maintaining the skin barrier function. The lateral and lamellar packing order of ICL in SC is not homogenous, but rather depth-dependent. This study aimed to analyze the influence of the topically applied mineral-derived (paraffin and petrolatum) and plant-derived (almond oil and jojoba oil) oils on the depth-dependent ICL profile ordering of the SC in vivo. Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), a unique tool to analyze the depth profile of the ICL structure non-invasively, is employed to investigate the interaction between oils and human SC in vivo. The results show that the response of SC to oils' permeation varies in the depths. All oils remain in the upper layers of the SC (0-20% of SC thickness) and show predominated differences of ICL ordering from intact skin. In these depths, skin treated with plant-derived oils shows more disordered lateral and lamellar packing order of ICL than intact skin (p0.1), except plant-derived oils at the depth 30% of SC thickness. In the deeper layers of the SC (60-100% of SC thickness), no difference between ICL lateral packing order of the oil-treated and intact skin can be observed, except that at the depths of 70-90% of the SC thickness, where slight changes with more disorder states are measured for plant-derived oil treated skin (p<0.1), which could be explained by the penetration of free fatty acid fractions in the deep-located SC areas. Both oil types remain in the superficial layers of the SC (0-20% of the SC thickness). Skin treated with mineral- and plant-derived oils shows significantly higher disordered lateral and lamellar packing order of ICL in these layers of the SC compared to intact skin. Plant-derived oils significantly changed the ICL ordering in the depths of 30% and 70-90% of the SC thickness, which is likely due to the penetration of free fatty acids in the deeper layers of the SC. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for

  7. Investigation of the interaction between modified ISCOMs and stratum corneum lipid model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henriette Baun; Arboe-Andersen, Helle M.; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2010-01-01

    The modified ISCOMs, so-called Posintro (TM) nanoparticles, provide an opportunity for altering the surface charge of the particles, which influences their affinity for the negatively charged antigen sites, cell membranes and lipids in the skin. Hypothetically, this increases the passage of the I...

  8. From contact angle titration to chemical force microscopy: a new route to assess the pH-dependent character of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthieu; Mavon, Alain; Haidara, Hamidou; Vallat, Marie-France; Duplan, Hélène; Roucoules, Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Despite of its complex multicomponent organization and its compact architecture, the Stratum corneum (SC) is not completely impermeable to substances directly applied on the skin surface. A huge number of works have been dedicated to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in substance permeation by exploring deeper layers than the SC itself. Surprisingly, there is a poor interest in studies relating to interactions which may occur in the near-surface region (i.e. approximately 1 nm depth) of the SC. In this work, equilibrium proton-transfer reactions have been used as probes to define in a fundamental point of view the nature of the SC interactions with its environment. Such titration curves are investigated on 'in vitro' SC (isolated SC from abdominal skin tissue) and on 'in vivo' volar forearm (a sebum poor area). The results are discussed in term of work of adhesion and surface pKa values. Because SC can 'reconstruct' under heating, influence of the temperature on titration curves is investigated and the role of the different components is discussed. Different sigmoidal transitions were observed. Two common pKa values (pKa(1) = 4 and pKa(2) = 11.5) were clearly identified in both cases and associated to an acid-base character. By playing with the temperature of 'in vitro' SC, the 'accessibility' of polar functions was increased, thus refining the results by revealing an amphoteric character with an acid-to-base transition at pH 3.5 and two acid transitions at pH = 6.5 and pH = 11.5. Adhesion forces between an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) tip and a single isolated corneocyte through buffered liquid media were also investigated to better understand the role of the individual corneocytes. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Effect of Ceramide Tail Length on the Structure of Model Stratum Corneum Lipid Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy C; Hartkamp, Remco; Iacovella, Christopher R; Bunge, Annette L; McCabe, Clare

    2018-01-09

    Lipid bilayers composed of non-hydroxy sphingosine ceramide (CER NS), cholesterol (CHOL), and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are components of the human skin barrier, are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. Since mixtures of these lipids exist in dense gel phases with little molecular mobility at physiological conditions, care must be taken to ensure that the simulations become decorrelated from the initial conditions. Thus, we propose and validate an equilibration protocol based on simulated tempering, in which the simulation takes a random walk through temperature space, allowing the system to break out of metastable configurations and hence become decorrelated from its initial configuration. After validating the equilibration protocol, which we refer to as random-walk molecular dynamics, the effects of the lipid composition and ceramide tail length on bilayer properties are studied. Systems containing pure CER NS, CER NS + CHOL, and CER NS + CHOL + FFA, with the CER NS fatty acid tail length varied within each CER NS-CHOL-FFA composition, are simulated. The bilayer thickness is found to depend on the structure of the center of the bilayer, which arises as a result of the tail-length asymmetry between the lipids studied. The hydrogen bonding between the lipid headgroups and with water is found to change with the overall lipid composition, but is mostly independent of the CER fatty acid tail length. Subtle differences in the lateral packing of the lipid tails are also found as a function of CER tail length. Overall, these results provide insight into the experimentally observed trend of altered barrier properties in skin systems where there are more CERs with shorter tails present. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolated human and animal stratum corneum as a partial model for the 15 steps of percutaneous absorption: emphasizing decontamination, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xiaoying; Lamel, Sonia; Qiao, Peter; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-03-01

    Cutaneously directed chemical warfare agents can elicit significant morbidity and mortality. The optimization of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions counteracting these agents is crucial, and the development of decontamination protocols and methodology of post dermal exposure risk assessments would be additionally applicable to common industrial and consumer dermatotoxicants. Percutaneous (PC) penetration is often considered a simple one-step diffusion process but presently consists of at least 15 steps. The systemic exposure to an agent depends on multiple factors and the second part of this review covers absorption and excretion kinetics, wash and rub effects, skin substantivity and transfer, among others. Importantly, the partitioning behavior and diffusion through the stratum corneum (SC) of a wide physicochemical array of compounds shows that many compounds have approximately the same diffusion coefficient which determines their percutaneous absorption in vivo. After accounting for anatomical variation of the SC, the penetration flux value of a substance depends mainly on its SC/vehicle partition coefficient. Additionally, the SC acts as a 'reservoir' for topically applied molecules, and tape stripping methodology can quantify the remaining chemical in the SC which can predict the total molecular penetration in vivo. The determination of ideal decontamination protocols is of utmost importance to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, even expeditious standard washing procedures post dermal chemical exposure often fails to remove chemicals. The second part of this overview continues to review percutaneous penetration extending insights into the complexities of penetration, decontamination and potential newer assays that may be of practical importance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Impact of the ceramide subspecies on the nanostructure of stratum corneum lipids using neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. Part I: impact of CER[NS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Gupta, Rakesh; Lange, Stefan; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Hauß, Thomas; Rai, Beena; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2018-05-30

    For this study mixtures based on the ceramides [NS] (NS = non-hydroxy-sphingosine) and [AP] (AP = α-hydroxy-phytosphingosine) in a 2:1 and 1:2 ratio, together with cholesterol and lignoceric acid, were investigated. These mixtures are modelling the uppermost skin layer, the stratum corneum. Neutron diffraction, utilizing specifically deuterated ceramide molecules, was used to obtain a maximum amount of experimental detail. Highly detailed molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate even more information from the experimental data. It was possible to observe a single lamellar phase for both systems. They had a lamellar repeat distance of 5.43 ± 0.05 nm for the [NS]/[AP] 2:1 and a slightly shorter one of 5.34 ± 0.05 nm for the 1:2 system. The structure and water content was uninfluenced by excess humidity. Both the experimental and simulation data indicated slightly tilted ceramides, with their C24 chains overlapping in the lamellar mid-plane. This arrangement is well comparable to systems investigated before. The structure of both systems, except for the differing repeat distance, looks similar at first. However, on a smaller scale there were various distinct differences, demonstrating only low redundancy between the different ceramide species, despite only minor chemical differences. The mainly ceramide [AP] determined 1:2 system has a slightly smaller repeat distance. This is a result of a tighter arrangement of the lipids chain along the bilayer normal and increased overlapping of the long chains in the lamellar middle. For the CER[NS] some novel features could be shown, despite it being the overall most investigated ceramide. These include the low adaptability to changed lateral interactions, leading to an increased chain opening. This effect could explain its low miscibility with other lipids. The investigated model systems allows it to directly compare results from the literature which have used ceramide [NS] to the most recent

  12. Deposits from Creams Containing 20% (w/w) Urea and Suppression of Crystallization (Part 2): Novel Analytical Methods of Urea Accumulated in the Stratum Corneum by Tape stripping and Colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Norio; Morita, Yutaka; Terada, Katsuhide

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of urea from a urea formulation to the stratum corneum varies with the formulation base and form, and impacts the formulation's therapeutic effect. Consequently, determining the amount of urea transferred is essential for developing efficient formulations. This study assessed a simple method for measuring the amount of urea accumulated in the stratum corneum. Conventional methods rely on labeling urea used in the formulation with radiocarbon ((14)C) or other radioactive isotopes (RIs), retrieving the transferred urea from the stratum corneum by tape stripping, then quantitating the urea. The handling and use of RIs, however, is subject to legal regulation and can only be performed in sanctioned facilities, so methods employing RIs are neither simple nor convenient. We therefore developed a non-radiolabel method "tape stripping-colorimetry (T-C)" that combines tape stripping with colorimetry (urease-glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH)) for the quantitative measurement of urea. Urea in the stratum corneum is collected by tape stripping and measured using urease-GLDH, which is commonly used to measure urea nitrogen in blood tests. The results indicate that accurate urea measurement by the T-C method requires the application of 1400 mg (on hairless rats) of a 20% urea solution on a 50 cm(2) (5×10 cm) area. Further, we determined the amount of urea accumulated in the stratum corneum using formulations with different urea concentrations, and the time course of urea accumulation from formulations differing in the rate of urea crystallization. We demonstrate that the T-C method is simple and convenient, with no need for (14)C or other RIs.

  13. Novel phytoceramides containing fatty acids of diverse chain lengths are better than a single C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine to improve the physiological properties of human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh MJ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Myoung Jin Oh,1 Young Hoon Cho,1 So Yoon Cha,1 Eun Ok Lee,2 Jin Wook Kim,2 Sun Ki Kim,2 Chang Seo Park1 1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Chung-gu, Seoul, 2LCS Biotech, Gwonseon-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Ceramides in the human stratum corneum (SC are a mixture of diverse N-acylated fatty acids (FAs with different chain lengths. C24 is the major class of FAs of ceramides. However, there are also other classes of ceramides with diverse chain lengths of FAs, and these lengths generally range from C16 to C26. This study aimed to prepare several types of phytoceramide containing diverse chain lengths of N-acylated FAs and compare them with C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine (NP in terms of their effects on the physiological properties of the SC. We chose natural oils, such as horse fat oil, shea butter, sunflower oil, and a mixture of macadamia nut, shea butter, moringa, and meadowfoam seed oil, as sources of FAs and phytosphingosine as a sphingoid backbone to synthesize diverse phytoceramides. Each phytoceramide exhibited a distinctive formation of the lamellar structure, and their FA profiles were similar to those of their respective natural oil. The skin barrier properties, as analyzed in human skin, clearly demonstrated that all the phytoceramides improved the recovery rate of the damaged SC and enhanced hydration better than C18-ceramide NP did. In conclusion, natural oil-derived phytoceramides could represent a novel class of ceramides for cosmetic applications in the development of an ideal skin barrier moisturizer. Keywords: fatty acid, chain length, phytoceramide, skin barrier, natural oil

  14. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids in the stratum corneum of house sparrows, Passer domesticus L., from desert and mesic environments as determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Ro, Jennifer; Brown, Johnie C; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-02-01

    Because cutaneous water loss (CWL) represents half of total water loss in birds, selection to reduce CWL may be strong in desert birds. We previously found that CWL of house sparrows from a desert population was about 25% lower than that of individuals from a mesic environment. The stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, serves as the primary barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The avian SC is formed by layers of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix consisting of cholesterol, free fatty acids and two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides. The SC of birds also serves a thermoregulatory function; high rates of CWL keep body temperatures under lethal limits in episodes of heat stress. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APPI-MS) to identify and quantify over 200 sphingolipids in the SC of house sparrows from desert and mesic populations. Principal components analysis (PCA) led to the hypotheses that sphingolipids in the SC of desert sparrows have longer carbon chains in the fatty acid moiety and are more polar than those found in mesic sparrows. We also tested the association between principal components and CWL in both populations. Our study suggested that a reduction in CWL found in desert sparrows was, in part, the result of modifications in chain length and polarity of the sphingolipids, changes that apparently determine the interactions of the lipid molecules within the SC.

  15. The application of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Choon Fu; Craig, Duncan Q M; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2017-02-01

    Drug permeation through the intercellular lipids, which pack around and between corneocytes, may be enhanced by increasing the thermodynamic activity of the active in a formulation. However, this may also result in unwanted drug crystallisation on and in the skin. In this work, we explore the combination of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the skin. Ex vivo permeation studies of saturated solutions of diclofenac sodium (DF Na) in two vehicles, propylene glycol (PG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), were carried out in porcine ear skin. Tape stripping and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were conducted simultaneously to collect spectral data as a function of skin depth. Multivariate data analysis was applied to visualise and categorise the spectral data in the region of interest (1700-1500cm -1 ) containing the carboxylate (COO - ) asymmetric stretching vibrations of DF Na. Spectral data showed the redshifts of the COO - asymmetric stretching vibrations for DF Na in the solution compared with solid drug. Similar shifts were evident following application of saturated solutions of DF Na to porcine skin samples. Multivariate data analysis categorised the spectral data based on the spectral differences and drug crystallisation was found to be confined to the upper layers of the skin. This proof-of-concept study highlights the utility of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis as a simple and rapid approach in the investigation of drug deposition in the skin. The approach described here will be extended to the study of other actives for topical application to the skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transdermal Drug Delivery: Innovative Pharmaceutical Developments Based on Disruption of the Barrier Properties of the Stratum Corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Zaid Alkilani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The skin offers an accessible and convenient site for the administration of medications. To this end, the field of transdermal drug delivery, aimed at developing safe and efficacious means of delivering medications across the skin, has in the past and continues to garner much time and investment with the continuous advancement of new and innovative approaches. This review details the progress and current status of the transdermal drug delivery field and describes numerous pharmaceutical developments which have been employed to overcome limitations associated with skin delivery systems. Advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches are detailed, commercially marketed products are highlighted and particular attention is paid to the emerging field of microneedle technologies.

  17. Transdermal Drug Delivery: Innovative Pharmaceutical Developments Based on Disruption of the Barrier Properties of the stratum corneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid Alkilani, Ahlam; McCrudden, Maelíosa T.C.; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    The skin offers an accessible and convenient site for the administration of medications. To this end, the field of transdermal drug delivery, aimed at developing safe and efficacious means of delivering medications across the skin, has in the past and continues to garner much time and investment with the continuous advancement of new and innovative approaches. This review details the progress and current status of the transdermal drug delivery field and describes numerous pharmaceutical developments which have been employed to overcome limitations associated with skin delivery systems. Advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches are detailed, commercially marketed products are highlighted and particular attention is paid to the emerging field of microneedle technologies. PMID:26506371

  18. Comparison of rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) with intact human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappinen, Sari; Hermansson, Martin; Kuntsche, Judith

    2008-01-01

    study was to compare the stratum corneum lipid content of ROC with the corresponding material from human skin. The lipid composition was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass-spectrometry, and the thermal phase transitions of stratum corneum were studied by differential scanning...... calorimetry (DSC). All major lipid classes of the stratum corneum were present in ROC in a similar ratio as found in human stratum corneum. Compared to human skin, the level of non-hydroxyacid-sphingosine ceramide (NS) was increased in ROC, while alpha-hydroxyacid-phytosphingosine ceramide (AP) and non...... compared to human skin, in agreement with the results from DSC. ROC underwent a lipid lamellar order to disorder transition (T2) at a slightly lower temperature (68 degrees C) than human skin (74 degrees C). These differences in stratum corneum lipid composition and the thermal phase transitions may...

  19. Impact of the long chain omega-acylceramides on the stratum corneum lipid nanostructure. Part 1: Thermotropic phase behaviour of CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] studied using X-ray powder diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessner, Doreen; Brezesinski, Gerald; Funari, Sergio S; Dobner, Bodo; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2010-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the mammalian skin, is the main skin barrier. Ceramides (CERs) as the major constituent of the SC lipid matrix are of particular interest. At the moment, 11 classes of CERs are identified, but the effect of each single ceramide species is still not known. Therefore in this article, the thermotropic behaviour of the long chain omega-acylceramides CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] was studied using X-ray powder diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the omega-acylceramides CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] do not show a pronounced polymorphism which is observed for shorter chain ceramides as a significant feature. The phase behaviour of both ceramides is strongly influenced by the extremely long acyl-chain residue. The latter has a much stronger influence compared with the structure of the polar head group, which is discussed as extremely important for the appearance of a rich polymorphism. Despite the strong influence of the long chain, the additional OH-group of the phyto-sphingosine type CER[EOP] influences the lamellar repeat distance and the chain packing. The less polar sphingosine type CER[EOS] is stronger influenced by the long acyl-chain residue. Hydration is necessary for the formation of an extended hydrogen-bonding network between the polar head groups leading to the appearance of a long-periodicity phase (LPP). In contrast, the more polar CER[EOP] forms the LPP with densely packed alkyl chains already in the dry state.

  20. Investigation of a CER[NP]- and [AP]-Based Stratum Corneum Modeling Membrane System: Using Specifically Deuterated CER Together with a Neutron Diffraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lange, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Hauß, Thomas; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2018-01-30

    Neutron diffraction was used as a tool to investigate the lamellar as well as molecular nanostructure of ceramide-[NP]/ceramide-[AP]/cholesterol/lignoceric acid model systems with a nativelike 2:1 ratio and a 1:2 ratio to study the influence of the ceramide-[AP]. By using mixtures together with cholesterol and free fatty acids as well as a humidity and temperature chamber while measuring, natural conditions were simulated as closely as possible. Despite its simplicity, the system simulated the native stratum corneum lipid matrix fairly closely, showing a similar lamellar thickness with a repeat distance of 5.45 ± 0.1 nm and a similar arrangement with overlapping long C24 chains. Furthermore, despite the very minor chemical difference between ceramide-[NP] and ceramide-[AP], which is only a single OH group, it was possible to demonstrate substantial differences between the structural influence of the two ceramides. Ceramide-[AP] could be concluded to be arranged in such a way that its C24 chain in both ratios is somehow shorter than that of ceramide-[NP], not overlapping as much with the opposite lamellar leaflet. Furthermore, in the unnatural 1:2 ratio, the higher ceramide-[AP] content causes an increased tilt of the ceramide acyl chains. This leads to even less overlapping within the lamellar midplane, whereas the repeat distance stays the same as for the ceramide-[NP]-rich system. In this nativelike 2:1 ratio, the chains are arranged mostly straight, and the long C24 chains show a broad overlapping region in the lamellar midplane.

  1. Turn-over of Stratijm Corneum in Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Okhandiar

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Stratum corneum showed increased proliferative activity on the patches of leprosy as evidenced by a significantly fast stratum corneum turnover time (p 0.001 measured by fluorescent staining technic with dansyl chloride. These findings suggest imperfect keratinization on the patches of leprosy leading to formation of structurally weak stratum corneum.

  2. Genetic Algorithm for Opto-thermal Skin Hydration Depth Profiling Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Xiao, Perry; Imhof, R. E.

    2013-09-01

    Stratum corneum is the outermost skin layer, and the water content in stratum corneum plays a key role in skin cosmetic properties as well as skin barrier functions. However, to measure the water content, especially the water concentration depth profile, within stratum corneum is very difficult. Opto-thermal emission radiometry, or OTTER, is a promising technique that can be used for such measurements. In this paper, a study on stratum corneum hydration depth profiling by using a genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. The pros and cons of a GA compared against other inverse algorithms such as neural networks, maximum entropy, conjugate gradient, and singular value decomposition will be discussed first. Then, it will be shown how to use existing knowledge to optimize a GA for analyzing the opto-thermal signals. Finally, these latest GA results on hydration depth profiling of stratum corneum under different conditions, as well as on the penetration profiles of externally applied solvents, will be shown.

  3. Ethnicity and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    method and analysed using high-performance thin layer chromatography. RESULTS: For the ceramide/cholesterol ratio we found statistically significant differences between groups, with Asians having the highest ratio (P

  4. Microspectroscopic Confocal Raman and Macroscopic Biophysical Measurements in the in vivo Assessment of the Skin Barrier: Perspective for Dermatology and Cosmetic Sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcone, D.; Uzunbajakava, N.E.; Varghese, B.; Aquino Santos, G.R. de; Richters, R.J.H.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Skin barrier function, confined to the stratum corneum, is traditionally evaluated using established, noninvasive biophysical methods like transepidermal water loss, capacitance and conductance. However, these methods neither measure skin molecular composition nor its structure, hindering the actual

  5. Determination of the influence of C24 D/(2R)- and L/(2S)-isomers of the CER[AP] on the lamellar structure of stratum corneum model systems using neutron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lange, Stefan; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Demé, Bruno; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Gooris, Gert; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2017-12-01

    This study was able to investigate the different influence of the d- and l-ceramide [AP] on the lamellar as well as molecular nanostructure of stratum corneum simulating lipid model mixtures. In this case, neutron diffraction together with specifically deuterated ceramide was used as an effective tool to investigate the lamellar and the molecular nanostructure of the mixtures. It could clearly be demonstrated, that both isomers show distinctly different characteristics, even though the variation between both is only a single differently arranged OH-group. The l-ceramide [AP] promotes a crystalline like phase behaviour even if mixed with ceramide [NP], cholesterol and free fatty acids. The d-ceramide [AP] only shows crystalline-like features if mixed only with cholesterol and free fatty acids but adopts a native-like behaviour if additionally mixed with ceramide [NP]. It furthermore demonstrates that the l-ceramide [AP] should not be used for any applications concerning ceramide substitution. It could however possibly serve its own purpose, if this crystalline like behaviour has some kind of positive influence on the SC or can be utilized for any practical applications. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the diastereomers of ceramide [AP] are an attractive target for further research because their influence on the lamellar as well as the nanostructure is exceptionally strong. Additionally, the results furthermore show a very strong influence on hydration of the model membrane. With these properties, the d-ceramide [AP] could be effectively used to simulate native like behaviour even in very simple mixtures and could also have a strong impact on the native stratum corneum as well as high relevance for dermal ceramide substitution. The unnatural l-ceramide [AP] on the other hand should be investigated further, to assess its applicability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The long periodicity phase (LPP) controversy part I: The influence of a natural-like ratio of the CER[EOS] analogue [EOS]-br in a CER[NP]/[AP] based stratum corneum modelling system: A neutron diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lange, Stefan; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Demé, Bruno; Langner, Andreas; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2018-06-18

    This study used neutron diffraction to investigate a ceramide-[NP] C24/[AP] C24 /[EOS]-br C30/cholesterol/lignoceric acid (0.6: 0.3: 0.1: 0.7: 1) based stratum corneum modelling system. By adding specifically deuterated ceramides-[NP]-D 3 , [AP]-D 3 , and [EOS]-br-D 3 , detailed information on the lamellar and the nanostructure of the system was obtained. For the short periodicity phase a natural-like lamellar repeat distance of 5.47 ± 0.02 nm was observed, similar to the [NP]/[AP] base system without the [EOS]-br. Unlike in this system the ceramides here were slightly tilted, hinting towards a slightly less natural arrangement. Due to the deuteration it was possible to observe that the long ceramide chains were overlapping in the lamellar mid-plane. This is considered to be an important feature for the natural stratum corneum. Despite the presence of a ceramide [EOS] analogue - able to form a long phase arrangement - no distinct long periodicity phase was formed, despite a slightly higher than natural ω-acyl ceramide ratio of 10 mol%. The deuterated variant of this ceramide determined that the very long ceramide was integrated into the short periodicity phase, spanning multiple layers instead. The - compared to the base system - unchanged repeat distance highlights the stability of this structure. Furthermore, the localisation of the very long ceramide in the short periodicity phase indicates the possibility of a crosslinking effect and thus a multilayer stabilizing role for the ceramide [EOS]. It can be concluded, that additionally to the mere presence of ceramide-[EOS] more complex conditions have to be met in order to form this long phase. This has to be further investigated in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical properties of striped bass fish skin: Evidence of an exotendon function of the stratum compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewciw, Lawrence; Barthelat, Francois

    2017-09-01

    Teleost fish skin is a multifunctional natural material with high penetration resistance owing to specialized puncture mechanisms of both the individual scale and the intact scaled integument. In this paper, we explore the possible additional role of the skin in fish undulatory locomotion by examining the structural and mechanical properties of the dermal stratum (s.) compactum layer of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) skin. The structure, mechanical response and function of s. compactum was investigated by combining several methods: optical microscopy and histology, tensile tests on descaled skin specimens in different anatomical locations and orientations, puncture tests, and flexural tests on whole fish with disruption of the s. compactum. Local histological features of the s. compactum, such as collagen fiber angle and degree of crimping, were shown to explain corresponding patterns determined for the tensile properties of the skin along the long axis of the fish, including changes in stiffness, strength and locking strain at stiffening. The fish bending tests demonstrated a tendon-like response of the whole fish and a significant contribution of the s. compactum to the flexural stiffness of the fish. Collectively, the findings show that the s. compactum is a strong tissue with a tendon-like nonlinear response, and which provides an appreciable mechanical protection against sharp puncture and lacerations. Our results also support the theory of an exotendon function of the s. compactum in teleost fish skin. These findings may inspire the design of new multifunctional protective and locomotory systems for a variety of engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gravimetric method for in vitro calibration of skin hydration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Ørjan G; Grimnes, Sverre; Nilsen, Jon K; Tronstad, Christian; Jang, Wooyoung; Kim, Hongsig; Shin, Kunsoo; Naderi, Majid; Thielmann, Frank

    2008-02-01

    A novel method for in vitro calibration of skin hydration measurements is presented. The method combines gravimetric and electrical measurements and reveals an exponential dependency of measured electrical susceptance to absolute water content in the epidermal stratum corneum. The results also show that absorption of water into the stratum corneum exhibits three different phases with significant differences in absorption time constant. These phases probably correspond to bound, loosely bound, and bulk water.

  9. Novel TGM5 mutations in acral peeling skin syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Jaap J. A. J.; van Geel, Michel; Nellen, Ruud G. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; McGrath, John A.; Nanda, Arti; Sprecher, Eli; van Steensel, Maurice A. M.; McLean, W. H. Irwin; Cassidy, Andrew J.

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS, MIM #609796) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by superficial exfoliation and blistering of the volar and dorsal aspects of hands and feet. The level of separation is at the junction of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. APSS is caused

  10. Effects of various vehicles on skin hydration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedersberg, S; Leopold, C S; Guy, R H

    2009-01-01

    The stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, regulates the passive loss of water to the environment. Furthermore, it is well accepted that drug penetration is influenced by skin hydration, which may be manipulated by the application of moisturizing or oleaginous vehicles. Measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and of skin hydration using a corneometer, were used to assess the effect of different vehicles on stratum corneum barrier function in vivo in human volunteers. A microemulsion significantly increased skin hydration relative to a reference vehicle based on medium chain triglycerides; in contrast, Transcutol(R) lowered skin hydration. TEWL measurements confirmed these observations. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Stratum corneum lipid liposome-encapsulated panomycocin: preparation, characterization, and the determination of antimycotic efficacy against Candida spp. isolated from patients with vulvovaginitis in an in vitro human vaginal epithelium tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzgü, Fatih; Bayram, Günce; Tosun, Kübra; İzgü, Demet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a liposomal lyophilized powder formulation of panomycocin was developed for therapeutic purposes against vulvovaginal candidiasis which affects 80% of women worldwide. Panomycocin is a potent antimycotic protein secreted by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus NCYC 434. This study involved the preparation of panomycocin-loaded stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs), characterization of the SCLLs, and determination of antimycotic efficacy of the formulation against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata clinical vaginal isolates in a human vaginal epithelium tissue model. The encapsulation and loading efficiencies of SCLLs were 73% and 76.8%, respectively. In transmission electron microscopy images, the SCLLs appeared in the submicron size range. Dynamic light scattering analyses showed that the SCLLs had uniform size distribution. Zeta potential measurements revealed stable and positively charged SCLLs. In Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, no irreversible interactions between the encapsulated panomycocin and the SCLLs were detected. The SCLLs retained >98% of encapsulated panomycocin in aqueous solution up to 12 hours. The formulation was fungicidal at the same minimum fungicidal concentration values for non-formulated pure panomycocin when tested on an in vitro model of vaginal candidiasis. This is the first study in which SCLLs and a protein as an active ingredient have been utilized together in a formulation. The results obtained in this study led us to conduct further preclinical trials of this formulation for the development of an effective topical anti-candidal drug with improved safety.

  12. Skin permeation and antioxidant efficacy of topically applied resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Cristina; Martí, M; Barba, C; Carrer, V; Rubio, L; Coderch, L

    2017-08-01

    The permeation of resveratrol was assessed by in vitro and in vivo experiments 24 h after topical administration. The in vitro profile of resveratrol was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Human skin permeation was analysed in vivo by the tape stripping method with the progressive removal of the stratum corneum layers using adhesive tape strips. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activity of resveratrol after its topical application was determined using the DPPH assay. The Raman spectra indicated that the topically applied resveratrol penetrates deep into the skin. The results showed high amounts of resveratrol in the different stratum corneum layers close to the surface and a constant lower amount in the upper layers of the viable epidermis. The concentration of resveratrol present in the outermost stratum corneum layers was obtained by tape stripping after in vivo application. The results demonstrated that resveratrol mainly remained in the human stratum corneum layers. After topical application, resveratrol maintained its antiradical activity. The antioxidant efficacy of the compound was higher in the inner layers of the stratum corneum. As these results have demonstrated, topically applied resveratrol reinforces the antioxidant system of the stratum corneum and provides an efficient means of increasing the tissue levels of antioxidants in the human epidermis.

  13. Skin peeling syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharpuray Mohan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of skin peeling syndrome, a rare disorder in which sudden generalized exfoliation of the stratum corneum occurs. Histopathologically, there was well formed subcorneal pustule filled with polymorphs and nuclear dust, considering this to be a varient of subcorneal pustular dermatosis, we have put the patient on Dapsone.

  14. Infrared spectroscopic measurement of skin hydration and sebum levels and comparison to corneometer and sebumeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezerskaia, A.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, Paul; Varghese, Babu; Popp, Jürgen; Tuchin, Valery V.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-01-01

    Skin health characterized by a system of water and lipids in Stratum Corneum provide protection from harmful external elements and prevent trans-epidermal water loss. Skin hydration (moisture) and sebum (skin surface lipids) are considered to be important factors in skin health; a right balance

  15. Microautoradiography of /sup 14/C-salicylic acid in the skin of guinea-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washitake, M; Ozawa, Y; Anmo, T; Tanaka, I [Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Research Lab.

    1974-07-01

    The concentration of salicylic acid in guinea-pig skin was examined by microautoradiography. The retention of salicylic acid in the stratum corneum was observed. It was considered that the rate of transfer of the drug into the stratum corneum was small and that the stratum corneum became the barrier for permeability of the skin. The distribution of salicylic acid in other parts of the skin was uniform and no retention of the drug in any special parts was observed. The plasma level showed less percutaneous absorption of the drug when it was applied as liquid paraffin solution than when it was applied as an aqueous solution. The amount of salicylic acid absorbed from damaged skin was extremely large and, in this case, disappearance of the drug from the skin was fast.

  16. Microautoradiography of 14C-salicylic acid in the skin of guinea-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washitake, Mitsunori; Ozawa, Yasuo; Anmo, Toshio; Tanaka, Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    The concentration of salicylic acid in guinea-pig skin was examined by microautoradiography. The retention of salicylic acid in the stratum corneum was observed. It was considered that the rate of transfer of the drug into the stratum corneum was small and that the stratum corneum became the barrier for permeability of the skin. The distribution of salicylic acid in other parts of the skin was uniform and no retention of the drug in any special parts was observed. The plasma level showed less percutaneous absorption of the drug when it was applied as liquid paraffin solution than when it was applied as an aqueous solution. The amount of salicylic acid absorbed from damaged skin was extremely large and, in this case, disappearance of the drug from the skin was fast. (author)

  17. Quantification of changes in skin hydration and sebum after tape stripping using infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezerskaia, A.; Pereira, S. F.; Urbach, H. P.; Varghese, B.

    2017-02-01

    Skin barrier function relies on well balanced water and lipid system of stratum corneum. Optimal hydration and oiliness levels are indicators of skin health and integrity. We demonstrate an accurate and sensitive depth profiling of stratum corneum sebum and hydration levels using short wave infrared spectroscopy in the spectral range around 1720 nm. We demonstrate that short wave infrared spectroscopic technique combined with tape stripping can provide morequantitative and more reliable skin barrier function information in the low hydration regime, compared to conventional biophysical methods.

  18. Detecting electroporation by assessing the time constants in the exponential response of human skin to voltage controlled impulse electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bîrlea, Sinziana I; Corley, Gavin J; Bîrlea, Nicolae M; Breen, Paul P; Quondamatteo, Fabio; OLaighin, Gearóid

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method for extracting the electrical properties of human skin based on the time constant analysis of its exponential response to impulse stimulation. As a result of this analysis an adjacent finding has arisen. We have found that stratum corneum electroporation can be detected using this analysis method. We have observed that a one time-constant model is appropriate for describing the electrical properties of human skin at low amplitude applied voltages (30V). Higher voltage amplitudes (>30V) have been proven to create pores in the skin's stratum corneum which offer a new, lower resistance, pathway for the passage of current through the skin. Our data shows that when pores are formed in the stratum corneum they can be detected, in-vivo, due to the fact that a second time constant describes current flow through them.

  19. Development of an in vivo animal model for skin penetration in hairless rats assessed by mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Petersen, Mads B; Benfeldt, Eva

    2002-01-01

    acid and (14)C-butyl salicylate were topically applied. Rapid and differentiated percutaneous absorption of both compounds were shown by urinary excretion data. For (14)C-salicylic acid the amount on the skin surface, in the stratum corneum and in the viable skin was determined. Total mass balance...... rat and free mobility throughout the test period. By consecutive tape stripping, monitored by measurements of transepidermal water loss and confirmed by histological examination of skin biopsies, 10 tape strippings were found to remove the stratum corneum completely. For assessment of the model, (14)C-salicylic...

  20. Infrared spectroscopic measurement of skin hydration and sebum levels and comparison to corneometer and sebumeter

    OpenAIRE

    Ezerskaia, A.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, Paul; Varghese, Babu; Popp, Jürgen; Tuchin, Valery V.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-01-01

    Skin health characterized by a system of water and lipids in Stratum Corneum provide protection from harmful external elements and prevent trans-epidermal water loss. Skin hydration (moisture) and sebum (skin surface lipids) are considered to be important factors in skin health; a right balance between these components is an indication of skin health and plays a central role in protecting and preserving skin integrity. In this manuscript we present an infrared spectroscopic method for simulta...

  1. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kiprono, Samson K; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard; Masenga, John E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occl...

  2. A case of peeling skin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Singhal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparing palm and soles. Histologically, there was epidermal separation at the level of stratum corneum, just above the stratum granulosum. This case is being presented due to its rarity.

  3. A Case of Peeling Skin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anil K; Yadav, Devendra K; Soni, Bajrang; Arya, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparing palm and soles. Histologically, there was epidermal separation at the level of stratum corneum, just above the stratum granulosum. This case is being presented due to its rarity.

  4. Topical Nano and Microemulsions for Skin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofori M. R. R. Nastiti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanosystems such as microemulsions (ME and nanoemulsions (NE offer considerable opportunities for targeted drug delivery to and via the skin. ME and NE are stable colloidal systems composed of oil and water, stabilised by a mixture of surfactants and cosurfactants, that have received particular interest as topical skin delivery systems. There is considerable scope to manipulate the formulation components and characteristics to achieve optimal bioavailability and minimal skin irritancy. This includes the incorporation of established chemical penetration enhancers to fluidize the stratum corneum lipid bilayers, thus reducing the primary skin barrier and increasing permeation. This review discusses nanosystems with utility in skin delivery and focuses on the composition and characterization of ME and NE for topical and transdermal delivery. The mechanism of skin delivery across the stratum corneum and via hair follicles is reviewed with particular focus on the influence of formulation.

  5. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Ruth M; Cole, Bryan E; Wallace, Vincent P; Pye, Richard J; Arnone, Donald D; Linfield, Edmund H; Pepper, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo

  6. Volumetric Visualization of Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Toshiyuki; Kurioka, Yoshihiro

    We propose a modeling and rendering technique of human skin, which can provide realistic color, gloss and translucency for various applications in computer graphics. Our method is based on volumetric representation of the structure inside of the skin. Our model consists of the stratum corneum and three layers of pigments. The stratum corneum has also layered structure in which the incident light is reflected, refracted and diffused. Each layer of pigment has carotene, melanin or hemoglobin. The density distributions of pigments which define the color of each layer can be supplied as one of the voxel values. Surface normals of upper-side voxels are fluctuated to produce bumps and lines on the skin. We apply ray tracing approach to this model to obtain the rendered image. Multiple scattering in the stratum corneum, reflective and absorptive spectrum of pigments are considered. We also consider Fresnel term to calculate the specular component for glossy surface of skin. Some examples of rendered images are shown, which can successfully visualize a human skin.

  7. Drug Delivery Through the Skin: Molecular Simulations of Barrier Lipids to Design more Effective Noninvasive Dermal and Transdermal Delivery Systems for Small Molecules Biologics and Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Torin Huzil; S Sivaloganathan; M Kohandel; M Foldvari

    2011-12-31

    The delivery of drugs through the skin provides a convenient route of administration that is often preferable to injection because it is noninvasive and can typically be self-administered. These two factors alone result in a significant reduction of medical complications and improvement in patient compliance. Unfortunately, a significant obstacle to dermal and transdermal drug delivery alike is the resilient barrier that the epidermal layers of the skin, primarily the stratum corneum, presents for the diffusion of exogenous chemical agents. Further advancement of transdermal drug delivery requires the development of novel delivery systems that are suitable for modern, macromolecular protein and nucleotide therapeutic agents. Significant effort has already been devoted to obtain a functional understanding of the physical barrier properties imparted by the epidermis, specifically the membrane structures of the stratum corneum. However, structural observations of membrane systems are often hindered by low resolutions, making it difficult to resolve the molecular mechanisms related to interactions between lipids found within the stratum corneum. Several models describing the molecular diffusion of drug molecules through the stratum corneum have now been postulated, where chemical permeation enhancers are thought to disrupt the underlying lipid structure, resulting in enhanced permeability. Recent investigations using biphasic vesicles also suggested a possibility for novel mechanisms involving the formation of complex polymorphic lipid phases. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of permeation-enhancing strategies and how computational simulations, at the atomic scale, coupled with physical observations can provide insight into the mechanisms of diffusion through the stratum corneum.

  8. Electroosmotic pore transport in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Olivia D; White, Henry S

    2003-04-01

    To determine the pathways and origin of electroosmotic flow in human skin. Iontophoretic transport of acetaminophen in full thickness human cadaver skin was visualized and quantified by scanning electrochemical microscopy. Electroosmotic flow in the shunt pathways of full thickness skin was compared to flow in the pores of excised stratum corneum and a synthetic membrane pore. The penetration of rhodamine 6G into pore structures was investigated by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Electroosmotic transport is observed in shunt pathways in full thickness human skin (e.g., hair follicles and sweat glands), but not in pore openings of freestanding stratum corneum. Absolute values of the diffusive and iontophoretic pore fluxes of acetaminophen in full thickness human skin are also reported. Rhodamine 6G is observed to penetrate to significant depths (approximately 200 microm) along pore pathways. Iontophoresis in human cadaver skin induces localized electroosmotic flow along pore shunt paths. Electroosmotic forces arise from the passage of current through negatively charged mesoor nanoscale pores (e.g., gap functions) within cellular regions that define the pore structure beneath the stratum corneum.

  9. Coffee polyphenols extracted from green coffee beans improve skin properties and microcirculatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Satoko; Haramizu, Satoshi; Sasaoka, Shun; Yasuda, Yuka; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2017-09-01

    Coffee polyphenols (CPPs), including chlorogenic acid, exert various physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPPs on skin properties and microcirculatory function in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 female subjects with mildly xerotic skin received either a test beverage containing CPPs (270 mg/100 mL/day) or a placebo beverage for 8 weeks. The ingestion of CPPs significantly lowered the clinical scores for skin dryness, decreased transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration and the responsiveness of skin blood flow during local warming. Moreover, the amounts of free fatty acids and lactic acid in the stratum corneum significantly increased after the ingestion of CPPs. These results suggest that an 8-week intake of CPPs improve skin permeability barrier function and hydration, with a concomitant improvement in microcirculatory function, leading to efficacy in the alleviation of mildly xerotic skin.

  10. Effects of vehicle on the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershing, Lynn K.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Corlett, Judy L.; Crouch, Dennis J.

    2004-01-01

    While the physiologic and molecular effects of capsaicinoids have been extensively studied in various model systems by a variety of administration routes, little is known about the uptake and elimination kinetic profiles in human skin following topical exposure. The present study evaluated the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human stratum corneum following a single topical exposure to 3% solutions containing 55% capsaicin, 35% dihydrocapsaicin, and 10% other analogues prepared in three vehicles: mineral oil (MO), propylene glycol (PG), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Capsaicinoid solutions were evaluated simultaneously in a random application pattern on the volar forearms of 12 subjects using a small, single 150-μg dose. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were recovered from human skin using commercial adhesive discs to harvest stratum corneum from treated sites. Capsaicinoids were extracted from the stratum corneum-adhesive discs and quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Both capsaicinoids were detected in stratum corneum 1 min after application with all vehicles and achieved a pseudo-steady state shortly thereafter. IPA delivered three times greater capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin into the human stratum corneum than PG or MO at all time points investigated. The C max of capsaicin in IPA, PG, and MO was 16.1, 6.2, and 6.5 μg, respectively. The dihydrocapsaicin content was 60% of capsaicin with all vehicles. The estimated T half of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the three vehicles was similar (24 h). Thus, maximal cutaneous capsaicinoid concentrations were achieved quickly in the human stratum corneum and were concentration and vehicle dependent. In contrast, capsaicinoid half-life was long and vehicle independent

  11. Pig skin structure and transdermal delivery of liposomes: a two photon microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrer, Dolores C.; Vermehren, Charlotte; Bagatolli, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In this work we have characterized the architecture and physical properties of pig skin epidermis including its permeability to different liposome formulations. Autofluorescence images show that cells in the epidermis, from the basal layer to the stratum corneum, are organized in clusters that ar...

  12. Factors of skin decontamination as derived from experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratzel, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    The processes occuring during radioactive contamination of the skin are reminiscent of those observed in connection with skin penetration by drugs. Explained are the laws determining the penetration of substances through the skin surface, their spreading between the corneocystes into the deeper layers of the stratum corneum and their final concentrations, the decrease of which with the depth of the corneal layer can be described by an exponential curve. The extent to which the penetrating substances are transferred from the solvent to the corneal layer's lipid phase depends on their relative solubility. The intercellular lipid layer in the lower third of the stratum corneum creates the greatest obstacle to permeation through the skin. The lipid content in this part of the corneal layer is seen to be inversely proportional to the degree of natural barrier dysfunction and, thus, to permeation. For measurements of skin permeation, experiments were performed in young pigs using aqueous radioactive solutions. Part of the substances penetrated into the organism through the follicles, where the corneal layer is more permeable. In cases of very hairy skin the amount of substance deposited as a result of additional follicle penetration is seen to be higher. The greatest proportion of radioactivity by far is taken up into the stratum corneum, while only little is seen to reach the follicles and even less the deeper layers of the skin. Decontamination of the skin cannot be carried out for areas beyond the boundary of the corneal layer. (orig./HP) [de

  13. The static friction response of non-glabrous skin as a function of surface energy and environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Michel; de Vries, Erik G.; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2017-01-01

    The (local) environmental conditions have a significant effect on the interaction between skin and products. Plasticisation of the stratum corneum occurs at high humidity, causing this layer to soften and change its surface free energy. In this work we study the effects of the micro-climate on the

  14. Ceramides and barrier function in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungerstedt, J; Hellgren, Lars; Drachmann, Tue

    2010-01-01

    Lipids in the stratum corneum are key components in the barrier function of the skin. Changes in lipid composition related to eczematous diseases are well known, but limited data are available on variations within healthy skin. The objective of the present study was to compare ceramide subgroups...... and ceramide/cholesterol ratios in young, old, male and female healthy skin. A total of 55 participants with healthy skin was included in the study. Lipid profiles were correlated with transepidermal water loss and with information on dry skin from a questionnaire including 16 people. No statistically...

  15. 应用荧光图像对丹磺酰氯染色后角质层转化时间的评价%The Evaluation of Stratum Corneum Turnover Time After Dansyl Chloride Staining by Fluorescence Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 王学民; 程英; 武苏捷; 史红玉; 朱翔

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate stratum eorneum turnover time after the dansyl chloride staining by fluorescence images and its grey values. Methods Thirty subjects were stained by dansyl chloride at inner forearm. The dyeing was evaluated by visual scoring under Wood's lamp once a day in consistant 28 days. At the same time ultraviolet fluorescence images were taken by a fluorescence camera twice a week. Then we got the visual score of images base on the staining intensity of these pictures. The grey value of the fluorescence images were analyzed by Photoshop software. Results During 28 days, the dyeing at the study site disappeared gradually. And the grey value of fluorescence images decreased gradually as well. There were good correlation among the grey value of fluorescence image and the score of visual assessment under Wood's lamp and the scores of image assessment. Conclusion The fluorescence images and its grey value could be the objective evaluation method for the stratum eorneum turnover time by dansyl chloride staining. The sensitivity of evaluation could be improved and the fluorescence result could be got.%目的 丹磺酰氯皮肤染色后,应用荧光图像及其灰度值对角质层的转化时间进行评价.方法 30名受试者的前臂内侧应用丹磺酰氯染色,染色后每天在伍德氏灯下肉眼评价染色强度,连续28d.同时每周应用相机摄取荧光图像2次,根据这些图像的染色强度得到荧光图像的肉眼评分.应用Photoshop软件分析摄取图像得到荧光图像的灰度值.结果 经过28d的试验,皮肤染色逐渐脱落,而荧光图像的灰度值也随时间逐渐减小.荧光图像灰度值与伍德氏灯下肉眼评分、图像的肉眼评分具有较好的一致性.结论 应用荧光图像评分及其灰度值可以客观地评价丹磺酰氯皮肤染色的脱落情况,提高试验评分的敏感性,并可获取数字化的结果.

  16. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Musashi; Ariella Coler-Reilly; Teruaki Nagasawa; Yoshiki Kubota; Satomi Kato; Yoko Yamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid ...

  17. Acral peeling skin syndrome: a case of two brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakade, Oojwala; Adams, Beth; Shwayder, Tor

    2009-01-01

    We report two brothers of Middle Eastern descent with consanguineous parents who present with numerous fragile, flaccid blisters on the hands and feet. In addition to spontaneous peeling, they can manually peel skin from acral areas without pain. The symptoms worsen with warm temperatures, excessive water exposure, and perspiration. Two biopsies from flaccid blisters on the feet were taken from the older brother, which revealed cleavage at the level of the stratum corneum. A diagnosis of acral peeling skin syndrome was made.

  18. (2)Maintaining Beauty Through Skin Care(Well-aging-Present State of Rejuvenation Medicine, The 73rd General Meeting of the Society of Tokyo Women's Medical University)

    OpenAIRE

    川島, 眞; Makoto, KAWASHIMA

    2008-01-01

    Dry skin, senile freckles and wrinkles are major symptoms of aged skin. Dry skin is caused by the decrease of skin surface lipids, natural moisturizing factors and intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum. Senile freckles are the deposition of melanin pigments on the basal layer of the epidermis which is brought about by the activation of melanocytes through UV exposure and the delay in the turnover rate of epidermal cells due to aging. Wrinkles are caused by UV-induced damage to collagen ...

  19. Minoxidil Skin Delivery from Nanoemulsion Formulations Containing Eucalyptol or Oleic Acid: Enhanced Diffusivity and Follicular Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd, Eman; Benson, Heather A. E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Grice, Jeffrey E.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we examined enhanced skin delivery of minoxidil applied in nanoemulsions incorporating skin penetration enhancers. Aliquots of fully characterized oil-in-water nanoemulsions (1 mL), containing minoxidil (2%) and the skin penetration enhancer oleic acid or eucalyptol as oil phases, were applied to full-thickness excised human skin in Franz diffusion cells, while aqueous solutions (1 mL) containing minoxidil were used as controls. Minoxidil in the stratum corneum (SC), hair follicles, deeper skin layers, and flux through the skin over 24 h was determined, as well as minoxidil solubility in the formulations and in the SC. The nanoemulsions significantly enhanced the permeation of minoxidil through skin compared with control solutions. The eucalyptol formulations (NE) promoted minoxidil retention in the SC and deeper skin layers more than did the oleic acid formulations, while the oleic acid formulations (NO) gave the greatest hair follicle penetration. Minoxidil maximum flux enhancement was associated with increases in both minoxidil SC solubility and skin diffusivity in both nanoemulsion systems. The mechanism of enhancement appeared to be driven largely by increased diffusivity, rather than increased partitioning into the stratum corneum, supporting the concept of enhanced fluidity and disruption of stratum corneum lipids. PMID:29370122

  20. Minoxidil Skin Delivery from Nanoemulsion Formulations Containing Eucalyptol or Oleic Acid: Enhanced Diffusivity and Follicular Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we examined enhanced skin delivery of minoxidil applied in nanoemulsions incorporating skin penetration enhancers. Aliquots of fully characterized oil-in-water nanoemulsions (1 mL, containing minoxidil (2% and the skin penetration enhancer oleic acid or eucalyptol as oil phases, were applied to full-thickness excised human skin in Franz diffusion cells, while aqueous solutions (1 mL containing minoxidil were used as controls. Minoxidil in the stratum corneum (SC, hair follicles, deeper skin layers, and flux through the skin over 24 h was determined, as well as minoxidil solubility in the formulations and in the SC. The nanoemulsions significantly enhanced the permeation of minoxidil through skin compared with control solutions. The eucalyptol formulations (NE promoted minoxidil retention in the SC and deeper skin layers more than did the oleic acid formulations, while the oleic acid formulations (NO gave the greatest hair follicle penetration. Minoxidil maximum flux enhancement was associated with increases in both minoxidil SC solubility and skin diffusivity in both nanoemulsion systems. The mechanism of enhancement appeared to be driven largely by increased diffusivity, rather than increased partitioning into the stratum corneum, supporting the concept of enhanced fluidity and disruption of stratum corneum lipids.

  1. Storage conditions of skin affect tissue structure and in vitro percutaneus penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    skin at -20oC causes structural changes in the upper Stratum Corneum observable with image techniques such as multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy. The presently available literature does, however, not support that the observed structural damage to the integrity is sufficient to cause...... structural changes in upper as well as deeper parts of Stratum Corneum. These more severe changes corresponds to significantly increased percutaneous penetration of chemicals applied to skin specimens stored at very low temperatures. Storage of human skin for later use in in vitro studies on percutaneous......For logistic and practical reasons it is difficult to perform in vitro studies on percutaneous penetration on fresh human skin obtained directly from surgery. Skin samples are therefore often kept frozen until use. The present chapter present the available literature on the topic. Storage of human...

  2. Skin hydration and lifestyle-related factors in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, Shinji

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate skin hydration status of the lower legs by comparing several methods and examining lifestyle-related factors in community-dwelling older people. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three community settings in Japan from autumn to winter. Participants were older people aged ≥65 years (n=118). Skin hydration status of the lower legs was evaluated by stratum corneum hydration using an electrical device, clinical symptoms by an expert's observation and the visual analogue scale. Lifestyle factors of skin care were evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 74.4 years and 83.9% were women. Stratum corneum hydration was significantly correlated with clinical scores by an expert's observation (rho=-0.46, Pskin, 57.5% showed low stratum corneum hydration. Hospitalization in the past year (b=-9.4, P=0.008), excessive bathing habits (b=-4.6, P=0.014), and having an outdoor hobby (b=-5.7, P=0.007) were negatively associated, and diuretics (b=11.5, P=0.002) and lotion-type moisturizer use (b=4.6, P=0.022) were positively associated with stratum corneum hydration. Stratum corneum hydration measurements show an adequate association with observation-based evaluation by an expert, but poor agreement with subjective evaluation in community-dwelling older people. Hospitalization experience and lifestyle factors are associated with skin hydration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of atopic skin and the effect of a hyperforin-rich cream by laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Martina C.; Richter, Heike; Kleemann, Anke; Lademann, Juergen; Tscherch, Kathrin; Rohn, Sascha; Schempp, Christoph M.

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease that affects both children and adults in an increasing manner. The treatment of AD often reduces subjective skin parameters, such as itching, dryness, and tension, but the inflammation cannot be cured. Laser scanning microscopy was used to investigate the skin surface, epidermal, and dermal characteristics of dry and atopic skin before and after treatment with an ointment rich in hyperforin, which is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. The results were compared to subjective parameters and transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum moisture, and stratum corneum lipids. Using biophysical methods, in particular laser scanning microscopy, it was found that atopic skin has distinct features compared to healthy skin. Treatment with a hyperforin-rich ointment resulted in an improvement of the stratum corneum moisture, skin surface dryness, skin lipids, and the subjective skin parameters, indicating that the barrier is stabilized and improved by the ointment. But in contrast to the improved skin surface, the inflammation in the deeper epidermis/dermis often continues to exist. This could be clearly shown by the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) measurements. Therefore, RCM measurements could be used to investigate the progress in treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  4. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprono Samson K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Conclusions Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.

  5. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprono, Samson K; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard; Masenga, John E

    2012-03-19

    Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.

  6. Diffusion of [2-14C]diazepam across hairless mouse skin and human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the absorption of diazepam applied topically to the hairless mouse in vivo and to determine the diffusion of diazepam across isolated hairless mouse skin and human skin. [ 14 C]Diazepam was readily absorbed after topical administration to the intact hairless mouse, a total of 75.8% of the 14 C-label applied being recovered in urine and feces. Diazepam was found to diffuse across human and hairless mouse skin unchanged in experiments with twin-chambered diffusion cells. The variation in diffusion rate or the flux for both human and mouse tissues was greater among specimens than between duplicate or triplicate trials for a single specimen. Fluxes for mouse skin (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) were greater than for human skin (stratum corneum and epidermis): 0.35-0.61 microgram/cm2/h for mouse skin vs 0.24-0.42 microgram/cm2/h for human skin. The permeability coefficients for mouse skin ranged from 1.4-2.4 X 10(-2)cm/h compared with 0.8-1.4 X 10(-2)cm/h for human skin. Although human stratum corneum is almost twice the thickness of that of the hairless mouse, the diffusion coefficients for human skin were 3-12 times greater (0.76-3.31 X 10(-6) cm2/h for human skin vs 0.12-0.27 X 10(-6) cm2/h for hairless mouse) because of a shorter lag time for diffusion across human skin. These differences between the diffusion coefficients and diffusion rates (or permeability coefficients) suggest that the presence of the dermis may present some barrier properties. In vitro the dermis may require complete saturation before the diazepam can be detected in the receiving chamber

  7. Effects of UVA (320-400 nm) on the barrier characteristics of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuliffe, D.J.; Blank, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    The stratum corneum serves as the major barrier to the entrance of most molecules into the skin. In the studies presented here, the effects of UVA radiation (320-400 nm) on the barrier capacity of human stratum corneum were examined. Penetration of a homologous series of primary alcohols through unirradiated (control) and UVA-irradiated (test) human epidermis was determined in vitro. Permeability constants, kp, were calculated. Mean ratios of permeability constants for UVA-irradiated and unirradiated epidermis (mean kp test)/(mean kp control) ranged from 2.3 to 3.0 for methanol and from 2.2 to 2.5 for ethanol. These mean ratios were determined using different pieces of epidermis from the same piece of skin for test and control samples. When kp control and kp test were determined on the same piece of epidermis on successive days, the ratios (kp test/kp control) were similar to the mean ratios determined on different pieces of epidermis. For other primary alcohols, propanol, butanol, hexanol, and heptanol, UVA radiation did not alter their permeability constants significantly. Partition coefficients, Km, were determined for ethanol and heptanol using UVA-irradiated and unirradiated stratum corneum. For ethanol, irradiation resulted in a 1.5 to 2.6 times increase in Km. For heptanol, irradiation caused no change in Km. These results demonstrate that the barrier capacity of stratum corneum for small, polar, primary alcohols is diminished (permeability increases) and for higher molecular weight less polar alcohols, is unaffected by small doses of UVA radiation. This increased permeability of small polar alcohols through human skin may be due to enhanced partitioning into UVA-irradiated stratum corneum, which was not apparent for a higher molecular weight less polar alcohol

  8. Formation of a protection film on the human skin by microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Schanzer, S; Richter, H; Knorr, F; Sterry, W; Patzelt, A; Antoniou, C

    2008-01-01

    Laser scanning microscopy and tape stripping, in combination with optical methods, were used to analyze the distribution and penetration of a barrier cream into the horny layer (stratum corneum) of the human skin under in vivo conditions. The barrier cream contained microparticles of 10 – 100 μm loaded with antioxidant substances. The cream was designed for protection of the skin surface against the destructive action of free radicals, produced by systemically applied chemotherapeutic agents reaching the skin surface via the sweat. Both methods were able to demonstrate that the barrier cream was distributed homogeneously on the skin surface forming a protection film. A penetration into deeper parts of the stratum corneum (SC) was not observed

  9. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Facial Serum for Fine Lines, Wrinkles, and Photodamaged Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Mccall-Perez, Fred; Stephens, Thomas J.; Herndon, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dermatology visits for the prevention and treatment of aging skin are rapidly increasing. The clinical sequelae including wrinkling, pigmentary changes, roughness, laxity, and telangiectasia can all result in the appearance of aging skin, impacting quality of life. A facial serum was developed with ingredients associated with an improvement in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and increase in stratum corneum barrier function. Patients were instructed to use a gentle wash b...

  10. In vivo skin moisturizing measurement by high-resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesrar, J; Ognard, J; Garetier, M; Chechin, D; Misery, L; Ben Salem, D

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rarely used for the exploration of skin, even if studies have validated both feasibility of skin MRI and its interest for anatomical, physiological, and biochemical study of the skin. The purpose of this study is to explore moisturizing of the different skin layers using 3-T scan. An MRI of the heel's skin was performed using a 23 mm coil diameter on a 3T scan with a FFE (Fast Field Echo) 3D T1-weighted sequence and a TSE (Turbo Spin Echo) calculation T2-weighted sequence (pixels size of respectively 60 and 70 μm). This study was conducted on 35 healthy volunteers, who were scanned before applying moisturizer topic and 1 h after applying it. Region of interest in the stratum corneum, the epidermis and the dermis were generated on the T2 mapping. The thickness of each layer was measured. The T1 sequence allowed accurate cross-examination repositioning to ensure the comparability of the measurements. Among the 35 cases, two were excluded from the analysis because of movement artifacts. Measurements before and after moisturizer topic application displayed a T2 increase of 48.94% (P < 0.0001) in the stratum corneum and of 5.45% (P < 0.0001) in the epidermis yet without significant difference in the dermis. There was no significant link between the thickness of the stratum corneum and the T2 increase. However, there was a strong correlation between the thickness of the stratum corneum and the thickness of the epidermis (P < 0.001; rhô=0.72). High-resolution MRI allows fine exploration of anatomical and physiological properties of the skin and can further be used to extend the studies of skin hydration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Skin optical clearing for improvement of laser tattoo removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.

    2009-06-01

    The possibility of improvement of laser tattoo removal due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that previously perforation of skin stratum corneum allows increasing tattoo image contrast at topical administration of immersion agent in contrast with non-perforated skin. Computer Monte Carlo simulation shows that at the optical clearing of upper skin layers the tattoo image contrast and the photon fraction absorbed in the tattoo area at the depths of 0.5 or 1.0 mm increase, that allows significant decreasing of the power of laser radiation used at laser thermolysis.

  12. Acral peeling skin syndrome: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Elena García; Carreño, Rosario Granados; Martínez González, Miguel A; Reyes, José Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare dermatosis characterized by spontaneous and painless peeling of the skin. The authors report two patients with history of spontaneous, asymptomatic, and noninflammatory peeling skin of the acral surfaces after soaking in water. On light microscopy, blisters were located in the mid layers of the stratum corneum, above the granular layer. Ultrastructural examination revealed increased intercellular lipids and abnormal, "moth-eaten," keratohyalin granules, but the authors were unable to determine whether the separation initiated within the horny cells or between adjacent cells. These patients represented a localized variant of peeling skin syndrome.

  13. Detection and distribution of endogenous steroids in human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ping Tseng

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate that, with the achievable sensitivity of current analytical technology, physiological concentrations of endogenous steroids, such as hydrocortisone and cortisone, can be found in the SC of some individuals.

  14. Fate of chemicals in skin after dermal application: does the in vitro skin reservoir affect the estimate of systemic absorption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yourick, Jeffrey J.; Koenig, Michael L.; Yourick, Debra L.; Bronaugh, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent international guidelines for the conduct of in vitro skin absorption studies put forward different approaches for addressing the status of chemicals remaining in the stratum corneum and epidermis/dermis at the end of a study. The present study investigated the fate of three chemicals [dihydroxyacetone (DHA), 7-(2H-naphtho[1,2-d]triazol-2-yl)-3-phenylcoumarin (7NTPC), and disperse blue 1 (DB1)] in an in vitro absorption study. In these studies, human and fuzzy rat skin penetration and absorption were determined over 24 or 72 h in flow-through diffusion cells. Skin penetration of these chemicals resulted in relatively low receptor fluid levels but high skin levels. For DHA, penetration studies found approximately 22% of the applied dose remaining in the skin (in both the stratum corneum and viable tissue) as a reservoir after 24 h. Little of the DHA that penetrates into skin is actually available to become systemically absorbed. 7NTPC remaining in the skin after 24 h was approximately 14.7% of the applied dose absorbed. Confocal laser cytometry studies with 7NTPC showed that it is present across skin in mainly the epidermis and dermis with intense fluorescence around hair. For DB1, penetration studies found approximately 10% (ethanol vehicle) and 3% (formulation vehicle) of the applied dose localized in mainly the stratum corneum after 24 h. An extended absorption study (72 h) revealed that little additional DB1 was absorbed into the receptor fluid. Skin levels should not be considered as absorbed material for DHA or DB1, while 7NTPC requires further investigation. These studies illustrate the importance of determining the fate of chemicals remaining in skin, which could significantly affect the estimates of systemically available material to be used in exposure estimates. We recommend that a more conclusive means to determine the fate of skin levels is to perform an extended study as conducted for DB1

  15. Anatomy of the Skin and the Pathogenesis of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losquadro, William D

    2017-08-01

    Skin is composed of the epidermis, dermis, and adnexal structures. The epidermis is composed of 4 layers-the stratums basale, spinosum, granulosum, and corneum. The dermis is divided into a superficial papillary dermis and deeper reticular dermis. Collagen and elastin within the reticular dermis are responsible for skin tensile strength and elasticity, respectively. The 2 most common kinds of nonmelanoma skin cancers are basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. Both are caused by a host of environmental and genetic factors, although UV light exposure is the single greatest predisposing factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Variation in the activities of late stage filaggrin processing enzymes, calpain-1 and bleomycin hydrolase, together with pyrrolidone carboxylic acid levels, corneocyte phenotypes and plasmin activities in non-sun-exposed and sun-exposed facial stratum corneum of different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, N; Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Summers, B; Munday, M R; Lane, M E

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the ethnic differences and effects of photodamage on the relative amounts of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) together with filaggrin processing enzymes in facial stratum corneum is limited. Our aim was to characterize the activities of calpain-1 (C-1), bleomycin hydrolase (BH) and the levels of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA) as a marker for total NMF levels and to relate them to plasmin activities and corneocyte maturation. Enzyme activities, PCA levels and corneocyte maturation were determined from facial tape strippings of photoexposed cheek and photoprotected post-auricular areas (PA) of healthy Caucasian (C), Black African (BA) and albino African (AA) female subjects living in South Africa. PCA concentration levels were of the order AA > BA > C subjects, and the highest activities of BH were present in the AA subjects. BH activities were greater on the photoexposed sites for the BA and C subjects, but they were only numerically elevated in the AA subjects. Photoprotected sites had an increase in C-1 activity in pigmented groups (C and BA), whereas in the AA subjects, the opposite was measured. Plasmin activities were greater on the cheek compared with the PA site for the AA and C subjects, but the activity was low in the BA subjects. In both test sites, the AA, but not the BA and C subjects, had smaller, parakeratotic and less mature corneocytes. Variation in PCA levels has been found for different ethnic groups in this study (AA > BA > C subjects). The values in the AA subjects are surprising as one might expect that the lack of pigmentation, and thereby increased photodamage, might lead to lower levels. Increased BH, but not C-1 activity, was observed in the AA subjects indicating that BH is associated with PCA production to a greater extent. Surprisingly, corneocyte maturation is still impaired with elevated PCA levels in AA subjects. The higher levels of plasmin and BH activities on the cheeks, especially for AA and C subjects, suggest

  17. Characterization of oily mature skin by biophysical and skin imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, M O; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2018-02-13

    The skin is a complex biological system and may suffer change according to the environmental factors, as higher temperatures can increase sebum excretion, presenting oiliness and acne. These alterations can persist during the aging and provoke more changes in aged skin. In this study we evaluated the mature oily skin characteristics using biophysical and skin imaging techniques. Sixty healthy female subjects, aged between 39 and 55 years old were recruited and separated into 2 groups according to their skin type: normal/dry and oily skin. The skin was evaluated in terms of stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) sebum content, dermis thickness and echogenicity, skin microrelief, and pores content. The mature oily skin presented no significant differences when compared to the normal/dry skin on the stratum corneum water content and TEWL parameters. The sebum content was significantly higher on the oily skin group. The microrelief analysis showed an increase of skin roughness values in the oily skin and increase of scaliness in the normal/dry skin. The oily skin showed lower dermis echogenicity mainly in the frontal region and higher dermis thickness when compared to normal/dry skin. The mature oily skin showed different characteristics from normal/dry skin in terms of sebum content, microrelief parameters, and dermis thickness. This way, the characterization of mature oily skin in an objective way is very important to development of dermocosmetic products for more effective treatments focused specially on this type of skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Relationship between biochemical factors and skin symptoms in chronic venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Yasushi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Nishimura, Yoshiyuki; Ooi, Kazuya

    2017-05-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common venous disease of the lower extremities and patients often develop symptoms of itching and skin roughness. An easy to use and objective skin examination was recently developed that allows measurement of the level of stratum corneum content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), which can indicate the status of the barrier function of the stratum corneum. Previous studies demonstrated that histamine production from mast cells, and tryptase and matrix metalloprotease-9 levels were associated with skin inflammation. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between dry skin and inflammatory mediators that mediate the skin symptoms of CVD subjects. The study enrolled 27 subjects with CVD and a control group consisting of 9 volunteers. The itching onset frequency was higher in women (70.4%) compared with men (50.0%). To analyze the mechanisms involved in itching we measured blood inflammatory mediators pre- and post-sclerotherapy. There was a significant decrease in Substance P, histamine, IgE, and tryptase levels post-sclerotherapy compared with those at pre-sclerotherapy. These levels were associated with the severity of itching. In addition, compared with the control subjects, there was a significant increase in the stratum corneum water content and a decrease in the TEWL in the 27 patients with CVD. This was associated with a decrease in the itching symptoms. Our findings indicate that sclerotherapy decreased levels of inflammatory mediators, increased stratum corneum water content and decreased TEWL, which coincided with reduced itching in CVD patients, indicating they might be therapeutic targets.

  19. Chemical peeling by SA-PEG remodels photo-damaged skin: suppressing p53 expression and normalizing keratinocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainichi, Teruki; Amano, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Yukiko; Iriyama, Shunsuke; Hirao, Tetsuji; Hariya, Takeshi; Hibino, Toshihiko; Katagiri, Chika; Takahashi, Motoji; Ueda, Setsuko; Furue, Masutaka

    2006-02-01

    Chemical peeling with salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol vehicle (SA-PEG), which specifically acts on the stratum corneum, suppresses the development of skin tumors in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. To elucidate the mechanism through which chemical peeling with SA-PEG suppresses skin tumor development, the effects of chemical peeling on photodamaged keratinocytes and cornified envelopes (CEs) were evaluated in vivo. Among UVB-irradiated hairless mice, the structural atypia and expression of p53 protein in keratinocytes induced by UVB irradiation were intensely suppressed in the SA-PEG-treated mice 28 days after the start of weekly SA-PEG treatments when compared to that in the control UVB-irradiated mice. Incomplete expression of filaggrin and loricrin in keratinocytes from the control mice was also improved in keratinocytes from the SA-PEG-treated mice. In photo-exposed human facial skin, immature CEs were replaced with mature CEs 4 weeks after treatment with SA-PEG. Restoration of photodamaged stratum corneum by treatment with SA-PEG, which may affect remodeling of the structural environment of the keratinocytes, involved the normalization of keratinocyte differentiation and suppression of skin tumor development. These results suggest that the stratum corneum plays a protective role against carcinogenesis, and provide a novel strategy for the prevention of photo-induced skin tumors.

  20. Skin fluorescence model based on the Monte Carlo technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churmakov, Dmitry Y.; Meglinski, Igor V.; Piletsky, Sergey A.; Greenhalgh, Douglas A.

    2003-10-01

    The novel Monte Carlo technique of simulation of spatial fluorescence distribution within the human skin is presented. The computational model of skin takes into account spatial distribution of fluorophores following the collagen fibers packing, whereas in epidermis and stratum corneum the distribution of fluorophores assumed to be homogeneous. The results of simulation suggest that distribution of auto-fluorescence is significantly suppressed in the NIR spectral region, while fluorescence of sensor layer embedded in epidermis is localized at the adjusted depth. The model is also able to simulate the skin fluorescence spectra.

  1. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Nishiyama, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary α-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy you...

  2. Simulations of Skin Barrier Function: Free Energies of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Transmembrane Pores in Ceramide Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, W. J.; Noro, Massimo G.; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) weaken the barrier function of the skin. We have used the potential of mean constraint force (PMCF) method to calculate the free energy of pore formation in ceramide bilayers in both the innate gel pha...

  3. Ceramides and barrier function in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutanu Jungersted, Jakob; Hellgren, Lars; Høgh, Julie Kaae

    2010-01-01

    Lipids in the stratum corneum are key components in the barrier function of the skin. Changes in lipid composition related to eczematous diseases are well known, but limited data are available on variations within healthy skin. The objective of the present study was to compare ceramide subgroups...... and ceramide/cholesterol ratios in young, old, male and female healthy skin. A total of 55 participants with healthy skin was included in the study. Lipid profiles were correlated with transepidermal water loss and with information on dry skin from a questionnaire including 16 people. No statistically...... significant differences were found between young and old skin for ceramide subgroups or ceramide/cholesterol ratios, and there was no statistically significant correlation between answers about dry skin and ceramide levels. Interestingly, a statistically significant higher ceramide/cholesterol ratio was found...

  4. Sodium lauryl sulfate enhances nickel penetration through guinea-pig skin. Studies with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, M.; Sagstroem, S.R.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), a common ingredient of detergents, on the penetration of nickel through the stratum corneum in the guinea-pig skin model was studied with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) to evaluate the barrier-damaging properties of this common detergent. The EDX technique allows a simultaneous determination of physiologically important elements, e.g., Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca and S in addition to Ni at each point of measurement in epidermal cell strata. Our results show that SLS reduces the barrier function to Ni-ion penetration of the stratum corneum. In addition we have shown that EDX allows analysis of the influence of different factors involved in nickel penetration through the skin by giving data on the physiological effects on the epidermal cells caused by the applied substances

  5. Defense of cutaneous cells against uv irradiation. II. Restricted photomediated binding of trimethyl psoralen to pigmented skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.M.; Jegasothy, B.V.; Condit, E.S.

    1973-01-01

    Distinct differences in grain distribution were seen in autoradiographs of pigmented and nonpigmented skin from spotted guinea-pig ears subjected to photosensitizing conditions by the topical application of tritiated trimethyl psoralen ( 3 H TMP) and exposure to uv irradiation at 365 nm. Grains were localized over cells throughout the epidermis in nonpigmented skin, but they were not seen beneath the stratum corneum in pigmented skin. Since TMP covalently binds to epidermal nucleic acids only after irradiation, these experiments demonstrate that the compacted melanized cells of the outer epidermis shield the DNA of underlying cells by severely restricting the penetration of uv light into the skin. (auth)

  6. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Noninvasive evaluation of the barrier properties of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz S.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin as an organ of protection covers the body and accomplishes multiple defensive functions. The intact skin represents a barrier to the uncontrolled loss of water, proteins, and plasma components from the organism. Due to its complex structure, the epidermal barrier with its major component, stratum corneum, is the rate-limiting unit for the penetration of exogenous substances through the skin. The epidermal barrier is not a static structure. The permeability barrier status can be modified by different external and internal factors such as climate, physical stressors, and a number of skin and systemic diseases. Today, different non-invasive approaches are used to monitor the skin barrier physical properties in vivo. The quantification of parameters such as transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface acidity is essential for the integral evaluation of the epidermal barrier status. This paper will allow the readership to get acquainted with the non-invasive, in vivo methods for the investigation of the skin barrier.

  8. Structural and biophysical characteristics of human skin in maintaining proper epidermal barrier function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Boer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex structure of human skin and its physicochemical properties turn it into an efficient outermost defence line against exogenous factors, and help maintain homeostasis of the human body. This role is played by the epidermal barrier with its major part – stratum corneum. The condition of the epidermal barrier depends on individual and environmental factors. The most important biophysical parameters characterizing the status of this barrier are the skin pH, epidermal hydration, transepidermal water loss and sebum excretion. The knowledge of biophysical skin processes may be useful for the implementation of prophylactic actions whose aim is to restore the barrier function.

  9. From Cell to Tissue Properties-Modeling Skin Electroporation With Pore and Local Transport Region Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermol-Cerne, Janja; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2018-02-01

    Current models of tissue electroporation either describe tissue with its bulk properties or include cell level properties, but model only a few cells of simple shapes in low-volume fractions or are in two dimensions. We constructed a three-dimensional model of realistically shaped cells in realistic volume fractions. By using a 'unit cell' model, the equivalent dielectric properties of whole tissue could be calculated. We calculated the dielectric properties of electroporated skin. We modeled electroporation of single cells by pore formation on keratinocytes and on the papillary dermis which gave dielectric properties of the electroporated epidermis and papillary dermis. During skin electroporation, local transport regions are formed in the stratum corneum. We modeled local transport regions and increase in their radii or density which affected the dielectric properties of the stratum corneum. The final model of skin electroporation accurately describes measured electric current and voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with long low-voltage pulses. The model also accurately describes voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with short high-voltage pulses. However, our results indicate that during application of short high-voltage pulses additional processes may occur which increase the electric current. Our model connects the processes occurring at the level of cell membranes (pore formation), at the level of a skin layer (formation of local transport region in the stratum corneum) with the tissue (skin layers) and even level of organs (skin). Using a similar approach, electroporation of any tissue can be modeled, if the morphology of the tissue is known.

  10. Commonly Employed African Neonatal Skin Care Products Compromise Epidermal Function in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Sun, Richard; Man, George; Lee, Dale; Hill, Zelee; Elias, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal mortality is much higher in the developing world than in developed countries. Infections are a major cause of neonatal death, particularly in preterm infants, in whom defective epidermal permeability barrier function facilitates transcutaneous pathogen invasion. The objective was to determine whether neonatal skin care products commonly used in Africa benefit or compromise epidermal functions in murine skin. After twice-daily treatment of 6- to 8-week-old hairless mice with each skin care product for 3 days, epidermal permeability barrier function, skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration, and barrier recovery were measured using a multiprobe adapter system physiology monitor. For products showing some benefits in these initial tests, the epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis was assessed 1 and 5 hours after a single application to acutely disrupted skin. All of the skin care products compromised basal permeability barrier function and barrier repair kinetics. Moreover, after 3 days of treatment, most of the products also reduced stratum corneum hydration while elevating skin surface pH to abnormal levels. Some neonatal skin care products that are widely used in Africa perturb important epidermal functions, including permeability barrier homeostasis in mice. Should these products have similar effects on newborn human skin, they could cause a defective epidermal permeability barrier, which can increase body fluid loss, impair thermoregulation, and contribute to the high rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality seen in Africa. Accordingly, alternative products that enhance permeability barrier function should be identified, particularly for use in preterm infants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Gentle cleansing and moisturizing for patients with atopic dermatitis and sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Wai Kwong

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common condition characterized by pruritus, inflammation, and dryness of the skin. Inflammation disrupts the barrier function of the stratum corneum, predisposing the skin to be dry, and increases susceptibility to irritants and secondary bacterial infection. Sensitive skin is common, reported by 40-50% of women and 30% of men in the US, Europe, and Japan. Basic requirements in managing eczema and sensitive skin include effective cleansers that do not compromise skin barrier integrity, alleviation of skin dryness, and restoration of skin barrier function through the use of therapeutic moisturizers. The selection of a skin cleanser is therefore an important part of managing these conditions. Studies have reported clinical improvement with the use of soap-free cleansers in combination with topical treatments. While topical corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are mainstays of treatment for atopic dermatitis, therapeutic moisturizers are important adjuncts. Moisturizers improve skin hydration, reduce susceptibility to irritation, restore the integrity of the stratum corneum, and enhance the efficacy of topical corticosteroids.

  12. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Musashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.

  13. Skin surface hydration decreases rapidly during long distance flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéhenneux, Sabine; Gardinier, Sophie; Morizot, Frederique; Le Fur, Isabelle; Tschachler, Erwin

    2012-05-01

    Dehydration of the stratum corneum leads to sensations and symptoms of 'dry skin' such as skin tightness and itchiness. As these complaints are frequently experienced by airline travellers, the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in skin surface hydration during long distance flights. The study was performed on four healthy Caucasian, and on four Japanese women aged 29-39 years, travelling on long distance flights. They had stopped using skin care products at least 12 h before, and did not apply them during the flights. The air temperature and relative humidity inside the cabin, as well as skin capacitance of the face and forearm of participants, were registered at several time points before and during the flights. Relative humidity of the aircraft cabin dropped to levels below 10% within 2 h after take-off and stayed at this value throughout the flight. Skin capacitance decreased rapidly on both the face and forearms with most pronounced changes on the cheeks where it decreased by up to 37%. Our results demonstrate that during long distance flights, the aircraft cabin environment leads to a rapid decrease in stratum corneum hydration, an alteration, which probably accounts for the discomfort experienced by long distance aircraft travellers. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. The effects of esterified solvents on the diffusion of a model compound across human skin: an ATR-FTIR spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, W J; Chavda-Sitaram, S; Mader, K T; Tetteh, J; Lane, M E; Hadgraft, J

    2013-04-15

    Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the effects of three fatty acid esters on skin permeation. Propylene glycol diperlargonate (DPPG), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and isostearyl isostearate (ISIS) were selected as pharmaceutically relevant solvents with a range of lipophilicities and cyanophenol (CNP) was used as a model drug. The resultant data were compared with that obtained when water was used as the solvent. The diffusion of CNP, DPPG and IPM across epidermis was successfully described by a Fickian model. When ISIS was used as a solvent Fickian behaviour was only obtained across isolated stratum corneum suggesting that the hydrophilic layers of the epidermis interfere with the permeation of the hydrophobic ISIS. The diffusion coefficients of CNP across epidermis in the different solvents were not significantly different. Using chemometric data analysis diffusion profiles for the solvents were deconvoluted from that of the skin and modelled. Each of these solvents was found to diffuse at a faster rate across the skin than CNP. DPPG considerably increased the concentration of CNP in the stratum corneum in comparison with the other solvents indicating strong penetration enhancer potential. In contrast IPM produced a similar CNP concentration in the stratum corneum to water with ISIS resulting in a lower CNP concentration suggesting negligible enhancement and penetration retardation effects for these two solvents respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Penetration, distribution and kinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in human skin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, L.W.D.; Rozman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro penetration of 3 H-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) into human cadaver skin was studied at concentrations of 65 and 6.5 ng TCDD per cm 2 of skin surface. Vehicles used were acetone to simulate exposure to TCDD as a dry material, and mineral oil to simulate exposure to TCDD in an oily medium. Penetration was performed for 30, 100, 300, and 1000 min in improved Franz cells. Skin was used either intact, or with stripped horny layer. Skin was sectioned along its natural layers and radioactivity determined in epidermis and dermis. TCDD did not readily penetrate into human skin in vitro. The vehicle of exposure to TCDD played an important role in dermal penetration. The rapidly evaporating acetone allowed TCDD to penetrate deeply into the loose surface lamellae of the horny layer, but then appeared to be poorly available for further penetration. Mineral oil as the vehicle showed its penetration even more. The stratum corneum acted as a protective barrier, as its removal increased the amount of TCDD absorbed into layers of the skin. Hourly rates of adsorption of TCDD per unit area of skin were calculated in two ways: a worst case scenario where TCDD absorbed into any layer of skin including the stratum corneum and a physiological approach where only that amount of TCDD was considered absorbed which had penetrated beyond the epidermis. Under worst case scenario conditions the stratum corneum appeared to mediate dermal absorption of TCDD. This was, however, not the case with the physiological approach. There was a consistent relationship between concentration of TCDD applied and concentration of TCDD found in skin. Also, a clear-cut correlation was found between the amount of TCDD that penetrated and the time of exposure. (orig./MG)

  16. Effect of skin barrier disruption on immune responses to topically applied cross-reacting material, CRM(197), of diphtheria toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, S; Peyre, M; Garcia, N; Muller, S; Sesardic, D; Partidos, C D

    2005-08-01

    The high accessibility of the skin and the presence of immunocompetent cells in the epidermis makes this surface an attractive route for needle-free administration of vaccines. However, the lining of the skin by the stratum corneum is a major obstacle to vaccine delivery. In this study we examined the effect of skin barrier disruption on the immune responses to the cross-reacting material CRM(197), a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DTx) that is considered as a vaccine candidate. Application of CRM(197), together with cholera toxin (CT), onto the tape-stripped skin of mice elicited antibody responses that had anti-DTx neutralizing activity. Vaccine delivery onto mildly ablated skin or intact skin did not elicit any detectable anti-CRM(197) antibodies. Mice immunized with CRM(197) alone onto the tape-stripped skin mounted a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response. In contrast, the induction of cellular immunity after CRM(197) deposition onto mildly ablated or intact skin was adjuvant dependent. Furthermore, epidermal cells were activated and underwent apoptosis that was more pronounced when the stratum corneum was removed by tape stripping. Overall, these findings highlight the potential for transcutaneous delivery of CRM(197) and establish a correlation between the degree of barrier disruption and levels of antigen-specific immune responses. Moreover, these results provide the first evidence that the development of a transcutaneous immunization strategy for diphtheria, based on simple and practical methods to disrupt the skin barrier, is feasible.

  17. Hyperpigmentation of the skin associated with minocycline therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.; Sparano, B.M.; Iatropoulos, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Skin biopsy specimens and discolored fingernails from minocycline-treated patients were examined by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Both hyperpigmented and adjacent normally pigmented skin samples contained pigment-laden macrophages in the dermis, although these cells were more numerous in the hyperpigmented skin samples. Elemental analysis showed that both pigment deposits and stratum corneum of hyperpigmented skin samples contained iron and calcium. Discolored areas of fingernails from a minocycline-treated patient also contained iron and calcium. Both skin and nail discoloration were possibly due to the presence of an iron chelate of minocycline and/or quinoid derivatives of minocycline. The presence of iron-containing pigment in normal as well as hyperpigmented skin may have predisposed to formation of minocycline-associated pigment in these patients

  18. Radiation exposure to skin following radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, H.; Beyermann, M.; Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    In the case of skin contamination intensive decontamination measures should not be carried out until the potential radiation exposure to the basal cell layer of the epidermis was assessed. Dose equivalent rates from alpha-, beta- or photon-emitting contaminants were calculated with reference to the surface activity for different skin regions as a function of radiation energy on the condition that the skin was healthy and uninjured and the penetration of contaminants through the epidermis negligible. The results have been presented in the form of figures and tables. In the assessment of potential skin doses, both radioactive decay and practical experience as to the decrease in the level of surface contamination by natural desquamation of the stratum corneum were taken into account. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 46 refs. (author)

  19. Cosmetotextiles with Gallic Acid: Skin Reservoir Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Martí

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant gallic acid (GA has been incorporated into cotton (CO and polyamide (PA through two different vehicles, that is, liposomes and mixed micelles, and their respective absorption/desorption processes have been studied. Moreover, in vitro percutaneous absorption tests of different cosmetotextiles have been performed to demonstrate antioxidant penetration within the layers of the skin. When GA was embedded into the cosmetotextiles, it always promoted a reservoir effect that was much more marked than that observed for polyamide. Similar penetration was observed in the textiles treated with GA in mixed micelles or liposomes in such compartments of the skin as the stratum corneum, epidermis, and even the dermis. GA was detected in receptor fluid only when CO was treated with MM. This methodology may be useful in verifying how encapsulated substances incorporated into textile materials penetrate human skin. Indeed, such materials can be considered strategic delivery systems that release a given active compound into the skin at specific doses.

  20. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes Dreier

    Full Text Available In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that transport their cargo directly through the skin barrier, but mainly burst and fuse with the outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum. It was also found that the flexible liposomes showed a greater delivery of the fluorophore into the stratum corneum, indicating that they functioned as chemical permeability enhancers.

  1. Infrared spectroscopic measurement of skin hydration and sebum levels and comparison to corneometer and sebumeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezerskaia, Anna; Pereira, S. F.; Urbach, H. P.; Varghese, Babu

    2016-05-01

    Skin health characterized by a system of water and lipids in Stratum Corneum provide protection from harmful external elements and prevent trans-epidermal water loss. Skin hydration (moisture) and sebum (skin surface lipids) are considered to be important factors in skin health; a right balance between these components is an indication of skin health and plays a central role in protecting and preserving skin integrity. In this manuscript we present an infrared spectroscopic method for simultaneous and quantitative measurement of skin hydration and sebum levels utilizing differential detection with three wavelengths 1720, 1750, and 1770 nm, corresponding to the lipid vibrational bands that lie "in between" the prominent water absorption bands. The skin sebum and hydration values on the forehead under natural conditions and its variations to external stimuli were measured using our experimental set-up. The experimental results obtained with the optical set-up show good correlation with the results obtained with the commercially available instruments Corneometer and Sebumeter.

  2. Facial peeling skin syndrome: a case report and a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Shahbaz Ahmad; Hussain, Ijaz; Khachemoune, Amor

    2007-03-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is an extremely rare genodermatosis of possible autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by asymptomatic spontaneous exfoliation of the stratum corneum at a subcorneal or intracorneal level. It usually presents at birth or appears later in early childhood. The condition may be generalized or localized. Here we describe a case of localized continual skin peeling limited to the facial skin in a 6-month-old infant, with two other members of the family affected with the same condition. A few cases of localized skin peeling limited to the acral surfaces have been described in the literature, but a familial case of localized skin peeling limited to the facial skin has not been described before. We believe that our patient represents a new subtype of peeling skin syndrome, limited to the skin of the face.

  3. Analysis of skin tissues spatial fluorescence distribution by the Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churmakov, D Y; Meglinski, I V; Piletsky, S A; Greenhalgh, D A

    2003-01-01

    A novel Monte Carlo technique of simulation of spatial fluorescence distribution within the human skin is presented. The computational model of skin takes into account the spatial distribution of fluorophores, which would arise due to the structure of collagen fibres, compared to the epidermis and stratum corneum where the distribution of fluorophores is assumed to be homogeneous. The results of simulation suggest that distribution of auto-fluorescence is significantly suppressed in the near-infrared spectral region, whereas the spatial distribution of fluorescence sources within a sensor layer embedded in the epidermis is localized at an 'effective' depth

  4. Analysis of skin tissues spatial fluorescence distribution by the Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churmakov, D Y [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Meglinski, I V [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Piletsky, S A [Institute of BioScience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); Greenhalgh, D A [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-21

    A novel Monte Carlo technique of simulation of spatial fluorescence distribution within the human skin is presented. The computational model of skin takes into account the spatial distribution of fluorophores, which would arise due to the structure of collagen fibres, compared to the epidermis and stratum corneum where the distribution of fluorophores is assumed to be homogeneous. The results of simulation suggest that distribution of auto-fluorescence is significantly suppressed in the near-infrared spectral region, whereas the spatial distribution of fluorescence sources within a sensor layer embedded in the epidermis is localized at an 'effective' depth.

  5. Analysis of skin tissues spatial fluorescence distribution by the Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Churmakov, D.; Meglinski, I. V.; Piletsky, S. A.; Greenhalgh, D. A.

    2003-07-01

    A novel Monte Carlo technique of simulation of spatial fluorescence distribution within the human skin is presented. The computational model of skin takes into account the spatial distribution of fluorophores, which would arise due to the structure of collagen fibres, compared to the epidermis and stratum corneum where the distribution of fluorophores is assumed to be homogeneous. The results of simulation suggest that distribution of auto-fluorescence is significantly suppressed in the near-infrared spectral region, whereas the spatial distribution of fluorescence sources within a sensor layer embedded in the epidermis is localized at an `effective' depth.

  6. Undulating tubular liposomes through incorporation of a synthetic skin ceramide into phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Tan, Grace; Zhou, Jia; He, Jibao; Lawson, Louise B; McPherson, Gary L; John, Vijay T

    2009-09-15

    Nonspherical liposomes were prepared by doping L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (PC) with ceramide VI (a skin lipid). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy shows the liposome shape changing from spherical to an undulating tubular morphology, when the amount of ceramide VI is increased. The formation of tubular liposomes is energetically favorable and is attributed to the association of ceramide VI with PC creating regions of lower curvature. Since ceramides are the major component of skin lipids in the stratum corneum, tubular liposomes containing ceramide may potentially serve as self-enhanced nanocarriers for transdermal delivery.

  7. Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome Resembling Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kavaklieva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  8. Acral peeling skin syndrome resembling epidermolysis bullosa simplex in a 10-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaklieva, S; Yordanova, I; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Has, C

    2013-01-01

    The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  9. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipids and skin barrier function - a clinical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Hellgren, Lars; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2008-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) protects us from dehydration and external dangers. Much is known about the morphology of the SC and penetration of drugs through it, but the data are mainly derived from in vitro and animal experiments. In contrast, only a few studies have the human SC lipids as their focus...... and in particular, the role of barrier function in the pathogenesis of skin disease and its subsequent treatment protocols. The 3 major lipids in the SC of importance are ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. Human studies comparing levels of the major SC lipids in patients with atopic dermatitis...

  11. In vitro prediction of in vivo skin damage associated with the wiping of dry tissue against skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, David W; Dvoracek, Barb; Vongsa, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    The ideal gentle cleansing product is one that effectively removes soils while minimizing damage to the skin. Thus, measuring physical abrasion caused by cleansing tissues is critical to the continued development of gentle cleansing products. Current analysis of cleansing materials for skin gentleness is time consuming and requires expensive human subject testing. This report describes the development of a rapid and inexpensive bench assay for the assessment of skin abrasion caused by wiping. Coefficient of friction (COF) evaluations using bench methods were compared with results from clinical studies of repeated wiping and with confocal visualizations of excised skin. A Monitor/Slip and Friction instrument (model 32-06; TMI, Amityville, NY, USA) was used to measure tissue friction on simulated skin (Vitro-Skin, N19-5X; IMS, Milford, CT, USA). Clinical data from a 4-day repetitive forearm wiping study measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in 30 subjects was compared with results from the bench top assay. In addition, excised skin samples were also treated using the COF bench assay and examined using confocal microscopy to visualize stratum corneum damage caused by wiping. Using the bench COF assay, we were able to distinguish between bath tissue codes by comparing average static friction value (ASFV) for the test codes, where lower ASFV indicated less abrasive tissue. The ASFV followed the same gentleness trend observed in the clinical study. Confocal microscopy of excised skin wiped with the same materials indicated stratum corneum damage consistent with the bench COF and clinical TEWL observations. We observed significant correlation between bench and clinical methods for measuring skin damage caused by wiping of skin with tissue. The bench method will facilitate rapid and inexpensive skin gentleness assessment of cleansing materials. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Recent Advances in Skin Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Gene and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Morteza; Mostaghaci, Babak; Sitti, Metin

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in transdermal delivery systems because of their noninvasive, targeted, and on-demand delivery of gene and drugs. However, efficient penetration of therapeutic compounds into the skin is still challenging largely due to the impermeability of the outermost layer of the skin, known as stratum corneum. Recently, there have been major research activities to enhance the skin penetration depth of pharmacological agents. This article reviews recent advances in the development of various strategies for skin penetration enhancement. We show that approaches such as ultrasound waves, laser, and microneedle patches have successfully been employed to physically disrupt the stratum corneum structure for enhanced transdermal delivery. Rather than physical approaches, several non-physical route have also been utilized for efficient transdermal delivery across the skin barrier. Finally, we discuss some clinical applications of transdermal delivery systems for gene and drug delivery. This paper shows that transdermal delivery devices can potentially function for diverse healthcare and medical applications while further investigations are still necessary for more efficient skin penetration of gene and drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. High resolution in-vivo imaging of skin with full field optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimier, E.; Bruhat, Alexis; Grieve, K.; Harms, F.; Martins, F.; Boccara, C.

    2014-03-01

    Full-field OCT (FFOCT) has the ability to provide en-face images with a very good axial sectioning as well as a very high transverse resolution (about 1 microns in all directions). Therefore it offers the possibility to visualize biological tissues with very high resolution both on the axial native view, and on vertical reconstructed sections. Here we investigated the potential dermatological applications of in-vivo skin imaging with FFOCT. A commercial FFOCT device was adapted for the in-vivo acquisition of stacks of images on the arm, hand and finger. Several subjects of different benign and pathological skin conditions were tested. The images allowed measurement of the stratum corneum and epidermis thicknesses, measurement of the stratum corneum refractive index, size measurement and count of the keratinocytes, visualization of the dermal-epidermal junction, and visualization of the melanin granules and of the melanocytes. Skins with different pigmentations could be discriminated and skin pathologies such as eczema could be identified. The very high resolution offered by FFOCT both on axial native images and vertical reconstructed sections allows for the visualization and measurement of a set of parameters useful for cosmetology and dermatology. In particular, FFOCT is a potential tool for the understanding and monitoring of skin hydration and pigmentation, as well as skin inflammation.

  14. Calcipotriol delivery into the skin with PEGylated liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Rønholt, Stine; Salte, Ragnhild Djønne

    2012-01-01

    The d-vitamin analogue calcipotriol is commonly used for topical treatment of psoriasis, but skin penetration is required for calcipotriol to reach its pharmacological target: the keratinocytes in the lower epidermis. Liposomes can enhance the delivery of drugs into the skin, but a major challenge...... of the liposomes and the ability to deliver membrane-intercalated calcipotriol into the skin. Inclusion of 0.5, l and 5mol% PEG-DSPE in the membrane enhanced the colloidal stability of the liposomes without compromising the delivery of calcipotriol from the vehicle into excised pig skin. Calcipotriol...... to large multilamellar vesicles, indicating that the liposomes to some extent migrate as intact vesicles into the stratum corneum. However, calcipotriol penetrated the skin better than the lipid component of the liposomes, suggesting that at least a fraction of the drug is released from the liposomes...

  15. A methodology for extracting the electrical properties of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Ulrik; Nicander, Ingrid; Ollmar, Stig; Birgersson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A methodology to determine dielectrical properties of human skin is presented and analyzed. In short, it is based on a mathematical model that considers the local transport of charge in the various layers of the skin, which is coupled with impedance measurements of both stripped and intact skin, an automated code generator, and an optimization algorithm. New resistivity and permittivity values for the stratum corneum soaked with physiological saline solution for 1 min and the viable skin beneath are obtained and expressed as easily accessible functions. The methodology can be extended to account for different electrode designs as well as more physical phenomena that are relevant to electrical impedance measurements of skin and their interpretation. (paper)

  16. The influence of corneocyte structure on the interpretation of permeation profiles of nanoparticles across skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, T. [LFI, Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade Lisboa E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: murmur@itn.pt; Pallon, J. [Lund Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)]. E-mail: Jan.Pallon@pixe.lth.se; Alves, L.C. [LFI, Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade Lisboa E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: lcalves@itn.pt; Verissimo, A. [LFI, Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade Lisboa E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: averissimo@vims.edu; Filipe, P. [Departamento Dermatologia, Hospital Sta. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: pfilipe@fm.ul.pt; Silva, J.N. [Departamento Dermatologia, Hospital Sta. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: maiasilva@fm.ul.pt; Silva, R. [Departamento Dermatologia, Hospital Sta. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: rpalminhas@netcabo.pt

    2007-07-15

    The permeability of skin to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) used in sunscreens as a reflector of the UV wavelengths of sunlight, was examined using nuclear microscopy techniques. Special attention was given to the permeation characteristics of these nanoparticles across the outer layers of skin, the stratum corneum, in healthy and psoriatic skin condition. Aspects that may influence the interpretation of results such as sample preparation difficulties and skin condition were focused. Sample preparation can damage the integrity of the corneocyte layers inducing unwanted artefacts that may bias the evaluation of results. Irradiation conditions may also introduce distortions in the labile structures of human skin. Skin condition, such as loss of corneocyte cohesion occurring in psoriasis also influence the permeation profile of the nanoparticles. Weighing and accounting for these features in the examination of skin by nuclear microscopy is crucial to accurately assess the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles permeation depth.

  17. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve attenuates UV-induced barrier perturbation and oxidative stress in hairless mice skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yuki; Sugimoto, Saho; Izawa, Naoki; Sone, Toshiro; Chiba, Katsuyoshi; Miyazaki, Kouji

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that some probiotics affect not only the gut but also the skin. However, the effects of probiotics on ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin damage are poorly understood. In this study, we aim to examine whether oral administration of live Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BBY), a typical probiotic, can attenuate skin barrier perturbation caused by UV and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hairless mice. The mice were orally supplemented with a vehicle only or BBY once a day for nine successive days. Mouse dorsal skin was irradiated with UV from days 6 to 9. The day after the final irradiation, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, and oxidation-related factors of the skin were evaluated. We elucidated that BBY prevented the UV-induced increase in TEWL and decrease in stratum corneum hydration. In addition, BBY significantly suppressed the UV-induced increase in hydrogen peroxide levels, oxidation of proteins and lipids, and xanthine oxidase activity in the skin. Conversely, antioxidant capacity did not change regardless of whether BBY was administered or not. In parameters we evaluated, there was a positive correlation between the increase in TEWL and the oxidation levels of proteins and lipids. Our results suggest that oral administration of BBY attenuates UV-induced barrier perturbation and oxidative stress of the skin, and this antioxidative effect is not attributed to enhancement of antioxidant capacity but to the prevention of ROS generation.

  18. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair. Evaluation of the acute human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-06-01

    Although the induction of irritant dermatitis by surfactants has been extensively studied in recent years, our understanding of the repair phase of irritant dermatitis is limited. We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from short-term exposure to three structurally different surfactants. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (0.5%) were applied for 24 hours to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by various aspects of skin function, that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). SLS and DTAB induced similar degrees of erythema, whereas SLS induced significantly higher TEWL increase. Although both erythema and TEWL were highest 1 hour after exposure to surfactants, skin dryness was a symptom with delayed onset, justifying the long observation period in this study. Minimum hydration values were measured as late as 7 days after surfactant exposure. Dryness was significantly more pronounced in areas exposed to SLS than in areas exposed to DTAB. Complete repair of the irritant reaction induced by either SLS or DTAB was achieved 17 days after surfactant exposure. Stratum corneum hydration was the last feature to return to baseline values. Potassium soap did not significantly influence any skin function. We emphasize the importance of extended periods needed before a patient with irritant contact dermatitis can be reexposed to irritant substances. The evaluation of the irritation potential of diverse surfactants depended significantly on the feature (erythema vs hydration and TEWL) measured.

  20. Effects of topical corticosteroid and tacrolimus on ceramides and irritancy to sodium lauryl sulphate in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellegren, Lars I

    2011-01-01

    twice daily for one week with betamethasone, tacrolimus, emollient, or left untreated, respectively. After one week each area was challenged with a 24 h sodium lauryl sulphate patch test. The lipids were collected using the cyanoacrylate method and evaluated by high performance thin layer chromatography......The skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, is influenced mainly by the lipid and protein composition of this layer. In eczematous diseases impairment of the skin barrier is thought to be of prime importance. Topical anti-inflammatory drugs and emollients are the most widely used eczema...

  1. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E; Richter, H; Zhu, Y J; Meinke, M C; Knorr, F; Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Gonchukov, S A [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Russian Federation); Koenig, K [JenLab GmbH, Schillerstr. 1, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-31

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted. (laser biophotonics)

  2. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, M. E.; Richter, H.; Zhu, Y. J.; Meinke, M. C.; Knorr, F.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Koenig, K.; Lademann, J.

    2014-07-01

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted.

  3. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvin, M E; Richter, H; Zhu, Y J; Meinke, M C; Knorr, F; Lademann, J; Gonchukov, S A; Koenig, K

    2014-01-01

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted. (laser biophotonics)

  4. Personnel decontamination and preventive skin care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Klaus; Gojowczyk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Skin contamination arises from contact with contaminated aqueous solutions and from transmission of radioactively contaminated dirt particles. As long as the surface of the skin is neither inflamed nor showing any lesions, normally only a limited part of the top layer (epidermis), i.e. the upper layers of the stratum corneum, is contaminated. The intact horny layer has a barrier function protecting against the penetration of chemicals and dirt particles. The horny layer can be damaged by water, solvents, alkaline substances, and acids. In general, it is safe to say that the horny layer acts as a natural barrier to the penetration of liquid and particulate impurities into lower layers of the skin. As long as the horny layer is intact and free from lesions, the risk of incorporation can be considered low. When decontaminating and cleansing the skin, also in daily skin cleansing, care must be taken to prevent the acid protective layer and the horny layer from being compromised. Daily cleansing and cleansing for decontamination must be carried out with a mild, weakly acidic detergent. In addition, prevention should be achieved daily by applying a non-greasy skin lotion to protect the skin. Following a systematic regular regimen in skin cleansing and preventive skin care as well as a specific approach in skin decontamination and cleansing will avoid damage to the skin and remove any contamination incurred. This approach comprises a three-pronged concept, namely skin protection, cleansing and care. (orig.)

  5. Ambient humidity and the skin: the impact of air humidity in healthy and diseased states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, N; Gawkrodger, D J

    2016-08-01

    Humidity, along with other climatic factors such as temperature and ultraviolet radiation, can have an important impact on the skin. Limited data suggest that external humidity influences the water content of the stratum corneum. An online literature search was conducted through Pub-Med using combinations of the following keywords: skin, skin disease, humidity, dermatoses, dermatitis, eczema, and mist. Publications included in this review were limited to (i) studies in humans or animals, (ii) publications showing relevance to the field of dermatology, (iii) studies published in English and (iv) publications discussing humidity as an independent influence on skin function. Studies examining environmental factors as composite influences on skin health are only included where the impact of humidity on the skin is also explored in isolation of other environmental factors. A formal systematic review was not feasible for this topic due to the heterogeneity of the available research. Epidemiological studies indicated an increase in eczema with low internal (indoors) humidity and an increase in eczema with external high humidity. Other studies suggest that symptoms of dry skin appear with low humidity internal air-conditioned environments. Murine studies determined that low humidity caused a number of changes in the skin, including the impairment of the desquamation process. Studies in humans demonstrated a reduction in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (a measure of the integrity of the skin's barrier function) with low humidity, alterations in the water content in the stratum corneum, decreased skin elasticity and increased roughness. Intervention with a humidifying mist increased the water content of the stratum corneum. Conversely, there is some evidence that low humidity conditions can actually improve the barrier function of the skin. Ambient relative humidity has an impact on a range of parameters involved in skin health but the literature is inconclusive. Further

  6. Changes in Transepidermal Water Loss and Skin Hydration according to Expression of Aquaporin-3 in Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young; Je, Young-Jin; Lee, Sang-Sin; Li, Zheng Jun; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Kwon, Yoo-Bin; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Im, Myung; Seo, Young Joon

    2012-01-01

    Background Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water transporting proteins present in many mammalian epithelial and endothelial cell types. Among the AQPs, AQP3 is known to be a water/glycerol transporter expressed in human skin. Objective The relationship between the expression level of AQP3 and transpidermal water loss (TEWL) in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis-affected patients, and skin hydration in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis patients, was investigated. Methods The expression of AQP3 in psoriasis-affected and healthy control skin was determined using immunohistochemical and immunofluroscence staining. TEWL and skin hydration were measured using a Tewameter® TM210 (Courage & Khazaka, Cologne, Germany) and a Corneometer® CM 820 (Courage & Khazaka), respectively. Results AQP3 was mainly expressed in the plasma membrane of stratum corneum and the stratum spinosum in normal epidermis. Unlike the normal epidermis, AQP3 showed decreased expression in the lesional and peri-lesional epidermis of psoriasis. TEWL was increased, and skin hydration was decreased, in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis patients, compared with the healthy control sample. Conclusion Although various factors contribute to reduced skin hydration in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis, AQP3 appears to be a key factor in the skin dehydration of psoriasis-affected skin. PMID:22577267

  7. In-vivo dynamic characterization of microneedle skin penetration using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Joey; O'Connell, Marie-Louise; Lawlor, Kate; Jonathan, Enock; O'Mahony, Conor; Leahy, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The use of microneedles as a method of circumventing the barrier properties of the stratum corneum is receiving much attention. Although skin disruption technologies and subsequent transdermal diffusion rates are being extensively studied, no accurate data on depth and closure kinetics of microneedle-induced skin pores are available, primarily due to the cumbersome techniques currently required for skin analysis. We report on the first use of optical coherence tomography technology to image microneedle penetration in real time and in vivo. We show that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to painlessly measure stratum corneum and epidermis thickness, as well as microneedle penetration depth after microneedle insertion. Since OCT is a real-time, in-vivo, nondestructive technique, we also analyze skin healing characteristics and present quantitative data on micropore closure rate. Two locations (the volar forearm and dorsal aspect of the fingertip) have been assessed as suitable candidates for microneedle administration. The results illustrate the applicability of OCT analysis as a tool for microneedle-related skin characterization.

  8. Gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric studies on glycerin-induced skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Ri Cho; Moon, Hee Kyung

    2007-11-01

    A thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were carried out to characterize the water property and an alteration of lipid phase transition of stratum corneum (SC) by glycerin. In addition, the relationship between steady state skin permeation rate and skin hydration in various concentrations of glycerin was investigated. Water vapor absorption-desorption was studied in the hairless mouse stratum corneum. Dry SC samples were exposed to different conc. of glycerin (0-50%) followed by exposure to dry air and the change in weight property was monitored over time by use of TGA. In DSC study, significant decrease in DeltaH of the lipid transition in 10% glycerin and water treated sample: the heat of lipid transition of normal, water, 10% glycerin treated SC were 6.058, 4.412 and 4.316 mJ/mg, respectively. In 10% glycerin treated SCs, the Tc of water shifts around 129 degrees C, corresponding to the weakly bound secondary water. In 40% glycerin treated SC, the Tc of water shifts to 144 degrees C corresponding to strongly bound primary water. There was a good correlation between the hydration property of the skin and the steady state skin flux with the correlation coefficient (r2=0.94). As the hydration increased, the steady state flux increased. As glycerin concentration increased, hydration property decreased. High diffusivity induced by the hydration effect of glycerin and water could be the major contributing factor for the enhanced skin permeation of nicotinic acid (NA).

  9. Emu oil-based lotion effects on neonatal skin barrier during transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanardo V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vincenzo Zanardo,1 David Giarrizzo,2 Francesca Volpe,1 Lara Giliberti,1 Gianluca Straface1 1Division of Perinatal Medicine, Policlinico Abano Terme, Abano Terme, 2CALANTHA Physiology of Lactation Laboratory, Padua, Italy Abstract: Both appropriate hydration and skin surface pH are fundamental in preventing baby skin barrier damage during transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life. However, effects of topical moisturizers on neonatal stratum corneum temperature, pH, hydration, and elasticity have not been scientifically evaluated in vivo. We checked 31 full-term breastfeeding neonates by non-invasive bioengineering method, which is able to evaluate the basal skin barrier (left heel, and assessed at 6±1 hours after birth, and at 1 and 24 hours after emu oil-based topical treatment. The basal skin barrier of right heel (no oil exposure of each newborn was considered as control. We found that a single application of an emu oil-based lotion was effective in improving heel stratum corneum hydration, which increases both skin pH and elasticity without any effect on temperature. Further studies are needed to confirm long-term beneficial effects of this treatment in a very sensitive patient population. Keywords: skin barrier, neonate, emu oil-based lotion, topical treatment

  10. Clinical scoring and instrumental analysis to evaluate skin types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, D G; Segura, J H; Demets, M B A; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2013-04-01

    The biology of the skin is very complex, and there are a number of methods used to classify the different skin types. It is possible to measure or quantify the characteristics of the specific skin types, using a variety of techniques that can objectively evaluate the properties of the skin in a noninvasive manner. To clinically characterize different skin types by dermatological evaluation and biophysical and skin imaging techniques, and to evaluate the relationship between the different characteristics. The study recruited 26 volunteers. Clinical scoring was performed by a dermatologist who classified the volunteers' skin as normal or dry (group 1) and combination or oily (group 2). Objective measurements included skin microrelief, pH, oiliness, water content of the stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Positive correlations were found between the level of skin oiliness and skin texture obtained from both instrumental analysis and clinical scoring. The combination and oily skin types had higher clinical scores for shine intensity, oiliness and tendency to pigmentation, and also had higher objective scores for sebum secretion, TEWL and roughness. Biophysical and skin imaging techniques are effective tools to help characterize skin type and assist in clinical dermatology. We found that different skin types had different characteristics related to skin microrelief, oiliness and TEWL, and therefore require specific dermatological treatments. © The Author(s) CED © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow self-evident truth borne out from the widespread misconception that the ability to efficiently penetrate the stratum corneum is a key determinant of skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  12. Assessment of penetration of quantum dots through in vitro and in vivo human skin using the human skin equivalent model and the tape stripping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jae Hwan; Yi, Sang Min; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Jin Ho; Sohn, Kyung Hee; Park, Kui Lea; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Son, Sang Wook

    2010-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are rapidly emerging as an important class of nanoparticles (NPs) with potential applications in medicine. However, little is known about penetration of QDs through human skin. This study investigated skin penetration of QDs in both in vivo and in vitro human skin. Using the tape stripping method, this study demonstrates for the first time that QDs can actually penetrate through the stratum corneum (SC) of human skin. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy diverse X-ray (EDX) analysis showed accumulation of QDs in the SC of a human skin equivalent model (HSEM) after dermal exposure to QDs. These findings suggest possible transdermal absorption of QDs after dermal exposure over a relatively long period of time.

  13. Using low-frequency ultrasound to improve the optical clearing of porcine skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huiqing; Guo, Zhouyi; Wei, Huajiang; Zhang, Zude; Zeng, Changchun; Zhai, Juan; He, Yonghong

    2008-12-01

    The glycerol used as an enhancer for tissue optical clearing technique has been researched. However, using it and a physical way of ultrasound enhance optical clearing of tissue reported a few. We researched that the ultrasound whether can improve the optical clearing of dealt with 80% glycerol tissue. The fresh porcine skins divided into four groups. The first group was not dealt with by ultrasound and 80% glycerol, the second group was dealt with by only ultrasound, the third group was dealt with by 80% glycerol and no by ultrasound, and the fourth group was dealt with by both 80% glycerol and ultrasound. And we measured changes in optical scattering of the porcine skins under treatment with OCT. From the OCT images show that the fourth group changed very faster than the other's during the 0~15 min. And it can be clearly seen that there is a significant improvement in the light penetration depth and imaging contrast in a shorter time. It is possible that the low-frequency ultrasound can make disordering of the stratum corneum lipids of the porcine skin (because the cavitation has happened), and improve the speed of 80% glycerol through the stratum corneum of skin. These results proved that using 80% glycerol with the ultrasound can better improve the optical clearing of tissue.

  14. [Skin hydration and hydrating products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplan, H; Nocera, T

    2018-05-01

    One of the skin's principal functions is to protect the body against its environment by maintaining an effective epidermal barrier, not only against external factors, but also to prevent water loss from the body. Indeed, water homeostasis is vital for the normal physiological functioning of skin. Hydration levels affect not only visible microscopic parameters such as the suppleness and softness of skin, but also molecular parameters, enzyme activities and cellular signalling within the epidermis. The body is continually losing some of its water, but this phenomenon is limited and the optimal hydration gradient in skin is ensured via a set of sophisticated regulatory processes that rely on the functional and dynamic properties of the uppermost level of the skin consisting of the stratum corneum. The present article brings together data recently acquired in the fields of skin hydration and the characterisation of dehydrated or dry skin, whether through study of the regulatory processes involved or as a result of changes in the techniques used for in situ measurement, and thus in optimisation of management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Gene Silencing in Skin After Deposition of Self-Delivery siRNA With a Motorized Microneedle Array Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn P Hickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the development of potent siRNAs that effectively target genes responsible for skin disorders, translation to the clinic has been hampered by inefficient delivery through the stratum corneum barrier and into the live cells of the epidermis. Although hypodermic needles can be used to transport siRNA through the stratum corneum, this approach is limited by pain caused by the injection and the small volume of tissue that can be accessed by each injection. The use of microneedle arrays is a less painful method for siRNA delivery, but restricted payload capacity limits this approach to highly potent molecules. To address these challenges, a commercially available motorized microneedle array skin delivery device was evaluated. This device combines the positive elements of both hypodermic needles and microneedle array technologies with little or no pain to the patient. Application of fluorescently tagged self-delivery (sd-siRNA to both human and murine skin resulted in distribution throughout the treated skin. In addition, efficient silencing (78% average reduction of reporter gene expression was achieved in a transgenic fluorescent reporter mouse skin model. These results indicate that this device effectively delivers functional sd-siRNA with an efficiency that predicts successful clinical translation.

  16. Eyelid skin as a potential site for drug delivery to conjunctiva and ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Gerard Lee; Sagesaka, Ayano; Sugasawa, Satoko; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2017-11-25

    The feasibility of topical application onto the (lower) eyelid skin to deliver hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds into the conjunctiva and ocular tissues was evaluated by comparing with conventional eye drop application. Skin permeation and the concentration of several model compounds, and skin impedance were determined utilizing eyelid skin from hairless rats, as well as abdominal skin in the same animals for comparison. In vitro static diffusion cells were used to assess the skin permeation in order to provide key insights into the relationship between the skin sites and drugs. The obtained results revealed that drug permeation through the eyelid skin was much higher than that through abdominal skin regardless of the drug lipophilicity. Specifically, diclofenac sodium salt and tranilast exhibited approximately 6-fold and 11-fold higher permeability coefficients, respectively, through eyelid skin compared with abdominal skin. Histomorphological evaluation and in vivo distribution of model fluorescent dyes were also examined in the conjunctiva and skin after eyelid administration by conventional microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope analyses. The result revealed that eyelid skin has a thinner stratum corneum, thereby showing lower impedance, which could be the reason for the higher drug permeation through eyelid skin. Comparative evaluation of lipophilic and hydrophilic model compounds administered via the eyelid skin over 8h revealed stronger fluorescence intensity in the skin and surrounding tissues compared with eye drop administration. These results suggested that the (lower) eyelid skin is valuable as a prospective site for ophthalmic medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Skin condition and its relationship to systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Anna; Tworek, Damian; Szewczyk, Karolina; Kumor-Kisielewska, Anna; Kurmanowska, Zofia; Górski, Paweł; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna; Piotrowski, Wojciech Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The systemic (extrapulmonary) effects and comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute substantially to its burden. The supposed link between COPD and its systemic effects on distal organs could be due to the low-grade systemic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the systemic inflammation may influence the skin condition in COPD patients. Forty patients with confirmed diagnosis of COPD and a control group consisting of 30 healthy smokers and 20 healthy never-smokers were studied. Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, skin sebum content, melanin index, erythema index, and skin temperature were measured with worldwide-acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at the volar forearm of all participants using a multifunctional skin physiology monitor. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), were measured in serum using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. There were significant differences between COPD patients and healthy never-smokers in skin temperature, melanin index, sebum content, and hydration level ( P skin measured. The mean levels of hsCRP and IL-6 in serum were significantly higher in COPD patients and healthy smokers in comparison with healthy never-smokers. There were significant correlations between skin temperature and serum hsCRP ( R =0.40; P =0.02) as well as skin temperature and serum IL-6 ( R =0.49; P =0.005) in smokers. Stratum corneum hydration correlated significantly with serum TNF-α ( R =0.37; P =0.01) in COPD patients. Differences noted in several skin biophysical properties and biomarkers of systemic inflammation between COPD patients, smokers, and healthy never-smokers may suggest a possible link between smoking-driven, low-grade systemic inflammation, and the overall skin condition.

  18. LOCALIZATION OF PERMEABILITY BARRIERS IN THE FROG SKIN EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Palomo, A.; Erlij, D.; Bracho, H.

    1971-01-01

    Ruthenium red and colloidal lanthanum were used to determine the site of the structural barriers to diffusion within the intercellular spaces of frog skin epithelium. Electron micrographs show that occluding zonules located at the outer border of the stratum corneum and at the outer layer of the stratum granulosum are true tight junctions since they are impermeable to these tracers. Measurement of 140La uptake by the living skin shows that lanthanum moves across the external surface of the skin readily, into and out of a compartment that has a limited capacity and is bounded on its internal side by a barrier impermeable to lanthanum. Examination of these skins with the electron microscope suggests that the compartment is localized between the external membrane of the cells at the outer layer of the s. granulosum and at the outermost surface of the skin. These observations and other findings described in the literature indicate that the site of the external high resistance barrier of the frog skin is localized at the outer border of the s. granulosum. PMID:4329611

  19. Skin care products can aggravate epidermal function: studies in a murine model suggest a pathogenic role in sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengxiao; Hu, Lizhi; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Sensitive skin is defined as a spectrum of unpleasant sensations in response to a variety of stimuli. However, only some skin care products provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. Hence, it would be useful to identify products that could provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. To assess whether vehicles, as well as certain branded skin care products, can alter epidermal function following topical applications to normal mouse skin. Following topical applications of individual vehicle or skin care product to C57BL/6J mice twice daily for 4 days, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) rates, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH were measured on treated versus untreated mouse skin with an MPA5 device and pH 900 pH meter. Our results show that all tested products induced abnormalities in epidermal functions of varying severity, including elevations in TEWL and skin surface pH, and reduced SC hydration. Our results suggest that mice can serve as a predictive model that could be used to evaluate the potential safety of skin care products in humans with sensitive skin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate nanoparticles’ human skin penetration in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Y

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ying Zou,1,2,* Anna Celli,2,3,* Hanjiang Zhu,2,* Akram Elmahdy,2 Yachao Cao,2 Xiaoying Hui,2 Howard Maibach2 1Skin & Cosmetic Research Department, Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3San Francisco Veterans Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: With rapid development of nanotechnology, there is increasing interest in nanoparticle (NP application and its safety and efficacy on human skin. In this study, we utilized confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate NP skin penetration.Methods: Three different-sized polystyrene NPs marked with red fluorescence were applied to human skin, and Calcium Green 5N was used as a counterstain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and ethanol were used as alternative vehicles for NPs. Tape stripping was utilized as a barrier-damaged skin model. Skin biopsies dosed with NPs were incubated at 4°C or 37°C for 24 hours and imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy.Results: NPs were localized in the stratum corneum (SC and hair follicles without penetrating the epidermis/dermis. Barrier alteration with tape stripping and change in incubation temperature did not induce deeper penetration. DMSO enhanced NP SC penetration but ethanol did not.Conclusion: Except with DMSO vehicle, these hydrolyzed polystyrene NPs did not penetrate intact or barrier-damaged human “viable” epidermis. For further clinical relevance, in vivo human skin studies and more sensitive analytic chemical methodology are suggested. Keywords: nanoparticles, skin penetration, stratum corneum, confocal laser scanning microscopy, tape stripping

  1. Effect of flexing and massage on in vivo human skin penetration and toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Silva, Vânia R; Liu, David C; Sanchez, Washington Y; Studier, Hauke; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Holmes, Amy; Becker, Wolfgang; Grice, Jeffrey E; Benson, Heather Ae; Roberts, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the effects of flexing and massage on human skin penetration and toxicity of topically applied coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles (˜75 nm) in vivo. Noninvasive multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging was used to evaluate the penetration of nanoparticles through the skin barrier and cellular apoptosis in the viable epidermis. All nanoparticles applied to skin with flexing and massage were retained in the stratum corneum or skin furrows. No significant penetration into the viable epidermis was seen and no cellular toxicity was detected. Exposure of normal in vivo human skin to these nanoparticles under common in-use conditions of flexing or massage is not associated with significant adverse events.

  2. Acute irritant threshold correlates with barrier function, skin hydration and contact hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose interactions between epidermal barrier, skin irritation and sensitization in healthy and diseased skin. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were assessed in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), rosacea and healthy controls. A 4-h patch test with seven concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate was performed to determine the irritant threshold (IT). Contact sensitization pattern was revealed by patch testing with European baseline series. Subjects with a lower IT had higher TEWL values and lower SCH. Subjects with positive allergic reactions had significantly lower IT. In AD, epidermal barrier deterioration was detected on both volar forearm and nasolabial fold, while in rosacea, impeded skin physiology parameters were observed on the facial skin only, suggesting that barrier impediment is restricted to the face in rosacea, in contrast with AD where the abnormal skin physiology is generalized. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Clinical Evaluation Of A New Emollient Cream In Cry Skin Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla V A

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry skin is a common problem both in healthy individuates and in patients with skin diseases. In all cases, emollients play important role in rehydrating the stratum corneum. To evaluate the efficacy of a new emollient, thirty-six patients with symptomatic dry skin disorders were enrolled. They were given the test emollient cream for topical application twice daily for 3 weeks and followed up weekly. Subjective complaints included pruritus and discomfort while objective parameters included scaling, erythema, roughness of skin, fissuring and hypopigmentation. Treatment with the test emollient cream reduced the severity in a majority of patients. Moreover, being free of perfume, co lour, urea and lanolin, the test cream was well tolerated by all participants.

  4. Effect of Tension and Curvature of Skin on Insertion Characteristics of Microneedle Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Takano, Naoki; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki; Miki, Norihisa; Ami, Yoshimichi

    Recent MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce painless microneedles precisely enough to be inserted into epidermis layer penetrating the stratum corneum of human skin. This paper presents a testing procedure to evaluate the insertion characteristics of microneedle array using cultured human skin considering the tension and the curvature. First, the biaxial strain applied to the cultured human skin was measured by optical technique with image processing. It was found that almost constant strain could be successfully given within a certain area and that error factors in the experiment except the thickness variation of the cultured skin were negligible. Next, using a microneedle square array for brain machine interface (BMI) application, the effects of biaxial tension and the curvature on insertion characteristics were discussed. Within the above mentioned area with high strain, the needles were successfully inserted.

  5. Electrical measurement of the hydration state of the skin surface in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, H

    2014-09-01

    Healthy skin surface is smooth and soft, because it is covered by the properly hydrated stratum corneum (SC), an extremely thin and soft barrier membrane produced by the underlying normal epidermis. By contrast, the skin surfaces covering pathological lesions exhibit dry and scaly changes and the SC shows poor barrier function. The SC barrier function has been assessed in vivo by instrumentally measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL). However, there was a lack of any appropriate method for evaluating the hydration state of the skin surface in vivo until 1980 when we reported the feasibility of employing high-frequency conductance or capacitance to evaluate it quickly and accurately. With such measurements, we can assess easily the moisturizing efficacy of various topical agents in vivo as well as the distribution pattern of water in the SC by combining it with a serial tape-stripping procedure of the skin surface. © 2014 The Author BJD © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Evaluation of biophysical skin parameters and assessment of hair growth in patients with acne treated with isotretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmieć, Małgorzata L; Pajor, Anna; Broniarczyk-Dyła, Grażyna

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of the severe forms of acne vulgaris remains a challenge. Isotretinoin is a drug often used in these cases. Retinoids affect the mechanisms that play a role in the pathogenesis of acne, reduce the production of sebum and sizes of the sebaceous glands. However, isotretinoin appears to have undesirable side effects in the skin, mucous membranes and hair. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE EFFECT OF ACNE VULGARIS TREATMENT WITH ISOTRETINOIN ON BIOPHYSICAL SKIN PARAMETERS: skin sebum and stratum corneum hydration levels, transepidermal water loss values, pH, erythema and hair growth parameters: total number, density and proportion of anagen hair. THE STUDY INCLUDED THIRTY PATIENTS WITH ACNE TYPES: papulopustular, conglobata and phlegmonosa. Patients were treated with isotretinoin at a dose of 0.5-1.0 mg/kg/day for a period of 4-7 months. The measurements of skin biophysical parameters were performed before and after the treatment using Sebumeter SM815, Corneometer CM825, Tewameter TM300, MX Mexameter MX18 and Skin-pH-Meter PH908. Hair growth parameters were evaluated with FotoFinder Dermoscope using the TrichoScan Professional V3.0.8.76 software. The results of biophysical skin parameter measurements after the treatment showed a reduction in the severity of seborrhea. However, the skin was dry, which confirmed a lowered degree of stratum corneum hydration and an increase in transepidermal water loss values. Moreover, severity of erythema, an increase in pH value, and variations in selected hair growth parameters: decrease in total count, density and proportion of anagen hair were demonstrated. The reduction in the skin sebum levels was observed after the treatment. There was dryness of the skin, which was confirmed by biophysical skin parameter measurements. Changes in the hair growth parameters showed telogen effluvium hair loss.

  7. [Improvement of rosacea treatment based on the morphological and functional features of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiskarishvili, N V; Katsitadze, A G; Tsiskarishvili, Ts I

    2013-10-01

    Rosacea - a widespread disease sometimes aleak with severe complications, mainly affecting the skin. Irrational and inadequate treatment leads to chronicity of diseases and psychosocial disadaptation of patients. Lately, a clear upward trend in the number of patients in whom in the process of complex treatment manifestations (with the varying degrees of severity) of impaired barrier function of the skin are observed and they need the protection and restoration of the damaged stratum corneum. In patients with rosacea in order to study the function of the facial skin's horny layer we used the skin analyzer BIA (bioimpedance analysis, which in duration of 6 seconds determines the moisture content, oiliness and the softness of the skin) and significant deviations from the norm (decrease in moisture content, fatness and increased roughness) was revealed. These changes were most clearly pronounced in patients with steroid rosacea. To restore the skin barrier the drug "Episofit A" (Laboratory of Evolutionary Dermatology, France) has been used (1-2 times a day for 6 weeks). Evaluation of treatment efficacy was conducted every 2 weeks by means of a scale from 0 to 5 for parameters of dryness, erythema, peeling and expression of subjective feelings. In accordance with received results, using of Episofit A emulsion, especially on the baсkground of long-term treatment with topical steroids, had a pronounced therapeutic effect. Thus, treatment of patients with consideration of morphological and functional features of facial skin, helps to improve the results traditional therapy, and the drug is highly effective means of the new direction in skin care - corneotherapy aimed to reconstruct and protect damaged stratum corneum.

  8. Evaluation of out-in skin transparency using a colorimeter and food dye in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Tadaki, H; Takami, S; Muramatsu, R; Hagiwara, S; Mizuno, T; Arakawa, H

    2009-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a disease of skin barrier dysfunction and outside stimuli can cross the skin barrier. To examine a new method for evaluating the outside to inside skin transparency with a colorimeter and yellow dyes. In study 1, a total of 28 volunteer subjects (24 normal and four with atopic dermatitis) participated. After provocation with yellow dye, the skin colour of all the subjects was measured using a colorimeter. The skin transparency index was calculated by the changes of the skin colour to yellow. Other variables of skin function, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration, were also measured. In study 2, the skin transparency index was evaluated for a cohort of 38 patients with atopic dermatitis, 27 subjects with dry skin and 29 healthy controls. In study 1, the measurement of skin colour (b*) using tartrazine showed good results. There was a significant relationship between the skin transparency index with tartrazine and the atopic dermatitis score (P = 0.014). No other measurements of skin function, including the TEWL, were correlated. In study 2, the skin transparency index score obtained with tartrazine in the patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly higher than that of the controls and those with dry skin (P colorimeter and food dye, is noninvasive, safe and reliable for the evaluation of out-in skin transparency and can demonstrate the characteristic dysfunction in the skin barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  9. Localization of dexamethasone within dendritic core-multishell (CMS) nanoparticles and skin penetration properties studied by multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidpour, S; Lohan, S B; Anske, M; Unbehauen, M; Fleige, E; Haag, R; Meinke, M C; Bittl, R; Teutloff, C

    2017-07-01

    The skin and especially the stratum corneum (SC) act as a barrier and protect epidermal cells and thus the whole body against xenobiotica of the external environment. Topical skin treatment requires an efficient drug delivery system (DDS). Polymer-based nanocarriers represent novel transport vehicles for dermal application of drugs. In this study dendritic core-multishell (CMS) nanoparticles were investigated as promising candidates. CMS nanoparticles were loaded with a drug (analogue) and were applied to penetration studies of skin. We determined by dual-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) how dexamethasone (Dx) labelled with 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (PCA) is associated with the CMS. The micro-environment of the drug loaded to CMS nanoparticles was investigated by pulsed high-field EPR at cryogenic temperature, making use of the fact that magnetic parameters (g-, A-matrices, and spin-lattice relaxation time) represent specific probes for the micro-environment. Additionally, the rotational correlation time of spin-labelled Dx was probed by continuous wave EPR at ambient temperature, which provides independent information on the drug environment. Furthermore, the penetration depth of Dx into the stratum corneum of porcine skin after different topical applications was investigated. The location of Dx in the CMS nanoparticles is revealed and the function of CMS as penetration enhancers for topical application is shown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of a non-invasive method to study the moisturizing effect of formulations containing vitamins A or E or ceramide on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2002-01-01

    Moisturizers containing vitamins A and E as well as ceramides are believed to improve the skin condition by increasing the water content of the stratum corneum. The aim of this research was to evaluate, through the capacitance method (a non-invasive method), the moisturizing effect of an O/W emulsion (non-ionic self-emulsifying base) containing vitamin A palmitate, vitamin E acetate, and ceramide III on human skin. The studies were carried out on a group of 40 healthy Caucasian female test subjects between 30 and 45 years of age, using the Corneometer CM 825 PC. Skin measurements were taken from the volunteers at 7 and 30 days after daily use (twice a day) of the tested products. The presence of vitamins A and E or ceramide III did not cause an improvement in the hydration of the stratum corneum, which means that none of those compounds strengthens the hydration effectiveness of the base formulations used, at least at the doses tested. The interpretation of electrical measurement regarding skin moisture should be made with caution; thus the results observed in this study show the importance of using different approaches (or methodologies) to verify the performance of the formulas tested. We conclude that, at the low doses typically used in cosmetic formulations, vitamins A and E and ceramide III are not likely to contribute to the hydrating effects of the base moisturizing formulation when assessed by capacitance.

  11. Electrochemical monitoring of native catalase activity in skin using skin covered oxygen electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocchi, Sarah; Björklund, Sebastian; Svensson, Birgitta; Engblom, Johan; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas

    2017-07-15

    A skin covered oxygen electrode, SCOE, was constructed with the aim to study the enzyme catalase, which is part of the biological antioxidative system present in skin. The electrode was exposed to different concentrations of H 2 O 2 and the amperometric current response was recorded. The observed current is due to H 2 O 2 penetration through the outermost skin barrier (referred to as the stratum corneum, SC) and subsequent catalytic generation of O 2 by catalase present in the underlying viable epidermis and dermis. By tape-stripping the outermost skin layers we demonstrate that SC is a considerable diffusion barrier for H 2 O 2 penetration. Our experiments also indicate that skin contains a substantial amount of catalase, which is sufficient to detoxify H 2 O 2 that reaches the viable epidermis after exposure of skin to high concentrations of peroxide (0.5-1mM H 2 O 2 ). Further, we demonstrate that the catalase activity is reduced at acidic pH, as compared with the activity at pH 7.4. Finally, experiments with often used penetration enhancer thymol shows that this compound interferes with the catalase reaction. Health aspect of this is briefly discussed. Summarizing, the results of this work show that the SCOE can be utilized to study a broad spectrum of issues involving the function of skin catalase in particular, and the native biological antioxidative system in skin in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Elewa, Rana; Ottaviani, Monica; Fluhr, Joachim; Picardo, Mauro; Bernois, Armand; Heusèle, Catherine; Camera, Emanuela

    2018-03-01

    Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13). In addition, casual surface lipid composition was studied under the same conditions at the baseline and day 7 after mechanical stress induction. Evaluations were also performed in stressed skin areas treated daily with skin care products and the subjective opinion of the volunteers was additionally documented. The tested groups exhibited age-associated baseline skin functions as well as casual surface lipid composition and different reaction patterns to mechanical stress. Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hexamidine salts - applications in skin health and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, N; Matts, P J; Lever, R; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2017-08-01

    Hexamidine (HEX) has been used as a preservative in topical preparations since the 1950s. A number of studies also indicate that the molecule plays a beneficial role in skin homoeostasis. In this review, we describe the physicochemical properties of hexamidine diisethionate (HEX D) and the corresponding hydrochloride salt (HEX H). The biocidal and protease inhibition properties of HEX are outlined as well as the effects of HEX on lipid processing enzymes, corneocyte maturity, stratum corneum thickness and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Skin permeation properties of HEX D and HEX H are summarized, and formulation approaches for effective dermal targeting of HEX are discussed. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Non-invasive biological dosimetry of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, S.; Marks, R.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations designed to identify a potential biological dosimetry technique to examine the effects of X-ray doses down to 0.1 Gy on human skin, are described. In a variety of parameters assessed, the most important changes observed were a significant depression in epidermal cell production in the basal layer after X-ray doses between 0.5 Gy and 1 Gy and a concomitant reduction in the desquamation rate of corneocytes after doses above 1 Gy. Changes in non-specific esterase (NSE) activity were also observed. Further work is described which applies these results to several non-invasive techniques which may have potential for routine application. Preliminary data from irradiated human skin are presented on the measurement of forced desquamation, the evaluation of NSE activity from hair samples and the evaluation of stratum corneum turnover time using the fluorescent dye, dansyl chloride. (author)

  15. Inflammatory peeling skin syndrome caused a novel mutation in CDSN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana Fuchs; Israeli, Shirli; Sarig, Ofer; Sprecher, Eli

    2012-04-01

    Generalized peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare autosomal recessive dermatosis manifesting with continuous exfoliation of the stratum corneum. The inflammatory (type B) subtype of PSS was recently found to be caused by deleterious mutations in the CDSN gene encoding corneodesmosin, a major component of desmosomal junctions in the uppermost layers of the epidermis. In the present study, we assessed a 10-month-old baby, who presented with generalized superficial peeling of the skin. Using PCR amplification and direct sequencing, we identified the third PSS-associated mutation in CDSN, a homozygous 4 bp duplication in the second exon of the gene (c.164_167dup GCCT; p.Thr57ProfsX6). These data further support the notion that corneodesmosin deficiency impairs cell-cell adhesion in the upper epidermis, paving the way for an abnormal inflammatory response due to epidermal barrier disruption.

  16. The integration of physiologically-targeted skin care in the management of atopic dermatitis: focus on the use of a cleanser and moisturizer system incorporating a ceramide precursor, filaggrin degradation products, and specific "skin-barrier-friendly" excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H

    2013-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) may be considered the "poster disease" for exemplifying the significance of abnormalities of the epidermal barrier that occur predominantly within the stratum corneum (SC) and upper epidermis. Specifically, impairments of the SC permeability barrier, antimicrobial barrier, and immunologic barrier contribute markedly to the fundamental pathophysiology of AD. The multiple clinical sequelae associated with epidermal barrier impairments inherent to AD include dry skin, pruritus, increased skin sensitivity to irritants and allergens, eczematous skin changes, staphylococcal skin and anterior nares colonization, and increase in some cutaneous infections (ie, molluscum contagiosum). This article addresses the pathophysiology of AD with clinically relevant correlations, and discusses the scientific basis of a specially designed cleanser and moisturizer system that incorporates ceramide technology and filaggrin degradation products along with other "barrier-friendly" excipients.

  17. Skin blood flow from gas transport: helium xenon and laser Doppler compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, G.R.; Galante, S.R.; Whang, J.M.; DeVries, D.; Baumgardner, J.E.; Graves, D.J.; Quinn, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was designed to compare three independent measures of cutaneous blood flow in normal healthy volunteers: xenon-133 washout, helium flux, and laser velocimetry. All measurements were confined to the volar aspect of the forearm. In a large group of subjects we found that helium flux through intact skin changes nonlinearly with the controlled local skin temperature whereas helium flux through stripped skin, which is directly proportional to skin blood flow, changes linearly with cutaneous temperature over the range 33 degrees to 42 degrees. In a second group of six volunteers we compared helium flux through stripped skin to xenon-133 washout (intact skin) at a skin temperature of 33 degrees, and we found an essentially linear relationship between helium flux and xenon measured blood flow. In a third group of subjects we compared helium flux blood flow (stripped skin) to laser doppler velocimetric (LDV) measurements (intact skin) at adjacent skin sites and found a nonlinear increase in the LDV skin blood flow compared to that determined by helium over the same temperature range. A possible explanation for the nonlinear increases of helium flux through intact skin and of LDV output with increasing local skin temperature is that they reflect more than a change in blood flow. They may also reflect physical changes in the stratum corneum, which alters its diffusional resistance to gas flux and its optical characteristics

  18. Skin blood flow from gas transport: helium xenon and laser Doppler compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, G.R.; Galante, S.R.; Whang, J.M.; DeVries, D.; Baumgardner, J.E.; Graves, D.J.; Quinn, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    A study was designed to compare three independent measures of cutaneous blood flow in normal healthy volunteers: xenon-133 washout, helium flux, and laser velocimetry. All measurements were confined to the volar aspect of the forearm. In a large group of subjects we found that helium flux through intact skin changes nonlinearly with the controlled local skin temperature whereas helium flux through stripped skin, which is directly proportional to skin blood flow, changes linearly with cutaneous temperature over the range 33 degrees to 42 degrees. In a second group of six volunteers we compared helium flux through stripped skin to xenon-133 washout (intact skin) at a skin temperature of 33 degrees, and we found an essentially linear relationship between helium flux and xenon measured blood flow. In a third group of subjects we compared helium flux blood flow (stripped skin) to laser doppler velocimetric (LDV) measurements (intact skin) at adjacent skin sites and found a nonlinear increase in the LDV skin blood flow compared to that determined by helium over the same temperature range. A possible explanation for the nonlinear increases of helium flux through intact skin and of LDV output with increasing local skin temperature is that they reflect more than a change in blood flow. They may also reflect physical changes in the stratum corneum, which alters its diffusional resistance to gas flux and its optical characteristics.

  19. Measurement of skin permeation/penetration of nanoparticles for their safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Eriko; Kawano, Yuichiro; Todo, Hiroaki; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate the skin permeation/penetration of nanomaterials and to consider their penetration pathway through skin. Firstly, penetration/permeation of a model fluorescent nanoparticle, Fluoresbrite®, was determined through intact rat skin and several damaged skins. Fluoresbrite® permeated through only needle-punctured skin. The permeation profiles of soluble high molecular compounds, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FITC-dextrans, FDs), with different molecular weights were also measured for comparison. The effects of molecular sizes and different skin pretreatments on the skin barrier were determined on the skin penetration/permeation of Fluoresbrite® and FDs. Fluoresbrite® was not permeated the intact skin, but FDs were permeated the skin. The skin distribution of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles was also observed after topical application of commercial cosmetics. Nanoparticles in sunscreen cosmetics were easily distributed into the groove and hair follicles after their topical application, but seldom migrated from the groove or follicles to viable epidermis and dermis. The obtained results suggested that nanoparticles did not permeate intact skin, but permeated pore-created skin. No or little permeation was observed for these nanomaterials through the stratum corneum.

  20. Does dietary fluid intake affect skin hydration in healthy humans? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, M; Tomova-Simitchieva, T; Dobos, G; Blume-Peytavi, U; Kottner, J

    2018-02-02

    Associations between daily amounts of drinking water and skin hydration and skin physiology receive increasingly attention in the daily life and in clinical practice. However, there is a lack of evidence of dermatological benefits from drinking increased amounts of water. Pubmed and Web of Science were searched without any restrictions of publication dates. References of included papers and related reviews were checked. Eligibility criteria were primary intervention and observational studies investigating the effects of fluid intake on skin properties in English, German, Spanish or Portuguese language, including subjects being healthy and 18+ years. Searches resulted in 216 records, 23 articles were read in full text, and six were included. The mean age of the samples ranged from 24 to 56 years. Overall the evidence is weak in terms of quantity and methodological quality. Disregarding the methodological limitations a slight increase in stratum corneum and "deep" skin hydration was observed after additional water intake, particularly in individuals with lower prior water consumption. Reductions of clinical signs of dryness and roughness were observed. The extensibility and elasticity of the skin increased slightly. Unclear associations were shown between water intake and transepidermal water loss, sebum content, and skin surface pH. Additional dietary water intake may increase stratum corneum hydration. The underlying biological mechanism for this possible relationship is unknown. Whether this association also exists in aged subjects is unclear. Research is needed to answer the question whether increased fluid intake decreases signs of dry skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Human Skin Barrier Structure and Function Analyzed by Cryo-EM and Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, Magnus; Narangifard, Ali; Wennberg, Christian L; Lindahl, Erik; Daneholt, Bertil; Norlén, Lars

    2018-04-24

    In the present study we have analyzed the molecular structure and function of the human skin's permeability barrier using molecular dynamics simulation validated against cryo-electron microscopy data from near native skin. The skin's barrier capacity is located to an intercellular lipid structure embedding the cells of the superficial most layer of skin - the stratum corneum. According to the splayed bilayer model (Iwai et al., 2012) the lipid structure is organized as stacked bilayers of ceramides in a splayed chain conformation with cholesterol associated with the ceramide sphingoid moiety and free fatty acids associated with the ceramide fatty acid moiety. However, knowledge about the lipid structure's detailed molecular organization, and the roles of its different lipid constituents, remains circumstantial. Starting from a molecular dynamics model based on the splayed bilayer model, we have, by stepwise structural and compositional modifications, arrived at a thermodynamically stable molecular dynamics model expressing simulated electron microscopy patterns matching original cryo-electron microscopy patterns from skin extremely closely. Strikingly, the closer the individual molecular dynamics models' lipid composition was to that reported in human stratum corneum, the better was the match between the models' simulated electron microscopy patterns and the original cryo-electron microscopy patterns. Moreover, the closest-matching model's calculated water permeability and thermotropic behaviour were found compatible with that of human skin. The new model may facilitate more advanced physics-based skin permeability predictions of drugs and toxicants. The proposed procedure for molecular dynamics based analysis of cellular cryo-electron microscopy data might be applied to other biomolecular systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Structural modification of the skin barrier by OH radicals: a reactive molecular dynamics study for plasma medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Paal, J; Verlackt, C C; Yusupov, M; Neyts, E C; Bogaerts, A

    2015-01-01

    While plasma treatment of skin diseases and wound healing has been proven highly effective, the underlying mechanisms, and more generally the effect of plasma radicals on skin tissue, are not yet completely understood. In this paper, we perform ReaxFF-based reactive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interaction of plasma generated OH radicals with a model system composed of free fatty acids, ceramides, and cholesterol molecules. This model system is an approximation of the upper layer of the skin (stratum corneum). All interaction mechanisms observed in our simulations are initiated by H-abstraction from one of the ceramides. This reaction, in turn, often starts a cascade of other reactions, which eventually lead to the formation of aldehydes, the dissociation of ceramides or the elimination of formaldehyde, and thus eventually to the degradation of the skin barrier function. (paper)

  3. Liposomogenic UV Absorbers are Water-Resistant on Pig Skin-A Model Study With Relevance for Sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Bernd; Hüglin, Dietmar; Luther, Helmut

    2017-02-01

    An important property of sunscreens is their water resistance after the application on human skin. In this work, the hypothesis that UV absorber molecules which are able to form liposomes, so-called liposomogenic UV absorbers, show better water resistance on a pig skin model than UV-absorbing molecules lacking this ability was tested. The assumption behind is that molecules which can form liposomes are able to integrate into the stratum corneum lipids of the skin. Three different liposomogenic UV absorbers were synthesized and their behavior investigated, leading to the confirmation of the hypothesis. With one of the liposomogenic UV absorbers, it was possible to show the integration of the UV absorber molecules into the bilayers of another liposome consisting of phosphatidylcholine, supporting the assumption that liposomogenic UV absorbers exhibit improved water resistance because they integrate into the skin lipids. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Circadian rhythms on skin function of hairless rats: light and thermic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flo, Ana; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Calpena, Ana C; Cambras, Trinitat

    2014-03-01

    Circadian rhythms are present in most functions of living beings. We have demonstrated the presence of circadian rhythms in skin variables (transepidermal water loss, TEWL; stratum corneum hydration, SCH; and skin temperature) in hairless rats under different environmental conditions of light and temperature. Circadian rhythms in TEWL and SCH showed mean amplitudes of about 20% and 14% around the mean, respectively, and appeared under light-dark cycles as well as under constant darkness. Environmental temperature was able to override TEWL, but not SCH rhythm, evidencing the dependency of TEWL on the temperature. Mean daily values of TEWL and SCH, and also the amplitude of TEWL rhythm, increased with the age of the animal. Under constant light, situation that induces arrhythmicity in rats, SCH and TEWL were inversely correlated. The results suggest the importance to take into account the functional skin rhythms in research in dermatological sciences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A. P.; Priezzhev, A. V.; Lademann, J.; Myllylä, R.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, by means of the Mie theory and Monte Carlo simulations we investigate modification of optical properties of the superficial layer of human skin (stratum corneum) for 310- and 400-nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation by embedding of 35-200-nm-sized particles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon (Si). Problem of skin protection against UV light is of major importance due to increased frequency of skin cancer provoked by excessive doses of accepted UV radiation. For 310-nm light, the optimal sizes of the TiO2 and Si particles are found to be 62 and 55 nm, respectively, and for 400-nm radiation, 122 and 70 nm, respectively.

  6. Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A. P.; Priezzhev, A. V.; Lademann, J.; Myllylae, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by means of the Mie theory and Monte Carlo simulations we investigate modification of optical properties of the superficial layer of human skin (stratum corneum) for 310- and 400-nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation by embedding of 35-200-nm-sized particles of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and silicon (Si). Problem of skin protection against UV light is of major importance due to increased frequency of skin cancer provoked by excessive doses of accepted UV radiation. For 310-nm light, the optimal sizes of the TiO 2 and Si particles are found to be 62 and 55 nm, respectively, and for 400-nm radiation, 122 and 70 nm, respectively.

  7. Skin toxicity of jet fuels: ultrastructural studies and the effects of substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Inman, Alfred O.; Riviere, Jim E.

    2004-01-01

    Topical exposure to jet fuel is a significant occupational hazard. Recent studies have focused on dermal absorption of fuel and its components, or alternatively, on the biochemical or immunotoxicological sequelae to exposure. Surprisingly, morphological and ultrastructural analyses have not been systematically conducted. Similarly, few studies have compared responses in skin to that of the primary target organ, the lung. The focus of the present investigation was 2-fold: first, to characterize the ultrastructural changes seen after topical exposure to moderate doses (335 or 67 μl/cm 2 ) of jet fuels [Jet A, Jet Propellant (JP)-8, JP-8+100] for up to 4 days in pigs, and secondly, to determine if co-administration of substance P (SP) with JP-8 jet fuel in human epidermal keratinocyte cell cultures modulates toxicity as it does to pulmonary toxicity in laboratory animal studies. The primary change seen after exposure to all fuels was low-level inflammation accompanied by formation of lipid droplets in various skin layers, mitochondrial and nucleolar changes, cleft formation in the intercellular lipid lamellar bilayers, as well as disorganization in the stratum granulosum-stratum corneum interface. An increased number of Langerhans cells were also noted in jet fuel-treated skin. These changes suggest that the primary effect of jet fuel exposure is damage to the stratum corneum barrier. SP administration decreased the release of interleukin (IL)-8 normally seen in keratinocytes after JP-8 exposure, a response similar to that reported for SP's effect on JP-8 pulmonary toxicity. These studies provide a base upon which biochemical and immunological data collected in other model systems can be compared

  8. Spectroscopic and thermal characterization of alternative model biomembranes from shed skins of Bothrops jararaca and Spilotis pullatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rolim Baby

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an interest in the use of shed snake skin as alternative model biomembrane for human stratum corneum. This research work presented as objective the qualitative characterization of alternative model biomembranes from Bothrops jararaca and Spilotis pullatus by FT-Raman, PAS-FTIR and DSC. The employed biophysical techniques permitted the characterization of the biomembranes from shed snake skin of B. jararaca and S. pullatus by the identification of vibrational frequencies and endothermic transitions that are similar to those of the human stratum corneum.Existe atualmente interesse no uso da muda de pele de cobra como modelos alternativos de biomembranas da pele humana. O presente trabalho apresentou como objetivo a caracterização qualitativa de modelos alternativos de biomembranas provenientes de mudas de pele de cobra da Bothrops jararaca e Spilotis pullatus por espectroscopia Raman (FT-Raman, espectroscopia fotoacústica no infravermelho (PAS-FTIR e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. As técnicas biofísicas FT-Raman, PAS-FTIR e DSC permitiram caracterizar qualitativamente os modelos alternativos de biomembranas provenientes das mudas de pele de cobra da B. jararaca e S. pullatus e identificar freqüências vibracionais e transições endotérmicas similares ao estrato córneo humano.

  9. Encapsulation of the UV filters ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane in lipid microparticles: effect on in vivo human skin permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, S; Mezzena, M; Ramaccini, D

    2011-01-01

    Lipid microparticles loaded with the UVB filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and the UVA filter butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) were evaluated for their effect on the sunscreen agent's percutaneous penetration. Microparticles loaded with EHMC or BMDBM were prepared by the melt emulsification technique using stearic acid or glyceryl behenate as lipidic material, respectively, and hydrogenate phosphatidylcholine as the surfactant. Nonencapsulated BMDBM and EHMC in conjunction with blank microparticles or equivalent amounts of the 2 UV filters loaded in the lipid microparticles were introduced into oil-in-water emulsions and applied to human volunteers. Skin penetration was investigated in vivo by the tape-stripping technique. For the cream with the nonencapsulated sunscreen agents, the percentages of the applied dose diffused into the stratum corneum were 32.4 ± 4.1% and 30.3 ± 3.3% for EHMC and BMDBM, respectively. A statistically significant reduction in the in vivo skin penetration to 25.3 ± 5.5% for EHMC and 22.7 ± 5.4% for BMDBM was achieved by the cream containing the microencapsulated UV filters. The inhibiting effect on permeation attained by the lipid microparticles was more marked (45-56.3% reduction) in the deeper stratum corneum layers. The reduced percutaneous penetration of BMDBM and EHMC achieved by the lipid microparticles should preserve the UV filter efficacy and limit potential toxicological risks. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Skin penetration behaviour of sesquiterpene lactones from different Arnica preparations using a validated GC-MSD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Steffen; Merfort, Irmgard

    2007-01-04

    Preparations of Arnica montana L. are widely used for the topical treatment of inflammatory diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity is mainly attributed to their sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) from the helenalin and 11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin type. To study the penetration kinetics of SLs in Arnica preparations, a stripping method with adhesive tape and pig skin as a model was used. For the determination of SLs in the stripped layers of the stratum corneum (SC), a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed and validated. Thereby the amount of helenalin derivatives was calculated as helenalin isobutyrate, and 11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin derivatives as 11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin methacrylate. This GC-MSD method is suitable also to determine low amounts of SLs in Arnica preparations. The penetration behaviour of one gel preparation and two ointment preparations was investigated. The SLs of all preparations show a comparable penetration in and a permeation through the stratum corneum, the uppermost part of the skin. Interestingly, the gel preparation showed a decrease of the penetration rate over 4h, whereas the penetration rate of ointments kept constant over time. Moreover, we could demonstrate that the totally penetrated amount of SLs only depends on the kind of the formulation and of the SLs-content in the formulation but not on the SLs composition or on the used extraction agent.

  11. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonios, George [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Dimou, Aikaterini [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Galaris, Dimitrios [Laboratory of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2008-01-07

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  12. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonios, George; Dimou, Aikaterini; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H 2 O 2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo

  13. Measuring the effects of topically applied skin optical clearing agents and modeling the effects and consequences for laser therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkruysse, Wim; Khan, Misbah; Choi, Bernard; Svaasand, Lars O.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2005-04-01

    Human skin prepared with an optical clearing agent manifests reduced scattering as a result of de-hydration and refractive index matching. This has potentially large effects for laser therapies of several skin lesions such as port wine stain, hair removal and tattoo removal. With most topically applied clearing agents the clearing effect is limited because they penetrate poorly through the intact superficial skin layer (stratum corneum). Agent application modi other than topical are impractical and have limited the success of optical clearing in laser dermatology. In recent reports, however, a mixture of lipofylic and hydrofylic agents was shown to successfully penetrate through the intact stratum corneum layer which has raised new interest in this field. Immediately after application, the optical clearing effect is superficial and, as the agent diffuses through the skin, reduced scattering is manifested in deeper skin layers. For practical purposes as well as to maximize therapeutic success, it is important to quantify the reduced scattering as well as the trans-cutaneous transport dynamics of the agent. We determined the time and tissue depth resolved effects of optically cleared skin by inserting a microscopic reflector array in the skin. Depth dependent light intensity was measured by quantifying the signal of the reflector array with optical coherence tomography. A 1-dimensional mass diffusion model was used to estimate a trans-cutaneous transport diffusion constant for the clearing agent mixture. The results are used in Monte Carlo modeling to determine the optimal time of laser treatment after topical application of the optical clearing agent.

  14. Heat: A Highly Efficient Skin Enhancer for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Szunerits

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Advances in materials science and bionanotechnology have allowed the refinements of current drug delivery systems, expected to facilitate the development of personalized medicine. While dermatological topical pharmaceutical formulations such as foams, creams, lotions, gels, etc., have been proposed for decades, these systems target mainly skin-based diseases. To treat systemic medical conditions as well as localized problems such as joint or muscle concerns, transdermal delivery systems (TDDSs, which use the skin as the main route of drug delivery, are very appealing. Over the years, these systems have shown to offer important advantages over oral as well as intravenous drug delivery routes. Besides being non-invasive and painless, TDDSs are able to deliver drugs with a short-half-life time more easily and are well adapted to eliminate frequent administrations to maintain constant drug delivery. The possibility of self-administration of a predetermined drug dose at defined time intervals makes it also the most convenient personalized point-of-care approach. The transdermal market still remains limited to a narrow range of drugs. While small and lipophilic drugs have been successfully delivered using TDDSs, this approach fails to deliver therapeutic macromolecules due to size-limited transport across the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis. The low permeability of the stratum corneum to water-soluble drugs as well as macromolecules poses important challenges to transdermal administration. To widen the scope of drugs for transdermal delivery, new procedures to enhance skin permeation to hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules are under development. Next to iontophoresis and microneedle-based concepts, thermal-based approaches have shown great promise to enhance transdermal drug delivery of different therapeutics. In this inaugural article for the section “Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,” the advances in this field

  15. Heat: A Highly Efficient Skin Enhancer for Transdermal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2018-01-01

    Advances in materials science and bionanotechnology have allowed the refinements of current drug delivery systems, expected to facilitate the development of personalized medicine. While dermatological topical pharmaceutical formulations such as foams, creams, lotions, gels, etc., have been proposed for decades, these systems target mainly skin-based diseases. To treat systemic medical conditions as well as localized problems such as joint or muscle concerns, transdermal delivery systems (TDDSs), which use the skin as the main route of drug delivery, are very appealing. Over the years, these systems have shown to offer important advantages over oral as well as intravenous drug delivery routes. Besides being non-invasive and painless, TDDSs are able to deliver drugs with a short-half-life time more easily and are well adapted to eliminate frequent administrations to maintain constant drug delivery. The possibility of self-administration of a predetermined drug dose at defined time intervals makes it also the most convenient personalized point-of-care approach. The transdermal market still remains limited to a narrow range of drugs. While small and lipophilic drugs have been successfully delivered using TDDSs, this approach fails to deliver therapeutic macromolecules due to size-limited transport across the stratum corneum , the outermost layer of the epidermis. The low permeability of the stratum corneum to water-soluble drugs as well as macromolecules poses important challenges to transdermal administration. To widen the scope of drugs for transdermal delivery, new procedures to enhance skin permeation to hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules are under development. Next to iontophoresis and microneedle-based concepts, thermal-based approaches have shown great promise to enhance transdermal drug delivery of different therapeutics. In this inaugural article for the section "Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology," the advances in this field and the handful of

  16. Heat: A Highly Efficient Skin Enhancer for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2018-01-01

    Advances in materials science and bionanotechnology have allowed the refinements of current drug delivery systems, expected to facilitate the development of personalized medicine. While dermatological topical pharmaceutical formulations such as foams, creams, lotions, gels, etc., have been proposed for decades, these systems target mainly skin-based diseases. To treat systemic medical conditions as well as localized problems such as joint or muscle concerns, transdermal delivery systems (TDDSs), which use the skin as the main route of drug delivery, are very appealing. Over the years, these systems have shown to offer important advantages over oral as well as intravenous drug delivery routes. Besides being non-invasive and painless, TDDSs are able to deliver drugs with a short-half-life time more easily and are well adapted to eliminate frequent administrations to maintain constant drug delivery. The possibility of self-administration of a predetermined drug dose at defined time intervals makes it also the most convenient personalized point-of-care approach. The transdermal market still remains limited to a narrow range of drugs. While small and lipophilic drugs have been successfully delivered using TDDSs, this approach fails to deliver therapeutic macromolecules due to size-limited transport across the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis. The low permeability of the stratum corneum to water-soluble drugs as well as macromolecules poses important challenges to transdermal administration. To widen the scope of drugs for transdermal delivery, new procedures to enhance skin permeation to hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules are under development. Next to iontophoresis and microneedle-based concepts, thermal-based approaches have shown great promise to enhance transdermal drug delivery of different therapeutics. In this inaugural article for the section “Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,” the advances in this field and the handful of

  17. Infrared reflectometry of skin: Analysis of backscattered light from different skin layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitez, Miguel A.; Hertzberg, Otto; Bauer, Alexander; Lieblein, Tobias; Glasmacher, Mathias; Tholl, Hans; Mäntele, Werner

    2017-09-01

    We have recently reported infrared spectroscopy of human skin in vivo using quantum cascade laser excitation and photoacoustic or photothermal detection for non-invasive glucose measurement . Here, we analyze the IR light diffusely reflected from skin layers for spectral contributions of glucose. Excitation of human skin by an external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser in the spectral region from 1000 to 1245 cm- 1, where glucose exhibits a fingerprint absorption, yields reflectance spectra with some contributions from glucose molecules. A simple three-layer model of skin was used to calculate the scattering intensities from the surface and from shallow and deeper layers using the Boltzmann radiation transfer equation. Backscattering of light at wavelengths around 10 μm from the living skin occurs mostly from the Stratum corneum top layers and the shallow layers of the living epidermis. The analysis of the polarization of the backscattered light confirms this calculation. Polarization is essentially unchanged; only a very small fraction (light is due to specular reflectance and to scattering from layers close to the surface. Diffusely reflected light from deeper layers undergoing one or more scattering processes would appear with significantly altered polarization. We thus conclude that a non-invasive glucose measurement based on backscattering of IR light from skin would have the drawback that only shallow layers containing some glucose at concentrations only weakly related to blood glucose are monitored.

  18. The skin microbiome: impact of modern environments on skin ecology, barrier integrity, and systemic immune programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L; Larcombe, Danica-Lea; Logan, Alan C; West, Christina; Burks, Wesley; Caraballo, Luis; Levin, Michael; Etten, Eddie Van; Horwitz, Pierre; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Campbell, Dianne E

    2017-01-01

    Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health. Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions. Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications. As our primary interface with the external environment, the biodiversity of skin habitats is heavily influenced by the biodiversity of the ecosystems in which we reside. Thus, factors which alter the establishment and health of the skin microbiome have the potential to predispose to not only cutaneous disease, but also other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Indeed, disturbances of the stratum corneum have been noted in allergic diseases (eczema and food allergy), psoriasis, rosacea, acne vulgaris and with the skin aging process. The built environment, global biodiversity losses and declining nature relatedness are contributing to erosion of diversity at a micro-ecological level, including our own microbial habitats. This emphasises the importance of ecological perspectives in overcoming the factors that drive dysbiosis and the risk of inflammatory diseases across the life course.

  19. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1-36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32) were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33) were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only), tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only), rash/irritation (study 2 only), and overall skin condition (study 2 only) at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, Pproduct-related adverse events. The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen.

  20. Comparative behavior between sunscreens based on free or encapsulated UV filters in term of skin penetration, retention and photo-stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Arianna C; Perugini, Paola; Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel

    2018-06-03

    The growing incidence of photodamaging effects caused by UV radiation (e.g. sunburn, skin cancer) has increased the attention from health authorities which recommend the topical application of sunscreens to prevent these skin damages. The economic stakes for those companies involved in this international market are to develop new UV filters and innovative technologies to provide the most efficient, flexible and robust sunscreen products. Today the development of innovative and competitive sunscreen products is a complex formulation challenge. Indeed, the current sunscreens must protect against skin damages, while also being safe for the skin and being sensory and visually pleasant for the customers when applied on the skin. Organic UV filters, while proposing great advantages, also present the risk to penetrate the stratum corneum and diffuse into underlying structures with unknown consequences; moreover, their photo-stability are noted thorny outcomes in sunscreen development and subsequent performance. In recent years, the evaluation of the interaction between skin and sunscreen in terms of penetration after topical application has been considered from European authority but still its testing as their photo-stability assessment are not mandatory in most countries. This study, based on in-vitro approaches, was performed to evaluate and compare the retention and the penetration of organic UV filters in free or encapsulated form inside the skin as well as their respective photo-stability. Sunscreen formulation with a combination of Avobenzone and Octocrylene in "free form" and a formulation using the same UV filters but encapsulated in a sol-gel silica capsule, were analyzed and compared by FTIR Imaging Spectroscopy. Tape stripping method was used to investigate the penetration of these UV filters inside the stratum corneum. Their photo-stabilities were evaluated by spectroscopic measurements (FTIR, UV/Vis) and standard measurements were calculated: AUC (Area Under

  1. Multifactorial skin barrier deficiency and atopic dermatitis: Essential topics to prevent the atopic march.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Gyohei; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in the industrialized world and has multiple causes. Over the past decade, data from both experimental models and patients have highlighted the primary pathogenic role of skin barrier deficiency in patients with AD. Increased access of environmental agents into the skin results in chronic inflammation and contributes to the systemic "atopic (allergic) march." In addition, persistent skin inflammation further attenuates skin barrier function, resulting in a positive feedback loop between the skin epithelium and the immune system that drives pathology. Understanding the mechanisms of skin barrier maintenance is essential for improving management of AD and limiting downstream atopic manifestations. In this article we review the latest developments in our understanding of the pathomechanisms of skin barrier deficiency, with a particular focus on the formation of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, which contributes significantly to skin barrier function. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of microneedles on the skin permeability and antitumor activity of topical 5-fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef W. Naguib

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. However, 5-FU suffers from poor skin permeation. Microneedles have been successfully applied to improve the skin permeability of small and large molecules, and even nanoparticles, by creating micron-sized pores in the stratum corneum layer of the skin. In this report, the feasibility of using microneedles to increase the skin permeability of 5-FU was tested. Using full thickness mouse skin mounted on Franz diffusion apparatus, it was shown that the flux of 5-FU through the skin was increased by up to 4.5-fold when the skin was pretreated with microneedles (500 μm in length, 50 μm in base diameter. In a mouse model with B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells implanted in the subcutaneous space, the antitumor activity of a commercially available 5-FU topical cream (5% was significantly enhanced when the cream was applied on a skin area that was pretreated with microneedles, as compared to when the cream was simply applied on a skin area, underneath which the tumor cells were implanted, and without pretreatment of the skin with microneedles. Fluorouracil is not approved for melanoma therapy, but the clinical efficacy of topical 5-FU against tumors such as basal cell carcinoma may be improved by integrating microneedle technology into the therapy.

  3. Contribution of human skin topography to the characterization of dynamic skin tension during senescence: morpho-mechanical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouani, H.; Djaghloul, M.; Vargiolu, R.; Mezghani, S.; Mansori, M. E. L.

    2014-03-01

    The structuring of the dermis with a network of collagen and elastic fibres gives a three-dimensional structure to the skin network with directions perpendicular and parallel to the skin surface. This three-dimensional morphology prints on the surface of the stratum corneum a three dimensional network of lines which express the mechanical tension of the skin at rest. To evaluate the changes of skin morphology, we used a three-dimensional confocal microscopy and characterization of skin imaging of volar forearm microrelief. We have accurately characterize the role of skin line network during chronological aging with the identification of depth scales on the network of lines (z 60 microns). During aging has been highlighted lower rows for elastic fibres, the decrease weakened the tension and results in enlargement of the plates of the microrelief, which gives us a geometric pertinent indicator to quantify the loss of skin tension and assess the stage of aging. The study of 120 Caucasian women shows that ageing in the volar forearm zone results in changes in the morphology of the line network organisation. The decrease in secondary lines (z 60 μm) and an accentuation of the anisotropy index.

  4. Contribution of human skin topography to the characterization of dynamic skin tension during senescence: morpho-mechanical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahouani, H; Djaghloul, M; Vargiolu, R; Mezghani, S; Mansori, M E L

    2014-01-01

    The structuring of the dermis with a network of collagen and elastic fibres gives a three-dimensional structure to the skin network with directions perpendicular and parallel to the skin surface. This three-dimensional morphology prints on the surface of the stratum corneum a three dimensional network of lines which express the mechanical tension of the skin at rest. To evaluate the changes of skin morphology, we used a three-dimensional confocal microscopy and characterization of skin imaging of volar forearm microrelief. We have accurately characterize the role of skin line network during chronological aging with the identification of depth scales on the network of lines (z ≤ 60μm) and the network of lines covering Langer's lines (z > 60 microns). During aging has been highlighted lower rows for elastic fibres, the decrease weakened the tension and results in enlargement of the plates of the microrelief, which gives us a geometric pertinent indicator to quantify the loss of skin tension and assess the stage of aging. The study of 120 Caucasian women shows that ageing in the volar forearm zone results in changes in the morphology of the line network organisation. The decrease in secondary lines (z ≤ 60 μm) is counterbalanced by an increase in the depth of the primary lines (z > 60 μm) and an accentuation of the anisotropy index

  5. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.

  6. Influence of porous PTFE/LDPE/PP composite electret in skin ultrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J; Liang, Y Y; Tang, Y; Ye, X T; Yang, Y J; Song, M H; Cui, L L; Hou, X M

    2008-01-01

    Corona charging and heat melting method were used to prepare porous PTFE electret and porous PTFE/LDPE/PP composite electret, respectively. After 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3 and 4 hour's action of fluorescein sodium (FINa) and -300V porous PTFE/LDPE/PP composite electret on the excised abdominal skin of rat, the skin structure was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively, to probe the mechanism of electret on transdermal drug delivery. The results indicated that negative electret could increase the transdermal delivery of FINa due to its effect on changing the organized structure of stratum corneum, enlarging the hair follicles, which may be the mechanism of electret in enhancing transdermal drug delivery.

  7. Investigating the sonophoresis effect on the permeation of diclofenac sodium using 3D skin equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwaikat, Mai; Alarjah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound temporally increases skin permeability by altering stratum corneum SC function (sonophoresis). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of variable ultrasound conditions on the permeation of diclofenac sodium DS with range of physicochemical properties through EpiDerm™. Permeation studies were carried out in vitro using Franz diffusion cell. HPLC method was used for the determination of the concentration of diclofenac sodium in receiving compartment. Parameters like ultrasound frequency, application time, amplitude, and mode of sonication and distance of ultrasound horn from skin were investigated, and the conditions where the maximum enhancement rate obtained were determined. Application of ultrasound enhanced permeation of diclofenac sodium across EpiDerm™ by fivefolds. The most effective enhancing parameters were power sonication of 20kHz frequency, 20% amplitude at continuous mode for 5min. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Characterization and In Vitro Skin Permeation of Meloxicam-Loaded Liposomes versus Transfersomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureewan Duangjit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate the potential use of liposome and transfersome vesicles in the transdermal drug delivery of meloxicam (MX. MX-loaded vesicles were prepared and evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (%EE, loading efficiency, stability, and in vitro skin permeation. The vesicles were spherical in structure, 90 to 140 nm in size, and negatively charged (−23 to −43 mV. The %EE of MX in the vesicles ranged from 40 to 70%. Transfersomes provided a significantly higher skin permeation of MX compared to liposomes. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC analysis indicated that the application of transfersomes significantly disrupted the stratum corneum lipid. Our research suggests that MX-loaded transfersomes can be potentially used as a transdermal drug delivery system.

  9. Polymer-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography on hairy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Miyako; Kudo, Yuta; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the optimization of the shape of dry microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG) on hairy locations and compare the electrodes we developed with conventional wet electrodes. We propose the use of SU-8-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes (CMEs), which have pillars of 1.0 mm height and 0.4 mm diameter with a gap of 0.43 mm between pillars. Microneedles are formed on the top of the pillars. The shape was determined by how well the pillars can avoid hairs and support the microneedles to penetrate through the stratum corneum. The skin-electrode contact impedances of the fabricated CMEs were found to be higher and less stable than those of conventional wet electrodes. However, the CMEs successfully acquired signals with qualities as good as those of conventional wet electrodes. Given the usability of the CMEs, which do not require skin preparation or gel, they are promising alternatives to conventional wet electrodes.

  10. Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larese, Francesca Filon; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Renzi, Nadia; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest on nanoparticle safety for topical use. The benefits of nanoparticles have been shown in several scientific fields, but little is known about their potential to penetrate the skin. This study aims at evaluating in vitro skin penetration of silver nanoparticles. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 70 μg/cm 2 of silver nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone dispersed in synthetic sweat were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. The receptor fluid measurements were performed by electro thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS). Human skin penetration was also determined by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) to verify the location of silver nanoparticles in exposed membranes. Median silver concentrations of 0.46 ng cm -2 (range -2 (range 0.43-11.6) were found in the receiving solutions of cells where the nanoparticles solution was applied on intact skin (eight cells) and on damaged skin (eight cells), respectively. Twenty-four hours silver flux permeation in damaged skin was 0.62 ± 0.2 ng cm -2 with a lag time <1 h. Our experimental data showed that silver nanoparticles absorption through intact and damaged skin was very low but detectable, and that in case of damaged skin it was possible an increasing permeation of silver applied as nanoparticles. Moreover, silver nanoparticles could be detected in the stratum corneum and the outermost surface of the epidermis by electron microscopy. We demonstrated for the first time that silver applied as nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone is able to permeate the damaged skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system

  11. Efficacy of a shower cream and a lotion with skin-identical lipids in healthy subjects with atopic dry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, Enzo; Mortillo, Susan; Cameli, Norma; Ardigo, Marco; Mariano, Maria

    2018-05-10

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disease that adversely affects quality of life. The current study evaluates the efficacy of a shower cream and a lotion, each with skin-identical lipids and emollients, in the treatment of atopic dry skin of subjects with a history of atopic condition. In all, 40 healthy females with clinically dry skin on the lower legs were enrolled in the study and underwent 4 weeks of daily use of the shower cream and 2 additional weeks of both the shower cream and the body lotion. Subjects were evaluated at day 0, week 4, and week 6. Skin barrier function was assessed by Tewameter ® , skin hydration by Corneometer ® , smoothness and desquamation by Visioscan ® , and stratum corneum architecture by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). The investigator assessed the degree of dryness, roughness, redness, cracks, tingling and itch, and subjective self-assessment evaluated the perception of skin soothing, smoothness, and softness. Skin barrier function and skin moisture maintenance were significantly improved using the shower cream. The lotion with physiological lipids, together with the shower cream, also improved skin barrier function and moisture. Both the shower cream and the body lotion reduced clinical dryness, roughness, redness, cracks, tingling and itch, according to the dermatologist, and increased soothing, smoothness, and softness, according to the subjects of the study. The combination of a shower cream and a lotion with physiological lipids efficiently restores skin barrier function and increases skin hydration, becoming an effective skin-care option for patients with atopic dry skin. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Elucidation of the Synthetic Mechanism of Acylceramide, an Essential Lipid for Skin Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    The primary function of the skin is to act as a permeability barrier that prevents water loss from inside the body and external invasion such as by pathogens, harmful substances, and allergens. Lipids play a critical role in skin barrier formation by forming multi-lamellar structures in the stratum corneum, the outermost cell layer of the epidermis. Ceramide, the backbone of sphingolipids, accounts for more than 50% of the stratum corneum lipids. Acylceramides are epidermis-specific ceramide species essential for skin barrier formation. Decreases in acylceramide levels and changes in ceramide composition and chain-length are associated with such cutaneous disorders as ichthyosis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Acylceramide consists of a long-chain base and an amide-linked ultra-long-chain fatty acid (ULCFA, 28-36 carbon chain), which is ω-hydroxylated and esterified with linoleic acid. Although the molecular mechanism by which acylceramide is generated has not been fully understood for decades, we recently identified two genes, CYP4F22 and PNPLA1, involved in acylceramide synthesis and elucidated the entire biosynthetic pathway of acylceramide: the synthesis of ULCFA by ELOVL1 and ELOVL4, ω-hydroxylation of the ULCFA by CYP4F22, amide-bond formation with a long-chain base by CERS3, and transacylation of linoleic acid from triacylglycerol to ω-hydroxyceramide by PNPLA1 to generate acylceramide. CYP4F22 and PNPLA1 are the causative genes of ichthyosis. We demonstrated that mutations of CYP4F22 or PNPLA1 markedly reduced acylceramide production. Our recent findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of skin barrier formation and of ichthyosis pathogenesis.

  13. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) or maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  14. Enhanced skin penetration of lidocaine through encapsulation into nanoethosomes and nanostructured lipid carriers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, S; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Adib, Z M; Kouhsoltani, M; Davaran, S; Hamishehkar, H

    2016-05-01

    Lipid based nanoparticles have become a major research object in topical drug delivery to enable drugs to pass the stratum corneum and reach the desired skin layer. The present investigation deals with the encapsulation of lidoacine into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and nanoethosomes for improving its dermal delivery and consequently local anesthetic efficacy. Concurrently these two topical delivery systems were compared. Lidocaine-loaded NLCs and nanoethosomes were characterized by various techniques and used for an in vitro skin penetration study using excised rat skin and Franz diffusion cells. The nanoparticles were tracked in the skin by following the Rhodamine-labled nanocarriers under fluorescent microscopy. Optimized lidocaine-loaded NLCs (size 96 nm, zeta potential -13.7 mV, encapsulation efficiency (EE) % 69.86% and loading capacity (LC) % 10.47%) and nanoethosomes (size 105.4 nm, zeta potential -33.6 mV, EE 40.14% and LC 8.02%) were chosen for a skin drug delivery study. Higher skin drug deposition of NLCs and nanoethosomal formulations compared to lidocaine hydroalcoholic solution represented a better localization of the drug in the skin. NLC formulation showed the lowest entered drug in the receptor phase of Franz diffusion cell in comparison with nanoethosomes and hydroalcoholic solution confirming the highest skin accumulation of drug. Both colloidal systems showed superiority over the drug solution for dermal delivery of lidocaine, however, NLC exhibited more promising characteristics than nanoethosomes regarding drug loading and skin targeted delivery.

  15. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2–21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  16. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  17. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into human skin affected by atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Bodnár, E.; Borbíró, I.; Angyal, A.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Hunyadi, J.

    2011-10-01

    Skin penetration is one of the potential routes for nanoparticles to gain access into the human body. Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the particle size smaller than 200 nm makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. The present study continues the work carried out in the frame of the NANODERM: “Quality of skin as a barrier to ultrafine particles” European project and complements our previous investigations on human skin with compromised barrier function. Atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious skin disease. It is very common in children but may occur at any age. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but is likely due to a combination of impaired barrier function together with a malfunction in the body's immune system. In this study, skin samples were obtained from two patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Our results indicate that the ultrafine zinc oxide particles, in a hydrophobic basis gel with an application time of 2 days or 2 weeks, have penetrated deeply into the stratum corneum in these patients. On the other hand, penetration into the stratum spinosum was not observed even in the case of the longer application time.

  18. Application of a plasma-jet for skin antisepsis: analysis of the thermal action of the plasma by laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, O; Kramer, A; Richter, H; Patzelt, A; Alborova, A; Humme, D; Weltmann, K-D; Hartmann, B; Hinz, P; Koch, S

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it was reported that a plasma-jet could be efficiently applied for the antisepsis of wounds. In this case, the discharge in an argon gas stream was used to produce a so-called ''cold plasma'' on the skin surface. The thermal action of the plasma on the skin was investigated in the present study by means of laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and by histological analysis. Consequently, the plasma beam was moved with a definite velocity at an optimal distance over the skin surface. The structural changes of the tissue were analyzed. It was found by LSM that a thermal damage could be detected only in the upper cell layers of the stratum corneum (SC) at moving velocities of the plasma beam, usually applied in clinical practice. Deeper parts of the SC were not damaged. The structural changes were so superficial that they could be detected only by LSM but not by analysis of the histological sections

  19. Biometrological methods to evaluate in vivo the skin hydratation of different commercial moisturizers containing 10.0% urea as the main claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Cecílio Chaves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biometrological measurements of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss are important parameters to evaluate the moisturizing ability of creams and lotions suitable for this purpose. This study analyzed, through biometrological tests, the performance of five different commercial moisturizing creams containing 10.0 % urea. The amount of water in the stratum corneum was analyzed by Corneometer®, equipment that measures the skin hydration by capacitance principle. The transepidermal water loss was analyzed by TEWLmeter®, equipment that measures water evaporation through the skin. Student t-tests were applied to these measures, which demonstrated significant differences between the hydration performances of the moisturizing creams analyzed. The moisturizer identified as "D" showed a better moisturizing ability and better prevented transepidermal water loss. Overall, results showed the importance of testing equivalence for topical products, since, as demonstrated in this study, although certain products may contain the same active substance, differences in their vehicles’ composition can alter the effectiveness.

  20. In vitro-in vivo correlation in skin permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, D; Matts, P J; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2014-02-01

    In vitro skin permeation studies have been used extensively in the development and optimisation of delivery of actives in vivo. However, there are few reported correlations of such in vitro studies with in vivo data. The aim of this study was to investigate the skin permeation of a model active, niacinamide, both in vitro and in vivo. Conventional diffusion cell studies were conducted in human skin to determine niacinamide permeation from a range of vehicles which included dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML), N-methyl 2-pyrrolidone (NMP), Miglyol 812N® (MG), and mineral oil (MO). Single, binary or ternary systems were examined. The same vehicles were subsequently examined to investigate niacinamide delivery in vivo. For this proof-of-concept study one donor was used for the in vitro studies and one volunteer for the in vivo investigations to minimise biovariability. Analysis of in vitro samples was conducted using HPLC and in vivo uptake of niacinamide was evaluated using Confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS). The amount of niacinamide permeated through skin in vitro was linearly proportional to the intensity of the niacinamide signal determined in the stratum corneum in vivo. A good correlation was observed between the signal intensities of selected vehicles and niacinamide signal intensity. The findings provide further support for the use of CRS to monitor drug delivery into and across the skin. In addition, the results highlight the critical role of the vehicle and its disposition in skin for effective dermal delivery.

  1. Iron deposition in skin of patients with haemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Silva, J.N.; Alves, L.C.; Filipe, P.

    2003-01-01

    Haemochromatosis is the most common inherited liver disease in Caucasians and the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorder. It is characterized by inappropriately high iron absorption resulting in progressive iron overload in parenchymal organs such as liver, heart, pancreas, pituitary, joints, and skin. Upon early detection, haemochromatosis can be a manageable chronic disease but, if undetected, is potentially fatal. Skin biopsies were obtained from patients and from healthy donors. Images of the elemental distributions in skin were obtained using nuclear microscopy techniques (nuclear microprobe, NMP). Elemental profiles along skin, and intra-, and extra-cellular iron concentrations, were determined. Results for patients with haemochromatosis were cross-examined with morphologic features and with data obtained for healthy skin. Skin iron content is much increased in patients with haemochromatosis when compared with healthy subjects. Extensive iron deposits are observed at dermis, at the dermo-epidermal interface, at upper epidermis layers and at stratum corneum. Iron deposition was observed preferentially at cell boundaries or at the interstitial matrix

  2. A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sein; Kim, Jong-Eun; Suk, Sujin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kim, Dae Eung; Lee, Miyeong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Jeon, Jong Eun; Cho, Dong Woon; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-01

    Skin hydration is one of the primary aims of beauty and anti-aging treatments. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) are major food crops, but can also be used as ingredients for the maintenance of skin health. We developed a natural product-based skin treatment using a barley and soybean formula (BS) incorporating yeast fermentation, and evaluated its skin hydration effects as a dietary supplement in a clinical study. Participants ingested a placebo- (n = 33) or BS- (3 g/day) containing drink (n = 32) for 8 weeks. A significant increase in hydration in the BS group as compared to the placebo group was observed on the faces of subjects after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in stratum corneum (SC) thickness were also observed on the face and forearm. BS enhanced hyaluronan (HA) and skin barrier function in vitro and reduced Hyal2 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). BS also recovered ultraviolet (UV) B-induced downregulation of HA in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BS has promising potential for development as a health functional food to enhance skin health.

  3. In vitro studies of cutaneous retention of magnetic nanoemulsion loaded with zinc phthalocyanine for synergic use in skin cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primo, Fernando L.; Rodrigues, Marcilene M.A.; Simioni, Andreza R.; Bentley, Maria V.L.B.; Morais, Paulo C.; Tedesco, Antonio C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study was developed a new nano drug delivery system (NDDS) based on association of biodegradable surfactants with biocompatible magnetic fluid of maguemita citrate derivative. This formulation consists in a magnetic emulsion with nanostructured colloidal particles. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed that the formulation presents a great potential for synergic application in the topical release of photosensitizer drug (PS) and excellent target tissue properties in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with hyperthermia (HPT) protocols. The physical chemistry characterization and in vitro assays were carried out by Zn(II) Phtalocyanine (ZnPc) photosensitizer incorporated into NDDS in the absence and the presence of magnetic fluid, showed good results and high biocompatibility. In vitro experiments were accomplished by tape-stripping protocols for quantification of drug association with different skin tissue layers. This technique is a classical method for analyses of drug release in stratum corneum and epidermis+dermis skin layers. The NDDS formulations were applied directly in pig skin (tissue model) fixed in the cell's Franz device with receptor medium container with a PBS/EtOH 20% solution (10 mM, pH 7.4) at 37 deg. C. After 12 h of topical administration stratum corneum was removed from fifty tapes and the ZnPc retained was evaluated by solvent extraction in dimetil-sulphoxide under ultrasonic bath. These results indicated that magnetic nanoemulsion (MNE) increase the drug release on the deeper skin layers when compared with classical formulation in the absence of magnetic particles. This could be related with the increase of biocompatibility of NDDS due to the great affinity for the polar extracelullar matrix in the skin and also for the increase in the drug partition inside of corneocites wall

  4. Penetration of radionuclides across skin barriers of animal skin models in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.; Harangozo, M.; Bohacik, L.; Kassai, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper: (i) the time dependence of permeation of 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ , and 147 Pm 3+ from aqueous solution through animal skin model has been studied, (ii) the biologic structure mostly responsible for the barrier effect was selected and proved, (iii) the relative importance of the main diffusion pathways for 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ and 147 Pm 3+ (the diffusion across the intact skin and the diffusion through the hair channels) was assessed. All experiments were done using radioactive tracers. Experimental arrangement consisted of Franz-type vertical permeation cells used with fresh skin from abdominal region of 5 day old rats (5DR) of Wistar strain (Breeding Farm Dobra Voda, SK) and 9 day old rats (9DR), respectively. 5DR are still hairless, and 9DR are just short haired. The 5DR skin was used in full form (intact), and then with decreasing thickness of horny layer after the skin had been stripped with Scotch type (3M) 5-20 times respectively, or the skin was splitted under 60 degC hot water so that the whole epidermis was removed. The penetrated amounts of ions were found to be proportional to the time at least in the first 7 hours. The permeation resistance of the skin is proportional to the thickness of the horny layer, the principal barrier mostly restricting the flux of ions. The more the skin is stripped, the more enhanced is the penetration of ions. This corroborates the fact that stratum corneum represents the most important barrier function of the whole skin (of rats). The additional diffusion through channels along hairs (follicules) can be of important value also in case of human skin where hair density is many times lower than in the case of the animal models used

  5. Ceramide 1 and ceramide 3 act synergistically on skin hydration and the transepidermal water loss of sodium lauryl sulfate-irritated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2008-08-01

    Stratum corneum intercellular lipids, such as ceramides, play an important role in the regulation of skin water barrier homeostasis and water-holding capacity. Aim To evaluate the potential water retention capacity of control emulsion and three oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing ceramide 1, ceramide 3, or both. Fifteen healthy Asian women (age, 20-30 years) with healthy skin, pretreated with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), applied the tested emulsions twice daily over a period of 28 days. Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values were measured on the indicated days with a Corneometer(R)825 and a TEWAMETER TM210, respectively. The maximum increase in skin humidity was reached after 4 weeks, with values of 21.9 +/- 1.8% and 8.9 +/- 0.9% for emulsion C and control emulsion, respectively. The maximum decrease in TEWL was also reached after 4 weeks, with values of 36.7 +/- 4.7% and 5.1 +/- 0.8% for the same emulsions. It can be concluded that all the tested ceramide-containing emulsions improved skin barrier function when compared with untreated skin. There was some indication that ceramides 1 and 3 contained in emulsion C might exert a beneficial synergistic effect on skin biochemical properties, such as skin hydration and TEWL, and play a key role in the protection mechanism against SLS irritation.

  6. Intact skin and not stripped skin is crucial for the safety and efficacy of peanut epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondoulet Lucie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT on intact skin with an epicutaneous delivery system has already been used in preclinical and clinical studies. In epicutaneous vaccination and immunotherapy, the stripping of skin before application of the allergen is suggested to facilitate the passage of allergen through immune cells. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the immunological response induced by EPIT performed on intact and stripped skin in a mouse model of peanut allergy. Methods After oral sensitization with peanut and cholera toxin, BALB/c mice were epicutaneously treated using an epicutaneous delivery system (Viaskin® (DBV Technologies, Paris applied either on intact skin or on stripped skin. Following EPIT, mice received an exclusive oral peanut regimen, aimed at triggering esophageal and jejunal lesions. We assessed eosinophil infiltration by histology, mRNA expression in the esophagus, antibody levels and peripheral T-cell response. Results EPIT on intact skin significantly reduced Th2 immunological response (IgE response and splenocyte secretion of Th2 cytokines as well as esophageal eosinophilia (2.7 ± 0.9, compared to Sham 19.9 ± 1.5, p  Conclusions Epicutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy needs the integrity of superficial layers of the stratum corneum to warranty safety of treatment and to induce a tolerogenic profile of the immune response.

  7. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy (FLIM) as an analytical tool in skin nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiev, Ulrike; Volz, Pierre; Boreham, Alexander; Brodwolf, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief, and for monitoring of disease progression. Topical application of drug-loaded nanoparticles for the treatment of skin disorders is a promising strategy to overcome the stratum corneum, the upper layer of the skin, which represents an effective physical and biochemical barrier. The understanding of drug penetration into skin and enhanced penetration into skin facilitated by nanocarriers requires analytical tools that ideally allow to visualize the skin, its morphology, the drug carriers, drugs, their transport across the skin and possible interactions, as well as effects of the nanocarriers within the different skin layers. Here, we review some recent developments in the field of fluorescence microscopy, namely Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)), for improved characterization of nanocarriers, their interactions and penetration into skin. In particular, FLIM allows for the discrimination of target molecules, e.g. fluorescently tagged nanocarriers, against the autofluorescent tissue background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle and its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, FLIM shows the potential to overcome several limits of intensity based microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluvastatin as a micropore lifetime enhancer for sustained delivery across microneedle-treated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Priyanka; Brogden, Nicole K; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2014-02-01

    Microneedles (MNs), a physical skin permeation enhancement technique, facilitate drug delivery across the skin, thus enhancing the number of drugs that can be delivered transdermally in therapeutically relevant concentrations. The micropores created in the skin by MNs reseal because of normal healing processes of the skin, thus limiting the duration of the drug delivery window. Pore lifetime enhancement strategies can increase the effectiveness of MNs as a drug delivery mechanism by prolonging the delivery window. Fluvastatin (FLU), a HMGCoA reductase inhibitor, was used in this study to enhance the pore lifetime by inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol, a major component of the stratum corneum lipids. The study showed that using FLU as a pretreatment it is possible to enhance the pore lifetime of MN-treated skin and thus allow for sustained drug delivery. The skin recovered within a 30-45-min time period following the removal of occlusion, and there was no significant irritation observed due to the treatment compared to the control sites. Thus, it can be concluded that localized skin treatment with FLU can be used to extend micropore lifetime and deliver drugs for up to 7 days across MN-treated skin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. The moisturizing effects of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced by different yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma and have been attracting much attention as new cosmetic ingredients owing to their unique liquid-crystal-forming and moisturizing properties. In this study, the effects of different MEL derivatives on the skin were evaluated in detail using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model and an in vivo human study. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were evaluated on the basis of cell viability. Most MEL derivatives efficiently recovered the viability of the cells and showed high recovery rates (over 80%) comparable with that of natural ceramide. It is interesting that the recovery rate with MEL-A prepared from olive oil was significantly higher than that of MEL-A prepared from soybean oil. The water retention properties of MEL-B were further investigated on human forearm skin in a preliminary study. Compared with the control, the aqueous solution of MEL-B (5 wt%) was estimated to considerably increase the stratum corneum water content in the skin. Moreover, perspiration on the skin surface was clearly suppressed by treatment with the MEL-B solution. These results suggest that MELs are likely to exhibit a high moisturizing action, by assisting the barrier function of the skin. Accordingly, the yeast glycolipids have a strong potential as a new ingredient for skin care products.

  10. Impacts of chemical enhancers on skin permeation and deposition of terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Meryem Sedef; Peköz, Ayca Yıldız; Aksu, Buket; Araman, Ahmet

    2014-08-01

    The addition of chemical enhancers into formulations is the most commonly employed approach to overcome the skin barrier. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of vehicle and chemical enhancers on the skin permeation and accumulation of terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal drug. Terbinafine (1% w/w) was formulated as a Carbopol 934 P gel formulation in presence and absence of three chemical enhancers, nerolidol, dl-limonene and urea. Terbinafine distribution and deposition in stratum corneum (SC) and skin following 8-h ex vivo permeation study was determined using a sequential tape stripping procedure. The conformational order of SC lipids was investigated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Nerolidol containing gel formulation produced significantly higher enhancement in terbinafine permeation through skin and its skin accumulation was increased. ATR-FTIR results showed enhancer induced lipid bilayer disruption in SC. Urea resulted in enhanced permeation of terbinafine across the skin and a balanced distribution to the SC was achieved. But, dl-limonene could not minimize the accumulation of terbinafine in the upper SC. Nerolidol dramatically improved the skin permeation and deposition of terbinafine in the skin that might help to optimize targeting of the drug to the epidermal sites as required for both of superficial and deep cutaneous fungal infections.

  11. Imaging-guided two-photon excitation-emission-matrix measurements of human skin tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingqiu; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Wang, Hequn; Tang, Shuo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-07-01

    There are increased interests on using multiphoton imaging and spectroscopy for skin tissue characterization and diagnosis. However, most studies have been done with just a few excitation wavelengths. Our objective is to perform a systematic study of the two-photon fluorescence (TPF) properties of skin fluorophores, normal skin, and diseased skin tissues. A nonlinear excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) spectroscopy system with multiphoton imaging guidance was constructed. A tunable femtosecond laser was used to vary excitation wavelengths from 730 to 920 nm for EEM data acquisition. EEM measurements were performed on excised fresh normal skin tissues, seborrheic keratosis tissue samples, and skin fluorophores including: NADH, FAD, keratin, melanin, collagen, and elastin. We found that in the stratum corneum and upper epidermis of normal skin, the cells have large sizes and the TPF originates from keratin. In the lower epidermis, cells are smaller and TPF is dominated by NADH contributions. In the dermis, TPF is dominated by elastin components. The depth resolved EEM measurements also demonstrated that keratin structure has intruded into the middle sublayers of the epidermal part of the seborrheic keratosis lesion. These results suggest that the imaging guided TPF EEM spectroscopy provides useful information for the development of multiphoton clinical devices for skin disease diagnosis.

  12. Hairy skin exposure to VX in vitro: effectiveness of delayed decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Josse, D; Briançon, S

    2013-02-01

    The chemical warfare agents such as VX represent a threat for both military and civilians, which involves an immediate need of effective decontamination systems. Since human scalp is usually unprotected compared to other body regions covered with clothes, it could be a preferential site of exposure in case of terrorist acts. The purpose of this study was to determine if skin decontamination could be efficient when performed more than 1h after exposure. In addition, the impact of hairs in skin contamination was investigated. By using in vitro skin models, we demonstrated that about 75% of the applied quantity of VX was recovered on the skin surface 2h after skin exposition, which means that it is worth decontaminating even if contamination occurred 2h before. The stratum corneum reservoir for VX was quickly established and persistent. In addition, the presence of hairs modified the percutaneous penetration of the nerve agent by binding of VX to hairs. Hair shaft has thus to be taken into account in the decontamination process. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and Fuller's Earth (FE) were active in the skin decontamination 45min post-exposure, but RSDL was more efficient in reducing the amount of VX either in the skin or in the hair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effectiveness of a skin care program for the prevention of contact dermatitis in health care workers (the Healthy Hands Project): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanipoor, Maryam; Kezic, Sanja; Sluiter, Judith K; Rustemeyer, Thomas

    2017-02-28

    Health care workers (HCW) are at high risk for developing occupational hand dermatitis (HD) due to frequent exposure to 'wet work'. Amongst HCWs, nurses are at highest risk, with an estimated point prevalence of HD ranging between 12 and 30%. The burden of disease is high with chronicity, sick leave, risk of unemployment and impaired quality of life. Despite evidence from the medical literature on the risk factors and the importance of skin care in the prevention of HD, in practice, compliance to skin care protocols are below 30%. New preventive strategies are obviously needed. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial, focusing on nurses performing wet work. In total, 20 wards are recruited to include 504 participating nurses in the study at baseline. The wards will be randomized to an intervention or a control group and followed up for 18 months. The intervention consists of the facilitation of creams being available at the wards combined with the continuous electronic monitoring of their consumption with regular feedback on skin care performance in teams of HCWs. Both the intervention and the control group receive basic education on skin protection (as 'care as usual'). Every 6 months, participants of both groups will fill in the questionnaires regarding exposure to wet work and skin protective behavior. Furthermore, skin condition will be assessed and samples of the stratum corneum collected. The effect of the intervention will be measured by comparing the change in Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI score) from baseline to 12 months. The Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF) levels, measured in the stratum corneum as an early biomarker of skin barrier damage, and the total consumption of creams per ward will be assessed as a secondary outcome. This trial will assess the clinical effectiveness of an intervention program to prevent hand dermatitis among health care workers TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), identification number NTR5564

  14. Is the Fractional Laser Still Effective in Assisting Cutaneous Macromolecule Delivery in Barrier-Deficient Skin? Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis as the Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Sung, Calvin T; Liu, Pei-Ying; Fang, Jia-You

    2018-04-26

    Most of the investigations into laser-assisted skin permeation have used the intact skin as the permeation barrier. Whether the laser is effective in improving cutaneous delivery via barrier-defective skin is still unclear. In this study, ablative (Er:YAG) and non-ablative (Er:glass) lasers were examined for the penetration of peptide and siRNA upon topical application on in vitro skin with a healthy or disrupted barrier. An enhanced peptide flux (6.9 fold) was detected after tape stripping of the pig stratum corneum (SC). A further increase of flux to 11.7 fold was obtained after Er:YAG laser irradiation of the SC-stripped skin. However, the application of Er:glass modality did not further raise the flux via the SC-stripped skin. A similar trend was observed in the case of psoriasiform skin. Conversely, the flux was enhanced 3.7 and 2.6 fold after treatment with the Er:YAG and the Er:glass laser on the atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin. The 3-D skin structure captured by confocal microscopy proved the distribution of peptide and siRNA through the microchannels and into the surrounding tissue. The fractional laser was valid for ameliorating macromolecule permeation into barrier-disrupted skin although the enhancement level was lower than that of normal skin.

  15. Age-associated decrease in GDNF and its cognate receptor GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2016-06-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its cognate receptor (GFRα-1) are expressed in normal human skin. They are involved in murine hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling control. We hypothesize that 'GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin undergoes age-associated alterations. To test our hypothesis, the expression of these proteins was examined in human skin specimens obtained from 30 healthy individuals representing three age groups: children (5-18 years), adults (19-60 years) and the elderly (61-81 years). Immunofluorescent and light microscopic immunohistologic analyses were performed using tyramide signal amplification and avidin-biotin complex staining methods respectively. GDNF mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. GDNF mRNA and protein as well as GFRα-1 protein expressions were detected in normal human skin. We found significantly reduced epidermal expression of these proteins with ageing. In the epidermis, the expression was strong in the skin of children and declined gradually with ageing, being moderate in adults and weak in the elderly. In children and adults, the expression of both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins was strongest in the stratum basale and decreased gradually towards the surface layers where it was completely absent in the stratum corneum. In the elderly, GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression was confined to the stratum basale. In the dermis, both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins had strong expressions in the fibroblasts, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles and blood vessels regardless of the age. Thus there is a decrease in epidermal GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in normal human skin with ageing. Our findings suggest that the consequences of this is that GFRα-1-mediated signalling is altered during the ageing process. The clinical and therapeutic ramifications of these observations mandate further investigations. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016

  16. Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Hansmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2, a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials.

  17. Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Britta; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Gerstel, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2), a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials.

  18. Regular use of a hand cream can attenuate skin dryness and roughness caused by frequent hand washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Günter

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the regular use of a hand cream after washing hands on skin hydration and skin roughness. Methods Twenty-five subjects washed hands and forearms with a neutral soap four times per day, for 2 minutes each time, for a total of two weeks. One part of them used a hand cream after each hand wash, the others did not (cross over design after a wash out period of two weeks. Skin roughness and skin hydration were determined on the forearms on days 2, 7, 9 and 14. For skin roughness, twelve silicon imprint per subject and time point were taken from the stratum corneum and assessed with a 3D skin analyzer for depth of the skin relief. For skin hydration, five measurements per subject and time point were taken with a corneometer. Results Washing hands lead to a gradual increase of skin roughness from 100 (baseline to a maximum of 108.5 after 9 days. Use of a hand cream after each hand wash entailed a decrease of skin roughness which the lowest means after 2 (94.5 and 14 days (94.8. Skin hydration was gradually decreased after washing hands from 79 (baseline to 65.5 after 14 days. The hand wash, followed by use of a hand cream, still decreased skin hydration after 2 days (76.1. Over the next 12 days, however, skin hydration did not change significantly (75.6 after 14 days. Conclusion Repetitive and frequent hand washing increases skin dryness and roughness. Use of a hand cream immediately after each hand wash can confine both skin dryness and skin roughness. Regular use of skin care preparations should therefore help to prevent both dry and rough skin among healthcare workers in clinical practice.

  19. Confocal microscopy patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S; Sánchez, V; González-Rodríguez, A; Parrado, C; Ullrich, M

    2014-06-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy is currently the most promising noninvasive diagnostic tool for studying cutaneous structures between the stratum corneum and the superficial reticular dermis. This tool gives real-time images parallel to the skin surface; the microscopic resolution is similar to that of conventional histology. Numerous studies have identified the main confocal features of various inflammatory skin diseases and tumors, demonstrating the good correlation of these features with certain dermatoscopic patterns and histologic findings. Confocal patterns and diagnostic algorithms have been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Possible present and future applications of this noninvasive technology are wide ranging and reach beyond its use in noninvasive diagnosis. This tool can also be used, for example, to evaluate dynamic skin processes that occur after UV exposure or to assess tumor response to noninvasive treatments such as photodynamic therapy. We explain the characteristic confocal features found in the main nonmelanoma skin tumors and discuss possible applications for this novel diagnostic technique in routine dermatology practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlier Corinne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Methods Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Results Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. Conclusion The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum.

  1. An ex vivo human skin model for studying skin barrier repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, Mogbekeloluwa O; Berkers, Tineke; Mieremet, Arnout; Hausil, Farzia; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2015-01-01

    In the studies described in this study, we introduce a novel ex vivo human skin barrier repair model. To develop this, we removed the upper layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC) by a reproducible cyanoacrylate stripping technique. After stripping the explants, they were cultured in vitro to allow the regeneration of the SC. We selected two culture temperatures 32 °C and 37 °C and a period of either 4 or 8 days. After 8 days of culture, the explant generated SC at a similar thickness compared to native human SC. At 37 °C, the early and late epidermal differentiation programmes were executed comparably to native human skin with the exception of the barrier protein involucrin. At 32 °C, early differentiation was delayed, but the terminal differentiation proteins were expressed as in stripped explants cultured at 37 °C. Regarding the barrier properties, the SC lateral lipid organization was mainly hexagonal in the regenerated SC, whereas the lipids in native human SC adopt a more dense orthorhombic organization. In addition, the ceramide levels were higher in the cultured explants at 32 °C and 37 °C than in native human SC. In conclusion, we selected the stripped ex vivo skin model cultured at 37 °C as a candidate model to study skin barrier repair because epidermal and SC characteristics mimic more closely the native human skin than the ex vivo skin model cultured at 32 °C. Potentially, this model can be used for testing formulations for skin barrier repair. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Spectra from 2.5-15 μm of tissue phantom materials, optical clearing agents and ex vivo human skin: implications for depth profiling of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viator, John A; Choi, Bernard; Peavy, George M; Kimel, Sol; Nelson, J Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Infrared measurements have been used to profile or image biological tissue, including human skin. Usually, analysis of such measurements has assumed that infrared absorption is due to water and collagen. Such an assumption may be reasonable for soft tissue, but introduction of exogenous agents into skin or the measurement of tissue phantoms has raised the question of their infrared absorption spectrum. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode to measure the infrared absorption spectra, in the range of 2-15 μm, of water, polyacrylamide, Intralipid, collagen gels, four hyperosmotic clearing agents (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, Topicare TM ), and ex vivo human stratum corneum and dermis. The absorption spectra of the phantom materials were similar to that of water, although additional structure was noted in the range of 6-10 μm. The absorption spectra of the clearing agents were more complex, with molecular absorption bands dominating between 6 and 12 μm. Dermis was similar to water, with collagen structure evident in the 6-10 μm range. Stratum corneum had a significantly lower absorption than dermis due to a lower content of water. These results suggest that the assumption of water-dominated absorption in the 2.5-6 μm range is valid. At longer wavelengths, clearing agent absorption spectra differ significantly from the water spectrum. This spectral information can be used in pulsed photothermal radiometry or utilized in the interpretation of reconstructions in which a constant μ ir is used. In such cases, overestimating μ ir will underestimate chromophore depth and vice versa, although the effect is dependent on actual chromophore depth. (note)

  3. Studies on the relationship between epidermal cell turnover kinetics and permeability of hairless mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to develop non-invasive, physical means to quantitatively assess the epidermal turnover kinetics and barrier properties of the skin and relate these to the cutaneous irritation which results from ultraviolet light irradiation and mold thermal burns. After systematically injecting radiolabeled glycine, the appearance of radioactivity at the skin's surface indicated the transit time of radiolabeled cells through the skin. By plotting the data as the cumulative specific activity against time and then fitting them with a third order polynomial equation, it is possible to estimate the turnover time of the stratum corneum. The skin turnover was coordinated with non-invasive transepidermal water loss (TEWL) studies determined with an evaporimeter. In vitro diffusion studies of the permeability of hydrocortisone through UVB irradiated and thermally burned skin were also performed. The studies indicated that irritated skin offers a relatively low diffusional resistance to hydrocortisone. Depending on the severity of the trauma, the increases in hydrocortisone's permeability coefficient through irritated skin ranged from a low of about 2 times normal to a high of about 210 times normal. Trauma-induced changes in hydrocortisone permeability parallel changes in TEWL, proving that the barrier deficient state resulting from rapid epidermal turnover is a general phenomenon

  4. Comparison of atmospheric microplasma and plasma jet irradiation for increasing of skin permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, K; Tran, N A; Hayashida, K; Blajan, M

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma is attracting interest for medical applications such as sterilization, treatment of cancer cells and blood coagulation. Application of atmospheric plasma in dermatology has potential as a novel tool for wound healing, skin rejuvenation and treatment of wrinkles. In this study, we investigated the enhancement of percutaneous absorption of dye as alternative agents of transdermal drugs. Hypodermic needles are often the only way to deliver large-molecule drugs into the dermis, although a safe transdermal drug delivery method that does not require needles would be desirable. We therefore explored the feasibility of using atmospheric microplasma irradiation to enhance percutaneous absorption of drugs, as an alternative delivery method to conventional hypodermic needles. Pig skin was used as a biological sample, exposed to atmospheric microplasma, and analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A tape stripping test, a representative method for evaluating skin barrier performance, was also conducted for comparison. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured and compared with and without atmospheric microplasma irradiation, to quantify water evaporation from the inner body through the skin barrier. The results show that the stratum corneum, the outermost skin layer, could be chemically and physically modified by atmospheric microplasma irradiation. Physical damage to the skin by microplasma irradiation and an atmospheric plasma jet was also assessed by observing the skin surface. The results suggest that atmospheric microplasma has the potential to enhance percutaneous absorption. (paper)

  5. Data from proteomic analysis of the skin of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Geng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, renowned as a living fossil, is the largest and longest-lived amphibian species in the world. Its skin is rich in collagens, and has developed mucous gland which could secrete a large amount of mucus under the scraping and electric stimulation. The molting is the degraded skin stratum corneum. To establish the functional skin proteome of Chinese giant salamander, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE and mass spectrometry (MS were applied to detect the composition and relative abundance of the proteins in the skin, mucus and molting. The determination of the general proteome in the skin can potentially serve as a foundation for future studies characterizing the skin proteomes from diseased salamander to provide molecular and mechanistic insights into various disease states and potential therapeutic interventions. Data presented here are also related to the research article “Proteomic analysis of the skin of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus” in the Journal of Proteomics [1].

  6. Modern child skin care products as a basic treatment in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchegelskaya T.Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the proposed study is to demonstrate the benefits of using specialized cosmetic products as part of basic skin care for children with Atopic Dermatitis (AD. The epidermal barrier dysfunction is known to be the leading factor in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and it manifests as dry skin, imbalance in the composition of lipids of the stratum corneum and water-lipid mantle and alterations in the activity of proteases. Due to xerosis, the skin gets easily affected by allergens, irritants and pathogenic microorganisms, which triggers the "itch-scratch" cycle and can lead to AD exacerbation and significantly deteriorate the quality of life of the patient. The basic skin care using the moisturizing and soothing cosmetic products (emollients is acknowledged by all major Guidelines for treatment of AD as an important part of therapy. Significant improvements in skin status as well as the child's well-being can be achieved with use of this simple to understand skin care algorithm that includes proper skin cleansing, moisturizing and itch prevention.

  7. Decontamination of skin exposed to nanocarriers using an absorbent textile material and PEG-12 dimethicone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Knorr, F; Baier, G; Landfester, K; Frazier, L; Gefeller, H; Wunderlich, U; Gross, I; Rühl, E

    2014-01-01

    The removal of noxious particulate contaminants such as pollutants derived from particle-to-gas conversions from exposed skin is essential to avoid the permeation of potentially harmful substances into deeper skin layers via the stratum corneum or the skin appendages and their dispersion throughout the circulatory system. This study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of using the silicone glycol polymer PEG-12 dimethicone and an absorbent textile material to remove fluorescing hydroxyethyl starch nanocapsules implemented as model contaminants from exposed porcine ear skin. Using laser scanning microscopy, it could be shown that while the application and subsequent removal of the absorbent textile material alone did not result in sufficient decontamination, the combined application with PEG-12 dimethicone almost completely eliminated the nanocapsules from the surface of the skin. By acting as a wetting agent, PEG-12 dimethicone enabled the transfer of the nanocapsules into a liquid phase which was taken up by the absorbent textile material. Only traces of fluorescence remained detectable in several skin furrows and follicular orifices, suggesting that the repeated implementation of the procedure may be necessary to achieve total skin surface decontamination. (letter)

  8. Skin Barrier Restoration and Moisturization Using Horse Oil-Loaded Dissolving Microneedle Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chisong; Eom, Younghyon Andrew; Yang, Huisuk; Jang, Mingyu; Jung, Sang Uk; Park, Ye Oak; Lee, Si Eun; Jung, Hyungil

    2018-01-01

    Horse oil (HO) has skin barrier restoration and skin-moisturizing effects. Although cream formulations have been used widely and safely, their limited penetration through the stratum corneum is a major obstacle to maximizing the cosmetic efficacy of HO. Therefore, we aimed to encapsulate HO in a cosmetic dissolving microneedle (DMN) for efficient transdermal delivery. To overcome these limitations of skin permeation, HO-loaded DMN (HO-DMN) patches were developed and evaluated for their efficacy and safety using in vitro and clinical studies. Despite the lipophilic nature of HO, the HO-DMN patches had a sharp shape and uniform array, with an average length and tip diameter of 388.36 ± 16.73 and 38.54 ± 5.29 µm, respectively. The mechanical strength of the HO-DMN patches was sufficient (fracture force of 0.29 ± 0.01 N), and they could successfully penetrate pig skin. During the 4-week clinical evaluation, HO-DMN patches caused significant improvements in skin and dermal density, skin elasticity, and moisturization. Additionally, a brief safety assessment showed that the HO-DMN patches induced negligible adverse events. The HO-DMNs are efficient, safe, and convenient for wide use in cosmetic applications for skin barrier restoration and moisturization. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Evaluation of the mechanism of skin enhancing surfactants on the biomembrane of shed snake skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglertnirant, Nanthida; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Mont

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of different surfactants at various concentrations as a skin penetration enhancer through the biomembrane of the shed skin of Naja kaouthia. Additionally, the enhancer mechanism(s) of each class of surfactants were evaluated using physical characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). Our results showed that skin permeability increased with increasing concentrations of surfactants and the degree of increase was higher for the model hydrophilic permeant, deuterium dioxide (D(2)O), than the lipophilic permeant, ketoprofen (KP). Ionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), demonstrated higher enhancement ability than the polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate (Tween 80) non-ionic surfactant, which was consistent with the results from physical characterization studies. Increasing amounts of permeated drug resulted in an increase in membrane interactions. From our observations, it can be assumed that SLS and CTAB can be localized inside the biomembrane and thereby enhance drug permeation mainly through interactions with intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) and the creation of a perturbed microenvironment among lipid alkyl chains and polar head groups.

  10. Intravital multiphoton tomography as an appropriate tool for non-invasive in vivo analysis of human skin affected with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Volker; Gorzelanny, Christian; Thomas, Kai; Mess, Christian; Dimitrova, Valentina; Schwarz, Martin; Riemann, Iris; Niemeyer, Verena; Luger, Thomas A.; König, Karsten; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2011-03-01

    Increasing incidence of inflammatory skin diseases such as Atopic Dermatitis (AD) has been noted in the past years. According to recent estimations around 15% of newborn subjects are affected with a disease severity that requires medical treatment. Although its pathogenesis is multifactorial, recent reports indicate that an impaired physical skin barrier predispose for the development of AD. The major part of this barrier is formed by the stratum corneum (SC) wherein corneocytes are embedded in a complex matrix of proteins and lipids. Its components were synthesized in the stratum granulosum (SG) and secreted via lamellar bodies at the SC/SG interface. Within a clinical in vivo study we focused on the skin metabolism at the SC/SG interface in AD affected patients in comparison to healthy subjects. Measurement of fluorescence life-time of NADH provides access to the metabolic state of skin. Due to the application of a 5D intravital tomographic skin analysis we facilitate the non-invasive investigation of human epidermis in the longitudinal course of AD therapy. We could ascertain by blinded analysis of 40 skin areas of 20 patients in a three month follow-up that the metabolic status at the SC/SG interface was altered in AD compromised skin even in non-lesional, apparent healthy skin regions. This illustrates an impaired skin barrier formation even at non-affected skin of AD subjects appearing promotive for the development of acute skin inflammation. Therefore, our findings allow a deeper understanding of the individual disease development and the improved management of the therapeutic intervention in clinical application.

  11. Tissue engineered skin substitutes created by laser-assisted bioprinting form skin-like structures in the dorsal skin fold chamber in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Michael

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering plays an important role in the production of skin equivalents for the therapy of chronic and especially burn wounds. Actually, there exists no (cellularized skin equivalent which might be able to satisfactorily mimic native skin. Here, we utilized a laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP technique to create a fully cellularized skin substitute. The unique feature of LaBP is the possibility to position different cell types in an exact three-dimensional (3D spatial pattern. For the creation of the skin substitutes, we positioned fibroblasts and keratinocytes on top of a stabilizing matrix (Matriderm®. These skin constructs were subsequently tested in vivo, employing the dorsal skin fold chamber in nude mice. The transplants were placed into full-thickness skin wounds and were fully connected to the surrounding tissue when explanted after 11 days. The printed keratinocytes formed a multi-layered epidermis with beginning differentiation and stratum corneum. Proliferation of the keratinocytes was mainly detected in the suprabasal layers. In vitro controls, which were cultivated at the air-liquid-interface, also exhibited proliferative cells, but they were rather located in the whole epidermis. E-cadherin as a hint for adherens junctions and therefore tissue formation could be found in the epidermis in vivo as well as in vitro. In both conditions, the printed fibroblasts partly stayed on top of the underlying Matriderm® where they produced collagen, while part of them migrated into the Matriderm®. In the mice, some blood vessels could be found to grow from the wound bed and the wound edges in direction of the printed cells. In conclusion, we could show the successful 3D printing of a cell construct via LaBP and the subsequent tissue formation in vivo. These findings represent the prerequisite for the creation of a complex tissue like skin, consisting of different cell types in an intricate 3D pattern.

  12. In vivo confirmation of hydration-induced changes in human-skin thickness, roughness and interaction with the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Agnieszka K; Adlhart, Christian; Spano, Fabrizio; Rotaru, Gelu-Marius; Derler, Siegfried; Zhai, Lina; Spencer, Nicholas D; Rossi, René M

    2016-09-15

    The skin properties, structure, and performance can be influenced by many internal and external factors, such as age, gender, lifestyle, skin diseases, and a hydration level that can vary in relation to the environment. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the multifaceted influence of water on human skin through a combination of in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and images of volar-forearm skin captured with the laser scanning confocal microscopy. By means of this pilot study, the authors have both qualitatively and quantitatively studied the influence of changing the depth-dependent hydration level of the stratum corneum (SC) on the real contact area, surface roughness, and the dimensions of the primary lines and presented a new method for characterizing the contact area for different states of the skin. The hydration level of the skin and the thickness of the SC increased significantly due to uptake of moisture derived from liquid water or, to a much lesser extent, from humidity present in the environment. Hydrated skin was smoother and exhibited higher real contact area values. The highest rates of water uptake were observed for the upper few micrometers of skin and for short exposure times.

  13. Novel TGM5 mutations in acral peeling skin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Jaap J A J; van Geel, Michel; Nellen, Ruud G L; Jonkman, Marcel F; McGrath, John A; Nanda, Arti; Sprecher, Eli; van Steensel, Maurice A M; McLean, W H Irwin; Cassidy, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS, MIM #609796) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by superficial exfoliation and blistering of the volar and dorsal aspects of hands and feet. The level of separation is at the junction of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. APSS is caused by mutations in the TGM5 gene encoding transglutaminase-5, which is important for structural integrity of the outermost epidermal layers. The majority of patients originate from Europe and carry a p.(Gly113Cys) mutation in TGM5. In this study, we report both European and non-European families carrying other mutations in the TGM5 gene. In 5 patients, we found 3 novel mutations: c.1001+2_1001+3del, c.1171G>A and c.1498C>T. To confirm their pathogenicity, we performed functional analyses with a transglutaminase activity assay, determined alternative splicing by reverse-transcribed PCR analysis and used databases and in silico prediction tools. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Alkylglycerol Derivatives, a New Class of Skin Penetration Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Bernal-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption modulating activity of two alkylglycerol derivatives (batyl and chimyl alcohol on skin barrier properties was evaluated. Biophysical tests such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL and attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, as well as in vitro skin permeation studies, were performed in order to determine the effect of these compounds as chemical absorption modulators. Four drugs were used as models: three NSAIDS (diclofenac, naproxen, and piroxicam and glycyrrhizic acid. The results showed that treatment of the skin with alkylglycerols caused (i a reduction on the amount of drug permeated; (ii a reduction in TEWL; and (iii changes in the ATR-FTIR peaks of stratum corneum lipids, indicative of a more ordered structure. All of these findings confirm that alkyl glycerols have an absorption retarding effect on the drugs tested. Such effects are expected to give rise to important applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors, in cases where it is desirable for the drug to remain in the superficial layers of the skin to achieve a local effect.

  15. Modelling the effect of hydration on skin conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L; Chappell, P; Melvin, T

    2017-08-01

    Electrical signals are recorded from and sent into the body via the skin in a number of applications. In practice, skin is often hydrated with liquids having different conductivities so a model was produced in order to determine the relationship between skin impedance and conductivity. A model representing the skin was subjected to a variety of electrical signals. The parts of the model representing the stratum corneum were given different conductivities to represent different levels of hydration. The overall impedance and conductivity of the cells did not vary at frequencies below 40 kHz. Above 40 kHz, levels of increased conductivity caused the overall impedance to decrease. The variation in impedance with conductivity between 5 and 50 mSm -1 can be modelled quadratically while variation in impedance with conductivity between 5 and 5000 mSm -1 can be modelled with a double exponential decay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Defective channels lead to an impaired skin barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaydon, Diana C; Kelsell, David P

    2014-10-15

    Channels are integral membrane proteins that form a pore, allowing the passive movement of ions or molecules across a membrane (along a gradient), either between compartments within a cell, between intracellular and extracellular environments or between adjacent cells. The ability of cells to communicate with one another and with their environment is a crucial part of the normal physiology of a tissue that allows it to carry out its function. Cell communication is particularly important during keratinocyte differentiation and formation of the skin barrier. Keratinocytes in the skin epidermis undergo a programme of apoptosis-driven terminal differentiation, whereby proliferating keratinocytes in the basal (deepest) layer of the epidermis stop proliferating, exit the basal layer and move up through the spinous and granular layers of the epidermis to form the stratum corneum, the external barrier. Genes encoding different families of channel proteins have been found to harbour mutations linked to a variety of rare inherited monogenic skin diseases. In this Commentary, we discuss how human genetic findings in aquaporin (AQP) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels reveal different mechanisms by which these channel proteins function to ensure the proper formation and maintenance of the skin barrier. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The abdominal skin of female Sprague-Dawley rats is more sensitive than the back skin to drug-induced phototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuga, Kazuhiro; Yasuno, Hironobu; Sakai, Yumi; Harada, Yumiko; Shimizu, Fumi; Miyamoto, Yumiko; Takamatsu, Yuki; Miyamoto, Makoto; Sato, Keiichiro

    2017-11-01

    In vivo phototoxicity studies are important to predict drug-induced phototoxicity in humans; however, a standard methodology has not established. To determine differences in sensitivity to drug-induced phototoxicity among various skin sites, we evaluated phototoxic reactions in the back and abdominal skin of female Sprague-Dawley rats orally dosed with phototoxic drugs (pirfenidone, 8-methoxysoraren, doxycycline, and lomefloxacin) or a non-phototoxic drug (gatifloxacin) followed by solar-simulated light irradiation comprising 18J/cm 2 ultraviolet A. Tissue reactions were evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic examination and immunohistochemistry for γ-H2AX, and tissue concentrations of pirfenidone, doxycycline, and lomefloxacin were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, the thicknesses of the skin layers at both sites were measured in drug-naïve rats. The abdominal skin showed more severe reactions to all phototoxic drugs than the back skin, whereas the minimal erythema dose in drug-naïve rats and skin concentrations of each drug were comparable between the sites. Furthermore, histopathological lesions and γ-H2AX-positive cells in the abdominal skin were detected in deeper layers than in the back skin. The stratum corneum and dermis in the abdominal skin were significantly thinner than in the back skin, indicating a difference in the depth of light penetration and potentially contributing to the site differences observed in sensitivity to phototoxicity. Gatifloxacin did not induce any phototoxic reactions at either site. In conclusion, the abdominal skin is more sensitive to drug-induced phototoxicity than the back skin and may represent a preferable site for irradiation in this rat phototoxicity model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional and morphological studies of photodamaged skin on the hands of middle-aged Japanese golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi-Numagami, K; Suetake, T; Yanai, M; Takahashi, M; Tanaka, M; Tagami, H

    2000-06-01

    The skin of golfers' hands provides a suitable model to study the effect of chronic sun exposure, because one of their hands is exposed to the outer environment, especially sunlight, while the other one is always protected by a glove during play. Our purpose was to find out the influence of photodamage on the properties of the skin surface of middle-aged Japanese by using non-invasive methods. We measured hydration state, and water barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) and the color of the skin of the dorsum of the hands. In a separate study, we evaluated the skin surface contour by using replicas taken from the skin in a slightly stretched or relaxed position. We found a significant decrease in hydration of the skin surface of the exposed skin as compared to that of the protected skin, whereas no such difference was found with transepidermal water loss, a parameter for water barrier function of the SC. Luminance of skin color was also reduced in the sun-exposed skin. Replica analysis revealed that large wrinkles developing in a relaxed position were more prominent on the exposed than on the protected skin, while fine furrows noted in a slightly stretched position were shallower on the former than the latter. The data obtained indicate that the chronically exposed skin of golfers' hands shows morphological and functional changes resulting from long time exposure to the outer environment especially sunlight. Furthermore, bioengineering non-invasive methods are found to be useful to detect early photodamage of the skin in a more quantitative fashion which is rather difficult to demonstrate clinically.

  19. DFD-01 Reduces Transepidermal Water Loss and Improves Skin Hydration and Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J Mark; Grove, Gary L; Allenby, Kent; Houser, Tim

    2017-12-01

    In plaque psoriasis, the benefit of topical steroids is well established. The vehicle formulation of topical steroids may also provide benefit in addition to the effects of the steroid itself. DFD-01 (betamethasone dipropionate spray, 0.05%) is a formulation composed of a topical steroid in an emollient-like vehicle that enhances penetration to the target site of inflammation in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of DFD-01 and its vehicle on skin hydration and barrier function in compromised skin and to evaluate its effect on flexibility in healthy skin. Eighteen healthy white volunteers were enrolled in each of two studies. In Study 1, dry shaving of volar forearms created a compromised skin barrier, through which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured using an evaporimeter. Capacitance, a measure of epidermal hydration, was also measured at baseline and at 1, 2 and 4 h after application of DFD-01 or its vehicle formulation. In Study 2, intact skin flexibility was tested with a cutometer before and at 1, 2 and 4 h after application of DFD-01 or vehicle. In Study 1, both DFD-01 and its vehicle were effective at reducing TEWL through the compromised stratum corneum. Capacitance measurements confirmed this finding; razor-chafed skin treated with either DFD-01 or vehicle exhibited levels of skin hydration similar to unshaved control skin. Study 2 found softening and greater flexibility of normal skin treated with either DFD-01 or vehicle compared with nontreated control skin samples. These tests suggest that the DFD-01 formulation and its vehicle are each effective at retaining moisture within a damaged skin barrier and for softening and increasing the flexibility of intact skin. Dr. Reddy's Laboratories.

  20. Topical absorption and toxicity studies of jet fuel hydrocarbons in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Faqir

    Kerosene-based fuels have been used for many decades. Over 2 million military and civilian personnel each year are occupationally exposed to various jet fuel mixtures. Dermatitis is one of the major health concerns associated with these exposures. In the past, separate absorption and toxicity studies have been conducted to find the etiology of such skin disorders. There was a need for integrated absorption and toxicity studies to define the causative constituents of jet fuel responsible for skin irritation. The focus of this thesis was to study the percutaneous absorption and to identify the hydrocarbons (HC) causing irritation in jet fuels so that preventive measures could be taken in the future. The initial study was conducted to understand the possible mechanism for additive interactions on hydrocarbon absorption/disposition in silastic, porcine skin and isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) models. The influence of JP-8 (100) additives (MDA, BHT, 8Q405) on the dermal kinetics of 14C-naphthalene and 14C/3H-dodecane as markers of HC absorption was evaluated. This study indicated that individual and combination of additives influenced marker disposition in different membranes. MDA was a significant suppressor while BHT was a significant enhancer of naphthalene absorption in IPPSF. The 8Q405 significantly reduced naphthalene content in dosed silastic and skin indicating a direct interaction between additive and marker HC. Similarly, the individual MDA and BHT significantly retained naphthalene in the stratum corneum of porcine skin, but the combination of both of these additives statistically decreased the marker retention in the stratum corneum suggesting a potential biological interaction. This study concluded that all components of a chemical mixture should be assessed since the effects of single components administered alone or as pairs may be confounded when all are present in the complete mixture. However, this study indicated that the marker HC

  1. A Hydrogel/Carbon-Nanotube Needle-Free Device for Electrostimulated Skin Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Jean-François; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Golzio, Muriel

    2017-10-06

    The permeability of skin allows passive diffusion across the epidermis to reach blood vessels but this is possible only for small molecules such as nicotine. In order to achieve transdermal delivery of large molecules such as insulin or plasmid DNA, permeability of the skin and mainly the permeability of the stratum corneum skin layer has to be increased. Moreover, alternative routes that avoid the use of needles will improve the quality of life of patients. A method known as electropermeabilisation has been shown to increase skin permeability. Herein, we report the fabrication of an innovative hydrogel made of a nanocomposite material. This nanocomposite device aims to permeabilise the skin and deliver drug molecules at the same time. It includes a biocompatible polymer matrix (hydrogel) and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) in order to bring electrical conductivity and improve mechanical properties. Carbon nanotubes and especially DWCNTs are ideal candidates, combining high electrical conductivity with a very high specific surface area together with a good biocompatibility when included into a material. The preparation and characterization of the nanocomposite hydrogel as well as first results of electrostimulated transdermal delivery using an ex vivo mouse skin model are presented. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dynamic in vivo mapping of model moisturiser ingress into human skin by GARfield MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampi, Elisabetta; van Ginkel, Michael; McDonald, Peter J; Pitts, Simon; Bonnist, Eleanor Y M; Singleton, Scott; Williamson, Ann-Marie

    2011-02-01

    We describe the development of in vivo one-dimensional MRI (profiling) using a GARField (Gradient At Right angles to Field) magnet for the characterisation of side-of-hand human skin. For the first time and in vivo, we report measurements of the NMR longitudinal and transverse relaxation parameters and self-diffusivity of the upper layers of human skin with a nominal spatial resolution better than 10 µm. The results are correlated with in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy measurements of water concentration and natural moisturiser factors, and discussed in terms of known skin biology and microstructure of the stratum corneum and viable epidermis. The application of model moisturiser solutions to the skin is followed and their dynamics of ingress are characterised using the MRI methodology developed. Selected hydrophilic and lipophilic formulations are studied. The results are corroborated by standard in vivo measurements of transepidermal water loss and hydration status. A further insight into moisturisation mechanisms is gained. The effect of two different penetration enhancers on a commonly used skin care oil is also discussed, and different timescales of oil penetration into the skin are reported depending on the type of enhancer. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate nanoparticles' human skin penetration in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Celli, Anna; Zhu, Hanjiang; Elmahdy, Akram; Cao, Yachao; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-01-01

    With rapid development of nanotechnology, there is increasing interest in nanoparticle (NP) application and its safety and efficacy on human skin. In this study, we utilized confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate NP skin penetration. Three different-sized polystyrene NPs marked with red fluorescence were applied to human skin, and Calcium Green 5N was used as a counterstain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol were used as alternative vehicles for NPs. Tape stripping was utilized as a barrier-damaged skin model. Skin biopsies dosed with NPs were incubated at 4°C or 37°C for 24 hours and imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. NPs were localized in the stratum corneum (SC) and hair follicles without penetrating the epidermis/dermis. Barrier alteration with tape stripping and change in incubation temperature did not induce deeper penetration. DMSO enhanced NP SC penetration but ethanol did not. Except with DMSO vehicle, these hydrolyzed polystyrene NPs did not penetrate intact or barrier-damaged human "viable" epidermis. For further clinical relevance, in vivo human skin studies and more sensitive analytic chemical methodology are suggested.

  4. Confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate nanoparticles’ human skin penetration in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahdy, Akram; Cao, Yachao; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Objective With rapid development of nanotechnology, there is increasing interest in nanoparticle (NP) application and its safety and efficacy on human skin. In this study, we utilized confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate NP skin penetration. Methods Three different-sized polystyrene NPs marked with red fluorescence were applied to human skin, and Calcium Green 5N was used as a counterstain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol were used as alternative vehicles for NPs. Tape stripping was utilized as a barrier-damaged skin model. Skin biopsies dosed with NPs were incubated at 4°C or 37°C for 24 hours and imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results NPs were localized in the stratum corneum (SC) and hair follicles without penetrating the epidermis/dermis. Barrier alteration with tape stripping and change in incubation temperature did not induce deeper penetration. DMSO enhanced NP SC penetration but ethanol did not. Conclusion Except with DMSO vehicle, these hydrolyzed polystyrene NPs did not penetrate intact or barrier-damaged human “viable” epidermis. For further clinical relevance, in vivo human skin studies and more sensitive analytic chemical methodology are suggested. PMID:29184403

  5. Could tight junctions regulate the barrier function of the aged skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Marek; Bílková, Zuzana; Muthný, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The skin is known to be the largest organ in human organism creating interface with outer environment. The skin provides protective barrier against pathogens, physical and chemical insults, and against uncontrolled loss of water. The barrier function was primarily attributed to the stratum corneum (SC) but recent studies confirmed that epidermal tight junctions (TJs) also play important role in maintaining barrier properties of the skin. Independent observations indicate that barrier function and its recovery is impaired in aged skin. However, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) values remains rather unchanged in elderly population. UV radiation as major factor of photoageing impairs TJ proteins, but TJs have great self-regenerative potential. Since it may be possible that TJs can compensate TEWL in elderly due to its regenerative and compensatory capabilities, important question remains to be answered: how are TJs regulated during skin ageing? This review provides an insight into TJs functioning as epidermal barrier and summarizes current knowledge about the impact of ageing on the barrier function of the skin and epidermal TJs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Weather-Beaten Dorsal Hand Clinical Rating, Shadow Casting Optical Profilometry, and Skin Capacitance Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Delvenne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laypeople commonly perceive some skin xerosis and withering (roughness changes during winter on some parts of the body, particularly on the dorsal hands. The aim of the study was to assess the withered skin surface changes occurring during the four seasons. A total of 47 menopausal women completed the study. A group of 31 volunteers were on hormone replacement therapy (HRT and 16 were out of HRT. Skin xerosis and scaliness were rated clinically. In addition, skin whitening was assessed by computerized shadow casting optical profilometry and by skin capacitance mapping. The volunteers were not using topical creams and over-the-counter products on their hands. Marked changes, recorded over the successive seasons, corresponded to patchy heterogeneous stratum corneum hydration and heterogeneous skin surface roughness changing over seasons; they likely resulted from changes in the environmental temperature and atmosphere moisture. The severity of the changes revealed by clinical inspection was not supported by similar directions of fluctuations in the instrumental assessments. This seemingly contradiction was in fact due to different levels of scale observation. The clinical centimetric scale and the instrumental inframillimetric scale possibly provide distinct aspects of a given biological impact.

  7. Dynamic visualization of dendritic cell-antigen interactions in the skin following transcutaneous immunization.

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    Teerawan Rattanapak

    Full Text Available Delivery of vaccines into the skin provides many advantages over traditional parenteral vaccination and is a promising approach due to the abundance of antigen presenting cells (APC residing in the skin including Langerhans cells (LC and dermal dendritic cells (DDC. However, the main obstacle for transcutaneous immunization (TCI is the effective delivery of the vaccine through the stratum corneum (SC barrier to the APC in the deeper skin layers. This study therefore utilized microneedles (MN and a lipid-based colloidal delivery system (cubosomes as a synergistic approach for the delivery of vaccines to APC in the skin. The process of vaccine uptake and recruitment by specific types of skin APC was investigated in real-time over 4 hours in B6.Cg-Tg (Itgax-EYFP 1 Mnz/J mice by two-photon microscopy. Incorporation of the vaccine into a particulate delivery system and the use of MN preferentially increased vaccine antigen uptake by a highly motile subpopulation of skin APC known as CD207⁺ DC. No uptake of antigen or any response to immunisation by LC could be detected.

  8. Tretinoin-based formulations - influence of concentration and vehicles on skin penetration

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    Edileia Bagatin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tretinoin is used in the management of acne and it is part of a gold standard treatment for photoaging. It has also been reported as an agent for superficial chemical peeling in highly concentrated formulations with few considerations about skin penetration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of drug concentration and vehicles currently used on skin penetration of tretinoin. In vitro permeation tests were carried out using Franz diffusion cells fitted with porcine ear skin and 10% aqueous methanol in the receptor compartment. Formulations studied, cream or hydroalcoholic dispersion, containing 0.25%, 1% and 5% of tretinoin were placed in the donor compartment for six hours. Tretinoin concentration in skin layers was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The largest amount of tretinoin from both vehicles was detected in stratum corneum with significant differences among the three concentrations. The hydroalcoholic dispersion was the best vehicle. Significant amounts of tretinoin were found even in deep layers of epidermis. The formulation with 0.25% tretinoin showed better results when considered the amount of tretinoin on skin in terms of percentage. Finally, skin penetration of tretinoin was influenced by vehicle and concentration of this drug used in formulation.

  9. On the importance of body posture and skin modelling with respect to in situ electric field strengths in magnetic field exposure scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Gernot; Hirtl, Rene

    2016-06-01

    The reference levels and maximum permissible exposure values for magnetic fields that are currently used have been derived from basic restrictions under the assumption of upright standing body models in a standard posture, i.e. with arms laterally down and without contact with metallic objects. Moreover, if anatomical modelling of the body was used at all, the skin was represented as a single homogeneous tissue layer. In the present paper we addressed the possible impacts of posture and skin modelling in scenarios of exposure to a 50 Hz uniform magnetic field on the in situ electric field strength in peripheral tissues, which must be limited in order to avoid peripheral nerve stimulation. We considered different body postures including situations where body parts form large induction loops (e.g. clasped hands) with skin-to-skin and skin-to-metal contact spots and compared the results obtained with a homogeneous single-layer skin model to results obtained with a more realistic two-layer skin representation consisting of a low-conductivity stratum corneum layer on top of a combined layer for the cellular epidermis and dermis. Our results clearly indicated that postures with loops formed of body parts may lead to substantially higher maximum values of induced in situ electric field strengths than in the case of standard postures due to a highly concentrated current density and in situ electric field strength in the skin-to-skin and skin-to-metal contact regions. With a homogeneous single-layer skin, as is used for even the most recent anatomical body models in exposure assessment, the in situ electric field strength may exceed the basic restrictions in such situations, even when the reference levels and maximum permissible exposure values are not exceeded. However, when using the more realistic two-layer skin model the obtained in situ electric field strengths were substantially lower and no violations of the basic restrictions occurred, which can be explained by the

  10. Influence of sunflower seed oil or baby lotion on the skin barrier function of newborns: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti, Varvara; Günther, Malise; Stroux, Andrea; Sawatzky, Sabine; Henrich, Wolfgang; Abou-Dakn, Michael; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2017-12-01

    Skin care influences skin barrier function during the first postnatal weeks. Although the use of natural oils in preterms has been investigated, there are currently no data comparing the effect of sunflower oil to an emollient on barrier development in healthy term newborns. In a prospective, randomized clinical study, 50 healthy full-term newborns aged ≤72 h were randomly assigned to two groups: group baby lotion (L, n=22) and sunflower seed oil (SSO, n=24). The skin barrier function was evaluated in three anatomical areas (front, abdomen, and thigh) by noninvasive assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration (SCH), sebum, and skin pH at inclusion and after five weeks. In both groups, skin pH decreased and SCH increased statistically significantly in all measured areas at W5 compared to baseline. TEWL decreased statistically significantly on the forearm in both groups, on the upper leg in group L, and on the abdomen in group SSO. Both skin care regimes did not harm skin barrier function adaptation in healthy term neonates during the first five weeks of life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Occlusive gloves and skin conditions: is there a problem? Results of a cross-sectional study in a semiconductor company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, W; Wacker, M; Bernet, F; Uter, W; Drexler, H

    2015-04-01

    Although there is poor scientific evidence that working with occlusive gloves is as damaging as wet work, prolonged glove occlusion is considered to be a risk factor for developing hand eczema similar to wet work. To assess the effects of wearing occlusive gloves during the whole working day, without exposure to any additional hazardous substances, on skin condition and skin barrier function. We investigated 323 employees of a semiconductor production company in Germany: 177 clean-room workers wearing occlusive gloves during the whole shift (exposed group) and 146 employees working in administration (control group). A standardized interview was performed, the skin condition of both hands was studied using the quantitative skin score HEROS, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration were measured. There was no significant difference in skin condition between the two subgroups. Values for TEWL and corneometry were significantly higher in exposed participants (P gloves at least 30 min before the measurement. Hence, the effect of occlusion on skin barrier function seems to be transient. Prolonged wearing of occlusive gloves with clean hands and without exposure to additional hazardous substances does not seem to affect the skin negatively. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Hydration Effects on Skin Microstructure as Probed by High-Resolution Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy and Mechanistic Implications to Enhanced Transcutaneous Delivery of Biomacromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Grace; Xu, Peng; Lawson, Louise B.; He, Jibao; Freytag, Lucia C.; Clements, John D.; John, Vijay T.

    2010-01-01

    Although hydration is long known to improve the permeability of skin, penetration of macromolecules such as proteins is limited and the understanding of enhanced transport is based on empirical observations. This study uses high-resolution cryo-scanning electron microscopy to visualize microstructural changes in the stratum corneum (SC) and enable a mechanistic interpretation of biomacromolecule penetration through highly hydrated porcine skin. Swollen corneocytes, separation of lipid bilayers in the SC intercellular space to form cisternae, and networks of spherical particulates are observed in porcine skin tissue hydrated for a period of 4–10 h. This is explained through compaction of skin lipids when hydrated, a reversal in the conformational transition from unilamellar liposomes in lamellar granules to lamellae between keratinocytes when the SC skin barrier is initially established. Confocal microscopy studies show distinct enhancement in penetration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) through skin hydrated for 4–10 h, and limited penetration of FITC-BSA once skin is restored to its natively hydrated structure when exposed to the environment for 2–3 h. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of a 4–10 h hydration period to enhance transcutaneous penetration of large biomacromolecules without permanently damaging the skin. PMID:19582754

  13. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  14. NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin

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    Danielle C. A. S. de Santana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium (Ru complexes have been studied as promising anticancer agents. Ru nitrosyl complex (Ru-NO is one which acts as a pro-drug for the release of nitric oxide (NO. The Ru-aqueous complex formed by the exchange of NO for a water molecule after NO release could also possess therapeutic effects. This study evaluates the influence of iontophoresis on enhancing the skin penetration of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous and assesses its applicability as a tool in treating diverse skin diseases. Passive and iontophoretic (0.5 mA·cm−2 skin permeation of the complexes were performed for 4 h. The amount of Ru and NO in the stratum corneum (SC, viable epidermis (VE, and receptor solution was quantified while the influence of iontophoresis and irradiation on NO release from Ru-NO complex was also evaluated. Iontophoresis increased the amount of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous recovered from the receptor solution by 15 and 400 times, respectively, as compared to passive permeation. Iontophoresis produced a higher accumulation of Ru-aqueous in the skin layers as compared to Ru-NO. At least 50% of Ru-NO penetrated the SC was stable after 4 h. The presence of Ru-NO in this skin layer suggests that further controlled release of NO can be achieved by photo-stimulation after iontophoresis.

  15. Current aspects of formulation efforts and pore lifetime related to microneedle treatment of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Mikolaj; Brogden, Nicole K; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2010-05-01

    The efficacy of microneedles in the area of transdermal drug delivery is well documented. Multiple studies have shown that enhancement of skin permeation by means of the creation of microscopic pores in the stratum corneum can greatly improve the delivery rates of drugs. However, skin pretreatment with microneedles is not the only factor affecting drug transport rates. Other factors, including drug formulation and rate of micropore closure, are also important for optimizing delivery by this route. This review aims to highlight work that has been done in these areas, with an emphasis on drug formulation parameters that affect transdermal flux. This review creates an appreciation for the many factors affecting microneedle-enhanced delivery. Most results clearly indicate that microneedle skin pretreatment by itself may have different effects on drug transport depending on the formulation used, and formulation characteristics have different effects on the transport through untreated skin and microneedle-treated skin. Several formulation approaches are reported to optimize microneedle-enhanced drug delivery, including co-solvent use, vesicular, nanoparticulate and gel systems. In addition to well-established factors that affect microneedle-assisted delivery (geometry, type of microneedle, etc.), formulation and pore viability are also critical factors that must be considered.

  16. Dual influence of colloidal silica on skin deposition of vitamins C and E simultaneously incorporated in topical microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Branka; Gosenca, Mirjam; Gasperlin, Mirjana; Padois, Karine; Falson, Franciose

    2010-07-01

    Colloidal silica is the thickener of interest for topical formulations and can therefore be used to optimize the viscosity of both hydrophilic and lipophilic microemulsions (MEs). To the best of our knowledge, no information is available about the effect of topically applied colloidal silica on skin penetration of drugs. So, our aim was to determine its influence on the effectiveness of ME in the simultaneous delivery of vitamins C and E to the skin. Two different aspects of silica possible function were investigated. Its effects on formulation characteristics were studied by determination of partition coefficient of the vitamins, their solubility and release profile. The direct impact of silica on the skin was further evaluated by transepidermal water loss measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cell toxicity determination (MTT assay). The addition of colloidal silica to ME was shown to increase significantly the vitamins' solubility and their partition to the phase in which they were less soluble. Its presence also increased the amount of both vitamins in epidermis, which was confirmed by release studies. Furthermore, we demonstrated that colloidal silica interacts with excised skin. It decreased transepidermal water loss, probably by retaining water in the stratum corneum because of its massive accumulation in the upper layers, as revealed by SEM. The results confirmed that addition of colloidal silica in ME simultaneously loaded with vitamins C and E enhanced vitamins' skin bioavailability by its dual influence on delivery characteristics of ME as well as on skin properties.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Mechanical Damage on Full-Thickness Porcine and Human Skin Using an In Vitro Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinda Dabboue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For most xenobiotics, the rates of percutaneous absorption are limited by diffusion through the horny layer of skin. However, percutaneous absorption of chemicals may seriously increase when the skin is damaged. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro representative model of mechanically damaged skins. The epidermal barrier was examined following exposure to a razor, a rotating brush, and a microneedle system in comparison to tape-stripping which acted as a reference. Excised full-thickness skins were mounted on a diffusion chamber in order to evaluate the effect of injuries and to mimic physiological conditions. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL was greatly increased when the barrier function was compromised. Measurements were made for all the damaged biopsies and observed histologically by microscopy. On human and porcine skins, the tape-stripping application (0 to 40 times showed a proportional increase in TEWL which highlights the destruction of the stratum corneum. Similar results were obtained for all cosmetic instruments. This is reflected in our study by the nonsignificant difference of the mean TEWL scores between 30 strips and mechanical damage. For a specific appreciation, damaged skins were then selected to qualitatively evaluate the absorption of a chlorogenic acid solution using fluorescence microscopy.

  18. Skin permeation enhancement effects of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii and Aloe ferox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T; Gerber, Minja; du Preez, Jan L; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Hamman, Josias H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro permeation enhancement effects of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii and Aloe ferox using ketoprofen as a marker compound. The permeation studies were conducted across excised female abdominal skin in Franz diffusion cells, and the delivery of ketoprofen into the stratum corneum-epidermis and epidermis-dermis layers of the skin was investigated using a tape-stripping technique. A. vera gel showed the highest permeation-enhancing effect on ketoprofen (enhancement ratio or ER = 2.551) when compared with the control group, followed by A. marlothii gel (ER = 1.590) and A. ferox whole-leaf material (ER = 1.520). Non-linear curve fitting calculations indicated that the drug permeation-enhancing effect of A. vera gel can be attributed to an increased partitioning of the drug into the skin, while A. ferox whole leaf modified the diffusion characteristics of the skin for ketoprofen. The tape stripping results indicated that A. marlothii whole leaf delivered the highest concentration of the ketoprofen into the different skin layers. Of the selected aloe species investigated, A. vera gel material showed the highest potential as transdermal drug penetration enhancer across human skin. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Functional analyses of the skin surface of the areola mammae: comparison between healthy adult male and female subjects and between healthy individuals and patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Tagami, H; Akaraphanth, R; Aiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Although the nipple and areola of the breast constitute a unique and prominent area on the chest, so far no study has been done on the functional properties of their skin surfaces. To study the stratum corneum (SC) covering the areola using noninvasive methods. Eighteen adult healthy subjects comprising nine men and nine women and 18 age- and sex-matched patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), none of whom had visible skin lesions, participated in the study. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface hydration and skin surface lipid levels were measured on the areola and adjacent breast skin. The size of the skin surface corneocytes of these skin regions was assessed. All the healthy subjects showed significantly higher TEWL accompanied by smaller sized corneocytes on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. Only female subjects revealed a significantly higher skin surface hydration state together with significantly increased skin surface lipid levels on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. These sex differences were observed even in patients with AD. Comparison between healthy individuals and the patients with AD demonstrated higher TEWL, decreased skin surface hydration state and lower skin surface lipid levels associated with smaller sized corneocytes in the areola in the patients with AD, especially in male patients. In adults, the SC barrier function and SC water-binding capacity of the areola were functionally poorer than in the adjacent skin, being covered by smaller sized corneocytes and lower amounts of skin surface lipids, especially in men and in patients with AD. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  20. Putative photoacoustic damage in skin induced by pulsed ArF excimer laser

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    Watanabe, S.; Flotte, T.J.; McAuliffe, D.J.; Jacques, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    Argon-fluoride excimer laser ablation of guinea pig stratum corneum causes deeper tissue damage than expected for thermal or photochemical mechanisms, suggesting that photoacoustic waves have a role in tissue damage. Laser irradiation (193 nm, 14-ns pulse) at two different radiant exposures, 62 and 156 mJ/cm2 per pulse, was used to ablate the 15-microns-thick stratum corneum of the skin. Light and electron microscopy of immediate biopsies demonstrated damage to fibroblasts as deep as 88 and 220 microns, respectively, below the ablation site. These depths are far in excess of the optical penetration depth of 193-nm light (1/e depth = 1.5 micron). The damage is unlikely to be due to a photochemical mechanism because (a) the photons will not penetrate to these depths, (b) it is a long distance for toxic photoproducts to diffuse, and (c) damage is proportional to laser pulse intensity and not the total dose that accumulates in the residual tissue; therefore, reciprocity does not hold. Damage due to a thermal mechanism is not expected because there is not sufficient energy deposited in the tissue to cause significant heating at such depths. The damage is most likely due to a photoacoustic mechanism because (a) photoacoustic waves can propagate deep into tissue, (b) the depth of damage increases with increasing laser pulse intensity rather than with increasing total residual energy, and (c) the effects are immediate. These effects should be considered in the evaluation of short pulse, high peak power laser-tissue interactions.

  1. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  2. Comparison of structure and organization of cutaneous lipids in a reconstructed skin model and human skin: spectroscopic imaging and chromatographic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Bonnier, Franck; Farhane, Zeineb; Libong, Danielle; Byrne, Hugh J; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2014-06-01

    The use of animals for scientific research is increasingly restricted by legislation, increasing the demand for human skin models. These constructs present comparable bulk lipid content to human skin. However, their permeability is significantly higher, limiting their applicability as models of barrier function, although the molecular origins of this reduced barrier function remain unclear. This study analyses the stratum corneum (SC) of one such commercially available reconstructed skin model (RSM) compared with human SC by spectroscopic imaging and chromatographic profiling. Total lipid composition was compared by chromatographic analysis (HPLC). Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the conformational order, lateral packing and distribution of lipids in the surface and skin/RSM sections. Although HPLC indicates that all SC lipid classes are present, significant differences are observed in ceramide profiles. Raman imaging demonstrated that the RSM lipids are distributed in a non-continuous matrix, providing a better understanding of the limited barrier function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Efficient intradermal delivery of superoxide dismutase using a combination of liposomes and iontophoresis for protection against UV-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigasawa, Kaoru; Miyashita, Moeko; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a potent antioxidant agent that protects against UV-induced skin damage. However, its high molecular weight is a significant obstacle for efficient delivery into the skin through the stratum corneum and development of antioxidant activity. Recently, we developed a non-invasive transfollicular delivery system for macromolecules using a combination of liposomes and iontophoresis, that represents promising technology for enhancing transdermal administration of charged drugs (IJP, 403, 2011, Kajimoto et al.). In this study, in rats we attempted to apply this system to intradermal delivery of SOD for preventing UV-induced skin injury. SOD encapsulating in cationic liposomes was subjected to anodal iontophoresis. After iontophoretic treatment, the liposomes were diffused widely in the viable skin layer around hair follicles. In contrast, passive diffusion failed to transport liposomes efficiently into the skin. Iontophoretic delivery of liposomes encapsulating SOD caused a marked decrease in the production of oxidative products, such as malondialdehyde, hexanoyl lysine, and 8-hydroxi-2-deoxyguanosine, in UV-irradiated skin. These findings suggested that functional SOD can be delivered into the skin using a combination of iontophoresis and a liposomal system. In conclusion, we succeeded in developing an efficient intradermal SOD delivery system, that would be useful for delivery of other macromolecules.

  4. Erbium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser irradiation ameliorates skin permeation and follicular delivery of antialopecia drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-11-01

    Alopecia usually cannot be cured because of the available drug therapy being unsatisfactory. To improve the efficiency of treatment, erbium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er-YAG) laser treatment was conducted to facilitate skin permeation of antialopecia drugs such as minoxidil (MXD), diphencyprone (DPCP), and peptide. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption experiments were carried out by using nude mouse skin and porcine skin as permeation barriers. Fluorescence and confocal microscopies were used to visualize distribution of permeants within the skin. Laser ablation at a depth of 6 and 10 μm enhanced MXD skin accumulation twofold to ninefold depending on the skin barriers selected. DPCP absorption showed less enhancement by laser irradiation as compared with MXD. An ablation depth of 10 μm could increase the peptide flux from zero to 4.99 and 0.33 μg cm(-2) h(-1) for nude mouse skin and porcine skin, respectively. The laser treatment also promoted drug uptake in the hair follicles, with DPCP demonstrating the greatest enhancement (sixfold compared with the control). The imaging of skin examined by microscopies provided evidence of follicular and intercellular delivery assisted by the Er-YAG laser. Besides the ablative effect of removing the stratum corneum, the laser may interact with sebum to break up the barrier function, increasing the skin delivery of antialopecia drugs. The minimally invasive, well-controlled approach of laser-mediated drug permeation offers a potential way to treat alopecia. This study's findings provide the basis for the first report on laser-assisted delivery of antialopecia drugs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Improvement of hydration and epidermal barrier function in human skin by a novel compound isosorbide dicaprylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, R K; Bojanowski, K

    2017-10-01

    The study involved the synthesis of a novel derivative of caprylic acid - isosorbide dicaprylate (IDC) - and the evaluation of its potential in improving water homoeostasis and epidermal barrier function in human skin. The effect of IDC on gene expression was assayed in skin organotypic cultures by DNA microarrays. The results were then confirmed for a few key genes by quantitative PCR, immuno- and cytochemistry. Final validation of skin hydration properties was obtained by four separate clinical studies. Level of hydration was measured by corneometer either by using 2% IDC lotion alone vs placebo or in combination with 2% glycerol lotion vs 2% glycerol only. A direct comparison in skin hydration between 2% IDC and 2% glycerol lotions was also carried out. The epidermal barrier function improvement was assessed by determining changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the arms before and after treatment with 2% IDC lotion versus placebo. IDC was found to upregulate the expression of AQP3, CD44 and proteins involved in keratinocyte differentiation as well as the formation and function of stratum corneum. A direct comparison between 2% IDC versus 2% glycerol lotions revealed a three-fold advantage of IDC in providing skin hydration. Severely dry skin treated with 2% IDC in combination with 2% glycerol showed 133% improvement, whereas 35% improvement was observed with moderately dry human skin. Topical isosorbide dicaprylate favourably modulates genes involved in the maintenance of skin structure and function, resulting in superior clinical outcomes. By improving skin hydration and epidermal permeability barrier, it offers therapeutic applications in skin ageing. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. 3D imaging of cleared human skin biopsies using light-sheet microscopy: A new way to visualize in-depth skin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, S; Jardet, C; Colombelli, J; Chaput, B; David, A; Grolleau, J-L; Bedos, P; Lobjois, V; Descargues, P; Rouquette, J

    2018-05-01

    Human skin is composed of the superimposition of tissue layers of various thicknesses and components. Histological staining of skin sections is the benchmark approach to analyse the organization and integrity of human skin biopsies; however, this approach does not allow 3D tissue visualization. Alternatively, confocal or two-photon microscopy is an effective approach to perform fluorescent-based 3D imaging. However, owing to light scattering, these methods display limited light penetration in depth. The objectives of this study were therefore to combine optical clearing and light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to perform in-depth optical sectioning of 5 mm-thick human skin biopsies and generate 3D images of entire human skin biopsies. A benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate solution was used to successfully optically clear entire formalin fixed human skin biopsies, making them transparent. In-depth optical sectioning was performed with LSFM on the basis of tissue-autofluorescence observations. 3D image analysis of optical sections generated with LSFM was performed by using the Amira ® software. This new approach allowed us to observe in situ the different layers and compartments of human skin, such as the stratum corneum, the dermis and epidermal appendages. With this approach, we easily performed 3D reconstruction to visualise an entire human skin biopsy. Finally, we demonstrated that this method is useful to visualise and quantify histological anomalies, such as epidermal hyperplasia. The combination of optical clearing and LSFM has new applications in dermatology and dermatological research by allowing 3D visualization and analysis of whole human skin biopsies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Daytime Changes of Skin Biophysical Characteristics: A Study of Hydration, Transepidermal Water Loss, pH, Sebum, Elasticity, Erythema, and Color Index on Middle Eastern Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooz, Alireza; Zartab, Hamed; Sadr, Bardia; Bagherpour, Leili Naraghi; Masoudi, Aidin; Fanian, Ferial; Dowlati, Yahya; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Samadi, Aniseh

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m.) on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years) without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92) and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025), between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001) and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001). Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  8. Daytime changes of skin biophysical characteristics: A study of hydration, transepidermal water loss, ph, sebum, elasticity, erythema, and color index on middle eastern skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Firooz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Materials and Methods: Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m. on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. Results: A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92 and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025, between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001 and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001. Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. Conclusion: There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  9. The pH of the main Brazilian commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps: considerations on the repair of the skin barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Giovana M; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-01-01

    The pH of the skin is slightly acidic (4.6 to 5.8) which is important for appropriate antibacterial, antifungal, constitution of barrier function, as well as structuring and maturation of the stratum corneum. This study aimed to evaluate the pH of the main commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps in Brazil. Thus, pH of the products was quantified by pH meter in three measurements. A total of 38 moisturizers and six commercial liquid soaps were evaluated. Mean pH of 63% and 50% of the moisturizing and liquid soaps presented results above 5.5, disfavoring repair, function, and synthesis of dermal barrier.

  10. The pH of the main Brazilian commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps: considerations on the repair of the skin barrier*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Giovana M; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-01-01

    The pH of the skin is slightly acidic (4.6 to 5.8) which is important for appropriate antibacterial, antifungal, constitution of barrier function, as well as structuring and maturation of the stratum corneum. This study aimed to evaluate the pH of the main commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps in Brazil. Thus, pH of the products was quantified by pH meter in three measurements. A total of 38 moisturizers and six commercial liquid soaps were evaluated. Mean pH of 63% and 50% of the moisturizing and liquid soaps presented results above 5.5, disfavoring repair, function, and synthesis of dermal barrier. PMID:29166523

  11. Associations between skin barrier characteristics, skin conditions and health of aged nursing home residents: a multi-center prevalence and correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Elisabeth; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Trojahn, Carina; Kottner, Jan

    2017-11-13

    Geriatric patients are affected by a range of skin conditions and dermatological diseases, functional limitations and chronic diseases. Skin problems are highly prevalent in elderly populations. Aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between health, functional and cutaneous variables in aged long-term care residents. This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive prevalence study was conducted in a random sample of 10 institutional long-term care facilities in Berlin. In total, n = 223 residents were included. Demographic and functional characteristics, xerosis cutis, incontinence associated dermatitis, pressure ulcers and skin tears were assessed. Stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH and skin temperature were measured. Data analysis was descriptive and explorative. To explore possible bivariate associations, a correlation matrix was created. The correlation matrix was also used to detect possible collinearity in the subsequent regression analyses. Mean age (n = 223) was 83.6 years, 67.7% were female. Most residents were affected by xerosis cutis (99.1%; 95% CI: 97.7% - 100.0%). The prevalence of pressure ulcers was 9.0% (95% CI: 5.0% - 13.0%), of incontinence associated dermatitis 35.4% (95% CI: 29.9% - 42.2%) and of skin tears 6.3% (95% CI: 3.2% - 9.5%). Biophysical skin parameters were not associated with overall care dependency, but with age and skin dryness. In general, skin dryness and measured skin barrier parameters were associated between arms and legs indicating similar overall skin characteristics of the residents. Prevalence of xerosis cutis, pressure ulcers and skin tears were high, indicating the load of these adverse skin conditions in this population. Only few associations of demographic characteristics, skin barrier impairments and the occurrence of dry skin, pressure ulcers, skin tears and incontinence-associated dermatitis have been detected, that might limit the diagnostic value of skin

  12. Associations between skin barrier characteristics, skin conditions and health of aged nursing home residents: a multi-center prevalence and correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hahnel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geriatric patients are affected by a range of skin conditions and dermatological diseases, functional limitations and chronic diseases. Skin problems are highly prevalent in elderly populations. Aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between health, functional and cutaneous variables in aged long-term care residents. Methods This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive prevalence study was conducted in a random sample of 10 institutional long-term care facilities in Berlin. In total, n = 223 residents were included. Demographic and functional characteristics, xerosis cutis, incontinence associated dermatitis, pressure ulcers and skin tears were assessed. Stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH and skin temperature were measured. Data analysis was descriptive and explorative. To explore possible bivariate associations, a correlation matrix was created. The correlation matrix was also used to detect possible collinearity in the subsequent regression analyses. Results Mean age (n = 223 was 83.6 years, 67.7% were female. Most residents were affected by xerosis cutis (99.1%; 95% CI: 97.7% - 100.0%. The prevalence of pressure ulcers was 9.0% (95% CI: 5.0% - 13.0%, of incontinence associated dermatitis 35.4% (95% CI: 29.9% - 42.2% and of skin tears 6.3% (95% CI: 3.2% - 9.5%. Biophysical skin parameters were not associated with overall care dependency, but with age and skin dryness. In general, skin dryness and measured skin barrier parameters were associated between arms and legs indicating similar overall skin characteristics of the residents. Conclusion Prevalence of xerosis cutis, pressure ulcers and skin tears were high, indicating the load of these adverse skin conditions in this population. Only few associations of demographic characteristics, skin barrier impairments and the occurrence of dry skin, pressure ulcers, skin tears and incontinence-associated dermatitis

  13. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coret CD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30, a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30, or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32 were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33 were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only, tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only, rash/irritation (study 2 only, and overall skin condition (study 2 only at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results: No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both. In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment. In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion: The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. Keywords: bath, cleanser, natural, infant, lotion, shampoo

  14. Confocal spectroscopic imaging measurements of depth dependent hydration dynamics in human skin in-vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, P.; Hashemi, M.; Hoppe, S.; Wessel, S.; Hagens, R.; Jaspers, S.; Wenck, H.; Rübhausen, M.

    2017-11-01

    We present confocal spectroscopic imaging measurements applied to in-vivo studies to determine the depth dependent hydration profiles of human skin. The observed spectroscopic signal covers the spectral range from 810 nm to 2100 nm allowing to probe relevant absorption signals that can be associated with e.g. lipid and water-absorption bands. We employ a spectrally sensitive autofocus mechanism that allows an ultrafast focusing of the measurement spot on the skin and subsequently probes the evolution of the absorption bands as a function of depth. We determine the change of the water concentration in m%. The water concentration follows a sigmoidal behavior with an increase of the water content of about 70% within 5 μm in a depth of about 14 μm. We have applied our technique to study the hydration dynamics of skin before and after treatment with different concentrations of glycerol indicating that an increase of the glycerol concentration leads to an enhanced water concentration in the stratum corneum. Moreover, in contrast to traditional corneometry we have found that the application of Aluminium Chlorohydrate has no impact to the hydration of skin.

  15. Evaluations of imidazolium ionic liquids as novel skin permeation enhancers for drug transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding; Wang, Huai-Ji; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Xiao

    2017-06-01

    In this work, imidazolium ionic liquids (imidazolium ILs) were employed as the novel chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) and their performances and mechanisms of action were deeply investigated. Testosterone was used as a model drug to investigate the transdermal delivery enhancement of twenty imdidazolium ILs. The results suggested that the promotion activity connected to the structure and composition of the ILs. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model revealed a good linearity between the electronic properties of ILs and their enhancements. Furthermore, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and scanning laser confocal microscope (CLSM) examinations showed the strong improvement of ILs on skin barrier permeability, which were well correlated with the drug penetration profiles. The total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and atomic force microscope (AFM) evaluations of skins indicated that the ILs can disrupt the regular and compact arrangements of the corneocytes, change the surface properties of stratum corneum, and make the skin structure more permeable. Our work demonstrated the significant skin permeation promotion profiles of the imidazolium ILs, which are of great potential in transdermal drug delivery systems.

  16. Evaluation of skin absorption of drugs from topical and transdermal formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Morais Ruela

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The skin barrier function has been attributed to the stratum corneum and represents a major challenge in clinical practice pertaining to cutaneous administration of drugs. Despite this, a large number of bioactive compounds have been successfully administered via cutaneous administration because of advances in the design of topical and transdermal formulations. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of these novel drug delivery systems are necessary to characterize their quality and efficacy. This review covers the most well-known methods for assessing the cutaneous absorption of drugs as an auxiliary tool for pharmaceutical formulation scientists in the design of drug delivery systems. In vitro methods as skin permeation assays using Franz-type diffusion cells, cutaneous retention and tape-stripping methods to study the cutaneous penetration of drugs, and in vivo evaluations as pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies in animal models are discussed. Alternative approaches to cutaneous microdialysis are also covered. Recent advances in research on skin absorption of drugs and the effect of skin absorption enhancers, as investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy, Raman confocal microscopy, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, are reviewed.

  17. Confocal spectroscopic imaging measurements of depth dependent hydration dynamics in human skin in-vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Behm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present confocal spectroscopic imaging measurements applied to in-vivo studies to determine the depth dependent hydration profiles of human skin. The observed spectroscopic signal covers the spectral range from 810 nm to 2100 nm allowing to probe relevant absorption signals that can be associated with e.g. lipid and water-absorption bands. We employ a spectrally sensitive autofocus mechanism that allows an ultrafast focusing of the measurement spot on the skin and subsequently probes the evolution of the absorption bands as a function of depth. We determine the change of the water concentration in m%. The water concentration follows a sigmoidal behavior with an increase of the water content of about 70% within 5 μm in a depth of about 14 μm. We have applied our technique to study the hydration dynamics of skin before and after treatment with different concentrations of glycerol indicating that an increase of the glycerol concentration leads to an enhanced water concentration in the stratum corneum. Moreover, in contrast to traditional corneometry we have found that the application of Aluminium Chlorohydrate has no impact to the hydration of skin.

  18. Protective Effects of Soy Oligopeptides in Ultraviolet B-Induced Acute Photodamage of Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-rong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We explored the effects of soy oligopeptides (SOP in ultraviolet B- (UVB- induced acute photodamage of human skin in vivo and foreskin ex vivo. Methods. We irradiated the forearm with 1.5 minimal erythemal dose (MED of UVB for 3 consecutive days, establishing acute photodamage of skin, and topically applied SOP. Erythema index (EI, melanin index, stratum corneum hydration, and transepidermal water loss were measured by using Multiprobe Adapter 9 device. We irradiated foreskin ex vivo with the same dose of UVB (180 mJ/cm2 for 3 consecutive days and topically applied SOP. Sunburn cells were detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptotic cells were detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs, p53 protein, Bax protein, and Bcl-2 protein were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. Results. Compared with UVB group, UVB-irradiated skin with topically applied SOP showed significantly decreased EI. Compared with UVB group, topical SOP significantly increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased CPDs-positive cells, sunburn cells, apoptotic cells, p53 protein expression, and Bax protein expressions in the epidermis of UVB-irradiated foreskin. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that topical SOP can protect human skin against UVB-induced photodamage.

  19. Analysis of the in vivo confocal Raman spectral variability in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevych, Borys; dos Santos, Laurita; Rangel, Joao L.; Grancianinov, Karen J. S.; Sousa, Mariane P.; Martin, Airton A.

    2015-06-01

    Biochemical composition of the skin changes in each layer and, therefore, the skin spectral profile vary with the depth. In this work, in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy studies were performed at different skin regions and depth profile (from the surface down to 10 μm) of the stratum corneum, to verify the variability and reproducibility of the intra- and interindividual Raman data. The Raman spectra were collected from seven healthy female study participants using a confocal Raman system from Rivers Diagnostic, with 785 nm excitation line and a CCD detector. Measurements were performed in the volar forearm region, at three different points at different depth, with the step of 2 μm. For each depth point, three spectra were acquired. Data analysis included the descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and residual) and Pearson's correlation coefficient calculation. Our results show that inter-individual variability is higher than intraindividual variability, and variability inside the SC is higher than on the skin surface. In all these cases we obtained r values, higher than 0.94, which correspond to high correlation between Raman spectra. It reinforces the possibility of the data reproducibility and direct comparison of in vivo results obtained with different study participants of the same age group and phototype.

  20. Transport of beta-aminopropionitrile through intact skin or scar tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibeault, J.D.; Cravens, R.B. Jr.; Chvapil, M.

    1989-01-01

    A lathyrogen, [ 14 C]aminopropionitrile (beta APN), was administered to 34 rats either in K-Y jelly or saline vehicles onto intact shaven skin or onto a healed splinted deep excision wound. The dynamics of beta APN transport and content in the skin or repair tissue was observed after 2, 5, 8, and 24 hr of topical administration. The repair tissue quickly absorbed the lathyrogen and reached maximum at the 2-hr sampling. The content of beta APN in the repair tissue was twice as high as that in K-Y jelly vehicle and remained high and stable for at least 24 hr only when beta APN was administered through a saline vehicle. The transport of beta APN through intact skin, irrespective of the vehicle tested, was slow and continuously increased. The study showed that almost 20% of the beta APN administered onto the wounded skin area was transported into the repair tissue within 2 hr. We suggest that, due to the absence of epidermal stratum corneum from the repair tissue, drugs, such as beta APN, penetrate quickly into the wound

  1. SAMPA: A free software tool for skin and membrane permeation data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrouk, Aleš; Fiala, Zdeněk; Kotingová, Lenka; Krulichová, Iva Selke; Kopečná, Monika; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2017-10-01

    Skin and membrane permeation experiments comprise an important step in the development of a transdermal or topical formulation or toxicological risk assessment. The standard method for analyzing these data relies on the linear part of a permeation profile. However, it is difficult to objectively determine when the profile becomes linear, or the experiment duration may be insufficient to reach a maximum or steady state. Here, we present a software tool for Skin And Membrane Permeation data Analysis, SAMPA, that is easy to use and overcomes several of these difficulties. The SAMPA method and software have been validated on in vitro and in vivo permeation data on human, pig and rat skin and model stratum corneum lipid membranes using compounds that range from highly lipophilic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to highly hydrophilic antiviral drug, with and without two permeation enhancers. The SAMPA performance was compared with the standard method using a linear part of the permeation profile and a complex mathematical model. SAMPA is a user-friendly, open-source software tool for analyzing the data obtained from skin and membrane permeation experiments. It runs on a Microsoft Windows platform and is freely available as a Supporting file to this article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ATR-IR study of skin components: Lipids, proteins and water. Part I: Temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, S.; Pietruszka, A.; Kiełbowicz, Z.; Czarnecki, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report the studies of the effect of temperature on skin components, such as lipids, proteins and water. Modifications of lipids structure induced by increasing temperature (from 20 to 90 °C) have been studied using ATR-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool for characterization of the molecular structure and properties of tissues, such as skin. Due to the small depth of penetration (0.6-5.6 μm), ATR-IR spectroscopy probes only the outermost layer of the skin, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC). The assignment of main spectral features of skin components allows for the determination of phase transitions from the temperature dependencies of band intensities [e.g. νas(CH2) and νs(CH2)]. The phase transitions were determined by using two methods: the first one was based on the first derivative of the Boltzmann function and the second one employed tangent lines of sigmoidal, aforementioned dependencies. The phase transitions in lipids were correlated with modifications of the structure of water and proteins.

  3. Skin Hydration Assessment through Modern Non-Invasive Bioengineering Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Maria-Magdalena; Poenaru, Elena; Poenaru, Calin; Constantin, Traian

    2014-03-01

    Non-invasive bioengineering technologies continuously discovered and developed in recent decades provide a significant input to research development and remarkably contribute to the improvement of medical education and care to our patients. Assessing skin hydration by using the capacitance method for a group of patients with allergic contact dermatitis versus healthy subjects, before and after applying a moisturiser (assessing the immediate and long-term effectiveness of hydration). For both groups, but especially for the patients with dry skin, there was a clear improvement of hydration, statistically significant after applying the moisturiser. In the case of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, hydration was at a maximum immediately after the first application, and then maintained an increased level after 7 and 28 days, respectively. In the healthy subjects, the increase in hydration was lower, but progressive. The moisturiser determined an increase in hydration for all age groups, but those who showed the most obvious effect were the young adults (18-29 years old) with an increase of 19.9%.The maintenance effect of hydration lasted for 28 days, while the improvement was important for allergic skin (17.1%) and significant for healthy skin (10.9%). The assessment of epidermal hydration performed by using the corneometer showed very good hydration of the stratum corneum for both groups studied, with immediate and long-term effect. This study also showed that the degree of skin hydration was inversely proportional with age. The corneometer is easy to use, efficient and widely utilised in international studies for measurements in healthy or pathological conditions, for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of various preparations intended for application to the skin surface, under well-controlled and standardised conditions.

  4. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair: evaluation of a cumulative human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-12-01

    Although surfactant-induced acute irritant dermatitis has been extensively studied, our understanding about the induction and repair of the clinically more relevant chronic form is limited. Our purpose was to investigate qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from cumulative exposure to structurally unrelated surfactants and to compare the maximal irritant responses from this model with corresponding reactions noted in a previously reported acute irritation model. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (7.5%) were applied for 20 minutes daily (for 8 consecutive days excluding the weekend) to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were repeatedly assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). Maximum irritant responses were compared with corresponding reactions from an acute irritation model. TEWL was increased by SLS and DTAB to the same extent, but erythema was significantly higher in DTAB-treated skin. Skin dryness, as demonstrated by decreased capacitance values and increased scores for scaling and fissuring, was significantly more pronounced than in an acute irritation model for SLS and DTAB, although no difference was detected between the two surfactants. Potassium soap led to a slight increase in TEWL, whereas the remaining features were not significantly changed. This chronic irritation model appears to represent the clinical situation of irritant contact dermatitis with pronounced skin dryness more closely than the acute irritation model. The present study confirms that an extended time is needed for complete healing of irritant skin reactions. We also demonstrated that the evaluation of the irritation potential of

  5. Surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate enhances skin vaccination: molecular characterization via a novel technique using ultrafiltration capillaries and mass spectrometric proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Chao-Cheng; Kawai, Mikako; Barnes, Stephen; Elmets, Craig A

    2006-03-01

    The skin is a highly accessible organ and thus provides an attractive immune environment for cost-effective, simple, and needle-free delivery of vaccines and immunomodulators. In this study, we pretreated mouse skin with an anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), for a short period of time (10 min) followed by epicutaneous vaccination with hen egg lysozyme antigen. We demonstrated for the first time that pretreatment of skin with surfactant SLS significantly enhances the production of antibody to hen egg lysozyme. Short term pretreatment with SLS disorganized the stratum corneum, extracted partial lamellar lipids, induced the maturation of Langerhans cells, and did not result in epidermis thickening. To reveal the mechanism underlying these changes, particularly at the molecular level, we used a novel proteomic technique using ultrafiltration capillaries and mass spectrometry to identify in vivo proteins/peptides secreted in the SLS-pretreated skin. Two secretory proteins, named as calcium-binding protein S100A9 and thymosin beta4, were identified by this novel technique. These two proteins thus may provide new insight into the enhancing effect of surfactants on skin vaccination.

  6. Anti-ageing effects of a new synthetic sphingolipid (K6EAA-L12) on aged murine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minyoung; Lee, Sanghoon; Park, Hwa-young; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Jeong, Sekyoo; Bae, Jonghwan; Kwon, Mi Jung; Park, Byeong Deog; Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Eung Ho

    2011-04-01

    Recently, we reported on the anti-ageing effects of K6PC-5. This compound induced keratinocyte differentiation and fibroblast proliferation by increasing sphingosine-1 phosphate synthesis. We performed this study to confirm the anti-ageing effects of new synthetic products (the K6EAA series) derived from K6PC-5 through an amino group induction. Cellular responses such as differentiation, proliferation and calcium mobilization were investigated using cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Also, we measured the expressions of collagen mRNA and protein using real time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The K6EAA-L12 product, selected by in vitro screening, was evaluated for anti-ageing effects on intrinsically and extrinsically (photo) aged models of hairless mice. In the intrinsically aged murine skin, K6EAA-L12 showed anti-ageing effects by activating collagen synthesis, eventually causing dermal thickening. Also, in the photo-aged skin, the dermal collagen density and dermal thickness were increased. In photo-aged murine skin, K6EAA-L12 increased stratum corneum integrity by increasing corneodesmosome density and improved the barrier recovery rate. However, there were no changes in the expressions of epidermal differentiation maker proteins. In conclusion, topical K6EAA-L12, a new synthetic K6PC-5 derivative, improves intrinsically and extrinsically (photo) aged skin by increasing the collagen density and improving the skin barrier function. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Potential Application of Nanoemulsions for Skin Delivery of Pomegranate Peel Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Lemos-Senna, Elenara

    2017-11-01

    Pomegranate peel and seeds have demonstrated to possess antioxidant compounds with potential application to protect the skin against the ultraviolet radiation damage. However, the photoprotection activity is dependent on the amount of these compounds that reach the viable skin layers. In this paper, we describe the in vitro skin permeation and retention of the major pomegranate peel polyphenols using Franz diffusion cells, after entrapping a ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from Punica granatum peel extract into nanoemulsions (NEs) prepared with pomegranate seed oil (PSO) or medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT). The in vitro skin permeation of gallic acid (GA), ellagic acid (EA), and punicalagin (PC) was evaluated using a HPLC-DAD validated method. After 8 h of skin permeation, all polyphenol compounds were mostly retained in the skin and did not reach the receptor compartment. However, a 2.2-fold enhancement of the retained amount of gallic acid in the stratum corneum was verified after EAF-loaded NEs are applied, when compared with the free EAF. GA and EA were delivered to the viable epidermis and dermis only when nanoemulsions were applied onto the skin. The mean retained amounts of GA and EA in the EP and DE after applying the EAF-loaded PSO-NE were 1.78 and 1.36 μg cm -2 and 1.10 and 0.97 μg cm -2 , respectively. Similar values were obtained after applying the EAF-loaded MCT-NE. The skin permeation results were supported by the confocal microscopy images. These results evidenced the promising application of nanoemulsions to deliver the pomegranate polyphenols into the deeper skin layers.

  8. Effects of water activity and low molecular weight humectants on skin permeability and hydration dynamics - a double-blind, randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albèr, C; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Kocherbitov, V; Saleem, S; Lodén, M; Engblom, J

    2014-10-01

    The mammalian skin is a barrier that effectively separates the water-rich interior of the body from the normally dryer exterior. Changes in the external conditions, for example ambient humidity, have been shown to affect the skin barrier properties. The prime objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of water activity of a topical formulation on skin hydration and permeability. A second objective was to gain more understanding on how two commonly used humectants, urea and glycerol, affect skin barrier function in vivo. Simple aqueous formulations were applied under occlusion to the volar forearm of healthy volunteers. Following 4-h exposure, skin water loss (by transepidermal water loss measurements), skin hydration (by Corneometry) and skin permeability (by time to vasodilation due to benzyl nicotinate exposure) were monitored. The results demonstrate that a relatively small change in the water activity of a topical formulation is sufficient to induce considerable effects on stratum corneum hydration and permeability to exogenous substances. Exposing the skin to high water activity leads to increased skin hydration and also increased permeability. Furthermore, urea and glycerol promote skin hydration and permeability even at reduced water activity of the applied formulation. These results highlight the importance of considering the water activity in topically applied formulations and the potential benefit of using humectants. The results may impact formulation optimization in how to facilitate skin hydration and to modify skin permeability by temporarily open and close the skin barrier. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. A Long-Term Study to Evaluate Acidic Skin Care Treatment in Nursing Home Residents: Impact on Epidermal Barrier Function and Microflora in Aged Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaak, Jürgen; Kaup, Olaf; Hoppe, Willi; Baron-Ruppert, Gabriele; Langheim, Heiko; Staib, Peter; Wohlfart, Rainer; Lüttje, Dieter; Schürer, Nanna

    2015-08-01

    The pH of the stratum corneum (SC) in the elderly is elevated and linked to impaired SC function. Therefore, this paper addresses the question of whether acidic skin care generates positive clinical, biophysical, and microbiological effects in aged skin. This study was performed to assess skin care effects in nursing home residents (aged 80-97 years). Visual, biophysical, and microbiological methods were used. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups and treated over 7 weeks with skin care products adjusted to a pH of 4.0 (group A) or a pH of 6.0 (group B). Compared to baseline, SC integrity improved significantly in group A (p = 0.007), whereas there was no change in group B (p = 0.672). SC recovery 24 h after perturbation increased significantly in group A (p = 0.004) compared to baseline. The SC recovery in group B was not significant compared to baseline (p = 0.327). Long-term treatment with pH 4.0 skin care results in a significant improvement in epidermal barrier function compared to identical products with a pH of 6.0. In addition, effects on skin dryness and resident flora were demonstrated, but without significant differences, between the 2 groups. Based on these results, we recommend adjustment of skin care products for the elderly to a pH of 4.0 to maintain the health of aged skin. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. A plant oil-containing pH 4 emulsion improves epidermal barrier structure and enhances ceramide levels in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaak, J; Dähnhardt, D; Dähnhardt-Pfeiffer, S; Bielfeldt, S; Wilhelm, K-P; Wohlfart, R; Staib, P

    2017-06-01

    Xerosis is a serious problem among the very old. It is a dermatological challenge caused by significant alterations in stratum corneum (SC) function and structure. Two negative changes in aged skin are (i) the enhanced skin surface pH and (ii) the altered SC lipid content, composition and ordering. Therefore, we investigated the way in which an acidic skin care product with different plant oils affects SC function, structure and lipid profile in older subjects with dry skin. Before and after a 3-week application period, different biophysical measurements were performed: transepidermal water loss, SC hydration and skin surface pH. In addition, the SC lipid matrix was evaluated by analysis of the intercellular lipid lamellae and the SC lipid profile. After treatment, a significant increase in lipid lamellae in the intercellular space of the SC was observed in the area treated with the test product compared to the untreated area. Furthermore, the ceramide level was found to be increased, although ceramides were not provided by the acidic test formulation. In summary, topical application of a pH 4.0 product containing plant oils improves epidermal barrier formation and SC lipid ordering and ratio in aged dry skin. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Evaluation of transdermal delivery of nanoemulsions in ex vivo porcine skin using two-photon microscopy and confocal laser-scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghoon; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Yong Joong; Delmas, Thomas; Kim, Changhwan; Park, Soyeun; Lee, Ho

    2014-10-01

    This study experimentally evaluates the self-targeting ability of asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsions compared with nontargeted nanoemulsions in ex vivo experiments with porcine skin samples. Homebuilt two-photon and confocal laser-scanning microscopes were employed to noninvasively examine the transdermal delivery of two distinct nanoemulsions. Prior to the application of nanoemulsions, we noninvasively observed the morphology of porcine skin using two-photon microscopy. We have successfully visualized the distributions of the targeted and nontargeted nanoemulsions absorbed into the porcine skin samples. Asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsions showed an improved ex vivo transdermal delivery through the stratum corneum compared with nonloaded nanoemulsions. As a secondary measure, nanoemulsions-applied samples were sliced in the depth direction with a surgical knife in order to obtain the complete depth-direction distribution profile of Nile red fluorescence. XZ images demonstrated that asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsion penetrated deeper into the skin compared with nontargeted nanoemulsions. The basal layer boundary is clearly visible in the case of the asiaticoside-loaded skin sample. These results reaffirm the feasibility of using self-targeting ligands to improve permeation through the skin barrier for cosmetics and topical drug applications.

  12. Enhanced skin permeation of naltrexone by pulsed electromagnetic fields in human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gayathri; Edwards, Jeffrey; Chen, Yan; Benson, Heather A E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the skin permeation of naltrexone (NTX) under the influence of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF). The permeation of NTX across human epidermis and a silicone membrane in vitro was monitored during and after application of the PEMF and compared to passive application. Enhancement ratios of NTX human epidermis permeation by PEMF over passive diffusion, calculated based on the AUC of cumulative NTX permeation to the receptor compartment verses time for 0-4 h, 4-8 h, and over the entire experiment (0-8 h) were 6.52, 5.25, and 5.66, respectively. Observation of the curve indicated an initial enhancement of NTX permeation compared to passive delivery whilst the PEMF was active (0-4 h). This was followed by a secondary phase after termination of PEMF energy (4-8 h) in which there was a steady increase in NTX permeation. No significant enhancement of NTX penetration across silicone membrane occurred with PEMF application in comparison to passively applied NTX. In a preliminary experiment PEMF enhanced the penetration of 10 nm gold nanoparticles through the stratum corneum as visualized by multiphoton microscopy. This suggests that the channels through which the nanoparticles move must be larger than the 10 nm diameter of these rigid particles. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  13. Barreira cutânea na dermatite atópica Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna Addor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da barreira cutânea e de suas propriedades ganhou impulso a partir da década de 60, com estudos que apontaram sua resistência de forma isolada e suas propriedades com relação à permeação cutânea. Paralelamente, a descrição dos corpos de Odland auxiliou a compreensão da manutenção da estabilidade da camada córnea. O modelo brick & mortar, em que os corneócitos são os tijolos e o cimento são os lipídeos intercelulares, é o mais aceito, até o momento. Atualmente, há evidências consistentes de que o estrato córneo é uma estrutura metabolicamente ativa e exerce funções adaptativas. A barreira cutânea também tem um papel na resposta inflamatória, com ativação de melanócitos, angiogênese e fibroplasia, cuja intensidade depende, basicamente, da intensidade da agressão. As anormalidades da barreira cutânea da dermatite atópica são clinicamente observáveis pela presença de pele seca, achado muito frequente e significativo, que constitui parâmetro iagnóstico e de acompanhamento. O grau de hidratação da camada córnea, assim como a perda de água transepidérmica (transepidermal water loss - TEWL, estão relacionados com o grau de dano à barreira, constituindo parâmetros biofísicos que permitem acompanhar os pacientes de maneira não invasiva e com maior grau de sensibilidade.Research about the skin barrier and its properties has increased significantly since the 60s, with studies that indicated its resistance when isolated, as well as its particularities in relation to skin permeability. At the same time, description of Odland bodies helped to understand how stratum corneum stability is maintained. The “brick and mortarâ€� model is the most accepted so far. In this analogy, the corneocytes are the bricks and the intercellular lipids are the mortar. Currently, there is concrete evidence that the stratum corneum is an active metabolic structure that holds adaptive functions, interacting

  14. Contribution to the study of external contamination by radioactive products: skin contamination by radioactive cobalt in soluble form and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymen, H.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the behavior of the radioactive cobalt isotopes, which are present in reactor coolant systems of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), in the case of occupational skin exposure, and to study different therapies. Our experimental approach stems from standardized methods in skin pharmacology. In a first step, a physico-chemical study of a primary coolant water was carried out to characterize the soluble fraction of radio-cobalt and its skin affinity. The second step consisted in quantifying the diffusion through the skin, in vivo and in vitro in rats, and in vitro in human. Parallel experiments were carried out to study biokinetics of cobalt in rats, after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. Whatever the route of administration, cobalt diffuses easily in the organism. On the contrary, its skin absorption is very limited. In a fourth step, the influence of the skin injuries on absorption was estimated in vivo on rat skin. Several skin models were developed to standardize different injuries: excoriation, heat burns (convection, conduction) and chemical burns (acid or alkaline). Biokinetics study over 24 hours and histological study have shown a relation between skin absorption and stratum corneum alteration. In the latest step of this work, we compared the efficacy of various decontaminating agents administered under different galenic forms. Per (3, 6- anhydro, 2-O-carboxy-methyl)-α-cyclo-dextrin exhibited a significant efficacy for cobalt decontamination of skin. This macromolecule was tested in aqueous solution, in agarose gel and loaded on 'functionalized' fibers intended for development of new decontaminating tissues. (author)

  15. The percutaneous permeation of a combination of 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride and 2% 2-phenoxyethanol (octenisept® through skin of different species in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kietzmann Manfred

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A water based combination of 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride and 2% 2 - phenoxyethanol is registered in many European countries as an antiseptic solution (octenisept® for topical treatment with high antimicrobial activity for human use, but octenidine based products have not been registered for veterinary use yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether octenidine dihydrochloride or 2 -phenoxyethanol, the two main components of this disinfectant, permeate through animal skin in vitro. Therefore, permeation studies were conducted using Franz-type diffusion cells. 2 ml of the test compound were applied onto 1.77 cm2 split skin of cats, dogs, cows and horses. To simulate wounded skin, cattle skin was treated with adhesive tapes 100 times, as well. Up to an incubation time of 28 hours samples of the acceptor chamber were taken and were analysed by UV-HPLC. Using the method of the external standard, the apparent permeability coefficient, the flux Jmax, and the recovery were calculated. Furthermore, the residues of both components in the skin samples were determined after completion of the diffusion experiment. Results After 28 hours no octenidine dihydrochloride was found in the receptor chamber of intact skin samples, while 2.7% of the topical applied octenidine dihydrochloride permeated through barrier disrupted cattle skin. 2 - phenoxyethanol permeated through all skin samples with the highest permeability in equine, followed by bovine, canine to feline skin. Furthermore, both components were found in the stratum corneum and the dermis of all split skin samples with different amounts in the examined species. Conclusion For 2-phenoxyethanol the systemic impact of the high absorption rate and a potential toxicological risk have to be investigated in further studies. Due to its low absorption rates through the skin, octenidine dihydrochloride is suitable for superficial skin treatment in the examined species.

  16. Simulations of Skin Barrier Function: Free Energies of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Transmembrane Pores in Ceramide Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, Willem J.; Noro, Massimo G.; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)

  17. Defects of filaggrin-like proteins in both lesional and nonlesional atopic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Laurence; Henry, Julie; Hsu, Chiung-Yueh; Balica, Stéfana; Jean-Decoster, Catherine; Méchin, Marie-Claire; Hansmann, Britta; Rodriguez, Elke; Weindinger, Stefan; Schmitt, Anne-Marie; Serre, Guy; Paul, Carle; Simon, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a disturbed epidermal barrier. In a subset of patients, this is explained by nonsense mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG). We sought to evaluate the respective role of FLG mutations and proinflammatory cytokines and to assess the expression of FLG, hornerin (HRNR), and FLG2, 2 FLG-like proteins, which are involved in epidermal barrier functions, in normal skin and both lesional and nonlesional skin of patients with AD. An FLG-genotyped cohort of 73 adults with AD and 73 aged-matched control subjects was analyzed by using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Normal primary human keratinocytes were differentiated in either the absence or presence of IL-4, IL-13, and IL-25. Compared with control subjects, FLG, HRNR, and FLG2 were detected at significantly lower levels in the skin of patients with AD, irrespective of their FLG genotype. The reduction was greater in lesional compared with nonlesional skin. In addition, the proFLG/FLG ratio was found to be higher in the skin of wild-type patients than in control subjects. Cytokine treatment of keratinocytes induced a dramatic reduction in FLG, FLG2, and HRNR expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. The stratum corneum of lesional but also clinically unaffected skin of adults with AD is abnormal, with reduced expression of FLG and FLG-like proteins. In addition to nonsense mutations, proinflammatory cytokines and some defects in the proFLG processing can contribute to the FLG downregulation. Our study suggests that skin inflammation reduces the expression of FLG-like proteins, contributing to the AD-related epidermal barrier dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An In Vitro Skin Equivalent for Evaluation of Skin Absorption of Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    acid (100 µg/ml) and a Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonist clofibrate (300 µM) was added to the media during culture at the ALI...factors (lipids, ascorbic acid and clofibrate ), a full thickness HSE was obtained with a differentiated epidermis. Addition of external lipids or... acid (100µg/ml) and clofibrate (300 µm), the HSE exhibited relatively higher number of viable epidermal layers and a thicker stratum corneum as

  19. Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) of keratinocytes, blood vessels and nerves in hairless mouse skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUSSAU, L. J.; VO, L. T.; DELANEY, P. M.; PAPWORTH, G. D.; BARKLA, D. H.; KING, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) enabled subsurface fluorescence microscopy of the skin of hairless mice in vivo. Application of acridine orange enabled imaging of the layers of the epidermis. The corneocytes of the stratum corneum, the keratinocytes in the basal layers and redundant hair follicles were visualised at depths greater than 100 μm. Cellular and nuclear membranes of keratinocytes of the skin were visualised by the use of acridine orange and DIOC5(3). Imaging of the skin after injection of FITC-dextran revealed an extensive network of blood vessels with a size range up to 20 μm. Blood cells could be seen moving through dermal vessels and the blood circulation through the dermal vascular bed was video-taped. The fluorescent dye 4-di-2-ASP showed the presence of nerves fibres around the hair follicles and subsurface blood vessels. Comparison was made between images obtained in vivo using FOCI and in vitro scanning electron microscopy and conventional histology. FOCI offers the potential to study dynamic events in vivo, such as blood flow, skin growth, nerve regeneration and many pathological processes, in ways which have not previously been possible. PMID:9643419

  20. Measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in cats with experimental skin barrier dysfunction using a closed chamber system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yutaka; Shimada, Kenichiro; Gin, Azusa; Matsubara, Takako; Azakami, Daigo; Ishioka, Katsumi; Nakamura, Yuka; Sako, Toshinori

    2016-10-01

    A closed chamber evaporimeter is suitable for measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in cats because of the compact device size, tolerance to sudden movement and short measuring time. TEWL is a representative parameter for skin barrier dysfunction, which is one of the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis in humans and dogs. Measurement of feline TEWL has been reported, but applicability of this parameter has not been validated. The aims of this study were to determine if tape stripping is a valid experimental model in cats for studying TEWL and to determine if a closed chambered system is a suitable measurement tool for cats. Ten clinically normal cats. In order to evaluate variation of the measured values, TEWL was measured at the right and left side of the three clipped regions (axillae, lateral thigh and groin). Subsequently, TEWL was measured using sequential tape stripping of the stratum corneum as a model of acute barrier disruption. The variations between both sides of the three regions showed no significant difference. Sequential tape stripping was associated with increasing values for TEWL. Feline TEWL was shown to reflect changes in the skin barrier in an experimental model using a closed chamber system and has the potential for evaluating skin barrier function in cats with skin diseases. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Repeated short climatic change affects the epidermal differentiation program and leads to matrix remodeling in a human organotypic skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrand, Laetitia-Barbollat; Thépot, Amélie; Muther, Charlotte; Boher, Aurélie; Robic, Julie; Guéré, Christelle; Vié, Katell; Damour, Odile; Lamartine, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Human skin is subject to frequent changes in ambient temperature and humidity and needs to cope with these environmental modifications. To decipher the molecular response of human skin to repeated climatic change, a versatile model of skin equivalent subject to "hot-wet" (40°C, 80% relative humidity [RH]) or "cold-dry" (10°C, 40% RH) climatic stress repeated daily was used. To obtain an exhaustive view of the molecular mechanisms elicited by climatic change, large-scale gene expression DNA microarray analysis was performed and modulated function was determined by bioinformatic annotation. This analysis revealed several functions, including epidermal differentiation and extracellular matrix, impacted by repeated variations in climatic conditions. Some of these molecular changes were confirmed by histological examination and protein expression. Both treatments (hot-wet and cold-dry) reduced the expression of genes encoding collagens, laminin, and proteoglycans, suggesting a profound remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Strong induction of the entire family of late cornified envelope genes after cold-dry exposure, confirmed at protein level, was also observed. These changes correlated with an increase in epidermal differentiation markers such as corneodesmosin and a thickening of the stratum corneum, indicating possible implementation of defense mechanisms against dehydration. This study for the first time reveals the complex pattern of molecular response allowing adaption of human skin to repeated change in its climatic environment.

  2. Sebum and Hydration Levels in Specific Regions of Human Face Significantly Predict the Nature and Diversity of Facial Skin Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P

    2016-10-27

    The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum.

  3. Enhanced barrier functions and anti-inflammatory effect of cultured coconut extract on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soomin; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Jihee; Lee, Young In; Lee, Dong Won; Song, Seung Yong; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-08-01

    Natural plant oils have been used as a translational alternative to modern medicine. Particularly, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has gained popularity because of its potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications. Cultured coconut extract (CCE) is an alternative end product of VCO, which undergoes a further bacterial fermentation process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCE on human skin. We analyzed the expression of skin barrier molecules and collagens after applying CCE on human explanted skin. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of CCE, the expression of inflammatory markers was analyzed after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The CCE-treated group showed increased expression of cornified cell envelope components, which contribute to protective barrier functions of the stratum corneum. Further, the expression of inflammatory markers was lower in the CCE-treated group after exposure to UVB radiation. These results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of CCE against UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. Additionally, the CCE-treated group showed increased collagen and hyaluronan synthase-3 expression. In our study, CCE showed a barrier-enhancing effect and anti-inflammatory properties against ex vivo UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. The promising effect of CCE may be attributed to its high levels of polyphenols and fatty acid components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Controlling the hydration of the skin though the application of occluding barrier creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparr, Emma; Millecamps, Danielle; Isoir, Muriel; Burnier, Véronique; Larsson, Åsa; Cabane, Bernard

    2013-03-06

    The skin is a barrier membrane that separates environments with profoundly different water contents. The barrier properties are assured by the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), which controls the transepidermal water loss. The SC acts as a responding membrane, since its hydration and permeability vary with the boundary condition, which is the activity of water at the outer surface of the skin. We show how this boundary condition can be changed by the application of a barrier cream that makes a film with a high resistance to the transport of water. We present a quantitative model that predicts hydration and water transport in SC that is covered by such a film. We also develop an experimental method for measuring the specific resistance to water transport of films made of occluding barrier creams. Finally, we combine the theoretical model with the measured properties of the barrier creams to predict how a film of cream changes the activity of water at the outer surface of the SC. Using the known variations of SC permeability and hydration with the water activity in its environment (i.e. the relative humidity), we can thus predict how a film of barrier cream changes SC hydration.

  5. A study of the effects of physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling in porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Boo Kyoung; Choi, Jeong Hwee; Jeong, Ki Heon; Park, Jong Min; Suh, Dong Hye; Lee, Sang Jun; Shin, Min Kyung

    2015-02-01

    Many comparative studies of chemical peeling and dermabrasion have been reported. However, rare basic scientific data about the immediate effects after combined treatment with chemical peeling and dermabrasion have been confirmed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the application of physical abrasion in combination with chemical peels. Three pigs were treated with physical abrasion using a water jet device in combination with an α-hydroxy acid solution, and the skin samples of the control received chemical peeling solution alone. The levels of growth factors and neuropeptides were measured with a multiplex immunoassay. Skin treated with physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling showed prominent detachment and swelling of the stratum corneum (SC), and fluid collection in the hair follicles. The mean cell count of CD34 positive fibroblasts and mast cells, levels of epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and neurotensin, were significantly increased in the tissue treated with physical abrasion combined with a chemical peeling agent, compared to the skin in the control. We concluded that physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling can be more effective than chemical peeling alone, for the approach through transfollicular routes.

  6. Generalized peeling skin syndrome: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharfi, Monia; Khaled, Aida; Ammar, Donia; Ezzine, Nadia; El Fekih, Nadia; Fazaa, Becima; Jaafoura, Hiabib; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2010-03-15

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare form of ichthyosis with a probable autosomal recessive inheritance that exhibits superficial, painless, continual, or seasonal cutaneous exfoliation. The syndrome generally appears at birth or in infancy. We report a case of generalized PSS and provide a literature review. A 34-year-old woman reported a lifelong history of generalized and painless peeling of the skin that worsened in summer. Her parents were third degree cousins. Her twin sister and her two cousins presented with the same condition. Physical examination showed widespread superficial sheets of variable size that could be easily removed without bleeding or pain. No underlying erythema was noted. Otherwise, the patient was in good health. Histological findings showed an epidermal cleavage within the stratum corneum. The generalized form of PSS is classified into 3 types, A, B, and C, according to the classification system of Traupe and Mevorah. We have tried to classify the cases of generalized PSS already reported in the literature into one of these three types. Thirteen reported cases probably presented PSS-type A. Sixteen patients are best described as PSS-type B. Two patients exhibit PSS-type C. Fifteen reported patients had an acral form of peeling skin syndrome. The classification of the eleven remaining patients was difficult to determine. Our patient presented clinical and histological features of generalized PSS-type A.

  7. Germacrone and sesquiterpene-enriched extracts from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. increase skin penetration of minoxidil, a hair growth promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Waranuch, Neti; Tangsumranjit, Anothai; Khorana, Nantaka; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2018-02-01

    Minoxidil is approved for topical treatment of androgenic alopecia but hampered by poor cutaneous absorption. Recently, the randomized control trial showed that hair loss treatment of minoxidil was improved by co-application of the anti-androgen, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract. Here, we aimed to show that the apparent synergism arises from improved cutaneous penetration of minoxidil by bioactive compound, germacrone or C. aeruginosa (as an n-hexane extract, or essential oil). The partition coefficient of germacrone was determined by HPLC. Skin penetration was measured ex vivo on Franz diffusion cells using full thickness human foreskin as membranes. The receiver solution was sampled hourly for 8 h after which the skin was removed, the stratum corneum separated, and minoxidil assayed in this and in the remaining viable skin layer by HPLC. Skin penetration of minoxidil with 0.2 and 2% extract was increased ~ 4-fold (accumulated amount in receiver + skin viable layer after 8 h). Furthermore, germacrone enhanced minoxidil flux by ~ 10-fold and C. aeruginosa essential oil by ~ 20-fold. This work suggests three clinical consequences: (i) minoxidil efficacy is promoted, (ii) lower doses of minoxidil suffice, and (iii) C. aeruginosa extract/essential oil or germacrone can supplement treatment outcomes by acting as anti-androgen, thereby introducing a more effective topical treatment strategy for androgenic alopecia.

  8. Photoprotection of Buddleja cordata extract against UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Acevedo, José Guillermo; Espinosa González, Adriana Montserrat; De Maria y Campos, Diana Matamoros; Benitez Flores, José del Carmen; Hernández Delgado, Tzasna; Flores Maya, Saul; Campos Contreras, Jorge; Muñoz López, José Luis; García Bores, Ana María

    2014-08-03

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using botanical agents to prevent skin damage resulting from solar UV-irradiation. Buddleja cordata is a plant that is known as "tepozan". Some people in Mexico use the leaves of this plant to treat tumours, abscesses, sores and burns. The purpose of this study is to investigate the photoprotective properties of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract (BCME) against UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice at the macroscopic and histological levels. BCME was characterised to determine its spectroscopic, chromatographic and antioxidant (DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals) properties. To conduct the photoprotection studies, BCME was applied topically to the skin of SKH-1 mice before acute exposure to UVB for 10 minutes. The murine skin samples were used for macroscopic and histological studies to assess tissue damage. Penetration of active components of BCME into stratum corneum on the dorsal area of mice was investigated in vivo by the tape stripping method. Moreover, genotoxicity of BCME was evaluated in a Vicia faba cell root micronucleus model. BCME displayed absorbance over the entire UVB spectrum, and its principal components included verbascoside and linarin. BCME exhibited antioxidant activity and significantly scavenged hydroxyl radicals. BCME reduced erythema, sunburn cell production, vessel congestion and epidermal thickening of UVB irradiated mouse skin. BCME penetrate the skin of mice. BCME did not exhibit genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. The topical administration of BCME protected against acute UVB-induced damage in mouse SKH-1 skin, and our results suggest that BCME may potentially prevent photodamage.

  9. A Novel Cassia fistula (L.-Based Emulsion Elicits Skin Anti-Aging Benefits in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkat Ali Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula, a flowering plant in the family of Caesalpinaceae (Fabaceae, is used in traditional medicine for several indications. Nevertheless, too little is known about its effects on skin conditions and skin aging. Therefore, in this pioneering study, the extracts of oil-in-water macro-emulsions containing 5% C. fistula (L. crude pods (i.e., phyto-active formulation were optimally developed and compared to the placebo (i.e., emulsions without the crude extract for assessment of their effects on human skin aging. Healthy adult male volunteers (n = 13 with a mean age of 31 ± 5.5 years (range: 24–47 years were enrolled after informed written consent. For 12 consecutive weeks, the subjects were directed to use a patch containing the active emulsion on one of their forearms as well as a patch containing the placebo on their other forearm. Biometrological measurements of skin hydration (SH and transepidermal water loss (TEWL were performed on both sides of their respective cheeks at time 0 (baseline values, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th weeks. Surface evaluation of living skin (SELS was taken at time 0 (baseline values or after 1, 2 and 3 months. Topical application of C. fistula extracts showed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in stratum corneum hydration level, a significant enhancement in its water-holding function as well as in its barrier function. Further, significant (p < 0.005 ameliorations of skin aspects were observed (i.e., less roughness, less dryness, less wrinkles. Taken together, our results strongly suggest therapeutic and esthetic potential of C. fistula pod’s extracts to prevent or delay human skin aging.

  10. Mathematical models to describe iontophoretic transport in vitro and in vivo and the effect of current application on the skin barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratieri, Taís; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

    2013-02-01

    The architecture and composition of the stratum corneum make it a particularly effective barrier against the topical and transdermal delivery of hydrophilic molecules and ions. As a result, different strategies have been explored in order to expand the range of therapeutic agents that can be administered by this route. Iontophoresis involves the application of a small electric potential to increase transport into and across the skin. Since current flow is preferentially via transport pathways with at least some aqueous character, it is ideal for hydrosoluble molecules containing ionisable groups. Hence, the physicochemical properties that limit partitioning and passive diffusion through the intercellular lipid matrix are beneficial for electrically-assisted delivery. The presence of fixed ionisable groups in the skin (pI 4-4.5) means that application of the electric field results in a convective solvent flow (i.e., electroosmosis) in the direction of ion motion so as to neutralise membrane charge. Hence, under physiological conditions, cation electrotransport is due to both electromigration and electroosmosis-their relative contribution depends on the formulation conditions and the physicochemical properties of the permeant. Different mathematical models have been developed to provide a theoretical framework in order to explain iontophoretic transport kinetics. They usually involve solutions of the Nernst-Planck equation - using either the constant field (Goldman) or electroneutrality (Nernst) approximations - with or without terms for the convective solvent flow component. Investigations have also attempted to elucidate the nature of ion transport pathways and to explain the effect of current application on the electrical properties of the skin-more specifically, the stratum corneum. These studies have led to the development of different equivalent circuit models. These range from simple parallel arrangements of a resistor and a capacitor to the inclusion of the

  11. [Effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yong-Mei; Tao, Ling; Zhu, Xiao-Fang; Zang, Zhen-Zhong; Jin, Chen; Chen, Li-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption, and investigate the mechanism of permeation on the microstructure and molecular structure of stratum corneum. Through the determination of stratum corneum/medium partition coefficient of ferulicacid in Chuanxiong influenced by Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil, the effects of volatile oil of frankincense and Myrrh on the the microscopic and molecular structure of stratum corneum were explored by observation of skin stratum corneum structure under scanning electron microscopy, and investigation of frankincense and myrrh essential oil effects on the molecular structure of keratin and lipids in stratum corneum under Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the oil could enhance the distribution of ferulic acid in the stratum corneum and medium, and to a certain extent damaged the imbricate structure of stratum corneum which was originally regularly, neatly, and closely arranged; some epidermal scales turned upward, with local peeling phenomenon. In addition, frankincense and myrrh essential oil caused the relative displacement of CH2 stretching vibration peak of stratum corneum lipids and amide stretching vibration peak of stratum corneum keratin, indicating that frankincense and myrrh essential oil may change the conformation of lipid and keratin in the stratum corneum, increase the bilayer liquidity of the stratum corneum lipid, and change the orderly and compact structure to increase the skin permeability and reduce the effect of barrier function. It can be concluded that Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil can promote the permeation effect by increasing the distribution of drugs in the stratum corneum and changing the structure of the stratum corneum. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. X-ray microanalysis of psoriatic skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundin, T.G.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.; Lindberg, M.; Werner, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Electron probe x-ray microanalysis was used to study elemental distribution in uninvolved and involved skin from patients with psoriasis, and in skin from healthy controls. Significant differences were found between the involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. In the involved skin, the concentrations of Mg, P, and K were higher in the stratum germinativum, spinosum, and granulosum, compared to the corresponding strata in uninvolved skin. Neither involved nor uninvolved psoriatic stratum germinativum differed markedly from nonpsoriatic control stratum germinativum. In uninvolved psoriatic skin only a lower level of K was noted. In comparison to uninvolved psoriatic skin, the elemental composition of the various strata of involved psoriatic skin shows a pattern typical for highly proliferative, nonneoplastic cells

  13. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  14. Environmental dew point and skin and lip weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, C; Piérard, G E; Quatresooz, P; Piérard, S

    2010-05-01

    Xerosis represents a physiological response of the stratum corneum (SC) to environmental threats. The influence of the environmental dew point (DP) is not fully understood. This parameter is the air temperature at which the relative humidity is maximum. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the environmental DP and the water-holding capacity of the skin and lower lip vermilion. For comparison, SC property was evaluated after occlusive application of cooled and uncooled hydrogel pads. Electrometric measurements using a dermal phase meter (DPM) device were performed on the back of the hands, the cheeks and the lower lip of 40 healthy menopausal women. Assessments were performed in the outdoor conditions during winter and spring. The same measurements were recorded after hydrogel pads, at room temperature or cooled to 4 degrees C, were placed for 15 min on the test sites. The environmental DP was recorded at each evaluation time. The SC water-holding capacity was discretely influenced by the DP. In the open-air environmental conditions, a positive linear relationship was found on the cheeks between the DP and DPM values. The relationship was weaker on the lips. Conversely, a consistent increase in DPM values was recorded immediately after removal of the cooled and uncooled hydrogel pads. The observations made in the open-air testing conditions are consistent with the predicted events following the Arrhenius law. By contrast, the combination of cooling and occlusion by the hydrogel pads is responsible for the reverse effect on the SC.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) rind extracts applied topically to ex vivo skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, David M J; Bugert, Joachim; Denyer, Stephen P; Heard, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    Coadministered pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and zinc (II) produces a potent virucidal activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV); however, HSV infections are also associated with localised inflammation and pain. Here, the objective was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and relative depth penetration of PRE, total pomegranate tannins (TPT) and zinc (II) in skin, ex vivo. PRE, TPT and ZnSO 4 were dosed onto freshly excised ex vivo porcine skin mounted in Franz diffusion cells and analysed for COX-2, as a marker for modulation of the arachidonic acid inflammation pathway, by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Tape stripping was carried out to construct relative depth profiles. Topical application of PRE to ex vivo skin downregulated expression of COX-2, which was significant after just 6h, and maintained for up to 24h. This was achieved with intact stratum corneum, proving that punicalagin penetrated skin, further supported by the depth profiling data. When PRE and ZnSO 4 were applied together, statistically equal downregulation of COX-2 was observed when compared to the application of PRE alone; no effect followed the application of ZnSO 4 alone. TPT downregulated COX-2 less than PRE, indicating that tannins alone may not be entirely responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of PRE. Punicalagin was found throughout the skin, in particular the lower regions, indicating appendageal delivery as a significant route to the viable epidermis. Topical application of TPT and PRE had significant anti-inflammatory effects in ex vivo skin, confirming that PRE penetrates the skin and modulates COX-2 regulation in the viable epidermis. Pomegranates have potential as a novel approach in ameliorating the inflammation and pain associated with a range of skin conditions, including cold sores and herpetic stromal keratitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sub-stratum injection of fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteren van, W.; Cornelisse, J.; Costello, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed an experiment conducted to evaluate the sub-stratum injection of oil sands fine tailings. The hydraulic fracturing method was developed as a sub-surface dredging process for mining sand without removing the overburden. Pressure was used to transport the sand-water mixture, and the high pressures used in the process resulted in water losses through the clay-sand interface. The experiment was conducted with soft clay, compacted sand, and an injection feed. Results of the study showed that the injection method may be successful. However, further research is required to characterize the fracture energy of oil sands and the rheology of fine tailings. Horizontal hydraulic fracturing equations were presented. Tensile failures in clay and oil sands were discussed. Fractures were identified by deformation and discharge rates. Crack propagation methods were also studied. tabs., figs.

  17. Technological geological and mathematical models of petroleum stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumagulov, B.T.; Monakhov, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative analysis of different mathematical methods of petroleum stratum, the limit of their applicability and hydrodynamical analysis of numerical calculation's results is carried out. The problem of adaptation of the mathematical models and the identification of petroleum stratum parameters are considered. (author)

  18. A placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of Imedeen® Time Perfection® for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephens TJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas J Stephens,1 Monya L Sigler,1 James H Herndon Jr,2 Lisa Dispensa,3 Anne Le Moigne3 1Thomas J. Stephens and Associates, Inc., Richardson, TX, 2Dermatology Center of Dallas, Dallas, TX, 3Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Madison, NJ, USA Objective: To assess the efficacy of Imedeen Time Perfection for improving the appearance and condition of photoaged skin in healthy women. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial enrolled healthy women, 35–60 years of age, with Fitzpatrick I–III and Glogau II–III skin types and mild-to-moderate facial fine lines/wrinkles. The eligible subjects were randomized to receive two tablets daily of either Imedeen Time Perfection (Imedeen or a matching placebo for 12 weeks. Efficacy assessments included investigator rating of 16 photoaging parameters (ie, global facial appearance and 15 individual facial parameters and the average of all parameters, instrumentation (ie, ultrasound dermal density, moisture level of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, cutometry, and subjects' self-assessment. Differences in the mean change from baseline to week 12 values on these outcomes were compared between Imedeen and placebo using analysis of variance or a paired t-test. Results: Seventy-four subjects with primarily Fitzpatrick skin type III (78%–79% and Glogau type III (53%–58% completed the study (Imedeen: n=36; placebo: n=38. The mean difference in change from baseline to week 12 for global facial assessment significantly favored Imedeen over placebo (−0.52; P=0.0017. Additionally, the mean differences in the average of all facial photoaging parameters (−0.29, mottled hyperpigmentation (−0.25, tactile laxity (−0.24, dullness (−0.47, and tactile roughness (−0.62 significantly favored Imedeen over placebo (P≤0.05. Significantly greater increases in ultrasound dermal density (+11% vs +1%; P≤0.05 and stratum corneum moisturization (+30% vs +6%; P≤0.05 were also

  19. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Adrienne T.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT TM , a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 μM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 μM), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE 2 synthases, leukotriene (LT) A 4 hydrolase and LTC 4 synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  20. Recovery Effects of Oral Administration of Glucosylceramide and Beet Extract on Skin Barrier Destruction by UVB in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Tokudome

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purified glucosylceramide from beet extract (beet GlcCer and beet extract containing an equal amount of GlcCer were administered orally to ultra violet B (UVB-irradiated mice, and differences in the protective effects against skin barrier dysfunction caused by UVB irradiation were compared. In the beet GlcCer group, epidermal thickening and the decrease in stratum corneum (SC ceramide content caused by UVB irradiation were reduced. In the group that was orally administered beet extract containing glucosylceramide, effects similar to those in the beet GlcCer group were observed. Oral administration of beet GlcCer had no obvious effects against an increase in TEWL or decrease in SC water content after UVB irradiation, but there was improvement in the beet extract group. Oral administration of beet GlcCer is effective in improving skin barrier function in UVB-irradiated mice. Beet extract contains constituents other than GlcCer that are also effective in improving skin barrier function.

  1. Development and evaluation of resveratrol, Vitamin E, and epigallocatechin gallate loaded lipid nanoparticles for skin care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Wei, Ning; Lopez-Garcia, Maria; Ambrose, Dianna; Lee, Jason; Annelin, Colin; Peterson, Teresa

    2017-08-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been studied as potential carriers for both dermal and transdermal drug delivery. SLN contain lipid droplets that are fully crystallized and have a highly-ordered crystalline structure. NLC are modified SLN in which the lipid phase contains both solid and liquid lipids at room temperature. SLN and NLC are thought to combine the advantages of polymeric particles, liposomes and emulsions. Therefore they provide high encapsulation percentages, better protection for incorporated actives and allow for control of desired release profile. In this work, Resveratrol, Vitamin E (VE), and Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) all potent antioxidants known to provide protection to the skin, were formulated into lipid nanoparticles. Several different formulations were successfully developed and demonstrated high uniformity and stability. Both resveratrol and VE lipid nanoparticles provided effective protection of actives against UV induced degradation. However, lipid nanoparticles did not show protection from UV degradation for EGCG in this work. An active release study exhibited a sustained release of resveratrol over 70% after 24h. Skin penetration studies showed that lipid nanoparticles directionally improved the penetration of resveratrol through the stratum corneum. Our findings suggest that lipid nanoparticles are promising viable carriers for the delivery of resveratrol and VE to provide longlasting antioxidant benefits to the skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Has dry/cold weather an impact on the skin condition of cleanroom workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In previous epidemiological studies irritant skin changes were reported significantly more frequently under dry/cold ambient air conditions. The aim of this study was to assess whether a similar effect might be observed in cleanroom workers, occupationally exposed to strictly controlled ambient conditions. This investigation examined 690 employees of a semiconductor production company in Germany, one half in winter (n = 358) and the other half in spring (n = 332). In both waves, both cleanroom workers, who used occlusive gloves predominantly during the entire shift, and employees in the administration, serving as the control group, were included. Ambient outdoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) were measured and absolute humidity (AH) was calculated. Hands were dermatologically examined with quantitative clinical skin score HEROS, supplemented by transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration measurements. Temperature ranged from -5.41 to 6.51°C in winter (RH 71.04-92.38%; AH 2.85-6.7 g/m 3 ) and from 6.35 to 10.26°C in spring (RH 76.17-82.79%; AH 5.66-7.92 g/m 3 ). Regarding HEROS, TEWL, and corneometry, no marked consistent pattern regarding an enhanced or decreased risk of irritant skin changes was found. Work in a strictly controlled environment with prolonged wearing of occlusive gloves, with clean hands and without exposure to additional hazardous substances, did not seem to negatively affect the skin. In this particular setting, meteorological conditions also did not appear to adversely affect the skin. It is conceivable that wearing of gloves and air conditioning in the plant protect skin of the hands from adverse effects due to dry and cold air encountered when not working.

  3. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Crosera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue® and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm2 while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm2. Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10−4 M (MTT assay, 3.8 × 10−5 M (AlamarBlue® assay, and 7.6 × 10−4 M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death. Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  4. A synthetic C16 omega-hydroxyphytoceramide improves skin barrier functions from diversely perturbed epidermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myoung Jin; Nam, Jin Ju; Lee, Eun Ok; Kim, Jin Wook; Park, Chang Seo

    2016-10-01

    Omega-hydroxyceramides (ω-OH-Cer) play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of skin barrier. ω-OH-Cer are the primary lipid constituents of the corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE) covalently attached to the outer surface of the cornified envelope linked to involucrin to become bound form lipids in stratum corneum (SC). CLE becomes a hydrophobic impermeable layer of matured corneocyte preventing loss of natural moisturizing factor inside the corneocytes. More importantly, CLE may also play an important role in the formation of proper orientation of intercellular lipid lamellar structure by interdigitating with the intercellular lipids in a comb-like fashion. Abnormal barrier conditions associated with atopic dermatitis but also UVB-irradiated skins are known to have lowered level of bound lipids, especially ω-OH-Cer, which indicate that ω-OH-Cer play an important role in maintaining the integrity of skin barrier. In this study, protective effects of a novel synthetic C16 omega-hydroxyphytoceramides (ω-OH-phytoceramide) on skin barrier function were investigated. Epidermal barrier disruption was induced by UVB irradiation, tape-stripping in hairless mouse and human skin. Protective effect of damaged epidermis was evaluated using the measurement of transepidermal water loss and cohesion of SC. Increased keratinocyte differentiation was verified using cultured keratinocyte through western blot. Results clearly demonstrated that a synthetic C16 ω-OH-phytoceramide enhanced the integrity of SC and accelerated the recovery of damaged skin barrier function by stimulating differentiation process. In a conclusion, a synthetic C16 ω-OH-phytoceramide treatment improved epidermal homeostasis in several disrupted conditions.

  5. Percutaneous delivery of econazole using microemulsion as vehicle: formulation, evaluation and vesicle-skin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shumin; Lin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Haoyang; Li, Qi; He, Jian; Chen, Bao; Wu, Chuanbin; Xu, Yuehong

    2014-04-25

    This project was carried out to exploit the feasibility of using microemulsion (ME) as an alternative carrier for percutaneous delivery econazole nitrate (ECN) and elucidate the underlying mechanism of permeation enhancement. The ME was developed based on Labrafil M 1944 Cs as oil phase, Solutol HS15 and Span 80 as surfactants, Transcutol P as cosurfactant and water as aqueous phase. The solubility of ECN was firstly determined for screening the ingredients of the system. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to formulate ME and select surfactant and cosurfactant. Central composite design-response surface methodology (CCD-RSM) was utilized to optimize the formulation of ME. The ECN loaded ME was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size and size distribution, pH value, refractive index, viscosity and conductivity, and storage stability of the ECN loaded ME was assayed. Percutaneous permeation of ECN from ME in vitro through rat skin was investigated in comparison with PBS aqueous suspension (1%, w/w), and results showed that ME enhanced drug retention in the skin and permeation through the skin, the enhancement of ME on skin deposition was further visualized through fluorescent-labeled ME by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The action mechanism of ME on improving percutaneous delivery was studied by performing a pretreatment test. It can speculate that ME does not simply behave as enhancer but it also acts as drug carrier. Furthermore, ME-skin interaction was elucidated through transmission electron microscope (TEM), and attenuated total reflectance fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). TEM was performed to visualize the micro morphological change of skin. ATR-FTIR was carried out to investigate the molecular vibrations of the components of stratum corneum (SC). The results indicate that the ME system may be a promising vehicle for percutaneous delivery of ECN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosera, Matteo; Prodi, Andrea; Mauro, Marcella; Pelin, Marco; Florio, Chiara; Bellomo, Francesca; Adami, Gianpiero; Apostoli, Pietro; De Palma, Giuseppe; Bovenzi, Massimo; Campanini, Marco; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-08-07

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L) in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue(®) and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays) was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm(2)) while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm(2)). Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10(-4) M (MTT assay), 3.8 × 10(-5) M (AlamarBlue(®) assay), and 7.6 × 10(-4) M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death). Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  7. Enantioselective skin permeation of ibuprofen enantiomers: mechanistic insights from ATR-FTIR and CLSM studies based on synthetic enantiomers as naphthalimide fluorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Qi-en; Quan, Peng; Mu, Mao; Zhang, Xinfu; Zhao, Hanqing; Zhang, Yu; You, Song; Xiao, Yi; Fang, Liang

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of different skin permeability of ibuprofen racemate and enantiomers. The percutaneous permeation of ibuprofen racemate and enantiomers through rabbit normal skin and damaged skin (without stratum corneum [SC]) was investigated in vitro using side-by-side diffusion cells. With the melting temperature-membrane transport model, the flux ratio of enantiomer/racemate was calculated from their thermodynamic properties obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) study was performed to evaluate the interaction between the enantiomers and the SC. New fluorescent probes were designed and utilized in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) study for visualization of the enantioselective permeation of the enantiomers through the intact rabbit skin. The flux of (S)-ibuprofen through normal skin was significantly higher than that of (RS)-ibuprofen and (R)-ibuprofen (p skin, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). The predicted flux ratio of (S)-ibuprofen/(RS)-ibuprofen (2.50) was in close agreement with the experimentally determined ratio (2.48). These results were supported by ATR-FTIR and CLSM studies that indicated that a chiral environment of the skin led to the enantioselective permeation of enantiomers. The chiral nature of the SC and the different physicochemical properties of the enantiomers should be taken into account in the assessment of different skin permeability of the racemate and enantiomers. The synthetic fluorescent probes used in this study could visualize the enantioselective permeation of the chiral compounds across the skin.

  8. In situ visualization of glucocerebrosidase in human skin tissue: zymography versus activity-based probe labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Dijkhoff, Irini M; Helder, Richard W J; Al-Khakany, Hanin; Boer, Daphne E C; Schreuder, Anne; Kallemeijn, Wouter W; Absalah, Samira; Overkleeft, Herman S; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2017-12-01

    Epidermal β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA1), an acid β-glucosidase normally located in lysosomes, converts (glucosyl)ceramides into ceramides, which is crucial to generate an optimal barrier function of the outermost skin layer, the stratum corneum (SC). Here we report on two developed in situ methods to localize active GBA in human epidermis: i ) an optimized zymography method that is less labor intensive and visualizes enzymatic activity with higher resolution than currently reported methods using either substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside or resorufin-β-D-glucopyranoside; and ii ) a novel technique to visualize active GBA1 molecules by their specific labeling with a fluorescent activity-based probe (ABP), MDW941. The latter method pro-ved to be more robust and sensitive, provided higher resolution microscopic images, and was less prone to sample preparation effects. Moreover, in contrast to the zymography substrates that react with various β-glucosidases, MDW941 specifically labeled GBA1. We demonstrate that active GBA1 in the epidermis is primarily located in the extracellular lipid matrix at the interface of the viable epidermis and the lower layers of the SC. With ABP-labeling, we observed reduced GBA1 activity in 3D-cultured skin models when supplemented with the reversible inhibitor, isofagomine, irrespective of GBA expression. This inhibition affected the SC ceramide composition: MS analysis revealed an inhibitor-dependent increase in the glucosylceramide:ceramide ratio. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Simulations of skin barrier function: free energies of hydrophobic and hydrophilic transmembrane pores in ceramide bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, W J; Noro, Massimo G; den Otter, Wouter K

    2008-11-15

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) weaken the barrier function of the skin. We have used the potential of mean constraint force (PMCF) method to calculate the free energy of pore formation in ceramide bilayers in both the innate gel phase and in the DMSO-induced fluidized state. Our simulations show that the fluid phase bilayers form archetypal water-filled hydrophilic pores similar to those observed in phospholipid bilayers. In contrast, the rigid gel-phase bilayers develop hydrophobic pores. At the relatively small pore diameters studied here, the hydrophobic pores are empty rather than filled with bulk water, suggesting that they do not compromise the barrier function of ceramide membranes. A phenomenological analysis suggests that these vapor pores are stable, below a critical radius, because the penalty of creating water-vapor and tail-vapor interfaces is lower than that of directly exposing the strongly hydrophobic tails to water. The PMCF free energy profile of the vapor pore supports this analysis. The simulations indicate that high DMSO concentrations drastically impair the barrier function of the skin by strongly reducing the free energy required for pore opening.

  10. In vitro skin penetration of clobetasol from lipid nanoparticles: drug extraction and quantitation in different skin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Dantas Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clobetasol propionate (CP is a potent topical corticosteroid that causes several cutaneous and systemic side effects. In the present work, CP was encapsulated in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs to increase drug retention in the outer skin layers and improve the safety of topical therapy. NLCs were prepared using a microemulsion technique with a mixture of lecithin, taurodeoxycholate, stearic acid, and oleic acid. In vitro penetration studies were performed in a modified Franz-type diffusion cell, and porcine ears were used as a model of human skin. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for clobetasol determination in different skin layers. NLCs presented uniform size distribution, high zeta potentialand entrapment efficiency values (> 98%. The analytical procedure was validated according to FDA guidelines. Clobetasol recoveries from skin samples were higher than 85%, with no interference of skin components and NLC ingredients. In experiments, after 6 h, a higher drug accumulation in the stratum corneum arising from NLCs compared to aqueous CP solution was observed. Thus, the NLCs demonstrated high potential for targeting CP to the skin and ensuring drug accumulation in the stratum corneum.Proprionato de clobetasol (CP é um potente corticóide tópico, que apresenta vários efeitos adversos cutâneos e sistêmicos. No presente trabalho, CP foi encapsulado em carreadores lipídicos nanoestruturados (NLCs visando aumentar a retenção do fármaco nas camadas superficiais da pele e a segurança da terapia tópica. NLCs foram preparados usando a técnica de diluição de microemulsão com mistura de lecitina, taurodesoxicolato, ácido esteárico e ácido oléico. Estudos de penetração in vitro foram realizados em células de difusão de Franz modificadas usando pele de orelha de porco como modelo de pele humana. Um método simples e sensível de cromatografia líquida foi desenvolvido e validado para

  11. Erbium:YAG laser resurfacing increases skin permeability and the risk of excessive absorption of antibiotics and sunscreens: the influence of skin recovery on drug absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-06-01

    While laser skin resurfacing is expected to result in reduced barrier function and increased risk of drug absorption, the extent of the increment has not yet been systematically investigated. We aimed to establish the skin permeation profiles of tetracycline and sunscreens after exposure to the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser during postoperative periods. Physiological and histopathological examinations were carried out for 5 days after laser treatment on nude mice. Percutaneous absorption of the permeants was determined by an in vitro Franz cell. Ablation depths varied in reaching the stratum corneum (10 μm, 2.5 J/cm²) to approach the epidermis (25 μm, 6.25 J/cm²) and upper dermis (40 μm, 10 J/cm²). Reepithelialization evaluated by transepidermal water loss was complete within 2-4 days and depended on the ablation depth. Epidermal hyperplasia was observed in the 40-μm-treated group. The laser was sufficient to disrupt the skin barrier and allow the transport of the permeants into and across the skin. The laser fluence was found to play an important role in modulating skin absorption. A 25-μm ablation depth increased tetracycline flux 84-fold. A much smaller enhancement (3.3-fold) was detected for tetracycline accumulation within the skin. The laser with different fluences produced enhancement of oxybenzone skin deposition of 3.4-6.4-fold relative to the untreated group. No penetration across the skin was shown regardless of whether titanium dioxide was applied to intact or laser-treated skin. However, laser resurfacing increased the skin deposition of titanium dioxide from 46 to 109-188 ng/g. Tetracycline absorption had recovered to the level of intact skin after 5 days, while more time was required for oxybenzone absorption. The in vivo skin accumulation and plasma concentration revealed that the laser could increase tetracycline absorption 2-3-fold. The experimental results indicated that clinicians should be cautious when determining the

  12. Effects of Carbopol® 934 proportion on nanoemulsion gel for topical and transdermal drug delivery: a skin permeation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yin; Ouyang, Wu-Qing; Wei, Yun-Peng; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Hao, Chao-Shuang; Wang, Bo-Zhen; Shang, Yan-Hong

    Nanoemulsions (NEs) are used as transdermal drug delivery systems for systematic therapeutic purposes. We hypothesized that the skin permeation profile of an NE could be modulated by incorporating it into a hydrogel containing differing proportions of thickening agent. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to determine the stability and skin irritability of NE gels (NGs) containing 1%, 2%, and 3% (w/w) Carbopol ® 934 (CP934) (termed NG1, NG2, and NG3, respectively); 2) to compare the skin permeation profiles and drug deposition patterns of the NGs; and 3) to visualize the drug delivery routes of the NGs. Terbinafine and citral were incorporated into the NGs as model drugs. Ex vivo skin permeation tests indicated that the percutaneous flux rates of terbinafine decreased in the order NE (215 μg/cm 2 ) > NG1 (213 μg/cm 2 ) > NG2 (123 μg/cm 2 ) > NG3 (74.3 μg/cm 2 ). The flux rates of citral decreased in the order NE (1,026 μg/cm 2 ) > NG1 (1,021 μg/cm 2 ) > NG2 (541 μg/cm 2 ) > NG3 (353 μg/cm 2 ). The NGs accumulated greater amounts of the drugs in the stratum corneum and less in the epidermis/dermis than did the NE ( P drug delivery routes from skin appendages to intercellular paths. Histological images suggested that perturbations to the skin structure, specifically the size of the epidermal intercellular spaces and the separation distance of dermal collagen bundles, could be significantly minimized by increasing the proportion of CP934. These results suggest that adjustments of the CP934 proportions can be used to modulate the skin permeation profiles of NGs for specific therapeutic purposes.

  13. Response of Human Skin Equivalents to Sarcoptes scabiei

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORGAN, MARJORIE S.; ARLIAN, LARRY G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that molecules in an extract made from bodies of the ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, modulate cytokine secretion from cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. In vivo, in the parasitized skin, these cells interact with each other by contact and cytokine mediators and with the matrix in which they reside. Therefore, these cell types may function differently together than they do separately. In this study, we used a human skin equivalent (HSE) model to investigate the influence of cellular interactions between keratinocytes and fibroblasts when the cells were exposed to active/burrowing scabies mites, mite products, and mite extracts. The HSE consisted of an epidermis of stratified stratum corneum, living keratinocytes, and basal cells above a dermis of fibroblasts in a collagen matrix. HSEs were inoculated on the surface or in the culture medium, and their cytokine secretions on the skin surface and into the culture medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Active mites on the surface of the HSE induced secretion of cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The main difference between HSEs and monocultured cells was that the HSEs produced the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-1β and their competitive inhibitor IL-1ra, whereas very little of these mediators was previously found for cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts. It is not clear how the balance between these cytokines influences the overall host response. However, IL-1ra may contribute to the depression of an early cutaneous inflammatory response to scabies in humans. These contrasting results illustrate that cell interactions are important in the host’s response to burrowing scabies mites. PMID:20939384

  14. The effectiveness of using a bath oil to reduce signs of dry skin: A randomized controlled pragmatic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Kanti, Varvara; Dobos, Gabor; Hahnel, Elisabeth; Lichterfeld-Kottner, Andrea; Richter, Claudia; Hillmann, Kathrin; Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Dry skin (xerosis cutis) is increasingly recognized as a relevant health problem in daily life and in health and nursing care. The use of bath additives such as oils is common to reduce dry skin, but empirical evidence supporting this practice is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a bath oil additive in improving skin barrier function and ameliorating dry skin in comparison to non-oil containing skin cleansers for bathing or showering. Single centre randomized observer blind pragmatic parallel group trial. Outpatient/community care. Volunteers showing clinically mild to moderate dry skin recruited from the city of Berlin. Healthy children and adults were randomly assigned to use either a commercially available bath oil or to continue using their regular non-oil containing skin cleansers every other day over a study period of 28days. Skin barrier parameters and the severity of dry skin were assessed at baseline and at two follow-up visits at the study centre. Transepidermal water loss was the primary outcome. All sixty participants randomized completed the trial. Median age was 32.5 (IQR 8.3 to 69) years. At the end of study the mean transepidermal water loss in the intervention group was statistically significant lower compared to the control group (mean difference -1.9 (95% CI -3.1 to -0.8) g/m 2 /h). Stratum corneum hydration was statistically significantly higher in the intervention group at the end of the study. Skin surface pH and roughness were comparable in both groups and remained unchanged, while both groups showed a trend to improvement in dry skin symptoms CONCLUSIONS: This pragmatic trial provides empirical evidence that the regular use of the investigated bath oil is effective in improving the skin barrier function in children and adults with mild dry skin when used in routine skin care and supports its use as a basic element for the management of a broad spectrum of dry skin conditions. Clinical

  15. Quantitation of 24-Hour Moisturization by Electrical Measurements of Skin Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, R Randall; Damjanovic, Bronson

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of several moisturizers on hydration of the stratum corneum by measuring their effect on electrical conductance over a 24-hour period. Double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Twenty-five healthy female volunteers aged 18 to 65 years with dry skin on the lower legs and no other known dermatologic pathology participated in the study. Additional exclusion criteria were pregnant or taking anti-inflammatory steroids. The study was carried out in a clinical research facility in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Subjects underwent a 3-day conditioning period using a natural soap bar on the lower legs and no application of moisturizer to the skin. Participants then came to the test site and equilibrated for at least 30 minutes under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. After baseline hydration measurements on test sites on the lower legs of each subject, a single application of each of 5 test products at a dose of 2 mg/cm was made. Skin hydration was assessed by electrical conductance measurements with a specialized probe. The probe was briefly placed on the skin surface with light pressure, and the measurement recorded in units of microsiemens (μS). Conductance was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after product applications. Although all but 1 of the test products increased conductance at 2 hours, only 2 moisturizers containing high levels of glycerin (products C and E) maintained increased conductance relative to baseline at 24 hours, +37.8 (P skin conductance for at least 24 hours after a single application.

  16. Biological interactions of quantum dot nanoparticles in skin and in human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Leshuai W.; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots nanoparticles have novel optical properties for biomedical applications and electronics, but little is known about their skin permeability and interaction with cells. QD621 are nail-shaped nanoparticles that contain a cadmium/selenide core with a cadmium sulfide shell coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and are soluble in water. QD were topically applied to porcine skin flow-through diffusion cells to assess penetration at 1 μM, 2 μM and 10 μM for 24 h. QD were also studied in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) to determine cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential. Confocal microscopy depicted the penetration of QD621 through the uppermost stratum corneum (SC) layers of the epidermis and fluorescence was found primarily in the SC and near hair follicles. QD were found in the intercellular lipid bilayers of the SC by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis for cadmium (Cd) and fluorescence for QD both did not detect Cd nor fluorescence signal in the perfusate at any time point or concentration. In HEK, viability decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from 1.25 nM to 10nM after 24 h and 48 h. There was a significant increase in IL-6 at 1.25 nM to 10 nM, while IL-8 increased from 2.5nM to 10nM after 24 h and 48 h. TEM of HEK treated with 10 nM of QD621 at 24 h depicted QD in cytoplasmic vacuoles and at the periphery of the cell membranes. These results indicate that porcine skin penetration of QD621 is minimal and limited primarily to the outer SC layers, yet if the skin were damaged allowing direct QD exposure to skin or keratinocytes, an inflammatory response could be initiated

  17. Histopathological changes induced by Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat changes induced by Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Skin before and after Silymarin and Vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.F.; Elkady, A.

    2013-01-01

    People in industrial and developing countries are exposed to large variety of environmental influencing agents including chemical, air, water and food pollution. Also physical harmful agents such as ultraviolet radiation, and electromagnetic radiation especially by cell phones. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation on the skin of male albino rats and the role of silymarin and Vitamin E as skin protectors. The male rats were grouped into 8 groups :1-Control group, 2-Irradiated group, groups 3,4,5 are irradiated with silymarin administration, irradiated with Vitamin E administration, irradiated with silymarin and Vitamin E administration groups respectively. The remaining three groups (6, 7, 8) served as healthy control with antioxidants administration. Paraffin sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain was used for showing microscopic changes. Following irradiation, the results showed dystrophic changes in the skin represented by atrophy of epidermal layers with absence of stratum corneum and epidermal vesicles formation. Collagen fibres were disorganized and appeared more eosinophilic and homogenous. Loss of skin appendages, lysis of collagen and edematous tissues were also observed in the dermal layer. Following administration of silymarin and Vitamin E the results showed improvement of the skin texture, while edema was still observed. conclusion: Treatment by silymarin alone or Vitamin E alone did not restore the damaging effect of electromagnetic radiation on rat skin. But when both antioxidants were given following radiation-exposure there were marked improvements on morphological structure of rat skin. These results indicate the importance of both silymarin and Vitamin E as protectors from the harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation on skin.

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of a facial serum for fine lines, wrinkles, and photodamaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall-Perez, Fred; Stephens, Thomas J; Herndon, James H

    2011-07-01

    Dermatology visits for the prevention and treatment of aging skin are rapidly increasing. The clinical sequelae including wrinkling, pigmentary changes, roughness, laxity, and telangiectasia can all result in the appearance of aging skin, impacting quality of life. A facial serum was developed with ingredients associated with an improvement in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and increase in stratum corneum barrier function. Patients were instructed to use a gentle wash before applying the formulation and a moisturizer afterwards. To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a facial serum in improving the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and signs of photodamage. Thirty-four female subjects (Fitzpatrick classification I-IV) with early to advanced photodamaged skin in a 12-week, single-arm, open-label clinical trial. Visits were scheduled at Baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12. Efficacy was assessed using visual grading of facial and periocular skin (modified 10-point scales); changes in viscoelasticity properties were assessed by cutometry. Cutaneous tolerability was evaluated both clinically and subjectively using a 4-point scale and monitoring adverse events. Digital photography documented treatment-related changes in skin appearance. Subjects completed self-assessments at Baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12. Significant improvements in all parameters and skin condition were seen as early as Week 4 (p≤0.05). There was an 18-percent improvement in overall appearance by Week 12 (p≤0.05). Fine lines and coarse winkles improved by 27 and 15 percent, respectively (both p≤0.05). Significant improvements were also seen in uneven pigmentation, firmness/elasticity, toned/resiliency, skin radiance, tone, and tactile roughness/smoothness (10%, 11%, 18%, 21%, 16%, and 47%, respectively; allp≤0.05). By Week 12 subjects reported a 43-percent improvement in overall facial skin appearance and 24-percent reduction in mean scores for facial lines and wrinkles (bothp≤0

  19. Aspen Forest Cover by Stratum/Plot (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Average percent coverage and standard deviation of each canopy stratum from subplots at each aspen site during the SNF study in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota

  20. Noninvasive evaluation of the chronic influence of local air velocity from an air conditioner using salivary cortisol and skin caspase-14 as biomarkers of psychosomatic and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Nishimiya, H

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the possibility of evaluating the chronic influence of local air velocity from an air conditioner using noninvasive biomarkers. Over a consecutive 5-day period, 16 healthy young male adults were exposed to air flow from a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (low local air velocity) and from a commercial concentrated exhaust air conditioner (high local air velocity). Salivary cortisol was used as an index of the psychological effects and caspase-14, collected from the stratum corneum, was used as a marker of environmental stress on the skin. Local air velocity generated from the whole ceiling-type air conditioner where the subject's head was positioned was one-seventh that of the exhaust air conditioner. After exposure to the exhaust air conditioner for 5 days, salivary cortisol decreased significantly from morning to evening and skin caspase-14 gradually increased during the day. A significant increase in hydration index from the morning to the evening was found with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The effects of chronic exposure to air movement generated by an air conditioner may be quantified by measurement of salivary cortisol and skin caspase-14.

  1. Imaging mass spectrometry visualizes ceramides and the pathogenesis of dorfman-chanarin syndrome due to ceramide metabolic abnormality in the skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Goto-Inoue

    Full Text Available Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS is a useful cutting edge technology used to investigate the distribution of biomolecules such as drugs and metabolites, as well as to identify molecular species in tissues and cells without labeling. To protect against excess water loss that is essential for survival in a terrestrial environment, mammalian skin possesses a competent permeability barrier in the stratum corneum (SC, the outermost layer of the epidermis. The key lipids constituting this barrier in the SC are the ceramides (Cers comprising of a heterogeneous molecular species. Alterations in Cer composition have been reported in several skin diseases that display abnormalities in the epidermal permeability barrier function. Not only the amounts of different Cers, but also their localizations are critical for the barrier function. We have employed our new imaging system, capable of high-lateral-resolution IMS with an atmospheric-pressure ionization source, to directly visualize the distribution of Cers. Moreover, we show an ichthyotic disease pathogenesis due to abnormal Cer metabolism in Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome, a neutral lipid storage disorder with ichthyosis in human skin, demonstrating that IMS is a novel diagnostic approach for assessing lipid abnormalities in clinical setting, as well as for investigating physiological roles of lipids in cells/tissues.

  2. Nutritional Status and Habitual Dietary Intake Are Associated with Frail Skin Conditions in Community-Dwelling Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, S; Nagata, S; Sanada, H

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of frail skin is important in older people because frail skin is associated with a risk of injury in this population. In this study, we investigated the association of nutritional status and habitual dietary intake with skin conditions in community-dwelling older people. Cross-sectional study. Three community settings in Japan from autumn to winter. Older people aged ≥65 years without care-need certification (n=118). Malnutrition and obesity were evaluated to assess the nutritional status. Nutrient and food group intakes per 1000 kcal were evaluated using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns based on food groups were evaluated by principal component analysis. Skin condition parameters, including stratum corneum hydration, appearance of xerosis (specific symptom sum score [SRRC score]), and dermal intensity by high-frequency ultrasonography, were measured on a lower leg. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with adjustment for confounders. The mean (standard deviation) age was 74.1 (4.8) years, and 83.1% of participants were female. A higher intake of plant fat (p=0.018) was associated with a lower SRRC score. Higher intakes of α-tocopherol (p=0.050) and vitamin C (p=0.017) were associated with increased dermal intensity. A body mass index ≥25 (p=0.016) was associated with decreased dermal intensity. A dietary pattern characterized by higher vegetable and fruit intake was associated with a better skin condition. Plant fat, antioxidant vitamins, and a dietary pattern characterized by vegetables and fruits showed positive and obesity showed negative associations for frail skin in community-dwelling older people.

  3. Contribution to the penetration of radionuclides across the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.; Harangozo, M.; Kassai, Z.

    2000-01-01

    hours. The permeation resistance of the skin is proportional to the thickness of the horny layer, the principal barrier mostly restricting the flux of ions. The results showed that the more is the skin stripped, the more enhanced is the penetration of ions. This certifies the fact that stratum corneum represents the most important barrier function of the whole skin (at least in the case of young rats). The results of Co 2+ -ion penetration at different concentrations across the animal models of human skin showed that the permeated amounts of Co 2+ -ions are proportional to its concentration in donor solutions, whereby permeated fractions are higher at lower concentrations. Comparing amounts of penetrated ions through the skin without hairs (5DR) and through the skin with hairs, it was found that the additional (shunt) diffusion through the channels along hair's follicles can be important also in case of human skin where hair density is many times lower than in case of the used animal model. (author)

  4. In vivo multiphoton imaging of human skin: assessment of topical corticosteroid-induced epidermis atrophy and depigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait El Madani, Hassan; Tancrède-Bohin, Emmanuelle; Bensussan, Armand; Colonna, Anne; Dupuy, Alain; Bagot, Martine; Pena, Ana-Maria

    2012-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising tool for noninvasive skin imaging. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of multiphoton microscopy to detect topical corticosteroids side effects within the epidermis and to provide new insights into their dynamics. Healthy volunteers were topically treated with clobetasol propionate on a small region of their forearms under overnight occlusion for three weeks. The treated region of each patient was investigated at D0, D7, D15, D22 (end of the treatment), and D60. Our study shows that multiphoton microscopy allows for the detection of corticoid-induced epidermis modifications: thinning of stratum corneum compactum and epidermis, decrease of keratinocytes size, and changes in their morphology from D7 to D22. We also show that multiphoton microscopy enables in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative assessment of melanin content. We observe that melanin density decreases during treatment and almost completely disappears at D22. Moreover, these alterations are reversible as they are no longer present at D60. Our study demonstrates that multiphoton microscopy is a convenient and powerful tool for noninvasive 3-D dynamical studies of skin integrity and pigmentation.

  5. A Case of Inflammatory Generalized Type of Peeling Skin Syndrome Possibly Caused by a Homozygous Missense Mutation of CDSN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Masaki; Maeda, Tatsuo; Tsunoda, Takahiko; Mitsuhashi, Yoshihiko; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2014-09-01

    A 54-year-old Japanese woman had repetitive superficial skin peeling and ensuing erythematous changes in the sites since infancy. Her parents had a consanguineous marriage, and she was the only individual affected in her family tree. The erythematous changes seemed to worsen in the summer. Histologically, hyperkeratosis and splitting of the epidermis within the stratum corneum was noted, and electron microscopy revealed shedding of corneal cells in the horny layer and normal-looking corneodesmosomes. Gene analysis revealed a homozygous missense mutation at c.1358G>A in CDSN. Electron microscopic examination of the length and number of corneodesmosomes revealed statistically significant shortness and sparsity in the affected individual (mean ± SD 386.2 ± 149.5 nm) compared with that of an age- and site-matched control (406.6 ± 182.3 nm). We speculate that this size shrinkage of corneodesmosomes might be the result of a missense mutation of CDSN and that this could be one of the factors contributing to the pathological process of skin peeling.

  6. A Case of Inflammatory Generalized Type of Peeling Skin Syndrome Possibly Caused by a Homozygous Missense Mutation of CDSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kawakami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old Japanese woman had repetitive superficial skin peeling and ensuing erythematous changes in the sites since infancy. Her parents had a consanguineous marriage, and she was the only individual affected in her family tree. The erythematous changes seemed to worsen in the summer. Histologically, hyperkeratosis and splitting of the epidermis within the stratum corneum was noted, and electron microscopy revealed shedding of corneal cells in the horny layer and normal-looking corneodesmosomes. Gene analysis revealed a homozygous missense mutation at c.1358G>A in CDSN. Electron microscopic examination of the length and number of corneodesmosomes revealed statistically significant shortness and sparsity in the affected individual (mean ± SD 386.2 ± 149.5 nm compared with that of an age- and site-matched control (406.6 ± 182.3 nm. We speculate that this size shrinkage of corneodesmosomes might be the result of a missense mutation of CDSN and that this could be one of the factors contributing to the pathological process of skin peeling.

  7. The electric field near human skin wounds declines with age and provides a noninvasive indicator of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Nuccitelli, Pamela; Li, Changyi; Narsing, Suman; Pariser, David M; Lui, Kaying

    2011-01-01

    Due to the transepidermal potential of 15-50 mV, inside positive, an injury current is driven out of all human skin wounds. The flow of this current generates a lateral electric field within the epidermis that is more negative at the wound edge than at regions more lateral from the wound edge. Electric fields in this region could be as large as 40 mV/mm, and electric fields of this magnitude have been shown to stimulate human keratinocyte migration toward the wounded region. After flowing out of the wound, the current returns through the space between the epidermis and stratum corneum, generating a lateral field above the epidermis in the opposite direction. Here, we report the results from the first clinical trial designed to measure this lateral electric field adjacent to human skin wounds noninvasively. Using a new instrument, the Dermacorder®, we found that the mean lateral electric field in the space between the epidermis and stratum corneum adjacent to a lancet wound in 18-25-year-olds is 107-148 mV/mm, 48% larger on average than that in 65-80-year-olds. We also conducted extensive measurements of the lateral electric field adjacent to mouse wounds as they healed and compared this field with histological sections through the wound to determine the correlation between the electric field and the rate of epithelial wound closure. Immediately after wounding, the average lateral electric field was 122 ± 9 mV/mm. When the wound is filled in with a thick, disorganized epidermal layer, the mean field falls to 79 ± 4 mV/mm. Once this epidermis forms a compact structure with only three cell layers, the mean field is 59 ± 5 mV/mm. Thus, the peak-to-peak spatial variation in surface potential is largest in fresh wounds and slowly declines as the wound closes. The rate of wound healing is slightly greater when wounds are kept moist as expected, but we could find no correlation between the amplitude of the electric field and the rate of wound

  8. The rational design of biomimetic skin barrier lipid formulations using biophysical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsara, P A; Varlashkin, P; Dickens, J; Moore, D J; Rawlings, A V; Clarke, M J

    2017-04-01

    The focus of this communication was to study phospholipid-structured emulsions whose phase behaviour is modified with monoalkyl fatty amphiphiles. Ideally, these systems would mimic key physical and structural attributes observed in human stratum corneum (SC) so that they better alleviate xerotic skin conditions. Phosphatidylcholine-structured emulsions were prepared, and their phase behaviour modified with monoalkyl fatty amphiphiles. The effect of molecular volume, acyl chain length and head-group interactions was studied using a combination of physical methods. Water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) was used as a primary test to assess occlusive character. Changes in the vibrational modes observed in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and bilayer spacing measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) were then applied to elucidate the lateral and lamellar microstructural characteristics in the systems. Water vapour transmission rate demonstrated that as the phosphatidylcholine acyl chain length increased from C14, to C18, to C22, there was a corresponding increase in occlusive character. The addition of monoalkyl fatty amphiphiles such as behenic acid, behenyl alcohol or cetostearyl alcohol to a base formulation incorporating dipalmitoyl and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (C18) was seen to further increase barrier characteristics of the emulsions. FTIR methods used to probe lipid-chain conformational ordering demonstrated that as phosphatidylcholine acyl chain lengths increased, there was a corresponding improvement in acyl chain ordering, with an increase in thermal transition temperatures. The addition of a monoalkyl fatty amphiphile resulted in conformational order and thermal transition temperature improvements trending towards those observed in stratum corneum. FTIR also demonstrated that systems containing behenic acid or behenyl alcohol exhibited features associated with orthorhombic character. X-ray diffraction data showed that addition of monoalkyl fatty

  9. The pilosebaceous unit—a phthalate-induced pathway to skin sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsson, Carl, E-mail: carl.simonsson@chem.gu.se [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden); Stenfeldt, Anna-Lena; Karlberg, Ann-Therese [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ericson, Marica B., E-mail: marica.ericson@physics.gu.se [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jonsson, Charlotte A.M. [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is caused by low-molecular weight compounds called haptens. It has been shown that the potency of haptens can depend on the formulation in which they are applied on the skin. Specifically the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates, a group of haptens which can be released from e.g. adhesive tapes and neoprene materials, increases with the presence of phthalates; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing the potency of haptens is important, e.g. to improve the risk assessment and the formulation of chemicals in consumer products. In this study we have explored phthalate-induced effects on the sensitization potency, skin distribution, and reactivity of fluorescent model isothiocyanate haptens using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to provide new insights regarding vehicle effects in ACD. The data presented in this paper indicate that the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates increases when applied in combination with dibutylphthalate due to a specific uptake via the pilosebaceous units. The results highlight the importance of shunt pathways when evaluating the bioavailability of skin sensitizers. The findings also indicate that vehicle-dependent hapten reactivity towards stratum corneum proteins regulates the bioavailability, and thus the potency, of skin sensitizers. -- Highlights: ► Vehicle effects on sensitization potency were investigated in the LLNA. ► In vivo cutaneous absorption of contact sensitizers was visualized using TPM. ► Sensitizing potency of isothiocyanates depends on the presence of a phthalate. ► Phthalate induced cutaneous absorption via the pilosebaceous units. ► Vehicle-dependent reactivity regulates sensitization potency.

  10. The pilosebaceous unit—a phthalate-induced pathway to skin sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsson, Carl; Stenfeldt, Anna-Lena; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Ericson, Marica B.; Jonsson, Charlotte A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is caused by low-molecular weight compounds called haptens. It has been shown that the potency of haptens can depend on the formulation in which they are applied on the skin. Specifically the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates, a group of haptens which can be released from e.g. adhesive tapes and neoprene materials, increases with the presence of phthalates; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing the potency of haptens is important, e.g. to improve the risk assessment and the formulation of chemicals in consumer products. In this study we have explored phthalate-induced effects on the sensitization potency, skin distribution, and reactivity of fluorescent model isothiocyanate haptens using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to provide new insights regarding vehicle effects in ACD. The data presented in this paper indicate that the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates increases when applied in combination with dibutylphthalate due to a specific uptake via the pilosebaceous units. The results highlight the importance of shunt pathways when evaluating the bioavailability of skin sensitizers. The findings also indicate that vehicle-dependent hapten reactivity towards stratum corneum proteins regulates the bioavailability, and thus the potency, of skin sensitizers. -- Highlights: ► Vehicle effects on sensitization potency were investigated in the LLNA. ► In vivo cutaneous absorption of contact sensitizers was visualized using TPM. ► Sensitizing potency of isothiocyanates depends on the presence of a phthalate. ► Phthalate induced cutaneous absorption via the pilosebaceous units. ► Vehicle-dependent reactivity regulates sensitization potency.

  11. Proteomic profiling reveals candidate markers for arsenic-induced skin keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiling; Hu, Qin; Tian, Jijing; Yan, Li; Jing, Chuanyong; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; Bao, Wenjun; Rice, Robert H; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-11-01

    Proteomics technology is an attractive biomarker candidate discovery tool that can be applied to study large sets of biological molecules. To identify novel biomarkers and molecular targets in arsenic-induced skin lesions, we have determined the protein profile of arsenic-affected human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples of palm and foot sole from healthy subjects were analyzed, demonstrating similar protein patterns in palm and sole. Samples were collected from the palms of subjects with arsenic keratosis (lesional and adjacent non-lesional samples) and arsenic-exposed subjects without lesions (normal). Samples from non-exposed healthy individuals served as controls. We found that three proteins in arsenic-exposed lesional epidermis were consistently distinguishably expressed from the unaffected epidermis. One of these proteins, the cadherin-like transmembrane glycoprotein, desmoglein 1 (DSG1) was suppressed. Down-regulation of DSG1 may lead to reduced cell-cell adhesion, resulting in abnormal epidermal differentiation. The expression of keratin 6c (KRT6C) and fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) were significantly increased. FABP5 is an intracellular lipid chaperone that plays an essential role in fatty acid metabolism in human skin. This raises a possibility that overexpression of FABP5 may affect the proliferation or differentiation of keratinocytes by altering lipid metabolism. KRT6C is a constituent of the cytoskeleton that maintains epidermal integrity and cohesion. Abnormal expression of KRT6C may affect its structural role in the epidermis. Our findings suggest an important approach for future studies of arsenic-mediated toxicity and skin cancer, where certain proteins may represent useful biomarkers of early diagnoses in high-risk populations and hopefully new treatment targets. Further studies are required to understand the biological role of these markers in skin pathogenesis from arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Skin Membrane Electrical Impedance Properties under the Influence of a Varying Water Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Nowacka, Agnieszka; Dahi, Ihab; Topgaard, Daniel; Sparr, Emma; Engblom, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) is an effective permeability barrier. One strategy to increase drug delivery across skin is to increase the hydration. A detailed description of how hydration affects skin permeability requires characterization of both macroscopic and molecular properties and how they respond to hydration. We explore this issue by performing impedance experiments on excised skin membranes in the frequency range 1 Hz to 0.2 MHz under the influence of a varying gradient in water activity (aw). Hydration/dehydration induces reversible changes of membrane resistance and effective capacitance. On average, the membrane resistance is 14 times lower and the effective capacitance is 1.5 times higher when the outermost SC membrane is exposed to hydrating conditions (aw = 0.992), as compared to the case of more dehydrating conditions (aw = 0.826). Molecular insight into the hydration effects on the SC components is provided by natural-abundance 13C polarization transfer solid-state NMR and x-ray diffraction under similar hydration conditions. Hydration has a significant effect on the dynamics of the keratin filament terminals and increases the interchain spacing of the filaments. The SC lipids are organized into lamellar structures with ∼ 12.6 nm spacing and hexagonal hydrocarbon chain packing with mainly all-trans configuration of the acyl chains, irrespective of hydration state. Subtle changes in the dynamics of the lipids due to mobilization and incorporation of cholesterol and long-chain lipid species into the fluid lipid fraction is suggested to occur upon hydration, which can explain the changes of the impedance response. The results presented here provide information that is useful in explaining the effect of hydration on skin permeability. PMID:23790372

  13. Efficacy of a Hand Regimen in Skin Barrier Protection in Individuals With Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Laura

    2016-11-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) is a dif cult and hard to manage condition. It occurs more frequently in certain occupations where contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing heightens the risk. Treatment for OICD includes patient education in addition to physical, topical, and systemic therapies. To review the pathogenesis and treatment options for OICD and evaluate the ef cacy of a selective skin-care regimen involv- ing a hand protectant cream alone as well as combined with a repair cream and speci c cleanser. A single-center open study was performed comprising 42 healthy male and female adult volunteers prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to frequent wet work or contact with detergents. Between day 0 and day 7, subjects applied a hand protectant cream as needed on both hands (at least twice daily). On days 7 to 14, subjects applied a hand protectant cream and cleanser as needed on both hands (at least twice daily) as well as a repair cream each evening. A diary log was given to each volunteer for application control and for a subjective evaluation of daily tolerability. In these subjects prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis, the hand protectant cream applied during the initial 7-day period was effective in restoring the damaged skin barrier and improving the stratum corneum hydration. A regimen that combined the hand protectant and repair creams with a speci c cleanser during a further 7-day period allowed contin- ued improvement of skin hydration and additional clinical bene ts while respecting the skin barrier function. The results of this study support the use of a 3-step approach for patients who are at risk of repeated exposure to external irritants. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(suppl 11):s81-85..

  14. Antiaging, photoprotective, and brightening activity in biorevitalization: a new solution for aging skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparavigna A

    2015-02-01

    . Conclusion: The study confirmed the well-known efficacy of biorevitalization in skin rejuvenation. The positive difference between deep and superficial skin hydration registered at the end of the trial suggested improved skin moisture retention of the stratum corneum. Furthermore, the obtained results suggest that the injected product could intervene at different moments of the skin pigmentation process by activating an intrinsic photoprotective mechanism and improving skin pigmentation quality. It may be that these processes employ common mechanisms in which antioxidants could play a pivotal role. This last hypothesis deserves further investigation. Keywords: hyaluronic acid, antioxidants, photoaging, senile lentigo

  15. Photoacoustic Analysis of the Penetration Kinetics of Cordia verbenacea DC in Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S. S.; Barja, P. R.

    2012-11-01

    Phonophoresis consists of the utilization of ultrasound radiation associated to pharmacological agents in order to enhance transdermal penetration of applied drugs. It is a widely employed resource in physiotherapy practice, normally associated with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as Acheflan. This drug was developed in Brazil from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea DC, a native plant of the Brazilian southern coast. In previous studies, the photoacoustic (PA) technique proved effective in the study of the penetration kinetics of topically applied products and in the evaluation of drug delivery after phonophoresis application. The present work aimed to evaluate the penetration kinetics of Acheflan in human skin, employing in vivo PA measurements after massage application or phonophoresis application. Ten volunteers (aged between 18 and 30 years) took part in the study. Time evolution of the PA signal was fitted to a Boltzmann curve, S-shaped. After statistical analysis, PA measurements have shown drug penetration for both application forms, but drug delivery was more evident after phonophoresis application, with a characteristic penetration time of less than 15 min for the stratum corneum.

  16. Ethyl cellulose nanocarriers and nanocrystals differentially deliver dexamethasone into intact, tape-stripped or sodium lauryl sulfate-exposed ex vivo human skin - assessment by intradermal microdialysis and extraction from the different skin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döge, Nadine; Hönzke, Stefan; Schumacher, Fabian; Balzus, Benjamin; Colombo, Miriam; Hadam, Sabrina; Rancan, Fiorenza; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Schindler, Anke; Rühl, Eckart; Skov, Per Stahl; Church, Martin K; Hedtrich, Sarah; Kleuser, Burkhard; Bodmeier, Roland; Vogt, Annika

    2016-11-28

    Understanding penetration not only in intact, but also in lesional skin with impaired skin barrier function is important, in order to explore the surplus value of nanoparticle-based drug delivery for anti-inflammatory dermatotherapy. Herein, short-term ex vivo cultures of (i) intact human skin, (ii) skin pretreated with tape-strippings and (iii) skin pre-exposed to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used to assess the penetration of dexamethasone (Dex). Intradermal microdialysis was utilized for up to 24h after drug application as commercial cream, nanocrystals or ethyl cellulose nanocarriers applied at the therapeutic concentration of 0.05%, respectively. In addition, Dex was assessed in culture media and extracts from stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis after 24h, and the results were compared to those in heat-separated split skin from studies in Franz diffusion cells. Providing fast drug release, nanocrystals significantly accelerated the penetration of Dex. In contrast to the application of cream and ethyl cellulose nanocarriers, Dex was already detectable in eluates after 6h when applying nanocrystals on intact skin. Disruption of the