WorldWideScience

Sample records for strategic metal content

  1. Approach to recover strategic metals from brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E.; Harrar, J.; Gregg, D.

    1981-09-16

    The objective of the proposed research is to evaluate hypersaline brines from geothermal sources and salt domes as possible sources for some strategic metals. This research is suggested because several previous analyses of brine from geothermal wells in the Imperial Valley, California, and from Gulf Coast salt domes, indicate near commercial values for platinum as well as other metals (i.e., gold, silver). Extraction of the platinum should be technically feasible. A research program should include more complete systematic sampling and analysis for resource delineation, followed by bench-scale investigation of several potential extraction processes. This could be followed by engineering feasibility and design studies, for extraction of the metals either as a by-product of other operations or in a stand-alone process.

  2. Ethics Content in Strategic Management Textbooks: A Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of ethics content in strategic management textbooks. The importance of ethical behavior within organizations has been highlighted in the past by organizations, such as Enron and WorldCom, and more recently by British Petroleum and Toyota. The data collected from two different editions of five…

  3. Strategic Materials in the Automobile: A Comprehensive Assessment of Strategic and Minor Metals Use in Passenger Cars and Light Trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Frank R; Wallington, Timothy J; Everson, Mark; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2017-12-19

    A comprehensive component-level assessment of several strategic and minor metals (SaMMs), including copper, manganese, magnesium, nickel, tin, niobium, light rare earth elements (LREEs; lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, and samarium), cobalt, silver, tungsten, heavy rare earth elements (yttrium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium), and gold, use in the 2013 model year Ford Fiesta, Focus, Fusion, and F-150 is presented. Representative material contents in cars and light-duty trucks are estimated using comprehensive, component-level data reported by suppliers. Statistical methods are used to accommodate possible errors within the database and provide estimate bounds. Results indicate that there is a high degree of variability in SaMM use and that SaMMs are concentrated in electrical, drivetrain, and suspension subsystems. Results suggest that trucks contain greater amounts of aluminum, nickel, niobium, and silver and significantly greater amounts of magnesium, manganese, gold, and LREEs. We find tin and tungsten use in automobiles to be 3-5 times higher than reported by previous studies which have focused on automotive electronics. Automotive use of strategic and minor metals is substantial, with 2013 vehicle production in the United States, Canada, EU15, and Japan alone accounting for approximately 20% of global production of Mg and Ta and approximately 5% of Al, Cu, and Sn. The data and analysis provide researchers, recyclers, and decision-makers additional insight into the vehicle content of strategic and minor metals of current interest.

  4. Strategic Management fundamentals of metal enterprises in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargana Irina Anatolevna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The basics and characteristics of strategic management at the metal enterprises are considered. The stages of development and implementation of enterprise management strategy are structured. The balanced scorecard and process management as tools of achieving the goals are considered. The block diagram of metal enterprises management strategy is presented, in which the groups of process indicators are allocated and the balanced scorecard for the process groups are developed.

  5. Critical Metals in Strategic Low-carbon Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R. L.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the rapid growth in demand for certain materials, compounded by political risks associated with the geographical concentration of the supply of them, shortages of materials could be a potential bottleneck to the deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. Consequently, an assessment has been carried out to ascertain whether such shortages could jeopardise the objectives of the EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), especially in the six low-carbon energy technologies of SET-Plan, namely: nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electricity grids. The assessment identified 14 metals for which the deployment of the six technologies will require 1% or more (and in some cases, much more) of current world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. Following a more critical examination, based on the likelihood of rapid future global demand growth, limitations to expanding supply in the short to medium term, and the concentration of supply and political risks associated with key suppliers, 5 of the 14 metals were pinpointed to be at high risk, namely: the rare earth metals neodymium and dysprosium (for wind technology), and the by-products (from the processing of other metals) indium, tellurium and gallium (for photovoltaic technologies). In addition, the work has explored potential mitigation strategies, ranging from expanding European output, increasing recycling and reuse to reducing waste and finding substitutes for these metals in their main applications. Furthermore, recommendations are provided which include closely working with the EU's Raw Materials Initiative; supporting efforts to ensure reliable supply of ore concentrates at competitive prices; promoting R&D and demonstration projects on new lower cost separation processes; and promoting the further development of recycling technologies and increasing end-of-life collection

  6. The Structure and Evolution of the Strategic Management Field: A Content Analysis of Twenty-six Years of Strategic Management Research

    OpenAIRE

    Furrer,Olivier; Thomas, Howard; Goussevskaia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses 26 years of strategic management research published in Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Administrative Science Quarterly and Strategic Management Journal. Through a content analysis, it studies the relationships between the subfields of strategic management. A multiple correspondence analysis provides a map of keywords and authors, and a framework to track this literature over the 26-year period. A discussion of future pathways in the strategic ...

  7. Jiangxi Copper Made Strategic Investment in Hami with Rich Nonferrous Metal Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On October 11,Hami region and Jiangxi Copper Group Corporation held a contractsigning ceremony for strategic cooperation,signaling that Hami region has become a key strategic investment base of Jiangxi Copper Group Corporation,a company with the biggest manufacture base of copper products in China.Hami region boasts rich nonferrous metal

  8. Strategic Planning to Conduct Joint Force Network Operations: A Content Analysis of NETOPS Organizations Strategic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    flowing texts coding ( Denzin & Lincoln , 2000) and therefore the most appropriate methodology for this research is a content analysis. Content Analysis...Leady & Ormrod, Cresswell, Denzin & Lincoln , and Neuendorf (Leady, 2005; Denzin & Lincoln , 2000; Cresswell, 2003; Neuendorf, 2002). The steps used in...uncil Clinger Methods Denzin eneral Govern y ol Press omputers olsti, O.R. (1969). Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and

  9. Future supply and demand of certain strategic metal imports in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, J.S.J.

    1984-01-01

    While South Africa is richly endowed with minerals it is unfortunately almost wholly dependent on external markets for certain metals. Some of the most strategic metals are molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt and aluminium - essential in the steel, petrochemical and defense industries. The objective of this study is to investigate the probable future dependence of South Africa on its four most strategic metal imports. The project covers the uses of the metals locally, historical trends of supply and demand and a forecast of consumption for the next decade. Alternatives and substitutes for the metals as well as the possibility of reclamation after use are also considered. Existing local deposits and their potential economic viability were investigated to establish the possibility of extraction and processing in future years to enable South Africa to decrease it import dependence on these strategic metals

  10. Peering Strategic Game Models for Interdependent ISPs in Content Centric Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery.

  11. Peering Strategic Game Models for Interdependent ISPs in Content Centric Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jianfeng; Xu, Changqiao; Su, Wei; Zhang, Hongke

    2013-01-01

    Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs) to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA) and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery. PMID:24381517

  12. The Strategic Association between Enterprise Content Management and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alalwan, Jaffar Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    To deal with the increasing information overload and with the structured and unstructured data complexity, many organizations have implemented enterprise content management (ECM) systems. Published research on ECM so far is very limited and reports on ECM implementations have been scarce until recently (Tyrvainen et al. 2006). However, the little…

  13. Toward a Strategic Management Perspective on Local Content in African Extractives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    understanding of MNC strategy and interests. Hence, the aim of this paper is to characterize and conceptually develop the strategic management perspective on local content. The paper outlines generic strategies that MNCs may adopt to balance the often conflicting pressures for local content and global......Local content requirements - i.e. government backed requirements that extractive MNCs must procure inputs locally - are fast becoming a major issue in MNC-host country bargaining in Africa. Across Africa, governments are seeking to mobilize MNCs for sustainable development through increasingly......, this literature is predominantly informed by economic and political perspectives, and strategic management perspectives are virtually absent. This is problematic as one of the main reasons why local content interventions in Africa fail to produce the expected results is that they often are based on an inadequate...

  14. Examining the Relative Contributions of Content Knowledge and Strategic Processing to Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukerman, Maren; Brown, Rachel; Mokhtari, Kouider; Valencia, Sheila; Palincsar, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The essays below were prepared following the LRA session organized by Janice Almasi entitled, "Examining the relative contributions of content knowledge and strategic processing to comprehension." What unites these essays are the personal and historical stances that each writer has taken; in addition, the essays are rich with…

  15. Classification of Plants According to Their Heavy Metal Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants like other living organisms respond differently under different environmental conditions. An elevated level of heavy metals is one of the stresses which results into three classes of plants depending on their heavy metal content. The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals around North ...

  16. Educated predators make strategic decisions to eat defended prey according to their toxin content

    OpenAIRE

    Craig A. Barnett; John Skelhorn; Melissa Bateson; Candy Rowe

    2012-01-01

    Animals often eat foods containing toxins to benefit from the nutrients that they contain. Understanding how animals balance the costs of eating toxins with the benefits of gaining nutrients is important for understanding the evolution of antipredator defenses, particularly aposematism and mimicry. In this study, we tested whether predators could learn to use color signals to make strategic decisions about when to include prey that varied in their toxin content in their diets. We gave Europea...

  17. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  18. Heavy Metal Contents in Some Commonly Consumed Vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    This work reports on the levels of cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and ... source of both heavy metals and essential trace elements due to their ... content, clay mineral and other soil chemical ... addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-.

  19. Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in urban and peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Government clean-up activities and monitoring of waste disposal is ...

  20. metal content determination of some sexual dysfunction medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    METAL CONTENT DETERMINATION OF SOME SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION. MEDICINE ... motivation for sexual desire, functioning and response .... generated and optimization of the equipment ... by the users' have to be moderate otherwise it.

  1. Analysis of Metal Content of Samples of Gloriosa Superba L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the metallic content of different parts of Gloriosa superba collected ... Results: Of the detected micronutrients, high concentrations of Zn, Fe and Mn were noted for samples ... Hitachi 2000) and flame photometer (Jenway.

  2. Beneficiation strategy for some low grade ores of strategic metals in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Rao, N.

    1997-01-01

    In developing indigenous resources of strategic metals, beneficiation strategy has a major role to play, particularly where the ores are of low tenor. Presently India imports most of its requirements of metals like tin, tungsten, molybdenum, nickel and cobalt. In all these cases important low grade resources occur in the country. Beneficiation strategy necessary for exploitation of these deposits are discussed based mainly on vast batch and semi plant scale data generated in the Ore Dressing Section of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Also discussed is the case of strategic metal uranium where, in certain cases pre-concentration by beneficiation has the potential to make it feasible the exploitation of otherwise difficult to process ore resources. (author)

  3. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  4. Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal Content Analysis of the Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out by using a standard procedure. Ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate and fibre contents were determined using proximate analysis while the metal contents were determined using Pearson's method. Results: The phytochemical analysis revealed the ...

  5. Study of Strategic Audit Framework and Contents%企业战略审计架构设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余吉安; 杨斌

    2012-01-01

      战略审计的“治理”或者“管理”功能的实现,依赖于其架构和内容。战略审计必须既要反映战略的内容,同时也要起到监督管理的功能,那么就必须立足于战略管理理论,从战略内容审计、战略管理审计和战略主体审计这三个方面构建战略审计架构。战略内容审计审查战略本身的可执行性和实现的可能性,也是为了发现战略执行中的问题;战略管理审计目的是确保有一套管理办法能够使战略内容有效执行;而战略主体审计则既是监督战略执行者,也是为了确保其胜任力。这一架构能够真实反映战略制定的过程,同时也能评判战略执行结果(战略绩效),有利于实现战略审计的功能和目标。%  The realization of the“governance”or“management”function of the strategic audit depends on its framework and contents. Strategic audit not only reflects the contents of the strategy, but also plays a role as supervision and administration. Therefore, strategic audit framework must be constructed based on strategic management theory, and it includes audit of strate⁃gic contents, strategic management and strategic subjects. Audit of strategic contents is not only to supervise operability and real⁃ization of the strategy, but also to discover problems during implementation of the strategy. Strategic management audit aims to ensure that there are management methods that can enable the effective implementation of strategic contents. In order to super⁃vise the executives and ensure their competencies, strategic subject audit should be conducted. This framework can reflect the process of strategy formulation, and evaluate outcomes of strategic implementation (strategic performance). It helps realize the functions and goals of strategic audit.

  6. Heavy metal content in compost and earthworms from home composters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożym Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of compost tests from home composters and earthworms living there, that treating waste into compost. The samples were taken from home composters and allotment gardens from Opole Region. The composting material was green waste. The total content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni Cr in compost and compost earthworms’ samples were determined. It was found that the compost samples were not contaminated with heavy metals. According to the Polish classification of composts from municipal wastes, the composts met the requirements for first class of quality. The composts did not exceed the limits of heavy metals specified in the Polish law for solid organic fertilizers. The degree of metal accumulation by compost earthworms depended on the type of metal. The high value of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was obtained for Cd, Pb and Zn. No accumulation of other metals (Ni, Cr, Cu in earthworm bodies was found. It has been found that earthworm species, naturally occurring in Poland, can also be used as potential bioindicators of metals in the environment, such as the species Eisenia fetida. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal content in composts from home composters and ability to accumulate metals by compost earthworms.

  7. Report on the stakes of strategic metals: the case of rare earth metals. Report of the 8 March 2011 public audition and of the presentation of conclusion on the 21 June 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biraux, C.; Kert, Ch.

    2011-08-01

    The first part of this report proposes the content of a round table which gathered several experts in the field of rare earth metals (researchers, representatives of specialized branches companies like Saint-Gobain, Rhodia). The second part proposes the content of another round table which gathered experts who discussed the future of strategic metals like lithium, titanium or rhenium. Several issues are discussed: fundamental physics, physical and chemical properties, quantum physics, areas of interests (magnets, catalysis, ceramics, and photovoltaic arrays), availability, supplies and suppliers, processes, technological challenges and opportunities, and so on

  8. The potential risks from metals bottlenecks to the deployment of Strategic Energy Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.L.; Tzimas, E.; Kara, H.; Willis, P.; Kooroshy, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the use of materials, in particular metals, in six low-carbon energy technologies of the European Union's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), namely nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage and electricity grids. The projected average annual demand for metals in the SET-Plan technologies for the decades up to 2020 and 2030 is compared to the known global production volume in 2010. From an initial inventory of over 50 metals, 14 metals were identified that will require 1% or more of the 2010 world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. These 14 metals are cadmium, dysprosium, gallium, hafnium, indium, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, niobium, selenium, silver, tellurium, tin and vanadium. These metals were examined further by analysing the effect of market and geo-political factors of supply and demand, which highlighted five metals to represent a high risk to large-scale technology deployment, namely: neodymium, dysprosium, indium, tellurium and gallium. The five metals were further analysed with respect to the wind and solar sectors, showing that the demand of these metals could increase significantly depending on future sub-technology choices. Mitigation strategies to alleviate potential shortages are also discussed, e.g. extending primary output; re-use, re-cycling and waste reduction; and substitution. - Highlights: ► Over 50 metals and their usage in six low-carbon energy technologies are analysed. ► 14 metals are identified that will require 1% or more of the 2010 world supply per annum. ► The 14 metals are further examined with respect to market and geo-political factors. ► 5 metals Nd, Dy, In, Te and Ga are a high risk to large-scale technology deployment. ► Demand for the 5 metals increases for sub-technology choices in PV and wind energy

  9. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on heavy metals content of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was carried out at John Ker Nigeria Organo-Mineral Company site at Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of nitrogen enrichment on contents of heavy metals in cattle dung/poultry manure compost and the growth of maize. Cattle dung was mixed with poultry manure in the ratio of 3:1 ...

  10. Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of Ibuya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of Ibuya River were investigated between September 2012 and August 2013 from four stations using standard methods to etermine acceptable water quality standards and evaluate possible sustainability of a thriving fisheries cum tourist sport fishing venture.

  11. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  12. Studies of heavy metal contents and microbial composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the heavy metal content and microbial composition of rhizosphere of Panicum maximum obtained from some auto mechanic workshops in Benin City, Nigeria. The grass was uprooted and soil sample was taken from its rhizosphere. The sample were labeled appropriately and immediately transported ...

  13. Model of modern strategic management of an enterprise: contents and components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Raykovska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates different interpretations and definitions of the concept of strategic management. It also aims to identify the ways of revealing the components and peculiarities of the concept.On the base of the critical analysis of economic literature the author singles out process, target, and complex approaches to the interpretation of the essence of strategic management and indicates that strategic management is a complex concept that encompasses management of strategic opportunities and operative management of problems in real time to respond to unpredictable changes fast. According to the modern understanding of strategic management the author singles out its main peculiarities which presuppose ensuring of quick response of an enterprise to the changes of external environment with the help of already developed strategic methods and models, strategic thinking of employees of an economic entity aimed at achieving its development strategy. The parameters of comparison of operating and strategic management are systematized. It is established that operating management is centered on the search for the ways of better use of enterprise resources, while strategic management looks to the needs and changes of external environment, tracking and adapting to its changes, search for new possibilities in competitive environment. The conceptual model of strategic management of an enterprise is formed. It is stated that the use of the model enables to determine the place of strategic analysis in the discussed system and to ensure the fulfillment of strategic plans.

  14. Heavy metal content of combustible municipal solid waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Christian; Fredriksen, Gry S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2005-04-01

    Data on the heavy metal composition of outlets from Danish incinerators was used to estimate the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Hg in combustible waste (wet as received) at 14 Danish incinerators, representing about 80% of the waste incinerated in Denmark. Zn (1020 mg kg(-1)), Cu (620 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (370 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest concentration, whereas Hg (0.6 mg kg(-1)) showed the lowest concentration. The variation among the incinerators was in most cases within a factor of two to three, except for Cr that in two cases showed unexplained high concentrations. The fact that the data represent many incinerators and, in several cases, observations from a period of 4 to 5 years provides a good statistical basis for evaluating the content of heavy metals in combustible Danish waste. Such data may be used for identifying incinerators receiving waste with high concentrations of heavy metals suggesting the introduction of source control, or, if repeated in time, the data must also be used for monitoring the impacts of national regulation controlling heavy metals. It is recommended that future investigations consider the use of sample digestion methods that ensure complete digestion in order to use the data for determining the total heavy metal content of waste.

  15. Valorization of mine rejects and industrial wastes for the recovery of some strategic and critical metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Dey, G K.; Anand Rao, K.

    2017-01-01

    Strategic and critical metals (SCM) resources form important components in safety and security design of any country. Uneven distribution of SCM resources as well as lack of technical expertise in manufacture of end-products makes many nations vulnerable to external pulls and pressures. India is making determined bid to surmount these difficulties by constantly upgrading its scientific and engineering expertise to address issues related to resources and materials manufacturing technologies. It is a well known fact that India is a resource starved country with respect to many of the strategic and critical metals (SCM). The demand for the SCM is met mostly by import of finished products and to a lesser extent by recycle of used products. In these days of growing inclination towards 'sustainable development' valorization of industrial waste for securing valuable metals including those of SCM category is worth pursuing, more so for a country like India. With this premise, we present in this paper representative case studies which depict technical feasibility of using industrial waste as a source for some important SCM, namely Nd, Y, Co and W. The wastes used for valorization are the mine tailings or rejects of different ores like copper, gold, uranium and fly ash generated from a coal-fired thermal power plant. (author)

  16. Critical Metals in Strategic Energy Technologies. Assessing Rare Metals as Supply-Chain Bottlenecks in Low-Carbon Energy Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.L.; Tzimas, E.; Kara, H.; Willis, P.; Kooroshy, J.

    2011-11-01

    Due to the rapid growth in demand for certain materials, compounded by political risks associated with the geographical concentration of the supply of them, a shortage of these materials could be a potential bottleneck to the deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. In order to assess whether such shortages could jeopardise the objectives of the EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), an improved understanding of these risks is vital. In particular, this report examines the use of metals in the six low-carbon energy technologies of SET-Plan, namely: nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electricity grids. The study looks at the average annual demand for each metal for the deployment of the technologies in Europe between 2020 and 2030. The demand of each metal is compared to the respective global production volume in 2010. This ratio (expressed as a percentage) allows comparing the relative stress that the deployment of the six technologies in Europe is expected to create on the global supplies for these different metals. The study identifies 14 metals for which the deployment of the six technologies will require 1% or more (and in some cases, much more) of current world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. These 14 metals, in order of decreasing demand, are tellurium, indium, tin, hafnium, silver, dysprosium, gallium, neodymium, cadmium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium and selenium. The metals are examined further in terms of the risks of meeting the anticipated demand by analysing in detail the likelihood of rapid future global demand growth, limitations to expanding supply in the short to medium term, and the concentration of supply and political risks associated with key suppliers. The report pinpoints 5 of the 14 metals to be at high risk, namely: the rare earth metals neodymium and dysprosium, and the by-products (from the processing of other metals) indium, tellurium and gallium. The report explores a

  17. Strategic priorities of Iranian companies: an application of mission statement content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriar AZIZI; Vahid MAKIZADEH

    2014-01-01

    The mission statement describes the strategic priorities of a company. It determines the roadmap for strategic decision in the corporation. Research on mission statement elements is an interesting field because it clarifies the strategic priorities of the company. This paper aims to analyze these priorities among 48 large Iranian companies active in four selected industries based on David’s (1989) nine-element model. These components include customer, market, general image, product, technolog...

  18. THE EFFECT OF SEDIMENT GRAIN SIZE ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Maslennikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the natural surroundings tectonical, climatological, dynamic and physico-chemical conditions of sedimentation are the crucial factors in the process of sediment composition formation. Grain size is one of the most investigated reasons of space and temporary variability in heavy metal concentration. In general, the data on grain size measurement afford to appreciate sorption capacity of sediments and arrange them. The dependence heavy metal content on grain size of sediments has been examined in the enormous amount of research works. The main conclusion is that if grain size decreases, metal content increases.We have carried out sediment grain size measurement of two lakes (Chebachje Lake, Piketnoye Lake located in the South of Western Siberia, Russia. To define grain size of these sediments the sorting of samples collected layer-by-layer has been conducted by nest of sieves (from 43 to 1000 µm. Accomplished examinations allow to state that layer-by-layer grain size measurement of sediments has significant importance in reconstruction of paleoecologic peculiarities and also influences organic and inorganic matter concentrating in the sediments in dynamics

  19. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korfali Samira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Results Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples, but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Conclusion Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts.

  20. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Hawi, Tamer; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2013-01-18

    The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples), but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts.

  1. Estimation of trace metal contents in locally-baked breads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Rehman, S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish base line levels, estimation of some essential trace metals (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) has been conducted in four brands of fifteen locally baked breads of Rawalpindi /Islamabad area employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid and the analysis was done with air-acetylene flame. The reliability of the procedure employed was verify by analyzing Standard Reference Material, i.e., wheat flour (NBS-SRM-1567) for its Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents which were in good agreement with the certified values. The results revealed that brown breads contained higher amount of Fe 177.3 micro g g/sup -1/and Zn 19.27 micro g g/sup -1/while levels of Cu 21.90 micro g g/-sup 1/was found higher in the samples of plain bread. The determined metal concentrations in the bread samples were compared with the reported values for other countries. The effect of kneading/baking/slicing processes on the concentration levels of these metals was also studied. The daily intake of these metals through this source was calculated and compared with the recommended dietary allowance. (author)

  2. Heavy metals content in plant-growing products as the results of agroecological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.V.; Lunev, M.I.; Pavlikhina, A.V.; Lobas, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    The generalised data on the heavy metals and arsenic contents in grain and vegetable cultures, green mass and hay of various grasses are presented. The dependence of heavy metal accumulation factors in plant-growing products on soil properties is shown. The estimation of levels of the heavy metals contents in accordance with the admissible content standards is given.

  3. Contents of heavy metals in urban parks and university campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Because the city park has become an important place for people's daily leisure, and the university campus is one of the most densely populated areas of the city, their environmental pollution is critical for the health and safety of the residents. In this paper, two kinds of evaluation methods were used to evaluate the content of Cu, Zn, As and Pb in soils of city parks and university campus in Xiangtan. The results showed that only Juhuatang Park was a non-polluted area, and the other 7 sampling sites were lightly polluted; Analysis shows the heavy metal contents of soil in city parks are closely related to vehicle emissions, agriculture and irrigation, combustion of household waste, living area and commercial shops, the use of fossil fuels, industrial waste gas and waste residue and other human activities.

  4. Evaluating strategic environmental assessment in the Netherlands: Content, process and procedure as indissoluble criteria for effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. van Buuren (Arwin); S.G. Nooteboom (Sibout)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTo assess the effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) we distinguish between its contribution to the quality of the ultimate policy choice (usefulness, applicability), the procedural quality of the planning process (transparency, timeliness) and the quality of

  5. Contents and localization of heavy metals in human placentae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichrtova, E.; Ursinyova, M.; Palkovicova, L.; Wsolova, L. [Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1998-06-01

    The placenta was used as an exposure index for the risk evaluation of prenatal fetal chemical exposure. Full-term placenta samples collected at maternity hospitals in 4 regions of different environmental pollutants and traffic density were examined for lead and cadmium contents using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results showed similar lead contents in placental samples from all selected regions, except for a small town with a lower traffic density. The findings may implicate traffic-related environmental lead pollution, rather than industrial sources. The highest concentration of cadmium was shown to be in the samples collected from the region with the highest proportion of smoking mothers (including passive smoking). Simultaneously, the placental samples were processed histochemically to determine the location of lead in the placental tissue (using light microscopy). The degree of placental metal contamination was done semiquantitatively, and the difference between the rural and industrial region was statistically compared. Parallel quantitative AAS analyses and semiquantitative histochemical lead analyses of human placental samples revealed analogous results regarding the level of placental contamination with metals. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 12 refs.

  6. Suspended matter and heavy metal content of the Elbe Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, K.

    1980-01-01

    (1) In the River Elbe estuary there is a turbidity zone which is closely bound to the region of brackish waters. Its suspended matter content changes strongly with the tidal rhythm. Suspended matter and river bed sediments influence each other by exchanging their particles. Owing to that mechanism, the heavy metal ions bound or taken up by the suspended matter (sorption) enter the sediments. To obtain an estimation of the estuary's ability to cope with ( self purify ) a strong burden of industrial wastes, it is neccessary to take into consideration the absorbing capacity of both the mean suspension load and the sediments. (2) The concentration of nearly all heavy metal ions investigated in the suspension load decreases remarkably at the very beginning of the turbid zone already, in the Hamburg region. It indicates that the binding process are going on very rapidly and that the metal ion absorbing capacity of the Elbe estuary still requires only the first few miles of this self purification system. The results gained indicate that the suspended matter in Hamburg waters could bind or take up more heavy metal ions than are discharged into this area. (3) The concentration of most ions bound to the suspension material correlates very well with the grain size distribution of the (anorganic) particles. The concentration values decrease along the estuary and lead to a continuous transition to the values of the open sea. Cu, Ni and Cd appear to be captured preferably by organic suspended matter. This behaviour, however, is solely restricted to the turbid zone. In the open sea, after oxidation of the binding organic material, Cu and Ni correspond to the anorganic grain size distribution. (orig./HP) [de

  7. An international course on strategic information management for medical informatics students: aim, content, structure, and experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haux, R.; Ammenwerth, E.; ter Burg, W. J.; Pilz, J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a course for medical informatics students on hospital information systems, especially on its strategic information management. Starting as course at the Medical Informatics Program of the University of Heidelberg/University of Applied Sciences Heilbronn, it is now organized as

  8. 24 CFR 598.215 - What are the purpose and content of the strategic plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... needs, and maximize opportunities that exist within the community. Such resources may include financial..., infrastructure, and other community and regional assets that form the basis for the formulation and... statement of the strategies the community proposes to use to achieve the strategic plan goals, and the...

  9. 78 FR 63517 - Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0231] Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld... Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal.'' This guide (Revision 4) describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for controlling ferrite content in stainless steel weld metal. It updates the...

  10. classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    accumulated heavy metals around North Mara Gold Mine were not known. To study such ... heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for possible future remediation of the study area. ... mine is about 100 kilometers east of Lake. Victoria and 20 ...

  11. Studies of heavy metal contents and microbial composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FLEXI-DONEST

    the use of private electricity generating sets, in recent times, have ... soil and evaluate the impact of heavy metal on soil degradable ..... a reasonable length of time by herbivores may .... Heavy Metals in Root, Stem and Leaves of Acalypha.

  12. Heavy metals content in the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metal analysis was carried out on the stem bark of D. microcarpum using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metals screened for include: lead, chromium, manganese, zinc and iron. The levels of manganese, zinc and iron were 13.91, 4.89 and 21.89 mg/L respectively. These heavy metals ...

  13. How to assess the availability of resources for new technologies? Case study: lithium a strategic metal for emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, M.; Ziemann, S.; Schebek, L.

    2009-01-01

    The development of new technologies is often connected with the use of non-renewable resources. In recent years a qualitative shift in the demand of bulk metals (e.g. Fe, Al, Cu) to more scarce metals (e.g. Te, Ga, Re) is recognizable. Novel technologies and products rely more and more on very specific metals which are indispensable for their function. Although such metals are generally used in low concentrations in products, the demand has raised significantly due to mass production. Some of them are of high importance due to their strategic relevance to emerging innovative technologies. Lithium so far has gained relatively little attention, although it fulfills the main criteria of a strategically relevant metal. In recent years, however, recognition of lithium increased as a result of the growing market for lithium-based chargeable batteries in mobile information/communication consumer products and in electric vehicles. Both areas of demand led to a skyrocketed use of lithium in recent years. Other technologies in the future like fusion power generation will raise lithium consumption at an accelerated rate. It is therefore necessary to determine the availability of lithium in the medium and long term in order to prevent technology failures and to ensure a more sustainable development. The authors will provide a well founded knowledge base, outline the availability of worldwide reserves and resources, and describe the structure of present and future demands for lithium. (authors)

  14. The effects of heavy metal ions on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of charophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Hualong; Chen Hao; Dong Bin; Qing Renwei

    2001-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of several heavy metal ions in different concentrations (Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cr 6+ ) on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of Chara vulgaris L. It was discovered that the effects of heavy metal ions on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of Chara vulgaris L. changed with their different concentration. The trend was that the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability were decreased with the increase of the heavy metal ions. The degree of chlorophyll content affected was Cr 6+ , Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , and that of cell membrane permeability affected was Cd 2+ , Cr 6+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+

  15. The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of some medicinal plants and their water extracts from South East Serbia is determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. The two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts, to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in them. Content of investigated metals in both water extracts is markedly lower then in medicinal plants, but were higher in water extract prepared by method (I, with exception of lead content. The coefficients of extraction for the observed metal can be represented in the following order: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. Correlation coefficients between the metal concentration in the extract and total metal content in plant material vary in the range from 0.6369 to 0.9956. This indicates need the plants to be collected and grown in the unpolluted area and to examine the metal content. The content of heavy metals in the investigated medicinal plants and their water extracts is below the maximum allowable values, so they are safe to use.

  16. Standard format and content of a licensee physical protection plan for strategic special nuclear material in transit - April 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A predetermined plan to respond to safeguards contingency events is required to be prepared, based on personnel and other physical protection resources described in the Physical Protection Plan for strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) in transit. Specific requirements for the contingency plan are provided in Appendix C. Licensee Safeguards Contingency Plans, to 10 CFR Part 73. Regulatory Guide 5.56, Standard Format and Content of Safeguards Contingency Plans for Transportation, provides guidance for the preparation of transportation contingency plans. Licensee is reminded that all three submissions - the Physical Protection Plan, the Physical Protection Arrangements for Specific Shipments, and the Safeguards Contingency Plan - together describe the system for physical protection of each particular shipment. They should be developed and maintained to be completely consistent with each other for each shipment

  17. 77 FR 60478 - Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [[NRC-2012-0231] Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1279, ``Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for controlling ferrite content in...

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metal Content of Branded Pakistani Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    analyzed using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Results: Most of the products exceeded the permissible limits for lead (100 %), cadmium (68 %), .... absorption spectrometry. M e ta l n a m ..... Determination of Heavy Metals in Medicinal.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main routes through which these elements enter the human body. Slowly released into the body, however, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of copper, chromium, zinc, and lead in the most frequently consumed vegetables including Pimpinella anisum, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus viridis, Coriandrum sativum, and Trigonella foenum graecum in various sites in Raipur city, India. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to estimate the levels of these metals in vegetables. The mean concentration for each heavy metal in the samples was calculated and compared with the permissible levels set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. The intake of heavy metals in the human diet was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Our findings indicated the presence of heavy metals in vegetables in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb. Based on these findings, we conclude that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption.

  20. Branded webseries. Strategic actions of the advertiser based on corporate online fiction and marketing content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Segarra-Saavedra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, advertisers and brands have adhered to audiovisual content, film and television, through production sponsorship, product or brand placement and bartering. It´s strategy basically accessible to prominent budgets. But changes in communication and the democratization of creation and distribution of content have opened this tactic to other advertisers whose advertising items try to join brand values to entertainment through branded webseries. We present an exploratory study about the creation, dissemination, promotion, reception and socialization of webseries, brand stories based on fiction and Internet. From methodological triangulation, is dealt the case study of Risi and the three seasons of the webserie ¿Por qué esperar? With depth interviews with the creative, their descriptive analysis, as well as quantitative analysis audience and their interactions. The comparative results describe the use of creativity, famous characters related to the target and the effect generated by this type of stories that generate engagement.

  1. Calcium availability but not its content modulates metal toxicity in Scenedesmus quadricauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Dresler, Sławomir

    2018-01-01

    Impact of calcium nutrition (pre-culture on solid medium with standard or elevated Ca dose, i. e. 0.17 and 4.40mM marked as low and high Ca) on acute metal toxicity (Cd, Mn and Pb, 24h of exposure to 10µM) in freshwater green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was studied. Surprisingly, Ca content differed only slightly between low and high Ca samples and applied metals rather suppressed its amount. Na content was higher in metal-exposed high Ca samples, indicating that Ca/Na ratio may affect accumulation of metals. Content of heavy metals increased in order Cd < Mn < Pb and high Ca samples contained less metal than low Ca samples at least in absorbed fraction. Accumulation of ascorbic acid and thiols (GSH - glutathione and PC2 - phytochelatin 2) was affected mainly by Cd, GSH also by Mn and PC2 by Pb with often significant differences between low Ca and high Ca samples. Calcium nutrition also affected responses of algae to metals at the level of antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and elevated values were typically found in high Ca samples while ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical) were mainly depleted in Mn treatment. These data confirm that Ca nutrition affects accumulation of metals in algae and metabolic parameters as observed in vascular plants but, unlike them, rather Ca/Na ratio than absolute Ca content seems to regulate the uptake of metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mineralogy and heavy metal content of secondary mineral salts: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary minerals associated with acid mine drainage play an important role in metal cycling and may pose a geochemical hazard. The occurrence of secondary minerals indicates prevailing and past geochemical conditions. Detecting and characterising secondary minerals is necessary to the planning of remediation ...

  3. Heavy Metal Content of Some Jordanian and American Cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaradat, Q.; Momani, K.; Mutair, A.

    2003-01-01

    Flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy were employed to determine Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe in tobacco, wrapping paper, filter, smoke, and ash of some Jordanian and American cigarettes before and after smoking. The results of this study indicated that different constituents of cigarettes contain different concentrations of heavy metals in the different cigarette brands. Before smoking, most of the metals are found in the tobacco, whilst after smoking most of the metals remain in ash and only small amounts are with the smoke. The cigarette filters were capable of retaining some of the metals such as Cd, Pb, and Cu. The concentration of any analyte, in the constituent parts of a cigarette, varied from one brand to another, but among the different cigarette brands selected for this study, there is no specific brand that could be said to contain all the analytes at the highest or lowest concentration. The cigarette brands in this study contain relatively high average concentrations of Cd and Pb, but they are within the concentration range of foreign cigarettes that have been reported from various areas in the world . ( Author's) 21 refs., 12 tabs

  4. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metal Content of Branded Pakistani Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the heavy metals present in branded Pakistani herbal medicines used in the management of various human ailments. Method: The herbal dosage forms assessed were tablets, capsules and syrups. The samples were prepared for analysis by wet digestion method using nitric acid and perchloric acid ...

  6. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, Ehsanul [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: khkim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, H.O. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul Center, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (As) to 118 mg kg{sup -1} (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  7. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 μg kg -1 (As) to 118 mg kg -1 (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  8. Variations in the mineral composition and heavy metals content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babayemi

    The parts of Moringa oleifera were assessed for mineral composition and some heavy metal ... cadmium from aqueous system (Sharma et al., 2006). ... Crude extracts and essential oil from M. oleifera possess ... into some probable chemical interactions between the .... processing methods that may lead to detoxification and.

  9. The stellar content, metallicity and ionization structure of HII regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Vermeij, R; Tielens, AGGM; van der Hulst, JM; Peeters, E

    Observations of infrared fine-structure lines provide direct information on the metallicity and ionization structure of H II regions and indirectly on the hardness of the radiation field ionizing these nebulae. We have analyzed a sample of Galactic and Magellanic Cloud H II regions observed by the

  10. Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabpai, S.; Charerntanyarak, L.; Siri, B.; Moore, M.R.; Noller, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

  11. Heavy metal content of tinned soup as a function of storage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelte, W.

    1983-01-01

    Samples were taken from soups prior to their preservation in tins. None of the samples showed an increased content of the investigated heavy metals lead and mercury exceeding the amounts normally found in food. Thus it may be considered as certain that the heavy metal content of soups is not adversely affected by technical processes during their preparation. Increase in heavy metal content by metallic residues from tin manufacture is slight and mainly due to tin, whose content is on average increased in the soup by 0.4 mg/kg. For lead the influence is smaller and for mercury it is not significantly demonstrable. The metallic residues from tin manufacture are an irrelevant quantity in terms of nutrition physiology. Within the investigated 4-year storage-period the lead content shows a tendency to increase towards saturation. Cadmium remains essentially constant, the content of mercury has a downward tendency and reaches zero after 2 to 4 years. Consumers' exposure is in a range known for the consumption of other foodstuffs as well. The use of varnished tins to package industrial soups involves no exposure of consumers to heavy metals justifying any apprehension even after prolonged storage.

  12. Heavy metal content of soil in urban parks of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanoski Maja M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on soil pollution in four urban parks of Belgrade. The sampling locations within each park were chosen based on proximity to streets characterized by heavy traffic, and soil samples were taken at different depths down to 50 cm. Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were measured using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF spectrometer. The following average abundance order of heavy metals was found: Fe >> Mn > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu in topsoil samples. The highest enrichment in topsoil was observed for Zn. Copper and Zn, metals mainly related to traffic emissions, exhibited the highest concentrations at the sampling location close to a bus and trolleybus terminus. The highest Ni and Cr concentrations were observed in a park located in a city suburb, where a large number of individual heating units is present. The largest decrease in concentrations with soil dept was observed for Zn and Cu, followed by Ni and Cr, in the parks with the highest concentrations of these elements in topsoil. Generally high topsoil Cr and Ni concentrations were observed in comparison with average values reported in literature for other world cities. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007

  13. Place branding in strategic spatial planning: a content analysis of development plans, strategic initiatives and policy documents for Portugal 2014-2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose First, this article aims to depict the theoretical links between place branding and strategic spatial planning in order to provide further theoretical and conceptual foundations. Secondly, it aims to explore the roots of place branding theory and practice in Portugal, as well as how place

  14. Determination of the Content of Heavy Metals in Pyrite Contaminated Soil and Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Marić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of a pyrite contaminated soil texture, content of heavy metals in the soil and soil pH, was the aim in the investigation. Acidification of damaged soil was corrected by calcium carbonate. Mineral nutrients and organic matter (NPK, dung, earthworm cast, straw and coal dust were added to damaged soil. Afterwards, the soil was used for oat production. Determination of total heavy metal contents (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe in soil was performed by atomic absorption spectrofotometry. Plant material (stems, seeds was analysed, too. Total concentration of the heavy metals in the plant material were greater than in crop obtained in unaffected soil.

  15. The effect of carbon content on mechanical properties, failure and corrosion resistance of deposited chromium metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леонід Кімович Лещинськiй

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that if choosing a metal composition for surfacing rolls and rollers of continuous casting machines, both the carbon impact on the mechanical and functional properties and the critical values of the chromium concentration, which determine the corrosion resistance of the metal with regard to electrochemical corrosion theory, should be considered as well. The paper studied the effect of chromium and carbon steel the X5-X12 type on the structure, technological strength, mechanical properties, fracturing resistance and corrosion resistance of the weld metal. The composition of chromium tool steels (deposited metal (X5-used for the rolls of hot rolling mills and (X12-used for continuous casting machines rollers correspond to these values. The impact of carbon on the properties of the deposited metal containing chromium was considered by comparing the data for both types of the deposited metal. It was found that for both types of the deposited metal (X5 and X12, the limiting value of the carbon content, providing an optimal combination of strength, ductility, failure resistance is the same. If the carbon content is more than the limiting value – (0,25% the technological strength and failure resistance of the deposited metal significantly reduce. With increasing carbon content from 0,18 to 0,25% the martensite structure has a mixed morphology – lath and plate. The strength and toughness of the deposited metal grow. Of particular interest is simultaneous increase in the specific work of failure resulted from crack inhibition at the boundary with far less solid and more ductile ferrite. As for the 5% chromium metal, the X12 type composition with 0,25% C, is borderline. With a further increase in the carbon content of the metal both ductility and failure resistance sharply decrease and with 0,40% C the growth rate of fatigue crack increases by almost 1,5 times

  16. Visualizing Metal Content and Intracellular Distribution in Primary Hippocampal Neurons with Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Colvin

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that metal dyshomeostasis plays an important role in human neurodegenerative diseases. Although distinctive metal distributions are described for mature hippocampus and cortex, much less is known about metal levels and intracellular distribution in individual hippocampal neuronal somata. To solve this problem, we conducted quantitative metal analyses utilizing synchrotron radiation X-Ray fluorescence on frozen hydrated primary cultured neurons derived from rat embryonic cortex (CTX and two regions of the hippocampus: dentate gyrus (DG and CA1. Comparing average metal contents showed that the most abundant metals were calcium, iron, and zinc, whereas metals such as copper and manganese were less than 10% of zinc. Average metal contents were generally similar when compared across neurons cultured from CTX, DG, and CA1, except for manganese that was larger in CA1. However, each metal showed a characteristic spatial distribution in individual neuronal somata. Zinc was uniformly distributed throughout the cytosol, with no evidence for the existence of previously identified zinc-enriched organelles, zincosomes. Calcium showed a peri-nuclear distribution consistent with accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria. Iron showed 2-3 distinct highly concentrated puncta only in peri-nuclear locations. Notwithstanding the small sample size, these analyses demonstrate that primary cultured neurons show characteristic metal signatures. The iron puncta probably represent iron-accumulating organelles, siderosomes. Thus, the metal distributions observed in mature brain structures are likely the result of both intrinsic neuronal factors that control cellular metal content and extrinsic factors related to the synaptic organization, function, and contacts formed and maintained in each region.

  17. The Comparative Effect of Collaborative Strategic Reading and Content-Based Instruction on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania Nosratinia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to compare the effect of teaching Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR and Content-Based Instruction (CBI on the reading comprehension of English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners. To fullfill this objective, a group of 90 intermediate female EFL learners, within the age range of 17 to 19, took a piloted sample of the PET as a pre-treatment proficiency test. Sixty of them were selected as homogeneous learners and were randomly divided into two experimental groups of CSR and CBI. The CSR group receieved CSR strategy training based on Klingner, Vaughan, and Schumm's model (2001, while the CBI group receieved CBI-based strategy training, using Tsai and Shang's (2010 model. At the end of the training, another piloted PET reading test was administered  as the posttest. The pre-treatment reading scores were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test whose results confirmed the pre-treatment homogeneity of the participants. The post-treatment scores were also analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test whose results indicated no significant difference in the reading posttest levels of CBI and CSR groups, U = 423.5, z = -.401, p = .688, r = -.0517. The article concludes with a discussion on the results and presenting some implications.

  18. A study on compound contents for plastic injection molding products of metallic resin pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob; Lee, Gyu Sang

    2016-01-01

    Injection molding process is widely used for producing most plastic products. In order to make a metal-colored plastic product especially in modern luxury home alliances, metallic pigments which are mixed to a basic resin material for injection molding are available. However, the process control for the metal-colored plastic product is extremely difficult due to non-uniform melt flow of the metallic resin pigments. To improve the process efficiency, a rapid mold cooling method by a compressed cryogenic fluid and electricity mold are also proposed to decrease undesired compound contents within a molded plastic product. In this study, a quality of the metal-colored plastic product is evaluated with process parameters; injection speed, injection pressure, and pigment contents, and an influence of the rapid cooling and heating system is demonstrated

  19. A study on compound contents for plastic injection molding products of metallic resin pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyu Sang [Alliance Molding Engineering TeamLG Electronics Inc., Osan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Injection molding process is widely used for producing most plastic products. In order to make a metal-colored plastic product especially in modern luxury home alliances, metallic pigments which are mixed to a basic resin material for injection molding are available. However, the process control for the metal-colored plastic product is extremely difficult due to non-uniform melt flow of the metallic resin pigments. To improve the process efficiency, a rapid mold cooling method by a compressed cryogenic fluid and electricity mold are also proposed to decrease undesired compound contents within a molded plastic product. In this study, a quality of the metal-colored plastic product is evaluated with process parameters; injection speed, injection pressure, and pigment contents, and an influence of the rapid cooling and heating system is demonstrated.

  20. A study of the metal content of municipal solid waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the content of toxic components, so called pollutant precursors, in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream is essential to development of the strategies for source reduction and reuse, recycling, composting and disposal. Data are scarce; trends in composition for any locality even more so. In a previous study the total and water soluble chlorine content of the components of municipal solid waste were determined from sampling studies at two sites, Baltimore County, MD, and Brooklyn, NY, each for a five day period. The total sulfur content of the combined combustible components was also determined. Because of the scarcity of data and synergistic effects, it seemed appropriate to determine the heavy metal content of the preceding material prior to its disposal. The metals chosen were the so-called priority pollutant metals (PPM): antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, and zinc.

  1. Strategic and tactical determinants for South African platinum-group-metals supply

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGill, JE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available continue deep development on the western limb, move to open shallower mines in the eastern limb, or adopt a combination of both approaches. To investigate the viability of eastern limb resources, and reserves, three main issues require consideration...-run forecast of demand and supply dynamics, and commodity prices, underpin a continued need for PGM production. National policy framework Strategic 2 Legislative environment supports the development of PGM resources in South Africa. Direct eastern limb...

  2. Heavy Metal Content in Terraced Rice Fields at Sruwen Tengaran Semarang - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindarwati, Yulis; Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih; Sudarno

    2018-02-01

    The presence of heavy metal on agricultural soils can be caused not only natural factors but also due to human intervention. Differences in management and lack of understanding of farmers in the production input of fertilizers and pesticides ensued in land ravaged. Periodic testing of paddy fields is necessary to minimize the contaminants from being absorbed by plants that will have an impact on health decline. The purpose of the assessment was to identify the heavy metal content in the terraced rice field in Sruwen Village, Tengaran District, Semarang Regency. Survey was conducted in February 2017. Sampling on terraced rice fields of different heights consisted of upper, middle, and upper down. Taken as many as eight single points and composed at a depth of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. The identification results showed that heavy metal content of Pb, Cd, and Cu were present at all altitudes. Heavy Metals Pb and Cd at a depth of 0-20 cm were higher from 20-40 cm in the upper and lower rice fields but lower in the middle rice field. Cu heavy metal at a depth of 0-20 cm was higher than 20-40 cm in all altitude land. The heavy metal content of Pb, Cd, and Cu was still below the heavy metal standard set by the European Union and India.

  3. Heavy Metal Soil Content as an Indicator of Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Rusu

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Two soil sample series were collected from 7 contaminated sites situated along a transect from the pollutant source, Zlatna copper ore-processing plant, and analyzed using different analytical methods. The soils collected in 1998 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES after extraction with DTPA for trace metals and those collected in 1999 were analyzed with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS following two acid digestion procedures. The DTPA extraction procedure produced lower results than the acid digestions. Also, the pH values for all samples was measured and the results obtained during autumn compared with those in spring after a long winter with heavy snow falls. The correlation between Cu, Pb, Zn (for samples collected in May 1999 and pH was investigated. The pattern of chemical abundance of contaminants (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd and Ni was determined in soil at 0-50 cm depth. This study indicates that Pb is the most polluting element up to 25 km downwind from Zlatna town.

  4. Bio-Reclamation of Strategic and Energy Critical Metals from Secondary Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Ilyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metals with an average crustal abundance of <0.01 ppm, which are high in supply shortage due to soaring demand, can, under the excessive environmental risk and <1% recycling rate of their production, be termed as ‘critical’ in a limited geo-boundary. A global trend to the green energy and low carbon technologies with geopolitical scenario is challenging for the sustainable reclamation of these metals from secondary resources. Among the available processes, bio-reclamation can be a sustainable technique for extracting and concentrating these metals. Therefore, in the present paper, the potential reclamation of critical metals (including rare earth elements, precious metals, and a common nuclear fuel element, uranium via their interaction with microbe/s has been reviewed.

  5. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  6. Effect of the edaphic factors and metal content in soil on the diversity of Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racić, Gordana; Körmöczi, Péter; Kredics, László; Raičević, Vera; Mutavdžić, Beba; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Panković, Dejana

    2017-02-01

    Influence of edaphic factors and metal content on diversity of Trichoderma species at 14 different soil sampling locations, on two depths, was examined. Forty-one Trichoderma isolates from 14 sampling sites were determined as nine species based on their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Our results indicate that weakly alkaline soils are rich sources of Trichoderma strains. Also, higher contents of available K and P are connected with higher Trichoderma diversity. Increased metal content in soil was not inhibiting factor for Trichoderma species occurrence. Relationship between these factors was confirmed by locally weighted sequential smoothing (LOESS) nonparametric smoothing analysis. Trichoderma strain (Szeged Microbiology Collection (SZMC) 22669) from soil with concentrations of Cr and Ni above remediation values should be tested for its potential for bioremediation of these metals in polluted soils.

  7. A REVIEW ON HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN HIDE, SKIN AND PROCESSED LEATHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOIZHAIGANOVA Meruyert

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are metals with high atomic weight which can be deposited in soil, water, plants and animals. It is generally known that mammal tissues are good bioindicators of trace elements, including heavy metals. Heavy metal analysis serves to identify and quantify the elements that are a potential hazard to the consumer after varying levels of contact. Usage area of leather is increasingly expanding in these days and it has also become a material requested and demanded by effect of fashion. Leather must protect its appearance and physical stability and also be problem-free in ecological terms and harmless to human health. There is a lack of data concerning the content of toxic elements in raw hide and skin of animals. Mainly information concerning metals content, including toxic ones, in processed leathers may be found in the literature. The aim of the present study was to review and compare the content of some heavy metals in raw hide, skin and the processed leathers in order to evaluate their accumulation and transition to the end-up product.

  8. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-01-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million

  9. Analysis on the Content, Features and Formation of Motivation on Strategic Network%企业战略网络内涵、特征及形成动因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 张敬文; 阮平南

    2011-01-01

    在梳理战略网络理论相关研究的基础上,对战略网络内涵和特征进行重新界定,并对战略网络形成动因进行深入研究.%Based on the research of strategic network theory, this paper re - defines the content and characteristics of strategic network. At last, it studies the causes for the formation of strategic network.

  10. Heavy metal content of lichens in relation to distance from a nickel smelter in Sudbury, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieboer, E; Ahmed, H M; Puckett, K J; Richardson, D H.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Sudbury region of Ontario has large deposits of nickel, iron, and copper, and thus a number of smelting plants which produce sulfur dioxide and heavy metal pollution. Since lichens are good indicators of SO/sub 2/ pollution levels, the pattern of heavy metal content in lichen species in the area of a copper smelter in Sudbury was correlated with distance from the smelter to ascertain whether lichens might also be good indicators of the amount of heavy metal fallout. The lichens were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. All seven species of lichens contained copper, iron, zinc, nickel, manganese, and lead. Cadmium and cobalt were detected in two species. Neither gold nor silver could be identified in lichen material with the tests used. A pollution model was developed and compared to field results. The simple dilution of the stack effluent was consistent with the fact that the lichen metal content was related to the reciprocal of the distance from the pollution source. The lichens from the area could tolerate simultaneously high concentrations of several heavy metals that are known to be toxic to other plants. The mechanism of metal uptake was not clearly established. The study showed that lichens and other epiphytes are potentially the most useful indicators of heavy metal fallout around industrial plants.

  11. Examinations of content of heavy metals in municipal solid waste and produced compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimowski, J.; Tykarska, A.; Orzechowska, K.

    1993-01-01

    The basic methods of utilization of municipal solid waste are biothermic and aerobic methods to compost. The content of heavy metals in composts depends on the initial their content in wastes as well as on the compost process. The voltammetric method has been applied for measurement of concentration of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Hg in the waste and composts samples. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  12. The heavy metals content in wild growing mushrooms from burdened Spiš area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the rate of entry of heavy metals into the edible parts of wild mushrooms, from central Spiš area. The area is characterized by extremely high content of heavy metals particularly mercury in abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The toxicity of heavy metals is well known and described. Known is also the ability of fungi to accumulate contaminants from substrates in which mushrooms grow. We have collected commonly consumed species of mushrooms (Russula vesca., Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Lecinum piceinum, Boletus reticulatus. Sampling was conducted for two years 2012 and 2013. The samples taken mushrooms and substrates on which to grow, we determined heavy metal content (Cd, Pb, Cu, including total mercury content modified by atomic absorption spectrometry (AMA - 254. In the substrate, we determined the humus content and pH value. The heavy metal content in soils were evaluated according to Law no. 220/2004 Z.z The exceedance limit values of Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg was recorded. Most significantly the respective limit was recorded in soil samples in the case of mercury. The determined concentration Hg was 39.01 mg.kg-1. From the results, we evaluated the degree of ability to bioaccumulate heavy metals different kinds of fungi. We also evaluated the health safety of the consumption of these fungi on the comparison with the limit values provided in the food code of SR. We recorded a high rate of accumulation of mercury in the species Boletus reticulatus and Macrolepiota procera. For these types we recorded the most significant than allowed concentrations of mercury in mushrooms. The highest recorded concentration reached 17.64 mg.kg-1 Hg in fresh matter. The limit value was exceeded also in the case of copper. We do not recommend to increased consumption of wild mushrooms in the reference area.

  13. Microbial and trace metal content of well water in three rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial and trace metal content of well water in three rural communities in Bauchi State, Nigeria*. E Ikeh, PN Durfee, RH Glew, R Amato, FJ Frost, DJ Vanderjagt. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: 66-70. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  14. THE STUDIES OF METAL CONTENT IN PRECIPITATION WATER IN LUBELSKIE AND LUBUSKIE VOIVODESHIPS IN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Malec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the studies of metal content in precipitation water in 2013, recorded at measuring points within Lubelskie and Lubuskie Voivodeships. It provides a detailed description of the method of collecting and analysing water samples in respect of light- and heavy-metal determination. Based on the results, a general assessment was made of the condition of the environment in the areas in question. Also, the sources of pollution in wet precipitation, and the effects of their introduction into the environment, were determined. It was found that the main pollution elements of precipitation water were linked to anthropogenic sources. The study also established that precipitation water, especially in the sparsely industrialised Włodawa region in the Lubelskie Voivodeship, had generally low pollution levels. It was also noted that in 2013, due to low total precipitation, the environmental impact of metal content was lower than in the preceding years.

  15. The impact of sewage sludge treatment on the content of selected heavy metals and their fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatowicz, Katarzyna

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the physicochemical properties of compost made of municipal sewage sludge from selected Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant. Content of basic macroelements and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Hg, Mg, Ca, N, P, K, Na) and their fractions was determined by means of BCR method. Based on the analyzes, it was found that the content of heavy metals in compost did not exceed the limits set by natural land management of sewage sludge; the compost is very abundant in biogenic elements - nitrogen and phosphorus - and it can be also considered a significant source of calcium and magnesium. The analysis of results obtained from the three-stage chemical extraction revealed that deposits subjected to aerobic stabilization and composting accumulate metals (in descending sequence) in fractions III and II, i.e. fractions virtually inaccessible to the ecosystem in optimal conditions of use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of arsenic and heavy metal contents in cockles (Anadara granosa) using multivariate statistical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas Alkarkhi, F.M.; Ismail, Norli; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2008-01-01

    Cockles (Anadara granosa) sample obtained from two rivers in the Penang State of Malaysia were analyzed for the content of arsenic (As) and heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Hg) using a graphite flame atomic absorption spectrometer (GF-AAS) for Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer (CV-AAS) for Hg. The two locations of interest with 20 sampling points of each location were Kuala Juru (Juru River) and Bukit Tambun (Jejawi River). Multivariate statistical techniques such as multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied for analyzing the data. MANOVA showed a strong significant difference between the two rivers in term of As and heavy metals contents in cockles. DA gave the best result to identify the relative contribution for all parameters in discriminating (distinguishing) the two rivers. It provided an important data reduction as it used only two parameters (Zn and Cd) affording more than 72% correct assignations. Results indicated that the two rivers were different in terms of As and heavy metal contents in cockle, and the major difference was due to the contribution of Zn and Cd. A positive correlation was found between discriminate functions (DF) and Zn, Cd and Cr, whereas negative correlation was exhibited with other heavy metals. Therefore, DA allowed a reduction in the dimensionality of the data set, delineating a few indicator parameters responsible for large variations in heavy metals and arsenic content. Taking into account of these results, it can be suggested that a continuous monitoring of As and heavy metals in cockles be performed in these two rivers

  17. Content Heavy Metal Pb, Cd In Perna viridis And Sediments In Semarang Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, D.; Suryanti, S.; Latifah, N.

    2018-02-01

    Waste disposal from human activities, generally contain heavy metals such as Pb and Cd which derived from industrial activities. The aims of the study were to know the concentration of Pb and Cd heavy metals contained in Perna viridis tissue, sediment and water at Semarang Bay. This study was conducted in May 2017 at Semarang Bay. - Samples were collected using purposive sampling method. The heavy metal content in the water and clam was observed using- APHA method and was analyzed using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The results showed that concentration of heavy metal of Pb in the water was 0.00-50.5mg/L and the Cd content was of 26.9-51.7 mg/L, whereas the concentration of Pb in the sediment is 445.5-2.053.0mg/L and Cd 963.3-2,150.0 mg/L. Pb content in soft tissue of Perna viridis - is 67.1-1.933.9 mg/L and the concentration of Cd was 203.5-5.787.3 mg/L. The analysis of Pb and Cd in seawater, sediment and soft tissue of Perna viridis according to Enviroment Ministerial decree (KepMenLH ) number 51 of 2004 and applied by NOAA 1999 does not exceed the quality standard, that meant that the Perna viridis has been contaminated by metal Pb it is controversial with the above sentence and Cd. It concluded that the metal content of Pb and Cd in Perna viridis tissue exceeds the quality standard, so it is not suitable to be consumed, especially in high quantity

  18. The effect of bottom sediment supplement on heavy metals content in plants (Zea mays and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Important aspect of bottom sediments is the problem of their management or disposal after their extraction from the bottom of rivers, dam reservoirs, ports, channels or ponds. The research aimed at an assessment of potential environmental management of bottom sediment used as an admixture to light soil basing on its effect on contents of heavy metals in plants and soil. The research was conducted on light soil with granulometric structure of weakly loamy sand. The bottom sediment was added to light soil in the amount of 0 (control 5, 10, 30 i 50%. The test plant was maize (Zea mays, “Bora” c.v. The sediment applied in the presented research revealed high share of silt and clay fractions, alkaline pH and low contents of heavy metals, therefore it may be used as an admixture to the above mentioned soils to improve their productivity. The applied bottom sediment to the soil affected a decreased in Zn, Cd and Pb content in maize in comparison with the treatment without the deposit whereas increased content of Cu, Cr and Ni. No exceeded permissible content of heavy metals concerning plant assessment in view of their forage usability were registered in maize biomass.

  19. Total and available metal contents in sediments by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Sobrinho, Gilmar A.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the total and available contents of Al, Si, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Ba, Ce and Pb in sediments from river Atibaia were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The detection limits for K series varies from 200 ng.mL -1 for Al to 2 ng.mL -1 for Zn while for L series the value varies from 20 ng.mL -1 for Ba to 10 ng.mL -1 for Pb. The samples were submitted to two different processes, in order to obtain the total and biological available metal contents. The information about metal content is a important parameter for a correct evaluation about the hydrologic cycle in Piracicaba basin. All the measure were carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP, Brazil, using a white beam for excitation. (author)

  20. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  1. Content of heavy metals in gleyic chernozem of Srem loess terrace under alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high-quality forage from alfalfa is influenced not only by the presence of nutrients, but also by the absence of harmful elements, such as heavy metals. The examination of the total heavy metals content (Ni, Cr, Pb and As in gleyic chernozem soil of Srem loess terrace in Hrtkovci, under alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. were carried out in 2011 in order to determine suitability for the production of safe forage. It total content of Pb, As and Crwas below the maximum permitted concentrations. The content of As, Cr and Ni was higher in the surface layer, unlike Pb, whose content was higher in the deeper layers of soil. A significant positive correlation was found between the total content of Ni, Cr and As. An increased concentration of Ni was found, which was above the maximum permitted concentration. It is necessary to further control its content and accessibility examination and extraction from plants, to prevent its entry into the food chain and provide safe food.

  2. Metal ions released from fixed orthodontic appliance affect hair mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate metal ion accumulation in hair of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in time. The patients (N = 47) participated in a questionnaire survey. Hair sampling was performed at the beginning and in the 4th, 8th, and 12th month of the treatment. The content of metals (Cr, Ni, Fe) in hair was analyzed by ICP-OES equipped with USN nebulizer. The peak release of Cr and Fe occurred after 4 months of the treatment, and the peak release of Ni gradually increased throughout the whole year of the therapy. During 1 year treatment, an average accumulation of metals in hair tissue was 7.42 ± 14.19 μg of Ni, 8.94 ± 13.1 μg of Cr, and 131 ± 279 μg of Fe. The mean content of Cr was higher than the 90th percentile value for this element. The upper limit of literature reference ranges for Cr, Ni, and Fe in hair was not exceeded. The value of exposure (kinetics and dose) of orthodontic patients to metal ions released from orthodontic appliances can be assessed by hair mineral analysis. The content of Cr was statistically significantly higher during the treatment than before the beginning of therapy.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF BUG RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture, and transport contributes to an increased environmental pollution by heavy metals. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of the contents of selected metals (lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel in the sediments of Bug river. The study comprised part of the river flowing through Poland. It was found that the Bug river sediments are not contaminated in respect to the content of tested metals. Based on the analysis of the study results, these metals can be lined up in the following order: Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. Statistical analysis showed that copper and chromium occur in Bug river sediments in forms bindings with organic matter in majority of cases. The granulometric analysis of sediments from Bug river revealed the largest percentage of two fractions: 1.0–0.2 mm with average of 47.7 ± 19.77% and 0.2–0.1 mm with average of 20.6 ± 7.7%. These are the dominant fractions with the accumulation of metals in river sediments, which has been confirmed by statistical analysis.

  4. The study of heavy metals and microbial content in beef bowel and red meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Darsono

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia's population has increased every year so the need for food increased, especially the availability of nutritious foods such as red meat. Red meat is one of the foods that contain sufficient elements of protein, but it was likely to contain heavy metals and bacterial contamination that has met the threshold standards. On the otherhand, beef bowels are very popular among Indonesian consumers, but many heavy metlas could accumulated into the bowels. The purpose of this research are to study the content of heavy metals and bacterial contamination on beef bowel from some places of slaughtering houses and some red meats from the market in Jakarta. The beef bowels are lung, tripe, intestine and liver while the red meats were veal and tender loin. Parameter of heavy metals measured are As, Cd and Hg, while for the initial bacterial contamination are total number of aerobic bacteria, total amount of coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp and Salmonella contamination. The heavy metals were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis, and for the total number of bacteria is using Total Plate Count. Result of research shows the As content in lung and tripe as well as the mercuric content in bowel has exceeded in the normal level such as 1.0 and 0.03 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, no heavy metals were detected in all red meats. The total microbes in beef bowel have exceeded allowable limit (1.0 x 10 6 cfu/g). No Salmonella was detected in all beef bowels and red meats observed. Nuclear technique are very helpful analysis of the heavy metas content in bowel dan red meats beef. The cleanliness slaughtering house of animals are remarkably ascertaining the quality of the beef bowel and red meats who will be sent. (author)

  5. Heavy Metal Contents in Spices from Markets in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huremović, J.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spices are some of the most common foods in the human diet around the world. Spices are dried parts of plants used often as diet components to improve aroma and acceptability of food. The aim of this work was to determine the contents of seven heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in spices available at local markets in Sarajevo. Metal concentrations in six spice samples (black pepper (Piper nigrum, basil (Ocimum basilicum, oregano (Oreganum vulgaris, paprika (Capsicum annuum, parsley (Petroselinum crispum and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of chromium and nickel in all samples was below 5 mg kg-1 . Copper levels were in the range of 2.36-19.47 mg kg-1 , iron 6.80-785.56 mg kg-1 , manganese 6.14-59.36 mg kg-1 , lead 0.74-20.35 and zinc 6.93-85.44 mg kg-1 . These results were in agreement with other published data except in the case of Pb which content was slightly higher. Daily intake of different metals was calculated and compared with the MRL values given by ATSDR (2013. The content of lead in most of the samples was above the maximum permitted concentrations recommended by WHO and national regulations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

  6. Source of Global Scale Variations in the Midday Vertical Content of Ionospheric Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Pesnell, W. D.; Aikin, A. C.; Goldberg, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of long baseline NIMBUS 7 SBUV (Solar Backscatter UV Spectrometer) observations of the latitudinal variation of the noontime vertical Mg' content above approx. 70 km have revealed seasonal, solar activity and magnetic activity dependencies in the Mg+ content. The distributions were categorized in terms of magnetic coordinates partially because transport processes lifting metallic ions from the main meteor ionization layer below 100 km up into the F- region and down again are controlled by electrodynamical processes. Alternatively, the Nimbus Mg+ distributions may simply be a result of ion/neutral chemistry changes resulting from atmospheric changes and not dynamics. In such a case magnetic control would not dominate the distributions. Using in situ satellite measurements of metal ions from the Atmosphere Explorer satellites in the region above the main meteor layer and published sounding rocket measurements of the main metallic ion layers, the effects of the dynamics on the vertical content are delineated. The consequences of atmospheric changes on the vertical content are explored by separating the Nimbus measurements in a geodetic frame of reference.

  7. Antioxidant Capacity and Metal Content of Physalis Peruviana L. Fruit Sold in Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Eken

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The dietary intake of medicinal food with antioxidant activity and required amounts of trace elements is important to pursue good healthy life. In our study, we aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity and metal content of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L. fruit sold in markets in Kayseri. Material and Method: The antioxidant capacity of P. peruviana fruit was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The DPPH radical scavenger capacity of the methanol extract of fruit was compared with known antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT as references. The metal content of P. peruviana fruit was measured by using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. Results: The fruit of P. peruviana was found to possess DPPH free radical scavenging activity but the antioxidant capacity was lower than the standard substances. Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50 values of P. peruviana, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and BHT were determined as 32 mg/ml, 3.8 mg/ml, 3.51 mg/ml, and 1.21 mg/ml, respectively. As a result of the analysis by AAS, it was observed that P. peruviana fruit contented plentiful trace elements and the content of heavy metal was small amount or not detected. Discussion: These observations suggest that the fruit of P. peruviana has a potential source of antioxidant and trace elements of natural origin.

  8. Impact of vineyard abandonment and natural recolonization on metal content and availability in Mediterranean soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Martín, Ana de; Vaquero-Perea, Cristina; Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada; Quintana Nieto, Jose R.; González-Huecas, Concepción; Lafuente, Antonio L.; Vázquez de la Cueva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abandonment of vineyards after uprooting has dramatically increased in last decades in Mediterranean countries, often followed by vegetation expansion processes. Inadequate management strategies can have negative consequences on soil quality. We studied how the age and type of vegetation cover and several environmental characteristics (lithology, soil properties, vineyard slope and so on) after vineyard uprooting and abandonment contribute to the variation patterns in total, HAc (acetic acid-method, HAc) and EDTA-extractable (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-method) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils. We sampled 141 points from vineyards and abandoned vineyard Mediterranean soils recolonized by natural vegetation in recent decades. The contribution of several environmental variables (e.g. age and type of vegetation cover, lithology, soil properties and vineyard slope) to the total and extractable concentrations of metals was evaluated by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis, considering the interaction between both environmental and response variables. The ranges of total metal contents were: 0.01–0.15 (Cd), 2.6–34 (Cu), 6.6–30 (Pb), and 29–92 mg kg −1 (Zn). Cadmium (11–100%) had the highest relative extractability with both extractants, and Zn and Pb the lowest. The total and EDTA-extractable of Cd, Pb and Zn were positively related to the age of abandonment, to the presence of Agrostis castellana and Retama sphaerocarpa, and to the contents of Fe-oxides, clay and organic matter (OM). A different pattern was noted for Cu, positively related to vineyard soils. Soil properties successfully explained HAc-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn but the age and type of vegetation cover lost significance. Clay content was negatively related to HAc-extractable Cu and Pb; and OM was positively related to HAc-Cd and Zn. In conclusion, the time elapsed after vineyard uprooting, and subsequent land abandonment, affects the soil content and

  9. Impact of vineyard abandonment and natural recolonization on metal content and availability in Mediterranean soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Martín, Ana de, E-mail: anasanti@ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero-Perea, Cristina, E-mail: crvaquer@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada, E-mail: inma.valverde@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Quintana Nieto, Jose R., E-mail: jrquinta@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); González-Huecas, Concepción, E-mail: chuecas@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio L., E-mail: lopezlafuente@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Vázquez de la Cueva, Antonio, E-mail: vazquez@inia.es [INIA, Forest Research Centre, Carretera de A Coruña km 7.5, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Abandonment of vineyards after uprooting has dramatically increased in last decades in Mediterranean countries, often followed by vegetation expansion processes. Inadequate management strategies can have negative consequences on soil quality. We studied how the age and type of vegetation cover and several environmental characteristics (lithology, soil properties, vineyard slope and so on) after vineyard uprooting and abandonment contribute to the variation patterns in total, HAc (acetic acid-method, HAc) and EDTA-extractable (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-method) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils. We sampled 141 points from vineyards and abandoned vineyard Mediterranean soils recolonized by natural vegetation in recent decades. The contribution of several environmental variables (e.g. age and type of vegetation cover, lithology, soil properties and vineyard slope) to the total and extractable concentrations of metals was evaluated by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis, considering the interaction between both environmental and response variables. The ranges of total metal contents were: 0.01–0.15 (Cd), 2.6–34 (Cu), 6.6–30 (Pb), and 29–92 mg kg{sup −1} (Zn). Cadmium (11–100%) had the highest relative extractability with both extractants, and Zn and Pb the lowest. The total and EDTA-extractable of Cd, Pb and Zn were positively related to the age of abandonment, to the presence of Agrostis castellana and Retama sphaerocarpa, and to the contents of Fe-oxides, clay and organic matter (OM). A different pattern was noted for Cu, positively related to vineyard soils. Soil properties successfully explained HAc-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn but the age and type of vegetation cover lost significance. Clay content was negatively related to HAc-extractable Cu and Pb; and OM was positively related to HAc-Cd and Zn. In conclusion, the time elapsed after vineyard uprooting, and subsequent land abandonment, affects the soil content and

  10. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C.; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart, E-mail: s.t.wagland@cranfield.ac.uk

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Samples from multiple core drills were obtained from 4× landfill sites in the UK. • Each sample analysed for rare earth elements, critical metals and valuable metals. • Two stage microwave digestion method ensuring high yield. • High quantities of copper and aluminium were observed in the soil layers of landfill. • Across 4× landfills aluminium and copper present has a value of around $400 million. - Abstract: Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58 ± 6 mg kg{sup −1} for REEs comprising 44 ± 8 mg kg{sup −1} for light REEs, 11 ± 2 mg kg{sup −1} for heavy REEs and 3 ± 1 mg kg{sup −1} for Scandium (Sc) and 3 ± 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are

  11. HEAVY METALS (Ni, Cu, Zn AND Cd CONTENT IN SERUM OF RAT FED GREEN MUSSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yudhistira Azis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis can playing role as bio-indicator or biomonitoring agent for heavy-metalcontaminations in the sea. In this research, the concentrations of four elements Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in P. viridis and in the serum of rat which orally feed by P. viridis were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS following dry acid digestion. Parameter analysis was evaluated by determining confidence limit for the obtained results. The result showed that there was a sequence of heavy-metal content in green mussels sample and laboratory rats serum, such as Ni < Cd < Cu < Zn. Keywords: heavy metals, green mussels, laboratory rats serum, AAS

  12. Analysis of caffeine and heavy metal contents in branded and unbranded tea available in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.R.; Inayat, A.; Chowdhry, M.N.; Waheed, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the investigation of caffeine and heavy metal contents in four branded and six unbranded tea samples collected from local markets of Lahore, Faisalabad and Peshawar, the amount of caffeine and heavy metals in all the branded tea samples were in agreement with the international standards. In unbranded tea samples, though the amount of caffeine was within standard limits but two of the samples collected from Peshawar had high concentrations of lead being, 13.69 and 15.78 mg/kg, consumption of which can lead to serious problems. (author)

  13. Method to determine the contents of economically interesting metals in manganese nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.; Fanger, U.; Pepelnik, R.; Mueller, A.

    1977-01-01

    Metals which are economically important (as copper, nickel) can be determined in manganese nodules by analysing the activating gamma spectra which are measured after neutron irradiation of the samples. Irradiating the samples with fast neutrons and analysing the activity thus reduced with the help of a gamma detector is expected to improve the method. This serves to obtain the ratio of the radiation intensities of two main components (Mu, Fe) and using this, the percental metal content can be determined through known geo-chemical correlation tables and curves. The method is described in detail. (RB) [de

  14. Effects of preparation method and active metal content on of Ni/kieselguhr catalyst activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galuh Widiyarti; Wuryaningsih Sri Rahayu

    2010-01-01

    The preparation and the active metal content influence the activity of catalyst. Study has been conducted to see the activity of Ni/kieselguhr based on preparation method and Nickel (Ni) contents in the catalyst in the laboratory scale. The Ni/kieselguhr catalyst were prepared by impregnation and precipitation methods, with Ni active contents of 10, 20, and 30 % by weight. The catalysts characterization was analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Catalysts activities were analyzed based on decreasing of iodine number from hydrogenation of crude palm oil for 2 hours. The activity tests results show that precipitation catalysts are more active than impregnation catalysts. The decreasing in iodine number of fatty acid after 2 hours of hydrogenation process using precipitation catalysts and impregnation catalysts are 51.53 and 21.85 %, respectively. In addition, the catalysts are more active with increasing Ni contents. (author)

  15. Strategic and Organisational Considerations in Planning Content and Language Integrated Learning: A Study on the Coordination between Content and Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón Vázquez, Víctor; Ávila López, Javier; Gallego Segador, Arturo; Espejo Mohedano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is generally recognised as a fruitful example of bilingual education. However, success in CLIL may not be straightforward and may require the establishment of coordination between content and language teachers. The aim of this study is to investigate if content and language teachers are able to plan…

  16. Mineral and heavy metal contents of the outer and inner tissues of commonly used fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Harmankaya, Mustafa; Gezgin, Sait

    2012-01-01

    The rate of heavy metal pollution in some minor fruit samples growing at roadsides in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The mineral contents of samples were found to be different depending on the several parts Citrus fruits. The highest minor and heavy metal levels for Citrus fruits were determined between 17.24 and 45.30 mg/kg boron, 2.08 and 15.05 mg/kg copper, 1.01 and 16.00 mg/kg iron and 2.35 and 9.87 mg/kg zinc. Boron content ranged from 16.54 mg/kg (Deveci pear inner pulp) to 89.89 mg/kg (Arjantin apple outer skin). The level of Fe ranged from 1.49 mg/kg (quince pulp) to 25.05 mg/kg (Ankara pear pulp). Cu content of fruits ranged between 2.52 mg/kg (Fuji apple skin) and 25.93 mg/kg quince skin). Zn content was found between 0.46 mg/kg (Golden apple pulp) and 14.34 mg/kg (quince skin). P contents ranged from 651 mg/kg (Golden apple pulp) to 1269 mg/kg (quince skin). Na was found between 500 mg/kg (Fuji apple skin) and 907 mg/kg (Arjantin apple skin).

  17. TRACE METAL CONTENT (Cu, Zn, Mn AND Fe) IN URTICA DIOICA L. AND PLANTAGO MAJOR L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolak, Elzbieta; Raczuk, Jolanta; Borkowska, Lidia

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the contents of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in the washed and unwashed leaves and roots of two plant species: Urica dioica L. and Plantago major L., used in herbal medicine. These two herb species occur in the same environmental habitats, yet their morphological structure is different. The soil and plant samples for analyses were collected from an uncontaminated area in Eastern Poland. In each habitat location, the samples were taken from sandy soils with slightly acidic and neutral pH values. The obtained results showed that U. dioica and P. major accumulated similar amounts of trace metals, such as: Cu, Zn and Fe, in leaves, despite the differences in the morphological structure of their overground parts. The content of Mn in leaves U. dioica was about twice as much as in P. major. Also, no differences in the metal content were observed between washed and unwashed leaves of both species. However, in the same habitat conditions, a significantly higher content of Cu, Zn and Mn was found in the roots of P. major than U. dioica. The content of Fe in the roots was similar in both species. P. major and U. dioica may be a valuable source of microelements, if they are obtained from unpolluted habitats.

  18. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spring barley (grain, straw), grass-clover (two cuts), winter wheat (grain, straw) and silage maize grown in the Askov long-term experiment with different levels (0, ½, 1, 1½, 2) of mineral fertiliser (NPK) and animal manure (AM) had concentrations of As, Pb, Cd and Hg below the EC maximum permis...... of NPK and AM does not pose a threat in terms of feed quality. However, the long-term accumulation of heavy metals added with mineral fertilisers and animal manure is essentially irreversible and may threaten soil quality....... in the analysed metal contents between crops grown with NPK and AM. Crop contents of uranium and thallium were below the analytical detection limits regardless of nutrient source and addition rate. Thus in a farming context similar to that of the Askov experiment, the long-term application of standard rates...

  19. Evaluation of heavy metal content in irradiated sludge, chicken manure and fertilized soil in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Suwirma, S.; Surtipanti, S.; Harsojo

    1997-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Co, were determined in two irradiated sludges, chicken manure and fertilized soil. Sludge I was collected from a treatment plant in Jakarta city, Sludge II from a sludge reservoir in a Jakarta suburb, chicken manure was obtained from a farm south of Jakarta, and the soil had been treated with phosphate fertilizer since 1967. The sludges and chicken manure were collected during the rainy and dry seasons, and the heavy-metal contents were determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry and neutron-activation analysis. The results obtained are compared with data from Canada, and are discussed in terms of permissible limits in the environment. (author)

  20. Content of heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive material in Leucaena leucocaphala (Lam.) de wit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Sareeza Azidin

    2012-01-01

    This research was done to determine the content of heavy metals in Leucaena leucocaphala (Lam.) de Wit (Petai Belalang) at 5 different areas. Those areas were in the middle of city, former mining area, industrial area, domestic waste disposal area, and on expressway roadside. Heavy metal poisoning can happen if the concentration is too high and will cause severe damage to human health. For instance, it may cause gene mutation, cancer and damage to the human body systems. This plant was selected for the study of heavy metals and radionuclide content in the soil. The reason of selecting this plant is because this plant can live in extreme conditions, and perhaps able to absorb those elements better than other legumes. The aim of this study was to determine the content of toxic heavy metals in leaves, stems and roots of Leucaena leucocaphala including the soil where it is grown. The second objective was determine NORM in the soil where the plant grew and the last objective was to determine the transfer factor of heavy metals by the plant. The content analysis of toxic heavy metals for example Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Gamma ray spectrometry on the other hand, was used to determine K-40, Ra-226, U-238 and Th-232 in the soil where the plant was sampled. The activity concentration of Ra-226, K-40, U-238 and Th-232 determined were 7.47 ± 3.03 Bq/ kg - 256.92 ± 164.36 Bq/ kg, 95.55 ± 72.62 Bq/ kg - 435.60 ± 88.32 Bq/ kg, 21.83 ± 8.83 Bq/ kg - 165.28 ± 109.61 Bq/ kg dan 43.41 ± 7.06 Bq/ kg - 91.19 ± 11.13 Bq/ kg respectively. In general, the former mining area recorded the highest heavy metal concentration for Cu (28.20 ± 32.54 mg/ kg), Zn (114.67 ± 75,61 mg/ kg), Cd (0.31 ± 0.11 mg/ kg) and Pb (48.08 ± 33.60 mg/ kg). Whereas the highest concentration of As recorded was on the roadside (261.92 ± 132.64) and Hg (0.44 ± 0.36 mg/kg) in the middle of the city. (author)

  1. Preliminary observations on the metal content in some milk samples from an acid geoenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhonen, P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The metal content of some milk samples was analyzed from areas of acid sulphate soils along the course of the river Kyrönjoki in western Finland. Comparative analyses were made with samples from the Artjärvi-Porlammi area. The variations of analyzed metals AI, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Na, Sr and Zn are not great in both areas except that of Al, which is clearly associated with the acid environment in the Kyrönjoki valley. The portions of these elements in milk are relatively high as compared with data from literature. It is obvious that they show environmental contamination. Under acid circumstances the metals in milk may create serious geomedical problems.

  2. Correlation between heavy metal contents and antioxidants in medicinal plants grown in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full texts: Medicinal plants are widely used as alternate therapeutic agents for various diseases. Three medicinal plants grown in copper mining regions of Khetri in Rajasthan was analyzed for heavy metal contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The copper levels were found to be two to three folds higher in these plant leaves as compared to the reported copper levels in the medicinal plants grown in environmentally friendly regions. In our previous study on heavy metals in soil and medicinal plant of Khetri region we have shown bioaccumulation of Cu in the medicinal plants. In addition, the levels of Cr, Fe and Zn were also higher. Antioxidant properties of medicinal plants are one of their major therapeutic functionalities. The role of elevated levels of heavy metals in the medicinal plants was studied with respect to their antioxidant properties. Standard procedures were used for measuring total phenols, flavanoids and DPPH assay of these medicinal plants which were correlated with the heavy metals contents of these plants

  3. Evaluation of Wet Digestion Methods for Quantification of Metal Content in Electronic Scrap Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhabrata Das

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the electronics sector and the short life-span of electronic products have triggered an exponential increase in the generation of electronic waste (E-waste. Effective recycling of E-waste has thus become a serious solid waste management challenge. E-waste management technologies include pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and bioleaching. Determining the metal content of an E-waste sample is critical in evaluating the efficiency of a metal recovery method in E-waste recycling. However, E-waste is complex and of diverse origins. The lack of a standard digestion method for E-waste has resulted in difficulty in comparing the efficiencies of different metal recovery processes. In this study, several solid digestion protocols including American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM-D6357-11, United States Environment Protection Agency Solid Waste (US EPA SW 846 Method 3050b, ultrasound-assisted, and microwave digestion methods were compared to determine the metal content (Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Pd, Sn, and Zn of electronic scrap materials (ESM obtained from two different sources. The highest metal recovery (mg/g of ESM was obtained using ASTM D6357-11 for most of the metals, which remained mainly bound to silicate fractions, while a microwave-assisted digestion protocol (MWD-2 was more effective in solubilizing Al, Pb, and Sn. The study highlights the need for a judicious selection of digestion protocol, and proposes steps for selecting an effective acid digestion method for ESM.

  4. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  5. Heavy metals content in degraded agricultural soils of a mountain region related to soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Pedreño, José; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Gómez, Ignacio; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Zorpas, Antonis

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture has been practiced for long time in Mediterranean regions. Intensive agriculture and irrigation have developed mainly in the valleys and coastal areas. In the mountainous areas, dry farming has been practiced for centuries. Soils have been fertilized using mainly organic amendments. Plants extracted nutrients and other elements like heavy metals presented in soils and agricultural practices modified soil properties that could favor the presence of heavy metals. In this work, it has been checked the content of heavy metals in 100 agricultural soils samples of the NorthWest area of the province of Alicante (Spain) which has been long cultivated with cereals and olive trees, and now soils are abandoned and degraded because of the low agricultural yields. European policy has the aim to improve the sustainable agriculture and recover landscapes of mountain regions. So that, it is important to check the state of the soils (Marques et al. 2007). Soils samples (arable layer) were analyzed determining: pH (1:5, w/v, water extract), equivalent calcium carbonate content, organic matter by Walkley-Black method (Nelson and Sommers 1996), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) extracted with DTPA (Lindsay and Norvell, 1978) and measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and total content of metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb) measured in soil samples after microwave acid digestion (Moral et al. 1996), quantifying the content of metals by ICP analysis. The correlation between soil properties and metals. The results indicated that pH and carbonates are the most important properties of these soils correlated with the metals (both micronutrients and heavy metals). The available micronutrients (all of them) are close correlated with the pH and carbonates in soils. Moreover, heavy metals like Pb and Ni are related to available Mn and Zn. Keywords: pH, carbonates, heavy metals, abandoned soils. References: Lindsay,W.L., andW.A. Norvell. 1978. "Development of a DTPA Soil Test for Zinc, Iron

  6. Assessment of metals content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves grown on mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levei, Levente; Andrei, Mariana Lucia; Hoaghia, Maria Alexandra; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2017-12-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is one of the plant species that has the ability to spontaneously grow on mine tailings, due to its high tolerance for harsh environmental conditions (low nutrients level, high metal contents). The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in tailings and dandelion leaves grown on nonferrous mine tailings from Romania, while the metal accumulation was assessed by transfer factors (TFs) calculated as the ratio between the metal concentration in plant leaves and in tailings underneath. The results showed that the metal concentrations in tailings ranged between 0.4-8.0 mg/kg Cd, 20-1300 mg/kg Cu, 27-570 mg/kg Pb and 48-800 mg/kg Zn, while the metal concentrations in dandelion ranged between 0.2-4.8 mg/kg Cd, 6.2-17 mg/kg Cu, 0.5-75 mg/kg Pb and 27-260 mg/kg Zn. The TFs were below 0.8 for Cd and Zn and below 0.4 for Cu and Pb and decreased in the following order Cd≥Zn>Cu≥Pb, suggesting the Cd and Zn accumulation capability of dandelion.

  7. Trace Metal Content of Sediments Close to Mine Sites in the Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Yacoub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a preliminary examination of heavy metal pollution in sediments close to two mine sites in the upper part of the Jequetepeque River Basin, Peru. Sediment concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn were analyzed. A comparative study of the trace metal content of sediments shows that the highest concentrations are found at the closest points to the mine sites in both cases. The sediment quality analysis was performed using the threshold effect level of the Canadian guidelines (TEL. The sediment samples analyzed show that potential ecological risk is caused frequently at both sites by As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The long-term influence of sediment metals in the environment is also assessed by sequential extraction scheme analysis (SES. The availability of metals in sediments is assessed, and it is considered a significant threat to the environment for As, Cd, and Sb close to one mine site and Cr and Hg close to the other mine site. Statistical analysis of sediment samples provides a characterization of both subbasins, showing low concentrations of a specific set of metals and identifies the main characteristics of the different pollution sources. A tentative relationship between pollution sources and possible ecological risk is established.

  8. Heavy metal content (Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb) in soil amendment with a low polluted biosolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Lucas, Ignacio; Lag Brotons, Alfonso; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Belén Almendro-Candel, Maria; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    The progressively higher water quality standards in Europe has led to the generation of large quantities of sewage sludge derived from wastewater treatment (Fytili and Zabaniotou 2008). Composting is an effective method to minimize these risks, as pathogens are biodegraded and heavy metals are stabilized as a result of organic matter transformations (Barker and Bryson 2002; Noble and Roberts 2004). Most of the studies about sewage sludge pollution are centred in medium and high polluted wastes. However, the aim of this study was to assess the effects on soil heavy metal content of a low polluted sewage sludge compost in order to identify an optimal application rate based in heavy metal concentration under a period of cultivation of a Mediterranean horticultural plant (Cynara carducnculus). The experiment was done between January to June: rainfall was 71 mm, the volume of water supplied every week was 10.5 mm, mean air temperatures was 14.2, 20.4 (maximum), and 9.2◦C (minimum). The soil was a clay-loam anthrosol (WRB 2006). The experimental plot (60 m2) was divided into five subplots with five treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg compost/m2. Three top-soil (first 20 cm) samples from each treatment were taken (January, April and June) and these parameters were analysed: pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and total content of heavy metals (microwave acid digestion followed by AAS-spectrometry determination). The results show that sewage sludge compost treatments increase the organic matter content and salinity (electrical conductivity of the soils) and diminish the pH. Cd and Ni total content in top-soil was affected and both slightly reduce their concentration. Pb and Cr show minor changes. In general, the application of this low polluted compost may affect the mobility of Cd and Ni due to the pH modification and the water added by irrigation along time but Pb and Cr remain their content in the top-soil. References Barker, A.V., and G.M. Bryson

  9. Magntic susceptibility as a proxy to heavy metal content in the sediments of Anzali wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Mohammad Reza Vesali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy metal concentrations and magnetic susceptibility of sediment samples were analyzed as indicators of urban and industrial contamination in Anzali wetland in Gilan, Iran. The aim was to investigate the suitability of magnetic properties measurements for indicating heavy metal pollution. The concentration of six heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, and Pb was determined in different depths of four sediment core samples within four different regions of the wetland (Abkenar, Hendekhaleh, Shijan and Siakeshim. Average concentration of heavy metals in the sediment cores was higher than the severe effect level (SEL for Ni, Cr and Fe (77.26, 113.63 ppm and 5.2%, respectively and lower than SEL for Cd, Zn and Pb (0.84, 137.7, 29.77 ppm, respectively. It was found that the trend of metal concentrations with the depth is different in each core and is related to the pollution discharges into the rivers entering the wetland. Core magnetic susceptibility measurements also showed different magnetic properties in each core. Cluster analysis was applied using Pearson correlation coefficient between heavy metal concentrations and magnetic properties across each core. Significant relationship was found to exist between magnetic susceptibility and the concentration of Ni in Abkenar and the concentration of Fe in other regions. Whereas Abkenar is almost the isolated and uncontaminated region of the wetland, it revealed a difference in magnetic properties between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. It was concluded that magnetic properties of samples from contaminated zone were mostly related to Fe content. The result of this study demonstrated that magnetic susceptibility measurements could be applied as a proxy method for heavy metal pollution determination in marine environments in Iran especially as a rapid and cost-effective introductory site assessments.

  10. Model evaluation of plant metal content and biomass yield for the phytoextraction of heavy metals by switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Ching; Lai, Hung-Yu; Juang, Kai-Wei

    2012-06-01

    To better understand the ability of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial grass often relegated to marginal agricultural areas with minimal inputs, to remove cadmium, chromium, and zinc by phytoextraction from contaminated sites, the relationship between plant metal content and biomass yield is expressed in different models to predict the amount of metals switchgrass can extract. These models are reliable in assessing the use of switchgrass for phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites. In the present study, linear and exponential decay models are more suitable for presenting the relationship between plant cadmium and dry weight. The maximum extractions of cadmium using switchgrass, as predicted by the linear and exponential decay models, approached 40 and 34 μg pot(-1), respectively. The log normal model was superior in predicting the relationship between plant chromium and dry weight. The predicted maximum extraction of chromium by switchgrass was about 56 μg pot(-1). In addition, the exponential decay and log normal models were better than the linear model in predicting the relationship between plant zinc and dry weight. The maximum extractions of zinc by switchgrass, as predicted by the exponential decay and log normal models, were about 358 and 254 μg pot(-1), respectively. To meet the maximum removal of Cd, Cr, and Zn, one can adopt the optimal timing of harvest as plant Cd, Cr, and Zn approach 450 and 526 mg kg(-1), 266 mg kg(-1), and 3022 and 5000 mg kg(-1), respectively. Due to the well-known agronomic characteristics of cultivation and the high biomass production of switchgrass, it is practicable to use switchgrass for the phytoextraction of heavy metals in situ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Heavy metal contents and other physical quality indices of sewerage, canal and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Sattar, A.; Ihsanullash; Atta, S.; Arif, S. University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Cd, Pb and Cu in canal, sewerage and drinking water by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) is described. Other quality indices of water such as temperature, pH, EC and total solid were also determined. The levels of heavy metal contents of sewerage, canal and drinking water revealed marked differences and wide coefficient of variability (CV). Generally Cd and Pb contents were higher in sewerage than canal and drinking water. However, Cu content of drinking waters was higher than other water tested. The total solids were found to be generally higher in sewerage and canal water than drinking water tested. The total solids were found to be generally higher in sewerage and canal water than drinking water The variations in temperature, pH and EC were marginal to marked depending upon the source and the location. (author)

  12. Strategic materials: Technologies to reduce US import vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Three nations, South Africa, Zaire, and the U.S.S.R., account for over half of the world's production of chromium, cobalt, manganese, and platinum group metals. These metals are essential in the production of high-temperature alloys, steel and stainless steel, industrial and automotive catalysts, electronics, and other applications that are critical to the U.S. economy and the national defense. With minor exceptions, there is no domestic mine production of any of the four metals. Government actions to assure secure supplies of metals critical to the United States have been limited largely to reliance on the national defense stockpile to ensure the availability of materials required for national defense in time of war, leaving it to the free market to provide a diversity of suppliers for the industrial economy. An overall strategy to reduce U.S. reliance on uncertain sources of supply of strategic materials should be based on a combination of three technical approaches: increase the diversity of the world supply of strategic metals through the development of promising deposits; decrease demand for strategic metals through the implementation of improved manufacturing processes and recycling of strategic materials from scrap and waste; and identify and test substitute materials for current applications and develop new materials with reduced strategic material content for future applications.

  13. PIGMENT CONTENT OF Chlorella vulgaris BEIJ. UNDER INFLUENCE OF THE SODIUM SELENITE AND METALS IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the conditions obtaining in the aquaculture of Chlorella vulgaris Beij. algosubstantion enriched with selenium and bioactive metals. For this purpose, the content of seaweed pigments studied by the action of sodium selenite in a concentration based on Se4+: 0.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg / dm3 for 1, 3 and 7 days and while exposed 10.0 mg Se4 +/dm3 and Zn2+, Mn2 +, Co2 +, Cu2 +, Fe3 + in concentrations of 5.0 mg/dm 3, 0.25, 0.002, 0.008 and 0.05 mg/dm3, respectively, within 7 days of culturing. The content of pigments was determined spectrophotometrically, the cellular walls were given off in the percoll gradient and investigated microscopically. The pigments content in Ch. vulgaris increase by 1,5–2,5 times in comparison with control sample under the influence of 10 mg Se(IV/dm3 with and without metal ions. In the same condition a ratio of chlorophylls a/b increased, that accompanied by the formation in cells of the second cell wall as the sign of successful adaptation process in the Chlorella cells under the influence of these factors. Thus, the cultivation of chlorella, enriched with selenium and bioactive metals, is possible within 7 days under the influence of 10 mg Se (IV/dm3 and mentioned concentration of these metal ions.

  14. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of Sr in eggshells may be associated with lower hatching success of some passerine birds. - Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2-35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell

  15. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2–35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell should not be ignored.

  16. Content of heavy metals and chemical composition of the hydraulic cement marketed in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas Padilla, Jimmy; Calderon Jimenez, Bryan; Sibaja Brenes, Jose Pablo; Salazar Delgado, Jorge; Rodriguez Castro, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of heavy metals, specifically lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and mercury (Hg), and also the chemical composition (CaO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 among others) were quantified of the hydraulic cement marketed in Costa Rica. The physical parameters of density and fineness confirmed the homogeneity of the samples to determinate accurately the content of the major components and heavy metals in the cements. The mineralogical constitution was determined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Specifically, the cements showed a mass fraction in the range of (61.22 - 63.12) % of CaO, (18.10 - 26.14) % of SiO 2 , (3.70 - 6.05) % of Al 2 O 3 , (2.57 - 3.36) % Fe 2 O 3 and (0.60 - 4.09) % de MgO. Other components such as MgO, TiO 2 , K 2 O, P 2 O 5 , Na 2 O and Mn 2 O 3 were found on an average mass fraction lower than 1%. Moreover, using the ignition test results and assuming a complete decomposition of the limestone, it was possible to estimate (indirectly) the content of CaCO 3 and CaO given by the raw materials. The metal content of the heavy metals was determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS), Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS), and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (CVAAS). The analysis demonstrated that the Pb in cements is present in different concentrations ranging the (2.45 ± 0.72) mg kg -1 to the (8.95 ± 1.34) mg kg -1 . Chromium (Cr) was presented in higher concentrations of (10.69 ± 0.92) mg kg-1. The Hg concentration was below 0.141 ± 0.021 mg kg -1 . In general terms, the hydraulic cements marketed and used in Costa Rica have a suitable chemical composition compared with some cements marketed in Germany. The results of the content of heavy metals presented in this study provide significant information for future studies in the area of toxicology, ecotoxicology, standardization and national regulation. (author) [es

  17. Total Contents and Sequential Extraction of Heavy Metals in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater, Akaki, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitamo, Daniel; Itana, Fisseha; Olsson, Mats

    2007-02-01

    The Akaki River, laden with untreated wastes from domestic, industrial, and commercial sources, serves as a source of water for irrigating vegetable farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals and to predict their potential mobility and bioavailability. Zn and V had the highest, whereas Hg the lowest, concentrations observed in the soils. The average contents of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, and Hg of both soils; and Pb and Se from Fluvisol surpassed the mean + 2 SD of the corresponding levels reported for their uncontaminated counterparts. Apparently, irrigation with waste water for the last few decades has contributed to the observed higher concentrations of the above elements in the study soils (Vertisol and Fluvisol) when compared to uncontaminated Vertisol and Fluvisol. On the other hand, Vertisol accommodated comparatively higher average levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, etc V, and Cd, whereas high contents of Pb and Se were observed in Fluvisol. Alternatively, comparable levels of Co and Hg were found in either soil. Except for Ni, Cr, and Cd in contaminated Vertisol, heavy metals in the soils were not significantly affected by the depth (0-20 and 30-50 cm). When the same element from the two soils was compared, the levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, V, Cd at 0-20 cm; and Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn at 30-50 cm were significantly different. Organic carbon (in both soils), CEC (Fluvisol), and clay (Vertisol) exhibited significant positive correspondences with the total heavy metal levels. Conversely, Se and Hg contents revealed perceptible associations with carbonate and pH. The exchangeable fraction was dominated by Hg and Cd, whereas the carbonate fraction was abounded with Cd, Pb, and Co. conversely, V and Pb displayed strong affinity to reducible fraction, where as Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni dominated the oxidizable fraction. Cr, Hg, Se, and Zn (in both soils) showed preference to the residual fraction

  18. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  19. Metal Content and Stable Isotope Determination in Some Commercial Beers from Romanian Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezara Voica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of beer samples is of interest because their compositions affect the taste and stability of beer and, also, consumer health. In this work, the characterizations of 20 Romanian beers were performed by mean of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS in order to trace heavy metals and isotopic content of them. Major, minor, and trace metals are important in beer fermentation since they supply the appropriate environment for yeast growth and influence yeast metabolism. Beside this, the presence of the C4 plants in the brewing process was followed. Our study has shown that the analyzed beers indicated the presence of different plant types used in brewing: C3, C3-C4 mixtures, and also C4, depending on producers. Also the trace metal content of each sample is presented and discussed in this study. A comparison of the beers quality manufactured by the same producer but bottled in different type of packaging like glass, dose, or PET was made; our results show that no compositional differences among the same beer type exist.

  20. Glassy slags as novel waste forms for remediating mixed wastes with high metal contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a glassy slag final waste form for the remediation of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes with high metal contents. This waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. This work indicates that glassy slag shows promise as final waste form because (1) it has similar or better chemical durability than high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses, (2) it can incorporate large amounts of metal wastes, (3) it can incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components (boron and alkalis), (4) it has less stringent processing requirements (e.g., viscosity and electric conductivity) than glass waste forms, (5) its production can require little or no purchased additives, which can result in greater reduction in waste volume and overall treatment costs. By using glassy slag waste forms, minimum additive waste stabilization approach can be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than those amenable only to glass waste forms

  1. Lead-210 and heavy metal contents in dated ombrotrophic peat hummocks from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Daoushy, F.; Tolonen, K.

    1984-01-01

    Two Sphagnum fuscum hummock cores, core 1, Kaerpaensuo bog and core F9, Kunonniemensuo bog. from Finland were used in this study. The peats are ombrotrophic and were dated using the moss-increment method. The mosses in both cores were carefully examined for their botanical composition, degree of humification, ash percentage and bulk density. The total accumulated dry peat-matter in the Kunonniemensuo core was almost double that in the Kaerpaensuo core. The total 210 Pb and the supported 210 Pb were measured by isotope dilution and the radon emanation technique. Materials in the same peat samples were analysed for their 210 Pb content at the Institute of Physics, Uppsala, Sweden and the Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland. The annual content of unsupported 210 Pb in the dated peat-layers shows that peat materials are effective traps which could yield information on atmospheric-fluxes both chronologically and regionally. Lead, copper, zinc, iron and manganese were also measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The total accumulated amounts over the past 150 y of the heavy metals investigated are almost identical for both cores apart from manganese which is considerably higher in the Kunonniemensuo core. However, the metal profiles studied exhibit discontinuity zones more pronounced in the Kunonniemensuo core. The 210 Pb data indicate that growth rate and bulk density variations in ombrotrophic peat bogs affects the accumulation of 210 Pb and similar trace metals. (orig.)

  2. [Heavy metals contents and Hg adsorption characteristics of mosses in virgin forest of Gongga Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Yang, Yong-Kui; He, Lei; Wang, Ding-Yong

    2008-06-01

    Seven main moss species in the Hailuogou virgin forest of Gongga Mountain were sampled to determine their heavy metals (Hg, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) content, and two widely distributed species, Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium laetum Besch., were selected to study their Hg adsorption characteristics. The results showed that the heavy metals contents in the mosses were lower than the background values in Europe and America, except that the Cd had a comparable value, which indicated that the atmosphere in study area was not polluted by heavy metals and good in quality. The Hg adsorption by P. schreberi and R. laetum was an initiative and rapid process, with the equilibrium reached in about two hours, and could be well fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Based on Langmuir equation, the maximum Hg adsorption capacities of P. schreberi and R. laetum were 15.24 and 8.19 mg x g(-1), respectively, suggesting that the two mosses had a good capacity of Hg adsorption, and could be used as the bio-monitors of atmospheric Hg pollution.

  3. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  4. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes; Siqueira, Maria Celia; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226 Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg -1 ) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg -1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  5. Investigation of possibilities for high heavy metal content sludges utilization by incorporating them in concrete products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeonova A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe removal of sludge, obtained during the surface treatment of different metal products, is a serious environmental problem. These sludges are usually characterized by a high content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Mn, low quality and are obtained in many small industrial units in the whole country, which makes their centralized treatment difficult. In world practice, different methods are used for component fixation of such sludge, in the aim to prevent leaching of the metals causing pollution of the soil and underground water. The aim of the recent work is to prepare the sludge in a form of light (keramzit fillers by preliminary treatment with binding substances and to introduce them in non supporting concrete products - curbs, stakes and similar products. The investigation was made with two types of sludge - from a production line for thermal treatment and hardening of different parts used in machine building and from a production line for surface decoration treatment (nickel-plating and chromium-plating of consumer products. The sludge were dried and ground and then granulated with a solution of water glass. After their solidifying the air dried granules with a size of 5 to 15 mm were treated with cement milk and air dried again. With the obtained granules, standard percolation test for leaching metals like Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr was carried out. After a preliminary calculation of concrete mixtures, these granules were mixed with Portland cement and concrete sample products were made. These molded concrete samples were characterized by their density, water absorption, and mechanical strength for defined standard periods of time. The samples were subjected to a modified percolation test for leaching metals. The metal concentration in eluates was determined by Atomic Spectral Analysis.

  6. The Effect of Organism Size on the Content of Certain Trace Metals in Marine Zooplancton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Individual species of euphausiids and pelagic shrimp, collected at the same time and place, were sorted into different size groups and analyzed for several biologically important trace metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation. Other specimens from these samples were dissected into gross anatomical parts and analyzed in the same way. Molts collected from zooplankters maintained live in the laboratory were also analyzed for metals. Results for the different size-group experiments showed that in general the concentrations of zinc, iron, and manganese were inversely correlated with dry body weight. Depending upon the crustacean species, metal concentrations in smaller individuals ranged from 1.2 to 4.1 times greater than those in larger individuals of the same species. Copper concentration on the other hand, tended to be a direct function of dry weight. Concentrations of zinc, iron, and manganese were generally higher in molts and dissected exoskeletons than in muscle tissue, however, the opposite was true for copper. The amount of material shed by euphausiids in molting ranged from 4.7 to 10.9% of dry body weight with smaller animals tending to lose a greater percentage of body weight than the larger specimens. These molts, in which ash accounted for about 40-50% of the dry weight, contained 15-20, 19-45, 28-40, and 15% of the total body zinc, iron, cobalt and manganese, respectively. Only 5% of the total body copper content was associated with the molt. In addition, molts from smaller crustaceans had higher concentrations of zinc and iron than those from larger species. With the exception of copper, it appears that a relatively large fraction of the animal's metal content is associated with the older inert chitin, indicating that much of the trace metal measured in small planktonic crustaceans is merely sorbed to the surface and is not physiologically necessary. In an ecological sense, the rapid molting frequency of these Crustacea

  7. Reverse osmosis influence over the content of metals and organic acids in low alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrieş Mitică Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is defined as an alcoholic beverage resulted from fermentation of grape must, having ethanol content higher than 8.5% (v/v. Wine consumption has health benefits related to the high concentration of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity and cardiovascular protection effects. However, the alcohol content restricts wine consumption, but wines with low-alcohol content can be obtained with the help of the dealcoholisation process, after it was produced through alcoholic fermentation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the organic acid concentration, metal content and other physical-chemical parameters of low alcoholic beverages obtained from grape must by a process which involves reverse osmosis, mixing in a variable ratio the permeate and concentrate and then fermentation. For the experiments, a Muscat Ottonel grape must from Iaşi vineyard was used. There were ten variants of beverages (wines with low alcoholic concentration, by mixing known quantities of the two phases resulting from the reverse osmosis process. These beverages (wines had an alcoholic concentration starting from 2.5% (v/v in the first variant, up to 7% (v/v in the tenth variant. Alcoholic concentration varies for each variant by 0.5% (v/v. After fermentation in 50 L stainless steel tanks, the samples were filtered with 0.45μm sterile membrane and bottled in 0.75 L glass bottles. After 2 months of storage at constant temperature, the beverage samples were analyzed to determine the metal content (AAS method, organic acids concentration (HPLC method, and other physical-chemical characteristics (OIV standard methods. The results obtained indicate that the very complex physical-chemical composition of the low alcoholic beverages analyzed is influenced by the specific chemical composition of a given grape must, as well as by the use of products obtained from reverse osmosis.

  8. FeNbB bulk metallic glass with high boron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, M.; Das, Jayanta; Eckert, Juergen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 270016, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Hajlaoui, Khalil; Yavari, Alain Reza [LTPCM-CNRS, I.N.P. Grenoble, 1130 Rue de la Piscine, BP 75, F-38402 University Campus (France)

    2007-07-01

    Fe-based alloys able to form magnetic bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are of the type transition metal - metalloid and often contain 5 or more elements. Usually, the metalloid content is around 20 atomic %. Very recently, the Fe{sub 66}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 30} alloy was found to be able to form BMG by copper mold casting technique, despite its high metalloid content. Several composition with boron contents around 30 at. % or even higher were calculated since 1993 as possible compositions of the remaining amorphous matrix after the first stage of nanocrystallization of Finemet-type Fe{sub 77}Si{sub 14}B{sub 9} glassy ribbons with 0.5 to 1 atomic % Cu and a few percent Nb addition. Melt-spun ribbons of all calculated compositions were found to be glassy. The composition of the ternary Fe-based BMG investigated in the present study resulted as an optimization of all possibilities. The alloy is ferromagnetic with glass transition temperature T{sub g}=845 K, crystallisation temperature T{sub x}=876 K, liquidus temperature T{sub liq}=1451 K and mechanical strength of 4 GPa. The coercivity of as-cast samples is very low, around 1.5 A/m. The present contribution aims at discussing the thermal stability, mechanical and magnetic properties of the Fe{sub 66}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 30} BMG.

  9. Study of aluminum content in a welding metal by thermoelectric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, H.; Ramirez, S.; Coronado, C.; Salazar, M.

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the effect caused by the aluminum content in a welding metal and its variation in mechanical properties through the use of a non-destructive thermoelectric technique. It is known that aluminum has positive effects as deoxidizer in low percentages and alloying element together with Niobium and Vanadium. Aluminum has a positive and negative effect, initially improves the mechanical properties of the metal, as it acts as a grain refiner, increasing the yield strength, but in larger quantities, important mechanical properties such as hardness and toughness are seriously affected. For this purpose, HSLA ASTM 572 Gr. 50 steel was used as the base metal, where the weld metal was deposited, after which the specimens were fabricated and the mechanical tests and non-destructive tests were carried out. The sensitivity of the thermoelectric potential technique to microstructural and chemical composition changes was confirmed. The evolution of absolute thermoelectric potential (TEP) values with respect to the percentage of aluminum added to the weld was observed, being also quite sensitive to defects such as micro-cracks.

  10. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF FLOOD SEDIMENTS AND PLANTS NEAR THE RIVER TISZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZILÁRD SZABÓ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The River Tisza is Hungary’s especially important river. It is significant not only because of the source of energy and the value insured by water (hydraulical power, shipping route, stock of fish,aquatic environment etc. but the active floodplain between levees as well. Ploughlands, orchards, pastures, forests and oxbow lakes can be found here. They play a significant role in the life of the people living near the river and depend considerably on the quality of the sediments settled by the river. Several sources of pollution can be found in the catchment area of the River Tisza and some of them significantly contribute to the pollution of the river and its active floodplain. In this paper we study the concentration of zinc, copper, nickel and cobalt in sediments settled in the active floodplain and the ratio of these metals taken up by plants. Furthermore, our aim was to study the vertical distribution of these elements by the examination of soil profiles. The metal content of the studiedarea does not exceed the critical contamination level, except in the case of nickel, and the ratio of metals taken up by plants does not endanger the living organisms. The vertical distribution of metals in the soil is heterogeneous, depending on the ratio of pollution coming from abroad and the quality of flood.

  11. Distribution of Heavy Metal Content Hg and Cr of Environmental Samples at Surabaya Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    Determination of Hg and Cr content of Surabaya river and coastal environmental samples using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) have been done. The environmental samples were water, sediment, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solmms, Rhizophora stylosa, Johnius (Johnieops) borneensis fish, and Moolgarda delicate fish at 12 locations selected of Surabaya area. Dry powder of sediment and biotic samples and concentrate water samples was irradiated by neutron flux 1.05 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .det -1 during 12 hours. The analytical result showed that the concentration of the heavy metals of river water are smaller than Perda Surabaya City No. 02/2004 for the 4 th level water which are Hg (0.005 ppm) and Cr (1.000 ppm). All locations coastal water samples have Hg and Cr concentrations are higher than Kepmen LH No.51/2004 Hg (0.001 ppm) and Cr (0.005 ppm). The Hg concentration of fish samples have exceeded the threshold according to Kep. Dirjen POM No.03725/B/SK/VII/89 about the maximum concentration of metal pollution in food. The concentration of heavy metals in sediment, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solmms and Rhizophora stylosa are not regulated, so then heavy metals pollution can not be referred to. The concentration of Hg and Cr elements of water samples are smaller than that of biotic and sediment samples. The distribution factor (F d ) is bigger than bioaccumulation factor (F b ). (author)

  12. Metal and metallothionein content in tissues from wild and farmed Anguilla anguilla at commercial size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, R; Peri, S; del Ramo, J; Torreblanca, A

    2007-05-01

    Metallothionein and metal content (Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, Fe, Pb and Mn) were determined in various organs of commercially available eel (Anguilla anguilla) of similar size obtained from a local farm and from The Albufera Lake in Valencia (Spain). Farmed fish showed statistically significant higher Cd concentrations in liver and kidney whereas wild individuals had higher levels of Pb in blood and Zn in kidney. Significant positive correlations were found between metallothionein and Cd in kidney of farmed eel and between metallothionein and Cu in liver of wild ones. No statistically significant differences were found between the two populations in the concentration of any of the metals analyzed in muscle and in all instances these levels were lower than the limits established by the Spanish legislation for fish destined for human consumption.

  13. Amelioration of iron mine soils with biosolids: Effects on plant tissue metal content and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The achievement of environmentally sound and economically feasible disposal strategies for biosolids is a major issue in the wastewater treatment industry around the world, including Swaziland. Currently, an iron ore mine site, which is located within a wildlife sanctuary, is being considered as a suitable place where controlled disposal of biosolids may be practiced. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of urban biosolids on iron mine soils with regard to plant metal content and ecotoxicological effects on earthworms. This was done through chemical analysis of plants grown in biosolid-amended mine soil. Earthworm behaviour, reproduction and bioaccumulation tests were also conducted on biosolid-amended mine soil. According to the results obtained, the use of biosolids led to creation of soil conditions that were generally favourable to earthworms. However, plants were found to have accumulated Zn up to 346 mg kg -1 (in shoots) and 462 mg kg -1 (in roots). This was more than double the normal Zn content of plants. It was concluded that while biosolids can be beneficial to mine soils and earthworms, they can also lead to elevated metal content in plant tissues, which might be a concern to plant-dependant wildlife species. Nonetheless, it was not possible to satisfactorily estimate risks to forage quality since animal feeding tests with hyperaccumulator plants have not been reported. Quite possibly, there may be no cause for alarm since the uptake of metals from soil is greater in plants grown in pots in the greenhouse than from the same soil in the field since pot studies fail to mimic field conditions where the soil is heterogeneous and where the root system possesses a complex topology. It was thought that further field trials might assist in arriving at more satisfactory conclusions.

  14. The relationship of heavy metals contents in soils to their content in legume seeds used in famous traditional food in kurdistan region-iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram Sullaiman Ismael

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the level of risk heavy metals contents in Cowpea seeds comparison with heavy metal content in soil was studied. For the experiment three cowpea cultivars (brown, red, white were used. Cowpeas were harvested at full ripeness in Kalak location in Erbil city. The flame AAS (AAS Varian AA Spectr. DUO 240 FS/240Z/UltrAA was used for the determination of heavy metal contents in soil and plant materials. The soil which cultivated Cowpea, characterized neutral to slit alkali, with a typical content of cations K, Mg and P. Beans and the seeds of faba bean, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, traditionly used heavy sweets such as knafa. Ful, which is fava beans cooked with chickpeas (garbanzo beans or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad after boiled. Cowpea grain legumes occupy an important place in human nutrition, especially in the dietary pattern of low income groups of people in developing countries. The level risk heavy metal contents in the soil determined was only Cd content was on the level of limit value given for the soil extract by aqua regia as well as Co content was higher than the limit value given for the relationship between soil and plant. All of determined values were lower than critical value extracted by NH4NO3 only the maximal available soil content of mobile Pb forms was exceeded but cowpea accumulated seeds in amounts the risky elements contents, with the exception of Ni, did not exceed limit for the maximum levels of chosen risk elements in studied legume. The content of the metals studied with the exception of cadmium, not exceed the maximum permissible value in legumes, as defined in the Codex Alimentarius. The aim of this research, to study or determine the content of risky heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cd in the soil and their relationship in selected varieties cowpea seeds cultivar. Faba

  15. Improvements in or relating to processes for reducing the oxygen content of metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.H.; Spooner, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the oxygen content of a metal oxide material (such as an intimate mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides or a mixed oxide of uranium and plutonium) by contacting the material with a hydrogen-containing gas at an elevated temperature, wherein the material is contained in a plurality of carbon crucibles, each crucible having apertured ends and being otherwise a closed vessel, the crucibles being moved through a heated zone in end-to-end contact and thereby forming a duct through which the gas is passed counter-current to the direction of movement of the crucibles. (author)

  16. Influence of growing conditions on heavy metals content in cultivated mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmitene, L.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of growing terms, microclimate conditions and growing medium on the mushroom harvest and quality. Champignons were grown according to the Polish technology. Pleurotus ostreatus was grown in perforate sacks using chopped wheat straw. Mycelium was sowed in different terms. It was established that the harvest of mushrooms, especially their quality, depends not only on growing conditions, but also on the kind of mushrooms, composte quality, mushroom size (diameter of cap), picking of mushrooms, storage time and other conditions. The technology of mushroom growing will be developed after studying all the factors determining the content of heavy metals and radiation in mushrooms

  17. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  18. The Strategic Communication Plan: Effective Communication for Strategic Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeder, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    .... It addresses the purpose, developmental process, content, and implementation of a strategic communication plan offering specific recommendations for the creation and effective use of a successful plan...

  19. Strategic Leadership as Determinant of Strategic Change: A Theoretical Review and Propositions

    OpenAIRE

    Ahadiat, Ayi

    2009-01-01

    The strategic change is an issue that closely related to strategic leadership. As this paper elaborates how strategic leadership determines the strategic change, the elaboration of both concept and their relationship are presented through propositions that are developed from the modified Hambrick’s model. Strategic leadership that causes strategic change in terms of strategic process and content within environmental and organizational context will lead to organizational performance as an ulti...

  20. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  1. RESEARCH ON THE QUAIL EGGS ALBUMEN CONTENT IN SOME HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VIZITIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of a sample batch of 20 Japanese quails, Pharaoh race, with an age of 100 days and weighing 245 g, approximately 200 eggs were collected at the peak phase of the laying period. The eggs were measured, weighed and broken, separating the albumen from the other components. The data obtained served to calculate the physical and morphological indices. Primary chemical composition, caloricity, heavy metals content were first determined, the following data being obtained: quail eggs albumen has an average weight of 7.1025±0.061g, an average volume of 7.158±0.09cm3, an average density of 1.0168±0.0139 g/cm3 and an index (of freshness of 0.0797±0.0015. The albumen contains: 86.76% water, 13.24% dry matter, 0.835% mineral matter, 11.37% protein, 1.03% non-nitrogenous extractive substances and a caloricity of 289.498 kJ for 100 g product. The average content of heavy metals in albumen was: 1.33*10-3 ppm, for cadmium; 8.83*10-2 ppm, for zinc; 1.005 ppm, for cooper and 0.0 ppm, respectively, for lead.

  2. Heavy metal content and molecular species identification in canned tuna: Insights into human food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Copat, Chiara; Ferrito, Venera; Grasso, Alfina; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-05-01

    Canned tuna in olive oil and in brine of the most popular brands sold in Italian markets were analyzed to verify the authentication of transformed products, with the aim to unveil commercial frauds due to the substitutions of high value species with species of low commercial value, and to assess the health risk of consumers related to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) contents. Species authentication was evaluated with amplification of COI DNA barcode and confirmed the declared species. Among tested metals, Hg had the highest concentrations, followed by Cd and Pb. None of the tested samples surpassed the European regulatory limits no. 1881/2006 fixed for Hg and Pb, whereas one batch of canned tuna in olive oil exceeded standard for Cd. Risk for human health was evaluated by the metals daily intake and target hazard quotient (THQ). As a result, Cd and Pb did not exceed the toxicological reference values established by World Health Organization (WHO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Conversely, Hg content suggests a consumption no more than once a week and a continuous surveillance of this fishery products for consumer protection.

  3. Studies of Radioactive Contaminations and heavy metal contents in vegetables and fruit from Lublin, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibowski, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents studies of the level of some gamma radioactive elements and heavy metals in fruits, vegetables and plants from Lublin. Potassium 40 K isotope was most prevalent element in the examined samples. It concentrated mainly in aboveground parts of some vegetables, for example in parsley and carrots haulm and in leaves of red beet and leek (from 1135 to 1940 Bq/kg). considerably lower concentrations of this element were noticed in the roots of the vegetables, running from 210 to 448 Bq/kg of dry matter. In examined fruit, the 40 K contents ranged from 490 to 510 Bq/kg. Transfer factors of 40 K, from the soil to the vegetables and fruit, ranged from 0.3 to 2.9. The natural isotopes of uranium series account for 17% of total activity, whereas thorium series was 19-20% of its activity. In fact, in examined fruit (raspberry, red and black currants) and roots of vegetables caesium 137 Cs was not detected, whereas some amounts of it were noticed in green parts of vegetables, from 4.0 to 8.4 Bq/kg of dry matter. The transfer factor of 137 Cs from the soil to examined samples ranged from 0.03 to 0.4. in all studied samples examined on heavy metal contents no valid safety standards for these elements were exceeded. (author)

  4. Effect of alkali metal content of carbon on retention of iodine at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Activated carbon for filters in reactor confinement systems is intentionally impregnated with iodine salts to enhance the removal of radioiodine from air streams containing organic iodides. When a variety of commercial impregnated carbons were evaluated for iodine retention at elevated temperatures (4 hours at 180 0 C), wide variations in iodine penetration were observed. The alkali metal and iodine content of carbon samples was determined by neutron activation analysis, and a strong correlation was shown between the atom ratio of iodine to alkali metals in the carbons and the high-temperature retention performance. Carbons containing excess alkali (especially potassium) have iodine penetration values 10 to 100 times lower than carbons containing excess iodine. Both low I/K ratios and high pH values were shown essential to high efficiency iodine retention; therefore, conversion of elemental iodine to ionic iodine is the basic reaction mechanism. The natural high K + content and high pH coconut carbons make coconut the preferred natural base material for nuclear air cleaning applications. Studies show, however, that treatment of low potassium carbons with a mixture of KOH and I 2 may produce a product equal to or better than I 2 -impregnated coconut carbons at a lower cost. (U.S.)

  5. Micro-EDXRF surface analyses of a bronze spear head: Lead content in metal and corrosion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, E.; Valerio, P.; Araujo, M.F.; Senna-Martinez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    A bronze spear head from Central Portugal dated to Late Bronze Age has been analyzed by non-destructive micro-EDXRF in the metal surface and corrosion layers. The artifact had previously been analyzed using a conventional EDXRF spectrometer having a larger incident beam. The quantification of the micro-EDXRF analyses showed that lead content in corrosion layers can reach values up to four times higher than the content determined in the metal surface. Results obtained with the higher energy incident beam from the EDXRF equipment, although referring mainly to the corrosion layers, seem to suffer some influence from the surface composition of the metallic alloy

  6. Recycled scrap metal and soils/debris with low radioactive contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriker, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of large volume bulk shipments of materials with low radioactivity have characteristics that complicate compliance with normal transport regulations. Scrap metal for recycling sometimes contains radioactive material that was not known or identified by the shipper prior to it being offered for transport to a scrap recycle processor. If the radioactive material is not detected before the scrap is processed, radiological and economic problems may occur. If detected before processing, the scrap metal will often be returned to the shipper. Uranium mill-tailings and contaminated soils and debris have created potential public health problems that required the movement of large volumes of bulk material to isolated safe locations. Similarly, old radium processing sites have created contamination problems needing remediation. The US Department of Transportation has issued exemptions to shippers and carriers for returning rejected scrap metal to original shippers. Other exemptions simplify transport of mill-tailings and debris from sites being remediated. These exemptions provide relief from detailed radioassay of the radioactive content in each conveyance as well as relief from the normal requirements for packaging, shipping documents, marking, labelling, and placarding which would be required for some of the shipments if the exemptions were not issued. (Author)

  7. Selected Heavy Metals Content in Soil and Arundina graminifolia from Pelepah Kanan Mine, Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahibin Abdul Rahim; Zulfahmi Ali Rahman; Wan Mohd Razi Idris; Azman Hashim; Tukimat Lihan; Muhd Barzani Gasim; Jumaat Adam; Lim, F.N.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals composition of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in Arundina graminifolia collected from mining area at Lombong Pelepah Kanan, Kota Tinggi, Johor were determined. The heavy metal content was also analysed in their soil substrates. The plants were separated into different portions for example root, stem and leaf and extracted for their heavy metal content by digestion method whereas the soils heavy metal content was extracted by sequential extraction. Heavy metal content in soil and plant extract was determined using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Heavy metal contents of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in plants were compared with their content in the control plant, whereas the Co and Zn contents were three to five folds higher. As for heavy metal content in different plant parts, it was found that Cd concentration was high in roots (2.03 mg/ kg) followed by leaf (1.67 mg/ kg) and stem (1.49 mg/ kg). Co concentration was high in leaf (9.26 mg/ kg) followed by root (9.18 mg/ kg) and stem (6.94 mg/ kg). For Cr, the concentration in decreasing sequence was root (0.46 mg/ kg) > leaf (0.19 mg/ kg) > stem (0.08 mg/ kg). Ni concentration was higher in leaf (2.78 mg/ kg) followed by root (2.71 mg/ kg) and stem (1.66 mg/ kg). Concentration in decreasing order was root (10.34 mg/ kg) > leaf (4.18 mg/ kg) > stem (3.75 mg/ kg). Zn concentration was higher in leaf (44.03 mg/ kg) followed by root (32.30 mg/ kg) and stem (13.21 mg/ kg). Total heavy metal content in soil was 2.07 - 5.59 mg/ kg, 8.72 - 39.93 mg/ kg, 1.81 - 2.14 mg/ kg, 2.66 - 6.87 mg/ kg, 23.02 - 51.56 mg/ kg and 0.64 - 2.61 mg/ kg for Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Co and Cr, respectively. The available fraction of heavy metals in soil was 21.9 % for Ni, 15.3 % for Zn, 49.9 % for Cd, 19.3 % for Pb, 45.7 % for Co and nil percent for Cr. Biological adsorption coefficient for the heavy metals studied was very low except for Zn where BAC value slightly higher than 1. This plant was not suitable to be used as a phyto

  8. Are Mergers a Win-Win Strategic Model? A Content Analysis of Inter-Institutional Collaboration between Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll-Soler, Carlos; de-Miguel-Molina, María

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper, based on a content analysis of the literature about models of inter-institutional collaboration between higher education institutions, is to establish the characteristics that set them apart, contextualize each of these models in terms of the features of the setting in which they are implemented, and ascertain their…

  9. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  10. THE STUDY OF HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN THE CATCHMENT AREA OF THE BIEBRZA RIVER AND THREE TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples were taken in 11 measuring points of the Biebrza River and determined the contents of six metals (Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Zn. Arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation were calculated. The sources of heavy metals in bottom sediments are: pollutants of fieldsand meadows (admixtures of plant protection products and fertilizers, discharges of domestic sewage and municipal from local wastewater treatment plants, wastewater di-scharges from rural buildings and pollutions of anthropogenic origin. Research of pollution of bottom sediments with heavy metals are needed tool for monitoring the aquatic environ-ment. Continuous monitoring metal content of the sediments will counteract the effects of the threat of biological life in the water reservoir, which may occur in the case of notorious exceeded permissible content of harmful substances.

  11. Heavy metal contamination, microbiological spoilage and biogenic amine content in sushi available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawik, Piotr; Dordevic, Dani; Gambuś, Florian; Szczurowska, Katarzyna; Zając, Marzena

    2018-05-01

    The present study determined the heavy metal contamination (mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel) of nori, restaurant-served sushi and ready-to-eat sushi meals available via retail chains. Moreover, both microbiological load and biogenic amine content in ready-to-eat sushi meals were analysed. All of the nori samples contained high levels of Cd (2.122 mg kg -1 ), Ni (0.715 mg kg -1 ), As (34.56 mg kg -1 ) and Pb (0.659 mg kg -1 ). The studied sushi samples contained high levels of Ni and Pb, reaching 0.194 and 0.142 mg kg -1 wet weight, respectively, being potentially hazardous to women during pregnancy and lactation and small children. None of the studied samples contained high levels of Hg. Overall, 37% of ready-to-eat sushi meals exceeded a microbiological load of 10 6  cfu g -1 . However, biogenic amine content in all of the samples was low, with a highest histamine content of 2.05 mg kg -1 . Sushi is not the source of high levels of biogenic amines even with high microbiological loads. Nevertheless, the high microbiological loads at the end of the shelf-life indicate that some processors might have problems with the distribution chain or implement a poor hygienic regime. Moreover as a result of possible risk associated with heavy metal contamination, the present study highlights the need to establish new regulations regarding the contamination of nori and sushi. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN FLUVISOLS OF FLOODPLAIN AREA DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF LAND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Kobierski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the evaluation of the potential contamination with heavy metals in Fluvisols, used as grasslands and arable soils of Vistula River floodplain in the area of the Chełmiński and Nadwiślański Complex of Landscape Parks. The indicators proposed by Håkanson allow to evaluate the potential ecological risk of the contamination with heavy metals associated with the accumulation of one metal or a combination of multiple metals. The mean total content of Cd, Pb, Ni Cu, Zn, Mn, as well as Fe in Fluvisols at the depth of 120–150 cm was assumed as the content of the local geochemical background and it was: 1.0 mg·kg-1, 22.8 mg·kg-1, 26.9 mg·kg-1, 1.4 mg·kg-1, 60.8 mg·kg-1, 591 mg·kg-1, and 17.6 g·kg-1, respectively. The values of the indicators such as contamination factor (CF, enrichment factor (EF revealed higher levels of the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils of grasslands, which shows that the method of their use has a significant effect on the total metal content. Contamination with heavy metals in the surface layer of the investigated Fluvisols was found, and in terms of the content with cadmium there a moderate and considerable potential ecological risk was reported. Due to the fact that no unfavourable effect of trace elements on the riverside environment was proved and that the floodplain areas are under agricultural use, to evaluate the contamination with metals, the limit values for the soils of agricultural land were assumed as stipulated in the Regulation of Minister of the Environment of September 9, 2002. According to that criterion, the soils studied do not qualify as contaminated with metals. Only in one of the soil sampling points the total content of zinc was higher than the one determined as the maximum for agricultural land soils, namely 350 mg·kg-1. A significantly positive correlation was noted between the content of C org and the total content of metals as well as very numerous

  13. Correlation between heavy metal contents and antioxidant activities in medicinal plants grown in copper mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Three commonly used medicinal plants, e.g., Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, and Withania somnifera grown in two contrasting environmental conditions, namely from copper mining site and from control site corresponding to soil not contaminated with Cu, to understand correlations between high Cu bioaccumulation in medicinal plants on their antioxidant activities. Concentrations of some essential metals, e.g., Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se in the leaves of these plants were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The Cu levels in the samples from mining site were in the range of 32.6 to 57.2 mg/kg, which were 5-7 folds higher than the control samples, while Cr levels were about 2-folds higher in the mining site. Speciation studies of Cr revealed negligible content of toxic hexavalent Cr. Antioxidant assay of these plants from both the sampling sites, measured as total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, free radical scavenging ability, and chelating ability with ferrous ions exhibited maximum activity for A. vasica, while that of W. somnifera was minimum. However, the variations in the antioxidant activities for each medicinal plant species from mining site and control site did not reveal significant differences. (author)

  14. Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the

  15. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment.

  16. A city scale study on the effects of intensive groundwater heat pump systems on heavy metal contents in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Garrido, Eduardo; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Lázaro, Jesús Mateo; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; Huggenberger, P; Calvo, Miguel Ángel Marazuela

    2016-12-01

    As a result of the increasing use of shallow geothermal resources, hydraulic, thermal and chemical impacts affecting groundwater quality can be observed with ever increasing frequency (Possemiers et al., 2014). To overcome the uncertainty associated with chemical impacts, a city scale study on the effects of intensive geothermal resource use by groundwater heat pump systems on groundwater quality, with special emphasis on heavy metal contents was performed. Statistical analysis of geochemical data obtained from several field campaigns has allowed studying the spatiotemporal relationship between temperature anomalies in the aquifer and trace element composition of groundwater. The relationship between temperature and the concentrations of trace elements resulted in weak correlations, indicating that temperature changes are not the driving factor in enhancing heavy metal contaminations. Regression models established for these correlations showed a very low reactivity or response of heavy metal contents to temperature changes. The change rates of heavy metal contents with respect to temperature changes obtained indicate a low risk of exceeding quality threshold values by means of the exploitation regimes used, neither producing nor enhancing contamination significantly. However, modification of pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity correlated with the concentrations of heavy metals. In this case, the change rates of heavy metal contents are higher, with a greater risk of exceeding threshold values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and testing of metallic fuels with high minor actinide content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.K.; Hayes, S.L.; Kennedy, J.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Hilton, B.A.; Frank, S.M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Chang, G.; Ambrosek, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Metallic alloys are promising candidates for use as fuels for transmutation and in advanced closed nuclear cycles. Metallic alloys have high heavy metal atom density, relatively high thermal conductivity, favorable gas release behavior, and lend themselves to remote recycle processes. Both non-fertile and uranium-bearing metal fuels containing minor actinide are under consideration for use as transmutation fuels by the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) program, however, little irradiation performance data exists for fuel forms containing significant fractions of minor actinides. The first irradiation tests of non-fertile high-actinide-content fuels are scheduled to begin in early 2003 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The irradiation test matrix was designed to provide basic information on the irradiation behavior of binary Pu-Zr alloy fuel and the effect of the minor actinides americium and neptunium on alloy fuel behavior, together and separately. Five variants of transuranic containing zirconium-based alloy fuels are included in the AFC-1 irradiation test matrix. These are (in wt.%) Pu-40Zr, Pu-60Zr, Pu-12Am-40Zr, Pu-10Np-40Zr and Pu-10Np-10Am-40Zr. PuN-ZrN based fuels containing Am and Np are also included. All five of the fuel alloys have been fabricated in the form of cylindrical fuel slugs by arc-casting. Short melt times, on the order or 5-20 seconds, prevent the volatilization of significant quantities of americium metal, despite the high melt temperatures characteristic of the arc-melting process. Alloy microstructure have been characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal analysis has also been performed. The AFC-1 irradiation experiment configuration consists of twenty-four sodium bonded fuel specimens sealed in helium filled secondary capsules. The first capsule has a design burnup to 7 at.% 239 Pu; goal peak burnup of the second capsule is ∼18 at%. Capsule assemblies are placed within an aluminum flow-through basket

  18. Effect of nickel content on mechanical properties and fracture toughness of weld metal of WWER-1000 reactor vessel welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Vasilchenko, G.S.; Starchenko, E.G.; Nosov, S.I

    2004-08-01

    Welding of WWER-1000 reactor vessel of steel 15X2HMPHIA is performed using the C{sub B}-12X2H2MAA wire and PHI-16 or PHI-16A flux. Nickel content in the weld metal usually lays within the limits 1.2-1.9%. The experimental data is shown on the weld metal with the nickel contents 1.28-2.45% after irradiation with fluence up to 260.10{sup 22}n/m{sup 2} at energy more than 0.5 MEV. The embrittlement was measured by shift of critical brittleness temperature. Has appeared, that the weld metal with the low nickel content is the least responsive to irradiation embrittlement. The mechanical properties and fracture toughness of the weld metal with the contents of a nickel less than 1.3% are studied. Specimens CT-1T are tested, the 'master-curve', and its confidence bounds with probability of destruction 5 and 95% is built. 'Master-curve' in the specified confidence interval is affirmed by CT-4T specimens test data. Is shown, that the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of the weld metal with the contents of nickel less than 1.3% satisfy the normative requirements.

  19. Effect of nickel content on mechanical properties and fracture toughness of weld metal of WWER-1000 reactor vessel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Vasilchenko, G.S.; Starchenko, E.G.; Nosov, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Welding of WWER-1000 reactor vessel of steel 15X2HMPHIA is performed using the C B -12X2H2MAA wire and PHI-16 or PHI-16A flux. Nickel content in the weld metal usually lays within the limits 1.2-1.9%. The experimental data is shown on the weld metal with the nickel contents 1.28-2.45% after irradiation with fluence up to 260.10 22 n/m 2 at energy more than 0.5 MEV. The embrittlement was measured by shift of critical brittleness temperature. Has appeared, that the weld metal with the low nickel content is the least responsive to irradiation embrittlement. The mechanical properties and fracture toughness of the weld metal with the contents of a nickel less than 1.3% are studied. Specimens CT-1T are tested, the 'master-curve', and its confidence bounds with probability of destruction 5 and 95% is built. 'Master-curve' in the specified confidence interval is affirmed by CT-4T specimens test data. Is shown, that the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of the weld metal with the contents of nickel less than 1.3% satisfy the normative requirements

  20. Content and the forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments in the zone of industrial pollution sources ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytyuk Y.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regularities in the distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the zone of influence of the steel industry in Mariupol are installed. The study results of the forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni are represented. Ecological and geochemical assessment of sediment contamination by heavy metals is performed. The main sources of pollution of bottom sediments are air borne emissions from industrial plants, hydrogenous pollution in industrial sewage entering the water, sewage sludge, ash dumps, slag, ore, sludge, oil spills and salt solutions. Pollution hydrogenous sediments may be significant, contaminated sediments are a source of long-term contamination of water, even after cessation of discharges into rivers untreated wastewater. The environmental condition of bottom sediments in gross content of heavy metals is little information because they do not reflect the transformation and further migration to adjacent environment. The study forms of giving objective information for ecological and geochemical evaluation. The study forms of heavy metals in the sediments carried by successive extracts. Concentrations of heavy metals in the extracts determined by atomic absorption spectrometer analysis CAS-115. It was established that a number of elements typical of exceeding their content in bottom sediments of the background values, due likely to their technogenic origin. Man-made pollution of bottom sediments. Mariupol has disrupted the natural form of the ratio of heavy metals. In the studied sediments form ion exchange increased content of heavy metals, which contributes to their migration in the aquatic environment.

  1. Water quality in the Tibetan Plateau: Metal contents of four selected rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiang; Sillanpaeae, Mika; Duo Bu; Gjessing, Egil T.

    2008-01-01

    The water used by 85% of the Asian population originates in Tibetan Plateau. During April and May of 2006, water samples were collected from four major Asian rivers in the Plateau (i.e. the Salween, Mekong, Yangtze River and Yarlung Tsangpo) and analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Li, Mn, Al, Fe, Mg and Hg. The results showed that elements such as Mg were rather high in Tibetan rivers, giving a mean electrical conductance of 36 mS/m. In a few locations, the results also showed relatively high concentrations of Al and Fe (>1 mg/L). However, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, and Cr were generally low. Contamination with Pb was identified at a few locations in the Salween and Ni at a few sites in the Yangtze River. - For the first time, total dissolved metal contents in source water of four major Asian rivers were evaluated at the same time

  2. Heavy metals content in acid mine drainage at abandoned and active mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatar, Hazirah; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Razi, Wan Mohd; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at former Barite Mine, Tasik Chini and former iron mine Sungai Lembing in Pahang, and also active gold mine at Lubuk Mandi, Terengganu. This study was conducted to determine heavy metals content in acid mine drainage (AMD) at the study areas. Fourteen water sampling stations within the study area were chosen for this purpose. In situ water characteristic determinations were carried out for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and total dissolved solid (TDS) using multi parameter YSI 556. Water samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for sulfate, total acidity and heavy metals which follow the standard methods of APHA (1999) and HACH (2003). Heavy metals in the water samples were determined directly using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data obtained showed a highly acidic mean of pH values with pH ranged from 2.6 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 0.2. Mean of electrical conductivity ranged from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 1.01 ± 0.70 mS/cm. Redox potential mean ranged from 487.40 ± 13.68 to 579.9 ± 80.46 mV. Mean of total dissolved solids (TDS) in AMD ranged from 306.50 ± 125.16 to 608.14 ± 411.64 mg/L. Mean of sulfate concentration in AMD ranged from 32.33 ± 1.41 to 207.08 ± 85.06 mg/L, whereas the mean of total acidity ranged from 69.17 ± 5.89 to 205.12 ± 170.83 mgCaCO3/L. Heavy metals content in AMD is dominated by Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn with mean concentrations range from 2.16 ± 1.61 to 36.31 ± 41.02 mg/L, 0.17 ± 0.13 to 11.06 ± 2.85 mg/L, 1.12 ± 0.65 to 7.17 ± 6.05 mg/L and 0.62 ± 0.21 to 6.56 ± 4.11 mg/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of Ni, Co, As, Cd and Pb were less than 0.21, 0.51, 0.24, 0.05 and 0.45 mg/L, respectively. Significant correlation occurred between Fe and Mn, Cu, Zn, Co and Cd. Water pH correlated negatively with all the heavy metals, whereas total acidity, sulfate, total dissolved solid, and redox potential correlated positively. The concentration of heavy metals in the AMD

  3. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  4. Heavy metals content in the indicatory biosubstrates of fertile and infertile men of urbanized territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biletska E.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying features of heavy metals content - lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in the whole blood and ejaculate of fertile and infertile men. The concentration of metals in biosubstrates was determined by inverse voltamperometry method with the usage of АVА- 2. It is revealed, that maintenance of lead and cadmium practically in all biosubstrates of fertile men is 1,3-2,2 times higher as compared to the indices of infertile patients and in all investigated groups it exceeds normative levels by 1,2-6,4 times. Thus, sterile men have the expressed disbalance of copper in the organism, maintenance of which in the blood is 1,7-2,3 times higher against the analogous indices of fertile group and physiological level. Concentration of zinc in ejaculate of men with normal fertility is 9,3 times higher as compared to analogous indices of sterile men and by 30,9 times exceeds its level in blood of fertile group, this testifies to the exceptionally important role of zinc for the generative sphere of men. In biosubstrates of fertile men, living in conditions of technogenically polluted territories, concentration of zinc is by 1,2-1,5 times lower than physiological levels, this may testify to probability of forming zinc-deficient states in this contingent of population.

  5. Polymeric supported sorbents for decreasing hazardous metal ions content in wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhar, A.A.; El-Naggar, H.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2005-01-01

    Procedure for preparation of polymeric supported silica, and their usage for decreasing hazardous metal ion content in wet process phosphoric acid was developed. The procedure is based firstly on extraction silica from rice straw by alkaline treatment , secondly supporting the produced silica on binding polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The produced polymer based sorbent was used for decreasing hazardous metal ions (especially iron) present as inorganic impurities in crud Egyptian phosphoric acid (green acid). Different factors affecting the sorption equilibrium ( contact time, temperature , sorbent mass and batch factor ) were studied. Studying the sorption isotherm revealed that the adsorption data could favorably fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the dynamic study , the sorption capacity at (Cξ/Cο = 50%) was found to be 28.5 mg/g and the loaded column could be regenerated using 50ml of 0.15 M HNO 3 . The regenerated column could undergo sorption regeneration cycles up to four cycles without significant decrease in the sorption capacity , weight loss or change in the physical properties of the sorbent

  6. Determination of metals content from wines by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, Andreea-Maria; Geana, Elisabeta-Irina

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Wine is a widely consumed beverage with thousands of years of tradition. Wine composition strongly determines its quality besides having a great relevance on wine characterization, tipyfication and frauds detection. Wine composition is influenced by many and diverse factors corresponding to the specific production area, such as grape variety, soil and climate, culture, yeast, winemaking practices, transport and storage. Daily consumption of wine in moderate quantities contributes significantly to the requirements of the human organism for essential elements such as Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and Sr. On the other hand, several metals, such as Pb and Cd , are known to be potentially toxic. The objective of this work was to develop a method to determine the metals content in wine samples from Romania. Three samples of difference white wines available in the supermarket was analyzed for identify the presence of: Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and Sr by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). (authors)

  7. Recent temporal variations of trace metal content in an Italian white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldi, Anna; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-09-15

    For the first time in Italy, the temporal variations of Cd, Pb and Cu content in an Italian white wine were studied over the period 1995-2010. A previously set up and optimized Square-Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetric technique was used. Cd showed a first decrease (∼30%) due to the use of pesticides with progressively low Cd residues. Since 2000 Cd had constant and extremely low values (0.17±0.07 μg L(-1)). A significant decrease (∼74%) from 1995 to 2010 was observed for Pb (mean concentration, 18±10 μg L(-1)) probably due to the recent decrease in Pb emissions in the atmosphere following the phasing out of metal from gasoline (in Italy since 2002). The Cu reduction (mean value, 32±15 μg L(-1)) of ∼74% from 1995 to 2010 was related to the use of phytoiatric products with a progressively low Cu content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of mineral content and heavy metals of dromedary camel milk in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh MOSTAFIDI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the amount of major mineral compounds and heavy metals of camel milk in Iran. For this purpose camel milk samples were collected from seven regions of Iran include Qazvin, Golestan, Semnan, Sistan-Baluchestan, Khuzestan, Bushehr and Tehran. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES method. The results showed that among the mineral contents, iron and zinc of camel milk were greater than bovine milk. Based on the codex standard 193-2007 standards, the maximum acceptable limit for lead and cadmium is 20 µg/kg and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The results of this study showed that the measured amounts of lead, cadmium and nickel in all samples were less than the acceptable limit for bovine milk. Bovine milk and dairy products are a poor source of iron, while the obtained data revealed that camel milk is a major source of minerals, especially iron. The camel milk’s iron was 10 times more than bovine milk. However, variations in mineral content in camel milk could be due to feed, stage of lactation, milk collection time, drought conditions, environmental conditions and associated analytical methods. Camel milk recommended as a valuable source of food for the human.

  9. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards with simultaneous enrichment of special metals by using alkaline melts: A green and strategically advantageous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlpfarrer, Philipp; Luidold, Stefan; Antrekowitsch, Helmut

    2016-04-15

    The increasing consumption of electric and electronic equipment has led to a rise in toxic waste. To recover the metal fraction, a separation of the organic components is necessary because harmful substances such as chlorine, fluorine and bromine cause ecological damage, for example in the form of dioxins and furans at temperature above 400°C. Hence, an alternative, environmentally friendly approach was investigated exploiting that a mixture of caustic soda and potassium hydroxide in eutectic composition melts below 200°C, enabling a fast cracking of the long hydrocarbon chains. The trials demonstrate the removal of organic compounds without a loss of copper and precious metals, as well as a suppressed formation of hazardous off-gases. In order to avoid an input of alkaline elements into the furnace and ensuing problems with refractory materials, a washing step generates a sodium and potassium hydroxide solution, in which special metals like indium, gallium and germanium are enriched. Their concentrations facilitate the recovery of these elements, because otherwise they become lost in the typical recycling processes. The aim of this work was to find an environmental solution for the separation of plastics and metals as well as a strategically important answer for the recycling of printed circuit boards and mobile phones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards with simultaneous enrichment of special metals by using alkaline melts: A green and strategically advantageous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlpfarrer, Philipp, E-mail: philipp-johannes.stuhlpfarrer@stud.unileoben.ac.at; Luidold, Stefan; Antrekowitsch, Helmut

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Removal of plastics. • Enrichment of In, Ga and Ge. • Low temperature. • No dioxines. - Abstract: The increasing consumption of electric and electronic equipment has led to a rise in toxic waste. To recover the metal fraction, a separation of the organic components is necessary because harmful substances such as chlorine, fluorine and bromine cause ecological damage, for example in the form of dioxins and furans at temperature above 400 °C. Hence, an alternative, environmentally friendly approach was investigated exploiting that a mixture of caustic soda and potassium hydroxide in eutectic composition melts below 200 °C, enabling a fast cracking of the long hydrocarbon chains. The trials demonstrate the removal of organic compounds without a loss of copper and precious metals, as well as a suppressed formation of hazardous off-gases. In order to avoid an input of alkaline elements into the furnace and ensuing problems with refractory materials, a washing step generates a sodium and potassium hydroxide solution, in which special metals like indium, gallium and germanium are enriched. Their concentrations facilitate the recovery of these elements, because otherwise they become lost in the typical recycling processes. The aim of this work was to find an environmental solution for the separation of plastics and metals as well as a strategically important answer for the recycling of printed circuit boards and mobile phones.

  11. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards with simultaneous enrichment of special metals by using alkaline melts: A green and strategically advantageous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhlpfarrer, Philipp; Luidold, Stefan; Antrekowitsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Removal of plastics. • Enrichment of In, Ga and Ge. • Low temperature. • No dioxines. - Abstract: The increasing consumption of electric and electronic equipment has led to a rise in toxic waste. To recover the metal fraction, a separation of the organic components is necessary because harmful substances such as chlorine, fluorine and bromine cause ecological damage, for example in the form of dioxins and furans at temperature above 400 °C. Hence, an alternative, environmentally friendly approach was investigated exploiting that a mixture of caustic soda and potassium hydroxide in eutectic composition melts below 200 °C, enabling a fast cracking of the long hydrocarbon chains. The trials demonstrate the removal of organic compounds without a loss of copper and precious metals, as well as a suppressed formation of hazardous off-gases. In order to avoid an input of alkaline elements into the furnace and ensuing problems with refractory materials, a washing step generates a sodium and potassium hydroxide solution, in which special metals like indium, gallium and germanium are enriched. Their concentrations facilitate the recovery of these elements, because otherwise they become lost in the typical recycling processes. The aim of this work was to find an environmental solution for the separation of plastics and metals as well as a strategically important answer for the recycling of printed circuit boards and mobile phones.

  12. Species variation of Aegilops genus and heavy metal content in plant habitat soil at southern Adriatic localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aegilops genus is a wild relative to the bread wheat, having chromosomes homologous to wheat chromosomes. That genus could be the source of many usefull abiotic stress tolerance genes. Facing a global climate changes, as well as, environmental erosion, it is important to create a desirable genetic variability that could correspond to environmental challenges. Heavy metals in soil could cause soil pollution, could lead to different phenotypic changes in plants, and could enter food chain. Assessment of Aegilops sp. population variation, as well as, heavy metal content in their habitat was the main goal in this research. Aegilops population composition was examined and samples were taken from 55 localities of South Adriatic coastal and littoral areas. Topsoil samples from all the localities were taken and heavy metal content, namely Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Cu, was analyzed,. Manganese content was measured, as well. Value of pH was established.

  13. The Investigation of Heavy Metal Content (Cu, Cd, Pb in Sapu-Sapu Fish (Hypostomus plecostomus in Bengawan Solo River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyana Eko Setyarini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study had been carried out to investigate heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Pb content in sapu-sapu fish (hypostomus plecostomus in Bengawan Solo river. The type of this research was observational research, with sapu-sapu fish inhabit Bengawan Solo River as the population. The samples were taken with purposive random sampling. Nine sapu-sapu fishes taken from 3 places, i.e.: Nguter Sukoharjo area, Premulung river outlet and Anyar river, 3 fishes from each palce, and then take examined the content of heavy metal. The result of study showed that the average content of Cu: 0.027 mg/100gr, Cd: 0.005 mg/100gr and Pb: 0.042 mg/100gr. Hence, sapu-sapu fish in Be3ngawan Solo had been contaminated with heavy metal (Cu, Cd, and Pb and should not be consumed.

  14. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. A. Rashid; F. S. Rehmani; 1M. Arman; M. Ibrahim; 2S. Shafique

    2011-01-01

    Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of...

  15. Free nicotine content and strategic marketing of moist snuff tobacco products in the United States: 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, H R; Koh, H; Connolly, G N

    2008-10-01

    From 2000 to 2006, moist snuff sales have increased and now account for 71% of the smokeless tobacco market. Previous research has shown that major manufacturers of smokeless tobacco products manipulated free nicotine, the form most readily absorbed, to promote tolerance and addiction. This study examines the possibility that company-specific and brand-specific strategies of the major moist snuff manufacturers involve controlling free nicotine content and ease of dosing with products that are designed and targeted to specific groups. This study looks at the current total US moist snuff market with product design data from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health; moist snuff use from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health; market data from ACNielsen; and magazine advertising expenditures from TNS Media Intelligence. (1) The levels of free nicotine of moist snuff products have increased over time for several major manufacturers; (2) the number and variety of sub-brands have increased over time; (3) changes in design, as reflected by variation in free nicotine associated with pH or tobacco leaf, or both, have enhanced the ease and uniformity of dosing; (4) marketing through price and advertising has increased; and (5) youth use has increased. A combination of factors including brand proliferation, control of free nicotine and product design has most likely resulted in the expanded consumption of moist snuff, particularly among young people.

  16. Selected Heavy Metal Content in Ultra basic Soil and Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) from Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahibin Abdul Rahim; Wan Mohd Razi Idris; Zulfahmi Ali Rahman; Kadderi Mohd Desa; Tukimat Lihan; Azman Hashim; Sharilnizam Yusof; Kuan, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out at an ultra basic area, Selaru (S1 and S2) dan Felda Rokan Barat (S3), Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan. Eighteen samples of plant and their substrates were collected from study area. The purpose of this study was to determine heavy metal such as Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe and Zn contents in soils and different parts of the plant, such as leaf, stem, root and fruit. Biologal Absorption Coefficient (BAC) of the plant was obtained by calculation. Heavy metals content in the plant were extracted by digestion method whereas in soil the heavy metals were extracted by sequential extraction. Heavy metals content in soil and plant extract was determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. It was found that heavy metal concentrations in soil substrate for mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) were high for Fe followed by Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn and Co with average concentration of 1208.5, 583.4, 352.4, 352.4, 70.7 and 53.6 mg.kg -1 , respectively. Available Mn and Zn concentrations were higher than the other heavy metals in term of percentage. Fe and Mn were dominant in all parts of plants however in terms of BAC average, Co showed the highest enrichment value in all parts of the plants. (author)

  17. Uranium metal and uranium dioxide powder and pellets - Determination of nitrogen content - Method using ammonia-sensing electrode. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This International Standard specifies an analytical method for determining the nitrogen content in uranium metal and uranium dioxide powder and pellets. It is applicable to the determination of nitrogen, present as nitride, in uranium metal and uranium dioxide powder and pellets. The concentration range within which the method can be used is between 9 μg and 600 μg of nitrogen per gram. Interference can occur from metals which form complex ammines, but these are not normally present in significant amounts

  18. [Heavy metals and hydrocarbons content in soils of settlements of the Yamal-Nenets autonomous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, I I; Abakumov, E V; Shamilishvili, G A; Lodygin, E D

    In August 2015 there were executed investigations on the study of the soils diversity of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. One of the directions of this work got be the study of urban soils of settlements of the Yamal-Nenents Autonomous Okrug. The sectors for the observation were settlement of Harsaim, village Aksarka, city of Salekhard, settlement Harp and city of Labytnangi. About 20 soil samples were collected during the field work. Samples were collected from a depth of 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm. Heavy metals (HM) were detected with the use of X-ray fluorescent analyzer “Spectroscan-MAX”. The HM content values were compared with the corresponding Approxible Permissible Concentrations and Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC) adopted in Russia. Hydrocarbons content was determined by gravimetric method. Values of the hydrocarbons content in studied soils were compared with the existing regulations of the Russian Federation. The levels of soil contamination by hydrocarbons were determined. The study of soil samples from different settlements allowed to reveal characteristic features of soil contamination of separate settlements by HM and hydrocarbons and to compare them against each other. The vast majority of samples are characterized by arsenic exceedance of MAC, which should indicate to a high regional background of this element. For a more adequate assessment of the Zc meaning as the value of the total pollution index of soils there were used not only arithmetical average values of the coefficients of the chemical composition concentration (Kc), but also their average geometric values. According to levels of total soil contamination most of soil samples are characterized as non-hazardous (Zc<16). Calculation of soil pollution index showed that the most of soil samples have values less than 1. It characterizes soils as unpolluted. Statistical processing of obtained data in the media of the analytical software interface STATISTICA 10 showed a statistically

  19. Study on the prediction of soil heavy metal elements content based on visible near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbao; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Huanyuan; Du, Yichun

    2018-06-01

    The estimation of soils heavy metal content can reflect the impending surroundings of surface, which lays theoretical foundation for using covered vegetation to monitor environment and investigate resource. In this study, the contents of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb in 44 soil samples were collected from Fufeng County, Yangling County and Wugong County, Shaanxi Province and were used as data sources. ASD FieldSpec HR (350-2500 nm), and then the NOR, MSC and SNV of the reflectance were pretreated, the first deviation, second deviation and reflectance reciprocal logarithmic transformation were carried out. The optimal spectroscopy estimation model of nine heavy metal elements of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb was established by regression method. Comparing the diffuse reflectance characteristics of different heavy metal contents and the effect of different pretreatment methods on the establishment of soil heavy metal spectral inversion model. The results of chemical analysis show that there was a serious Hg pollution in the study area, and the Cd content was close to the critical value. The results show that: (1) NOR, MSC and SNV were adopted for the acquisition of visible near-infrared. Combining differential transformation can improve the information of heavy metal elements in the soil, and use the correlation band energy Significantly improve the stability and predictability of the model. (2) The modeling accuracy of the optimal model of nine heavy metal spectra of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb by PLSR method were 0.70, 0.79, 0.69, 0.81, 0.86, 0.58, 0.55, 0.99, 0.62. (3) The optimal estimation model of different elements using different treatment methods has better stability and higher precision, and can realize the rapid prediction of nine kinds of heavy metal elements in this region.

  20. Study on the prediction of soil heavy metal elements content based on visible near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbao; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Huanyuan; Du, Yichun

    2018-06-15

    The estimation of soils heavy metal content can reflect the impending surroundings of surface, which lays theoretical foundation for using covered vegetation to monitor environment and investigate resource. In this study, the contents of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb in 44 soil samples were collected from Fufeng County, Yangling County and Wugong County, Shaanxi Province and were used as data sources. ASD FieldSpec HR (350-2500nm), and then the NOR, MSC and SNV of the reflectance were pretreated, the first deviation, second deviation and reflectance reciprocal logarithmic transformation were carried out. The optimal spectroscopy estimation model of nine heavy metal elements of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb was established by regression method. Comparing the diffuse reflectance characteristics of different heavy metal contents and the effect of different pretreatment methods on the establishment of soil heavy metal spectral inversion model. The results of chemical analysis show that there was a serious Hg pollution in the study area, and the Cd content was close to the critical value. The results show that: (1) NOR, MSC and SNV were adopted for the acquisition of visible near-infrared. Combining differential transformation can improve the information of heavy metal elements in the soil, and use the correlation band energy Significantly improve the stability and predictability of the model. (2) The modeling accuracy of the optimal model of nine heavy metal spectra of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb by PLSR method were 0.70, 0.79, 0.69, 0.81, 0.86, 0.58, 0.55, 0.99, 0.62. (3) The optimal estimation model of different elements using different treatment methods has better stability and higher precision, and can realize the rapid prediction of nine kinds of heavy metal elements in this region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of heavy metal content and physico-chemical properties of soils in the vicinity of Tasik Chini, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahibin Abdul Rahim; Muhd Barzani Gasim; Mohd Nizam Mohd Said; Wan Mohd Razi Idris; Azman Hashim; Sharilnizam Yusof; Masniyana Jamil

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine heavy metal content and physico-chemical properties of soils influencing heavy metal accumulation in some series surrounding the Chini Lakes. A total of 15 topsoil sample were collected randomly from 6 stations. The physical properties that were analyzed include particle size distribution and soil organic matter. Meanwhile, the chemical characteristics determined were pH, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity. It was found that heavy metal content of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, Zn and Mn were low whereas Fe content was high. The textures of soil studied were clay, loamy sand, sandy loam, clay loam and silty clay loam. The mean of organic matter ranged from 2.68 to 11.46 %. The soil pH showed that the soil studied was acidic with values ranged between 3.36 to 3.72. The range of electrical conductivity mean was between 2150 μScm -1 to 2403 μScm -1 . Cation exchange capacity mean ranged from 2.85 until 8.59 cmol/ kg. Correlation analysis showed that there were positive and negative significant correlations between soils parameters heavy metal concentration. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant differences in organic matter percentage, pH, cation exchange capacity and heavy metals except cadmium between sampling station. (author)

  2. Trace metals content (contaminants) as initial indicator in the quality of heat treated palm oil whole extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fauzi, Noor Akhmazillah bt [Chemical and Bioprocess Department, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Sarmidi, Mohd Roji [Chemical Engineering Pilot Plant, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of different sterilization time on the trace metals concentration of palm oil whole extract. Palm fruits were collected, cleaned and sterilized for 0, 20, 40 and 60 minutes. The kernels were then stripped from the sterilized fruits to get the pulp and later the pulp was pressed using small scale expeller. The resulting puree was centrifuge at 4000 rpm for 20 minutes. The palm oil whole extract were then collected and trace metals analysis was conducted using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The result showed that the highest yield was obtained at 40 minutes of sterilization with 19.9 {+-} 0.21 % (w/w). There was no significant different (p < 0.5) in total trace metals content between the degrees of the heat treatment. Na+ was found as the highest trace metals content in the extract with mean concentration ranging from 1.05 {+-} 0.03 ppm to 2.36 {+-} 0.01 ppm. 40 minutes of heating time was predicted to have good oil quality due to higher content in trace metals that inhibit the lipase enzyme activity.

  3. Effect of Nickel Contents on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties for Low-Carbon Bainitic Weld Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gaojun; Cao, Rui; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Xili; Yuan, Junjun; Zhang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jianhong

    2017-05-01

    Multi-pass weld metals were deposited on Q345 base steel using metal powder-flux-cored wire with various Ni contents to investigate the effects of the Ni content on the weld microstructure and property. The types of the microstructures were identified by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and micro-hardness tests. As a focusing point, the lath bainite and lath martensite were distinguished by their compositions, morphologies, and hardness. In particular, a number of black plane facets appearing between lath bainite or lath martensite packets were characterized by laser scanning confocal microscope. The results indicated that with the increase in Ni contents in the range of 0, 2, 4, and 6%, the microstructures in the weld-deposited metal were changed from the domination of the granular bainite to the majority of the lath bainite and/or the lath martensite and the micro-hardness of the weld-deposited metal increased. Meanwhile, the average width of columnar grain displays a decreasing trend and prior austenite grain size decreases while increases with higher Ni content above 4%. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease, while the reduction in fracture area increases with the decreasing Ni mass fraction and the increasing test temperature, respectively. And poor yield strength in Ni6 specimen can be attributed to elements segregation caused by weld defect. Finally, micro-hardness distribution in correspondence with specimens presents as a style of cloud-map.

  4. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics of the content of lipoproteins in blood serum of carp under the influence of ions of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurant, V.Z.; Sinyuk, Yu.V.; Arsan, V.O.; Grubyinko, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    A change of the content of lipoproteins in the blood serum of carp under the influence of ions of manganese, zinc, copper, and lead is studied. The important role of lipoproteins in the blood serum of fish in the processes of detoxication of ions of heavy metals that come to their organism from the water environment is shown

  6. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendell, L.I., E-mail: bendell@sfu.ca

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: {yields} Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. {yields} Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. {yields} Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. {yields} Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  7. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1)

  8. Effect of Operating Conditions on Sulfur and Metal Content of Basrah Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzher M. Ibrahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       In the present work, Basrah crude oil, atmospheric distillate of 305-623 K boiling range, vacuum distillate of 623-823 K boiling range, and wide petroleum distillate of boiling range 305-823 K are hydrotreated in trickle bed reactor using Cobalt-Molybdenum alumina as a catalyst. Hydrotreating temperatures are 598-648K, 598-673K, 648-673K and 648K respectively while LHSV are 0.7-2 hr-1, 1 hr-1, 0.7-2 hr-1 respectively. The operating pressure  and H2/Oil ratio for all experiments are kept constant at 3 Mpa and 300 liter/liter.    The results show that Sulphur and metal content decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing LHSV.     Vacuum residue of boiling range above 823K is mixed with hydrotreated atmospheric distillate, vacuum distillate and with the hydrotreated wide petroleum distillate. The temperature for hydrotreating the mixed sample is 648K and LHSV is 1 hr-1. It was found that hydrotreating crude oil is the best choice since it gives the highest removal of sulphur, vanadium and cobalt removal.

  9. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1).

  10. Nitrogen content determinations in different stages of thermal treatment involved in conversion of ammonium diuranate to uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.C.; Shelke, G.P.

    2017-01-01

    Determination of nitrogen content in the uranium metal and uranium oxide based reactor fuels is important to meet the requirement of specifications given by fuel designer. Therefore, a systematic study was carried out to determine the variations in nitrogen content during the conversion of ammonium diuranate (ADU) to uranium oxides (UO 3 and UO 2 ), and finally to uranium metal by inert gas fusion-thermal conductivity detection (IGF-TCD) technique. To understand the measured nitrogen content variations, the thermal decomposition study of ADU was carried out using thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in the temperature range of 25-1073 K. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to confirm the formation of uranium oxide precursors at different temperature. (author)

  11. Effects of gamma-ray-induced free radicals on the metal content and amino acid composition of human metallothionein-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs), a low-mass class of metalloproteins, are characterized by a high thiolate sulphur and metal content. MTs are involved in metal homeostasis and heavy metal detoxification, and are efficient scavengers of free radicals. This article describes zinc release from human MT-1 and modification of its amino acid composition when subjected to free radicals generated during gamma ray radiolysis. The effect of gamma ray radiolysis of untreated and metal-depleted human MT-1 was tested under multiple aerobic and anaerobic conditions at increasing irradiation doses. Under all conditions, a rapid increase of serine in the early stages of irradiation was observed. Irradiation for longer times led to cysteic acid formation, except under argon atmosphere. Several other amino acid concentrations gradually decreased. Formation of limited amounts of hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine and ornithine as well as some less common derivatives such as cystathionine occurred as side-effects. (author)

  12. Evaluation of site-specific factors influencing heavy metal contents in the topsoil of vegetated infiltration swales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmeyer, Nils; Huber, Maximilian; Drewes, Jörg E.; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Stormwater runoff of traffic areas is usually polluted by organic and inorganic substances and must be treated prior to discharge into groundwater. One widely used treatment method is infiltrating the runoff over the topsoil of vegetated swales. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing the heavy metal contents in such topsoil layers of vegetated infiltration swales near highways, roads, and parking lots. In total, 262 topsoil samples were taken from 35 sampling sites, which varied in age, traffic volume, road design, driving style, and site-specific conditions. In the evaluation of all soil samples, the median heavy metal values of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc were yielding 0.36 (mean: 1.21) mg/kg DM, 37.0 (mean: 44.5) mg/kg DM, 28.0 (mean: 61.5) mg/kg DM, 27.0 (mean: 71.9) mg/kg DM, and 120 (mean: 257) mg/kg DM, respectively. The main purpose was to evaluate the site-specific data (i.e., surrounding land use characteristics, traffic area site data, and operational characteristics). In general, heavy metal contents increased with increasing traffic volumes. However, other factors also had a notable impact. Factors such as road design (e.g., curves, crossings, and roundabouts) and grade of congestion significantly influenced the heavy metal contents. High heavy metal contents were detected for stop-and-go areas, roundabouts, crossings, and sites with traffic lights, signs, and guardrails. Findings of this study can be used to identify highly polluted traffic areas and to verify or improve standards regarding the treatment of runoff from traffic areas. - Highlights: • Correlation of contents with traffic volume, road design, and stop-and-go traffic • Increased heavy metal contents at stop-and-go sites, roundabouts, and crossings • Different soil contents and behavior of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc • Identification of factors influencing the variability of zinc in topsoil samples

  13. Evaluation of site-specific factors influencing heavy metal contents in the topsoil of vegetated infiltration swales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstmeyer, Nils; Huber, Maximilian; Drewes, Jörg E.; Helmreich, Brigitte, E-mail: b.helmreich@tum.de

    2016-08-01

    Stormwater runoff of traffic areas is usually polluted by organic and inorganic substances and must be treated prior to discharge into groundwater. One widely used treatment method is infiltrating the runoff over the topsoil of vegetated swales. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing the heavy metal contents in such topsoil layers of vegetated infiltration swales near highways, roads, and parking lots. In total, 262 topsoil samples were taken from 35 sampling sites, which varied in age, traffic volume, road design, driving style, and site-specific conditions. In the evaluation of all soil samples, the median heavy metal values of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc were yielding 0.36 (mean: 1.21) mg/kg DM, 37.0 (mean: 44.5) mg/kg DM, 28.0 (mean: 61.5) mg/kg DM, 27.0 (mean: 71.9) mg/kg DM, and 120 (mean: 257) mg/kg DM, respectively. The main purpose was to evaluate the site-specific data (i.e., surrounding land use characteristics, traffic area site data, and operational characteristics). In general, heavy metal contents increased with increasing traffic volumes. However, other factors also had a notable impact. Factors such as road design (e.g., curves, crossings, and roundabouts) and grade of congestion significantly influenced the heavy metal contents. High heavy metal contents were detected for stop-and-go areas, roundabouts, crossings, and sites with traffic lights, signs, and guardrails. Findings of this study can be used to identify highly polluted traffic areas and to verify or improve standards regarding the treatment of runoff from traffic areas. - Highlights: • Correlation of contents with traffic volume, road design, and stop-and-go traffic • Increased heavy metal contents at stop-and-go sites, roundabouts, and crossings • Different soil contents and behavior of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc • Identification of factors influencing the variability of zinc in topsoil samples.

  14. Effect Of Heavy Metals Stress On Enzyme Activities And Chlorophyll Content Of Pea (Pisum Sativum) And Tomato Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; El Maghrabi, G.; Hashem, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on the chlorophyll in addition to catalase and peroxidase activities were studied in the leaves and roots of tomato and pea plants. Four groups were studied; the control group and other three groups treated with heavy metals. Group 1HM was treated with 1.0 mg CuSO 4 /l + 0.2 mg CdSO 4 /l + 0.1 mg ZnNO 3 /l every 10 days while in group 5 HM and group 10 HM, the doses were 5 and 10 folds the 1 HM, respectively. Leaves and roots of control and heavy metal-stressed plants were harvested after 10 weeks for chlorophyll determination. The chlorophyll content, especially chlo. b, was significantly decreased with the increase in heavy metals stress in both plants. In leaves of heavy metal-stressed plants, the peroxidase level in different stress levels was increased with increasing stress levels in tomato and pea while catalase was unchanged in leaves of tomato in comparison with the control. The activities of catalase and peroxidase in roots of heavy metal-stressed plants were increased in group 5 HM then decreased in case of group 10 HM. The increase in enzyme activities demonstrated that tomato is more tolerant to heavy metals than pea

  15. Spatial variability and temporal changes in the trace metal content of soils: implications for mine restoration plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rachna; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Azeez, P A

    2014-06-01

    Trace metals in soils may be inherited from the parent materials or added to the system due to anthropogenic activities. In proposed mining areas, trace metals become an integral part of the soil system. Usually, researchers undertake experiments on plant species selection (for the restoration plan) only after the termination of mining activities, i.e. without any pre-mining information about the soil-plant interactions. Though not shown in studies, it is clear that several recovery plans remain unsuccessful while carrying out restoration experiments. Therefore, we hypothesize that to restore the area effectively, it is imperative to consider the pre-mining scenario of metal levels in parent material as well as the vegetation ecology of the region. With these specifics, we examined the concentrations of trace metals in parent soils at three proposed bauxite locations in the Eastern Ghats, India, and compared them at a spatio-temporal scale. Vegetation quantification and other basic soil parameters accounted for establishing the connection between soil and plants. The study recorded significant spatial heterogeneity in trace metal concentrations and the role of vegetation on metal availability. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP), pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) directly influenced metal content, and Cu and Ni were lithogenic in origin. It implies that for effective restoration plant species varies for each geological location.

  16. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  17. Strategic Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Peter G.; Barney, Jay B.; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Strategic entrepreneurship is a newly recognized field that draws, not surprisingly, from the fields of strategic management and entrepreneurship. The field emerged officially with the 2001 special issue of the Strategic Management Journal on “strategic entrepreneurship”; the first dedicated...... periodical, the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, appeared in 2007. Strategic entrepreneurship is built around two core ideas. (1) Strategy formulation and execution involves attributes that are fundamentally entrepreneurial, such as alertness, creativity, and judgment, and entrepreneurs try to create...... and capture value through resource acquisition and competitive posi-tioning. (2) Opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking—the former the central subject of the entrepreneurship field, the latter the central subject of the strategic management field—are pro-cesses that should be considered jointly. This entry...

  18. Heavy Metal Content in Selected Flavouring Plants and in Ultra-Basic Soil of Felda Rokan Barat, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahibin Abdul Rahim; Wan Mohd Razi Idris; Zulfahmi Ali Rahman; Tukimat Lihan; Ramlan Omar; Yan, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out at an ultra basic soil area in Felda Rokan Barat (FRB), Negeri Sembilan. Twenty plants of samples namely chili, turmeric, pandan and lemon grass were collected randomly for the determination of heavy metal contents such as Fe, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Zn. Heavy metals in plants were extracted by wet digestion method, whereas available and resistant heavy metals in soil were extracted by sequential extraction. Total heavy metals content in the soil were obtained by summation of resistant and available heavy metals. Heavy metals content in soil and plant extract were determined by using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). Results showed that Fe was the dominant composition in soil in the study area while Cd concentration was very low with values of < 10 mg/ kg. The range of heavy metals concentration in soils were Fe (2618.4 to 4248 mg/ kg), Mn (240.9 to 741.9 mg/ kg), Zn (81.9 to 324.8 mg/ kg), Cr (46.8 to 438.7 mg/ kg), Cu (15.7 to 81.7 mg/ kg), Pb (14.9 to 116.8 mg/ kg), Ni (10.1 to 545.6 mg/ kg), Cd (5.6 to 10.6 mg/ kg) dan Co (0.8 to 126.1 mg/ kg). Available Fe recorded the highest value in all of the plant substrates followed by Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co and Cd. Based on percentage of availability Mn, Pb and Zn are considered most available by plant with availability percentage of 8 to 10 %. Concentration of Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were high in all parts of plants compared to the other metals. The value of biological absorption coefficient (BAC) in chili, turmeric, pandan and lemon grass were in the range of 0.02-0.36, 0.03-0.41, 0.03-0.63 and 0.03-1.15, respectively. It can be concluded that the uptake of heavy metals by plants were normal even though the heavy metals concentration in the ultra basic soil was high. (author)

  19. Heavy metal contents in the sediments of astatic ponds: Influence of geomorphology, hydroperiod, water chemistry and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Celewicz-Gołdyn, Sofia

    2015-08-01

    The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were analysed in the bottom sediments of 30 small, astatic ponds located in the agricultural landscape of Western Poland. The samples were collected from 118 stations located in patches of four vegetation types. Relationships between the contents of particular elements and four groups of factors (geomorphology, hydroperiod, water quality and vegetation) were tested using Redundancy Analysis (RDA). The most important factors influencing the heavy metal contents were the maximum depth and area of the pond, its hydroperiod, water pH and conductivity values. In general, low quantities of heavy metals were recorded in the sediments of kettle-like ponds (small but located in deep depressions) and high in water bodies of the shore-bursting type (large but shallow). Moreover, quantities of particular elements were influenced by the structure of the vegetation covering the pond. Based on the results, we show which types of astatic ponds are most exposed to contamination and suggest some conservation practices that may reduce the influx of heavy metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Riboflavin content of coelomocytes in earthworm (Dendrodrilus rubidus) field populations as a molecular biomarker of soil metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plytycz, Barbara; Lis-Molenda, Urszula; Cygal, Malgorzata; Kielbasa, Edyta; Grebosz, Anna; Duchnowski, Michal; Andre, Jane; Morgan, A. John

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Pb + Zn on coelomocyte riboflavin content in the epigeic earthworm Dendrodrilus rubidus inhabiting three metalliferous soils and one reference soil was measured by flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry. A reciprocal polluted↔unpolluted worm transfer experiment (4-week exposure) was also performed. High proportions of autofluorescent eleocytes were counted in worms from all localities, but intense riboflavin-derived autofluorescence was detectable only in reference worm eleocytes. Other findings were: (i) fluorophore(s) other than riboflavin is/are responsible for eleocyte autofluorescence in residents of metalliferous soils; (ii) riboflavin content was reduced in the eleocytes of worms transferred from unpolluted to metal-polluted soil; (iii) the riboflavin content of D. rubidus eleocytes is a promising biomarker of exposure; (iv) COII mitochondrial genotyping revealed that the reference population is genetically distinct from the three mine populations; (v) metal exposure rather than genotype is probably the main determinant of inter-population differences in eleocyte riboflavin status. - Soil metal pollution reduces riboflavin content of earthworm eleocytes.

  1. Riboflavin content of coelomocytes in earthworm (Dendrodrilus rubidus) field populations as a molecular biomarker of soil metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plytycz, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.plytycz@uj.edu.p [Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Lis-Molenda, Urszula; Cygal, Malgorzata; Kielbasa, Edyta; Grebosz, Anna [Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Duchnowski, Michal [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Andre, Jane; Morgan, A. John [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Main Building, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3TL, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    The effect of Pb + Zn on coelomocyte riboflavin content in the epigeic earthworm Dendrodrilus rubidus inhabiting three metalliferous soils and one reference soil was measured by flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry. A reciprocal pollutedreversibleunpolluted worm transfer experiment (4-week exposure) was also performed. High proportions of autofluorescent eleocytes were counted in worms from all localities, but intense riboflavin-derived autofluorescence was detectable only in reference worm eleocytes. Other findings were: (i) fluorophore(s) other than riboflavin is/are responsible for eleocyte autofluorescence in residents of metalliferous soils; (ii) riboflavin content was reduced in the eleocytes of worms transferred from unpolluted to metal-polluted soil; (iii) the riboflavin content of D. rubidus eleocytes is a promising biomarker of exposure; (iv) COII mitochondrial genotyping revealed that the reference population is genetically distinct from the three mine populations; (v) metal exposure rather than genotype is probably the main determinant of inter-population differences in eleocyte riboflavin status. - Soil metal pollution reduces riboflavin content of earthworm eleocytes.

  2. Measuring probe and method for determining the oxygen content in gases, vapors, and liquids, especially in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundermann, H.; Andrae, U.

    1978-01-01

    The invention is concerned with the improvement of the measuring probe described in the main patent no. 1798002 with which the oxygen content in liquid metals, e.g. Na, is to be determined. In order to avoid the glass stopper shutting off the reference space having to be ground out it is proposed to connect the solid electrolyte firmly and hermetically with a metallic mounting support (e.g. Fe-Co-Ni alloy), having got the same thermal coefficient of expansion as the solid electrolyte (e.g. zirconium dioxide stabilized with ythium oxide or thorium dioxide). Further details of the design are very explicitly described. (HP) [de

  3. NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND HEAVY METALS CONTENTS OF THE DRIED SEA CUCUMBER Stichopus vastus FROM SALEMO ISLAND, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Rasyid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dried sea cucumber Stichopus vastus is one of the commercially species harvested in Indonesian waters. This study aims to highlight the nutritional value and heavy metals content of dried sea cucumber S. vastus. Proximate (moisture, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrate, mineral (sodium, calcium, potassium and iron and heavy metal (mercury, cadmium, arsenic and lead were determined by standard method of AOAC, while phosphorous was determined by spectrophotometric method. Chondroitin sulphate was determined by UPLC method, glucosamine sulphate and vitamin (A, B1, B2 and E by HPLC method. Results show that protein was the major component in proximate analysis of dried sea cucumber S. vastus in the present study. The protein content was 38.70%. Moisture, ash, fat and carbohydrate content were 19.46%, 34.04%, 0.38% and 7.42% respectively. All vitamins and heavy metals examined in this study were not detected. The sodium content was 8054.36 mg/100 g higher than other minerals. Calcium, potassium, phosphorus and iron content were 2449.9 mg/100 g, 159.77 mg/100 g, 5085.2 mg/100 g and 520.8 mg/100 g respectively. Glucosamine sulphate content was found to be 2.429 g/100 g, whereas chondroitin sulphate was found to be 1.115 g/100 g. It can therefore, be concluded that the dried sea cucumber S. vastus from Salemo Island is safe for human consumption and hence can be used as a source of food supplement in the future. Keywords: food supplement, Salemo island, Stichopus vastus

  4. The metallicity and dust content of a redshift 5 gamma-ray burst host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, M.; Hartoog, O. E.; Krühler, T.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow the study of star-forming galaxies across most of cosmic history. Here we present observations of GRB 111008A from which we can measure metallicity, chemical abundance patterns, dust-to-metals ratio and extinction of the GRB host...

  5. Investigation of heavy metals content in medicinal plant, eclipta alba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Khan, H.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal such as Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cd were investigated in a= medicinally important plant, Eclipta alba L. as well as in the soil it was grown using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The plant samples were collected from their natural habitat at three different locations of Peshawar Pakistan. The whole plant materials (roots, stems and leaves) were found to contain all heavy metals except Cd, which corresponds to their concentration in the soil it was grown. Among all the heavy metals, Fe was found to be at the highest level (8.95 to 27.7 mg/kg) followed by Mn (0.44 to 14.0 mg/kg) and Zn (1.04 to 4.50 mg/kg), while the rest of metals were at low concentration. The present study showed that E. alba L. is suitable for the control of environmental pollutants such as heavy metals, however, for medicinal purposes; it should be collected from those areas which are not contaminated with heavy metals. The purpose of the current study was to standardize various indigenous medicinal plants for heavy metals contamination and to make awareness among the public regarding its safer use and collection areas, containing high level of heavy metals and their adverse health affects. (author)

  6. Pigments content in Сhlorella vulgaris under the influence of the sodium selenite and the ions of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Bodnar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the content of pigments in Chlorella vulgaris Beij. (Chlorophyta under the influence of sodium selenite in concentrations based on Se4+ 0.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/dm3 during one, three and seven days and under the influence of the simultaneous action of selenite in concentrations 10 mg Se4+/dm3 and ions of Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+,Cu2+, Fe3+ in concentrations 5.00, 0.25, 0.05, 0.008 and 0.002 mg/dm3over seven days. This research was carried out to establish the conditions for obtaining algal lipidis substance enriched with selenium and biogenic metals in the aquaculture. The content of pigments was determined spectrophotometrically, the cellular walls were separatedby centrifuge in the percoll gradient and investigated microscopically. The pigments content in the Ch. vulgaris increased by 1.5–2.5 times in comparison with the control sample under the influence of 10 mg Se4+/dm3 with and without metal ions, in all variants of experimental influence due to binding of SeО32– with proteins and lipids. We found that selenium was included in all lipid fractions (triacylglycerols, dyacylglycerols, phospholipids, nonetherified fatty acids; the maximum amount of selenium-containing lipids wasrecorded in chloroplasts. The increase in the contents of carotenoids caused by the actions of experimental factors played an exceptional role in the mechanism of antioxidant protection that prevents destruction of chlorophyll and, accordingly, increases its amount in cells. Changes in the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of Ch. vulgaris affect the whole complex of metabolic transformation. Thus, the successful cultivation of chlorella, enriched with selenium and biogenic metals, is possible within seven days under the influence of 10 mg Se4+/dm3 and the above-mentioned concentration of metal ions.

  7. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...... of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating...... for understanding and managing strategic communication processes....

  8. Chelation in metal intoxication. V. Lowering of manganese content in poisoned rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, S K; Mathur, A K

    1976-01-01

    Metal chelation has been considered useful in the management of manganese poisoning to a considerable extent. Our own studies in this direction have shown that some polyaminocarboxylic acids and a few amino acids are effective in not only removing manganese from the vital organs of experimentally poisoned animals but also in restoring certain metal induced biochemical and histological changes in such organs. Further, the success of p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), a chemotherapeutic agent for tuberculosis, in manganese mobilization has led us to examine some other structurally related compounds together with a few other possible metal binding agents for their ability to remove excess metal from the organs, their sub-cellular fractions and blood cells of manganese administered rats and to investigate if there exists any relationship between the structure of such compounds and their metal mobilizing capacity. The present communication deals with the results of these investigations.

  9. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sarker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar content of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum, mustard (Brassica juncea, and litchi (Litchi chinensis honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness.

  10. Heavy metal contents and transfer capacities of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Laibing; Zhang, Guangliang; Wang, Dawei

    2018-04-01

    Plant samples including roots, stems and leaves of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa were collected in the short-term flooding and tidal flooding wetlands of the Yellow River Delta of China. Six heavy metals (e.g., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were measured in roots, stems and leaves of each plant species using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS) to investigate the levels, and transfer capabilities of heavy metals in these two plant species. Our results showed that in the tidal flooding wetlands, the contents of As, Cr and Cd in roots of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa were higher than those in their stems and leaves. Suaeda salsa showed higher contents of Pb and Zn in leaves than those in roots and stems, whereas lower levels of Pb and Zn were observed in Phragmites australis. In the short-term flooding wetlands, heavy metal contents exhibited a big difference between different tissues of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa, and both plant species showed higher levels of Pb and Zn in leaves. Suaeda salsa roots enriched more As and Cd, whereas higher enrichment levels were observed in Phragmites australis leaves, which indicated different transfer capacities of these two wetland plants. The transfer factors for stems and leaves of Phragmites australis in the tidal flooding wetlands significantly differed from those in the short-term flooding wetlands, however, no significant differences in transfer factors for stems and leaves of Suaeda salsa were observed between these two types of wetlands.

  11. INFLUENCE OF ILLEGAL WASTE DUMPING SITES OF NORTH-WEST PART OF BARLINEK COMMUNITY ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The in-depth analysis of the soil samples study included 6 from 17 catalogued illegal waste dumps localized in the Barlinek Commune (Gmina Barlinek area. The samples were taken from the middle part of each waste dump and at 5 meter distance toward north and south directions. In the collected material the pH values and concentration of lead, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, manganese, nickel, chromium, iron, copper and mercury were determined. The results of laboratory analysis were compared with current standards (Regulation of the Minister of Environment from 9th September 2002 on soil quality standards and quality standards of soil - Journal of Laws 2002 No 165, item 1359 and with the soils classification by the content of trace elements, according to Kabata-Pendias et al. The reason of diversified content of heavy metals in the collected soils samples from different waste dumps is various morphological composition of deposited waste. Nonetheless, waste landfilled on illegal dumps were not significantly influencing the levels of soil contamination with heavy metals. The concentration of Hg, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe qualifies those soils to geochemical natural levels of heavy metals content. Nevertheless, cadmium was the element, which concentration were most often (21 times exceeded.

  12. Real-Time Measurement of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Size Distribution and Metals Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, Vladimir B; Brinkman, Marielle C; Granville, Courtney A; Gordon, Sydney M; Clark, Pamela I

    2016-09-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing worldwide and is highest among both daily and nondaily smokers. E-cigarettes are perceived as a healthier alternative to combustible tobacco products, but their health risk factors have not yet been established, and one of them is lack of data on aerosol size generated by e-cigarettes. We applied a real-time, high-resolution aerosol differential mobility spectrometer to monitor the evolution of aerosol size and concentration during puff development. Particles generated by e-cigarettes were immediately delivered for analysis with minimal dilution and therefore with minimal sample distortion, which is critically important given the highly dynamic aerosol/vapor mixture inherent to e-cigarette emissions. E-cigarette aerosols normally exhibit a bimodal particle size distribution: nanoparticles (11-25nm count median diameter) and submicron particles (96-175nm count median diameter). Each mode has comparable number concentrations (10(7)-10(8) particles/cm(3)). "Dry puff" tests conducted with no e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid) present in the e-cigarette tank demonstrated that under these conditions only nanoparticles were generated. Analysis of the bulk aerosol collected on the filter showed that e-cigarette emissions contained a variety of metals. E-cigarette aerosol size distribution is different from that of combustible tobacco smoke. E-cigarettes generate high concentrations of nanoparticles and their chemical content requires further investigation. Despite the small mass of nanoparticles, their toxicological impact could be significant. Toxic chemicals that are attached to the small nanoparticles may have greater adverse health effects than when attached to larger submicron particles. The e-cigarette aerosol size distribution is different from that of combustible tobacco smoke and typically exhibits a bimodal behavior with comparable number concentrations of nanoparticles and submicron particles. While vaping the e

  13. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance - January 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport special nuclear material (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standards format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical protection plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CRF Part 73

  14. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance (Revision 1, Feb. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This regulatory guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standard format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical security plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CFR Part 73

  15. Enhancing the use of waste activated sludge as bio-fuel through selectively reducing its heavy metal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewil, Raf; Baeyens, Jan; Appels, Lise

    2007-06-18

    Power plant or cement kiln co-incineration are important disposal routes for the large amounts of waste activated sludge (WAS) which are generated annually. The presence of significant amounts of heavy metals in the sludge however poses serious problems since they are partly emitted with the flue gases (and collected in the flue gas dedusting) and partly incorporated in the ashes of the incinerator: in both cases, the disposal or reuse of the fly ash and bottom ashes can be jeopardized since subsequent leaching in landfill disposal can occur, or their "pozzolanic" incorporation in cement cannot be applied. The present paper studies some physicochemical methods for reducing the heavy metal content of WAS. The used techniques include acid and alkaline thermal hydrolysis and Fenton's peroxidation. By degrading the extracellular polymeric substances, binding sites for a large amount of heavy metals, the latter are released into the sludge water. The behaviour of several heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni, Zn) was assessed in laboratory tests. Results of these show a significant reduction of most heavy metals.

  16. Development of a method for determination of metallic iron content within hot briquette iron (HBI for steelmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcali M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of metallic iron in metallurgy and industrial chemical applications requires a fast, easy and cheap method for the determination of metallic iron, not merely in recyclable materials, such as iron pellets, reduced iron mill scale dust, electric arc furnace dust and pig iron, but from hot briquette iron (HBI as well. This study investigates a new method for determination of metallic iron within HBI used for steel-making materials. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and stirring rate were studied. The concentration of iron was determined via Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. After the optimization study, high-purity metallic iron powder (Sigma-Aldrich, PubChem Substance ID 24855469 was used to compare efficiencies and identify the optimum conditions; The present study was matched with international standard methods (BS ISO 5416:2006, IS 15774:2007. Results were consistent with certified values and metallic iron content could be determined within the 95% confidence level. The purposed method is easy, straightforward, and cheap.

  17. Possible source and pattern distribution of heavy metals content in urban soil at Kuala Terengganu town center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, Toon Fong; Poh, Seng Chee; Asrul Azani Mahmood; Norhayati Mohd Tahir

    2008-01-01

    Total concentration of five trace metals (Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb and Zn) and two major elements (Al and Fe) as well as soil parameters (soil organic matter, pH and cation exchange capacity) were measured in soils of Kuala Terengganu town center. 40 surface soils (0-20 cm) were collected during the month of August, 2005. The soil samples (< 600 μm) were subjected to acid digestion and the concentration of total metal was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Results show that the range of metals observed were 4.16-40.90 mg/ kg, 83.70 - 380.80 mg/ kg, 2940.00 - 28600.00 mg/ kg below detection limit (BDL) - 4.88 mg/ kg, 20.00 - 219.00 mg/ kg, 7.47 - 171.00 mg/ kg and 8840.00 - 62500.00 mg/ kg for Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd, Pb, Zn and Al, respectively. Factor and Pearsons correlation analyses suggest that the Fe, Mn and Al originates from the parent materials, whereas the possible sources of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn are due to anthropogenic input such as vehicular traffic and metal corrosion since there are no major industrial activities in Kuala Terengganu. In addition, calculation of enrichment factors (Efs) for trace metals showed that Pb, Cd and Zn were significantly enriched, providing additional support to the contention that Pb, Cd and Zn level in Kuala Terengganu town center soils are due to human related activities. (author)

  18. Assessment and genetic analysis of heavy metal content in rice grain using an Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon backcross inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Run; Fan, Ye-Yang; Hu, Biao-Lin; Xiao, Ye-Qing; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhuang, Jie-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in rice is a growing concern for public health. Backcross inbred lines derived from an interspecific cross of Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon were grown in two distinct ecological locations (Hangzhou and Lingshui, China). The objective of this study was to characterise the contents of heavy metal in rice grains, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for heavy metal contents. The contents of Ni, As, Pb, Cr and Hg in milled rice showed a significant decline as compared with those in brown rice, whereas the content of Cd showed little change. The concentration of heavy metal in rice grain varied greatly between the two environments. A total of 24 QTLs responsible for heavy metal contents were detected, including two for both the brown and milled rice, 13 for brown rice only, and nine for milled rice only. All the QTLs except two had the enhancing alleles derived from O. rufipogon. Sixteen QTLs were clustered in six chromosomal regions. Environmental variation plays an important role in the heavy metal contents in rice grain. QTLs detected in this study might be useful for breeding rice varieties with low heavy metal content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Monitoring Heavy Metal Contents with Sphagnum Junghuhnianum Moss Bags in Relation to Traffic Volume in Wuxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite its small size, a moss bag can reveal the different temporal and spatial deposition patterns of pollutants at a particular site; therefore, researchers can use moss bags to determine pollution sources and to put forward strategies for pollution control. Although the use of moss bags to monitor atmospheric pollution has been widely reported in Europe, there are few such empirical studies in China. Thus, in this study, bags containing the moss Sphagnum junghuhnianum were used to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, vanadium (V, and zinc (Zn at five sampling sites (four roads and a forest park during the summer and winter of 2012. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF and contamination factor (CF results, pollution in winter was heavier than that in summer, and Cr was found to be the most contaminating, having the highest mean CF. There was a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05 between traffic volume and concentration for three heavy metals (Cr, Cu, and V in winter, whereas a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05 was observed between traffic volume and concentrations for four heavy metal elements (Cr, Pb, V, and Zn in summer, indicating a close relationship between heavy metal contents and traffic volume. Although there was substantial variation in the concentrations of the five heavy metals in the moss bags, significant correlations between heavy metals suggested that the contaminants originated from a common source, namely vehicle emissions. The results demonstrated that the four roads were subject to different degrees of pollution depending on the volume of traffic using each road. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that traffic volume is a major reason for heavy metal pollution.

  20. Monitoring Heavy Metal Contents with Sphagnum Junghuhnianum Moss Bags in Relation to Traffic Volume in Wuxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Yan, Yun; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yanan; Fang, Yanming

    2018-02-22

    Despite its small size, a moss bag can reveal the different temporal and spatial deposition patterns of pollutants at a particular site; therefore, researchers can use moss bags to determine pollution sources and to put forward strategies for pollution control. Although the use of moss bags to monitor atmospheric pollution has been widely reported in Europe, there are few such empirical studies in China. Thus, in this study, bags containing the moss Sphagnum junghuhnianum were used to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) at five sampling sites (four roads and a forest park) during the summer and winter of 2012. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and contamination factor (CF) results, pollution in winter was heavier than that in summer, and Cr was found to be the most contaminating, having the highest mean CF. There was a significant positive correlation ( p heavy metals (Cr, Cu, and V) in winter, whereas a significant positive correlation ( p heavy metal elements (Cr, Pb, V, and Zn) in summer, indicating a close relationship between heavy metal contents and traffic volume. Although there was substantial variation in the concentrations of the five heavy metals in the moss bags, significant correlations between heavy metals suggested that the contaminants originated from a common source, namely vehicle emissions. The results demonstrated that the four roads were subject to different degrees of pollution depending on the volume of traffic using each road. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that traffic volume is a major reason for heavy metal pollution.

  1. Real life experimental determination of platinum group metals content in automotive catalytic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoumis, I.; Moschovi, A. M.; Giannopoulou, I.; Panias, D.

    2018-03-01

    The real life experimental protocol for the preparation of spent automobile catalyst samples for elemental analysis is thoroughly described in the following study. Collection, sorting and dismantling, homogenization and sample preparation for X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy combined with Inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry are discussed in detail for both ceramic and metallic spent catalysts. The concentrations of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) in spent catalytic converters are presented based on typical consignments of recycled converters (more than 45,000 pieces) from the Greek Market. The conclusions clearly denoted commercial metallic catalytic foil contains higher PGMs loading than ceramic honeycombs. On the other hand, the total PGMs loading in spent ceramic catalytic converters has been found higher than the corresponding value for the metallic ones.

  2. All rights reserved Assessment of Heavy Metal Contents of End-Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-18

    Mar 18, 2018 ... that regulate the use of hazardous substances in EEE, such as the European ..... result in human exposure to high levels of these metals and toxins. .... waste: Synthesize zeolites from waste cathode- ray-tube funnel glass.

  3. effects of nitrogen enrichment on heavy metals content of cattle dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    dung/poultry manure supplemented with 25 kg of urea (CDPMU) and (iii) cattle dung (CD) as ... Key words: Nitrogen Enrichment, Heavy Metals, Cattle Dung, Poultry Manure, Compost. .... available phosphorus, exchangeable bases and base.

  4. Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties Analysis of Weld Metals with Two Ni Contents During Post-Weld Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da-yong; Han, Xiu-lin; Tian, Hong-tao; Liao, Bo; Xiao, Fu-ren

    2015-05-01

    This study designed post-weld heat treatments, including reheating and tempering, associated with hot bending to investigate the microstructures, toughness, and hardness of two weld metals with different Ni contents (transformation temperature and increased the proportion of acicular ferrite (AF). Furthermore, a high Ni content promoted the martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent formation after reheating. The promotion of the M/A formation increased the number of cementite particles, and accelerated cementite coarsening during tempering. The large-angle grain boundary density from the AF improved the toughness despite the negative effect of cementite. The strengthening contributions were calculated, and the grain refinement was the greatest. The high Ni content decreased the effective grain size with a 2 deg tolerance angle, thus enhancing the grain refinement contribution.

  5. Metal contents in common edible fish species and evaluation of potential health risks to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Farag Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a health risk assessment of some heavy metals attributed to consumption of common edible fish species available for consumers. Methods: Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in muscles, gills, livers, bones and skins of six common edible fish species, namely Oreochromis niloticus, Mugil cephalus, Sardinella aurita, Mullus barbatus, Boops boops, Pagrus pagrus. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and expressed as µg/g of wet tissue. Results: Results showed that iron and zinc were the most abundant among all fish tissues under investigation. The data obtained in the present work were compared well with the counterpart data reported internationally. The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the permissible limits. Moreover, the potential health risks of metals to human via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimating daily intake and target heath quotient. Generally, risk values for the measured metals do not pose unacceptable risks at mean ingestion rate for muscles. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the investigated metals in edible parts of the examined species have no health problems for consumers.

  6. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  7. Effect of vermicomposting on calcium, sulphur and some heavy metal content of different biodegradable organic wastes under liming and microbial inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debabrata; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Ghosh, B C; Banik, Pabitra

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the changes in total calcium and sulphur and some heavy metal (Zn, Cu, and Pb) concentration of different organic wastes affected by liming and microorganism inoculation. Vermicomposting was an effective technology for disposal of organic substrates like municipal solid wastes (MSW), possessing comparatively higher concentration of heavy metals. The addition of lime in initial organic substrates significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased total calcium and total sulphur content of vermicomposts. Inoculation of microorganisms significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the heavy metal content of final products as compared to control. Fungal strains were comparatively more effective in detoxification of heavy metals than B. polymyxa.

  8. Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans.

  9. Achieving Amphibious Superprotonic Conductivity in a CuI Metal-Organic Framework by Strategic Pyrazinium Salt Impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Sajal; Bar, Arun Kumar; Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Clearfield, Abraham; Konar, Sanjit

    2018-01-19

    Treatment of a pyrazine (pz)-impregnated Cu I metal-organic framework (MOF) ([1⊃pz]) with HCl vapor renders an interstitial pyrazinium chloride salt-hybridized MOF ([1⊃pz⋅6 HCl]) that exhibits proton conductivity over 10 -2  S cm -1 both in anhydrous and under humid conditions. Framework [1⊃pz⋅6 HCl] features the highest anhydrous proton conductivity among the lesser-known examples of MOF-based materials exhibiting proton conductivity under both anhydrous and humid conditions. Moreover, [1⊃pz] and corresponding pyrazinium sulfate- and pyrazinium phosphate-hybridized MOFs also exhibit superprotonic conductivity over 10 -2  S cm -1 under humid conditions. The impregnated pyrazinium ions play a crucial role in protonic conductivity, which occurs through a Grotthuss mechanism. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Simulation of Zr content in TiZrCuNi brazing filler metal for Ti6Al4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Xishan; Xie, Zonghong; Jing, Yongjuan

    2017-01-01

    To optimize the Zr content in Ti-based filler metal, the covalent electron on the nearest atoms bond in unit cell (n_A"u"-"v) with Ti-based BCC structure was calculated, in which the brazing temperature was considered due to its influence on the lattice parameter. Based on EET theory (The Empirical Electron Theory for solid and molecules), n_A"u"-"v represents the strength of the unit cell with defined element composition and structure, which reflects the effect from solid solution strengthening on the strength of the unit cell. For Ti-Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% filler metal, it kept constant as 0.3476 with Zr as 37.5 ∝ 45 wt% and decreased to 0.333 with Zr decreasing from 37.5 to 25 wt%. Finally, it increased up to 0.3406 with Zr as 2 ∝ 10 wt%. Thus, Ti-based filler metal with Zr content being 2 ∝ 10 wt% is suggested based on the simulation results. Moreover, the calculated covalent electron of n_A"u"-"v showed good agreement with the hardness of the joint by filler 37.5Zr and 10Zr. The composition of Ti-10Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% was verified in this study with higher tensile strength of the brazing joint and uniform microstructure of the interface. (orig.)

  11. Simulation of Zr content in TiZrCuNi brazing filler metal for Ti6Al4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Xishan [Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Astronautics, Xi' an (China); AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Aeronautical Key Laboratory for Welding and Joining Technology, Beijing (China); Xie, Zonghong [Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Astronautics, Xi' an (China); Jing, Yongjuan [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Aeronautical Key Laboratory for Welding and Joining Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-07-15

    To optimize the Zr content in Ti-based filler metal, the covalent electron on the nearest atoms bond in unit cell (n{sub A}{sup u-v}) with Ti-based BCC structure was calculated, in which the brazing temperature was considered due to its influence on the lattice parameter. Based on EET theory (The Empirical Electron Theory for solid and molecules), n{sub A}{sup u-v} represents the strength of the unit cell with defined element composition and structure, which reflects the effect from solid solution strengthening on the strength of the unit cell. For Ti-Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% filler metal, it kept constant as 0.3476 with Zr as 37.5 ∝ 45 wt% and decreased to 0.333 with Zr decreasing from 37.5 to 25 wt%. Finally, it increased up to 0.3406 with Zr as 2 ∝ 10 wt%. Thus, Ti-based filler metal with Zr content being 2 ∝ 10 wt% is suggested based on the simulation results. Moreover, the calculated covalent electron of n{sub A}{sup u-v} showed good agreement with the hardness of the joint by filler 37.5Zr and 10Zr. The composition of Ti-10Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% was verified in this study with higher tensile strength of the brazing joint and uniform microstructure of the interface. (orig.)

  12. Effect of leaf and soil contaminations on heavy metals content in spring wheat crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.; Hrynczuk, B.

    2000-01-01

    Glass house experiments were carried out in Wagner pots containing 6 kg of soil. The amounts were compared of Zn, Pb and Cd taken up by the crop of spring wheat from contamination introduced into the soil or upon leaves. The heavy metals were labelled with the radioactive isotopes 65 Zn, 210 Pb and 115 Cd. The experiment was performed as a series of independent analyses in four replications. The dynamics of the labelled heavy metals translocation from contaminations sprayed on the upper or bottom side of the flag leaf was also tested. The highest concentration of 65 Zn was found in the straw and gain of wheat. much higher amounts of the metals appeared to have been taken up by the plants from leaf contamination than from soil. The highest dynamics of translocation from leaves to other vegetative and generative organs of plants was that of zinc. (author)

  13. Heavy Metal Content in Chilean Fish Related to Habitat Use, Tissue Type and River of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copaja, S V; Pérez, C A; Vega-Retter, C; Véliz, D

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we analyze the concentration of ten metals in two freshwater fish-the benthic catfish Trichomycterus areolatus and the limnetic silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus-in order to detect possible accumulation differences related to fish habitat (benthic or pelagic), tissue type (gill, liver and muscle), and the river of origin (four different rivers) in central Chile. The MANOVA performed with all variables and metals, revealed independent effects of fish, tissue and river. In the case of the fish factor, Cu, Cr, Mo and Zn showed statistically higher concentrations in catfish compared with silverside for all tissues and in all rivers (p food sources and respiration.

  14. Heavy metal and pesticide content in commonly prescribed individual raw Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Eric S.J., E-mail: eric.sj.harris@gmail.com [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Osher Research Center, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Cao, Shugeng [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Littlefield, Bruce A. [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Osher Research Center, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert [Osher Research Center, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kaptchuk, Ted [Osher Research Center, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Fu, Yanling [International Cooperation Center, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bai San Huan Dong Lu, Chao Yang District, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong [School of Chinese Pharmacy, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, No. 6 Wangjing Zhong Huan Nan Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100102 (China); Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen [School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, 7 Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Clardy, Jon [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Woolf, Alan D. [Children' s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); and others

    2011-09-15

    Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues

  15. Heavy metal and pesticide content in commonly prescribed individual raw Chinese Herbal Medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Eric S.J.; Cao, Shugeng; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Kaptchuk, Ted; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Woolf, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues

  16. The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Fanrong; Ali Shafaqat; Zhang Haitao [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ouyang Younan [China National Rice Research Institute, Fuyang 310041 (China); Qiu Boyin; Wu Feibo [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhang Guoping, E-mail: zhanggp@zju.edu.c [China National Rice Research Institute, Fuyang 310041 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The experiments were done to investigate the effect of soil pH and organic matter content on EDTA-extractable heavy metal contents in soils and heavy metal concentrations in rice straw and grains. EDTA-extractable Cr contents in soils and concentrations in rice tissues were negatively correlated with soil pH, but positively correlated with organic matter content. The combination of soil pH and organic matter content would produce the more precise regression models for estimation of EDTA-Cu, Pb and Zn contents in soils, demonstrating the distinct effect of the two factors on the availability of these heavy metals in soils. Soil pH greatly affected heavy metal concentrations in rice plants. Furthermore, inclusion of other soil properties in the stepwise regression analysis improved the regression models for predicting straw Fe and grain Zn concentrations, indicating that other soil properties should be taken into consideration for precise predicting of heavy metal concentrations in rice plants. - Soil pH and organic matter content significantly affect heavy metal availability and accumulation in rice plants.

  17. Effect of MoSi2 Content on Dry Sliding Tribological Properties of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longfei; Yang, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass and its composites were prepared by suction casting into a copper mold. The effect of MoSi2 content on the tribological behavior of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 BMG was studied by using a high-speed reciprocating friction and wear tester. The results indicate that the friction coefficient and wear resistance of the BMGs can be improved by a certain amount of crystalline phase induced by MoSi2 content from 1 to 3% and deteriorated with MoSi2 content of 4%. The wear mechanism of both the metallic glass and its composite is abrasive wear. The mechanism of crystalline phase-dependent tribological properties of the composite was discussed based on the wear track and mechanical properties in the present work. The wear behavior of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 BMG and its composite indicates that a good combination of the toughness and the hardness can make the composite be well wear resistant.

  18. CONTENT OF SELECTED HEAVY METALS IN NI-CONTAMINATED SOIL FOLLOWING THE APPLICATION OF HALLOYSITE AND ZEOLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nickel has been listed as a priory control pollutant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA. Compared with other methods, the combination of vegetation and the addition of mineral sorbents to heavy metal-contaminated soils can be readily applied on a large scale because of the simplicity of technology and low cost. Halloysite and zeolite, among others, can be used for this purpose. A greenhouse study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using natural zeolite, as well as raw and modified halloysite for the remediation of simulated Ni-contaminated soil. The soil was spiked with five doses of nickel, i.e. 0 (control, 80, 160, 240 and 320 mg Ni kg-1 soil. The average accumulation of heavy metals in nickel-contaminated soil was found to follow the decreasing order of Ni>Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb. The highest reduction of Pb content was observed in soil samples taken from pots containing 80 and 160 mg.kg-1 of Ni along with the addition of modified halloysite. The strongest effects were caused by natural zeolite, which significantly reduced the average content of chromium. Contamination at 320 mg Ni.kg-1 of soil led to the highest increases in the Ni, Pb and Cr contents of soil.

  19. Strategic serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Lemmergaard, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to critical voices on the issue of strategic communication. It does so by exploring how an organisation can seize the moment of serendipity based on careful preparation of its issues management and communication channels. The focus of the study is the media coverage......-of-the-art knowledge and in-depth understanding of the affordances of different communication channels, we discuss the importance of establishing opportunities for serendipity in strategic communication planning. The contribution of the paper is to develop the concept of strategic serendipity and show how...

  20. The Content of Heavy Metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb in The Soil Near The Arterial Roads in Wroclaw (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals in soils along the motorway bypass of Wroclaw (AOW and the Eastern Ring Road of Wroclaw (WOW, Poland, have been determined. The soil samples were collected from the levels of 0-25 cm within 2 m from the edge of the road. The mineralizates were prepared in HNO3, 60%, using the Microwave Digestion System. The content of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and Pb in soils were determined using FAAS method. The physicochemical parameters, the conductivity and pH of the soil solutions were measured to evaluate the salinity of the soils and their active and exchangeable acidity. The pollution indexes (WN showing the enrichment of soils in metals have been determined. Excess of metal concentrations in soils compared to the geochemical background in uncontaminated soils of Poland has been observed. Permissible concentrations of heavy metals relative to the standard for soils, according to the Polish Ministry of Environment Regulation from September 1st, 2016, have not been exceeded.

  1. Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Water pollution and fish physiology. CRC press. Florida, USA, p. 245. Kalay M, Canli M (2000). Elimination of essential (Cu, Zn) and nonessential (Cd, Pb) metals from tissue of a freshwater fish Tilapia zillii following and uptake protocol. Turk. J. Zool. 24: 429-436. Karadede H, Ünlü E (2000). Concentrations ...

  2. The metallicity and dust content of a redshift 5 gamma-ray burst host galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, M.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Watson, D. J.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Hartoog, O. E.; Kaper, L. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); D' Elia, V. [INAF/Rome Astronomical Observatory, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Roma) (Italy); Zafar, T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Afonso, P. M. J. [Physics and Astronomy Department, American River College, 4700 College Oak Drive, Sacramento, CA 95841 (United States); Covino, S. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Flores, H. [Laboratoire GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS-UMR8111, Universite Paris Diderot 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Goldoni, P. [APC, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, Rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris, Cedex 13 (France); Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Klose, S. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Levan, A. J., E-mail: sparre@dark-cosmology.dk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-04-20

    Observations of the afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow the study of star-forming galaxies across most of cosmic history. Here we present observations of GRB 111008A, from which we can measure metallicity, chemical abundance patterns, dust-to-metals ratio (DTM), and extinction of the GRB host galaxy at z = 5.0. The host absorption system is a damped Lyα absorber with a very large neutral hydrogen column density of log N(H I)/cm{sup −2}=22.30±0.06 and a metallicity of [S/H] = –1.70 ± 0.10. It is the highest-redshift GRB with such a precise metallicity measurement. The presence of fine-structure lines confirms the z = 5.0 system as the GRB host galaxy and makes this the highest redshift where Fe II fine-structure lines have been detected. The afterglow is mildly reddened with A{sub V} = 0.11 ± 0.04 mag, and the host galaxy has a DTM that is consistent with being equal to or lower than typical values in the Local Group.

  3. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  4. Heavy metals content in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of chronic chemical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhacheva, S.V.; Davydova, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this research by example of bank vole the heavy metals concentrations (cadmium, copper and zinc) in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of environmental pollution with wastes from copper-smelting industry have been considered. The levels of radionuclides accumulation in testes, seminal vesicle and ovaries of voles with radionuclide concentration in others organs and tissues of animals have been compared.

  5. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age.

  6. Variations in atmospheric PM trace metal content in Spanish towns: Illustrating the chemical complexity of the inorganic urban aerosol cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Viana, Mar; Salvador, Pedro; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; Artiñano, Begoña; de la Rosa, Jesús; Gibbons, Wes

    The majority of the Spanish urban population breathe air containing inhalable ambient airborne particles at average concentrations of 30-46 μg m -3 (PM 10) and 20-30 μg m -3 (PM 2.5). Even though the average weight of inhaled urban aerosol is commonly similar, however, there can be large chemical differences between the ambient dusts from different towns, including the more bioreactive elements such as some metals. In this context, we compare the source-apportioned trace metal content of airborne PM 10 and PM 2.5 collected daily over a 1-year period from six population centres in Spain: Barcelona, Alcobendas, Llodio, Huelva, Tarragona and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Total average trace metal (ΣTM) PM 10 and PM 2.5 contents vary by up to a factor of around 3, reaching a maximum of ΣTM 10 811 ng m -3 and ΣTM 2.5 503 ng m -3 at Llodio, an industrial but humid site with the lowest PM 10 mass levels but high contamination by Zn, Pb, Mn, Sn, Ni and Cr. In contrast, pollution at Huelva, although another industrially influenced site, instead emphasises Cu and As, whereas Barcelona, where traffic emissions and resuspension contribute to some of the highest average PM 10 levels in Spain, has unusually raised levels of Ti, V and Ba. Such variations in both daily and annual average PM bulk chemistry, particularly in potentially toxic trace metals concentrated in the finer aerosols (such as Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Ni), predict that PM health effects on resident populations from different towns are unlikely to be the same.

  7. Strategic Self-Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.

    We examine strategic self-ignorance—the use of ignorance as an excuse to overindulge in pleasurable activities that may be harmful to one’s future self. Our model shows that guilt aversion provides a behavioral rationale for present-biased agents to avoid information about negative future impacts...... of such activities. We then confront our model with data from an experiment using prepared, restaurant-style meals — a good that is transparent in immediate pleasure (taste) but non-transparent in future harm (calories). Our results support the notion that strategic self-ignorance matters: nearly three of five...... subjects (58 percent) chose to ignore free information on calorie content, leading at-risk subjects to consume significantly more calories. We also find evidence consistent with our model on the determinants of strategic self-ignorance....

  8. Strategic self-ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.

    2016-01-01

    We examine strategic self-ignorance—the use of ignorance as an excuse to over-indulge in pleasurable activities that may be harmful to one’s future self. Our model shows that guilt aversion provides a behavioral rationale for present-biased agents to avoid information about negative future impacts...... of such activities. We then confront our model with data from an experiment using prepared, restaurant-style meals—a good that is transparent in immediate pleasure (taste) but non-transparent in future harm (calories). Our results support the notion that strategic self-ignorance matters: nearly three of five...... subjects (58%) chose to ignore free information on calorie content, leading at-risk subjects to consume significantly more calories. We also find evidence consistent with our model on the determinants of strategic self-ignorance....

  9. Metal and flavonol contents of Moringa oleifera grown in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusumzi Pakade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Moringa (Moringa oleifera is a plant that is commonly consumed as a nutritional supplement by some communities in South Africa. Contamination of moringa with toxic heavy metals could be deadly for consumers. However, some metal elements are essential for consumers in trace amounts. We therefore investigated the concentrations of heavy metals, including major and trace nutrient elements, in the soil and in the leaves and flowers of moringa grown on two farms in South Africa. After total digestion in the microwave, the concentrations of metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. No toxic heavy metals were detected in the leaves and flowers of moringa. On average, moringa contained higher concentrations of Ca (18 500 mg/kg and Mg (5500 mg/kg than selected vegetables (spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and peas. The concentrations of other major nutrients in moringa were similar to those of the vegetables. Based on reports of antioxidant activity, we also investigated the concentrations of flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol in moringa leaves and flowers in comparison with the selected vegetables. A high concentration of flavonols is related to antioxidant activity. Plant and vegetable materials were extracted under reflux using an acidified methanol (1% HCl solution and the flavonols were identified and quantified using reverse-phased high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Moringa leaves had higher concentrations of myricetin (1296.6 mg/kg, quercetin (1362.6 mg/kg and kaempferol (1933.7 mg/kg than vegetables (spinach: myricetin 620.0 mg/kg, quercetin 17.9 mg/kg, kaempferol 215.3 mg/kg. No major differences were found between the plants growing on the two farms. Moringa is thus nutritionally valuable and safe to consume.

  10. Heavy metals and arsenic content in water along the southern Caspian coasts in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Mohammad; Zamani, Abbasali; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein; Khosravi, Younes; Badiee, Hamid

    2018-06-06

    Due to the importance of pollution monitoring in marine ecosystems and lack of a coherent and systematic investigation of heavy metal ions along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, in the present study, the amount of these metals and As ions in coastal waters along its 780-km-long coast in Iran have been studied. Heavy metals (cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, lead) and a poisonous metalloid (arsenic) were selected in 59 sampling stations and determined using differential pulse polarography method. The multivariate statistical tools were applied to describe and interpret the experimental data. The overall mean concentrations of studied metals (in microgram per liter; μg L -1 ) in the samples were found in the order Zn (10.9) > Ni (7.4) > Cu (5.5) > Pb (1.9) > Hg (1.4) > As (1.3) > Co (1.1) > Cd (0.2). The results when compared with reported international standards confirmed that the sampled waters do contain some of these elements above the suggested maximum permissible limits. Hg and Cu were detected in 54.2 and 72.9% of the samples, almost all above the permissible limits. Ni, Zn, Pb, and Co were detected in 100, 96.6, 93.2, and 88.1%, respectively, while 8.5, 22.0, 3.4, and 1.7% were above the permissible limits. Cd and As were present in 61 and 93% of the samples, and their concentrations were higher than the rate presented by Russian System of Management Chemicals (RSMC). In addition, spatial distribution of heavy metal concentrations showed that Gorgan Bay is an ecosystem serving as a filter, trapping natural and anthropogenic materials that are brought from industrial, commercial, and urbanized areas. The multivariate data analysis reveals that Caspian Sea is contaminated by both anthropogenic as well as pedo-geochemical sources.

  11. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  12. Strategic Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the area of strategic forecasting and its research directions and to put forward some ideas for improving management decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This article is conceptual but also informed by the author’s long contact...... and collaboration with various business firms. It starts by presenting an overview of the area and argues that the area is as much a way of thinking as a toolbox of theories and methodologies. It then spells out a number of research directions and ideas for management. Findings: Strategic forecasting is seen...... as a rebirth of long range planning, albeit with new methods and theories. Firms should make the building of strategic forecasting capability a priority. Research limitations/implications: The article subdivides strategic forecasting into three research avenues and suggests avenues for further research efforts...

  13. Strategic Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten; Juul Andersen, Torben

    decision making is often conceived as ‘standing on the two feet’ of deliberate or intended strategic decisions by top management and emergent strategic decisions pursued by lower-level managers and employees. In this view, the paper proposes that bottom-up initiatives have a hard time surfacing...... in hierarchical organizations and that lowerlevel managers and employees, therefore, pursue various strategies to bypass the official strategy processes to act on emerging strategic issues and adapt to changing environmental conditions.......The analysis of major resource committing decisions is central focus in the strategy field, but despite decades of rich conceptual and empirical research we still seem distant from a level of understanding that can guide corporate practices under dynamic and unpredictable conditions. Strategic...

  14. Non-Destructive X-ray Spectrometric and Chromatographic Analysis of Metal Containers and Their Contents, from Ancient Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos S. Katsifas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a holistic archaeometric approach to ancient Macedonian specimens. In the region of the ancient city Lete, the deceased members of a rich and important family were interred in a cluster of seven tombs (4th century BC. Among the numerous grave goods, there was also a set of metal containers preserving their original content. The physico-chemical analysis of the containers and their contents was performed in order to understand the purpose of their use. For the containers, Energy Dispersive micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (EDμXRF spectroscopy was implemented taking advantage of its non-invasive character. The case (B35 and the small pyxis (B37 were made of a binary Cu-Sn alloy accompanied by a slight amount of impurities (Fe, Pb, As and the two miniature bowls were made of almost pure Cu. For the study of the contents, a combination of EDμXRF, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS was carried out. Especially for the extraction of the volatile compounds, the Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME technique was used in the headspace mode. Because of the detection of Br, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography coupled to a Diode-Array-Detector (HPLC-DAD was implemented, confirming the existence of the ancient dye shellfish purple (porphyra in Greek. The analytical results of the combined implementation of spectrometric and chromatographic analytical techniques of the metal containers and their contents expand our knowledge about the pharmaceutical practices in Macedonia during the 4th century BC.

  15. A study of heavy metal content and NORM in soil sample outside Lynas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. Gebeng, Kuantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Azera Izzati Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Lynas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. is established to build a processing plant of the rare earth lanthanides elements used to produce the starting material for manufacturing high-tech products analysed as cell phones, magnets, computer memory and many more. Analysis of soil samples was carried out outside the Lynas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of radionuclide activity concentration of natural elements in soil samples of 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U. A total of five heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb were analysed for concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples. The analysis was performed and analysed using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for the composition and concentration of heavy metals and Gamma Ray Spectrometer is to determine the radionuclide activity concentration of natural elements. Results showed that the concentrations of radionuclides activities for 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U are different at all stations. 40 K radionuclide has the highest radioactivity in the Station 3, which is 385 ± 4 Bq/ kg. For 232 Th and 238 U radionuclides have a high concentration of activity at Station 2 which are 102 ± 3 Bq/ kg and 105 ± 4 Bq/ kg, respectively. According to UNSCEAR 2000 average value, the value obtained exceeds the prescribed level. For heavy metal analysis showed there were only three heavy metals which could be found, namely As, Cr and Cu. For the highest concentration of As element has found at Station 5, which is 25.5 ± 2.1 ppm. For Cr and Cu element, high concentrations has found at Station 5 and Station 1, which are 225 ± 35 ppm and 95 ± ppm, respectively. (author)

  16. Designing novel bulk metallic glass composites with a high aluminum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z P; Gao, J E; Wu, Y; Wang, H; Liu, X J; Lu, Z P

    2013-11-27

    The long-standing challenge for forming Al-based BMGs and their matrix composites with a critical size larger than 1 mm have not been answered over the past three decades. In this paper, we reported formation of a series of BMG matrix composites which contain a high Al content up to 55 at.%. These composites can be cast at extraordinarily low cooling rates, compatible with maximum rod diameters of over a centimetre in copper mold casting. Our results indicate that proper additions of transition element Fe which have a positive heat of mixing with the main constituents La and Ce can appreciably improve the formability of the BMG matrix composites by suppressing the precipitation of Al(La,Ce) phase resulted from occurrence of the phase separation. However, the optimum content of Fe addition is strongly dependant on the total amount of the Al content in the Al-(CoCu)-(La,Ce) alloys.

  17. Austenitic stainless steel alloys with high nickel contents in high temperature liquid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konvicka, H.R.; Schwarz, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Ni base alloys (nickel content: from 15 to 70 wt%, Chromium content: 15 wt%, iron: balance) together with stainless steel (W.Nr. 1.4981) have been exposed to flowing liquid sodium at 730 0 C in four intervals up to a cumulative exposure time of 1500 hours. Weight change data and the results of post-exposition microcharacterization of specimens are reported. The corrosion rates increase with increasing nickel content and tend to become constant after longer exposure times for each alloy. The corrosion rate of stainless steel is considerably reduced due to the presence of the base alloys. Different kinetics of nickel poor (up to 35% nickel) and nickel rich (> 50% nickel) alloys and nickel transport from nickel rich to nickel poor material is observed. (orig.)

  18. Determination of Metal Contents of Various Fibers Used in Textile Industry by MP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn in various textile fibers (cotton, acrylic, polyester, nylon, viscose, and polypropylene of different colors (red, white, green, blue, yellow, orange, black, brown, purple, pink, navy, burgundy, beige, and grey were determined by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES. Textile fibers were collected from the various textile plants in Gaziantep-Kahramanmaraş, Turkey. Heavy metals concentrations in all examined textile fibers after wet digestion were found to be high, whereas in the artificial sweat extract they were low. The only lead concentrations in textile fibers analyzed after extraction in the artificial sweat solution were found higher than limit values given by Oeko-Tex.

  19. Content of trace metals in surface sediments of Lac Sud de Tunis before development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Souissi, J.; Zaouali, J.; Aouij, S.; Orlando, E.; Mazghouni, M.; Rezig, M.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of metal (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, Fe) concentrations in the surface sediments of the South Lake of Tunis before its restoration showed a high level of contamination. The values for mercury, cadmium and lead oscillate respectively between (0,17 and 2,6 μg/g d.w), (0,13 and 13,3 μg/g d. w); (3,97 and 698 μg/g d. w). This pollution is generated by the intensive industrial activity situated on south banks of the Lake. This environment constitutes since more of the millennium a outfall of urban used waters and since one century an outfall of industrial waste waters strongly charged with nutrients and heavy metals. (author)

  20. Contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in fish roe of commercial fish of the Zaporizhya reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokon', A.S.; Marenkov, O.N.; Dvoretskij, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive radiation-toxicological studies of fish roe of some commercial fish of the Zaporizhya Reservoir were conducted. It was found that the greatest number of 137 Cs (4,5 Bq/kg) and 90 Sr (3,2 Bq/kg) was accumulated by fish roe of perch. Heavy metals (cadmium, copper, zinc and lead), and natural radionuclides 226 Ra and 232 Th were accumulated to a greater amount of bream fish roe

  1. Metallic ion content and damage to the DNA in oral mucosa cells patients treated dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Perrez, Francisco Parra; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Ros-Llor, Irene; LLor-Ros, Irene; Ramírez-Fernández, Piedad

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential genotoxicity of dental implants, evaluating biomarkers of DNA damage (micronuclei and/or nuclear buds), cytokinetic defects (binucleated cells) and the presence of trace metals in gingival cells of patients with implants, comparing these with a control group. A total of 60 healthy adults (30 patients with dental implants and 30 control patients without) were included in the study. Medical and dental histories were made for each including life-style factors. Genotoxicity effects were assessed by micronucleus assays in the gingival epithelial cells of each patient; 1,000 epithelial cells were analyzed, evaluating the frequency of micronucleated cells and other nuclear anomalies. The concentration of metals (Al(27), Ag(107), Co (59), Cr (52), Cu(63), Fe(56), Sn(118), Mn(55), Mo(92), Ni(60), Pb(208), Ti(47)) were assayed by means of coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS). The frequency of micronuclei in the patient group with implants was higher than in the control group but without statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). Similar results were found for binucleated cells and nuclear buds (P > 0.05). For metals assayed by ICP-MS, significant differences were found for Ti(47) (P ≤ 0.045). Univariate analysis identified a significant association between the presence of micronuclei and age. Dental implants do not induce DNA damage in gingival cells, the slight effects observed cannot be indicated as biologically relevant.

  2. Analysis of metal contents in Portland Type V and MTA-based cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Dalla Villa, Ricardo; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), the concentration levels of 11 metals in Type V gray and structural white PC, ProRoot MTA, and MTA Bio. Samples, containing one gram of each tested cement, were prepared and transferred to a 100 mL Teflon tube with a mixture of 7.0 mL of nitric acid and 21 mL of hydrochloric acid. After the reaction, the mixture was filtered and then volumed to 50 mL of distilled water. For each metal, specific patterns were determined from universal standards. Arsenic quantification was performed by hydride generator. The analysis was performed five times and the data were statistically analyzed at 5% level of significance. Only the cadmium presented concentration levels of values lower than the quantification limit of the device. The AAS analysis showed increased levels of calcium, nickel, and zinc in structural white PC. Type V PC presented the greatest concentration levels of arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and manganese (P cements, and the lowest concentration levels were observed in Portland cements, while the highest were observed in ProRoot MTA. Both PC and MTA-based cements showed evidence of metals inclusion.

  3. Evaluation of natural radioactivity and heavy metals content in Sudanese phosphate rocks used as low cost fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhangi, F.A.; Aamhed, M.M.O.; Abdalla, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the level of natural radioactivity and heavy metals content of Sudanese rock phosphate used as low cost fertilizer. Thirty samples collected from two types of local phosphate rocks from the Nuba mountains (Uro and Kurun) were used in this study and the activity concentrations of natural radioactivity determined using gamma spectroscopy were compared to those found in samples of imported phosphorous fertilizers Single Super phosphate (SSP) and Triple Super phosphate (TSP). The results showed that the ' Ra activity concentration was 0.6 - 0.8 Bq/g for Uro and 0.3 - 0.5 Bq/g for Kurun. As for the most commonly used imported fertilizer TSP, the result was found to be greater than that of Uro (around 1.0 Bq/g). The heavy metals content of Uro and Kurun rocks measured using X-ray Fluorescence Technique showed their levels were below the toxic levels reported by Christina (1991). It is evident that the environmental hazard is comparable in the local and imported fertilizers and is acceptable in both cases by international standards. The determine factor therefore in optioning for the use of a local or an imported brand should then be the fertilizing efficiency of the brand used against other economic consideration rather than the fertilizers environmental impact

  4. Analysis of Heavy Metal Content (Pb on Waters and Fish at The Floating Cages BPPP Ambon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wattimena Rachel L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal waters play important roles due to highly in natural resources and developing of environmental services. However, there are highly intensity of natural resources utilization, environment and settlement. Consequently, environment and natural resources would be degraded such as in the Ambon Bay. One of the potency at the Ambon Bay is mariculture area namely the floating cages (KJA which belongs to Fisheries education and training (BPPP Ambon. The research aimed to analyze physical-chemical of waters (temperature, pH, salinity and current speed, to analyze heavy metal concentration (Pb on water and fish from floating cages (KJA and to analyze waters pollution status at KJA BPPP Ambon. The average salinity of each floating cage ranged from 30.09 - 30.34°C, pH ranged from 8.03 − 8.44, salinity ranged from 31.36 − 33.34 PSU, and current speed at spring tide ranged from 0.5 – 55.8 Cm/sec while neap tide ranged from 0.1 – 9.8 Cm/sec. Heavy metal concentration (Pb on waters was below the standard for waters quality and the average concentration was 0.002 mg/l. Whilst, the heavy metal concentration (Pb on fishes was below standard for floating cages (floating cages 2-6 which was 0.05 and 0.17mg/l. Otherwise, floating cage 1 had been above maximum standard for fish food and its processing following SNI 7387:2009 (0.3mg/l which was 0.31 mg/l. The status of waters pollution at KJA BPPP Ambon belonged to C class and could be categorized as moderate based on standard for waters quality issued by State Ministerial Decree for the Environment No. 51 Year 2004.

  5. Analysis of Heavy Metal Content (Pb) on Waters and Fish at The Floating Cages BPPP Ambon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattimena, Rachel L.; Selanno, Debby A. J.; Tuhumury, Semuel F.; Tuahatu, Juliana W.

    2018-02-01

    Coastal waters play important roles due to highly in natural resources and developing of environmental services. However, there are highly intensity of natural resources utilization, environment and settlement. Consequently, environment and natural resources would be degraded such as in the Ambon Bay. One of the potency at the Ambon Bay is mariculture area namely the floating cages (KJA) which belongs to Fisheries education and training (BPPP) Ambon. The research aimed to analyze physical-chemical of waters (temperature, pH, salinity and current speed), to analyze heavy metal concentration (Pb) on water and fish from floating cages (KJA) and to analyze waters pollution status at KJA BPPP Ambon. The average salinity of each floating cage ranged from 30.09 - 30.34°C, pH ranged from 8.03 - 8.44, salinity ranged from 31.36 - 33.34 PSU, and current speed at spring tide ranged from 0.5 - 55.8 Cm/sec while neap tide ranged from 0.1 - 9.8 Cm/sec. Heavy metal concentration (Pb) on waters was below the standard for waters quality and the average concentration was 0.002 mg/l. Whilst, the heavy metal concentration (Pb) on fishes was below standard for floating cages (floating cages 2-6) which was 0.05 and 0.17mg/l. Otherwise, floating cage 1 had been above maximum standard for fish food and its processing following SNI 7387:2009 (0.3mg/l) which was 0.31 mg/l. The status of waters pollution at KJA BPPP Ambon belonged to C class and could be categorized as moderate based on standard for waters quality issued by State Ministerial Decree for the Environment No. 51 Year 2004.

  6. Wide-scale utilization of MSWI fly ashes in cement production and its impact on average heavy metal contents in cements: The case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Jakob; Trinkel, Verena; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies present the utilization of fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in cement production as a recycling alternative to landfilling. While there is a lot of research on the impact of MSWI fly ashes utilization in cement production on the quality of concrete or the leaching of heavy metals, only a few studies have determined the resulting heavy metal content in cements caused by this MSWI fly ashes utilization. Making use of the case of Austria, this study (1) determines the total content of selected heavy metals in cements currently produced in the country, (2) designs a scenario and calculates the resulting heavy metal contents in cements assuming that all MSWI fly ashes from Austrian grate incinerators were used as secondary raw materials for Portland cement clinker production and (3) evaluates the legal recyclability of demolished concretes produced from MSWI fly ash amended cements based on their total heavy metal contents. To do so, data from literature and statistics are combined in a material flow analysis model to calculate the average total contents of heavy metals in cements and in the resulting concretes according to the above scenario. The resulting heavy metal contents are then compared (i) to their respective limit values for cements as defined in a new technical guideline in Austria (BMLFUW, 2016), and (ii) to their respective limit values for recycling materials from demolished concrete. Results show that MSWI fly ashes utilization increases the raw material input in cement production by only +0.9%, but the total contents of Cd by +310%, and Hg, Pb, and Zn by +70% to +170%. However these and other heavy metal contents are still below their respective limit values for Austrian cements. The same legal conformity counts for recycling material derived from concretes produced from the MSWI fly ash cements. However, if the MSWI fly ash ratio in all raw materials used for cement production were increased from 0.9% to 22

  7. Extending FEAST-METAL for analysis of low content minor actinide bearing and zirconium rich metallic fuels for sodium fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahan, Aydin, E-mail: karahan@mit.edu [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge MA 24-204 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Computational models in FEAST-METAL fuel behaviour code have been upgraded to simulate minor actinide bearing zirconium rich metallic fuels for use in sodium fast reactors. Increasing the zirconium content to 20-40 wt.% causes significant changes in fuel slug microstructure affecting thermal, mechanical, chemical, and fission gas behaviour. Inclusion of zirconium rich phase reduces the fission gas swelling rate significantly in early irradiation. Above the threshold fission gas swelling, formation of micro-cracks, and open pores increase material compliancy enhance diffusivity, leading to rapid fuel gas swelling, interconnected porosity development and release of the fission gases and helium. Production and release of helium was modelled empirically as a function of americium content and fission gas production, consistent with previous Idaho National Laboratory studies. Predicted fuel constituent redistribution is much smaller compared to typical U-Pu-10Zr fuel operated at EBR-II. Material properties such as fuel thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, and thermal expansion coefficient have been approximated using the available database. Creep rate and fission gas diffusivity of high zirconium fuel is lowered by an order of magnitude with respect to the reference low zirconium fuel based on limited database and in order to match experimental observations. The new code is benchmarked against the AFC-1F fuel assembly post irradiation examination results. Satisfactory match was obtained for fission gas release and swelling behaviour. Finally, the study considers a comparison of fuel behaviour between high zirconium content minor actinide bearing fuel and typical U-15Pu-6Zr fuel pins with 75% smear density. The new fuel has much higher fissile content, allowing for operating at lower neutron flux level compared to fuel with lower fissile density. This feature allows the designer to reach a much higher burnup before reaching the cladding dose limit. On the other

  8. Extending FEAST-METAL for analysis of low content minor actinide bearing and zirconium rich metallic fuels for sodium fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Aydın

    2011-07-01

    Computational models in FEAST-METAL fuel behaviour code have been upgraded to simulate minor actinide bearing zirconium rich metallic fuels for use in sodium fast reactors. Increasing the zirconium content to 20-40 wt.% causes significant changes in fuel slug microstructure affecting thermal, mechanical, chemical, and fission gas behaviour. Inclusion of zirconium rich phase reduces the fission gas swelling rate significantly in early irradiation. Above the threshold fission gas swelling, formation of micro-cracks, and open pores increase material compliancy enhance diffusivity, leading to rapid fuel gas swelling, interconnected porosity development and release of the fission gases and helium. Production and release of helium was modelled empirically as a function of americium content and fission gas production, consistent with previous Idaho National Laboratory studies. Predicted fuel constituent redistribution is much smaller compared to typical U-Pu-10Zr fuel operated at EBR-II. Material properties such as fuel thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, and thermal expansion coefficient have been approximated using the available database. Creep rate and fission gas diffusivity of high zirconium fuel is lowered by an order of magnitude with respect to the reference low zirconium fuel based on limited database and in order to match experimental observations. The new code is benchmarked against the AFC-1F fuel assembly post irradiation examination results. Satisfactory match was obtained for fission gas release and swelling behaviour. Finally, the study considers a comparison of fuel behaviour between high zirconium content minor actinide bearing fuel and typical U-15Pu-6Zr fuel pins with 75% smear density. The new fuel has much higher fissile content, allowing for operating at lower neutron flux level compared to fuel with lower fissile density. This feature allows the designer to reach a much higher burnup before reaching the cladding dose limit. On the other

  9. Extending FEAST-METAL for analysis of low content minor actinide bearing and zirconium rich metallic fuels for sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahan, Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Computational models in FEAST-METAL fuel behaviour code have been upgraded to simulate minor actinide bearing zirconium rich metallic fuels for use in sodium fast reactors. Increasing the zirconium content to 20-40 wt.% causes significant changes in fuel slug microstructure affecting thermal, mechanical, chemical, and fission gas behaviour. Inclusion of zirconium rich phase reduces the fission gas swelling rate significantly in early irradiation. Above the threshold fission gas swelling, formation of micro-cracks, and open pores increase material compliancy enhance diffusivity, leading to rapid fuel gas swelling, interconnected porosity development and release of the fission gases and helium. Production and release of helium was modelled empirically as a function of americium content and fission gas production, consistent with previous Idaho National Laboratory studies. Predicted fuel constituent redistribution is much smaller compared to typical U-Pu-10Zr fuel operated at EBR-II. Material properties such as fuel thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, and thermal expansion coefficient have been approximated using the available database. Creep rate and fission gas diffusivity of high zirconium fuel is lowered by an order of magnitude with respect to the reference low zirconium fuel based on limited database and in order to match experimental observations. The new code is benchmarked against the AFC-1F fuel assembly post irradiation examination results. Satisfactory match was obtained for fission gas release and swelling behaviour. Finally, the study considers a comparison of fuel behaviour between high zirconium content minor actinide bearing fuel and typical U-15Pu-6Zr fuel pins with 75% smear density. The new fuel has much higher fissile content, allowing for operating at lower neutron flux level compared to fuel with lower fissile density. This feature allows the designer to reach a much higher burnup before reaching the cladding dose limit. On the other

  10. Heavy metals and metalloid content in vegetables and soil collected from the gardens of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntarić, Dinko; Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Puntarić, Eda; Puntarić, Ida; Mayer, Dijana; Bosnir, Jasna; Lasić, Dario; Jergović, Matijana; Klarić, Ivana; Vidosavljević, Marina; Krivdić, Ivancica

    2013-09-01

    Aim of this study was to determine concentration of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in green leafy vegetables and soil in the urban area of Zagreb, Croatia and to determine if there is a connection between the contamination of soil and vegetables. Green leafy vegetables and soil samples were taken from the gardens located in the outskirts of the city. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; showing that average concentrations of metals and metalloids in vegetables and in soil, regardless of the location of sampling were below the maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The analysis determined that metal concentrations in only nine vegetable samples (9%) were above maximum allowed values prescribed by national and European legislation (three with higher concentrations of Pb, one with a higher concentration of Cd and five with higher concentrations of Hg). Concentrations of contaminants present in the analysed samples, in general, are lower than the ones published in similar studies. The final distribution and concentration of contaminants in vegetables of Zagreb, besides industry and traffic, is affected by the dominant wind direction.

  11. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Comparative study of heavy metals content in cosmetic products of different countries marketed in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in order to determine heavy metal content in fifteen (n = 15 cosmetics products both imported and locally manufactured by unauthorized company marketed at district Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. An analytical test was performed for eight metals in cosmetics products using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The overall mean (n = 15 concentration for each heavy metal was analyzed i.e. Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn were 141.6 ± 0.016, 0.238 ± 0.001, 26.62 ± 0.012, 0.527 ± 0.002, 860.8 ± 0.061, 0.074 ± 0.002, 0.674 ± 0.002 and 268.6 ± 0.086 μg/g, respectively. The results of our study revealed that the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Pb and Cu in the samples within each class under investigation were higher. It also emphasize that the spurious nature of these products cannot be ignored because most of the developing and under developed countries are facing the problems to manufacture good cosmetics products. Hence, are selling these products under the brand name of well reputed national and international companies. Since no safe limit relating to cosmetic products is available in Pakistan, it is therefore difficult to ascertain if the values of metals obtained in this study are too high or low. Prolonged use of such products containing these elements may pose threat to human health and could curb the beauty of the environment.

  13. The Content of Toxic Metals in Agricultural Produce near a Coal Mine: Case Study KCB in Lazarevac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Koprivica

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and analysis of concentrations of toxic metals (lead and cadmium in soils and crops indicate that farmland in Serbia is generally not polluted, and the quality of soils is naturally good. Such soils are therefore suitable for organic farming. All noted instances of contamination by toxic metals are of a local nature only, and the result of fertilizers and pesticides, municipal waste, exhaust gases, nearby production facilities, smelting plants, mines, tailings ponds, etc. Locations of this type need to be monitored regularly, and the status of the soil and crops assessed. The results presented in this paper place special emphasis on lead and cadmium. In this regard, the sampling of 67 plant foodstuffs that are being grown in Baroševac village, located in the immediate vicinity of the Kolubara coal mine, was carried out. Fruit samples represented 14.9% and vegetable samples 85.1% of the total sample. The heavy metal content (lead/cadmium in seven samples was above the limits prescribed by the Regulations. Overall exposure of the adult population of Baroševac, calculated on the basis of all samples (67 in total, was 0.89 µg lead per kg of body weight per week, representing only 3.5% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, and 0.46 cadmium per kg of body weight, which amounts to 6.7% PTWI. Both values point to the fact that the risk is low, even in the case of populations with high exposure to these toxic metals. This suggests that sustainable development may be possible in the near future.

  14. Strategic Aspirations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    are often encouraged by social norms, regulations, and institutions—for example, institutionalized standards for corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting—they live through local articulations and enactments that allow organizations to discover who they are and who they might become. Strategic......Strategic aspirations are public announcements designed to inspire, motivate, and create expectations about the future. Vision statements or value declarations are examples of such talk, through which organizations announce their ideal selves and declare what they (intend to) do. While aspirations...... aspirations, in other words, have exploratory and inspirational potential—two features that are highly essential in complex areas such as sustainability and CSR. This entry takes a communicative focus on strategic aspirations, highlighting the value of aspirational talk, understood as ideals and intentions...

  15. The distribution of heavy metals content in the bottom deposits of the trans-border Uzh river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Bilkey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and peculiarities of the heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, As, V, Cr, Ni migration were established in the system of the river Uzh bottom deposits. An excess in maximum permissible concentration among such elements as Zn, V, As, and Cu was detected in surface waters. We may connect the elevated level of Cu and Zn with natural (metals appearing in ground water run-off, ablation from iron ore, the reaction of interstitial water, anthropogenic (sewage disposals from communal households and manufacturing plants, agricultural run-offs, and hydrochemical (pH of water medium, methylation of non-organic metal compounds, metals release from the organic compounds composition, ingress from bottom deposits factors. The high concentrations of vanadium in water as well as in bottom deposits are most probably induced by the leaching of elements from the regional volcanic rocks. The plumbum content did not exceed the higher-than-normal rates; however, significant element accumulation was detected in bottom deposits outside the city of Uzhgorod which may be the result of ecotoxicant ingress along with land runoff from the riverside highways laid parallel to the water course. In comparison with background measures, the highest chromium and nickel concentrations were detected near the streamlet Domoradzh and, therefore, it is assumed that the industrial wastewaters serve here as a source of heavy metals. The reservoir in the lowland is above all enriched by arsenic. Areas under agricultural use are significantly concentrated in lowlands. Runoffs from these areas are the main source of the ore supply. However, the impact of municipal domestic waste water which contains arsenic-containing detergents should not be excluded. Moreover, we found a relationship between the relief heterogeneity of the study area and distribution of heavy metals in the hydro-ecosystem. The accomplished comparative analysis of the territories under study indicates the significant

  16. Heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd content in wine produced from grape cultivar Mavrud, grown in an industrially polluted region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violina Angelova

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in the period 1991-1993 with cv. Mavrud, grown in the region with a major industrial pollutant the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW and a region with no industrial pollutants (as a control. The heavy metal content in soil, grapes and wine was determined. Most of the heavy metals in the grapes precipitate during fermentation into the sediments, which is the reason for their significantly lower content in the wine. Water washing of grape before processing leads to about 2 time decrease in the Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd contents of wine. The pre-washing of grapes does not lead to any quality deterioration in the wine produced. The amounts of Cu, Zn and Cd in the wine from cv. Mavrud, grown in the region of the NFMW-Plovdiv, are lower than the maximum admissible levels, while the Pb content exceeds them about two times.

  17. Standards for the contents of heavy metals in soils of some states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Vodyanitskii

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In line with the present-day ecological and toxicological data obtained by Dutch ecologists, heavy metals/metalloids form the following succession according to their hazard degree in soils: Se > Tl > Sb > Cd > V > Hg > Ni > Cu > Cr > As > Ba. This sequence substantially differs from the succession of heavy elements presented in the general toxicological Russian GOST (State Norms and Standards, which considers As, Cd, Hg, Se, Pb, and Zn to be strongly hazardous elements, whereas Co, Ni, Mo, Sb, and Cr to be moderately hazardous. As compared to the Dutch general toxicological approach, the hazard of lead, zinc, and cobalt is lower in soils, and that of vanadium, antimony, and barium is higher in Russia. MPC must been adopted for strongly hazardous thallium, selenium, and vanadium in Russia.

  18. New technique for the determination of trace noble metal content in geological and process materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitkin, V.N. E-mail: mit@che.nsk.su; Zayakina, S.B.; Anoshin, G.N

    2003-02-03

    A new two-step sample preparation technique is proposed for the instrumental determination of trace quantities of noble metals (NM) in refractory geological and process materials. The decomposition procedure is based on the oxidizing fluorination of samples with subsequent sulfatization (OFS) of the sample melt or cake. Fluorination of samples is accomplished using a mixture of KHF{sub 2}+KBrF{sub 4} or KHF{sub 2}+BrF{sub 3} depending on the ratio of sample mass to oxidizing mixture. Both cakes and melts can result using this procedure. Sulfatization of resulting fluorides is completed using concentrated sulfuric acid heated to 550 deg. C. Validation studies using certified geostandard reference materials (GSO VP-2, ZH-3, Matte RTP, HO-1, SARM-7) have shown that the proposed method is fast, convenient and most often produces non-hygroscopic homogeneous residues suitable for analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). Results obtained for NM concentrations in reference materials agreed with certified concentration ranges and results obtained using other methods of analysis. The OFS procedure combined with direct current plasma d.c. plasma AES achieved the following limits of detection (LOD) for the noble metals: Ag, Au, Pd, 1-2x10{sup -6}; Pt, 5x10{sup -6}; and Ru, Rh, Ir, Os, 1-3x10{sup -7} wt.%. Using graphite furnace AAS (GFAAS) combined extraction pre-concentration the following LODs for NMs were achieved: Pt, Ru, 1x10{sup -6}; Pd, Rh, 1x10{sup -7}; and Au, Ag, 1-2x10{sup -8} wt.%. The relative standard deviation for NM determinations (S{sub r}) was dependent on NM concentration and sample type, but commonly was in the range of 3-15% for d.c. plasma AES and 5-30% for GFAAS.

  19. Plant and animal species composition and heavy metal content in fly ash ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brieger, G.; Wells, J.R.; Hunter, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Plant and animal species present on a coal fly ash slurry pond site and a dry deposit site were surveyed and sampled during a two-day period in October. Elemental analyses were determined for most of the species encountered. A total of 48 plant species were observed on the two sites, with 35 species on the wet site, and 20 on the dry site. Eighteen terrestrial and 7 aquatic animal species were found on the wet site, exclusive of vertebrates which were not studied with the exception of a carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eleven terrestrial invertebrate and one aquatic species were observed on the dry site. Neutron activation analysis was carried out for: Se, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Co, Sb, Cd, and As. Using literature values for phytotoxicity, it is concluded that, in general, plants did not accumulate toxic levels of metals. Only one plant (Impatiens biflora Willd.) showed a significant level of Cd. Of 20 plants analyzed on the wet site, 10 had excessive Se concentrations (>5 ppm); on the dry site 6 out of 18 had high Se values. In animals (Gryllus sp.; Melanoplus sp.; Trachelipus sp; Lumbricus terrestris; Physa integra; Cyprinus carpio) the trace metal concentration was generally in between that of control animals and that of the fly ash itself. One exception included Zn, which, although the most variable element examined, was concentrated in all the terrestrial animals to levels higher than in fly ash. Crickets are the most consistent bioconcentrators with Cr, Se, and Zn at higher levels than for control animals. All animals species studied accumulated Se compared to controls. 48 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Heavy metal, total arsenic, and inorganic arsenic contents of algae food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, C; Algora, S; Benito, V; Clemente, M J; Devesa, V; Súñer, M A; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2002-02-13

    The total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of 18 algae food products currently on sale in Spain were determined. The suitability of the analytical methodologies for this type of matrix was confirmed by evaluating their analytical characteristics. The concentration ranges found for each contaminant, expressed in milligrams per kilogram of dry weight, were as follows: total arsenic, 2.3-141; inorganic arsenic, 0.15-88; lead, mercury, 0.004-0.04. There is currently no legislation in Spain regarding contaminants in algae food products, but some of the samples analyzed revealed Cd and inorganic As levels higher than those permitted by legislation in other countries. Given the high concentrations of inorganic As found in Hizikia fusiforme, a daily consumption of 1.7 g of the product would reach the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by the WHO for an average body weight of 68 kg. A more comprehensive study of the contents and toxicological implications of the inorganic As present in the algae food products currently sold in Spain may be necessary, which might then be the basis for the introduction of specific sales restrictions.

  1. Phytotoxicity of thallium (Tl) in culture solution. Pt. 1. Effects of Tl(I) on the growth and heavy metal contents of pea and field bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetsch, U; Austenfeld, F A

    1985-01-01

    The effects of TlNO/sub 3/ and Tl(I)EDTA on growth and heavy metal contents of pea plants and field bean plants were compared in hydroponic culture experiments. In the presence of TlNO/sub 3/, the essential heavy metals were available to the plants in their ionic forms. When Tl(I)EDTA was present the essential heavy metals were available as chelated complexes. With increasing concentration of TlNO/sub 3/ dry matter production of pea plants was lowered and the Tl content of each organ was increased. The highest Tl content was found within the stems. The increased Tl contents were accompanied by depressed Mn, Zn, and Cu contents of the roots and depressed Mn contents of the stems, but increased Fe contents of the stems. Substitution of TlNO/sub 3/ by Tl(I)EDTA resulted in a stronger growth inhibition of the pea plants, and higher Tl contents of each organ. The highest Tl content was found within the stems. Tl(I)EDTA depressed Mn in the roots, but increased Fe and Mn in the stems, and Fe, Zn and Cu in the leaves. The increases may due to concentration by growth inhibition. The growth of the field bean was not effected by TlNO/sub 3/ nor by Tl(I)EDTA. The field bean contained most of the Tl within the roots and translocated only relatively small amounts to the shoots. This pattern was independent of the Tl compound. Increasing concentrations of TlNO/sub 3/ resulted in depressed Mn and Zn contents of the roots, and Mn contents of the stems. Chelation of Tl(I) resulted in a decrease of the Tl content of each organ. Tl(I)EDTA depressed only the Mn content of the roots.

  2. Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal content in fuel oil and oil-ashes in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, H.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Abril, J.M.; Greaves, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    as well as Fuel Oil No6. Gamma spectrometry was used for measuring 226 Ra, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb, 212 Bi, 208 Tl and 40 K, and heavy metallic cations were determined by ICP-MS which allow also the direct determination of 238 U. In this material (oil ashes) the total activity concentration is above 300 Bq.kg-1. In fact the combustion concentrate also heavy metal cations leading to an increasing in its concentrations, as is the case of Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, V and Zn. Finally some recommendations are included for use of oil ashes as an additive for building materials. (author)

  3. Strategic Staffing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    Business and industry leaders do not flinch at the idea of placing top talent in struggling departments and divisions. This is not always the case in public education. The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools made a bold statement to its community in its strategic plan by identifying two key reform levers--(1) an effective principal leading each school;…

  4. Strategic Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    An outcome in a noncooperative game is said to be self-enforcing, or a strategic equilibrium, if, whenever it is recommended to the players, no player has an incentive to deviate from it.This paper gives an overview of the concepts that have been proposed as formalizations of this requirement and of

  5. Content of Heavy Metal in the Dust of Leisure Squares and Its Health Risk Assessment—A Case Study of Yanta District in Xi’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjie Shao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking Yanta District in Xi’an as the research object, the present study measures the contents of Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb, Copper (Cu, Nickel (Ni, and Chromium (Cr in dust samples and further assesses the health risk of heavy metals intake through dust based on the assessment method of human exposure risk proposed by U.S. EPA, with an aim to investigate the content of heavy metal in the dust of leisure squares and its exposure risk. As the results indicate, the average contents of five heavy metals are obviously higher than the soil background value in Shaanxi Province. Therefore, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Cr are obviously enriched in urban surface dust in Shaanxi Province, due to the influence of human activities. In addition, it can also be found that the non-carcinogen exposure risk in children is significantly higher than that in adults with the risk values of these five heavy metals all one order of magnitude higher than those of adults. Irrespective of whether addressing the results for children or adults, the non-carcinogen exposure doses of five heavy metals are sorted as Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. According to the present situation, for a child, the total non-carcinogenic risk values of five heavy metals have exceeded the safety limit in 11 of the 20 leisure squares in Yanta District of Xi’an. That means the leisure squares are no longer suitable for physical and recreational activities. For the five heavy metals, the average non-carcinogenic risk value of Cr is largest, and causes the largest threat to health in Yanta District, Xi’an. The carcinogenic exposure doses of the heavy metals Cr, Cd, and Ni are very low in respiratory pathways and there is no carcinogenic health risk. In general, the Cr content in dust in domestic cities is higher than that of foreign cities; however, the Pb content is much lower.

  6. Content of Heavy Metal in the Dust of Leisure Squares and Its Health Risk Assessment—A Case Study of Yanta District in Xi’an

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tianjie; Pan, Lihuan; Chen, Zhiqing; Wang, Ruiyuan; Li, Wenjing; Qin, Qing; He, Yuran

    2018-01-01

    Taking Yanta District in Xi’an as the research object, the present study measures the contents of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), and Chromium (Cr) in dust samples and further assesses the health risk of heavy metals intake through dust based on the assessment method of human exposure risk proposed by U.S. EPA, with an aim to investigate the content of heavy metal in the dust of leisure squares and its exposure risk. As the results indicate, the average contents of five heavy metals are obviously higher than the soil background value in Shaanxi Province. Therefore, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Cr are obviously enriched in urban surface dust in Shaanxi Province, due to the influence of human activities. In addition, it can also be found that the non-carcinogen exposure risk in children is significantly higher than that in adults with the risk values of these five heavy metals all one order of magnitude higher than those of adults. Irrespective of whether addressing the results for children or adults, the non-carcinogen exposure doses of five heavy metals are sorted as Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. According to the present situation, for a child, the total non-carcinogenic risk values of five heavy metals have exceeded the safety limit in 11 of the 20 leisure squares in Yanta District of Xi’an. That means the leisure squares are no longer suitable for physical and recreational activities. For the five heavy metals, the average non-carcinogenic risk value of Cr is largest, and causes the largest threat to health in Yanta District, Xi’an. The carcinogenic exposure doses of the heavy metals Cr, Cd, and Ni are very low in respiratory pathways and there is no carcinogenic health risk. In general, the Cr content in dust in domestic cities is higher than that of foreign cities; however, the Pb content is much lower. PMID:29495319

  7. Content of Heavy Metal in the Dust of Leisure Squares and Its Health Risk Assessment-A Case Study of Yanta District in Xi'an.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tianjie; Pan, Lihuan; Chen, Zhiqing; Wang, Ruiyuan; Li, Wenjing; Qin, Qing; He, Yuran

    2018-02-25

    Taking Yanta District in Xi'an as the research object, the present study measures the contents of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), and Chromium (Cr) in dust samples and further assesses the health risk of heavy metals intake through dust based on the assessment method of human exposure risk proposed by U.S. EPA, with an aim to investigate the content of heavy metal in the dust of leisure squares and its exposure risk. As the results indicate, the average contents of five heavy metals are obviously higher than the soil background value in Shaanxi Province. Therefore, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Cr are obviously enriched in urban surface dust in Shaanxi Province, due to the influence of human activities. In addition, it can also be found that the non-carcinogen exposure risk in children is significantly higher than that in adults with the risk values of these five heavy metals all one order of magnitude higher than those of adults. Irrespective of whether addressing the results for children or adults, the non-carcinogen exposure doses of five heavy metals are sorted as Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. According to the present situation, for a child, the total non-carcinogenic risk values of five heavy metals have exceeded the safety limit in 11 of the 20 leisure squares in Yanta District of Xi'an. That means the leisure squares are no longer suitable for physical and recreational activities. For the five heavy metals, the average non-carcinogenic risk value of Cr is largest, and causes the largest threat to health in Yanta District, Xi'an. The carcinogenic exposure doses of the heavy metals Cr, Cd, and Ni are very low in respiratory pathways and there is no carcinogenic health risk. In general, the Cr content in dust in domestic cities is higher than that of foreign cities; however, the Pb content is much lower.

  8. Rfa method application for determination of heavy metals content in foods and industrial raw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of improvement of the people's lives quality is considered to be of the highest priority according to the U N classification. It is known that its solution lies with the quality of drinking water and foods, which is defined, to a great extent, by the ecological situation of a concrete living region. As a rule, the existing methods of food analysis are mostly meant for determination of one chemical substance in a certain food. The analysis methods developed by authors are versatile and allow determining the quantitative content of Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Pb, Bi in the widely used basic foods and industrial raw products according to the common analytical scheme. The methods sensitivity allows determining the MCL of the toxic substances in foods and industrial raw products, specified in 'Medical and biological requirements and health-related quality standards in regards to the industrial raw products and foods

  9. Synthesis and studies of novel high metal content organic aerogels obtained from a polymerizable titanium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadra, S.

    2010-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is a technique widely studied by the French atomic commission (CEA). Experiments will be performed within the Laser Megajoule (LMJ). They require innovative materials like organic aerogels that constitute laser targets. Such polymeric material must provide both a high porosity and a significant titanium percentage (1 atom %). Moreover, the monomers developed must be compatible with the synthesis procedure already in use. According to these specifications, a new polymerizable titanium complex was synthesized and fully characterized. This air and moisture-stable monomer provides a high metal percentage. Its free-radical cross-linked copolymerization affords several titanium-containing polymers. These gels were dried under supercritical conditions and organic aerogels were obtained. The chemical compositions of these materials were investigated by NMR, IR and elemental analysis while their structure was characterized by MEB-EDS, MET, N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms measurements and SAXS. The data collected fit the specification requirements. Moreover, the mechanisms responsible of the foam nano-structure formation were discussed. (author) [fr

  10. Research on the combustion properties of propellants with low content of nano metal powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Jiang; Shu-Fen, Li [Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Feng-Qi, Zhao; Zi-Ru, Liu; Cui-Mei, Yin; Yang, Luo; Shang-Wen, Li [Xi' an Modern Chemistry Research Inst., Xi' an 710065 (China)

    2006-04-15

    A comparison of various experimental results for combustionrelated properties evaluation, including burning rates, deflagration heat, flame structures and thermal decomposition properties, of AP/RDX/Al/HTPB composite propellants containing nano metal powders is presented. The thermal behavior of n-Al (nano grain size aluminum) and g-Al (general grain size aluminum i.e., 10 {mu}m) heated in air was also investigated by thermogravimetry. The burning rates results indicate that the usage of bimodal aluminum distribution with the ratio around 4: 1 of n-Al to g-Al or the addition of 2% nano nickel powders (n-Ni) will improve the burning behavior of the propellant, while the usage of grading aluminum powders with the ratio 1: 1 of n-Al to g-Al will impair the combustion of the propellant. Results show that n-Al and n-Ni both have a lower heating capacity, lower ignition threshold and shorter combustion time than g-Al. In addition n-Al is inclined to burn in single particle form. And the thermal analysis results show that n-Ni can catalyze the thermal decomposition of AP in the propellant. The results also confirm the high reactivity of n-Al, which will lead to a lower reaction temperature and rather higher degree of reaction ratio as compared with g-Al in air. All these factors will influence the combustion of propellants. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND SEAWATER AT TOTOK BAY AREA, NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in north-eastern part of Tomini Bay, approximately 80 km south of Manado city, North Sulawesi. This area is closed to submarine tailing disposal system in Buyat Bay. Five marine sediment samples and four water samples from seawater and dig wells have been used for heavy metals (Hg, As, CN analyses by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. This study is a part of research conducted by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia on morphological changes of seabed in the Totok Bay. The result shows that concentration of mercury (Hg in water samples taken from Ratatotok estuary is higher than standards stipulated Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah/PP No. 82/2001. Meanwhile, concentration of arsenic (As is almost reaching its standard threshold, and conversely cyanide (CN concentration is low. This value of mercury (Hg concentration taken from Ratatotok estuary is much higher than water samples from of Buyat Bay estuary. Significant concentration of mercury (Hg analysed from those particular sampling sites indicated high mercury contamination. Therefore, further examination on ground water of dig wells is necessary, especially for mercury analysis (Hg. Furthermore, comparing the formerly obtained data of mercury concentration in the sediment, this particular study concludes that the sediments in the Totok Bay had contaminated by mercury from gold-processing of illegal mining.

  12. Changes in fatty acid content and composition between wild type and CsHMA3 overexpressing Camelina sativa under heavy-metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won; Feng, Yufeng; Kim, Hyojin; Suh, Mi Chung; Ahn, Sung-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Under heavy-metal stress, CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic Camelina plants displayed not only a better quality, but also a higher quantity of unsaturated fatty acids in their seeds compared with wild type. Camelina sativa L. belongs to the Brassicaceae family and is frequently used as a natural vegetable oil source, as its seeds contain a high content of fatty acids. In this study, we observed that, when subjected to heavy metals (Cd, Co, Zn and Pb), the seeds of CsHMA3 (Heavy-Metal P1B-ATPase 3) transgenic lines retained their original golden yellow color and smooth outline, unlike wild-type seeds. Furthermore, we investigated the fatty acids content and composition of wild type and CsHMA3 transgenic lines after heavy metal treatments compared to the control. The results showed higher total fatty acid amounts in seeds of CsHMA3 transgenic lines compared with those in wild-type seeds under heavy-metal stresses. In addition, the compositions of unsaturated fatty acids-especially 18:1 (oleic acid), 18:2 (linoleic acid; only in case of Co treatment), 18:3 (linolenic acid) and 20:1 (eicosenoic acid)-in CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic lines treated with heavy metals were higher than those of wild-type seeds under the same conditions. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents in wild-type leaves and roots when treated with heavy metal were higher than in CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic lines. These results indicate that overexpression of CsHMA3 affects fatty acid composition and content-factors that are responsible for the fuel properties of biodiesel-and can alleviate ROS accumulation caused by heavy-metal stresses in Camelina. Due to these factors, we propose that CsHMA3 transgenic Camelina can be used for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil as well as for oil production.

  13. Influence of pH and oxygen content of buffer solutions on the corrosion behaviour of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, K.H.

    1977-05-01

    The application of solutions to the decontamination of materials in nuclear installations is based on the condition that their corrosion behaviour is clearly understood. Since electrochemical corrosion is due to cathodic and anodic partial reactions which are influenced in different ways by the pH of the solution and the oxygen content it is suggested that the results of electrochemical experiments with buffer solutions be used as a model for predicting the corrosion behaviour of materials in other solutions. In the tests described here potentio-kinetic current-potential-curves have been traced and galvanic corrosion tests have been made. The results obtained in ascorbic acid, potassium hydrogen phthalate, ammonium citrate and acetate, sodium and potassium tartrate, ammonium hydrogen phosphate, sodium carbonate, hexamethylene tetramin, ethylene diamine enable - on the basis of summarized current-potential-curves - the metals studied to be classified in four groups characterized by clear differences concerning the influence of pH on the corrosion behaviour. (Auth.)

  14. The strategic function of quality in the management of innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Quality management can be used to support strategically the management of innovation. Tools in strategic quality management can be useful in: creating the organizational conditions in which innovations can be developed; supervising and initiating innovation processes; producing innovation content;

  15. Characteristics of tree bark as an indicator in high-immission areas : II. Contents of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötschert, W; Köhm, H -J

    1978-01-01

    1. Studies on indicator characteristics of bark of deciduous trees have been continued by measuring accumulation of Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn in the bark of Fraxinus excelsior at 34 sampling sites over an area of 150 km 2 in the immission area of Frankfurt am Main. 2. Iso-lines of equal Pb-contamination have been found. They include zones of graduated immissions. The pattern of these zones shows an eccentrical orientation and is the result of the distribution of the main traffic roads. A significant correlation of Pb in the bark and traffic congestion has been found. 3. The zones of Cd-contamination stretch from SW to NE. The orientation of these zones is determined by the distribution of the big emittenrs and the centers of heating power in the area and the predominating direction of wind. 4. A correlation between the accumulation of Pb and Cd has been detected. It is less significant than that between pH-value and sulfur content in the bark of trees in former investigations. 5. The distribution of Pb and Mn is antagonistic in the bark of Fraxinus excelsior and parallel in the needles of Taxus baccata. The content of Mn in the bark of Fraxinus is low. It must be accepted that this is partly an effect of elution by sulfur acid-aerosol formation. 6. The strongest accumulation of heavy metal immissions is found in mosses on the ground, mainly in Bryum argenteum. Nevertheless the bark of Fraxinus excelsior has shown consequently its accumulation characteristics as a good immission indicator for heavy metal contaminations by traffic and big emittents.

  16. Influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of Velebit biomedical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Požgaj, Martina; Pirkl, Raimund; Šilić, Tea; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    The use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. Not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. Thus also their analysis is of rising importance. While total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. Thus different indigenous medicinal plants, namely Croatian spruce (Picea abies), savory (Satureja montana L.), mountain yarrow (Achillea clavennae), showy calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), micromeria (Micromeria croatica), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) and fir (Abies alba) together with soil samples were collected in the National Park Northern Velebit. The macro- and trace elements content, after microwave digestion, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the one hand on essential elements and on the other hand on non-essential elements which are considered as toxic for humans, covering in total Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of alkali content on AC conductivity of borate glasses containing two transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashif, I.; Rahman, Samy A.; Soliman, A.A.; Ibrahim, E.M.; Abdel-Khalek, E.K.; Mostafa, A.G.; Sanad, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium borate glasses containing iron and molybdenum ions with the total concentration of transition ions constant and gradual substitution of sodium oxide (network modifier) by borate oxide (network former) was prepared. Densities, molar volume, DC and AC conductivities are measured. The trends of these properties are attributed to changes in the glass network structure. Their DC and AC conductivity increased with increasing NaO concentration. The increase of AC conductivity of sodium borate glasses is attributed to the chemical composition and the hopping mechanism of conduction. Measurements of the dielectric constant (ε) and dielectric loss (tan δ) as a function of frequency (50 Hz-100 kHz) and temperature (RT-600 K) indicate that the increase in dielectric constant and loss (ε and tan δ) values with increasing sodium ion content could be attributed to the assumption that Fe and Mo ions tend to assume network-forming position in the glass compositions studied. The variation of the value of frequency exponent s for all glass samples as the function of temperature at a definite frequency indicates that the value of s decreases with increasing the temperature which agrees with the correlated barrier-hopping (CBH) model.

  18. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L. with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoc Marcela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd, for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82% followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%, Armanca (29.27-25.32%, Silvana (28.89-25.04% and Denise (26.96-25.30%. Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed, Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed, K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed, Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1 and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1. For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1, Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1 and K (232–257 mg.kg-1. Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1 and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1 remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1. The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1, Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1 and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1 are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium

  19. Mid term monitoring of heavy metals content in soils of Mediterranean coastal wetlands. La Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia

    2014-05-01

    Coastal wetlands, in general, and Mediterranean ones, in particular, suffer from differente anthropogenic pressures that may affect their intrinsic environmental and ecological functions. Most, if not all, Mediterranean wetlands are not natural spaces were preservation of habitat and wildlife is the only management policy achieved, bur rather their terriroty is a combination of land units with different activities and influences, such as farming, environmental protection and connectivities with urban and industrial areas. Therefore, the need of periodical monitoring is required whenever pressures and environmental health of wetlands is assessed, particularly of those processes that affect the interconnection of environmental compartiments involving water, soils and biota. In agro-ecological protected wetlands soils play and important role because they are potential sources of pollutants due to farming practices. In this case, presence of heavy metals in soils is and indicator of both environmental health and anthtopogenic direct (farming activities) and indirect (neighbour urban areas) pressures. In this work a mid term (17 year) monitoring of seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in soils of coastal Mediterranean wetlands (La Albufera Natural Park, Spain) are analyzed. Two monitoring campaings were achieved in 1991 and 2008. In both cases the same 20 points were visited which were distributed in the natural park according two four different sectors of potential anthropogenic pressure and land use. At each point two soil samples were collected at differente depths (0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm). The selected metals were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average concentration (mg

  20. Effects of delta ferrite content on the mechanical properties of E308-16 stainless steel weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, D. P.; Vandergriff, D. M.; Gray, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of ferrite content on the properties of type 308 stainless steel shielded metal-arc (SMA) welds were investigated. Welds were made at four levels of ferrite content ranging from 2 to 15 FN (Ferrite Number). Creep and tensile tests were performed. Specimens were aged at 1100/sup 0/C (593/sup 0/C) for times up to 10,000 h (36 Ms) and Charpy V-notch impact tests were performed. Chemical analysis of the original deposits, Magne-gage evaluations, and metallographic evaluation of tested specimens were made. The E308-16 stainless steel electrodes were formulated to produce SMA welds with 2, 5, 9, and 15 FN. The ferrite number was made to vary by varying the nickel and chromium concentrations. Magne-gage determinations revealed that as-welded structures contained an average of 1.8, 4.2, 9.6, and 14.5 FN, respectively. Chemical anslysis of these deposits revealed no unusually high concentrations of tramp elements that would significantly affect mechanical properties. The extra low-ferrite electrodes were made with a different core wire, which produced deposits with slightly higher molybdenum concentrations. This variation in molybdenum should affect properties only minimally. From these chemical analyses and a constitutional diagram, ferrite concentrations were calculated, and the results correlated with the Magne-gage values

  1. Surface treatment of non-ferrous metal samples to be certified for their oxygen, nitrogen and carbon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.Y.; Quaglia, L.; David, D.; Pauwels, J.; Vanaudenhove, J.

    1977-01-01

    Surface treatment on non-ferrous metals is proposed in order to minimize or determine quantitatively the interference of gaseous contamination. Two types of surface treatment have been applied to the specimens; mechanical treatment (sawing, turning, polishing); chemical treatment (etching). Three main conditions govern the choice of treatment: it must give a minimum surface content of the elements to be determined; it must exhibit the reproducibility of the treatment; it must be easy to perform with the normal equipment in the analytical laboratories concerned. A table corresponding to each element gives the range of surface content liable to be used for corrections of determination in the mass, a mechanical treatment, a chemical etching. The elements concerned are: Ta, Mo, W, Ti, Zr, Nb, Cu, Cu/Zn, Al, Al/Mg, Al/Si, Pb, Pb/Sb, Si, Ge, GaAs. The proposals result from a large number of determinations of superficial contamination on several materials using microanalysis by nuclear reactions. (T.G.)

  2. Blackberry wines mineral and heavy metal content determination after dry ashing: multivariate data analysis as a tool for fruit wine quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Mornar, Ana; Velić, Darko; Velić, Natalija

    2015-08-01

    This study brings out the data on the content of 21 mineral and heavy metal in 15 blackberry wines made of conventionally and organically grown blackberries. The objective of this study was to classify the blackberry wine samples based on their mineral composition and the applied cultivation method of the starting raw material by using chemometric analysis. The metal content of Croatian blackberry wine samples was determined by AAS after dry ashing. The comparison between an organic and conventional group of investigated blackberry wines showed statistically significant difference in concentrations of Si and Li, where the organic group contained higher concentrations of these compounds. According to multivariate data analysis, the model based on the original metal content data set finally included seven original variables (K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ba, Cd and Cr) and gave a satisfactory separation of two applied cultivation methods of the starting raw material.

  3. THE EFFECT OF COMPOST MADE WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN SOIL AND IN LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Malinowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of different doses of sewage sludge compost mixed with wheat straw on heavy metal content in Italian ryegrass and in soil. A two year experiment with the Italian ryegrass was set up in autumn 2012. The experimental design consisted of a control plot, a plot with NPK fertiliser and three plots with three different doses of municipal sewage sludge compost (5, 10 and 15 Mg of fresh matter·ha-1. Those different compost doses contained the amounts of Nitrogen equivalent to 60, 120 and 180 kg N·ha-1. The two lower doses of compost were supplemented with nitrogen fertiliser so that the amount of this chemical element introduced to the soil of all plots with compost stood at 180 kg·ha-1. During 2013 and 2014 seasons the grass was cut three times a year after about a 30-day growing period. After dry mineralisation the content of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd in the plant samples was measured with the ICP-AES method. The fertilisers applied significantly diversified the content of chemical elements in the grass and in the soil. The highest dose of compost resulted in the highest concentration of Zn, Cu and Cd in the grass while the highest concentration of Ni and Pb was in the soil and the grass from the plot where the mid dose of compost had been applied. Cadmium concentration in the soil was the highest in the plot where the mid dose was applied. The experiment proved that compost made with sewage sludge and wheat straw is beneficial for plants.

  4. Strategic Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    leaders as Sears, Limited Brands, DHL, Circuit City, Cingular, Nestle and IKEA (Manugistics, 2006). The Strategic Supply Chain Industry Study Group...inventory turns have increased. Other global customers have also reaped the benefits of the Manugistics software. IKEA , Sweden’s retail icon...turned to Manugistics after a mid-1990s ERP implementation failed to fix their forecasting problems, which gave way to fluctuating inventory levels. IKEA

  5. Strategic Stillness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupalo, Mariia

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the world, we can observe visible complexities, ambiguities and activities of continuously overlapping strategic pursuits of different interest groups. Seen this way, the materialities of parking systems can stage and determine contemporary mobilities in two ways: through decisions taken...... “from above” – design and planning regulations, and “from below” by humans who choose modes of transport, ways of interacting and time of travel. These entanglements of technology and culture are manifested in parking infrastructures....

  6. Validation of Transfer Functions Predicting Cd and Pb Free Metal Ion Activity in Soil Solution as a Function of Soil Characteristics and Reactive Metal Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pampura, T.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Priputina, I.

    2007-01-01

    According to recent insight, the toxicity of metals in soils is better related to the free metal ion (FMI) activity in the soil solution than to the total metal concentration in soil. However, the determination of FMI activities in soil solution is a difficult and time-consuming task. An alternative

  7. 24 CFR 91.415 - Strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strategic plan. 91.415 Section 91... CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.415 Strategic plan. Strategies and priority needs must be described in the consolidated plan...

  8. Partitioning of U, Th and K Between Metal, Sulfide and Silicate, Insights into the Volatile-Content of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, M.; Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Rapp, J.; Righter, M.; Pando, K.; Ross, D. K.; Andreasen, R.; Chidester, B.

    2016-01-01

    During the early stages of the Solar System formation, especially during the T-Tauri phase, the Sun emitted strong solar winds, which are thought to have expelled a portion of the volatile elements from the inner solar system. It is therefore usually believed that the volatile depletion of a planet is correlated with its proximity to the Sun. This trend was supported by the K/Th and K/U ratios of Venus, the Earth, and Mars. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, it was expected that Mercury is the most volatile-depleted planet. However, the Gamma Ray Spectrometer of MESSENGER spacecraft revealed elevated K/U and K/Th ratios for the surface of Mercury, much higher than previous expectations. It is possible that the K/Th and K/U ratios on the surface are not a reliable gauge of the bulk volatile content of Mercury. Mercury is enriched in sulfur and is the most reduced of the terrestrial planets, with oxygen fugacity (fO2) between IW-6.3 and IW-2.6 log units. At these particular compositions, U, Th and K behave differently and can become more siderophile or chalcophile. If significant amounts of U and Th are sequestered in the core, the apparent K/U and K/Th ratios measured on the surface may not represent the volatile budget of the whole planet. An accurate determination of the partitioning of these elements between silicate, metal, and sulfide phases under Mercurian conditions is therefore essential to better constrain Mercury's volatile content and assess planetary formation models.

  9. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within ...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  10. Strategic Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jaradat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership as a concept has been very useful in the last decades, but when it comes to definingand especially to applying strategic leadership theories into the day-to-day life of organizations,things become much more complicated. It is imperative that managers select their basic theoreticalneed in order to assess one organizations leadership. The following article aims to prove that it isnecessary to choose more than one theoretical instrument before applying them into a specificplan, which combines more than one theoretical approach for evaluating and improving strategicleadership into an organization.

  11. Strategic Management

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sage Course Companion on Strategic Management is an accessible introduction to the subject that avoids lengthy debate in order to focus on the core concepts. It will help the reader to develop their understanding of the key theories, whilst enabling them to bring diverse topics together in line with course requirements. The Sage Course Companion also provides advice on getting the most from your course work; help with analysing case studies and tips on how to prepare for examinations. Designed to compliment existing strategy textbooks, the Companion provides: -Quick and easy access to the

  12. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Alcaraz, M.N.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20 °C vs. 25 °C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus

  13. Kinetic comparison of microbial assemblages for the anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high sulfate and heavy metal contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinbuathong, Nusara; Sirirote, Pramote; Liengcharernsit, Winai; Khaodhiar, Sutha; Watts, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-microbial assemblages enriched from a septic tank, coastal sediment samples, the digester sludge of a brewery wastewater treatment plant and acidic sulfate soil samples were compared on the basis of growth rate, waste and sulfate reduction rate under sulfate reducing conditions at 30 degrees C. The specific growth rate of various cultures was in the range 0.0013-0.0022 hr(-1). Estimates of waste and sulfate reduction rate were obtained by fitting substrate depletion and sulfate reduction data with the Michaelis-Menten equation. The waste reduction rates were in the range 4x10(-8)-1x10(-7) I mg(-1) hr(-1) and generally increased in the presence of copper, likely by copper sulfide precipitation that reduced sulfide and copper toxicity and thus protected the anaerobic microbes. Anaerobic microorganisms from a brewery digester sludge were found to be the most appropriate culture for the treatment of wastewater with high sulfate and heavy metal content due to their growth rate, and waste and sulfate reduction rate.

  14. Somatic indexes, chemical-nutritive characteristics and metal content in caught and reared sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Moniello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare some somatic indexes, chemical-nutritive characteristics and the contents of some metals (Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn in the whole body and fillet from caught and reared sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo. The fish came from three different conditions: reared in marine cages (R, captured in a natural lagoon (L and in the Mediterranean sea (S. Thirty fish per group, divided into three weight categories (100±15.3, 200±18.7 and 300±20.4g, were used for the trial. Reared sharpsnout seabream showed higher amounts of celomatic fat (3.41%, 2.43%, 0.21%, respectively for R, L and S and total lipid (13.86%, 11.23% and 5.06% respectively for R, L and S, and lower moisture (64.14%, 65.54%, 71.53% and protein (17.73, 19.03 and 19.17% than those caught in the lagoon and sea. The whole body of reared fish contained lower amounts of lead (0.70, 0.75 and 0.97mg/kg, respectively for R, L and S, copper (0.15, 0.38, 0.25mg/kg chrome (2.19, 3.52, 3.77mg/kg and higher zinc contents (63.47, 53.42, 47.31mg/kg than caught fish. Fatty acids from sharpsnout seabream fillets showed a high lipid quality as confirmed also by low values of Thrombogenic index (0.36, 0.30 and 0.22, respectively for L, S, R and Atherogenic index (0.47, 0.42 and 0.33, respectively for L, S, R. Reared sharpsnout seabream showed lower saturated fatty acid values (26.44%, 32.21%, 34.85%, respectively for R, S, L and higher oleic acid amount (21.61%, 19.15%, 11.99%, respectively for R, L and S. The subjects captured in the sea had a higher arachidonic acid content (5.44%, 1.76%, 0.59%, respectively for S, L, R. In the weight categories, the 100g subjects, showed higher incidence of viscera (VSI: 4.32%, 3.12% and 2.92%, respectively for 100, 200 and 300g and liver (HIS: 2.20%, 1.97%, and 1.77%, respectively for 100, 200 and 300g, higher moisture (69.49%, 67.03%, 64.69% and lower lipid rate (7.64%, 10.18%, 12.32%.

  15. Strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In November 1989, the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was formed within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EM Program was born of the recognition that a significant national effort was necessary to clean up over 45 years' worth of environmental pollution from DOE operations, including the design and manufacture of nuclear materials and weapons. Within EM, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration (EM-40) has been assigned responsibility for the assessment and cleanup of areas and facilities that are no longer a part of active DOE operations, but may be contaminated with varying levels and quantifies of hazardous, radioactive, and n-mixed waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities are managed as an integral part of Envirorunental Restoration cleanup efforts. The Office of Environmental Restoration ensures that risks to the environment and to human health and safety are either eliminated or reduced to prescribed, acceptable levels. This Strategic Plan has been developed to articulate the vision of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and to crystallize the specific objectives of the Environmental Restoration Program. The document summarizes the key planning assumptions that guide or constrain the strategic planning effort, outlines the Environmental Restoration Program's specific objectives, and identifies barriers that could limit the Program's success

  16. A Selected Bibliography: Human Dimensions of Strategic Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bey, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    Partial contents: Human Dimensions of Strategic Leadership, Critical/Creative/ Systems Thinking, Leading and Managing Change, Military Culture and Organizational Climate, Civil-Military Relations, Negotiation, Combat...

  17. Research on Strategic Cooperation Between China Post and Telecoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Zhen-lin; ZHANG Jing; LIANG Xiong-jian

    2005-01-01

    Firstly several aspects of the strategic cooperation between China Post and Telecoms are described in succession, which includes the necessity, the probability, the significance and the detailed contents of the strategic cooperation. With that the way to select strategic partners and the frame of the cooperated business are proposed. Lastly the obstacles of the cooperation and accordingly the solution of them are discussed.

  18. The Conceptual Framework of Strategic Management Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iershova Natalia Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to elaborate a conceptual framework for strategic management accounting. By analyzing, systematizing and generalizing the structural and characteristic approaches of many scientists, the content of the concept “strategic management accounting” is defined; the identification of system-forming elements of the conceptual framework of strategic management accounting is presented. Based on the results of the research, the conceptual framework of strategic management accounting revealing the economic mechanism of its functioning is elaborated; scientific approaches that ensure its development as a holistic system and empirical science are defined; the methodology determining the organizational and methodological possibilities of its practical building at enterprises is improved. Prospects for further research in this area are the elaboration of a modern concept of strategic management accounting aimed at information-anticipating reflection of the events sequence and support of feedbacks based on proactive information support for strategic management.

  19. Further investigation of the heavy metal content of the teeth of the bank vole as an exposure indicator of Environmental Pollution (1987)(1987)in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdula-Argasinska, Joanna; Appleton, John; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Spence, Bill

    2004-09-01

    The content of heavy metals in mineralised dental tissues is an indicator of the exposure of their mineral phase to heavy metals during the time of tooth development and dental tissue formation. Therefore, teeth have been used as bio-indicators which accurately reflect the environmental or dietary exposure of animals and humans to heavy metals. This study follows from the earlier work in which it was demonstrated that the teeth from bank voles inhabiting various environmentally polluted and non-polluted forests in Southern Poland were reliable indicators of exposure to heavy metals. Using analytical techniques employed in the earlier study heavy metal concentrations were obtained in the teeth of bank voles trapped in 1998-2000 to determine if efforts to clean up the environment could be detected in changes in heavy metal concentrations in the teeth. The results show that these efforts are reflected in lower concentrations of heavy metals in the teeth but that cross border contamination remains a problem.

  20. Phytotoxicity of thallium (Tl) in culture solution. Pt. 2. Effects of Tl(III) on the growth and heavy metal contents of pea and field bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, B; Austenfeld, F A

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ and Tl(III)EDTA on growth and heavy metal contents of pea plants and field bean plants were compared in hydroponic culture experiments. In the presence of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, the essential heavy metals were available to the plants in their ionic forms. When Tl(III)EDTA was present the essential heavy metals were available as chelated complexes. Dry matter production of the pea plants was inhibited to a greater extent by Tl(III)EDTA than by Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. The distribution of Tl within the plant was unaffected by the accompanying anion, however an increase of the Tl content of the stems and the leaves was observed in the presence of Tl(III)EDTA. The micronutrients exhibited different interactions with Tl(III). In the presence of increasing concentrations of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ the Mn content of each organ and the Zn content of the roots were lowered, but the Zn content of the stems was increased. Increasing concentrations of Tl(III)EDTA resulted only in a decrease of the Mn content of the roots, but in an increase of the contents of Fe and Mn within the stems, and Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu within the leaves. The increases may be due to concentration by growth inhibition. In contrast to pea plants, growth of field bean plants was inhibited only by Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. The field bean plants retained most of the Tl within the roots independent of the Tl compound in the solution. Chelation of Tl(III) resulted in higher Tl contents of both the roots and the stems, but equal or reduced Tl contents of the leaves. Whereas increasing concentrations of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ reduced the Mn content of each organ as well as the Zn content of the roots and the leaves, Tl(III)EDTA only reduced the Mn content of the roots.

  1. Strategic Planning: What's so Strategic about It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Bart

    2005-01-01

    The words "strategic" and "planning" used together can lead to confusion unless one spent the early years of his career in never-ending, team-oriented, corporate training sessions. Doesn't "strategic" have something to do with extremely accurate bombing or a defensive missile system or Star Wars or something? Don't "strategic" and "planning" both…

  2. Metal/metalloid content in plant parts and soils of Corylus spp. influenced by mining-metallurgical production of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, Ana A; Serbula, Snezana M; Kalinovic, Tanja S; Kalinovic, Jelena V; Steharnik, Mirjana M; Petrovic, Jelena V; Milosavljevic, Jelena S

    2017-04-01

    The town of Bor and its surroundings (Serbia) have been under environmental pollution for more than a century, due to exploitation of large copper deposits. Naturally present Corylus spp. were sampled in the surroundings of the mine and flotation tailings at 12 sites distributed in six zones with different pollution loads, under the assumption that all the zones were endangered except for the background. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn inputs from soil and the air were evaluated in plant parts, in terms of absorption, accumulation and indication abilities of Corylus spp. The obtained results showed that As and Cu were the most enriched elements in soil, and their concentration exceeded the limit and remediation values proposed by the regulation. Plant parts (root, branch, leaf and catkin) also showed enrichment of most studied elements in wide ranges. According to the enrichment factor for plant, metal/metalloid inputs, particularly in leaves, were from anthropogenic origin. Plant absorption which occurred at the soil-root interface was low, based on the bioaccumulation factor, which could be indicative of resistance mechanisms of root to abiotic stress induced by a high content of elements in soil substrate. The values of bioaccumulation coefficient suggested weak and intermediate absorption and exclusion abilities of Corylus spp. to the studied elements. Element concentrations differ in unwashed and washed leaves, as well as pollution loads in plant and soil samples from the background, traffic and the sites with clear mining-metallurgical influence. Therefore, Corylus spp. could be promising in biomonitoring studies.

  3. Strategic Leadership Primer (Third Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    decision making � STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING Strategic Change There are several strategic decisions that involved...The Ontology of Strategic Decision Making Strategic decisions are non-routine and involve both the art of leadership and the science of management...building consensus,”5 implicitly requires the capacity for strategic decision making� The Complexity of Strategic Decision Making Strategic

  4. Effects of moisture content and initial pH in composting process on heavy metal removal characteristics of grass clipping compost used for stormwater filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Khaodhir, Sutha; Ruangrote, Darin

    2009-10-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants in stormwater runoff. One of the devices that can be used to effectively and economically remove heavy metals from runoff is a yard waste compost stormwater filter. The primary goal of composting is to reduce waste volume rather than to produce stormwater filter media. Moisture content (MC) and initial pH, the two important parameters in composting, were studied for their effects on yard waste volume reduction and heavy metal adsorption performances of the compost. The main objective of this investigation was to examine whether the conditions that provided high yard waste volume reduction would also result in compost with good heavy metal removal performances. Manila grass was composted at different initial pHs (5-9) and MCs (30-70%) and the composts were used to adsorb cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from water. Results indicated that MC is more critical than initial pH for both volume reduction and production of compost with high metal adsorption performances. The most optimal conditions for the two attributes were not exactly the same but lower MCs of 30-40% and pH 7 or higher tended to satisfy both high volume reduction and effective metal adsorption.

  5. [Seasonal variations of metal contents (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in seaweed Ulva lactuca from the coast of El Jadida city (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimoussi, Aziz; Mouzdahir, Abdelkrim; Saih, Abdelkbir

    2004-04-01

    The quality of El Jadida Atlantic coastal water was monitored from April 1998 to March 1999 by measuring hydrological parameters (dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, phosphates and nitrites) and using the seaweed Ulva lactuca as a quantitative bio-indicator of cadmium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc contamination. Metal content in seaweeds, collected every month from four stations characterized by the discharge of urban and industrial waste water, showed significant variations depending on the station and sampling period. However, the seaweed of El Jadida exhibited generally lower contents compared to those of similar species from other geographical areas.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance, heavy metal resistance and integron content in bacteria isolated from a South African tilapia aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenia, Hafizah Y; Jacobs, Anelet

    2017-11-21

    Antibacterial compounds and metals co-select for antimicrobial resistance when bacteria harbour resistance genes towards both types of compounds, facilitating the proliferation and evolution of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance. Antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance indices of 42 Gram-negative bacteria from a tilapia aquaculture system were determined to identify possible correlations between these phenotypes. Agar dilution assays were carried out to determine susceptibility to cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, chromate and zinc, while susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was investigated by disk diffusion assays. Presence of merA, the mercury resistance gene, was determined by dot-blot hybridizations and PCR. Association of mercury resistance with integrons and transposon Tn21 was also investigated by PCR. Isolates displayed a high frequency of antimicrobial (erythromycin: 100%; ampicillin: 85%; trimethoprim: 78%) and heavy metal (Zn2+: 95%; Cd2+: 91%) resistance. No correlation was established between heavy metal and multiple antibiotic resistance indices. Significant positive correlations were observed between heavy metal resistance profiles, indices, Cu2+ and Cr3+ resistance with erythromycin resistance. Significant positive correlations were observed between merA (24%)/Tn21 (24%) presence and heavy metal resistance profiles and indices; however, significant negative correlations were obtained between integron-associated qacE∆1 (43%) and sulI (26%) gene presence and heavy metal resistance indices. Heavy metal and antimicrobial agents co-select for resistance, with fish-associated, resistant bacteria demonstrating simultaneous heavy metal resistance. Thus, care should be taken when using anti-fouling heavy metals as feed additives in aquaculture facilities.

  7. Implementation Of Strategic Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Creativity and innovation is the new game plan inherent in strategic .... The diagram below is a simplified operational model of strategic management, ..... Bryson (1995) outlines four benefits of strategic (planning) Management in his ... champions, good strategic planning teams, enough slack to handle potentially disruptive.

  8. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  10. Adsorption of acid-extractable organics from oil sands process-affected water onto biomass-based biochar: Metal content matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Tazul I; Tak, Jin K; Sessarego, Sebastian; Harfield, Don; Hill, Josephine M

    2017-02-01

    The impact of biochar properties on acid-extractable organics (AEO) adsorption from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) was studied. Biochar from wheat straw with the highest ash content (14%) had the highest adsorption capacity (0.59 mg/g) followed by biochar from pulp mill sludge, switchgrass, mountain pine, hemp shives, and aspen wood. The adsorption capacity had no obvious trend with surface area, total pore volume, bulk polarity and aromaticity. The large impact of metal content was consistent with the carboxylates (i.e., naphthenate species) in the OSPW binding to the metals (mainly Al and Fe) on the carbon substrate. Although the capacity of biochar is still approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that of a commercial activated carbon, confirming the property (i.e., metal content) that most influenced AEO adsorption, may allow biochar to become competitive with activated carbon after normalizing for cost, especially if this cost includes environmental impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Content and uptake of trace metals in benthic algae, Enteromorpha and Porphyra. II. Studies on the algae cultured in sea water supplemented with various metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, M.; Fujiyama, T.

    1977-01-01

    In the culture of Porphyra in sea water supplemented with metals, the uptakes of Mn and Cd were relatively high and increased in proportion to culture time when the metal concentration in water was high. Fe distributed evenly in all three parts of fronds. Mn was concentrated in surface and middle layers, while Cd was accumulated mainly in the middle layer and a little in the surface layer. In general the uptake was high in the middle layer. In the uptake of Mn there was a clear distinction between light and dark conditions, that is, Mn was absorbed only during light periods while Cd was absorbed regardless of light and dark periods.

  12. Heavy metal contents in growth bands of Porites corals: Record of anthropogenic and human developments from the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rousan, Saber A.; Al-Shloul, Rashid N.; Al-Horani, Fuad A.; Abu-Hilal, Ahmad H.

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess pollutants and impact of environmental changes in the coastal region of the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba, concentrations of six metals were traced through variations in 5 years growth bands sections of recent Porties coral skeleton. X-radiography showed annual growth band patterns extending back to the year 1925. Baseline metal concentrations in Porites corals were established using 35 years-long metal record from late Holocene coral (deposited in pristine environment) and coral from reef that is least exposed to pollution in the marine reserve in the Gulf of Aqaba. The skeleton samples of the collected corals were acid digested and analyzed for their Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn content using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). All metal profiles (except Fe and Zn) recorded the same metal signature from recent coral (1925-2005) in which low steady baseline levels were displayed in growth bands older than 1965, similar to those obtained from fossil and unpolluted corals. Most metals showed dramatic increase (ranging from 17% to 300%) in growth band sections younger than 1965 suggesting an extensive contamination of the coastal area since the mid sixties. This date represents the beginning of a period that witnessed increasing coastal activities, constructions and urbanization. This has produced a significant reduction in coral skeletal extension rates. Results from this study strongly suggest that Porites corals have a high tendency to accumulate heavy metals in their skeletons and therefore can serve as proxy tools to monitor and record environmental pollution (bioindicators) in the Gulf of Aqaba

  13. Heavy metal contents in growth bands of Porites corals: Record of anthropogenic and human developments from the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rousan, Saber A. [Marine Science Station, University of Jordan and Yarmouk University, P.O. Box 195, Aqaba 77110 (Jordan)], E-mail: s.rousan@ju.edu.jo; Al-Shloul, Rashid N. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan); Al-Horani, Fuad A. [Marine Science Station, University of Jordan and Yarmouk University, P.O. Box 195, Aqaba 77110 (Jordan); Abu-Hilal, Ahmad H. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan)

    2007-12-15

    In order to assess pollutants and impact of environmental changes in the coastal region of the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba, concentrations of six metals were traced through variations in 5 years growth bands sections of recent Porties coral skeleton. X-radiography showed annual growth band patterns extending back to the year 1925. Baseline metal concentrations in Porites corals were established using 35 years-long metal record from late Holocene coral (deposited in pristine environment) and coral from reef that is least exposed to pollution in the marine reserve in the Gulf of Aqaba. The skeleton samples of the collected corals were acid digested and analyzed for their Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn content using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). All metal profiles (except Fe and Zn) recorded the same metal signature from recent coral (1925-2005) in which low steady baseline levels were displayed in growth bands older than 1965, similar to those obtained from fossil and unpolluted corals. Most metals showed dramatic increase (ranging from 17% to 300%) in growth band sections younger than 1965 suggesting an extensive contamination of the coastal area since the mid sixties. This date represents the beginning of a period that witnessed increasing coastal activities, constructions and urbanization. This has produced a significant reduction in coral skeletal extension rates. Results from this study strongly suggest that Porites corals have a high tendency to accumulate heavy metals in their skeletons and therefore can serve as proxy tools to monitor and record environmental pollution (bioindicators) in the Gulf of Aqaba.

  14. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Laaksonen, Toni; Morales, Judith; Moreno, Juan; Mateo, Rafael; Belskii, Eugen; Bushuev, Andrey; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Slate, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Eeva, Tapio

    2014-03-01

    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in metal pollution across a species' breeding range. We studied large-scale geographic variation in metal levels in the eggs of a small passerine, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), sampled from 15 populations across Europe. We measured 10 eggshell elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Se, Sr, and Ca) and several shell characteristics (mass, thickness, porosity, and color). We found significant variation among populations in eggshell metal levels for all metals except copper. Eggshell lead, zinc, and chromium levels decreased from central Europe to the north, in line with the gradient in pollution levels over Europe, thus suggesting that eggshell can be used as an indicator of pollution levels. Eggshell lead levels were also correlated with soil lead levels and pH. Most of the metals were not correlated with eggshell characteristics, with the exception of shell mass, or with breeding success, which may suggest that birds can cope well with the current background exposure levels across Europe.

  15. Effects of soil water content and organic matter addition on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C., E-mail: maria.HernandezSoriano@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7619, 101 Derieux Street, 2232 Williams Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C. [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Purdue University, 201 S. University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were evaluated in three soils amended with different organic materials for two moisture regimes. Agricultural and reclamation activities impose fresh inputs of organic matter on soil while intensive irrigation and rainstorm increase soil waterlogging incidence. Moreover, scarcity of irrigation water has prompted the use of greywater, which contain variable concentrations of organic compounds such as anionic surfactants. Soils added with hay, maize straw or peat at 1% w/w were irrigated, at field capacity (FC) or saturated (S), with an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant Aerosol 22 (A22), corresponding to an addition of 200 mg C/kg soil/day. Soil solution was extracted after one month and analysed for total soluble metals, dissolved soil organic matter and UV absorbance at 254 nm. Speciation analyses were performed with WHAM VI for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. For selected scenarios, metal uptake by barley was determined. Metal mobility increased for all treatments and soils (Pb > Cu > Cd {>=} Zn) compared to control assays. The increase was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with soil organic matter solubilisation for Cd (R = 0.68), Cu (R = 0.73) and Zn (R = 0.86). Otherwise, Pb release was related to aluminium solubilisation (R = 0.75), which suggests that Pb was originally co-precipitated with Al-DOC complexes in the solid phase. The effect of A22 in metal bioavailability, determined as free ion activities (FIA), was mainly controlled by soil moisture regime. For soil 3, metal bioavailability was up to 20 times lower for soil amended with hay, peat or maize compared to soil treated only with A22. When soil was treated with A22 at FC barley yield significantly decreased (p < 0.05) for the increase of Pb (R = 0.71) and Zn (R = 0.79) concentrations in shoot, while for saturated conditions such uptake was up to 3 times lower. Overall, metal bioavailability was controlled by solubilisation of soil

  16. Heavy Metal Contents of Municipal and Rural Dumpsite Soils and Rate of Accumulation by Carica papaya and Talinum triangulare in Uyo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Ebong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumpsites in Uyo and most cities in Nigeria are used nutrients rich soils for cultivating fruits and vegetables without regards to the risk of toxic metal pollution by the wastes. This development necessitated the research on the assessment of the impact of municipal and rural dumpsites on the metal levels of the underlying soils, the relationship between the dumpsite- soil metal content and the rate of bio-accumulation by plants, the effect of plant specie and plant part on the rate of metal uptake. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for the analysis of the samples and results obtained from municipal dumpsite soil indicated the following mean concentrations: Fe, 1711.20 μg/g; Pb, 43.28 ug/g; Zn, 88.34 ug/g; Ni, 12.18 ug/g; Cd, 14.10 ug/g and Cu, 56.33 ug/g. These concentrations were relatively higher than the following concentrations: Fe, 1016.98 ug/g; Pb, 18.57 ug/g; Zn, 57.90 ug/g; Ni, 7.98 ug/g; Cd, 9.25 ug/g and Cu, 33.70 ug/g recorded for the rural dumpsite soil. Consequently, plants grown on municipal dumpsites soil accumulated higher concentrations of the metals than those on rural dumpsites. Results obtained from this study also revealed that plants grown on dumpsite soils bio-accumulated higher metal concentrations than their counterparts obtained from normal agricultural soils. The ability of plants to bioaccumulate these metals were also observed as being different from one plant to the other and from one plant parts to the other. And apart from Fe and Zn which recorded higher concentrations in the leaves of the plants studied, other metals recorded higher concentrations in the roots. The general results obtained revealed that the levels of Cd in dumpsite-soil were above the standard while the levels of Cd and Pb in plants were also above the recommended levels in plants. The implications of these high concentrations of these metals in soil and plants have been discussed. Some useful recommendations on the proper

  17. Effects of soil water content and organic matter addition on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C.

    2012-01-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were evaluated in three soils amended with different organic materials for two moisture regimes. Agricultural and reclamation activities impose fresh inputs of organic matter on soil while intensive irrigation and rainstorm increase soil waterlogging incidence. Moreover, scarcity of irrigation water has prompted the use of greywater, which contain variable concentrations of organic compounds such as anionic surfactants. Soils added with hay, maize straw or peat at 1% w/w were irrigated, at field capacity (FC) or saturated (S), with an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant Aerosol 22 (A22), corresponding to an addition of 200 mg C/kg soil/day. Soil solution was extracted after one month and analysed for total soluble metals, dissolved soil organic matter and UV absorbance at 254 nm. Speciation analyses were performed with WHAM VI for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. For selected scenarios, metal uptake by barley was determined. Metal mobility increased for all treatments and soils (Pb > Cu > Cd ≥ Zn) compared to control assays. The increase was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with soil organic matter solubilisation for Cd (R = 0.68), Cu (R = 0.73) and Zn (R = 0.86). Otherwise, Pb release was related to aluminium solubilisation (R = 0.75), which suggests that Pb was originally co-precipitated with Al–DOC complexes in the solid phase. The effect of A22 in metal bioavailability, determined as free ion activities (FIA), was mainly controlled by soil moisture regime. For soil 3, metal bioavailability was up to 20 times lower for soil amended with hay, peat or maize compared to soil treated only with A22. When soil was treated with A22 at FC barley yield significantly decreased (p < 0.05) for the increase of Pb (R = 0.71) and Zn (R = 0.79) concentrations in shoot, while for saturated conditions such uptake was up to 3 times lower. Overall, metal bioavailability was controlled by solubilisation of soil

  18. Assessing the Heavy Metal Content in Forest Dormouse (Dryomys nitedula Pallas, 1778 from an Agricultural Region in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi G. Markov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals load in the forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula, inhabiting in forest shelter belts in the agricultural region was assessed. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (expressed in mg/kg of dry tissue were established in the liver, using an atomic-absorption analysis. The fact that the highly toxic metals (Cd and Pb were found in considerable concentrations together with other metals with concentration dependent toxic effect (Cu, Ni, Zn and Co in the liver of forest dormice, suggests that it is necessary to carry out regular assessment and forecasting of accumulation of these metals in species, which are not direct targets of cultivation and control activities in agricultural ecosystems. The obtained values were used to create a baseline for estimation of heavy metal accumulation in the internal organs of the forest dormouse, both in anthropogenically transformed habitats and natural biotopes, as well as for using this species as a monitor of environmental status.

  19. Metals content in surface waters of an upwelling system of the northern Humboldt Current (Mejillones Bay, Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Jorge; Román, Domingo; Alvarez, Gabriel; Ortlieb, Luc; Guiñez, Marcos

    Physical-chemical parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and chlorophyll concentration) of surface waters were used to evaluate the influence of biological and physical processes over the metal concentrations (Cd, Ni, V, Mo, Mn, and Fe) in different periods of a normal annual cycle (June 2002 and April 2003), in Mejillones Bay (23° S), one of northern Chile's strongest upwelling cells. Two points were sampled every 2 months, but statistical analysis of these parameters did not show any spatial differences in surface water composition (annual average) in this bay. The order of total and dissolved metals by abundance (annual mean) in the Mejillones Bay surface waters during the sampling period was Cd Oxygen Minimum Zone which characterizes the Mejillones bay should have an important influence on surface distribution of trace metals and can explain the high temporal variability observed in most of the metals analyzed in this work. A two-box conceptual model is proposed to suggest possible influences on metals in surface waters of this coastal ecosystem.

  20. Heavy metals contents in agricultural topsoils in the Ebro basin (Spain). Application of the multivariate geoestatistical methods to study spatial variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Arias, Manuel Lopez; Grau Corbi, Jose Manuel

    2006-01-01

    In this work the content of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) and other parameters (the pH, organic matter, carbonates and granulometric fraction) in agricultural topsoil in the Ebro basin are quantified, based on 624 samples collected according to an 8 by 8 km square mesh. The average concentrations (mg/kg) obtained were: Cd 0.415 ± 0.163, Cr 20.27 ± 13.21, Cu 17.33 ± 14.97, Ni 20.50 ± 22.71, Pb 17.54 ± 10.41, Zn 17.53 ± 24.19 and Hg 35.6 ± 42.05 μg/kg. The concentration levels are relatively low in areas of high pH and low organic matter content concentration. The results of factor analysis group Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in F1 and Cr y Ni in F2. The spatial heavy metals component maps based on geostatistical analysis, show definite association of these factors with the soil parent material. The local anomalies (found in Cu, Zn and Pb) are attributed to anthropogenic influence. - Geostatistical analyses showed definite association of metals with soil parent materials

  1. Heavy metals in fish tissues/stomach contents in four marine wild commercially valuable fish species from the western continental shelf of South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin; Huang, Hong-Hui; Wang, Liang-Gen; Ning, Jia-Jia; Du, Fei-Yan

    2017-01-30

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) were determined in four commercially valuable fish species (Thunnus obesus, Decapterus lajang, Cubiceps squamiceps and Priacanthus macracanthus), collected in the western continental shelf of the South China Sea. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in fish muscles were 0.006-0.050, 0.13-0.68, 0.18-0.85, 0.11-0.25, 0.12-0.77, and 2.41-4.73μg/g, wet weight, respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in all species were below their acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of these wild fish species may be safe, with health risk assessment based on the target hazard quotients (THQ) and total THQ, indicating no significant adverse health effects with consumption. The average concentrations of Zn were higher in gills than in stomach contents, backbones or muscle, while conversely, the other heavy metals had higher concentrations in stomach contents than in other tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. STAGES OF A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela – Lavinia CIOBANICA

    2014-01-01

    In the literature dedicated to strategic management there is no unitary vision of the authors regarding the sequence of actions that give content to the respective process and what their stages are. With all existing differences, the visions of different authors nevertheless observe the unitary logic of developing a series of actions. These actions begin with the competitive environment analysis in which the organization operates and with the establishment of its strategic mission and th...

  3. Heavy metal content of selected personal care products (PCPs available in Ibadan, Nigeria and their toxic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Samuel Omenka

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern on heavy metals in consumer products due to their potential human health risks and environmental effects. In this study, the levels of zinc, cadmium, lead and nickel were assessed in 3 different classes of personal care products commonly used in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were analysed for heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS after acid digestion. Estimated daily intake (EDI of the metals and Health Risk Index (HRI were calculated to assess the human health risks associated with the use of these PCPs. The concentrations (mg/kg of zinc ranged from 3.75 to 19.3, 1.88 to 112,000 and 19.8 to 217 respectively in creams, powders and eyeliners. Cadmium ranged from ND—0.50, ND—36.3 and ND—0.50 mg/kg while lead ranged from ND—6.25, ND—468 and 3.73–27.5 mg/kg and nickel ranged from ND—6.25, 0.13–107 and 2.75–22.7 mg/kg respectively. There were high concentrations of Cd, Pb and Ni in some of the samples when compared with the available permissible limits in cosmetics (Cd: 0.3 ppm, Pb: 10 ppm and Ni: 0.6 ppm while there is no permissible limit for Zn in cosmetics currently available. Prolonged use of PCPs may pose human health and environmental risks due to toxic metal loading through dermal contact and accumulation over a period of time. Hence, the need for necessary government agencies to regulate and enforce toxic metals in consumer products including cosmetics produced and imported into Nigeria to safeguard public health and the environment, which is the final sink. Keywords: Heavy metals, Personal care products, Health effects, Dermal contact, Exposure

  4. Heavy metal content and potential health risk of geophagic white clay from the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Asantewah Nkansah

    Full Text Available Geophagia is the craving for non-food substances and commonly practiced among pregnant women and children. Consumption of geophagic clay samples can have serious implications on the health of the consumers as a result of the presence of toxic metals such as Pb, As, Hg and Cd. This study sought to determine the levels of heavy metals in the studied geophagic clay samples and to determine the potential risks of heavy metals as cumulative carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to the health of the consumers via oral (ingestion and dermal exposure routes. A total of thirty (30 white clay samples were analysed using Niton Thermo scientific XRF Analyser (Mobile Test S, NDTr-XL3t-86956, com 24. The clay samples were found to contain essential elements such as Ca, Fe, K and Zn as well as toxic metals such as As and Pb. There were isolated cases of the presence of Hg and all samples had Cd levels below detection. Health risk indices such as hazard quotient and cancer risk were calculated and the results indicated that consumers are likely to suffer from cancer through ingestion of geophagic clay. Bioaccessibility studies were done on zinc and it did not indicate any potential toxicity due to zincs essential nature. The levels of heavy metals in some of the geophagic clay consumed by some residents in the Kumasi were high compared to the Permitted Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI by (WHO/FAO and may pose potential health threat over time. Keywords: Geophagia, White clay, Heavy metals, Health risk assessment, Permitted maximum tolerable daily intake

  5. The effects of irradiated chicken manure as feed supplement on the growth and heavy metals content of common carp (cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryoso; L S Andini; S Suwirma; Sinaga, R

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the use of irradiated chicken manure as feed supplement for common for carp raised in ponds. The three composition A consisted chicken manure, B consisted of shrimp waste mixed with the other materials, composition C was commercial pellet as a control. the feeding with the amount of 3% from total body weight was given to the fishes three time per day. The quality of food measured with the conversion value (amount of feed needed for 1 kg body weight gain) and the quality of water i.e. pH, temperature, and oxygen concentration were also measured. Determination of heavy metal content in fish meat and water were carried out using the atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). Results of the experiment showed that fed of composition A (irradiated chicken manure) at 10th and 14th weeks had lowest conversion value than the fed composition B (mixed with shrimp waste) and feed of composition C (commercial pellet). The content of heavy metals in all fish meat and water were under permissible limit, except for Fe content in water before and experiment were found 5,92 and 1.92 and 1.01 ppm which higher than permissible limit for fish raised. there were no Salmonella found in the chicken manure. This means that irradiated chicken manure can be used safely as feed supplement for fish and has almost the same effect compared to the commercial feed. the water quality was found suitable for the growth of fish. (author)

  6. Comparison of sample digestion techniques for the determination of trace and residual catalyst metal content in single-wall carbon nanotubes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinberg, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.grinberg@nrc.ca [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Sturgeon, Ralph E. [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Diehl, Liange de O.; Bizzi, Cezar A. [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M. [Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    A single-wall carbon nanotube material produced by laser ablation of renewable biochar in the presence of Ni and Co catalyst was characterized for residual catalyst (Co and Ni) as well as trace metal impurity content (Fe, Mo, Cr, Pb and Hg) by isotope dilution ICP-MS following sample digestion. Several matrix destruction procedures were evaluated, including a multi-step microwave-assisted acid digestion, dry ashing at 450 °C and microwave-induced combustion with oxygen. Results were benchmarked against those derived from neutron activation analysis and also supported by solid sampling continuum source GF-AAS for several of the elements. Although laborious to execute, the multi-step microwave-assisted acid digestion proved to be most reliable for recovery of the majority of the analytes, although content of Cr remained biased low for each approach, likely due to its presence as refractory carbide. - Highlights: • Determination of trace and residual catalyst metal content in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. • Comparative study of digestion methodology combined with high precision isotope dilution ICP-MS for quantitation of elements of toxicologic relevance. • Results were benchmarked against those derived from neutron activation analysis and also supported by solid sampling continuum source GF-AAS for several of the elements.

  7. Effect of distance from the roadway on heavy metal content and egg quality of village laying hen's egg along roadsides of tokat-turhal, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekeroglu, A.; Sari, H.; Sarica, M.; Duman, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the heavy metal contents and egg quality characteristics of chicken eggs was studied. The eggs have been collected at distances of 0-100 (Distance A), 100-200 (Distance B) and 200-300 m (Distance C) away from the edge of Tokat-Turhal road.The distance from roadway had no significant effect on egg Cu and Mn contents (P>0.05), although a significant effect on egg Cd and Pb content (P 0.05). Eggs obtained from distance A and B had significantly higher weight than obtained from distance C (P<0.05). Egg obtained from distance B had significantly lower egg shell colour scales than those of the other distances (P<0.01). And, egg yolk colour was showed a significant variation among the distances away from the roadway, and the highest yolk colour value was detected in distance B (P<0.05). Depending on obtained results, it can be concluded that the egg heavy metal concentrations exceeded background levels for hen eggs. Therefore, consumers should be aware of the possible health risks related by the use of these eggs which has obtained from side of road.

  8. Heavy metal content in the meat of common carp (Cyprinuscarpio L.and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., cultivated under different technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Stoyanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Water pollution from industrial production and developing agriculture is a serious problem in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to determine the content of heavy metals Zn (zink, Pb(lead, Ni (nickel and Cd (cadmium in the muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., grown under different technologies. In the current study were investigated common carp (Cyprinus carpio and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, cultivated in net cages, earthen ponds and raceways. The concentration of heavy metals in the muscles of fish was determined by the methods of AAS in the Scientific laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture. The influence of different production technologies on the bioaccumulation of Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd (in the flesh of common carp and rainbow trout was found. The Ni content in muscles was 31.25% higher in common carp, cultured at earthen ponds, compared with its content in the flesh of the fish raised in net cages. The concentration of Pd and Ni in rainbow trout, raised in raceways was higher than that determinated for rainbow trout cultivated in net cages, by 25.0% and 7.14%, respectively. The concentration of Cd and Zn of these species, grown in raceways were lower by 33.33% and 2.14%, respectively, compared with their concentration in rainbow trout, cultivated in net cages.

  9. Jesus the Strategic Leader

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Gregg

    2000-01-01

    Jesus was a great strategic leader who changed the world in many ways. Close study of what he did and how he did it reveals a pattern of behavior that is extremely useful and relevant to the modern strategic leader...

  10. ANALISIS KADAR LOGAM DAN CARA MUDAH MENGENALI UDANG YANG TERAKUMULASI LOGAM: STUDI KASUS TENTANG UDANG DI SUNGAI DONAN CILACAP, JAWA TENGAH (Metal Content Analysis and Easily Recognize for Shrimps that Accumulates of Metal: Case Study about Shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumisem Tumisem

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian tentang Analisis Kadar Logam dan Cara Mudah Mengenali Berbagai Udang yang Terakumulasi Logam dilakukan dengan: mengidentifikasi berbagai jenis udang, menganalisis kadar logam dan menganalisis secara morfologi berbagai jenis udang terkait dengan morfologi tubuhnya. Penelitian dilakukan di sepanjang Sungai Donan Cilacap dengan cara menangkap berbagai jenis udang di sepanjang sungai tersebut setiap musim. Analisis kadar logam dilakukan di Laboratorium Kimia Analitik UGM, identifikasi dan analisis morfologi udang dilakukan di Laboratorium Teknik Kimia UMP. Hasil identifikasi diperoleh enam jenis udang yaitu udang Tepus, Pletok, Jahe, Peci, Sikat, dan Wuku. Berdasarkan hasil analisis morfologi (warna tubuh menunjukkan semua jenis udang yang berasal dari lokasi sekitar tailing semen dan pertamina berwarna lebih gelap (kehitaman atau hitam kemerahan, dan yang berasal dari lokasi sungai yang memiliki tanaman bakau adalah cerah dan segar (warna lebih kelihatan bening. Hasil analisis kadar logam jenis Cd dan Pb pada semua udang tidak terdeteksi, sedangkan analisis kadar Cu terdeteksi pada udang Pletok, Wuku dan Sikat dengan kadar melebihi baku mutu kesehatan 0,1 ppm. Rata-rata kadar Cu pada udang tersebut sebesar 66,256 ppm per 1000 gram udang kering. Dari hasil analisis morfologi (bentuk tubuh dari semua jenis udang baik yang terakumulasi logam maupun tidak memiliki bentuk yang sama, sehingga tidak dapat menjadi patokan dalam mengenali udang yang tercemar logam. Berdasarkan penelitian di atas dapat disimpulkan udang yang terakumulasi bahan pencemar di atas standar keamanan pangan berwarna hijau kehitaman dan merah kehitaman, sedangkan udang yang tidak terakumulasi bahan pencemar berwarna putih segar. ABSTRACT Research on the metal content analysis and Easily Recognize for shrimps that accumulates of metal have done by identify various types of shrimps, metal content analysis, and analyzed morphologically various types of shrimp related

  11. [MONITORING OF THE CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS AND ELEMENTS IN THE SNOW COVER IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS AT THE TERRITORY OF THE MOSCOW REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A A; Karpova, E A; Malysheva, A G; Mikhaylova, R I; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of snow cover pollution by heavy metals and elements (zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, strontium, manganese, fluorine, lithium) was performed in 20 districts of the Moscow region in 2009, 2012 and 2013. The assessment of the levels of contamination by heavy metals and elements was given by means of comparison of them with the average values in the snow cover near Moscow in the end of the last century and in some areas of the world, that no exposed to technological environmental impact. 7 districts of Moscow region were characterized by a high content of lead and cadmium in the snow water. It requires the control of water, soil and agricultural products pollution.

  12. Strategic information security

    CERN Document Server

    Wylder, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles

  13. Diverse genomic location and sequence content of a Listeria monocytogenes chromosomal island harboring heavy metal resistance and other genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes remains a major foodborne pathogen with three serotype 4b clonal groups (ECI, ECII, ECIa) repeatedly implicated in human listeriosis. For reasons that are unknown, many of these strains are also resistant to heavy metals, i.e. cadmium and arsenic. The acquisition and fitness i...

  14. Risks and benefits of gardening in urban soil; heavy metals and nutrient content in Los Angeles Community Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L. W.; Jenerette, D.; Bain, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The availability of soil nutrients and heavy metals in urban community gardens can influence health of crops and participants. Interactions between garden history, management, and soils are understudied in cities. In July 2011, we collected soil samples from 45 plots at 6 Los Angeles community gardens. For comparison, 3 samples were collected from uncultivated garden soils and 3 more from outside soils. Samples were then tested for major nutrients- Nitrogen(N), Potassium (K), and Phosphorous (P)- and organic matter (SOM). We also measured concentrations of 29 metals in 3 gardens using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Potassium and phosphorus exceeded optimum levels in all plots, with some over twice the maximum recommended levels. Over-fertilized soils may contribute to local watershed pollution and crop micronutrient deficiencies. Low soil SOM was observed in gardens in impoverished neighborhoods, possibly due to low quality amendments. Our metals analysis showed dangerous levels of lead (Pb)-- up to 1700 ppm in outside soils and 150 ppm in garden soils-- near older gardens, indicating lead deposition legacies. California lead safety standards indicate that children should not play near soils with Pb above 200 ppm, indicating need for long term monitoring of lead contaminated gardens. Arsenic (As) levels exceeded federal risk levels (0.3 ppm) and average CA background levels (2 ppm) in all areas, with some gardens exceeding 10 ppm. Heavy metal legacies in gardens may pose risks to participants with prolonged exposure and remediation of soils may be necessary.

  15. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell heavy metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, S.; Morales, J.; Laaksonen, T.; Moreno, J.; Mateo, R.; Belskii, E.; Bushuev, A.; Jarvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Krams, I.; Morosinotto, C.; Mand, R.; Orell, M.; Qvarnstrom, A.; Slater, F.M.; Siitari, H.; Tilgar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Eeva, T.

    2014-01-01

    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in

  16. Content of metals and metabolites in honey originated from the vicinity of industrial town Kosice (eastern Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováčik, J.; Grúz, Jiří; Bíba, Ondřej; Hedbavny, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 5 (2016), s. 4531-4540 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antioxidants * Food safety * Heavy metals Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.741, year: 2016

  17. The effect of long-term irrigation using wastewater on heavy metal contents of soils under vegetables in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapanda, F.; Mangwayana, E.N.; Nyamangara, J.; Giller, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    The magnitude of contamination, regulatory compliance and annual loadings of soils with copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were determined at three sites in Harare where wastewater was used to irrigate vegetable gardens for at least 10 years. Heavy metal

  18. Toxicokinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to metal-contaminated soils under different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; Loureiro, Susana; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated how different combinations of air temperature (20 °C and 25 °C) and soil moisture content (50% and 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), reflecting realistic climate change scenarios, affect the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Earthworms were exposed for 21 d to two metal-contaminated soils (uptake phase), followed by 21 d incubation in non-contaminated soil (elimination phase). Body Zn and Cd concentrations were checked in time and metal uptake (k 1 ) and elimination (k 2 ) rate constants determined; metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated as k 1 /k 2 . Earthworms showed extremely fast uptake and elimination of Zn, regardless of the exposure level. Climate conditions had no major impacts on the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn, although a tendency towards lower k 1 and k 2 values was observed at 25 °C + 30% WHC. Earthworm Cd concentrations gradually increased with time upon exposure to metal-contaminated soils, especially at 50% WHC, and remained constant or slowly decreased following transfer to non-contaminated soil. Different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content changed the bioaccumulation kinetics of Cd, leading to higher k 1 and k 2 values for earthworms incubated at 25 °C + 50% WHC and slower Cd kinetics at 25 °C + 30% WHC. This resulted in greater BAFs for Cd at warmer and drier environments which could imply higher toxicity risks but also of transfer of Cd within the food chain under the current global warming perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategic growth options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulatilaka, N.; Perotti, E.C.

    1998-01-01

    We provide a strategic rationale for growth options under uncertainty and imperfect corn-petition. In a market with strategic competition, investment confers a greater capability to take advantage of future growth opportunities. This strategic advantage leads to the capture of a greater share of the

  20. Strategic marketing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.; Frambach, Ruud T.; Verhallen, Theo M.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces the term “strategic marketing research” for the collection and analysis of data in support of strategic marketing management. In particular, strategic marketing research plays an important role in defining the market, analysis of the environment, and the formulation of

  1. Compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings: the heavy metal speciation and total organic carbon content in the compacted sludge specimen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD was the main environmental problem facing the mining industry. For AMD had high heavy metals content and low pH, the compacted sewage sludge might be a barrier for tailings whose oxidation and weathering produced AMD, with its own carbon source, microorganism reduction ability and impermeability. To study the heavy metals environmental risk, under the simulate AMD, the deionized water (DW, and the pH 2.1 sulfuric acid water (SA seepage conditions, respectively, the changes of the chemical speciation of heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC content in the compacted sewage sludge were assessed in the different periods. The results indicated according to the distribution of heavy metals, the potential mobility was for Cd: 6.08 under AMD, 7.48 under SA, ∞ under DW; for Cu: 0.08 under AMD, 0.17 under SA, 0.59 under DW; for Fe: 0.15 under AMD, 0.22 under SA, 0.22 under DW; for Ni: 2.60 under AMD, 1.69 under SA, 1.67 under DW; and for Zn: 0.15 under AMD, 0.23 under SA and 0.21 under DW at the second checking time. TOC content firstly decreased from 67.62±0% to 66.29±0.35%, then increased to 67.74±0.65% under the AMD seepage while TOC decreased to 63.30±0.53%, then to 61.33±0.37% under the DW seepage, decreased to 63.86±0.41%, then to 63.28±0.49% under SA seepage. That indicated under the AMD seepage, the suitable microorganisms communities in the compacted sewage sludge were activated. And the heavy metals environmental risk of compacted sewage sludge was lower with AMD condition than with other two. So the compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings was feasible as the aspect of environmental risk assessment.

  2. Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Onojake, Chukunedum M

    2006-04-01

    Field reconnaissance of the Ebocha-8 oil spill-affected site at Obiobi/Obrikom in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to assess the extent of damage to the terrestrial ecosystem and delimit the epicenter of oil spillage. Following three successive reconnaissance surveys, the area to be sampled was delimited (200 x 200 m2), and soil samples were collected using the grid method from three replicate quadrats at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm). A geographically similar area located 50 m adjacent to the oil-polluted area was used as a reference (control) site. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) and heavy metal concentrations were later determined in the laboratory by extraction and spetrophotemetric techniques. Generally, the THC of soils at surface and subsurface depths of the oil-polluted plots was 2.06 x 10(4) +/- 4.97 x 10(3) mg/kg and 1.67 x 10(3) +/- 3.61 x 10(2) mg/kg soil, respectively, (no overlap in standard errors at 95% confidence limit) while concentrations of heavy metals(Pb, Cd, V, Cu and Ni) were enhanced, especially at the surface. The high levels of THC and heavy metals may predispose the site, which hitherto served as arable agricultural land, to impaired fertility and possible conflagration. When concentrations of heavy metals reach the levels obtained in this study, they may become toxic to plants or possibly bio-accumulate, thus leading to toxic reactions along the food chain. While the spilled-oil may have contributed to the enhanced levels of the metals in the affected soils, physico-chemical properties of the soils, mobility of metals, and the intense rainfall and flooding that preceded the period of study may have also contributed in part to their enhanced concentrations. The presence of high hydrocarbon content may cause oxygen deprivation, which may result in the death of soil fauna by asphyxiation. There is, therefore, an urgent need to clear the affected site of these excess hydrocarbon deposits so as to

  3. Application of a modified BCR sequential extraction (three-step) procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in a sewage sludge amended soil reference material (CRM 483), complemented by a three-year stability study of acetic acid and EDTA extractable metal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauret, G; López-Sánchez, J F; Sahuquillo, A; Barahona, E; Lachica, M; Ure, A M; Davidson, C M; Gomez, A; Lück, D; Bacon, J; Yli-Halla, M; Muntau, H; Quevauviller, P

    2000-06-01

    This paper provides additional data on a sewage sludge amended soil certified reference material, CRM 483, which was certified in 1997 for its EDTA and acetic acid extractable contents of some trace metals, following standardised extraction procedures. The additional work aimed to test the long-term stability of the material and the applicability of an improved version of the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure on the sewage sludge amended soil (CRM 483). The paper demonstrates the CRM 483 long-term stability for EDTA and acetic acid extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and gives the results (obtained in the framework of an interlaboratory study) for the extractable contents of the same elements in the CRM 483, following the BCR three-step sequential extraction scheme. The aqua regia extractable contents following the ISO 11466 Standard are also given. The data are given as indicative (not certified) values.

  4. Size-segregated emissions and metal content of vehicle-emitted particles as a function of mileage: Implications to population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M.; Zelinskaya, Elena V.; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Sarigiannis, Denis A.

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at investigating the characteristics (size distribution, active surface and metal content) of particles emitted by cars as a function of mileage using a novel methodology for characterizing particulate emissions captured by Exhaust Gas Suspension (EGS). EGS was obtained by passing the exhaust gases through a container of deionized water. EGS analysis was performed using laser granulometry, electron scanning microscopy, and high resolution mass spectrometry. Implications of the differences in key features of the emitted particles on population exposure were investigated using numerical simulation for estimating size-segregated PM deposition across human respiratory tract (HRT). It was found that vehicle mileage, age and the respective emissions class have almost no effect on the size distribution of the exhaust gas particulate released into the environment; about half of the examined vehicles with low mileage were found to release particles of aerodynamic diameter above 10 μm. The exhaust gas particulate detected in the EGS of all cars can be classified into three major size classes: (1) 0.1–5 µm – soot and ash particles, metals (Au, Pt, Pd, Ir); (2) 10–30 µm – metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zr, Ni) and ash particles; (3) 400–1,000 µm – metal (Fe, Cr, Pb) and ash particles. Newer vehicles with low mileage are substantial sources of soot and metal particles with median diameter of 200 nm with a higher surface area (up to 89,871.16 cm 2 /cm 3 ). These tend to deposit in the lower part of the human respiratory tract. - Highlights: • Car mileage has virtually no effect on the size of the solid particles released. • Newer diesel vehicles emit particles of lower aerodynamic diameter. • Particle active surface emitted by newer vehicles is on average 3 times higher. • Real-life emissions were translated into actual internal PM exposure.

  5. Size-segregated emissions and metal content of vehicle-emitted particles as a function of mileage: Implications to population exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M. [Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zelinskaya, Elena V. [National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M. [University of Crete, Medical School, Department of Toxicology and Forensic Science, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Karakitsios, Spyros P. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sarigiannis, Denis A., E-mail: denis@eng.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-10-15

    The study aims at investigating the characteristics (size distribution, active surface and metal content) of particles emitted by cars as a function of mileage using a novel methodology for characterizing particulate emissions captured by Exhaust Gas Suspension (EGS). EGS was obtained by passing the exhaust gases through a container of deionized water. EGS analysis was performed using laser granulometry, electron scanning microscopy, and high resolution mass spectrometry. Implications of the differences in key features of the emitted particles on population exposure were investigated using numerical simulation for estimating size-segregated PM deposition across human respiratory tract (HRT). It was found that vehicle mileage, age and the respective emissions class have almost no effect on the size distribution of the exhaust gas particulate released into the environment; about half of the examined vehicles with low mileage were found to release particles of aerodynamic diameter above 10 μm. The exhaust gas particulate detected in the EGS of all cars can be classified into three major size classes: (1) 0.1–5 µm – soot and ash particles, metals (Au, Pt, Pd, Ir); (2) 10–30 µm – metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zr, Ni) and ash particles; (3) 400–1,000 µm – metal (Fe, Cr, Pb) and ash particles. Newer vehicles with low mileage are substantial sources of soot and metal particles with median diameter of 200 nm with a higher surface area (up to 89,871.16 cm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}). These tend to deposit in the lower part of the human respiratory tract. - Highlights: • Car mileage has virtually no effect on the size of the solid particles released. • Newer diesel vehicles emit particles of lower aerodynamic diameter. • Particle active surface emitted by newer vehicles is on average 3 times higher. • Real-life emissions were translated into actual internal PM exposure.

  6. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-12-15

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20°C vs. 25°C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus. Enchytraeids were exposed for 21d to a dilution series of the agricultural soil with Lufa 2.2 control soil under four climate situations: 20°C+50% WHC (standard conditions), 20°C+30% WHC, 25°C+50% WHC, and 25°C+30% WHC. Survival, reproduction and bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were obtained as endpoints. Reproduction was more sensitive to both climate factors and metal(loid) pollution. High soil salinity (electrical conductivity~3dSm -1 ) and clay texture, even without the presence of high metal(loid) concentrations, affected enchytraeid performance especially at drier conditions (≥80% reduction in reproduction). The toxicity of the agricultural soil increased at drier conditions (10% reduction in EC10 and EC50 values for the effect on enchytraeid reproduction). Changes in enchytraeid performance were accompanied by changes in As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn bioaccumulation, with lower body concentrations at drier conditions probably due to greater competition with soluble salts in the case of Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. This study shows that apart from high metal(loid) concentrations other soil properties (e.g. salinity and texture) may be partially responsible for the toxicity of metal(loid)-polluted soils to soil invertebrates, especially under changing climate conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [FEATURES OF THE CONTENT OF MOVABLE FORMS OF HEAVY METALS AND SELENIUM IN SOILS OF THE YAROSLAVL REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, E A; Eremeyshvili, A V

    2016-01-01

    With the use of the method of inversion voltammetry there was analyzed the content of movableforms of trace elements: (selenium, zinc, copper lead, cadmium) in soils in the Yaroslavl district of the Yaroslavl region, and also content of zinc, copper lead, cadmium in soils and snow cover in the city of Yaroslavl. According to values of concentrations of movable compounds in soils determined trace elements can be ranked into the following row: zinc > lead > copper > selenium > cadmium. There was revealed insufficient if compared with literature data concentrations, content of movable compounds of selenium, copper and zinc in examined explored soils. The maximal concentrations of lead are revealed in the close proximity to both the city of Yaroslavl and large highways of the city. It indicates to the anthropogenic pollution of soils by this element.

  8. EBER - development of evaluation methods for shipping and storage containers with an increased content of metallic residual materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Voelzke, H.

    1995-01-01

    Containers which are manufactured using recycled metallic residual materials from decommissioned nuclear facilities must be designed in accordance with the requirements of transport, interim and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. When metallic residual materials are added to the melt in the manufacture of containers made of cast iron with nodular graphite (GGG 40), how the effect on and characteristics of materials are to be observed as well as the permissible limits. The influence on charcteristics of relevance to safety, such as fracture toughness and the types and magnitudes of defects in construction components are the most important factors. In BAM's 'EBER' project presented here, the studies concentrate on design-based safety against the mechanical effects of accidents. (orig./DG) [de

  9. Learning to think strategically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Strategic thinking focuses on issues that directly affect the ability of a family planning program to attract and retain clients. This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" outlines the five steps of strategic thinking in family planning administration: 1) define the organization's mission and strategic goals; 2) identify opportunities for improving quality, expanding access, and increasing demand; 3) evaluate each option in terms of its compatibility with the organization's goals; 4) select an option; and 5) transform strategies into action. Also included in this issue is a 20-question test designed to permit readers to assess their "strategic thinking quotient" and a list of sample questions to guide a strategic analysis.

  10. Growth of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes forests on metal alloy Ni-Nb-N with low content of catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubkov, S.; Trifonov, A.; Shaman, Yu; Pavlov, A.; Shulyat'ev, A.; Skorik, S.; Kirilenko, E. P.; Rygalin, B.

    2016-08-01

    This research shows the possibility of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formation on the surface of low nickel (∼ 10 at.%) Ni-Nb-N amorphous metal alloy film by CVD method at 550 °C of the gas mixture based on acetylene. The structure of CNT were studied by transmission and scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray and the Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Heavy Metals, Paths contents and eco physiological changes in leaves of Holm-Oak in Urban areas of Caserta (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, S.; Nacca, F.; D'Abrosca, B.; Bartoli, G.; Pellegrino, A.; Fuggi, A.; Fioretto, A.

    2009-01-01

    Human health as well as that of animals and plants is severely affected by air pollution. In urban areas the vehicular traffic, in particular, contributes to the release of contaminants like heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Plants are effective bio monitors because, through their large leaf surface area, intercept and also absorb air pollutants, that can cause morphological, physiological and biochemical responses. (Author)

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE AND BIOSOLIDS ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN WHITE MUSTARD SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2017-06-01

    The statistical analysis indicated that the concentrations of Cd in mustard seed was significantly correlated with the concentrations of Ni and Zn (respectively, r=-0.89 and r=-0.54. There were significant positive correlations between soil pH and metal concentrations in the seeds of mustard. The pH was significantly correlated with Ni (r = 0.60 and Zn (r = 0.55 at a p≤ 0.05.

  13. Temporal-spatial trends in heavy metal contents in sediment-derived soils along the Sea Scheldt river (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, B.; Vos, B. de; Tack, F.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    The alluvial plain upstream in the Sea Scheldt was more affected by upland disposal of polluted sediments. - The aim of this study was to survey the alluvial plains of the Sea Scheldt river in Belgium for the presence of old sediment-derived soils, and to appraise the heavy metal contamination at these sites. Historically, sediments of periodical dredging operations have been disposed in the alluvial plain without concern for the potential presence of contaminants. Up to 96% of the areas that were affected by sediment disposal (ca. 120 ha) was found to be polluted by at least one of the metals Cd, Cr, Zn or Pb. Concentrations of Cd, Cr and Zn were, in 10% of the cases, higher than 14, 1400 and 2200 mg/kg DM, respectively. Based on the Flemish decree on soil sanitation, Cu and Ni concentrations were of less environmental concern on any site. The pollution in the Sea Scheldt alluvial plain nevertheless is lower than for the Upper Scheldt alluvial plain. The sediment-derived soils in the most upstream part near Ghent were used for disposal of sediments from dredging operations elsewhere. Metal concentrations were explored and both spatial and temporal trend were analysed. The pollution levels encountered warrant caution as most of the soils affected by historical dredged sediment disposal are currently in use for pasture

  14. Biocompatible Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with high-Zr-content: compositional optimization for potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Nengbin; Huang, Lu; Chen, Wenzhe; He, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The present study designs and prepares Ni-free Zr60+xTi2.5Al10Fe12.5-xCu10Ag5 (at.%, x=0, 2.5, 5) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by copper mold casting for potential biomedical application. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility of the Zr-based BMGs are evaluated by investigating mechanical properties, bio-corrosion behavior, and cellular responses. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high notch toughness. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based BMGs are corrosion resistant in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The bio-corrosion resistance of BMGs is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. Regular cell responses of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells, including cell adhesion and proliferation, are observed on the Zr-Ti-Al-Fe-Cu-Ag BMGs, which reveals their general biosafety. The high-Zr-based BMGs exhibit a higher cell proliferation activity in comparison with that of pure Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility can be used to guide the future design of biocompatible Zr-based BMGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Evaluation of the content and migration of heavy metals in components of river ecosystems’ of mining territories of the Republic of Bashkortostan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktybaeva, Z B; Suleymanov, R A; Yamalov, S M; Kulagin, A A; Valeev, T K; Rakhmatullin, N R

    Exploration and development of mineral deposits in the Transurals of the Republic of Bashkortostan are accompanied by a comprehensive environmental impact. Ones of the most vulnerable elements of the landscape are the surface water bodies used for fishery purposes, recreation and household needs of the population. Extraction and processing of ores lead to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals (HM), which by passing into a pond, can actively be involved in the cycling of matter and migrate via food chains to the human under the consumption of fish products. Possessing by cumulative properties, HM can express mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties. The aim of research was the study of the impact of mining facilities on the content of the priority HM in the components of river ecosystems in the Transurals of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the development of a complex of preventive measures on the improvement of the human environment. There was studied the content of Zn, Cu and Cd in the water, bottom sediments and phytomass of Elodea canadensis Michx. The measurements of mass concentrations of metals were performed by stripping voltammetry with the use of the STA device. The results showed that for the cross-sections there is typical the following descending series of elements in the river components: Zn > Cu > Cd. In water samples there is observed the exceedance of standards for water bodies of potable, cultural and community water use and fishery basins. The concentration of zinc varies in the range of 0.016-5.24 mg/dm; copper - 0.0024-0.095 mg/dm; cadmium - 0.0001-0.019 mg/dm. In bottom sediments, in general, the content of metals in comparison with control plots is increased to the tenfold value. The meaning of mobile forms of zinc in the ground varies in the range of 0.81-9.62 mg/kg; copper - 0.12-18.69 mg/kg; cadmium - 0.00013-0.092 mg/kg. The zinc concentration in above-ground phytomass of Elodea canadensis compared to control

  16. Evaluation of Metal Elements and Pesticide Content of Water and Sediment Samples of Bribin Underground River at Gunung Kidul (Part I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Taftazani; Tri-Rusmanto

    2005-01-01

    Determination of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Hg, Cd, Co elements, compound of Carbophuran and DDT content in sediment and water of Bribin Underground River at Gunung Kidul has been carried out. Sampling has been done in March and September 2004 as grab sample. Determination of heavy metal used Neutron Activation Analysis method (NAA), determination of DDT compound used gas chromatography (GC) method and of carbophuran compound used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analysis result showed that 5 heavy metals i.e.: Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and Hg, and also carbophuran have been detected in water sample. In sediment sample have been detected heavy metals of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Hg, Cd, Cr, Co and corbophuran compound. DDT compound has not been detected in sediment as well as water samples. The concentrations of pesticide and elements of the water samples in wet season were less than that of dry season, and reverse with that of sediment samples. The influence of sampling locations was not significance. Result of water analysis will be compared to standard quality of Water of B group stated by Governor of Yogjakarta Special Province (SK Gubernur DIY / 1991) and Health Ministry of Republic of Indonesia (MENKES RI Number 907/2002). (author)

  17. Spatial distribution and potential biological risk of some metals in relation to granulometric content in core sediments from Chilika Lake, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Saroja K; Muduli, Pradipta R; Mohanty, Bita; Rath, Prasanta; Samanta, Srikanta

    2018-01-01

    The article presents first systematic report on the concentration of selected major elements [iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn)] and minor elements [zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co)] from the core sediment of Chilika Lake, India. The analyzed samples revealed higher content of Pb than the background levels in the entire study area. The extent of contamination from minor and major elements is expressed by assessing (i) the metal enrichments in the sediment through the calculations of anthropogenic factor (AF), pollution load index (PLI), Enrichment factor (EF), and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and (ii) potential biological risks by the use of sediment quality guidelines like effect range median (ERM) and effect range low (ERL) benchmarks. The estimated indices indicated that sediment is enriched with Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Co. The enrichment of these elements seems to be due to the fine granulometric characteristics of the sediment with Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides being the main metal carriers and fishing boats using low grade paints, fuel, and fishing technology using lead beads fixed to fishing nets. Trace element input to the Chilika lake needs to be monitored with due emphasis on Cr and Pb contaminations since the ERM and ERL benchmarks indicated potential biological risk with these metals.

  18. Control and monitoring of oxygen content in molten metals. Application to lead and lead-bismuth melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghetta, V.; Fouletier, J.; Henault, M.; Le Moulec, A.

    2002-01-01

    The sources of error in potentiometric measurements of the oxygen activity in molten metals and the methods proposed to reduce these measurements errors are described. Specific constraints related to low temperature measurements are emphasized. Two set-ups for control of the oxygen activity in molten lead and lead-bismuth were developed. They involve zirconia-based cells, i.e., an oxygen pump and an oxygen probe. The performance of the set-ups was characterized attempts to reduce the working temperature (T<450 deg C) are discussed. (authors)

  19. A case study of strategic planning IFB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Rodrigues de Camargo Dias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify and characterize the initial stage of the IFB strategic planning, based on the perception of top management and planning team. The case study adopts a qualitative approach supported by bibliographic research techniques, to build a theoretical foundation, allied to the semistructure interview for later, application of the content analysis. As a result, we can identify that the institution opted to first define the strategic references, based on the construction of the mission, vision and values, and later, analysis of the organizational diagnosis, based on the Balanced Scorecard methodology. It was verified that the tool of strategic planning and its use are points that need to be better understood by the managers and technical planning team. The predominant characteristics of strategic planning are composed of a programmatic tool for projecting medium and long term goals and actions, of legal compliance, as it integrates and operationalizes the Institutional Development Plan (PDI.

  20. The Metal Content of Soils in the Mures County and Phytoremediation Prospects Use as a Remediation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil quality results from complex interactions between its components and may be related to interventions in soil caused by the insertion of compounds more or less toxic, accumulation of toxic products from industrial and urban activities. Currently it tends more towards the adoption of biological methods of soil remediation, and one of these is phytoremediation, innovative and less expensive. So, to see what is the heavy metals’ content of soils, soil samples were taken at different distances from the source of pollution (SC Azomureş SA. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the heavy metals’ content (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn. There were found exceedings of the normal values provided in the legislation (except for As, Cd, Pb, especially in samples taken near the source of pollution (150m and 250m. It must be noted that recorded exceedings are not alert thresholds.

  1. Effect of inclusion content on the creep rupture properties of type 17Cr-8Ni-2Mo weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been known for some time that austenitic weldments exhibit low and variable creep rupture properties, but many of the factors controlling these properties are not well understood. In this investigation, two welds (Type 316) with similar compositions and fabricated using the same welding parameters, but with different electrode coatings, have been examined after creep testing. The results indicate that the inclusion and silicon content of type 316 welds can strongly influence their creep rupture properties, a high inclusion density being associated with poor creep rupture properties, and a low silicon content with a higher creep rate. This has been explained with reference to the micromechanism of creep failure operating in these welds. (author)

  2. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation characterization of essential and heavy metals contents in R. acetosa, S. oleracea and U. dioica from copper polluted and referent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Bačeva, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability of metals occurring in soil is the basic source of its accumulation in vegetables and herbs. The impact of soil pollution (due to urban and mining areas) on the food chain presents a challenge for many investigations. Availability of metals in a potentially polluted soil and their possible transfer and bioaccumulation in sorrel (Rumex acetosa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and common nettle (Urtica dioica), were examined. Microwave digestion was applied for total digestion of the plant tissues, while on the soil samples open wet digestion with a mixture of acids was applied. Three extraction methods were implemented for the bioavailable metals in the soil. Atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma was used for determination of the total contents of 21 elements. Significant enrichments in agricultural soil for As, Pb and Zn (in urban area), Cd, Cu and Ni (in a copper mine area), compared with the respective values from European standards were detected. On the basis of three different extraction methods, higher availability was assumed for both lithogenic and anthropogenic elements. Translocation values >1 were obtained for As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Higher bioconcentrating value was obtained only for Cd, while the bioaccumulation values vary from 0.17 for Cd to 0.82 for Zn. The potential availability of hazardous metals in urban and mining soils is examined using DTPA-TEA-CaCl2 (urban) and HCl (Cu-mines areas). Our results suggested that S. oleracea and R. acetosa have a phytostabilization potential for Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, while U. dioica only for Cu. R. acetosa has a potential for phytoextraction of Cd in urban and copper polluted areas.

  3. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio; Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax

  4. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonanno.giuseppe@unict.it [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy); Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio [Department of Agri-Food and Environmental Systems Management, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 100, 95123, Catania (Italy); Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax.

  5. Developing Strategic Thinking in Business Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contantin BRĂTIANU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The new business environment becomes more and more turbulent with rapid and unpredictable changes. Operational management focusing on present issues and profit maximization is not able to look into the future and anticipate market dynamics. Companies need to develop strategic management as an overarching framework able to search into the future and construct strategies for achieving a competitive advantage. That needs a new way of thinking and decision making. The core of that process is strategic thinking. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the content of strategic thinking and to investigate how it is developed in business education. I shall analyze the content of strategic thinking using a metaphorical approach and considering a spectrum of monochromatic thinking models based on some determinant features. For the second part I performed a survey based on a questionnaires addressed to 5000 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs of economics and business from the main schools of economic sciences in Romania. The questionnaire contains 47 items able to reveal the dimensions of the strategic thinking pattern we consider of being significant for the managers in this new knowledge economy. Results show the need for improving the content of business education curriculum, and the teaching approach.

  6. Cold spraying SiC/Al metal matrix composites: effects of SiC contents and heat treatment on microstructure, thermophysical and flexural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyansah, L.; Tariq, N. H.; Tang, J. R.; Qiu, X.; Feng, B.; Huang, J.; Du, H.; Wang, J. Q.; Xiong, T. Y.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, cold spray was used as an additive manufacturing method to fabricate 5 mm thick SiC/Al metal matrix composites with various SiC contents. The effects of SiC contents and heat treatment on the microstructure, thermophysical and flexural properties were investigated. Additionally, the composites were characterized for retention of SiC particulates, splat size, surface roughness and the progressive understanding of strengthening, toughening and cracking mechanisms. Mechanical properties were investigated via three-point bending test, thermophysical analysis, and hardness test. In the as-sprayed state, flexural strength increased from 95.3 MPa to 133.5 MPa, an appreciation of 40% as the SiC contents increased, and the main toughening and strengthening mechanisms were zigzag crack propagation and high retention of SiC particulates respectively. In the heat treatment conditions, flexural strength appreciated significantly compared to the as-sprayed condition and this was as a result of coarsening of pure Al splat. Crack branching, crack deflection and interface delamination were considered as the main toughening mechanisms at the heat treatment conditions. Experimental results were consistent with the measured CTE, hardness, porosity and flexural modulus.

  7. Determination of heavy metal content of processed fruit products from Tehran's market using ICP- OES: A risk assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabad, Ayub Ebadi; Shariatifar, Nabi; Moazzen, Mojtaba; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Fakhri, Yadolah; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Azari, Ali; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the levels of Cd, Hg, Sn, Al, Pb and As of 72 samples (36 samples for fruits juices and 36 samples for fruits canned) of three different brands including of Peach, Orange, Cherry, and Pineapple (18 samples of each fruits) marketed in Tehran, Iran (2015) were evaluated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. Also, Probabilistic risk assessment (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) was estimated by models include target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) in the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) model. However, all samples were contaminated with the heavy metals investigated, most of them not surpassed established standards. The range of concentration for Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb as average in fruit juices were reported as 340.62 (65.17-1039.2), 72.33 (49.76-119.4), 3.76 (1.137-18.36), 2.12 (0.89-3.44), 0.351 and 40.86 (27.87-66.1) μg/kg, respectively. The level of heavy metals measured in different kinds of fruit juices was ranked as Al > Sn > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, and for fruits canned this rank was Pb > Al > Sn > As > Cd > Hg. The range of concentration for Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in fruits canned were reported as 361.23 (43.15-1121.2), 101.42 (71.45-141.61), 3.92 (1.279-19.50), 2.78 (1.09-5.56), 0.35 and 690.54 (470.56-910.14) μg/kg, respectively. The lead (Pb) concentration in 97.22% (35 out of 36 samples) of fruit juices samples surpassed Codex limit (0.05 mg/kg) and in all samples of FC was lower than the legal limit of Codex limit (1 mg/kg). All of the samples had Tin (Sn) lower than the legal limit of Codex (fruit juices 100 mg/kg and FC 250 mg/kg). The MCS indicated that the rank order of heavy metals in both adults and children based on THQ was Al > Sn > As > Pb > Cd > Hg. The THQ of Al and Sn in the FJ and FC, for both adults, and children, was considerably higher than 1 value. Also, CR of As in both adults and children

  8. Determination of particle size and content of metals in the atmosphere of ZMCM (Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.; Flores M, J.; Diaz, R.V.; Garcia G, R.

    1994-01-01

    Inside the breathable fraction of the atmosphere of Mexico City, the presence of metals in suspended particles, is determined and quantified. The detection was carry out simultaneously in three places of the city, using collectors of the type stacking filter unit (SFU) which allow the separation of particles according to its size. The SFU detectors allow the separation in two size: 'Gross' mass from 2.5 to 1.5 μm and 'fine' mass for particles smallest than 2.5 μm. The analysis of the samples was fulfilled by means of PIXE method. Samples were irradiated with a proton beam, and based in the X-ray spectra the elements were identified and quantified, which allow to establish the temporal behavior of the concentrations per element for gross mass and fine mass in each one of the places of sampling. (Author)

  9. Analysis of heavy metal contents in gray and white MTA and 2 kinds of Portland cement: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seok Woo; Shon, Won Jun; Lee, WooCheol; Kum, Kee Yeon; Baek, Seung Ho; Bae, Kwang Shik

    2010-04-01

    The levels of 10 heavy metals (arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc) in gray Portland cement (GPC), white Portland cement (WPC), gray MTA (GMTA), and white MTA (WMTA) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). One gram of each material was digested with 80 degrees C "aqua-regia" (7 mL of 60% HNO3 and 21 mL of 35% HCl), filtered, and analyzed by ICP-AES. The analysis was performed 6 times and the data were analyzed statistically. Arsenic and lead concentrations were the highest in GPC (P cements (P Portland cement versus MTA, the differences in purity may be considered. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trace element content of human hair determined using neutron activation analysis as monitor of exposure effects to environmental metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutkiewicz, T.; Paprotny, W.; Sokolowska, D.; Kulka, E.; Woyciechowska, E.; Dybczynski, R.; Sterlinski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of 17 trace elements, mainly metals, in small hair samples by neutron activation analysis was elaborated. The number of elements determined in one sample made it possible to assess quickly the exposure of human population in a given region. The hair samples after careful washing according to procedure elaborated previously were irradiated in high reactor neutron flux (approximately 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 ). The activities of samples were measured three times (for different decay times) by means of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometer. A new version of the comparator technique, called a triple-single comparator method, was applied for quantitative analysis. The statistical methods used for planning of sampling and preliminary results on evaluation of analytical data are also described. (author)

  11. Exploring the Dust Content, Metallicity, Star Formation and AGN Activity in Distant Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies Using Cosmic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walth, Gregory; Egami, Eiichi; Clément, Benjamin; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rawle, Tim; Richard, Johan; Dessauges, Miroslava; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Ebeling, Harald; Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley; Cosens, Maren; Herschel Lensing Survey

    2018-01-01

    We present our recent ALMA observations of Herschel-detected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and how they compliment our near-infrared spectroscopic observations of their rest-frame optical nebular emission. This provides the complete picture of star formation; from the molecular gas that fuels star formation, to the dust emission which are the sites of star formation, and the nebular emission which is the gas excited by the young stars. DSFGs undergo the largest starbursts in the Universe, contributing to the bulk of the cosmic star formation rate density between redshifts z = 1 - 4. Internal processes within high-redshift DSFGs remains largely unexplored; such as feedback from star formation, the role of turbulence, gas surface density of molecular gas, AGN activity, and the rates of metal production. Much that is known about DSFGs star formation properties comes from their CO and dust emission. In order to fully understand the star formation history of DSFGs, it is necessary to observe their optical nebular emission. Unfortunately, UV/optical emission is severely attenuated by dust, making it challenging to detect. With the Herschel Lensing Survey, a survey of the cores of almost 600 massive galaxy clusters, we are able to probe faint dust-attenuated nebular emission. We are currently conducting a new survey using Keck/OSIRIS to resolve a sample of gravitationally lensed DSFGs from the Herschel Lensing Survey (>100 mJy, with SFRs >100 Msun/yr) at redshifts z=1-4 with magnifications >10x all with previously detected nebular emission lines. We present the physical and resolved properties of gravitationally lensed DSFGs at unprecedented spatial scales; such as ionization, metallicity, AGN activity, and dust attenuation.

  12. Metallic copper corrosion rates, moisture content, and growth medium influence survival of copper ion-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elguindi, J; Moffitt, S; Hasman, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of both copper ion-resistant E. coli and E. faecium strains when samples in rich medium were spread in a thin, moist layer on copper alloys with 85% or greater copper content. E. coli strains were rapidly killed under dry conditions, while E. faecium strains were less affected. Electroplated copper...... on electroplated copper surfaces with benzotriazole coating and thermal oxide coating compared to surfaces without anti-corrosion treatment. Control of surface corrosion affected the level of copper ion influx into bacterial cells, which contributed directly to bacterial killing....

  13. Strategic planning for neuroradiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank J

    2012-08-01

    Strategic planning is becoming essential to neuroradiology as the health care environment continues to emphasize cost efficiency, teamwork and collaboration. A strategic plan begins with a mission statement and vision of where the neuroradiology division would like to be in the near future. Formalized strategic planning frameworks, such as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), and the Balanced Scorecard frameworks, can help neuroradiology divisions determine their current position in the marketplace. Communication, delegation, and accountability in neuroradiology is essential in executing an effective strategic plan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  15. How Strategic are Strategic Information Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Eardley

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many examples of information systems which are claimed to have created and sustained competitive advantage, allowed beneficial collaboration or simply ensured the continued survival of the organisations which used them These systems are often referred to as being 'strategic'. This paper argues that many of the examples of strategic information systems as reported in the literature are not sufficiently critical in determining whether the systems meet the generally accepted definition of the term 'strategic' - that of achieving sustainable competitive advantage. Eight of the information systems considered to be strategic are examined here from the standpoint of one widely-accepted 'competition' framework- Porter's model of industry competition . The framework is then used to question the linkage between the information systems and the mechanisms which are required for the enactment of strategic business objectives based on competition. Conclusions indicate that the systems are compatible with Porter's framework. Finally, some limitations of the framework are discussed and aspects of the systems which extend beyond the framework are highlighted

  16. Strategic raw materials. Risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertau, Martin; Matschullat, Joerg; Kausch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This volume is divided into four chapters: (1) Raw material management, (2) Primary raw materials, (3) Secondary raw materials and recycling, (4). Processing and products. The topics for the chapter ''Raw material management'' are: Substitution of raw materials - framework conditions and implementation; Thales: Strategic raw materials; Time for cooperation between the EU and China in raw materials policy; Availability of elements for the semiconductor industry; Market price risks of raw material-intensive companies - identification and management. The topics on the second item ''Primary raw materials'' are: The supply of economic-critical raw materials - A search and analysis for causes; Lithium extraction from primary raw materials - state and perspectives; The global market of rare earths - A balancing act; Rare earth deposits in Namibia; New technologies in exploration and discovery - Focus on activities in Europe. The third chapter, ''Secondary Raw Materials and Recycling'', covered the topics: Technology metals - Systemic Requirements along the recycling chain; Integrated re-use of high-tech and greentech wastes; From the sewage sludge ash to the phosphorus fertilizer RecoPhos P38 in the stress field of waste, fertilizer and soil protection. In chapter 4. ''Processing and products'' are the topics: Treatment and processing of rare earth metals; Processing of mineral resources - opportunities and challenges; Consequences of modern germanium chemistry; Strategic resources - Risk management. A review and outlook with a pinch of fantasy.. [de

  17. Seasonal variations in metal content of two Unio pictorum mancus (Mollusca, Unionidae populations from two lakes of different trophic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Renato TRINCHERINI

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of lake trophy on trace element accumulation by Unio pictorum mancus, a population from the mesooligotrophic Lake Maggiore was compared with a population from the eutrophic Lake Candia. The element content in soft tissue and shell biomass, the seasonal variations of element concentrations in soft tissues and shell, and the relationship between element concentrations in the water and those in the tissues were estimated in pursuit of this objective. Thirteen mussel samplings were performed in Lake Maggiore between May 2003 and September 2004 and in Lake Candia between June 2003 and August 2004. Filtered water samples were collected seasonally. Water, shell and soft tissue samples were analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS for the measurement of following elements: Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, As, Pb, Co, Cr, Mo, V, Cd, Be and Ca. The element concentrations in the mussel tissues and shell from Lake Maggiore were higher than those from Lake Candia. Due to the higher population density and higher element concentrations in the mussels of Lake Maggiore, the element content in the biomass per m2 in this lake far exceeded that in Lake Candia. The element concentrations in the mussel tissues, but not in their shells, of both lakes showed a seasonal pattern of variation; this was to be expected as a result of the slower turnover time of the elements in the shell than in the tissues. For all the elements, except Mo, Cr and Be, the "concentration factor" (C.F. value was higher in Lake Maggiore than in Lake Candia mussels, ranging from 10 to 104 and 10 to 103 respectively. The higher concentrations in the mussel tissues from Lake Maggiore were justified not merely by the higher element concentrations in the lake water, but probably also because other causes, such as element concentrations in food and element abundance in available forms, combine to affect the concentrations of the elements in the tissues.

  18. Development of a preliminary database of digestate chemistry, heavy metal and pathogen content to assist in Alberta regulation compliance : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckford, R.; Gao, T.T.J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    An ongoing investigation is underway in Alberta to study the feasibility of designing biogas facilities that use various biowaste feedstocks or substrates. Digestate from biowaste substrates other than manure is currently designated as sewage sludge, thus presenting economical challenges to an emerging anaerobic digestion industry. Previous studies at the Alberta Research Council (ARC) have shown that elevated heavy metal content is found primarily in manure and slaughterhouse waste and not in general biowaste. The limited data from ARC does not give Alberta Environment enough information to set guidelines for handling the digestate generated from biogas plants using various biowastes. The first part of this document provided information on digestate chemistry. In order to set guidelines for the biogas industry, it discussed the levels of heavy metals, salts, as well as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in feedstock biowastes used for anaerobic digestion and the post-digestion digestates, separated liquids and solids. It also discussed levels and destruction of pathogens in biowaste during anaerobic digestion. The second part of this document included an evaluation of pathogens in biowaste and digestate. A small-scale study was conducted on undigested biowaste and effluent after anaerobic digestion of biowaste using the USEPA microbiology testing methods for fecal coliform and Salmonella for biosolids. 22 refs., 95 tabs.

  19. Contents of the heavy metals nickel and lead in leaves of Paulownia elongata S.Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei Hems. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Dragica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was carried out on the capabilities of the two species Paulownia elongata S. Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei Hems. as biomonitors of atmospheric (and soil heavy-metal pollution. Research on content of the heavy metals nickel (Ni and lead (Pb in leaves of the species Paulownia elongata growing under urban and suburban conditions with the comparison to the concentration of these elements in leaves of the species Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortunei on an experimental plot in Bela Crkva showed average nickel concentrations of 2.7 μg/g on the experimental plot in Bela Crkva, Serbia, twice as low as the concentrations measured under extreme urban conditions (6.62 μg/g, or 4.54 μg/g in the immediate vicinity of suburban traffic lines. Inasmuch as Paulownia elongata endures urban conditions well, it can be recommended for cultivation in parks, tree alleys, and wind-protection zones along urban and regional traffic lines.

  20. THE CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF THE WATERCOURSE IN AGRICULTURAL CATCHMENT ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE RIVER GOWIENICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom sediments samples for chemical analysis were derived from Gowienica river and its tributaries. Samples were taken at 2014 and 2015 years from established sampling points on differently managed and utilized adjacent areas. Total content of heavy metals, i.e.: Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Hg were measured in collected material. The results indicate that concentrations of lead, nickel, chromium and mercury exceeded level below which no harmful impact of pollution (TEL is noted, but none of the analyzed heavy metals exceeded the limit (PEL above which harmful effects of pollution on organisms can be observed. However, according to other classification (LAW analyzed sediments were located between two classes (deposits unpolluted - Class I, and deposits unpolluted / moderately polluted (class I-II. However, chemical analysis showed the various points exceeded the natural cobalt concentration (geochemical background; 2.0 mg⋅kg-1 for aquatic sediments in Poland. The reasons of cobalt concentration exceedance in natural sediments, among others, were surface runoff from fields and meadows in the form of fertilizers, plant protection products and the domestic waste water.

  1. Lo Strategic Management Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    G. INVERNIZZI

    2005-01-01

    Il saggio indaga gli aggregati informativi e gli elementi che compongono lo strategic management accounting. Sono quindi analizzate le funzioni svolte nei diversi stadi del processo di gestione strategica osservando il suo ruolo all’interno del management accounting. Infine sono approfonditi i rapporti fra i livelli della gestione strategica e lo strategic management accounting.

  2. Crowdnursing - Strategizing Shitstorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Holmgaard

    2018-01-01

    This paper will introduce a framework for distinguishing between shitstorm types and social media crises. In need of strategies for handling social media crowds the paper suggests a strategic approach that focus on the cultivation of social media crowds and offers a valuable conceptual...... understanding of crowdnursing as a strategic tool....

  3. Strategic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  4. 11. Strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned.

  5. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  6. Strategic Talk in Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payr, Sabine; Skowron, Marcin; Dobrosovestnova, Anna; Trapp, Martin; Trappl, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Conversational robots and agents are being designed for educational and/or persuasive tasks, e.g., health or fitness coaching. To pursue such tasks over a long time, they will need a complex model of the strategic goal, a variety of strategies to implement it in interaction, and the capability of strategic talk. Strategic talk is incipient ongoing conversation in which at least one participant has the objective of changing the other participant's attitudes or goals. The paper is based on the observation that strategic talk can stretch over considerable periods of time and a number of conversational segments. Film dialogues are taken as a source to develop a model of the strategic talk of mentor characters. A corpus of film mentor utterances is annotated on the basis of the model, and the data are interpreted to arrive at insights into mentor behavior, especially into the realization and sequencing of strategies.

  7. Strategic planning in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse how contested transitions in planning rationalities and spatial logics have shaped the processes and outputs of recent episodes of Danish ‘strategic spatial planning’. The practice of ‘strategic spatial planning’ in Denmark has undergone a concerted reorientation...... style of ‘strategic spatial planning’ with its associated spatial logics is continuously challenged by a persistent regulatory, top-down rationality of ‘strategic spatial planning’, rooted in spatial Keynesianism, which has long characterised the Danish approach. The findings reveal the emergence...... of a particularly Danish approach, retaining strong regulatory aspects. However this approach does not sit easily within the current neoliberal political climate, raising concerns of an emerging crisis of ‘strategic spatial planning’....

  8. On strategic spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to explain the origin and development of strategic spatial planning, to show complex features and highlight the differences and/or advantages over traditional, physical spatial planning. Strategic spatial planning is seen as one of approaches in legally defined planning documents, and throughout the display of properties of sectoral national strategies, as well as issues of strategic planning at the local level in Serbia. The strategic approach is clearly recognized at the national and sub-national level of spatial planning in European countries and in our country. It has been confirmed by the goals outlined in documents of the European Union and Serbia that promote the grounds of territorial cohesion and strategic integrated planning, emphasizing cooperation and the principles of sustainable spatial development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  9. FY17 Strategic Themes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    I am pleased to present this summary of the FY17 Division 1000 Science and Technology Strategic Plan. As this plan represents a continuation of the work we started last year, the four strategic themes (Mission Engagement, Bold Outcomes, Collaborative Environment, and Safety Imperative) remain the same, along with many of the goals. You will see most of the changes in the actions listed for each goal: We completed some actions, modified others, and added a few new ones. As I’ve stated previously, this is not a strategy to be pursued in tension with the Laboratory strategic plan. The Division 1000 strategic plan is intended to chart our course as we strive to contribute our very best in service of the greater Laboratory strategy. I welcome your feedback and look forward to our dialogue about these strategic themes. Please join me as we move forward to implement the plan in the coming months.

  10. Main flavonoids, DPPH activity, and metal content allow determination of the geographical origin of propolis from the Province of San Juan (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Luna, Lorena; Fabani, María P; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Podio, Natalia S; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Feresin, Gabriela E

    2009-04-08

    The chemical characterization as well as the assessment of geographical origin of propolis from several areas of the Provincia de San Juan (Argentina) is reported. Chemical characterization of propolis was performed by measuring total phenolic (TP), total flavonoids (FL), free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH bleaching), and metal content in samples of six different districts. Methanolic propolis extracts (MEP) showed TP ranging from 25.7 to 39.3 g of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of MEP, whereas flavonoids ranged from 6.6 to 13.3 g of quercetin equivalents per 100 g of MEP. Six main flavonoids were isolated and identified from the propolis samples, comprising the flavanones 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone (1), pinocembrin (2), and pinobanksin (3), the flavones chrysin (4) and tectochrysin (5), and the flavonol galangin (6). Compounds 1-6 were quantified by HPLC-PDA. Free radical scavenging activity, measured as percent DPPH bleaching, ranged from 46.6 to 89.5 at 10 mug/mL. Moreover, propolis samples presented high contents of Ca, K, Fe, Na, and Mg, but low amounts of Mn and Zn. Linear discriminant analysis affords eight descriptors, galangin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin, chrysin, tectochrysin, DPPH, K, and Na, allowing a clear distinction with 100% accuracy among different origins within the Provincia de San Juan. A direct relationship of DPPH free radical scavenging activity with TP or with compounds 1-6 was not found, showing the need of further evaluation on the origin of free radical activity in propolis samples.

  11. Biocompatible Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with high-Zr-content: Compositional optimization for potential biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Nengbin, E-mail: flower1982cn@126.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, 350118 Fuzhou (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, 350116 Fuzhou (China); Huang, Lu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 (United States); Chen, Wenzhe [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, 350118 Fuzhou (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, 350116 Fuzhou (China); He, Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 (United States); Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); Zhang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, 100191 Beijing (China)

    2014-11-01

    The present study designs and prepares Ni-free Zr{sub 60+x}Ti{sub 2.5}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 12.5−x}Cu{sub 10}Ag{sub 5} (at.%, x = 0, 2.5, 5) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by copper mold casting for potential biomedical application. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility of the Zr-based BMGs are evaluated by investigating mechanical properties, bio-corrosion behavior, and cellular responses. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high notch toughness. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based BMGs are corrosion resistant in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The bio-corrosion resistance of BMGs is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. Regular cell responses of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells, including cell adhesion and proliferation, are observed on the Zr–Ti–Al–Fe–Cu–Ag BMGs, which reveals their general biosafety. The high-Zr-based BMGs exhibit a higher cell proliferation activity in comparison with that of pure Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility can be used to guide the future design of biocompatible Zr-based BMGs. - Highlights: • Ni-free Zr{sub 60+x}Ti{sub 2.5}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 12.5−x}Cu{sub 10}Ag{sub 5} (at.%, x = 0, 2.5, 5) BMGs were fabricated. • Plasticity and notch toughness of BMGs are enhanced by high-Zr-content. • The high-Zr-based BMGs exhibit excellent bio-corrosion resistance in PBS solution. • The biosafety of BMGs is revealed by regular cell adhesion and proliferation. • High-Zr-bearing BMGs are favorable for potential applications as biomaterials.

  12. Full-scale agricultural biogas plant metal content and process parameters in relation to bacterial and archaeal microbial communities over 2.5 year span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repinc, Sabina Kolbl; Šket, Robert; Zavec, Domen; Mikuš, Katarina Vogel; Fermoso, Fernando G; Stres, Blaž

    2018-05-01

    A start-up of 4 MW agricultural biogas plant in Vučja vas, Slovenia, was monitored from 2011 to 2014. The start-up was carried out in 3 weeks with the intake of biomass from three operating full-scale 1-2 MW donor agricultural biogas plants. The samples were taken from donor digesters and from two serial digesters during the start-up over the course of 2.5 years. Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities progressively diverged from the composition of donor digesters during the start-up phase. The rate of change of Bacterial community decreased exponentially over the first 2.5 years as dynamics within the first 70 days was comparable to that of the next 1.5 years, whereas approximately constant rate was observed for Archaea. Despite rearrangements, the microbial communities remained functionally stable and produced biogas throughout the whole 2.5 years of observation. All systems parameters measured were ordered according to their Kernel density (Gaussian function) ranging from the most dispersed (substrate categories used as cosubstrates, quantities of each cosubstrate, substate dry and volatile matter, process parameters) towards progressively least dispersed (trace metal and ion profiles, aromatic-polyphenolic compounds, biogas plant functional output (energy)). No deficiency was detected in trace metal content as the distribution of metals and elements fluctuated within the suggested limits for biogas over 2.5 year observation. In contrast to the recorded process variables, Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities exhibited directed changes oriented in time. Variation partitioning showed that a large fraction of variability in the Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities (55% and 61%, respectively) remained unexplained despite numerous measured variables (n = 44) and stable biogas production. Our results show that the observed reorganization of microbial communities was not directly associated with impact on the full-scale biogas reactor

  13. Do we see eye to eye? The relationship between internal communication and between-group strategic consensus: A case analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Desmidt (Sebastian); B.R.J. George (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAlthough organization-wide strategic consensus is considered a prerequisite for effective strategy execution, research analyzing the degree, content, and antecedents of strategic consensus between hierarchically distant employee groups is limited. The present study addresses this issue

  14. Effects of Non-metallic Inclusions on Hot Ductility of High Manganese TWIP Steels Containing Different Aluminum Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Nan; Yang, Jian; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Xin, Xiu-Ling; Xu, Long-Yun

    2016-06-01

    The characteristics of inclusions in Fe-16Mn- xAl-0.6C ( x = 0.002, 0.033, 0.54, 2.10 mass pct) steels have been investigated and their effects on hot ductility of the high manganese TWIP steels have been discussed. Ductility is very poor in the steel containing 0.54 mass pct aluminum, which is lower than 20 pct in the temperature range of 873 K to 1473 K (600 °C to 1200 °C). For the steels containing 0.002 and 2.10 mass pct aluminum, ductility is higher than 40 pct in the same temperature range. The hot ductility of steel containing 0.033 mass pct aluminum is higher than 30 pct throughout the temperature range under examination. With increasing aluminum content, the main inclusions in the steels change along the route of MnO/(MnO + MnS) → MnS/(Al2O3 + MnS) → AlN/(Al2O3 + MnS)/(MgAl2O4 + MnS) → AlN. The thermodynamic results of inclusion types calculated with FactSage software are in agreement with the experimental observation results. The inclusions in the steels containing 0.002 mass pct aluminum do not deteriorate the hot ductility. MnS inclusions whose average size, number density, and volume ratio are 1.12 μm, 15.62 mm-2, and 2.51 × 10-6 in the steel containing 0.033 mass pct aluminum reduce the ductility. In the steel containing 0.54 mass pct aluminum, AlN inclusions whose average size, number density, and volume ratio are 0.878 μm, 16.28 mm-2 and 2.82 × 10-6 can precipitate at the austenite grain boundaries, prevent dynamic recrystallization and deteriorate the hot ductility. On the contrary, in the steel containing 2.10 mass pct aluminum, the average size, number density and volume ratio of AlN inclusions change to 2.418 μm, 35.95 mm-2, and 2.55 × 10-5. They precipitate in the matrix, which do not inhibit dynamic recrystallization and thereby do not lead to poor hot ductility.

  15. Shady strategic behavior : Recognizing strategic behavior of Dark Triad followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Wisse, Barbara; Sanders, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    The importance of strategic behavior in organizations has long been recognized. However, so far the literature has primarily focused on leaders’ strategic behavior, largely ignoring followers’ strategic behavior. In the present paper, we take a follower trait perspective to strategic follower

  16. Is strategic stockpiling essential?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    As mentioned by the European Commission, a consultant has surveyed stakeholders on the concept of setting up strategic stockpiles of natural gas, namely to boost the security of Europe's supply, much like the strategic stockpiling for petroleum products the OECD member countries carried out after the petroleum crisis. If strategic stockpiling consists in blocking off a quantity of gas in addition to the usable stockpile, the AFG believes it is necessary to assess the implications of such a measure and to examine the security gain it would actually offer compared to the measures that have already been implemented to secure supplies. (author)

  17. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj; Paknikar, Kishore; Rajwade, Jyutika

    2018-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence. Zn-CNP application indeed caused changes in gene expression as revealed by qPCR data on representative genes involved in metal homeostasis, phloem transporters, and leaf senescence. Furthermore, zinc-regulated transporters and iron (Fe)-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family [ZIP1, ZIP7, ZIP15], CA (carbonic anhydrase), and DMAS (2'-deoxymugineic acid synthase) in flag leaves exhibited significant correlation with zinc content in the seeds. The analysis of grain endosperm proteins showed enhancement of gamma gliadins while other gluten subunits decreased. Gene expression within ZIP family members varied with the type of cultivar mostly attributed to the Gpc-B1, concentration of external zinc ions as well as the type of tissue analyzed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of the selected genes in zinc enhancement. At the molecular level, uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP nanocarrier was comparable to the uptake of zinc via common zinc fertilizers i.e. ZnSO4.

  18. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Deshpande

    Full Text Available Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear.Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene, and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence. Zn-CNP application indeed caused changes in gene expression as revealed by qPCR data on representative genes involved in metal homeostasis, phloem transporters, and leaf senescence. Furthermore, zinc-regulated transporters and iron (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP family [ZIP1, ZIP7, ZIP15], CA (carbonic anhydrase, and DMAS (2'-deoxymugineic acid synthase in flag leaves exhibited significant correlation with zinc content in the seeds. The analysis of grain endosperm proteins showed enhancement of gamma gliadins while other gluten subunits decreased. Gene expression within ZIP family members varied with the type of cultivar mostly attributed to the Gpc-B1, concentration of external zinc ions as well as the type of tissue analyzed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of the selected genes in zinc enhancement.At the molecular level, uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP nanocarrier was comparable to the uptake of zinc via common zinc fertilizers i.e. ZnSO4.

  19. PLEADING IN FAVOUR OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Frunzeti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Strategic management focuses on future development of organizations, based on a vision and a strategy. If strategic leaders demonstrate epistemic competencies, business can take place not according to the zero sum game rule, where there are always winners and losers, but to a non-zero sum game rule, where there could be only winners and no losers. Epistemic competence is given by the scientific nature of knowledge, it breaks down the mental automatism generated by common day to day personal experience and it uses mathematical models and other specific methods. Strategic management and its practical content can best be understood within the context of the theory of organization, for organizations are indispensable for the general human and civilizational progress.

  20. STAGES OF A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela – Lavinia CIOBANICA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature dedicated to strategic management there is no unitary vision of the authors regarding the sequence of actions that give content to the respective process and what their stages are. With all existing differences, the visions of different authors nevertheless observe the unitary logic of developing a series of actions. These actions begin with the competitive environment analysis in which the organization operates and with the establishment of its strategic mission and they end with the performance evaluation after the strategy has been applied and, if appropriate, with the reconsidering of this strategy and the making of the necessary corrections to it. Such a basic structure of the process is adopted in most organizations that practice the strategic management. But noticeable differences appear in the degree of the formalization of the process and in the involvement of different managerial levels in the designing and detailing of its components.

  1. Influence of metals on essential oil content and composition of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in sewage sludge amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Meenu; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-05-01

    Lemongrass is a commercially important perennial herb with medicinal value and ability to tolerate high alkaline and saline conditions. Essential oil bearing plants can grow safely in soil contaminated with heavy metals without severe effects on morphology and oil yield. The present study was aimed to assess the essential oil content and composition in lemongrass in response to elevated metals in above-ground plant parts. Pot experiment was conducted for six months using sewage sludge as soil amendment (soil: sludge: 2:1 w/w) followed by red mud treatments (0, 5, 10 and 15% w/w). Garden soil without sludge and red mud was control and there were ten replicates of each treatment. Oil content in leaves was differently affected due to presence of metals in soil under different treatments. Oil content under S RM5 (5% red mud) treatment was raised by 42.9 and 11.5% compared to the control and S RM0 treatment, respectively. Among identified compounds in oil under red mud treatments, 17 compounds contributed more than 90% of total volatiles (citral contributing approximately 70%). Under S RM10 treatment, essential oil showed maximum citral content (75.3%). Contents of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb in above-ground plant parts exceeded, whereas Mn was detected within WHO permissible limits for medicinal plants. However, metal contents in essential oil were well within FSSAI limits for food. The study suggests utilization of 5 and 10% red mud in sludge amended soil for lemongrass cultivation to have better oil yield and quality, without metal contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategic agility for nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2015-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change. In this article, the author discusses strategic agility as an important leadership competency and offers approaches for incorporating strategic agility in healthcare systems. A strategic agility checklist and infrastructure-building approach are presented.

  3. Strategic Issues for Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, David, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Contains precis of 18 articles on strategic management issues, including management development, on-the-job training, corporate scholarship, educational technology, coaching, investing in intellectual capital, and knowledge management. (SK)

  4. Full closure strategic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The full closure strategic analysis was conducted to create a decision process whereby full roadway : closures for construction and maintenance activities can be evaluated and approved or denied by CDOT : Traffic personnel. The study reviewed current...

  5. The strategic security officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of the strategic security officer, and the potential that it brings to the healthcare security operational environment. The author believes that training and development, along with strict hiring practices, can enable a security department to reach a new level of professionalism, proficiency and efficiency. The strategic officer for healthcare security is adapted from the "strategic corporal" concept of US Marine Corps General Charles C. Krulak which focuses on understanding the total force implications of the decisions made by the lowest level leaders within the Corps (Krulak, 1999). This article focuses on the strategic organizational implications of every security officer's decisions in the constantly changing and increasingly volatile operational environment of healthcare security.

  6. Strategic Communication Institutionalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2013-01-01

    of institutionalization when strategic communication is not yet visible as organizational practice, and how can such detections provide explanation for the later outcome of the process? (2) How can studies of strategic communication benefit from an institutional perspective? How can the virus metaphor generate a deeper...... understanding of the mechanisms that interact from the time an organization is exposed to a new organizational idea such as strategic communication until it surfaces in the form of symptoms such as mission and vision statements, communication manuals and communication positions? The first part of the article...... focuses on a discussion of the virus metaphor as an alternative to the widespread fashion metaphor for processes of institutionalization. The second part of the article provides empirical examples of the virus metaphor employed, examples that are drawn from a study of the institutionalization of strategic...

  7. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  8. Strategic Defense Initiative Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... to Third World and other nations. I will then discuss the scope of the SDI effort, the evolving strategic defense system architectures and theater defense, our compliancy with the ABM Treaty, technology spinoffs resulting from SDI...

  9. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  10. Leading Strategic Leader Teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burleson, Willard M

    2008-01-01

    .... Although only 1 to 2 percent of the Army's senior leaders will attain a command position of strategic leadership, they are assisted by others, not only by teams specifically designed and structured...

  11. Installation Strategic Planning Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Installation natural resource concerns (for example, wetlands , number of endangered species, water use restrictions, encroachment on training lands...Koehler Publishing, 1994 7. Strategy Safari – A Guided Tour Through the Wilds of Strategic Management by Henry Mintzberg, Bruce Ahlstrand, and...T. (1987). NY: Knopf 36. Shaping Strategic Planning: Frogs, Dragons, Bees and Turkey Tails. Pfeiffer, J. W., Goodstein, L. D. & Nolan, T. M. (1989

  12. A National Strategic Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    strategic ecosystem . In other words, the U.S. should stop trying to dominate and direct global events. The best we can do is to build our capital so...prosperity and security – within a “strategic ecosystem ,” at home and abroad; that in complexity and uncertainty, there are opportunities and hope, as well...law; sovereignty without tyranny, with assured freedom of expression; and an environment for entrepreneurial freedom and global prosperity, with access

  13. Alibaba's strategic drift

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Chan; Chen, Pi-Chi

    2016-01-01

    It is fundamental in both a theoretical and practical sense, to analyse the strategies of successful e-businesses who were formulated and operated alongside incumbent competitors. Thus, there have been an array of strategic arguments concerning the rapidly-burgeoning virtual powerhouse Alibaba, who amidst a sea of fortified competitors, found their ground to become one of the most prominent e-businesses of the decade. At the commencing stages, Alibaba lacked a specific strategic goal, aside f...

  14. Processes of Strategic Renewal,

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Aadne, John; Mahnke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We discuss strategic renewal from a competence perspective. We argue that the management of speed and timing in this process is viewed distinctively when perceived through a cognitive lens. Managers need more firmly grounded process-understanding. The key idea of this paper is to dynamically conceptualize key activities of strategic renewal, and possible sources of break-down as they relate to the managment of speed and timing. Based on a case from the media industry, we identi...

  15. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  16. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Plants in Sandy Soil 2- Seed production, oil content, oil constituents and heavy metals in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R. A.; Abo-El-Seoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil on fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.) productivity. In this regards, four rates of sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60 and 80 ton/ha) in addition to the mineral fertilizer treatment (control). Sandy soil amended with sewage sludge showed a promising effect on fennel seed yield. A linear gradual increase in seeds yield was observed as the sludge application rate increases. Seeds production increased by 41% to 308% over the control at 80 t /ha application rate, for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge treatments, respectively. Irradiated sewage sludge treatments showed higher fennel seed yield than non-irradiated sewage sludge treatments.Volatile oil percent exhibited no observable variation due to the use of sewage sludge. A few and limited fluctuations could be observed. However, total oil content (cc/plot) increased due to the increase in seeds yield. The magnitude of increase in volatile oil production in response to the sewage sludge application was parallel to the increase in seeds yield. The GLC measurements of the fennel volatile oil reveal that, the t-anethole is the predominant fraction. However, fenchone was detected in relatively moderate concentration. The applied sewage sludge treatment induced some variations in fennel volatile oil constituents. The t.anethole is relatively higher in volatile oil obtained from plants grown on sandy soil fertilized with non-irradiated sewage sludge than the one fertilized with irradiated sewage sludge or chemical fertilizer. In the meantime, the obtained increase in t.anethole was accompanied by a decline in fenchone content. Seeds heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were determined. Under all sludge application rates iron and zinc concentrations were in the normal plant concentration range whereas, Cd concentrations were traces.

  17. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  18. The Science of Strategic Communication | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of Strategic Communication involves a focused effort to identify, develop, and present multiple types of communication media on a given subject. A Strategic Communication program recognizes the limitations of the most common communication models (primarily “one size fits all” and “presenting everything and letting the audience decide what is important”) and specifically focuses on building a communication framework that is composed of three interlinked pillars: (1) Message – Identifying the right content for a given audience and a vehicle, (2) Audience – Identify the right target group for a given message and vehicle, (3) Vehicle – Identifying the right types of media for a given message and audience. In addition to serving as an organizational framework, the physical structure of a Strategic Communication plan also can serve as a way to show an audience where they, the message, and vehicle fit into the larger picture (i.e., “you are here”). This presentation explores the tenets of Strategic Communication and its use in natural resources management as it relates to advancing restoration activities in the Greater Everglades. This presentation is aimed at restoration practitioners and decision makers. This presentation provides an introduction to the field of strategic communication and presents a generalizable framework for use in the natural sciences. The presentation also gives an example of a communication implementation matrix,

  19. Effect of the Cu and Ni content on the crystallization temperature and crystallization mechanism of La–Al–Cu(Ni metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyou Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Cu and Ni content on the crystallization mechanism and the crystallization temperatures of La–Al–Cu(Ni metallic glasses (MGs was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The experimental results have shown that the DSC curves obtained for the La–Al–Cu and La–Al–Ni MGs exhibit two and three crystallization temperatures, respectively. The crystallization temperatures of the La–Al–Cu and La–Al–Ni MGs result from the merging and splitting of thermal events related to the corresponding eutectic atomic pairs in the La72Cu28 and La81.6Al18.4 MGs, and La72Ni28 and La81.6Al18.4 MGs, respectively. In addition, Al- and Ni-containing clusters with weak or strong atomic interaction in the Al–Ni atomic pairs strongly affect the crystallization mechanism and thus the crystallization temperature of La–Al–Ni MGs. This study provides a novel understanding of the relation between the crystallization temperature and the underlying crystallization mechanisms in La–Al–Cu(Ni MGs.

  20. A PUBLIC CATALOG OF STELLAR MASSES, STAR FORMATION AND METALLICITY HISTORIES, AND DUST CONTENT FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY USING VESPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Wilkins, Stephen; Heavens, Alan F.; Panter, Ben; Jimenez, Raul

    2009-01-01

    We applied the VESPA algorithm to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey final data release of the Main Galaxies and Luminous Red Galaxies samples. The result is a catalog of stellar masses, detailed star formation and metallicity histories and dust content of nearly 800,000 galaxies. We make the catalog public via a T-SQL database, which is described in detail in this paper. We present the results using a range of stellar population and dust models, and will continue to update the catalog as new and improved models are made public. We also present a brief exploration of the catalog, and show that the quantities derived are robust: luminous red galaxies can be described by one to three populations, whereas a main galaxy sample galaxy needs on average two to five; red galaxies are older and less dusty; the dust values we recover are well correlated with measured Balmer decrements and star formation rates are also in agreement with previous measurements. We find that whereas some derived quantities are robust to the choice of modelling, many are still not.

  1. The Insertion of the Tool Balanced Scorecard in the Strategic Planning of a Growing Company: A Case Study in the Company Metadil Metalúrgica Indústria e Comércio Ltda

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Rafaela Thomaz; Lobosco, Antonio; de Almeida, Martinho Isnard Ribeiro; Maccari, Emerson Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze how the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) can assist in the building the strategic planning of a small growing company, in order to achieve its strategic targets. For this purpose, it was carried out a study in a small company of the furniture segment, with a view to identify the benefits derived from the use of BSC at the organization. The following departments were analyzed: Human Resources, Marketing/Customers, Finances, and Production, and identified as BSC per...

  2. Strategic management for university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Riaño-Casallas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are several approaches and schools that support strategic management processes. University hospitals require the implementation of a strategic approach to their management, since they are a particular type of organization with the triple mission of providing health care, education and research. Objective: To propose a strategic profile for a university hospital. Materials and methods: The theoretical framework of strategic management was analyzed and some particular components of hospital management were studied; based on these criteria, the strategic management process in three high complexity hospitals of Bogotá, D.C. was examined and a profile of both the objectives and the functional strategies for the hospital was proposed. Results: The main strategic thinking schools are presented; the processes and components of strategic management are described, and a strategic management profile for a university hospital is proposed. Conclusion: The strategic orientation of management for an institution with the characteristics of a university hospital facilitates achieving organizational objectives.

  3. FY16 Strategic Themes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    I am pleased to present this summary of the Division 1000 Science and Technology Strategic Plan. This plan was created with considerable participation from all levels of management in Division 1000, and is intended to chart our course as we strive to contribute our very best in service of the greater Laboratory strategy. The plan is characterized by four strategic themes: Mission Engagement, Bold Outcomes, Collaborative Environment, and the Safety Imperative. Each theme is accompanied by a brief vision statement, several goals, and planned actions to support those goals throughout FY16. I want to be clear that this is not a strategy to be pursued in tension with the Laboratory strategic plan. Rather, it is intended to describe “how” we intend to show up for the “what” described in Sandia’s Strategic Plan. I welcome your feedback and look forward to our dialogue about these strategic themes. Please join me as we move forward to implement the plan in the coming year.

  4. Technological Innovation and Strategic Human Resource Management: Developing a Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattiker, Urs E.

    Technological innovation affects the structure and content of jobs. Research indicates that there is a need for a theory of technological innovation and strategic human resource management considering several factors, such as an employee's beliefs about the effect of technological innovations on the quality of work life and work content.…

  5. Strategizing in multiple ways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2013-01-01

    Strategy processes are kinds of wayfaring where different actors interpret a formally defined strat-egy differently. In the everyday practice of organizations strategizing takes place in multiple ways through narratives and sensible actions. This forms a meshwork of polyphonic ways to enact one...... and the same strategy. The paper focusses on such processes as they develop in a Danish service company. It is done on the basis of an empirical and longitudinal study of a strategy process in the Service Company where the strategic purpose was to implement value-based management. The theme to be developed...... based on this development paper is whether one can understand these diver-gent strategic wayfaring processes as constructive for organizations....

  6. Thinking strategically about capitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, P

    1997-05-01

    All managed care stakeholders--health plan members, employers, providers, community organizations, and government entitites--share a common interest in reducing healthcare costs while improving the quality of care health plan members receive. Although capitation is a usually thought of primarily as a payment mechanism, it can be a powerful tool providers and health plans can use to accomplish these strategic objectives and others, such as restoring and maintaining the health of plan members or improving a community's health status. For capitation to work effectively as a strategic tool, its use must be tied to a corporate agenda of partnering with stakeholders to achieve broader strategic goals. Health plans and providers must develop a partnership strategy in which each stakeholder has well-defined roles and responsibilities. The capitation structure must reinforce interdependence, shift focus from meeting organizational needs to meeting customer needs, and develop risk-driven care strategies.

  7. Tourism and Strategic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    the potential of ‘the extraordinary’ tourism-dominated space. As highlighted in the introduction, this report does not present any systematic analysis of strategic planning processes; neither does it provide any unequivocal conclusions. Rather, the report presents a collection of so-called ‘detours......The main purpose of this report is to explore and unfold the complexity of the tourism phenomenon in order to qualify the general discussion of tourism-related planning challenges. Throughout the report I aim to demonstrate the strategic potential of tourism in a wider sense and more specifically......’ – a collection of theoretical discussions and case studies with the aim to inspire future strategic planning. Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of the phenomenon I use a non-linear and non-chronological report format with the ambition to create a new type of overview. In this regard the report is intended...

  8. NASA strategic plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan is a living document. It provides far-reaching goals and objectives to create stability for NASA's efforts. The Plan presents NASA's top-level strategy: it articulates what NASA does and for whom; it differentiates between ends and means; it states where NASA is going and what NASA intends to do to get there. This Plan is not a budget document, nor does it present priorities for current or future programs. Rather, it establishes a framework for shaping NASA's activities and developing a balanced set of priorities across the Agency. Such priorities will then be reflected in the NASA budget. The document includes vision, mission, and goals; external environment; conceptual framework; strategic enterprises (Mission to Planet Earth, aeronautics, human exploration and development of space, scientific research, space technology, and synergy); strategic functions (transportation to space, space communications, human resources, and physical resources); values and operating principles; implementing strategy; and senior management team concurrence.

  9. Strategic environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    1997-01-01

    The integration of environmental considerations into strategic decision making is recognized as a key to achieving sustainability. In the European Union a draft directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is currently being reviewed by the member states. The nature of the proposed SEA...... that the SEA directive will influence the decision-making process positively and will help to promote improved environmental decisions. However, the guidelines for public participation are not sufficient and the democratic element is strongly limited. On the basis of these findings, recommendations relating...

  10. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers...

  11. Strategic financial analysis: the CFO's role in strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litos, D M

    1985-03-01

    Strategic financial analysis, the financial information support system for the strategic planning process, provides information vital to maintaining a healthy bottom line. This article, the third in HCSM's series on the organizational components of strategic planning, reviews the role of the chief financial officer in determining which programs and services will best meet the future needs of the institution.

  12. Mapping strategic diversity: strategic thinking from a variety of perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.

    2010-01-01

    In his influential work, Strategy Safari, Henry Mintzberg and his colleagues presented ten schools of strategic thought. In this impressive book, Dany Jacobs demonstrates that the real world of strategic management is much wider and richer. In Mapping Strategic Diversity, Jacobs distinguishes

  13. Tantalum: A strategic metal; Tantalo: Un metal estrategico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Lopez, G.; Lopez-Lopez, J.; Garcia-Yagues, M. R.

    2009-07-01

    In nature, the main source of tantalum is an isomorphous series of minerals containing oxides of tantalum, niobium, iron and manganese, which are collectively known as columbine-tantalite (coltan). Upgraded Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-containing tin slags are also used as a secondary source of tantalum. Coltan, either naturally occurring or synthetically produced as concentrates from tin slags, are digested with hydrofluoric and sulphuric acid at an elevated temperature. the aqueous solution of ta-Nb in hydrofluoric acid is extracted in several continuously operating mixer-settler systems or extraction columns with an organic solvent like methyl isobutyl ketone. The organic phase is then scrubbed with 6-15 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to separate the niobium from the tantalum by selective stripping. The tantalum salt is extracted from the organic phase with water or diluted aqueous ammonium fluoride solution, the demands of the solid tantalum capacitor industry for high quality, high surface area tantalum powders have driven improvements in the sodium reduction of K{sub 2}TaF{sub 7}. The much-improved chemistry reflects the many modifications to the process put in place after 1990 and the subsequent improvements in the electrical quality as measured by the performance of tantalum capacitors. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. Strategic planning and managerial control

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Ghicajanu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper present relationship among strategic planning and managerial control process. For begin I want present few elements about strategic planning and managerial control in order to identify link inter these elements.

  15. New Military Strategic Communications System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    ... audience through unified action. The Quadrennial Defense Review Roadmap for Strategic Communications and the Department of Defense, Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Strategic Communication both concluded that the US...

  16. Synthesis of LaNiO3 perovskite type by chelating precursor method using EDTA: optimization of chelating content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose Carlos dos; Pedrosa, Anne Michelle Garrido; Mesquita, Maria Eliane; Souza, Marcelo Jose Barros de

    2011-01-01

    The perovskites are strategic materials due their catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties. These properties are influenced by the calcination and synthesis conditions. In this work was carried out the synthesis of LaNiO 3 perovskite type by chelating precursor method using EDTA and also was studied the optimization of the EDTA content in the synthesis. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In the optimization of the EDTA content the lowest ratio of metal / EDTA used was 1.0 / 0.1, where it was possible to obtain monophasic perovskite. (author)

  17. The strategic entrepreneurial thinking imperative

    OpenAIRE

    S. Dhliwayo; J. J. Van Vuuren

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that strategic entrepreneurial thinking is a unitary concept which should be viewed as a standalone construct. Design/Methodology/Approach: The concept strategic entrepreneurial thinking is modelled from an analysis of strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking from available literature. The strategic entrepreneurial mindset imperative is then emphasised and confirmed. Findings: This paper's finding is that there is no diff...

  18. A Handbook for Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Total Quality Leadership, 48 mtrategic direction, strategic intent , organizational planning, 11tinaiCMc MIisiing.mysteusth nking, gap analysis 17 1CUPMtlI...Department of the Nawy vision, guiding principles, and strategic goals. Washington, DC: Author. Hamel, G., & Prahalad , C. K. (May-June 1989). Strategic ...professoional oirgani/atioins. strategic planning. Adv;ice mInav also take .,V resouirces, perimt, thet [QI 0 )fice, the form of recoiln~inedatioins onl

  19. Scenario-based strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehr, Thomas; Lorenz, Ullrich; Willert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    -based efficacy and robustness. To facilitate the colla- borative strategizing in teams, we propose a matrix with robustness and efficacy as the two axes, which we call the Parmenides Matrix. We assess the impact of the novel approach by applying it in two cases, at a govern- mental agency (German Environmental...

  20. Strategic decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, Frans N.; Assen, Marcel A.L.M. van; Knoop, Jelle van der; Oosten, Reinier C.H. van

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for strategic intervention in collective decision making.The methodology is based on (1) a decomposition of the problem into a few main controversial issues, (2) systematic interviews of subject area specialists to obtain a specification of the decision

  1. Strategic Marketing for Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a…

  2. Strategic planning for marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I

    1978-12-01

    The merits of strategic planning as a marketing tool are discussed in this article which takes the view that although marketers claim to be future-oriented, they focus too little attention on long-term planning and forecasting. Strategic planning, as defined by these authors, usually encompasses periods of between five and twenty-five years and places less emphasis on the past as an absolute predictor of the future. It takes a more probabilistic view of the future than conventional marketing strategy and looks at the corporation as but one component interacting with the total environment. Inputs are examined in terms of environmental, social, political, technological and economic importance. Because of its futuristic orientation, an important tenant of strategic planning is the preparation of several alternative scenarios ranging from most to least likely. By planning for a wide-range of future market conditions, a corporation is more able to be flexible by anticipating the course of future events, and is less likely to become a captive reactor--as the authors believe is now the case. An example of strategic planning at General Elecric is cited.

  3. Strategic port development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Peter Bjerg; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for strategic development of a port’s collaboration with its hinterland. The framework is based on literature relevant to port development and undertakes market perspective by considering import/export data relevant for the region of interest. The series of steps...

  4. Naming as Strategic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  5. Strategic self-management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sven; Pultz, Sabina; Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2017-01-01

    perspective. Based on our data analysis, this study contributes theoretically by further-developing the concept of ‘strategic self-management’ in an educational context. We conclude that this concept is suitable for encapsulating how young people make sense of, and deal with, their educational biographies...

  6. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    This dissertation explores capabilities that enable firms to strategically adapt to environmental changes and preserve competitiveness over time – often referred to as dynamic capabilities. While dynamic capabilities being a popular research domain, too little is known about what these capabiliti...

  7. ACNW - 1998 strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This plan provides strategic direction to The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) in 1998 and beyond for focusing on issues most important to the NRC in carrying out its mission of protecting public health and safety, promoting the common defense and security, and protecting the environment

  8. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit

  9. What is strategic management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Melanie; Crossan, Frank

    2012-10-01

    To discuss the theoretical concept of strategic management and explore its relevance for healthcare organisations and nursing management. Despite being a relatively new approach, the growth of strategic management within organisations has been consistently and increasingly promoted. However, comprehensive definitions are scarce and commonalities of interpretation are limited. This paper presents an exploratory discussion of the construct of strategic management, drawing on the literature and questioning its relevance within health-care organisations. Literature relating to strategic management across a number of fields was accessed, drawing primarily on meta-studies within management literature, to identify key concepts and attempt to present a consistent definition. The concept within health care is explored in relation to nursing management. Inconsistency in definitions and utilisation of key concepts within this management approach results in the term being loosely applied in health-care organisations without recourse to foundational principles and a deep understanding of the approach as a theory as opposed to an applied term. Nurse managers are increasingly asked to adopt the 'next-best-thing' in managerial theories, yet caution needs to be taken in nurses agreeing to use systems that lack an evidence base in terms of both efficacy and relevance of context. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Scenario-based strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehr, Thomas; Lorenz, Ullrich; Willert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    For over 40 years, scenarios have been promoted as a key technique for forming strategies in uncertain en- vironments. However, many challenges remain. In this article, we discuss a novel approach designed to increase the applicability of scenario-based strategizing in top management teams. Drawi...... Ministry) and a firm affected by disruptive change (Bosch, leading global supplier of technology and solutions)....

  11. Measuring strategic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Ryan

    2002-08-01

    Strategic triggers and metrics help healthcare providers achieve financial success. Metrics help assess progress toward long-term goals. Triggers signal market changes requiring a change in strategy. All metrics may not move in concert. Organizations need to identify indicators, monitor performance.

  12. AECB strategic plan 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This strategic plan provides the direction and focus required to successfully carry out our mandate in an efficient and effective manner over the next two to three years. It gives broad corporate direction by identifying where efforts need to be focussed, and therefore provides guidance for setting priorities and allocating resources. While we cannot ignore any aspect of our mandate, we must recognize that we will always have more work to do than can be accomplished within the resources available to us. Therefore we must set priorities and develop appropriate management systems to ensure that our major efforts and our resources are being directed towards those priorities. Our strategic plan is not a static document. We will always be faced with new challenges, and our strategies for meeting those challenges will also have to change. Therefore our strategic plan must be seen as a guide that reflects both the ever-changing environment and our ability to deal with new or evolving changes effectively. This plan is not intended to be a detailed operational plan. Each directorate must develop its own operational plans and procedures based on the directions in this strategic plan, and on corporate priorities and policies. (author)

  13. Essays on Strategic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sharif (Zara)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThree essays on strategic communication are discussed in this dissertation. These essays consider different settings in which a decision maker has to rely on another agent for information. In each essay, we analyze how much information the sender is able to credibly communicate to

  14. Strategic Management of Large Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYingluo; LiuYi; LiYuan

    2004-01-01

    The strategic management of large projects is both theoretically and practically important. Some scholars have advanced flexible strategy theory in China. The difference of strategic flexibility and flexible strategy is pointed out. The supporting system and characteristics of flexible strategy are analyzed. The changes of flexible strategy and integration of strategic management are discussed.

  15. Peaceful Development and Strategic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi

    2006-01-01

    @@ The international strategic situation and environment China faces have changed dramatically since September 11. China has closely followed and adapted itself to the ever-changing situation, seized strategic opportunity, adjusted its global strategy, adhered to peaceful development and displayed diplomacy and strategic flexibility. These are manifested in the following four aspects:

  16. Strategic Planning and Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conneely, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Strong financial management is a strategy for strategic planning success in student affairs. It is crucial that student affairs professionals understand the necessity of linking their strategic planning with their financial management processes. An effective strategic planner needs strong financial management skills to implement the plan over…

  17. Being Strategic in HE Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The call to be strategic--and with it the concept of strategic management--can bring to mind a wide range of definitions, and there is now a huge array of academic literature supporting the different schools of thought. At a basic level, however, strategic thinking is probably most simply about focusing on the whole, rather than the part. In…

  18. Strategic Partnerships in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of strategic partnerships between community colleges and key stakeholders; to specifically examine strategic partnerships; leadership decision-making; criteria to evaluate strategic partnerships that added value to the institution, value to the students, faculty, staff, and the local…

  19. The Possibilities of Strategic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

  20. Microfoundations of strategic decision effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.G.; Van Santen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    How do organizations make effective strategic decisions? In this study we build on research on the microfoundations of strategy and strategic decision-making to study the underpinnings of strategic decision effectiveness. We argue that the process-effectiveness link can be more fully understood if