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Sample records for strain strain rate

  1. Strain hardening rate sensitivity and strain rate sensitivity in TWIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bintu, Alexandra [TEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Vincze, Gabriela, E-mail: gvincze@ua.pt [TEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Picu, Catalin R. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lopes, Augusto B. [CICECO, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Grácio, Jose J. [TEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Barlat, Frederic [Materials Mechanics Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    TWIP steels are materials with very high strength and exceptional strain hardening capability, parameters leading to large energy absorption before failure. However, TWIP steels also exhibit reduced (often negative) strain rate sensitivity (SRS) which limits the post-necking deformation. In this study we demonstrate for an austenitic TWIP steel with 18% Mn a strong dependence of the twinning rate on the strain rate, which results in negative strain hardening rate sensitivity (SHRS). The instantaneous component of SHRS is large and negative, while its transient is close to zero. The SRS is observed to decrease with strain, becoming negative for larger strains. Direct observations of the strain rate dependence of the twinning rate are made using electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction, which substantiate the proposed mechanism for the observed negative SHRS.

  2. Strain hardening rate sensitivity and strain rate sensitivity in TWIP steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bintu, Alexandra; Vincze, Gabriela; Picu, Catalin R.; Lopes, Augusto B.; Grácio, Jose J.; Barlat, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    TWIP steels are materials with very high strength and exceptional strain hardening capability, parameters leading to large energy absorption before failure. However, TWIP steels also exhibit reduced (often negative) strain rate sensitivity (SRS) which limits the post-necking deformation. In this study we demonstrate for an austenitic TWIP steel with 18% Mn a strong dependence of the twinning rate on the strain rate, which results in negative strain hardening rate sensitivity (SHRS). The instantaneous component of SHRS is large and negative, while its transient is close to zero. The SRS is observed to decrease with strain, becoming negative for larger strains. Direct observations of the strain rate dependence of the twinning rate are made using electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction, which substantiate the proposed mechanism for the observed negative SHRS

  3. Stress-strain properties of railway steel at strain rates of upto 105 per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.S.J.; Islam, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the stress-strain characteristics of railway steel at strain rates of up to 10 5 /s at room temperature determined by a new technique. In determining the results, account has been taken of the strain-rate variation, the total strain and the strain rate history. The effect of friction, material inertia and temperature rise is also assessed and an empirical constitutive equation describing the strain-rate and strain sensitive flow stress for this type of steel is proposed. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of Strain and Strain Rate during the Impact of Tennis Ball Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to establish the strains and strain rates experienced by tennis ball cores during impact to inform material characterisation testing and finite element modelling. Three-dimensional surface strains and strain rates were measured using two high-speed video cameras and corresponding digital image correlation software (GOM Correlate Professional. The results suggest that material characterisation testing to a maximum strain of 0.4 and a maximum rate of 500 s−1 in tension and to a maximum strain of −0.4 and a maximum rate of −800 s−1 in compression would encapsulate the demands placed on the material during impact and, in turn, define the range of properties required to encapsulate the behavior of the material during impact, enabling testing to be application-specific and strain-rate-dependent properties to be established and incorporated in finite element models.

  5. Evaluation of strain-rate sensitivity of ion-irradiated austenitic steel using strain-rate jump nanoindentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University Gokasho, Uji 611-0011, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University Gokasho, Uji 611-0011, Kyoto (Japan); Hamaguchi, Dai; Ando, Masami; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We examined strain-rate jump nanoindentation on ion-irradiated stainless steel. • We observed irradiation hardening of the ion-irradiated stainless steel. • We found that strain-rate sensitivity parameter was slightly decreased after the ion-irradiation. - Abstract: The present study investigated strain-rate sensitivity (SRS) of a single crystal Fe–15Cr–20Ni austenitic steel before and after 10.5 MeV Fe{sup 3+} ion-irradiation up to 10 dpa at 300 °C using a strain-rate jump (SRJ) nanoindentation test. It was found that the SRJ nanoindentation test is suitable for evaluating the SRS at strain-rates from 0.001 to 0.2 s{sup −1}. Indentation size effect was observed for depth dependence of nanoindentation hardness but not the SRS. The ion-irradiation increased the hardness at the shallow depth region but decreased the SRS slightly.

  6. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Behavior for a High Specific Strength Steel: From Quasi-Static to Intermediate Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The strain rate effect on the tensile behaviors of a high specific strength steel (HSSS with dual-phase microstructure has been investigated. The yield strength, the ultimate strength and the tensile toughness were all observed to increase with increasing strain rates at the range of 0.0006 to 56/s, rendering this HSSS as an excellent candidate for an energy absorber in the automobile industry, since vehicle crushing often happens at intermediate strain rates. Back stress hardening has been found to play an important role for this HSSS due to load transfer and strain partitioning between two phases, and a higher strain rate could cause even higher strain partitioning in the softer austenite grains, delaying the deformation instability. Deformation twins are observed in the austenite grains at all strain rates to facilitate the uniform tensile deformation. The B2 phase (FeAl intermetallic compound is less deformable at higher strain rates, resulting in easier brittle fracture in B2 particles, smaller dimple size and a higher density of phase interfaces in final fracture surfaces. Thus, more energy need be consumed during the final fracture for the experiments conducted at higher strain rates, resulting in better tensile toughness.

  7. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased with decre......Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased...

  8. Effects of the Strain Rate Sensitivity and Strain Hardening on the Saturated Impulse of Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies the stiffening effects of the material strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening on the saturated impulse of elastic, perfectly plastic plates. Finite element (FE code ABAQUS is employed to simulate the elastoplastic response of square plates under rectangular pressure pulse. Rigid-plastic analyses for saturated impulse, which consider strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening, are conducted. Satisfactory agreement between the finite element models (FEM and predictions of the rigid-plastic analysis is obtained, which verifies that the proposed rigid-plastic methods are effective to solve the problem including strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening. The quantitative results for the scale effect of the strain rate sensitivity are given. The results for the stiffening effects suggest that two general stiffening factors n 1 and n 2, which characterizes the strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening effect, respectively can be defined. The saturated displacement is inversely proportional to the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2 and saturated impulse is inversely proportional to the square roots of the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2. Formulae for displacement and saturated impulse are proposed based on the empirical analysis.

  9. Strain-rate dependent plasticity in thermo-mechanical transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Y.R.; Sharabi, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical transient behavior of fuel element cladding and other reactor components is generally governed by the strain-rate properties of the material. Relevant constitutive modeling requires extensive material data in the form of strain-rate response as function of true-stress, temperature, time and environmental conditions, which can then be fitted within a theoretical framework of an inelastic constitutive model. In this paper, we present a constitutive formulation that deals continuously with the entire strain-rate range and has the desirable advantage of utilizing existing material data. The derivation makes use of strain-rate sensitive stress-strain curve and strain-rate dependent yield surface. By postulating a strain-rate dependent on Mises yield function and a strain-rate dependent kinematic hardening rule, we are able to derive incremental stress-strain relations that describe the strain-rate behavior in the entire deformation range spanning high strain-rate plasticity and creep. The model is sufficiently general as to apply to any materials and loading histories for which data is available. (orig.)

  10. Physical nature of strain rate sensitivity of metals and alloys at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, E. N.; Gruzdkov, A. A.; Mayer, A. E.; Selyutina, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    The role of instabilities of plastic flow at plastic deformation of various materials is one of the important cross-disciplinary problems which is equally important in physics, mechanics and material science. The strain rate sensitivities under slow and high strain rate conditions of loading have different physical nature. In the case of low strain rate, the sensitivity arising from the inertness of the defect structures evolution can be expressed by a single parameter characterizing the plasticity mechanism. In our approach, this is the value of the characteristic relaxation time. In the dynamic case, there are additional effects of “high-speed sensitivity” associated with the micro-localization of the plastic flow near the stress concentrators. In the frames of mechanical description, this requires to introduce additional strain rate sensitivity parameters, which is realized in numerous modifications of Johnson–Cook and Zerilli–Armstrong models. The consideration of both these factors is fundamental for an adequate description of the problems of dynamic deformation of highly inhomogeneous metallic materials such as steels and alloys. The measurement of the dispersion of particle velocities on the free surface of a shock-loaded material can be regarded as an experimental expression of the effect of micro-localization. This is also confirmed by our results of numerical simulation of the propagation of shock waves in a two-dimensional formulation and analytical estimations.

  11. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelorget, Bruno; Francois, Manuel; Vial-Edwards, Cristian; Montay, Guillaume; Daniel, Laurent; Lu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force (ε t ≅ 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements

  12. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Vial-Edwards, Cristian [Departemento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 6904411 Santiago (Chile); Montay, Guillaume [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Daniel, Laurent [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Lu, Jian [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2006-01-15

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force ({epsilon} {sup t} {approx_equal} 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements.

  13. Mechanism of Strain Rate Effect Based on Dislocation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Qin; Shi-Sheng, Hu; Li-Ming, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Based on dislocation theory, we investigate the mechanism of strain rate effect. Strain rate effect and dislocation motion are bridged by Orowan's relationship, and the stress dependence of dislocation velocity is considered as the dynamics relationship of dislocation motion. The mechanism of strain rate effect is then investigated qualitatively by using these two relationships although the kinematics relationship of dislocation motion is absent due to complicated styles of dislocation motion. The process of strain rate effect is interpreted and some details of strain rate effect are adequately discussed. The present analyses agree with the existing experimental results. Based on the analyses, we propose that strain rate criteria rather than stress criteria should be satisfied when a metal is fully yielded at a given strain rate. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  14. Strain rate effects in stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkins, R.N. (Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials)

    1990-03-01

    Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was initially developed as a rapid, ad hoc laboratory method for assessing the propensity for metals an environments to promote stress corrosion cracking. It is now clear, however, that there are good theoretical reasons why strain rate, as opposed to stress per se, will often be the controlling parameter in determining whether or not cracks are nucleated and, if so, are propagated. The synergistic effects of the time dependence of corrosion-related reactions and microplastic strain provide the basis for mechanistic understanding of stress corrosion cracking in high-pressure pipelines and other structures. However, while this may be readily comprehended in the context of laboratory slow strain tests, its extension to service situations may be less apparent. Laboratory work involving realistic stressing conditions, including low-frequency cyclic loading, shows that strain or creep rates give good correlation with thresholds for cracking and with crack growth kinetics.

  15. Strain localization band width evolution by electronic speckle pattern interferometry strain rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Institut Charles Delaunay-LASMIS, Universite de technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)], E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel; Montay, Guillaume [Institut Charles Delaunay-LASMIS, Universite de technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, electronic speckle pattern interferometry strain rate measurements are used to quantify the width of the strain localization band, which occurs when a sheet specimen is submitted to tension. It is shown that the width of this band decreases with increasing strain. Just before fracture, this measured width is about five times wider than the shear band and the initial sheet thickness.

  16. Mechanical strength model for plastic bonded granular materials at high strain rates and large strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.V.; Scammon, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Modeling impact events on systems containing plastic bonded explosive materials requires accurate models for stress evolution at high strain rates out to large strains. For example, in the Steven test geometry reactions occur after strains of 0.5 or more are reached for PBX-9501. The morphology of this class of materials and properties of the constituents are briefly described. We then review the viscoelastic behavior observed at small strains for this class of material, and evaluate large strain models used for granular materials such as cap models. Dilatation under shearing deformations of the PBX is experimentally observed and is one of the key features modeled in cap style plasticity theories, together with bulk plastic flow at high pressures. We propose a model that combines viscoelastic behavior at small strains but adds intergranular stresses at larger strains. A procedure using numerical simulations and comparisons with results from flyer plate tests and low rate uniaxial stress tests is used to develop a rough set of constants for PBX-9501. Comparisons with the high rate flyer plate tests demonstrate that the observed characteristic behavior is captured by this viscoelastic based model. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  17. Strain and strain rate by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in a maned wolf Strain e strain rate por meio de ecocardiogratia speckle traking bidimensional em um lobo-guará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Mantovani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of cardiovascular features of wild animals is important, as is the measurement in pets, for the assessment of myocardial function and the early detection of cardiac abnormalities, which could progress to heart failure. Speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE is a new tool that has been used in veterinary medicine, which demonstrates several advantages, such as angle independence and the possibility to provide the early diagnosis of myocardial alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the left myocardial function in a maned wolf by 2D STE. Thus, the longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain and strain rate were obtained, as well as, the radial and longitudinal velocity and displacement values, from the right parasternal long axis four-chamber view, the left parasternal apical four chamber view and the parasternal short axis at the level of the papillary muscles. The results of the longitudinal variables were -13.52±7.88, -1.60±1.05, 4.34±2.52 and 3.86±3.04 for strain (%, strain rate (1/s, displacement (mm and velocity (cm/s, respectively. In addition, the radial and circumferential Strain and Strain rate were 24.39±14.23, 1.86±0.95 and -13.69±6.53, -1.01±0.48, respectively. Thus, the present study provides the first data regarding the use of this tool in maned wolves, allowing a more complete quantification of myocardial function in this species.A obtenção de parâmetros cardiovasculares em animais selvagens são importantes de serem avaliados, assim como em animais de companhia, para a obtenção da função miocárdica e determinação precoce de alterações cardíacas que poderiam evoluir para insuficiência cardíaca . A ecocardiografia speckle tracking (2D STE é uma ferramenta nova que tem sido utilizada em medicina veterinária, a qual tem demonstrado várias vantagens quanto ao seu uso, como a independência do ângulo de insonação e a possibilidade de se obter o diagnóstico precoce de altera

  18. High strain rate studies in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, D.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic compression studies using high velocity impact are usually considered to involve a catastrophic process of indeterminate loading rate by which a material is brough to a shock compressed state. Although this is frequently the case, methods are also available to control the rate of strain during the shock compression process. One of the most accurate of these methods makes use of the anomalous nonlinear elastic property of glass to transform an initial shock or step wave input into a ramp wave of known amplitude and duration. Fused silica is the most carefully calibrated material for this purpose and, when placed between the test specimen and the impact projectile, can provide loading strain rates in the range of 10 4 /s to 10 6 /s for final stress states of approximately 3.9 GPa or less.Ramp wave compression experiments have been conducted on dolomite at strain rates of 3 x 10 4 /s. Both initial yielding and subsequent deformation at this strain rate agrees well with previous shock wave studies (epsilon-dotapprox.10 6 /s) and differs substantially from quasi-static measurements (epsilon-dotapprox.10 -4 /s). The ramp wave studies have also uncovered a pressure-induced phase transition in dolomite initiating at 4.0 GPa

  19. Uniaxial tension test on Rubber at constant true strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourne H.L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers are widely used for damping parts in different industrial contexts because of their remarkable dissipation properties. Indeed, they can undergo severe mechanical loading conditions, i.e., high strain rates and large strains. Nevertheless, the mechanical response of these materials can vary from purely rubber-like to glassy depending on the strain rate undergone. Classically, uniaxial tension tests are made in order to find a relation between the stress and the strain in the material at various strain rates. However, even if the strain rate is searched to be constant, it is the nominal strain rate that is considered. Here we develop a test at constant true strain rate, i.e. the strain rate that is experienced by the material. In order to do such a test, the displacement imposed by the machine is an exponential function of time. This test has been performed with a high speed hydraulic machine for strain rates between 0.01/s and 100/s. A specific specimen has been designed, yielding a uniform strain field (and so a uniform stress field. Furthermore, an instrumented aluminum bar has been used to take into account dynamic effects in the measurement of the applied force. A high speed camera enables the determination of strain in the sample using point tracking technique. Using this method, the stress-strain curve of a rubber-like material during a loading-unloading cycle has been determined, up to a stretch ratio λ = 2.5. The influence of the true strain rate both on stiffness and on dissipation of the material is then discussed.

  20. Evaluating location specific strain rates, temperatures, and accumulated strains in friction welds through microstructure modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Akram

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A microstructural simulation method is adopted to predict the location specific strain rates, temperatures, grain evolution, and accumulated strains in the Inconel 718 friction welds. Cellular automata based 2D microstructure model was developed for Inconel 718 alloy using theoretical aspects of dynamic recrystallization. Flow curves were simulated and compared with experimental results using hot deformation parameter obtained from literature work. Using validated model, simulations were performed for friction welds of Inconel 718 alloy generated at three rotational speed i.e., 1200, 1500, and 1500 RPM. Results showed the increase in strain rates with increasing rotational speed. These simulated strain rates were found to match with the analytical results. Temperature difference of 150 K was noticed from center to edge of the weld. At all the rotational speeds, the temperature was identical implying steady state temperature (0.89Tm attainment. Keywords: Microstructure modeling, Dynamic recrystallization, Friction welding, Inconel 718, EBSD, Hot deformation, Strain map

  1. Strain rate effects on reinforcing steels in tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio; Forni, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    It is unquestionable the fact that a structural system should be able to fulfil the function for which it was created, without being damaged to an extent disproportionate to the cause of damage. In addition, it is an undeniable fact that in reinforced concrete structures under severe dynamic loadings, both concrete and reinforcing bars are subjected to high strain-rates. Although the behavior of the reinforcing steel under high strain rates is of capital importance in the structural assessment under the abovementioned conditions, only the behaviour of concrete has been widely studied. Due to this lack of data on the reinforcing steel under high strain rates, an experimental program on rebar reinforcing steels under high strain rates in tension is running at the DynaMat Laboratory. In this paper a comparison of the behaviour in a wide range of strain-rates of several types of reinforcing steel in tension is presented. Three reinforcing steels, commonly proposed by the European Standards, are compared: B500A, B500B and B500C. Lastly, an evaluation of the most common constitutive laws is performed.

  2. Strain and strain rate by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in a maned wolf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Mantovani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of cardiovascular features of wild animals is important, as is the measurement in pets, for the assessment of myocardial function and the early detection of cardiac abnormalities, which could progress to heart failure. Speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE is a new tool that has been used in veterinary medicine, which demonstrates several advantages, such as angle independence and the possibility to provide the early diagnosis of myocardial alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the left myocardial function in a maned wolf by 2D STE. Thus, the longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain and strain rate were obtained, as well as, the radial and longitudinal velocity and displacement values, from the right parasternal long axis four-chamber view, the left parasternal apical four chamber view and the parasternal short axis at the level of the papillary muscles. The results of the longitudinal variables were -13.52±7.88, -1.60±1.05, 4.34±2.52 and 3.86±3.04 for strain (%, strain rate (1/s, displacement (mm and velocity (cm/s, respectively. In addition, the radial and circumferential Strain and Strain rate were 24.39±14.23, 1.86±0.95 and -13.69±6.53, -1.01±0.48, respectively. Thus, the present study provides the first data regarding the use of this tool in maned wolves, allowing a more complete quantification of myocardial function in this species.

  3. Relating high-temperature flow stress of AISI 316 stainless steel to strain and strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteazzi, S.; Paitti, G.; Boerman, D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have performed an experimental determination of tensile stress-strain curves for different strain rates (4.67 x 10 - 5 , 4.67 x 10 - 2 s - 1 ) and for a variety of temperature conditions (773-1073 K) of AISI 316H stainless steel (annealed conditions) and also a computer analysis of the experimental curves using a fitting program which takes into consideration different constitutive relations describing the plastic flow behaviour of the metals. The results show that the materials tested are clearly affected by strain rate only at the highest temperature investigated (1073 K) and that the plastic strain is the more significant variable. Of the constitutive equations considered, Voce's relation gives the best fit for the true stress-time-strain curves. However, the Ludwik and Ludwigson equations also provide a description of the experimental data, whereas Hollomon's equation does not suitably characterize AISI 316H stainless steel and can be applied with some accuracy only at 1073 K. (author)

  4. Strain rate effect on sooting characteristics in laminar counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2016-01-20

    The effects of strain rate, oxygen enrichment and fuel type on the sooting characteristics of counterflow diffusion flames were studied. The sooting structures and relative PAH concentrations were measured with laser diagnostics. Detailed soot modeling using recently developed PAH chemistry and surface reaction mechanism was performed and the results were compared with experimental data for ethylene flames, focusing on the effects of strain rates. The results showed that increase in strain rate reduced soot volume fraction, average size and peak number density. Increase in oxygen mole fraction increased soot loading and decreased its sensitivity on strain rate. The soot volume fractions of ethane, propene and propane flames were also measured as a function of global strain rate. The sensitivity of soot volume fraction to strain rate was observed to be fuel dependent at a fixed oxygen mole fraction, with the sensitivity being higher for more sooting fuels. However, when the soot loadings were matched at a reference strain rate for different fuels by adjusting oxygen mole fraction, the dependence of soot loading on strain rate became comparable among the tested fuels. PAH concentrations were shown to decrease with increase in strain rate and the dependence on strain rate is more pronounced for larger PAHs. Soot modeling was performed using detailed PAH growth chemistry with molecular growth up to coronene. A qualitative agreement was obtained between experimental and simulation results, which was then used to explain the experimentally observed strain rate effect on soot growth. However, quantitatively, the simulation result exhibits higher sensitivity to strain rate, especially for large PAHs and soot volume fractions.

  5. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  6. Sensitivity of the polypropylene to the strain rate: experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Latif, A.; Aboura, Z.; Mosleh, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text.The main goal of this work is first to evaluate experimentally the strain rate dependent deformation of the polypropylene under tensile load; and secondly is to propose a model capable to appropriately describe the mechanical behavior of this material and especially its sensitivity to the strain rate. Several experimental tensile tests are performed at different quasi-static strain rates in the range of 10 -5 s -1 to 10 -1 s -1 . In addition to some relaxation tests are also conducted introducing the strain rate jumping state during testing. Within the framework of elastoviscoplasticity, a phenomenological model is developed for describing the non-linear mechanical behavior of the material under uniaxial loading paths. With the small strain assumption, the sensitivity of the polypropylene to the strain rate being of particular interest in this work, is accordingly taken into account. As a matter of fact, since this model is based on internal state variables, we assume thus that the material sensitivity to the strain rate is governed by the kinematic hardening variable notably its modulus and the accumulated viscoplastic strain. As far as the elastic behavior is concerned, it is noticed that such a behavior is slightly influenced by the employed strain rate rage. For this reason, the elastic behavior is classically determined, i.e. without coupling with the strain rate dependent deformation. It is obvious that the inelastic behavior of the used material is thoroughly dictated by the applied strain rate. Hence, the model parameters are well calibrated utilizing several experimental databases for different strain rates (10 -5 s -1 to 10 -1 s -1 ). Actually, among these experimental results, some experiments related to the relaxation phenomenon and strain rate jumping during testing (increasing or decreasing) are also used in order to more perfect the model parameters identification. To validate the calibrated model parameters, simulation tests are achieved

  7. Behavior of quenched and tempered steels under high strain rate compression loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.W.; Seifert, K.; Abdel-Malek, S.

    1997-01-01

    Two quenched and tempered steels were tested under compression loading at strain rates of ε = 2.10 2 s -1 and ε = 2.10 3 s -1 . By applying the thermal activation theory, the flow stress at very high strain rates of 10 5 to 10 6 s -1 is derived from low temperature and high strain rate tests. Dynamic true stress - true strain behaviour presents, that stress increases with increasing strain until a maximum, then it decreases. Because of the adiabatic process under dynamic loading the maximum flow stress will occur at a lower strain if the strain rate is increased. Considering strain rate, strain hardening, strain rate hardening and strain softening, a constitutive equation with different additive terms is successfully used to describe the behaviour of material under dynamic compression loading. Results are compared with other models of constitutive equations. (orig.)

  8. Strain rate behavior of magnetorheological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminuk, Kenneth; Joshi, Vasant; Gump, Jared; Stoltz, Chad; Forbes, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Strain rate response of two Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene/ Iron (HTPB/Fe) compositions under electromagnetic fields has been investigated using a Split Hopkinson Pressure bar arrangement equipped with aluminum bars. Two HTPB/Fe compositions were developed, the first without plasticizer and the second containing plasticizer. Samples were tested with and without the application of a 0.01 Tesla magnetic field. Strain gauge data taken from the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar has been used to determine the extent of change in mechanical properties by inducing a mild electromagnetic field onto each sample. Raw data from strain gages was processed using commercial software (Signo) and Excel spreadsheet. It is of particular interest to determine whether the mechanical properties of binder systems can be manipulated by adding ferrous or Magnetostrictive particulates. Data collected from the Split Hopkinson Pressure bar indicate changes in the Mechanical Stress-Strain curves and suggest that the impedance of a binder system can be altered by means of a magnetic field.

  9. Strain rate effects for spallation of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler-Combe, Ulrich; Panteki, Evmorfia; Kühn, Tino

    2015-09-01

    Appropriate triaxial constitutive laws are the key for a realistic simulation of high speed dynamics of concrete. The strain rate effect is still an open issue within this context. In particular the question whether it is a material property - which can be covered by rate dependent stress strain relations - or mainly an effect of inertia is still under discussion. Experimental and theoretical investigations of spallation of concrete specimen in a Hopkinson Bar setup may bring some evidence into this question. For this purpose the paper describes the VERD model, a newly developed constitutive law for concrete based on a damage approach with included strain rate effects [1]. In contrast to other approaches the dynamic strength increase is not directly coupled to strain rate values but related to physical mechanisms like the retarded movement of water in capillary systems and delayed microcracking. The constitutive law is fully triaxial and implemented into explicit finite element codes for the investigation of a wide range of concrete structures exposed to impact and explosions. The current setup models spallation experiments with concrete specimen [2]. The results of such experiments are mainly related to the dynamic tensile strength and the crack energy of concrete which may be derived from, e.g., the velocity of spalled concrete fragments. The experimental results are compared to the VERD model and two further constitutive laws implemented in LS-Dyna. The results indicate that both viscosity and retarded damage are required for a realistic description of the material behaviour of concrete exposed to high strain effects [3].

  10. Strain rate effects for spallation of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häussler-Combe Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate triaxial constitutive laws are the key for a realistic simulation of high speed dynamics of concrete. The strain rate effect is still an open issue within this context. In particular the question whether it is a material property – which can be covered by rate dependent stress strain relations – or mainly an effect of inertia is still under discussion. Experimental and theoretical investigations of spallation of concrete specimen in a Hopkinson Bar setup may bring some evidence into this question. For this purpose the paper describes the VERD model, a newly developed constitutive law for concrete based on a damage approach with included strain rate effects [1]. In contrast to other approaches the dynamic strength increase is not directly coupled to strain rate values but related to physical mechanisms like the retarded movement of water in capillary systems and delayed microcracking. The constitutive law is fully triaxial and implemented into explicit finite element codes for the investigation of a wide range of concrete structures exposed to impact and explosions. The current setup models spallation experiments with concrete specimen [2]. The results of such experiments are mainly related to the dynamic tensile strength and the crack energy of concrete which may be derived from, e.g., the velocity of spalled concrete fragments. The experimental results are compared to the VERD model and two further constitutive laws implemented in LS-Dyna. The results indicate that both viscosity and retarded damage are required for a realistic description of the material behaviour of concrete exposed to high strain effects [3].

  11. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez A.B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc. or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.. In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s−1 in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB. Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  12. Deformation twinning: Influence of strain rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-11-01

    Twins in most crystal structures, including advanced materials such as intermetallics, form more readily as the temperature of deformation is decreased or the rate of deformation is increased. Both parameters lead to the suppression of thermally-activated dislocation processes which can result in stresses high enough to nucleate and grow deformation twins. Under high-strain rate or shock-loading/impact conditions deformation twinning is observed to be promoted even in high stacking fault energy FCC metals and alloys, composites, and ordered intermetallics which normally do not readily deform via twinning. Under such conditions and in particular under the extreme loading rates typical of shock wave deformation the competition between slip and deformation twinning can be examined in detail. In this paper, examples of deformation twinning in the intermetallics TiAl, Ti-48Al-lV and Ni{sub 3}A as well in the cermet Al-B{sub 4}C as a function of strain rate will be presented. Discussion includes: (1) the microstructural and experimental variables influencing twin formation in these systems and twinning topics related to high-strain-rate loading, (2) the high velocity of twin formation, and (3) the influence of deformation twinning on the constitutive response of advanced materials.

  13. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay 400 085, Mumbai (India); Nudurupati, Saibaba [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C. [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Vakil, E-mail: vsingh.met@itbhu.ac.in [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10{sup −2}, 10{sup −3}, and 10{sup −4} s{sup −1}. Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C.

  14. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti; Chakravartty, J.K.; Nudurupati, Saibaba; Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C.; Singh, Vakil

    2015-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10 −2 , 10 −3 , and 10 −4 s −1 . Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C

  15. Strain rate dependency of laser sintered polyamide 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook J.E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parts processed by Additive Manufacturing can now be found across a wide range of applications, such as those in the aerospace and automotive industry in which the mechanical response must be optimised. Many of these applications are subjected to high rate or impact loading, yet it is believed that there is no prior research on the strain rate dependence in these materials. This research investigates the effect of strain rate and laser energy density on laser sintered polyamide 12. In the study presented here, parts produced using four different laser sintered energy densities were exposed to uniaxial compression tests at strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 10+3 s−1 at room temperature, and the dependence on these parameters is presented.

  16. A comparison of GPS strain rate and seismicity in mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J.; Liu, M.

    2011-12-01

    The spatial distribution and moment release of earthquakes should correlate to crustal strain rates, assuming most of the crustal strain is released by earthquakes. However, the correlation between seismicity and crustal strain rates is not always clear, especially in continental interiors where large earthquakes are infrequent and earthquake records often incomplete. Here we compare seismicity and crustal strain rates in mainland China, where in the past decades the GPS measurements by the Crustal Motion Observation Network of China and other teams have determined the velocity at more than a thousand sites, allowing a meaningful calculation of the spatial distribution of the crustal strain rates. Our strain-rate map of mainland China is consistent with tectonic activities. The average scalar strain rate in West China is 17.5x10-16, contrasting to the much lower value (2.5x 10-16) in East China. The high strain rates are mainly found in the Tibetan Plateau, with the highest values clearly delineating the major active faults, including the Himalayan main boundary thrust, the Xianshuihe fault, the Longmanshan fault, the Haiyuan fault, and the southern Tianshan boundary fault. North China also has relatively high strain rates, but the high strain rates around the cities of Tangshan and Xingtai likely result from postseismic deformation following the 1966 Xingtai earthquake (M 7.2) and the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.8). We calculated the seismic moment release using the Chinese earthquake catalog that goes back to more than 2000 years. The spatial pattern of cumulative seismic moment release is generally comparable with that of the strain rates. Regions of major discrepancies include the Weihe-Shanxi grabens, which had numerous large earthquakes but have been quiescent in the past 300 years. When we use smaller time windows (200 or 500 years) to calculate the seismic moment release, we found strongly variable spatial patterns that is generally incomparable with the

  17. Strain Rate Dependence of Compressive Yield and Relaxation in DGEBA Epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechederra, Gabriel K.; Reprogle, Riley C.; Clarkson, Caitlyn M.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical response in uniaxial compression of two diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxies were studied. These were 828DEA (Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA)) and 828T403 (Epon 828 cured with Jeffamine T-403). Two types of uniaxial compression tests were performed: A) constant strain rate compression and B) constant strain rate compression followed by a constant strain relaxation. The peak (yield) stress was analyzed as a function of strain rate from Eyring theory for activation volume. Runs at different temperatures permitted the construction of a mastercurve, and the resulting shift factors resulted in an activation energy. Strain and hold tests were performed for a low strain rate where a peak stress was lacking and for a higher strain rate where the peak stress was apparent. Relaxation from strains at different places along the stress-strain curve was tracked and compared. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. High Strain Rate Characterisation of Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    -reinforced polymers, were considered, and it was first shown that the loading history controls equilibrium process. Then the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine was analysed in terms its ability to create a state of constant strain rate in the specimen. The invertible inertial forces in the load train prevented...... from designing and constructing a high-speed servo-hydraulic test machine and by performing a comprehensive test series. The difficulties encountered in the test work could be addressed with the developed analysis. The conclusion was that the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine is less suited...... for testing fibre-reinforced polymers due to their elastic behaviour and low strain to failure. This is problematic as the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine closes the gap between quasi-static tests rates and lower strain rates, which are achievable with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The Split...

  19. Mechanical characterization of rocks at high strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamic characterization in tension and compression of three rocks, Carrara marble, Onsernone gneiss and Peccia Marble, at high strain-rates. Two versions of a Split Hopkinson Bar have been used. The version for direct tension tests is installed at the DynaMat Laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland, while the traditional version in compression is installed at the Laboratory of Dynamic Investigation of Materials of Lobachevsky State University. Results of the tests show a significantly strain-rate sensitive behaviour, exhibiting dynamic strength increasing with strain-rate. The experimental research has been developed in the frame of the Swiss-Russian Joint Research Program.

  20. Recent advances in echocardiography: strain and strain rate imaging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mirea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deformation imaging by echocardiography is a well-established research tool which has been gaining interest from clinical cardiologists since the introduction of speckle tracking. Post-processing of echo images to analyze deformation has become readily available at the fingertips of the user. New parameters such as global longitudinal strain have been shown to provide added diagnostic value, and ongoing efforts of the imaging societies and industry aimed at harmonizing methods will improve the technique further. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of echocardiographic strain and strain rate imaging, and provides an overview on its current and potential future clinical applications.

  1. Spallation model for the high strain rates range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, E.; Eliezer, S.; Henis, Z.; Moshe, E.; Ludmirsky, A.; Goldberg, I. B.

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of the dynamic spall strength in aluminum and copper shocked by a high power laser to pressures of hundreds of kbars show a rapid increase in the spall strength with the strain rate at values of about 107 s-1. We suggest that this behavior is a result of a change in the spall mechanism. At low strain rates the spall is caused by the motion and coalescence of material's initial flaws. At high strain rates there is not enough time for the flaws to move and the spall is produced by the formation and coalescence of additional cavities where the interatomic forces become dominant. Material under tensile stress is in a metastable condition and cavities of a critical radius are formed in it due to thermal fluctuations. These cavities grow due to the tension. The total volume of the voids grow until the material disintegrates at the spall plane. Simplified calculations based on this model, describing the metal as a viscous liquid, give results in fairly good agreement with the experimental data and predict the increase in spall strength at high strain rates.

  2. Edge flame instability in low-strain-rate counterflow diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, June Sung; Hwang, Dong Jin; Park, Jeong; Kim, Jeong Soo; Kim, Sungcho [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok-dong, Suncheon, Jeonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In [Environment & amp; Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, P.O. Box 101, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Kwon [School of Mechanical & amp; Automotive Engineering, Keimyung University, 1000 Sindang-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Dong Soon [Energy System Research Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Experiments in low-strain-rate methane-air counterflow diffusion flames diluted with nitrogen have been conducted to study flame extinction behavior and edge flame oscillation in which flame length is less than the burner diameter and thus lateral conductive heat loss, in addition to radiative loss, could be high at low global strain rates. The critical mole fraction at flame extinction is examined in terms of velocity ratio and global strain rate. Onset conditions of the edge flame oscillation and the relevant modes are also provided with global strain rate and nitrogen mole fraction in the fuel stream or in terms of fuel Lewis number. It is observed that flame length is intimately relevant to lateral heat loss, and this affects flame extinction and edge flame oscillation considerably. Lateral heat loss causes flame oscillation even at fuel Lewis number less than unity. Edge flame oscillations, which result from the advancing and retreating edge flame motion of the outer flame edge of low-strain-rate flames, are categorized into three modes: a growing, a decaying, and a harmonic-oscillation mode. A flame stability map based on the flame oscillation modes is also provided for low-strain-rate flames. The important contribution of lateral heat loss even to edge flame oscillation is clarified finally. (author)

  3. Twinning in copper deformed at high strain rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Copper samples having varying microstructures were deformed at high strain rates using a split-. Hopkinson pressure bar. Transmission electron microscopy results show deformation twins present in samples that were both annealed and strained, whereas samples that were annealed and left unstrained, as well ...

  4. Strain rate orientations near the Coso Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasa, N. T.; Kaven, J. O.; Barbour, A. J.; von Huene, R.

    2016-12-01

    Many geothermal reservoirs derive their sustained capacity for heat exchange in large part due to continuous deformation of preexisting faults and fractures that permit permeability to be maintained. Similarly, enhanced geothermal systems rely on the creation of suitable permeability from fracture and faults networks to be viable. Stress measurements from boreholes or earthquake source mechanisms are commonly used to infer the tectonic conditions that drive deformation, but here we show that geodetic data can also be used. Specifically, we quantify variations in the horizontal strain rate tensor in the area surrounding the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF) by analyzing more than two decades of high accuracy differential GPS data from a network of 14 stations from the University of Nevada Reno Geodetic Laboratory. To handle offsets in the data, from equipment changes and coseismic deformation, we segment the data, perform a piecewise linear fit and take the average of each segment's strain rate to determine secular velocities at each station. With respect to North America, all stations tend to travel northwest at velocities ranging from 1 to 10 mm/yr. The nearest station to CGF shows anomalous motion compared to regional stations, which otherwise show a coherent increase in network velocity from the northeast to the southwest. We determine strain rates via linear approximation using GPS velocities in Cartesian reference frame due to the small area of our network. Principal strain rate components derived from this inversion show maximum extensional strain rates of 30 nanostrain/a occur at N87W with compressional strain rates of 37nanostrain/a at N3E. These results generally align with previous stress measurements from borehole breakouts, which indicate the least compressive horizontal principal stress is east-west oriented, and indicative of the basin and range tectonic setting. Our results suggest that the CGF represents an anomaly in the crustal deformation field, which

  5. Microstructural evolution at high strain rates in solution-hardened interstitial free steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenishi, A.; Teodosiu, C.; Nesterova, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive transmission electron microscopical studies have been conducted for solution-hardened steels deformed at high (1000 s -1 ) and low (0.001 s -1 ) strain rates, in order to clarify the effects of strain rate and a jump in strain rate on the evolution of the microstructure and its connection with the mechanical response. It was revealed that the various types of microstructure, observed even within the same specimen, depend on the corresponding grain orientations and their evolution with progressive deformation depends on these microstructure types. At high strain rates, the dislocation density increases especially at low strains and the onset of dislocation organization is delayed. A jump in strain rate causes an increase of the dislocation density inside an organized structure. These results corroborated the mechanical behaviour at high strain rates after compensation for the cross-sectional reduction and temperature increase. The higher work-hardening rate at high strain rates could be connected to a delay in the dislocation organization. The high work-hardening rate just after a jump could be due to an increase of the density of dislocations distributed uniformly inside an organized structure

  6. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  7. Attaining the rate-independent limit of a rate-dependent strain gradient plasticity theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    The existence of characteristic strain rates in rate-dependent material models, corresponding to rate-independent model behavior, is studied within a back stress based rate-dependent higher order strain gradient crystal plasticity model. Such characteristic rates have recently been observed...... for steady-state processes, and the present study aims to demonstrate that the observations in fact unearth a more widespread phenomenon. In this work, two newly proposed back stress formulations are adopted to account for the strain gradient effects in the single slip simple shear case, and characteristic...... rates for a selected quantity are identified through numerical analysis. Evidently, the concept of a characteristic rate, within the rate-dependent material models, may help unlock an otherwise inaccessible parameter space....

  8. High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of Silver Nanowires: Rate-Dependent Brittle-to-Ductile Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash; Gao, Wei; Bernal, Rodrigo; Espinosa, Horacio

    2016-01-13

    The characterization of nanomaterials under high strain rates is critical to understand their suitability for dynamic applications such as nanoresonators and nanoswitches. It is also of great theoretical importance to explore nanomechanics with dynamic and rate effects. Here, we report in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) tensile testing of bicrystalline silver nanowires at strain rates up to 2/s, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported in the literature. The experiments are enabled by a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) with fast response time. It was identified that the nanowire plastic deformation has a small activation volume (ductile failure mode transition was observed at a threshold strain rate of 0.2/s. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that along the nanowire, dislocation density and spatial distribution of plastic regions increase with increasing strain rate. Furthermore, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations show that deformation mechanisms such as grain boundary migration and dislocation interactions are responsible for such ductility. Finally, the MD and experimental results were interpreted using dislocation nucleation theory. The predicted yield stress values are in agreement with the experimental results for strain rates above 0.2/s when ductility is pronounced. At low strain rates, random imperfections on the nanowire surface trigger localized plasticity, leading to a brittle-like failure.

  9. Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar: an experimental technique for high strain rate tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chavan, V.M.; Agrawal, R.G.; Patel, R.J.; Kapoor, R.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    Mechanical properties of materials are, in general, strain rate dependent, i.e. they respond differently at quasi-static and higher strain rate condition. The Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), also referred to as Kolsky bar is a commonly used setup for high strain rate testing. SHPB is suitable for high strain rate test in strain rate range of 10 2 to 10 4 s -1 . These high strain rate data are required for safety and structural integrity assessment of structures subjected to dynamic loading. As high strain rate data are not easily available in open literature need was felt for setting up such high strain rate testing machine. SHPB at BARC was designed and set-up inhouse jointly by Refuelling Technology Division and Mechanical Metallurgy Division, at Hall no. 3, BARC. A number of conceptual designs for SHPB were thought of and the optimized design was worked out. The challenges of precision tolerance, straightness in bars and design and proper functioning of pneumatic gun were met. This setup has been used extensively to study the high strain rate material behavior. This report introduces the SHPB in general and the setup at BARC in particular. The history of development of SHPB, the basic formulations of one dimensional wave propagation, the relations between the wave velocity, particle velocity and elastic strain in a one dimensional bar, and the equations used to obtain the final stress vs. strain curves are described. The calibration of the present setup, the pre-test calculations and the posttest analysis of data are described. Finally some of the experimental results on different materials such as Cu, SS305, SA516 and Zr, at room temperature and elevated temperatures are presented. (author)

  10. Early detection of left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic diabetic patient using strain and strain rate echocardiographic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Gaber

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes mellitus deteriorate both LV systolic and diastolic performance. Strain and strain rate by tissue Doppler Imaging is superior to conventional Doppler in early detection and evaluation of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients.

  11. Prognostic value of strain and strain rate in the prediction of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bigdelu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common dysrhythmia postoperatively after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Myocardial strain and strain-rate imaging is used for the assessment of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF as a new echocardiographic method. Methods: PubMed and Scopus were searched thoroughly using the following search terms: (strain and strain rate AND (atrial fibrillation OR AF on March 2015 to find English articles in which the strain and strain-rate echocardiographic imaging had been used for the evaluation of AF in patients undergone CABG. Full text of the relevant papers was fully reviewed for data extraction.Result: Of overall 6 articles found in PubMed, 10 records found in Scopus and 4 articles found through reference list search, only 6 papers fully met the inclusion criteria for further assessment and data extraction. The results of strain and strain-rate assessment showed that in total of 542 patients undergoing CABG, POAF occurred in 106 patients. Studies showed that the reduction of left atrial (LA strain rate is correlated with AF. Consistently, the results of present review showed that LA strain and strain-rate in patients who developed AF postoperatively after CABG are significantly reduced, suggesting that strain and strain-rate could be a predictor of POAF.Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, strain and strain-rate is a suitable and accurate echocardiographic technique in the assessment of left atrial function , and it might be helpful to detect the patients who are at high risk of POAF.

  12. Effect of strain rate and temperature on strain hardening behavior of a dissimilar joint between Ti–6Al–4V and Ti17 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Q.; Liu, J.H.; Chen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Only stage III hardening occurs after yielding in Ti–6Al–4V/Ti17 dissimilar joints. • Voce stress and strength of the joints increase with increasing strain rate. • With increasing strain rate, hardening capacity and strain hardening exponent decrease. • With increasing temperature, hardening capacity and strain hardening exponent increase. • Strain rate sensitivity of the joints decreases as the true strain increases. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of strain rate and temperature on the tensile properties, strain hardening behavior, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture characteristics of electron beam welded (EBWed) dissimilar joints between Ti–6Al–4V and Ti17 (Ti–5Al–4Mo–4Cr–2Sn–2Zr) titanium alloys. The welding led to significant microstructural changes across the joint, with hexagonal close-packed martensite (α′) and orthorhombic martensite (α″) in the fusion zone (FZ), α′ in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) on the Ti–6Al–4V side, and coarse β in the HAZ on the Ti17 side. A distinctive asymmetrical hardness profile across the dissimilar joint was observed with the highest hardness in the FZ and a lower hardness on the Ti–6Al–4V side than on the Ti17 side, where a soft zone was present. Despite a slight reduction in ductility, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the joints lay in-between the two base metals (BMs) of Ti–6Al–4V and Ti17, with the Ti17 alloy having a higher strength. While the YS, UTS, and Voce stress of the joints increased, both hardening capacity and strain hardening exponent decreased with increasing strain rate or decreasing temperature. Stage III hardening occurred in the joints after yielding. The hardening rate was strongly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. As the strain rate increased or temperature decreased, the strain hardening rate increased at a given true stress. The strain rate sensitivity evaluated via

  13. A Model for High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Uranium-Niobium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.L.Addessio; Q.H.Zuo; T.A.Mason; L.C.Brinson

    2003-05-01

    A thermodynamic approach is used to develop a framework for modeling uranium-niobium alloys under the conditions of high strain rate. Using this framework, a three-dimensional phenomenological model, which includes nonlinear elasticity (equation of state), phase transformation, crystal reorientation, rate-dependent plasticity, and porosity growth is presented. An implicit numerical technique is used to solve the evolution equations for the material state. Comparisons are made between the model and data for low-strain-rate loading and unloading as well as for heating and cooling experiments. Comparisons of the model and data also are made for low- and high-strain-rate uniaxial stress and uniaxial strain experiments. A uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy is used in the comparisons of model and experiment.

  14. The effects of strain rate and carbon concentration on the dynamic strain aging of cold rolled Ni-based alloy in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Wenjun; Was, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The stress amplitude of serrations first increases with decreasing strain rate and then gradually saturates. The matrix carbon concentration affects the stress amplitude and the tendency to saturation. - Abstract: The effect of strain rate on dynamic strain aging of cold-rolled Ni-based alloy was investigated. With decreasing strain rate, the stress amplitude of serrations first increased and then saturated. Compared with the solution-annealed condition, the thermally-treated condition produced smaller stress amplitudes that saturated at a lower strain rate. Observations are consistent with a mechanism in which the locking strength of solute atmospheres first increases with increasing solute atom arrival at dislocations and gradually saturates as solute reaches a critical level

  15. Analytical Modeling of the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain rates (from quasi-static to high strain rates) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical model correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.

  16. Earthquake potential in California-Nevada implied by correlation of strain rate and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua; Petersen, Mark D.; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2018-01-01

    Rock mechanics studies and dynamic earthquake simulations show that patterns of seismicity evolve with time through (1) accumulation phase, (2) localization phase, and (3) rupture phase. We observe a similar pattern of changes in seismicity during the past century across California and Nevada. To quantify these changes, we correlate GPS strain rates with seismicity. Earthquakes of M > 6.5 are collocated with regions of highest strain rates. By contrast, smaller magnitude earthquakes of M ≥ 4 show clear spatiotemporal changes. From 1933 to the late 1980s, earthquakes of M ≥ 4 were more diffused and broadly distributed in both high and low strain rate regions (accumulation phase). From the late 1980s to 2016, earthquakes were more concentrated within the high strain rate areas focused on the major fault strands (localization phase). In the same time period, the rate of M > 6.5 events also increased significantly in the high strain rate areas. The strong correlation between current strain rate and the later period of seismicity indicates that seismicity is closely related to the strain rate. The spatial patterns suggest that before the late 1980s, the strain rate field was also broadly distributed because of the stress shadows from previous large earthquakes. As the deformation field evolved out of the shadow in the late 1980s, strain has refocused on the major fault systems and we are entering a period of increased risk for large earthquakes in California.

  17. Strain rate dependent tensile behavior of advanced high strength steels: Experiment and constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Daeyong; Han, Heung Nam; Barlat, F.; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    High strain rate tensile tests were conducted for three advanced high strength steels: DP780, DP980 and TRIP780. A high strain rate tensile test machine was used for applying the strain rate ranging from 0.1/s to 500/s. Details of the measured stress–strain responses were comparatively analyzed for the DP780 and TRIP780 steels which show similar microstructural feature and ultimate tensile strength, but different strengthening mechanisms. The experimental observations included: usual strain rate dependent plastic flow stress behavior in terms of the yield stress (YS), the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), the uniform elongation (UE) and the total elongation (TE) which were observed for the three materials. But, higher strain hardening rate at early plastic strain under quasi-static condition than that of some increased strain rates was featured for TRIP780 steel, which might result from more active transformation during deformation with lower velocity. The uniform elongation that explains the onset of instability and the total elongation were larger in case of TRIP steel than the DP steel for the whole strain rate range, but interestingly the fracture strain measured by the reduction of area (RA) method showed that the TRIP steel has lower values than DP steel. The fractographs using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at the fractured surfaces were analyzed to relate measured fracture strain and the microstructural difference of the two materials during the process of fracture under various strain rates. Finally, constitutive modeling for the plastic flow stresses under various strain rates was provided in this study. The proposed constitutive law could represent both Hollomon-like and Voce-like hardening laws and the ratio between the two hardening types was efficiently controlled as a function of strain rate. The new strength model was validated successfully under various strain rates for several grades of steels such as mild steels, DP780, TRIP780, DP980 steels.

  18. Strong strain rate effect on the plasticity of amorphous silica nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Yonghai; Zheng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    With electron-beam (e-beam) off, in-situ tensile experiments on amorphous silica nanowires (NWs) were performed inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). By controlling the loading rates, the strain rate can be adjusted accurately in a wide range. The result shows a strong strain rate effect on the plasticity of amorphous silica NWs. At lower strain rate, the intrinsic brittle materials exhibit a pronounced elongation higher than 100% to failure with obvious necking near ambient temperature. At the strain rate higher than 5.23 × 10 −3 /s, the elongation of the NW decreased dramatically, and a brittle fracture feature behavior was revealed. This ductile feature of the amorphous silica NWs has been further confirmed with the in-situ experiments under optical microscopy while the effect of e-beam irradiation could be eliminated.

  19. Microtwin formation in the α phase of duplex titanium alloys affected by strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsiang; Wu, Shu-Ming; Kao, Fang-Hsin; Wang, Shing-Hoa; Yang, Jer-Ren; Yang, Chia-Chih; Chiou, Chuan-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The long and dense twins in α phase of SP700 alloy occurring at lower strain rates promote a good ductility. → The deformation in SP700 alloy changed to micro twins-controlled mechanism in α as the strain rate decreases. → The material has time to redistribute the deformed strain between α and β as the strain rate decreases. - Abstract: The effect of tensile strain rate on deformation microstructure was investigated in Ti-6-4 (Ti-6Al-4V) and SP700 (Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Mo-2Fe) of the duplex titanium alloys. Below a strain rate of 10 -2 s -1 , Ti-6-4 alloy had a higher ultimate tensile strength than SP700 alloy. However, the yield strength of SP700 was consistently greater than Ti-6-4 at different strain rates. The ductility of SP700 alloy associated with twin formation (especially at the slow strain rate of 10 -4 s -1 ), always exceeded that of Ti-6-4 alloy at different strain rates. It is caused by a large quantity of deformation twins took place in the α phase of SP700 due to the lower stacking fault energy by the β stabilizer of molybdenum alloying. In addition, the local deformation more was imposed on the α grains from the surrounding β-rich grains by redistributing strain as the strain rate decreased in SP700 duplex alloy.

  20. Cyclic strength of metals at impact strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleiche, A.M.; El-Kady, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Rigorous understanding of the effects of impact loading on the mechanical response of materials and structures is essential for the optimum design and safe operation of many sophisticated engineering systems and components, such as industrial high-energy-rate fabrication processes and nuclear reactor containments. Extensive data are available at present on the dynamic behaviour of most metals in uniaxial tension, compression, torsion and pure shear, when they are subjected to diversified loading conditions, ranging from those characterised by monotonic constant rates, to those involving forward or reverse strain-rate jumps of several orders of magnitude. What appears to be missing in the current material data banks, however, is detailed information concerning the mechanical response under cyclic loading at impact strain rates. Such data are needed for engineering design purposes on one hand, and for the formulation of proper constitutive equations and the accurate modeling of deformation processes on the other. In the present paper, typical stress-strain characteristics at ambient temperature for copper, mild steel and titanium are first exhibited. The application of the unified Bodner-Partom constitutive theory to these data is then presented and discussed. (orig./GL)

  1. Modelling of behaviour of metals at high strain rates

    OpenAIRE

    Panov, Vili

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was to produce the improvement of the existing simulation tools used for the analysis of materials and structures, which are dynamically loaded and subjected to the different levels of temperatures and strain rates. The main objective of this work was development of tools for modelling of strain rate and temperature dependant behaviour of aluminium alloys, typical for aerospace structures with pronounced orthotropic properties, and their implementa...

  2. Strain rate effects in nuclear steels at room and higher temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, G. E-mail: george.solomos@jrc.it; Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Pizzinato, V.; Viaccoz, B

    2004-04-01

    An investigation of strain rate, temperature and size effects in three nuclear steels has been conducted. The materials are: ferritic steel 20MnMoNi55 (vessel head), austenitic steel X6CrNiNb1810 (upper internal structure), and ferritic steel 26NiCrMo146 (bolting). Smooth cylindrical tensile specimens of three sizes have been tested at strain rates from 0.001 to 300 s{sup -1}, at room and elevated temperatures (400-600 deg. C). Full stress-strain diagrams have been obtained, and additional parameters have been calculated based on them. The results demonstrate a clear influence of temperature, which amounts into reducing substantially mechanical strengths with respect to RT conditions. The effect of strain rate is also shown. It is observed that at RT the strain rate effect causes up shifting of the flow stress curves, whereas at the higher temperatures a mild downshifting of the flow curves is manifested. Size effect tendencies have also been observed. Some implications when assessing the pressure vessel structural integrity under severe accident conditions are considered.

  3. Increased effects of machining damage in beryllium observed at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Brewer, A.W.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile tests at both low and high strain rates, and also impact shear tests, were performed on a weldable grade powder-source beryllium. Impact energies increased by a factor of 2 to 3 from the as-machined level after etching or annealing. Similar increases in the ductility from machining damage removal were observed from the tensile data at the higher strain rate (10 s -1 ) while an insignificant increase in elongation was measured at the lower strain rate (10 -4 s -1 ). High strain-rate tests appear to be more sensitive and reliable for evaluating machining practice and damage removal methods for beryllium components subjected to sudden loads. 2 tables

  4. High strain rate tensile properties of annealed 2 1/4 Cr--1 Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Oakes, R.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The high strain rate tensile properties of annealed 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel were determined and the tensile behavior from 25 to 566 0 C and strain rates of 2.67 x 10 -6 to 144/s were described. Above 0.1/s at 25 0 C, both the yield stress and the ultimate tensile strength increased rapidly with increasing strain rate. As the temperature was increased, a dynamic strain aging peak appeared in the ultimate tensile strength-temperature curves. The peak height was a maximum at about 350 0 C and 2.67 x 10 -6 /s. With increasing strain rate, a peak of decreased height occurred at progressively higher temperatures. The major effect of strain rate on ductility occurred at elevated temperatures, where a decrease in strain rate caused an increase in total elongation and reduction in area

  5. Effect of strain rate on the tensile properties of α- and delta-stabilized plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, S.S.; Morgan, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The tensile properties of unalloyed α-Pu and 3.4 at. percent Ga-stabilized delta-Pu were determined at strain rates from 10 -5 to 100/s. Tests at strain rates less than 10 -2 /s were conducted on an Instron Testing Machine; those at strain rates between 10 -2 and 3/s on a closed-loop electrohydraulic MTS system; and those at strain rates greater than 3/s on a specially modified Charpy Impact Tester. Three lots of delta-Pu, one rolled and annealed and the other two cast and homogenized, were tested. The 0.2 percent yield strengths and ultimate tensile strengths increased by an average of 5.2 and 6.0 MPa per factor of 10 increase in strain rate. This increase was achieved without penalty in tensile ductility as measured by total elongation to fracture and by reduction in area. The isostatically pressed α-Pu specimens also showed a large increase in fracture stress with strain rate (34.3 MPa per factor to 10 increase in strain rate). The fracture was macroscopically brittle (plastic strains less than 0.3 percent) although we observed extensive evidence of microscopic flow in the ductile dimple-type appearance of the fracture surfaces. The strain to fracture appeared to exhibit a minimum at a strain rate of 10 -2 /s. (U.S.)

  6. Plastic Flow Characteristics of Uranium-Niobium as a Function of Strain Rate and Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cady, C.M.; Gray, G.T. III; Hecker, S.S; Thoma, D.J.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Patterson, R.A.; Dunn, P.S.; Bingert, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The stress-strain response of uranium-niobium alloys as a function of temperature, strain-rate and stress-state was investigated. The yield and flow stresses of the U-Nb alloys were found to exhibit a pronounced strain rate sensitivity, while the hardening rates were found to be insensitive to strain rate and temperature. The overall stress-strain response of the U-6Nb exhibits a sinusoidal hardening response, which is consistent with multiple deformation modes and is thought to be related to shape-memory behavior

  7. Effect of axial tibial torque direction on ACL relative strain and strain rate in an in vitro simulated pivot landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youkeun K; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries most frequently occur under the large loads associated with a unipedal jump landing involving a cutting or pivoting maneuver. We tested the hypotheses that internal tibial torque would increase the anteromedial (AM) bundle ACL relative strain and strain rate more than would the corresponding external tibial torque under the large impulsive loads associated with such landing maneuvers. Twelve cadaveric female knees [mean (SD) age: 65.0 (10.5) years] were tested. Pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit forces maintained an initial knee flexion angle of 15°. A compound impulsive test load (compression, flexion moment, and internal or external tibial torque) was applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3D knee loads and tibofemoral kinematics. AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3 mm DVRT. In this repeated measures experiment, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the null hypotheses with p < 0.05 considered significant. The mean (±SD) peak AM-ACL relative strains were 5.4 ± 3.7% and 3.1 ± 2.8% under internal and external tibial torque, respectively. The corresponding mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL strain rates reached 254.4 ± 160.1%/s and 179.4 ± 109.9%/s, respectively. The hypotheses were supported in that the normalized mean peak AM-ACL relative strain and strain rate were 70 and 42% greater under internal than under external tibial torque, respectively (p = 0.023, p = 0.041). We conclude that internal tibial torque is a potent stressor of the ACL because it induces a considerably (70%) larger peak strain in the AM-ACL than does a corresponding external tibial torque. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  8. Inverse methods for the mechanical characterization of materials at high strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas-Rodriguez J.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical material characterization represents a research challenge. Furthermore, special attention is directed to material characterization at high strain rates as the mechanical properties of some materials are influenced by the rate of loading. Diverse experimental techniques at high strain rates are available, such as the drop-test, the Taylor impact test or the Split Hopkinson pressure bar among others. However, the determination of the material parameters associated to a given mathematical constitutive model from the experimental data is a complex and indirect problem. This paper presents a material characterization methodology to determine the material parameters of a given material constitutive model from a given high strain rate experiment. The characterization methodology is based on an inverse technique in which an inverse problem is formulated and solved as an optimization procedure. The input of the optimization procedure is the characteristic signal from the high strain rate experiment. The output of the procedure is the optimum set of material parameters determined by fitting a numerical simulation to the high strain rate experimental signal.

  9. Strain rate sensitivity and evolution of dislocations and twins in a twinning-induced plasticity steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.Y.; Wang, X.; Huang, W.; Huang, M.X.

    2015-01-01

    The present work investigated the effect of strain rates (10 −3 to 10 3 s −1 ) on the deformation behaviour of a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel. The strain rate sensitivity was studied in terms of instantaneous strain rate sensitivity (ISRS) and strain rate sensitivity of work-hardening (SRSW). While ISRS concerns the instantaneous flow stress change upon strain rate jump, SRSW deals with the subsequent modification in microstructure evolution, i.e. change of work-hardening rate. The present TWIP steel demonstrates a positive ISRS which remains stable during deformation and a negative SRSW, i.e. lower work-hardening rate at higher strain rate. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments indicate that the negative SRSW should be attributed to the suppression of dislocations and deformation twins at high strain rate. This unexpected finding is different to conventional face-centred cubic (fcc) metals which generally show enhanced work-hardening rate at higher strain rate. A constitutive model which is strain rate- and temperature-dependent is developed to explain the stable ISRS and the negative SRSW. The modelling results reveal that the stable ISRS should be attributed to the thermally-activated dislocation motion dominated by interstitial carbon atoms and the negative SRSW should be due to the suppression of the dislocations and deformation twins caused by the adiabatic heating associated with high strain rate deformation

  10. Effects of strain rate, mixing ratio, and stress-strain definition on the mechanical behavior of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material as related to its biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanafer, Khalil; Duprey, Ambroise; Schlicht, Marty; Berguer, Ramon

    2009-04-01

    Tensile tests on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were conducted to illustrate the effects of mixing ratio, definition of the stress-strain curve, and the strain rate on the elastic modulus and stress-strain curve. PDMS specimens were prepared according to the ASTM standards for elastic materials. Our results indicate that the physiological elastic modulus depends strongly on the definition of the stress-strain curve, mixing ratio, and the strain rate. For various mixing ratios and strain rates, true stress-strain definition results in higher stress and elastic modulus compared with engineering stress-strain and true stress-engineering strain definitions. The elastic modulus increases as the mixing ratio increases up-to 9:1 ratio after which the elastic modulus begins to decrease even as the mixing ratio continues to increase. The results presented in this study will be helpful to assist the design of in vitro experiments to mimic blood flow in arteries and to understand the complex interaction between blood flow and the walls of arteries using PDMS elastomer.

  11. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  12. Dynamic tensile fracture of mortar at ultra-high strain-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzar, B.; Buzaud, E.; Chanal, P.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    During the lifetime of a structure, concrete and mortar may be exposed to highly dynamic loadings, such as impact or explosion. The dynamic fracture at high loading rates needs to be well understood to allow an accurate modeling of this kind of event. In this work, a pulsed-power generator has been employed to conduct spalling tests on mortar samples at strain-rates ranging from 2 × 10 4 to 4 × 10 4  s −1 . The ramp loading allowed identifying the strain-rate anytime during the test. A power law has been proposed to fit properly the rate-sensitivity of tensile strength of this cementitious material over a wide range of strain-rate. Moreover, a specimen has been recovered damaged but unbroken. Micro-computed tomography has been employed to study the characteristics of the damage pattern provoked by the dynamic tensile loading

  13. Characteristic systolic waveform of left ventricular longitudinal strain rate in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazunori; Kaga, Sanae; Mikami, Taisei; Masauzi, Nobuo; Abe, Ayumu; Nakabachi, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shinobu; Nishino, Hisao; Ichikawa, Ayako; Nishida, Mutsumi; Murai, Daisuke; Hayashi, Taichi; Shimizu, Chikara; Iwano, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    We analyzed the waveform of systolic strain and strain-rate curves to find a characteristic left ventricular (LV) myocardial contraction pattern in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and evaluated the utility of these parameters for the differentiation of HCM and LV hypertrophy secondary to hypertension (HT). From global strain and strain-rate curves in the longitudinal and circumferential directions, the time from mitral valve closure to the peak strains (T-LS and T-CS, respectively) and the peak systolic strain rates (T-LSSR and T-CSSR, respectively) were measured in 34 patients with HCM, 30 patients with HT, and 25 control subjects. The systolic strain-rate waveform was classified into 3 patterns ("V", "W", and "√" pattern). In the HCM group, T-LS was prolonged, but T-LSSR was shortened; consequently, T-LSSR/T-LS ratio was distinctly lower than in the HT and control groups. The "√" pattern of longitudinal strain-rate waveform was more frequently seen in the HCM group (74 %) than in the control (4 %) and HT (20 %) groups. Similar but less distinct results were obtained in the circumferential direction. To differentiate HCM from HT, the sensitivity and specificity of the T-LSSR/T-LS ratio patients with HCM, a reduced T-LSSR/T-LS ratio and a characteristic "√"-shaped waveform of LV systolic strain rate was seen, especially in the longitudinal direction. The timing and waveform analyses of systolic strain rate may be useful to distinguish between HCM and HT.

  14. Determination of the strain hardening rate of metals and alloys by X ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadalbert, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This report for engineering graduation is based on the study of X ray diffraction line profile which varies with the plastic strain rate of the metal. After some generalities of strain hardening (consequence of a plastic deformation on the structure of a polycrystalline metal, means to study a strain hardened structure, use of X ray diffraction to analyse the strain hardened crystalline structure), the author reports the strain hardening rate measurement by using X ray diffraction. Several aspects are addressed: principles, experimental technique, apparatus, automation and programming of the measurement cycle, method sensitivity and precision. In the next part, the author reports applications: measurement of the strain hardening rate in different materials (tubes with hexagonal profile, cylindrical tubes in austenitic steel), and study of the evolution of strain hardening with temperature [fr

  15. High-Strain Rate Failure Modeling Incorporating Shear Banding and Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-22

    High Strain Rate Failure Modeling Incorporating Shear Banding and Fracture The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS...Report as of 05-Dec-2017 Agreement Number: W911NF-13-1-0238 Organization: Columbia University Title: High Strain Rate Failure Modeling Incorporating

  16. High Strain Rate Testing of Welded DOP-26 Iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneibel, J. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, R. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carmichael, C. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, E. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 is used to produce Clad Vent Set cups that protect the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for spacecraft and rovers. In a previous study, the tensile properties of DOP-26 were measured over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures and reported in ORNL/TM-2007/81. While that study established the properties of the base material, the fabrication of the heat sources requires welding, and the mechanical properties of welded DOP-26 have not been extensively characterized in the past. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the mechanical properties of DOP-26 specimens containing a transverse weld in the center of their gage sections. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 750, 900, and 1090°C and engineering strain rates of 1×10-3 and 10 s-1. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1×10-4 Torr. The welded specimens had a significantly higher yield stress, by up to a factor of ~2, than the non-welded base material. The yield stress did not depend on the strain rate except at 1090°C, where it was slightly higher for the faster strain rate. The ultimate tensile stress, on the other hand, was significantly higher for the faster strain rate at temperatures of 750°C and above. At 750°C and above, the specimens deformed at 1×10-3 s-1 showed pronounced necking resulting sometimes in perfect chisel-edge fracture. The specimens deformed at 10 s-1 exhibited this fracture behavior only at the highest test temperature, 1090°C. Fracture occurred usually in the fusion zone of the weld and was, in most cases, primarily intergranular.

  17. Strain gradient effects on steady state crack growth in rate-sensitive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    , a characteristic velocity, at which the toughness becomes independent of the rate-sensitivity, has been observed. It is the aim to bring forward a similar characteristic velocity for the current strain gradient visco-plastic model, as-well as to signify its use in future visco-plastic material modeling.......Steady state crack propagation produce substantial plastic strain gradients near the tip, which are accompanied by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and additional local strain hardening. Here, the objective is to study these gradient effects on Mode I toughness...... of a homogeneous rate-sensitive metal, using a higher order plasticity theory. Throughout, emphasis is on the toughness rate-sensitivity, as a recent numerical study of a conventional material (no gradient effects) has indicated a significant influence of both strain rate hardening and crack tip velocity. Moreover...

  18. What is behind the plastic strain rate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hütter, M.; Grmela, M.; Öttinger, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    The plastic strain rate plays a central role in macroscopic models on elasto-viscoplasticity. In order to discuss the concept behind this quantity, we propose, first, a kinetic toy model to describe the dynamics of sliding layers representative of plastic deformation of single crystalline metals.

  19. A Constitutive Model for Superelastic Shape Memory Alloys Considering the Influence of Strain Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are a relatively new class of functional materials, exhibiting special thermomechanical behaviors, such as shape memory effect and superelasticity, which enable their applications in seismic engineering as energy dissipation devices. This paper investigates the properties of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloys, emphasizing the influence of strain rate on superelastic behavior under various strain amplitudes by cyclic tensile tests. A novel constitutive equation based on Graesser and Cozzarelli’s model is proposed to describe the strain-rate-dependent hysteretic behavior of superelastic SMAs at different strain levels. A stress variable including the influence of strain rate is introduced into Graesser and Cozzarelli’s model. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed constitutive equation, experiments on superelastic NiTi wires with different strain rates and strain levels are conducted. Numerical simulation results based on the proposed constitutive equation and experimental results are in good agreement. The findings in this paper will assist the future design of superelastic SMA-based energy dissipation devices for seismic protection of structures.

  20. Strain-rate dependent fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel in high-temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jibo [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning Key Laboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wu, Xinqiang, E-mail: xqwu@imr.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning Key Laboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei; Wang, Xiang [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning Key Laboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, Haitao [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, SEPA, Beijing 100082 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of forged 316LN stainless steel was investigated in high-temperature water. It was found that the fatigue life of 316LN stainless steel decreased with decreasing strain rate from 0.4 to 0.004 %s{sup −1} in 300 °C water. The stress amplitude increased with decreasing strain rate during fatigue tests, which was a typical characteristic of dynamic strain aging. The fatigue cracks mainly initiated at pits and slip bands. The interactive effect between dynamic strain aging and electrochemical factors on fatigue crack initiation is discussed. - Highlights: •The fatigue lives of 316LN stainless steel decrease with decreasing strain rate. •Fatigue cracks mainly initiated at pits and persistent slip bands. •Dynamic strain aging promoted fatigue cracks initiation in high-temperature water.

  1. Effects of the strain rate on the tensile properties of a TRIP-aided duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeom Yong [Stainless Steel Product Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaeeun; Lee, Keunho; Koh, Ji-Yeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, RIAM, Seoul National University, Seoul 151–744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Hyung [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Heung Nam, E-mail: hnhan@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, RIAM, Seoul National University, Seoul 151–744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung-Tae, E-mail: ktpark@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    Factors influencing the strain-rate dependence of the tensile properties of TRIP-aided lean duplex stainless steel were investigated by employing several characterization techniques of EBSD, TEM, and nanoindentation. The steel exhibited excellent tensile strength over 800 MPa and elongation, which exceeded 70% at a strain rate of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} due to strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT), but both values decreased considerably with an increase in the strain rate. The hardness and the maximum shear stress for dislocation nucleation of the austenite were found to be higher than those of the ferrite by sub-grain scale nanoindentation tests. As a result, strain partitioning to the ferrite rather than the austenite was more significant from an early stage of deformation, suppressing the SIMT in the austenite. An EBSD strain analysis on the intra- and inter-grain scale revealed that this strain partitioning became more pronounced as the strain rate increased. Adiabatic heating, which induces austenite stabilization, also became more significant as the strain rate increased. Therefore, the present results indicate that the diminishing TRIP effects at high strain rates can be attributed to preferential strain partitioning to the soft ferrite phase from an early stage of deformation, as well as adiabatic heating.

  2. Three-dimensional modeling for deformation of austenitic NiTi shape memory alloys under high strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Young, Marcus L.

    2018-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for phase transformation of shape memory alloys (SMAs) during high strain rate deformation is developed and is then calibrated based on experimental results from an austenitic NiTi SMA. Stress, strain, and martensitic volume fraction distribution during high strain rate deformation are simulated using finite element analysis software ABAQUS/standard. For the first time, this paper presents a theoretical study of the microscopic band structure during high strain rate compressive deformation. The microscopic transformation band is generated by the phase front and leads to minor fluctuations in sample deformation. The strain rate effect on phase transformation is studied using the model. Both the starting stress for transformation and the slope of the stress-strain curve during phase transformation increase with increasing strain rate.

  3. Mechanical Characterization of Immature Porcine Brainstem in Tension at Dynamic Strain Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Li, Kui; Liao, Zhikang; Xiang, Hongyi; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-21

    Many brain injury cases involve pediatric road traffic accidents, and among these, brainstem injury causes disastrous outcomes. A thorough understanding of the tensile characterization of immature brainstem tissue is crucial in modeling traumatic brain injury sustained by children, but limited experimental data in tension is available for the immature brain tissue at dynamic strain rates. We harvested brainstem tissue from immature pigs (about 4 weeks old, and at a developmental stage similar to that of human toddlers) as a byproduct from a local slaughter house and very carefully prepared the samples. Tensile tests were performed on specimens at dynamic strain rates of 2/s, 20/s, and 100/s using a biological material instrument. The constitutive models, Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential function, for immature brainstem tissue material property were developed for the recorded experimental data using OriginPro 8.0 software. The t test was performed for infinitesimal shear modules. The curves of stress-versus-stretch ratio were convex in shape, and inflection points were found in all the test groups at the strain of about 2.5%. The average Lagrange stress of the immature brainstem specimen at the 30% strain at the strain rates of 2, 20, and 100/s was 273±114, 515±107, and 1121±197 Pa, respectively. The adjusted R-Square (R2) of Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential model was 0.820≤R2≤0.933, 0.774≤R2≤0.940, 0.650≤R2≤0.922, and 0.852≤R2≤0.981, respectively. The infinitesimal shear modulus of the strain energy functions showed a significant association with the strain rate (pmaterial in dynamic tensile tests, and the tissue becomes stiffer with increased strain rate. The reported results may be useful in the study of brain injuries in children who sustain injuries in road traffic accidents. Further research in more detail should be performed in the future.

  4. Abnormal Strain Rate Sensitivity Driven by a Unit Dislocation-Obstacle Interaction in bcc Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhitong; Fan, Yue

    2018-03-01

    The interaction between an edge dislocation and a sessile vacancy cluster in bcc Fe is investigated over a wide range of strain rates from 108 down to 103 s-1 , which is enabled by employing an energy landscape-based atomistic modeling algorithm. It is observed that, at low strain rates regime less than 105 s-1 , such interaction leads to a surprising negative strain rate sensitivity behavior because of the different intermediate microstructures emerged under the complex interplays between thermal activation and applied strain rate. Implications of our findings regarding the previously established global diffusion model are also discussed.

  5. Effect of Strengthening Mechanism on Strain-Rate Related Tensile Properties of Low-Carbon Sheet Steels for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindya; Biswas, Pinaki; Tarafder, S.; Chakrabarti, D.; Sivaprasad, S.

    2018-05-01

    In order to ensure crash resistance of the steels used in automotive components, the ensile deformation behavior needs to be studied and predicted not only under quasi-static condition, but also under dynamic loading rates. In the present study, tensile tests have been performed on four different automobile grade sheet steels, namely interstitial free steel, dual-phase 600 and 800, and a carbon manganese steel over the strain rate regime of 0.001-800/s. Apart from the variation in strength (which always increased with strain rate), the effect of strengthening mechanism on strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening behavior has been evaluated. Strain rate sensitivity was found to increase at high-strain rate regime for all the steels. Contribution of solid solution hardening on strain rate sensitivity at lower plastic strains was found to be higher compared to dislocation strengthening and second-phase hardening. However, precipitation hardening coupled with solid solution hardening produced the highest strain rate sensitivity, in C-Mn-440 steel at high strain rates. Different strain-rate-sensitive models which take into account the change in yield stress and strain hardening behavior with strain rate for ductile materials were used to predict the flow behavior of these sheet steels at strain rates up to 800/s.

  6. Dynamics of a seismogenic fault subject to variable strain rate

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dragoni; A. Piombo

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of seismogenic faults is generally investigated under the assumption that they are subject to a constant strain rate. We consider the effect of a slowly variable strain rate on the recurrence times of earthquakes generated by a single fault. To this aim a spring-block system is employed as a low-order analog of the fault. Two cases are considered: a sinusoidal oscillation in the driver velocity and a monotonic change from one velocity value to another. In the f...

  7. Effect of strain rate and dislocation density on the twinning behavior in tantalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florando, Jeffrey N., E-mail: florando1@llnl.gov; Swift, Damian C.; Barton, Nathan R.; McNaney, James M.; Kumar, Mukul [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); El-Dasher, Bassem S. [TerraPower LLC, Bellevue, WA 98005 (United States); Chen, Changqiang [Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Ramesh, K. T.; Hemker, Kevin J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The conditions which affect twinning in tantalum have been investigated across a range of strain rates and initial dislocation densities. Tantalum samples were subjected to a range of strain rates, from 10{sup −4}/s to 10{sup 3}/s under uniaxial stress conditions, and under laser-induced shock-loading conditions. In this study, twinning was observed at 77 K at strain rates from 1/s to 10{sup 3}/s, and during laser-induced shock experiments. The effect of the initial dislocation density, which was imparted by deforming the material to different amounts of pre-strain, was also studied, and it was shown that twinning is suppressed after a given amount of pre-strain, even as the global stress continues to increase. These results indicate that the conditions for twinning cannot be represented solely by a critical global stress value, but are also dependent on the evolution of the dislocation density. In addition, the analysis shows that if twinning is initiated, the nucleated twins may continue to grow as a function of strain, even as the dislocation density continues to increase.

  8. Variation of strain rate sensitivity index of a superplastic aluminum alloy in different testing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Omid; Jahazi, Mohammad; Bombardier, Nicolas; Samuel, Ehab

    2017-10-01

    The strain rate sensitivity index, m-value, is being applied as a common tool to evaluate the impact of the strain rate on the viscoplastic behaviour of materials. The m-value, as a constant number, has been frequently taken into consideration for modeling material behaviour in the numerical simulation of superplastic forming processes. However, the impact of the testing variables on the measured m-values has not been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the m-value for a superplastic grade of an aluminum alloy (i.e., AA5083) has been investigated. The conditions and the parameters that influence the strain rate sensitivity for the material are compared with three different testing methods, i.e., monotonic uniaxial tension test, strain rate jump test and stress relaxation test. All tests were conducted at elevated temperature (470°C) and at strain rates up to 0.1 s-1. The results show that the m-value is not constant and is highly dependent on the applied strain rate, strain level and testing method.

  9. Strain Rate and Anisotropic Microstructure Dependent Mechanical Behaviors of Silkworm Cocoon Shells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    Full Text Available Silkworm cocoons are multi-layered composite structures comprised of high strength silk fiber and sericin, and their mechanical properties have been naturally selected to protect pupas during metamorphosis from various types of external attacks. The present study attempts to gain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of cocoon shell materials from wild silkworm species Antheraea pernyi under dynamic loading rates. Five dynamic strain rates from 0.00625 s-1 to 12.5 s-1 are tested to show the strain rate sensitivity of the cocoon shell material. In the meantime, the anisotropy of the cocoon shell is considered and the cocoon shell specimens are cut along 0°, 45° and 90° orientation to the short axis of cocoons. Typical mechanical properties including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and ultimate strain are extracted and analyzed from the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, the fracture morphologies of the cocoon shell specimens are observed under scanning electron microscopy to help understand the relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructures of the cocoon material. A discussion on the dynamic strain rate effect on the mechanical properties of cocoon shell material is followed by fitting our experimental results to two previous models, and the effect could be well explained. We also compare natural and dried cocoon materials for the dynamic strain rate effect and interestingly the dried cocoon shells show better overall mechanical properties. This study provides a different perspective on the mechanical properties of cocoon material as a composite material, and provides some insight for bio-inspired engineering materials.

  10. Assessment of strain and strain rate by two-dimensional speckle tracking in mice: comparison with tissue Doppler echocardiography and conductance catheter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferferieva, V; Van den Bergh, A; Claus, P; Jasaityte, R; La Gerche, A; Rademakers, F; Herijgers, P; D'hooge, J

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed in order to compare the strain and strain rate deformation parameters assessed by speckle tracking imaging (STI) with those of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and conductance catheter measurements in chronic murine models of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Twenty-four male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to wild-type (n = 8), myocardial infarction (n = 8) and transaortic constriction (n = 8) groups. Echocardiographic and conductance measurements were simultaneously performed at rest and during dobutamine infusion (5 µg/kg/min) in all animals 10 weeks post-surgery. The LV circumferential strain (Scirc) and the strain rate (SRcirc) were derived from grey scale and tissue Doppler data at frame rates of 224 and 375 Hz, respectively. Scirc and SRcirc by TDI/STI correlated well with the preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) (r = -0.64 and -0.71 for TDI; r = -0.46 and -0.50 for STI, P < 0.05). Both modalities showed a good agreement with respect to Scirc and SRcirc (r = 0.60 and r = 0.63, P < 0.05). During stress, however, TDI-estimated Scirc and SRcirc values were predominantly higher than those measured by STI (P < 0.05). The similarity of Scirc and SRcirc measurements with respect to the STI/TDI data was examined by the Bland-Altman analysis. In mice, the STI- and TDI-derived strain and strain rate deformation parameters relate closely to intrinsic myocardial function. At low heart rate-to-frame rate ratios (HR/FR), both STI and TDI are equally acceptable for assessing the LV function non-invasively in these animals. At HR/FR (e.g. dobutamine challenge), however, these methods cannot be used interchangeably as STI underestimates S and SR at high values.

  11. Fault on-off versus strain rate and earthquakes energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Doglioni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose that the brittle-ductile transition (BDT controls the seismic cycle. In particular, the movements detected by space geodesy record the steady state deformation in the ductile lower crust, whereas the stick-slip behavior of the brittle upper crust is constrained by its larger friction. GPS data allow analyzing the strain rate along active plate boundaries. In all tectonic settings, we propose that earthquakes primarily occur along active fault segments characterized by relative minima of strain rate, segments which are locked or slowly creeping. We discuss regional examples where large earthquakes happened in areas of relative low strain rate. Regardless the tectonic style, the interseismic stress and strain pattern inverts during the coseismic stage. Where a dilated band formed during the interseismic stage, this will be shortened at the coseismic stage, and vice-versa what was previously shortened, it will be dilated. The interseismic energy accumulation and the coseismic expenditure rather depend on the tectonic setting (extensional, contractional, or strike-slip. The gravitational potential energy dominates along normal faults, whereas the elastic energy prevails for thrust earthquakes and performs work against the gravity force. The energy budget in strike-slip tectonic setting is also primarily due elastic energy. Therefore, precursors may be different as a function of the tectonic setting. In this model, with a given displacement, the magnitude of an earthquake results from the coseismic slip of the deformed volume above the BDT rather than only on the fault length, and it also depends on the fault kinematics.

  12. Constant strain accumulation rate between major earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ekbal; Wright, Tim J; Walters, Richard J; Bekaert, David P S; Lloyd, Ryan; Hooper, Andrew

    2018-04-11

    Earthquakes are caused by the release of tectonic strain accumulated between events. Recent advances in satellite geodesy mean we can now measure this interseismic strain accumulation with a high degree of accuracy. But it remains unclear how to interpret short-term geodetic observations, measured over decades, when estimating the seismic hazard of faults accumulating strain over centuries. Here, we show that strain accumulation rates calculated from geodetic measurements around a major transform fault are constant for its entire 250-year interseismic period, except in the ~10 years following an earthquake. The shear strain rate history requires a weak fault zone embedded within a strong lower crust with viscosity greater than ~10 20  Pa s. The results support the notion that short-term geodetic observations can directly contribute to long-term seismic hazard assessment and suggest that lower-crustal viscosities derived from postseismic studies are not representative of the lower crust at all spatial and temporal scales.

  13. High strain rate tensile behavior of Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Paman, Ashish; Madhu, V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to perform quasi static and high strain rate tensile tests on Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy under different strain rates ranging from 0.01–3500/s and also at temperatures of 25,100, 200 and 300 °C. The combined effect of strain rate, temperature and stress triaxiality on the material behavior is studied by testing both smooth and notched specimens. Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive and fracture models are established based on high strain rate tensile data obtained from Split hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) and quasi-static tests. By modifying the strain hardening and strain rate hardening terms in the Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive model, a new J–C constitutive model of Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy was obtained. The improved Johnson–Cook constitutive model matched the experiment results very well. With the Johnson–Cook constitutive and fracture models, numerical simulations of tensile tests at different conditions for Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy were conducted. Numerical simulations are performed using a non-linear explicit finite element code autodyn. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical simulation results and the experiment results. The fracture surfaces of specimens tested under various strain rates and temperatures were studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  14. Effect of Strain Rate on Microscopic Deformation Behavior of High-density Polyethylene under Uniaxial Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kida Takumitsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic deformation behaviors such as the load sharing and the molecular orientation of high-density polyethylene under uniaxial stretching at various strain rates were investigated by using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. The chains within crystalline phase began to orient toward the stretching direction beyond the yielding region and the orientation behavior was not affected by the strain rate. While the stretching stress along the crystalline chains was also not affected by the strain rate, the peak shifts of the Raman bands at 1130, 1418, 1440 and 1460 cm-1, which are sensitive to the interchain interactions obviously, depended on the strain rate; the higher strain rates lead to the stronger stretching stress or negative pressure on the crystalline and amorphous chains. These effects of the strain rate on the microscopic deformation was associated with the cavitation and the void formation leading to the release of the internal pressure.

  15. Microcrack Evolution and Associated Deformation and Strength Properties of Sandstone Samples Subjected to Various Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Feng Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of micro-cracks in rocks under different strain rates is of great importance for a better understanding of the mechanical properties of rocks under complex stress states. In the present study, a series of tests were carried out under various strain rates, ranging from creep tests to intermediate strain rate tests, so as to observe the evolution of micro-cracks in rock and to investigate the influence of the strain rate on the deformation and strength properties of rocks. Thin sections from rock samples at pre- and post-failure were compared and analyzed at the microscale using an optical microscope. The results demonstrate that the main crack propagation in the rock is intergranular at a creep strain rate and transgranular at a higher strain rate. However, intergranular cracks appear mainly around the quartz and most of the punctured grains are quartz. Furthermore, the intergranular and transgranular cracks exhibit large differences in the different loading directions. In addition, uniaxial compressive tests were conducted on the unbroken rock samples in the creep tests. A comparison of the stress–strain curves of the creep tests and the intermediate strain rate tests indicate that Young’s modulus and the peak strength increase with the strain rate. In addition, more deformation energy is released by the generation of the transgranular cracks than the generation of the intergranular cracks. This study illustrates that the conspicuous crack evolution under different strain rates helps to understand the crack development on a microscale, and explains the relationship between the micro- and macro-behaviors of rock before the collapse under different strain rates.

  16. Identification of strain-rate and thermal sensitive material model with an inverse method

    CERN Document Server

    Peroni, L; Peroni, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical inverse method to extract material strength parameters from the experimental data obtained via mechanical tests at different strain-rates and temperatures. It will be shown that this procedure is particularly useful to analyse experimental results when the stress-strain fields in the specimen cannot be correctly described via analytical models. This commonly happens in specimens with no regular shape, in specimens with a regular shape when some instability phenomena occur (for example the necking phenomena in tensile tests that create a strongly heterogeneous stress-strain fields) or in dynamic tests (where the strain-rate field is not constant due to wave propagation phenomena). Furthermore the developed procedure is useful to take into account thermal phenomena generally affecting high strain-rate tests due to the adiabatic overheating related to the conversion of plastic work. The method presented requires strong effort both from experimental and numerical point of view, an...

  17. Strain rate sensitivity studies on bulk nanocrystalline aluminium by nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varam, Sreedevi; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V., E-mail: kvrse@uohyd.ernet.in; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2014-02-05

    Nanocrystalline aluminium powder synthesized using high energy ball milling process was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The studies indicated the powder having an average grain size of ∼42 nm. The consolidation of the powder was carried out by high-pressure compaction using a uni-axial press at room temperature by applying a pressure of 1.5 GPa. The cold compacted bulk sample having a density of ∼98% was subjected to nanoindentation which showed an average hardness and elastic modulus values of 1.67 ± 0.09 GPa and 83 ± 8 GPa respectively at a peak force of 8000 μN and a strain rate of 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Achieving good strength along with good ductility is challenging in nanocrystalline metals. When enough sample sizes are not available to measure ductility and other mechanical properties as per ASTM standards, as is the case with nanocrystalline materials, nanoindentation is a very promising technique to evaluate strain rate sensitivity. Strain rate sensitivity is a good measure of ductility and in the present work it is measured by performing indentation at various loads with varying loading rates. Strain rate sensitivity values of 0.024–0.054 are obtained for nanocrystalline Al which are high over conventional coarse grained Al. In addition, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) image of the indent shows that there is some plastically flown region around the indent suggesting that this nanocrystalline aluminium is ductile.

  18. High Strain Rate and Shock-Induced Deformation in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, Ramon

    2012-02-01

    Large-scale non-equilibrium molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are now commonly used to study material deformation at high strain rates (10^9-10^12 s-1). They can provide detailed information-- such as defect morphology, dislocation densities, and temperature and stress profiles, unavailable or hard to measure experimentally. Computational studies of shock-induced plasticity and melting in fcc and bcc single, mono-crystal metals, exhibit generic characteristics: high elastic limits, large directional anisotropies in the yield stress and pre-melting much below the equilibrium melt temperature for shock wave propagation along specific crystallographic directions. These generic features in the response of single crystals subjected to high strain rates of deformation can be explained from the changes in the energy landscape of the uniaxially compressed crystal lattice. For time scales relevant to dynamic shock loading, the directional-dependence of the yield strength in single crystals is shown to be due to the onset of instabilities in elastic-wave propagation velocities. The elastic-plastic transition threshold can accurately be predicted by a wave-propagation stability analysis. These strain-induced instabilities create incipient defect structures, which can be quite different from the ones, which characterize the long-time, asymptotic state of the compressed solid. With increase compression and strain rate, plastic deformation via extended defects gives way to amorphization associated with the loss in shear rigidity along specific deformation paths. The hot amorphous or (super-cooled liquid) metal re-crystallizes at rates, which depend on the temperature difference between the amorphous solid and the equilibrium melt line. This plastic-amorphous transition threshold can be computed from shear-waves stability analyses. Examples from selected fcc and bcc metals will be presented employing semi-empirical potentials of the embedded atom method (EAM) type as well as

  19. High-rate operant behavior in two mouse strains: a response-bout analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua E; Pesek, Erin F; Newland, M Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Operant behavior sometimes occurs in bouts characterized by an initiation rate, within-bout response rate, and bout length. The generality of this structure was tested using high-rate nose-poking in mice. Reinforcement of short interresponse times produced high response rates while a random-interval schedule held reinforcement rates constant. BALB/c mice produced bouts that were more frequent, longer, and contained a higher within-bout rate of responding (nine nose-pokes/s) than did the C57BL/6 mice (five nose-pokes/s). Adding a running wheel decreased total nose-pokes and bout length, and increased bout-initiation rate. Free-feeding reduced nose-poking by decreasing bout-initiation rate. Photoperiod reversal decreased bout-initiation rate but not total nose-poke rate. Despite strain differences in bout structure, both strains responded similarly to the interventions. The three bout measures were correlated with overall rate but not with each other. Log-survival analyses provided independent descriptors of the structure of high-rate responding in these two strains.

  20. Dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dao-chun [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Taizhou Vocational & Technical College, Taizhou 318000 (China); Chen, Ming-he, E-mail: meemhchen@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Lei; Cheng, Hu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China)

    2016-01-01

    High speed stamping process is used to high strength and high electrical conductivity phosphor bronze with extremely high strain rates more than 10{sup 3} s{sup −1}. This study on the dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism is to optimise the high speed stamping processes and improve geometrical precision in finished products. Thus, the tensile properties and deformation behaviour of C5191 phosphor bronze under quasi-static tensile condition at a strain rate of 0.001 s{sup −1} by electronic universal testing machine, and dynamic tensile condition at strain rate of 500, 1000 and 1500 s{sup −1} by split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB) apparatus were studied. The effects of strain rate and the deformation mechanism were investigated by means of SEM and TEM. The results showed that the yield strength and tensile strength of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation increased by 32.77% and 11.07% respectively compared with quasi-static condition, the strain hardening index increases from 0.075 to 0.251, and the strength of the material strain rates sensitivity index change from 0.005 to 0.022, which presented a clear sensitive to strain rates. Therefore, it is claimed that the dominant deformation mechanism was changed by the dislocation motion under different strain rates, and the ability of plastic deformation of C5191 phosphor bronze increased due to the number of movable dislocations increased significantly, started multi-line slip, and the soft effect of adiabatic temperature rise at the strain rate ranging from 500 to 1500 s{sup −1}.

  1. Study of creep behaviour in P-doped copper with slow strain rate tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuexing Yao; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2000-08-01

    Pure copper with addition of phosphorous is planned to be used to construct the canisters for spent nuclear fuel. The copper canisters can be exposed to a creep deformation up to 2-4% at temperatures in services. The ordinary creep strain tests with dead weight loading are generally employed to study the creep behaviour; however, it is reported that an initial plastic deformation of 5-15% takes place when loading the creep specimens at lower temperatures. The slow strain rate tensile test is an alternative to study creep deformation behaviour of materials. Ordinary creep test and slow strain rate tensile test can give the same information in the secondary creep stage. The advantage of the tensile test is that the starting phase is much more controlled than in a creep test. In a tensile test the initial deformation behaviour can be determined and the initial strain of less than 5% can be modelled. In this study slow strain rate tensile tests at strain rate of 10 -4 , 10 -5 , 10 -6 , and 10 -7 /s at 75, 125 and 175 degrees C have been performed on P-doped pure Cu to supplement creep data from conventional creep tests. The deformation behaviour has successfully been modelled. It is shown that the slow strain rate tensile tests can be implemented to study the creep deformation behaviours of pure Cu

  2. Measurement test on creep strain rate of uranium-zirconium solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Takanari; Akabori, Mitsuo; Ogawa, Toru

    1996-11-01

    In order to measure creep strain rate of a small specimen of U-Zr solid solution, authors proposed an estimation method which was based upon the stress relaxation after compression. It was applied to measurement test on creep strain rate of the U-10wt%Zr specimen in the temperature range of 757 to 911degC. It may be concluded that the proposed method is valid, provided that the strain is within the appropriate range and that sufficient amount of the load decrement is observed. The obtained creep rate of U-10wt%Zr alloy indicated significantly smaller value, compared to the experimental data for pure U metal and evaluated data for U-Pu-Zr alloy. However, more careful measurement is desired in future since the present data are thought to be influenced by the precipitations included in the specimen. (author)

  3. Effect of Strain Rate on Hot Ductility Behavior of a High Nitrogen Cr-Mn Austenitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Meng, Qing; Qu, Minggui; Zhou, Zean; Wang, Bo; Fu, Wantang

    2016-03-01

    18Mn18Cr0.6N steel specimens were tensile tested between 1173 K and 1473 K (900 °C and 1200 °C) at 9 strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 10 s-1. The tensile strained microstructures were analyzed through electron backscatter diffraction analysis. The strain rate was found to affect hot ductility by influencing the strain distribution, the extent of dynamic recrystallization and the resulting grain size, and dynamic recovery. The crack nucleation sites were primarily located at grain boundaries and were not influenced by the strain rate. At 1473 K (1200 °C), a higher strain rate was beneficial for grain refinement and preventing hot cracking; however, dynamic recovery appreciably occurred at 0.001 s-1 and induced transgranular crack propagation. At 1373 K (1100 °C), a high extent of dynamic recrystallization and fine new grains at medium strain rates led to good hot ductility. The strain gradient from the interior of the grain to the grain boundary increased with decreasing strain rate at 1173 K and 1273 K (900 °C and 1000 °C), which promoted hot cracking. Grain boundary sliding accompanied grain rotation and did not contribute to hot cracking.

  4. Left ventricular strain and strain rate by 2D speckle tracking in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension before and after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltman Thomas J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular (LV strain and strain rate (SR by 2D speckle tracking may be useful tools to assess chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH severity as well as response to successful pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE. Methods We evaluated 30 patients with CTEPH before and after PTE using 2D speckle tracking measurements of LV radial and circumferential strain and SR in the short axis, and correlated the data with right heart catheterization (RHC. Results PTE resulted in a decrease in mean PA pressure (44 ± 15 to 29 ± 9 mmHg, decrease in PVR (950 ± 550 to 31 ± 160 [dyne-sec]/cm5, and an increase in cardiac output (3.9 ± 1.0 to 5.0 ± 1.0 L/min, p change in circumferential strain and change in posterior wall radial strain correlated moderately well with changes in PVR, mean PA pressure and cardiac output (r = 0.69, 0.76, and 0.51 for circumferential strain [p Conclusions LV circumferential and posterior wall radial strain change after relief of pulmonary arterial obstruction in patients with CTEPH, and these improvements occur rapidly. These changes in LV strain may reflect effects from improved LV diastolic filling, and may be useful non-invasive markers of successful PTE.

  5. Strain Rate Dependent Ductile-to-Brittle Transition of Graphite Platelet Reinforced Vinyl Ester Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmananda Pramanik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous research, the fractal dimensions of fractured surfaces of vinyl ester based nanocomposites were estimated applying classical method on 3D digital microscopic images. The fracture energy and fracture toughness were obtained from fractal dimensions. A noteworthy observation, the strain rate dependent ductile-to-brittle transition of vinyl ester based nanocomposites, is reinvestigated in the current study. The candidate materials of xGnP (exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets reinforced and with additional CTBN (Carboxyl Terminated Butadiene Nitrile toughened vinyl ester based nanocomposites that are subjected to both quasi-static and high strain rate indirect tensile load using the traditional Brazilian test method. High-strain rate indirect tensile testing is performed with a modified Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB. Pristine vinyl ester shows ductile deformation under quasi-static loading and brittle failure when subjected to high-strain rate loading. This observation reconfirms the previous research findings on strain rate dependent ductile-to-brittle transition of this material system. Investigation of both quasi-static and dynamic indirect tensile test responses show the strain rate effect on the tensile strength and energy absorbing capacity of the candidate materials. Contribution of nanoreinforcement to the tensile properties is reported in this paper.

  6. Effect of the Strain Rate on the Tensile Properties of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seunghun; Park, Jiyoun; Choi, Ildong; Park, Sung Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the strain rate at a range of 10‒4 ⁓ 3 × 10"2s"-1 on the tensile characteristics of a rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied. The normal tensile specimens were tested using a high rate hydraulic testing machine. Specimens were machined from four sheets with different thicknesses, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mm, along three directions, 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction. The results revealed that all the specimens had a positive strain rate sensitivity of strength, that is, the strength increased with increasing strain rate. This is the same tendency as other automotive steels have. Our results suggest that the AZ31 magnesium alloy has better collision characteristics at high strain rates because of improved strength with an increasing strain rate. Ductility decreased with an increasing strain rate with a strain rate under 1 s"-1, but it increased with an increasing strain rate over 1 s"-1. The mechanical properties of the AZ31 magnesium alloy depend on the different microstructures according to the thickness. Two and 3 mm thickness specimens with a coarse and non-uniform grain structure exhibited worse mechanical properties while the 1.5 mm thickness specimens with a fine and uniform grain structure had better mechanical properties. Specimens machined at 0° and 45° to the rolling direction had higher absorbed energy than that of the 90° specimen. Thus, we demonstrate it is necessary to choose materials with proper thickness and machining direction for use in automotive applications.

  7. Rheology of arc dacite lavas: experimental determination at low strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avard, Geoffroy; Whittington, Alan G.

    2012-07-01

    Andesitic-dacitic volcanoes exhibit a large variety of eruption styles, including explosive eruptions, endogenous and exogenous dome growth, and kilometer-long lava flows. The rheology of these lavas can be investigated through field observations of flow and dome morphology, but this approach integrates the properties of lava over a wide range of temperatures. Another approach is through laboratory experiments; however, previous studies have used higher shear stresses and strain rates than are appropriate to lava flows. We measured the apparent viscosity of several lavas from Santiaguito and Bezymianny volcanoes by uniaxial compression, between 1,109 and 1,315 K, at low shear stress (0.085 to 0.42 MPa), low strain rate (between 1.1 × 10-8 and 1.9 × 10-5 s-1), and up to 43.7 % total deformation. The results show a strong variability of the apparent viscosity between different samples, which can be ascribed to differences in initial porosity and crystallinity. Deformation occurs primarily by compaction, with some cracking and/or vesicle coalescence. Our experiments yield apparent viscosities more than 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted by models based on experiments at higher strain rates. At lava flow conditions, no evidence of a yield strength is observed, and the apparent viscosity is best approached by a strain rate- and temperature-dependent power law equation. The best fit for Santiaguito lava, for temperatures between 1,164 and 1,226 K and strain rates lower than 1.8 × 10-4 s-1, is log {η_{{app}}} = - 0.738 + 9.24 × {10^3}{/}T(K) - 0.654 \\cdot log dot{\\varepsilon } where η app is apparent viscosity and dot{\\varepsilon } is strain rate. This equation also reproduced 45 data for a sample from Bezymianny with a root mean square deviation of 0.19 log unit Pa s. Applying the rheological model to lava flow conditions at Santiaguito yields calculated apparent viscosities that are in reasonable agreement with field observations and suggests that

  8. Mechanical response of AA7075 aluminum alloy over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z.; Cassada, W.A. [Reynolds Metals Co., Chester, VA (United States). Corp. Res. and Dev.; Cady, C.M.; Gray, G.T. III

    2000-07-01

    The influence of temperature and strain rate on the flow stress and work hardening rate of a 7075 aluminum alloy was studied under compressive loading over the temperature range from 23 C to 470 C, and strain rates from 0.001 s{sup -1} and 2100 s{sup -1}. While the temperature dependence of the flow stress was found to be most significant at temperatures below 300 C, the strain rate dependence of the flow stress was found to be pronounced at temperatures above 23 C. Concurrently, the work hardening rate decreases significantly with increasing temperature between 23 C and 300 C and increases slightly at higher temperatures. The minimum work hardening rate is observed to occur at temperatures between 200 C and 300 C and shift to higher temperatures with increasing strain rate. A negative strain rate dependence of work hardening rate was observed at 23 C, although a positive strain rate dependence of work hardening rate occurs at higher temperatures. Analysis of the experimental data revealed three deformation regimes. (orig.)

  9. Effect of the Strain Rate on the Tensile Properties of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seunghun; Park, Jiyoun; Choi, Ildong [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Hyuk [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The effect of the strain rate at a range of 10‒4 ⁓ 3 × 10{sup 2}s{sup -}1 on the tensile characteristics of a rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied. The normal tensile specimens were tested using a high rate hydraulic testing machine. Specimens were machined from four sheets with different thicknesses, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mm, along three directions, 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction. The results revealed that all the specimens had a positive strain rate sensitivity of strength, that is, the strength increased with increasing strain rate. This is the same tendency as other automotive steels have. Our results suggest that the AZ31 magnesium alloy has better collision characteristics at high strain rates because of improved strength with an increasing strain rate. Ductility decreased with an increasing strain rate with a strain rate under 1 s{sup -}1, but it increased with an increasing strain rate over 1 s{sup -}1. The mechanical properties of the AZ31 magnesium alloy depend on the different microstructures according to the thickness. Two and 3 mm thickness specimens with a coarse and non-uniform grain structure exhibited worse mechanical properties while the 1.5 mm thickness specimens with a fine and uniform grain structure had better mechanical properties. Specimens machined at 0° and 45° to the rolling direction had higher absorbed energy than that of the 90° specimen. Thus, we demonstrate it is necessary to choose materials with proper thickness and machining direction for use in automotive applications.

  10. Theoretical and experimental study of high strain, high strain rate materials viscoplastic behaviour. Application to Mars 190 steel and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanicotena, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work enters in the general framework of the study and modelling of metallic materials viscoplastic behaviour in the area of high strain and high strain rate, from 10 4 to 10 5 s -1 . We define a methodology allowing to describe the behaviour of armor steel Mars 190 and tantalum in the initial area. In a first time, the study of visco-plasticity physical mechanisms shows the necessity to take into account some fundamental processes of the plastic deformation. Then, the examination of various constitutive relations allows to select the Preston-Tonks-Wallace model, that notably reproduce the physical phenomenon of the flow stress saturation. In a second part, a mechanical characterization integrating loading direction, strain rate and temperature effects is conducted on the two materials. Moreover, these experimental results allow to calculate associated constants to Preston-Tonks-Wallace, Zerilli-Armstrong and Johnson-Cook models for each material. In a third time, in order to evaluate and to validate these constitutive laws, we conceive and develop an experimental device open to reach the area of study: the expanding spherical shell test. It concerns to impose a free radial expanding to a thin spherical shell by means a shock wave generated by an explosive. By the radial expanding velocity measure, we can determine stress, strain rate and strain applied on the spherical shell at each time. In a four and last part, we evaluate constitutive models out of their optimization area's. This validation is undertaken by comparisons 'experimental results/calculations' with the help of global experiences like expanding spherical shell test and Taylor test. (author)

  11. Influence of stress triaxiality and strain rate on the failure behavior of a dual-phase DP780 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Winkler, S.; Bardelcik, A.; Worswick, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • DP780 steel sheet sensitive to strain rate and triaxiality. • Specimens failed due to ductile-shear mode. • Extent of transverse cracking due to martensitic islands increased with triaxiality. • Uniaxial stress decreased with strain rate then increased after 0.1 s −1 . • Predicted effective plastic strain, triaxiality at failure increased with strain rate. - Abstract: To better understand the in-service mechanical behavior of advanced high-strength steels, the influence of stress triaxiality and strain rate on the failure behavior of a dual-phase (DP) 780 steel sheet was investigated. Three flat, notched mini-tensile geometries with varying notch severities and initial stress triaxialities of 0.36, 0.45, and 0.74 were considered in the experiments. Miniature specimens were adopted to facilitate high strain rate testing in addition to quasi-static experiments. Tensile tests were conducted at strain rates of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s −1 for all three notched geometries and compared to mini-tensile uniaxial samples. Additional tests at a strain rate of 1500 s −1 were performed using a tensile split Hopkinson bar apparatus. The results showed that the stress–strain response of the DP780 steel exhibited mainly positive strain rate sensitivity for all geometries, with mild negative strain rate sensitivity up to 0.1 s −1 for the uniaxial specimens. The strain at failure was observed to decrease with strain rate at low strain rates of 0.001–0.1 s −1 ; however, it increased by 26% for an increase in strain rate from 0.1 to 1500 s −1 for the uniaxial condition. Initial triaxiality was found to have a significant negative impact on true failure strain with a decrease of 32% at the highest triaxiality compared to the uniaxial condition at a strain rate of 0.001 s −1 . High resolution scanning electron microscopy images of the failure surfaces revealed a dimpled surface while optical micrographs revealed shearing through the

  12. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Flow Behavior and Anisotropy of a Medium-Manganese TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturk, Rakan; Hector, Louis G.; Matthew Enloe, C.; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Brown, Tyson W.

    2018-06-01

    The dependence of the plastic anisotropy on the nominal strain rate for a medium-manganese (10 wt.% Mn) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with initial austenite volume fraction of 66% (balance ferrite) has been investigated. The material exhibited yield point elongation, propagative instabilities during hardening, and austenite transformation to α'-martensite either directly or through ɛ-martensite. Uniaxial strain rates within the range of 0.005-500 s-1 along the 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations were selected based upon their relevance to automotive applications. The plastic anisotropy ( r) and normal anisotropy ( r n) indices corresponding to each direction and strain rate were determined using strain fields obtained from stereo digital image correlation systems that enabled both quasistatic and dynamic measurements. The results provide evidence of significant, orientation-dependent strain rate effects on both the flow stress and the evolution of r and r n with strain. This has implications not only for material performance during forming but also for the development of future strain-rate-dependent anisotropic yield criteria. Since tensile data alone for the subject medium-manganese TRIP steel do not satisfactorily determine the microstructural mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic-scale behavior observed on tensile testing, additional tests that must supplement the mechanical test results presented herein are discussed.

  13. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Flow Behavior and Anisotropy of a Medium-Manganese TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturk, Rakan; Hector, Louis G.; Matthew Enloe, C.; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Brown, Tyson W.

    2018-04-01

    The dependence of the plastic anisotropy on the nominal strain rate for a medium-manganese (10 wt.% Mn) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with initial austenite volume fraction of 66% (balance ferrite) has been investigated. The material exhibited yield point elongation, propagative instabilities during hardening, and austenite transformation to α'-martensite either directly or through ɛ-martensite. Uniaxial strain rates within the range of 0.005-500 s-1 along the 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations were selected based upon their relevance to automotive applications. The plastic anisotropy (r) and normal anisotropy (r n) indices corresponding to each direction and strain rate were determined using strain fields obtained from stereo digital image correlation systems that enabled both quasistatic and dynamic measurements. The results provide evidence of significant, orientation-dependent strain rate effects on both the flow stress and the evolution of r and r n with strain. This has implications not only for material performance during forming but also for the development of future strain-rate-dependent anisotropic yield criteria. Since tensile data alone for the subject medium-manganese TRIP steel do not satisfactorily determine the microstructural mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic-scale behavior observed on tensile testing, additional tests that must supplement the mechanical test results presented herein are discussed.

  14. High strain rates spallation phenomena with relation to the equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekel, E.

    1997-11-01

    Theoretical spall strength, defined as the stress needed to separate a material along a plane surface instantaneously, is one order of magnitude larger then the measured spell strength at strain rates up to 10 6 s -1 . The discrepancy is explained by material initial flaws and cavities which grow and coalesce under stress and weaken the material. Measurements of spall strength of materials shocked by a high power laser shows a rapid increase in the spall strength with the strain rate at strain rates of about 10 7 s -1 . This indicates that the initial flaws does not have time to coalesce and the interatomic forces become dominant. In order to break the material more cavities must be created. This cavities are characterized by the interatomic forces and are created statistically: material under tensile stress is in a metastable condition and due to thermal fluctuations cavities are formed. Cavities larger than a certain critical size grow due to the stress. They grow until the material disintegrates at the spall plane. The theoretical results predict the increase in spall strength at high strain rates, as observed experimentally. (authors)

  15. Mechanical properties of biaxially strained poly(L-lactide) tubes: Strain rate and temperature dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2017-01-01

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a bioabsorbable polymer with high stiffness and strength compared to the other commercially available bioabsorbable polymers. The properties of PLLA can be improved by straining, causing deformation-mediated molecular orientation. PLLA tubes were biaxially strained above...

  16. Refinement of the wedge bar technique for compression tests at intermediate strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stander M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined development of the wedge-bar technique [1] for compression tests at intermediate strain rates is presented. The concept uses a wedge mechanism to compress small cylindrical specimens at strain rates in the order of 10s−1 to strains of up to 0.3. Co-linear elastic impact principles are used to accelerate the actuation mechanism from rest to test speed in under 300μs while maintaining near uniform strain rates for up to 30 ms, i.e. the transient phase of the test is less than 1% of the total test duration. In particular, a new load frame, load cell and sliding anvil designs are presented and shown to significantly reduce the noise generated during testing. Typical dynamic test results for a selection of metals and polymers are reported and compared with quasistatic and split Hopkinson pressure bar results.

  17. Strain rate effects of AM60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehkopf, J.D.; Krause, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Magnesium is seeing increasing use in the automotive industry due to its high strength-to-weight ratio and its ability to be cast to tight dimensional tolerances. Presently, main applications include interior components such as instrument panels, steering wheels and seat frames. Consequently, there is a strong need for understanding the rate effect on the behaviour of magnesium under impact type loading. In this work the effect of strain rate on AM60 tensile behaviour was investigated through both high and cold temperature testing, at ranges relevant to the automotive environment. Microstructural analysis, presented in this paper, includes porosity, grain size and fracture surface analyses. (author)

  18. Strain rate dependent deformation and failure behavior of laser welded DP780 steel joint under dynamic tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Danyang; Wang, Lei; Chu, Xi; Wang, Pengfei; Jin, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    Laser welded DP steel joints are used widely in the automotive industry for weight reduction. Understanding the deformation and fracture behavior of the base metal (BM) and its welded joint (WJ), especially at high strain rates, is critical for the design of vehicle structures. This paper is concerned with the effects of strain rate on the tensile properties, deformation and fracture behavior of the laser welded DP780 steel joint. Quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed on the WJ and BM of the DP780 steel using an electromechanical universal testing machine and a high-speed tensile testing machine over a wide range of strain rate (0.0001–1142 s −1 ). The microstructure change and microhardness distribution of the DP780 steel after laser welding were examined. Digital image correlation (DIC) and high-speed photography were employed for the strain measurement of the DP780 WJ during dynamic tensile tests. The DP780 WJ is a heterogeneous structure with hardening in fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), and softening in outer HAZ. The DP780 BM and WJ exhibit positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS, which is smaller at lower strain rates and becomes larger with increasing strain rate, while ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) tends to increase under dynamic loading. Laser welding leads to an overall reduction in the ductility of the DP780 steel. However, the WJ exhibits a similar changing trend of the ductility to that of the BM with respect to the strain rate over the whole strain rate range. As for the DP780 WJ, the distance of tensile failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The typical ductile failure characteristics of the DP780 BM and WJ do not change with increasing strain rate. DIC measurements reveal that the strain localization starts even before the maximum load is attained in the DP780 WJ and gradual transition from uniform strains to severely localized strains occurs

  19. Strain rate dependent deformation and failure behavior of laser welded DP780 steel joint under dynamic tensile loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Dong, Danyang, E-mail: dongdanyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Lei, E-mail: wanglei@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chu, Xi, E-mail: chuxi.ok@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: wpf1963871400@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jin, Mengmeng, E-mail: 24401878@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-03-11

    Laser welded DP steel joints are used widely in the automotive industry for weight reduction. Understanding the deformation and fracture behavior of the base metal (BM) and its welded joint (WJ), especially at high strain rates, is critical for the design of vehicle structures. This paper is concerned with the effects of strain rate on the tensile properties, deformation and fracture behavior of the laser welded DP780 steel joint. Quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed on the WJ and BM of the DP780 steel using an electromechanical universal testing machine and a high-speed tensile testing machine over a wide range of strain rate (0.0001–1142 s{sup −1}). The microstructure change and microhardness distribution of the DP780 steel after laser welding were examined. Digital image correlation (DIC) and high-speed photography were employed for the strain measurement of the DP780 WJ during dynamic tensile tests. The DP780 WJ is a heterogeneous structure with hardening in fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), and softening in outer HAZ. The DP780 BM and WJ exhibit positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS, which is smaller at lower strain rates and becomes larger with increasing strain rate, while ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) tends to increase under dynamic loading. Laser welding leads to an overall reduction in the ductility of the DP780 steel. However, the WJ exhibits a similar changing trend of the ductility to that of the BM with respect to the strain rate over the whole strain rate range. As for the DP780 WJ, the distance of tensile failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The typical ductile failure characteristics of the DP780 BM and WJ do not change with increasing strain rate. DIC measurements reveal that the strain localization starts even before the maximum load is attained in the DP780 WJ and gradual transition from uniform strains to severely localized strains

  20. Characterization of a New Fully Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Subjected to High Strain Rate Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, H.; Tamboura, S.; Fitoussi, J.; BenDaly, H.; Tcharkhtchi, A.

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is the complete physicochemical characterization and strain rate effect multi-scale analysis of a new fully recycled carbon fiber reinforced composites for automotive crash application. Two composites made of 20% wt short recycled carbon fibers (CF) are obtained by injection molding. The morphology and the degree of dispersion of CF in the matrixes were examined using a new ultrasonic method and SEM. High strain tensile behavior up to 100 s-1 is investigated. In order to avoid perturbation due to inertial effect and wave propagation, the specimen geometry was optimized. The elastic properties appear to be insensitive to the strain rate. However, a high strain rate effect on the local visco-plasticity of the matrix and fiber/matrix interface visco-damageable behavior is emphasized. The predominant damage mechanisms evolve from generalized matrix local ductility at low strain rate regime to fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers pull-out at high strain rate regime.

  1. Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity of Micro-struts Manufactured Using the Selective Laser Melting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümrük, Recep; Mines, R. A. W.; Karadeniz, Sami

    2018-03-01

    Micro-lattice structures manufactured using the selective laser melting (SLM) process provides the opportunity to realize optimal cellular materials for impact energy absorption. In this paper, strain rate-dependent material properties are measured for stainless steel 316L SLM micro-lattice struts in the strain rate range of 10-3 to 6000 s-1. At high strain rates, a novel version of the split Hopkinson Bar has been developed. Strain rate-dependent materials data have been used in Cowper-Symonds material model, and the scope and limit of this model in the context of SLM struts have been discussed. Strain rate material data and the Cowper-Symonds model have been applied to the finite element analysis of a micro-lattice block subjected to drop weight impact loading. The model output has been compared to experimental results, and it has been shown that the increase in crush stress due to impact loading is mainly the result of strain rate material behavior. Hence, a systematic methodology has been developed to investigate the impact energy absorption of a micro-lattice structure manufactured using additive layer manufacture (SLM). This methodology can be extended to other micro-lattice materials and configurations, and to other impact conditions.

  2. A new analytical method for estimating lumped parameter constants of linear viscoelastic models from strain rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G.; Ahluwalia, A.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a new function, the apparent elastic modulus strain-rate spectrum, E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ), for the derivation of lumped parameter constants for Generalized Maxwell (GM) linear viscoelastic models from stress-strain data obtained at various compressive strain rates ( \\dot{ɛ}). The E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ) function was derived using the tangent modulus function obtained from the GM model stress-strain response to a constant \\dot{ɛ} input. Material viscoelastic parameters can be rapidly derived by fitting experimental E_{app} data obtained at different strain rates to the E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ) function. This single-curve fitting returns similar viscoelastic constants as the original epsilon dot method based on a multi-curve global fitting procedure with shared parameters. Its low computational cost permits quick and robust identification of viscoelastic constants even when a large number of strain rates or replicates per strain rate are considered. This method is particularly suited for the analysis of bulk compression and nano-indentation data of soft (bio)materials.

  3. Dynamic Behavior of AA2519-T8 Aluminum Alloy Under High Strain Rate Loading in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, A. T.; Owolabi, G. M.; Odeshi, A. G.; Yilmaz, N.; Zeytinci, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effects of strain rate on the dynamic behavior, microstructure evolution and hence, failure of the AA2519-T8 aluminum alloy were investigated under compression at strain rates ranging from 1000 to 3500 s-1. Cylindrical specimens of dimensions 3.3 mm × 3.3 mm (L/D = 1) were tested using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with a digital image correlation system. The microstructure of the alloy was assessed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Results showed that the dynamic yield strength of the alloy is strain rate dependent, with the maximum yield strength attained by the material being 500 MPa. The peak flow stress of 562 MPa was attained by the material at 3500 s-1. The alloy also showed a significant rate of strain hardening that is typical of other Al-Cu alloys; the rate of strain hardening, however, decreased with increase in strain rate. It was determined that the strain rate sensitivity coefficient of the alloy within the range of high strain rates used in this study is approximately 0.05 at 0.12 plastic strain; a more significant value than what was reported in literature under quasi-static loading. Micrographs obtained showed potential sites for the evolution of adiabatic shear band at 3500 s-1, with a characteristic circular-shaped surface profile comprising partially dissolved second phase particles in the continuous phase across the incident plane of the deformed specimen. The regions surrounding the site showed little or no change in the size of particles. However, the constituent coarse particles were observed as agglomerations of fractured pieces, thus having a shape factor different from those contained in the as-received alloy. Since the investigated alloy is a choice material for military application where it can be exposed to massive deformation at high strain rates, this study provides information on its microstructural and mechanical responses to such extreme loading condition.

  4. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenu Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF was finally evaluated.

  5. Modelling plastic deformation of metals over a wide range of strain rates using irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mingxin; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E J; Zwaag, Sybrand van der; Bouaziz, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of irreversible thermodynamics, the present work proposes a dislocation-based model to describe the plastic deformation of FCC metals over wide ranges of strain rates. The stress-strain behaviour and the evolution of the average dislocation density are derived. It is found that there is a transitional strain rate (∼ 10 4 s -1 ) over which the phonon drag effects appear, resulting in a significant increase in the flow stress and the average dislocation density. The model is applied to pure Cu deformed at room temperature and at strain rates ranging from 10 -5 to 10 6 s -1 showing good agreement with experimental results.

  6. Strain rates estimated by geodetic observations in the Borborema Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Giuliano Sant'Anna; França, George Sand; Monico, João Francisco Galera; Bezerra, Francisco Hilário R.; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo

    2015-03-01

    The strain rates for the Borborema Province, located in northeastern Brazil, were estimated in this study. For this purpose, we used GNSS tracking stations with a minimum of two years data. The data were processed using the software GIPSY, version 6.2, provided by the JPL of the California Institute of Technology. The PPP method was used to process the data using the non-fiducial approach. Satellite orbits and clock were supplied by the JPL. Absolute phase center offsets and variations for both the receiver and the satellite antennaes were applied, together with ambiguity resolution; corrections of the first and second order effects of the ionosphere and troposphere models adopting the VMF1 mapping function; 10° elevation mask; FES2004 oceanic load model and terrestrial tide WahrK1 PolTid FreqDepLove OctTid. From a multi annual solution, involving at least 2 years of continuous data, the coordinates and velocities as well as their accuracies were estimated. The strain rates were calculated using the Delaunay triangulation and the Finite Element Method. The results show that the velocity direction is predominantly west and north, with maximum variation of 4.0 ± 1.5 mm/year and 4.1 ± 0.5 mm/year for the x and y components, respectively. The highest strain values of extension and contraction were 0.109552 × 10-6 ± 3.65 × 10-10/year and -0.072838 × 10-6 ± 2.32 × 10-10/year, respectively. In general, the results show that the highest strain and variation of velocity values are located close to the Potiguar Basin, region that concentrates seismic activities of magnitudes of up to 5.2 mb. We conclude that the contraction direction of strain is consistent with the maximum horizontal stress derived from focal mechanism and breakout data. In addition, we conclude that the largest strain rates occur around the Potiguar Basin, an area already recognized as one of the major sites of seismicity in intraplate South America.

  7. Influence of temperature, strain rate and thermal aging on the structure/property behavior of uranium 6 wt% Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, C.M.; Gray, G.T.; Chen, S.R.; Lopez, M.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., MST-8, MS G-755, NM (United States); Field, R.D.; Korzekwa, D.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., MST-6, MS G-770, NM (United States); Hixson, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab, DX-9, MS P-952, NM (United States)

    2006-08-15

    A rigorous experimentation and validation program is being undertaken to create constitutive models that elucidate the fundamental mechanisms controlling plasticity in uranium-6 wt% niobium alloys (U-6Nb). These models should accurately predict high-strain-rate large-strain plasticity, damage evolution and failure. The goal is a physically-based constitutive model that captures 1) an understanding of how strain rate, temperature, and aging affects the mechanical response of a material, and 2) an understanding of the operative deformation mechanisms. The stress-strain response of U-6Nb has been studied as a function of temperature, strain-rate, and thermal aging. U-6Nb specimens in a solution-treated and quenched condition and after subsequent aging at 473 K for 2 hours were studied. The constitutive behavior was evaluated over the range of strain rates from quasi-static (0.001 s{sup -1}) to dynamic ({approx} 2000 s{sup -1}) and temperatures ranging from 77 to 773 K. The yield stress of U-6Nb was exhibited pronounced temperature sensitivity. The strain hardening rate is seen to be less sensitive to strain rate and temperature beyond plastic strains of 0.10. The yield strength of the aged material is less significantly affected by temperature and the work hardening rate shows adiabatic heating at lower strains rates (1/s). (authors)

  8. High strain and strain-rate behaviour of PTFE/aluminium/tungsten mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addiss, John; Walley, Stephen; Proud, William; Cai Jing; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2007-01-01

    Conventional drop-weight techniques were modified to accommodate low-amplitude force transducer signals from low-strength, cold isostatically pressed 'heavy' composites of polytetrafluoroethylene, aluminum and tungsten (W). The failure strength, strain and the post-critical behavior of failed samples were measured for samples of different porosity and tungsten grain size. Unusual phenomenon of significantly higher strength (55 MPa) of porous composites (density 5.9 g/cm 3 ) with small W particles ( 3 ) with larger W particles (44 μm) at the same volume content of components was observed. This is attributed to force chains created by a network of small W particles. Interrupted tests at different levels of strain revealed the mechanisms of fracture under dynamic compression

  9. Strain rate effects on localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers

    OpenAIRE

    BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid

    2017-01-01

    Due to their good mechanical and technological performances, thin substrate-supported metal layers are increasingly used as functional components in flexible electronic devices. Consequently, the prediction of necking, and the associated limit strains, for such components is of major academic and industrial importance. The current contribution aims to numerically investigate the respective and combined effects of strain rate sensitivity of the metal layer and the addition of an elastomer l...

  10. Strain-rate effect on initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loading and its deformation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zheng, Zhijun; Liao, Shenfei; Yu, Jilin

    2018-02-01

    The seemingly contradictory understandings of the initial crush stress of cellular materials under dynamic loadings exist in the literature, and a comprehensive analysis of this issue is carried out with using direct information of local stress and strain. Local stress/strain calculation methods are applied to determine the initial crush stresses and the strain rates at initial crush from a cell-based finite element model of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loadings. The initial crush stress under constant-velocity compression is identical to the quasi-static one, but less than the one under direct impact, i.e. the initial crush stresses under different dynamic loadings could be very different even though there is no strain-rate effect of matrix material. A power-law relation between the initial crush stress and the strain rate is explored to describe the strain-rate effect on the initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb when the local strain rate exceeds a critical value, below which there is no strain-rate effect of irregular honeycomb. Deformation mechanisms of the initial crush behavior under dynamic loadings are also explored. The deformation modes of the initial crush region in the front of plastic compaction wave are different under different dynamic loadings.

  11. A nanoindentation investigation of local strain rate sensitivity in dual-phase Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Tea-Sung, E-mail: t.jun@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Armstrong, David E.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Britton, T. Benjamin [Department of Materials, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-05

    Using nanoindentation we have investigated the local strain rate sensitivity in dual-phase Ti alloys, Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr-xMo (x = 2 and 6), as strain rate sensitivity could be a potential factor causing cold dwell fatigue. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to select hard and soft grain orientations within each of the alloys. Nanoindentation based tests using the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) method were performed with variable strain rates, on the order of 10{sup −1} to 10{sup −3}s{sup −1}. Local strain rate sensitivity is determined using a power law linking equivalent flow stress and equivalent plastic strain rate. Analysis of residual impressions using both a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a focused ion beam (FIB) reveals local deformation around the indents and shows that nanoindentation tested structures containing both α and β phases within individual colonies. This indicates that the indentation results are derived from averaged α/β properties. The results show that a trend of local rate sensitivity in Ti6242 and Ti6246 is strikingly different; as similar rate sensitivities are found in Ti6246 regardless of grain orientation, whilst a grain orientation dependence is observed in Ti6242. These findings are important for understanding dwell fatigue deformation modes, and the methodology demonstrated can be used for screening new alloy designs and microstructures. - Highlights: • Nanoindentation-based CSM tests were performed on dual-phase Ti alloys. • EBSD was effectively used to select target grains within isolated morphologies. • A trend of local rate sensitivity in Ti6242 and Ti6246 is strikingly different. • A significant grain orientation dependent rate sensitivity is observed in Ti6242. • Similar rate sensitivities are found in Ti6246 regardless of grain orientation.

  12. Hot Tensile and Fracture Behavior of 35CrMo Steel at Elevated Temperature and Strain Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbing Xiao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the tensile deformation and fracture behavior of 35CrMo steel during hot processing, uniaxial tensile tests at elevated temperatures and strain rates were performed. Effects of deformation condition on the flow behavior, strain rate sensitivity, microstructure transformation, and fracture characteristic were characterized and discussed. The results indicated that the flow stress was sensitive to the deformation condition, and fracture occurs immediately after the peak stress level is reached, especially when the temperature is low or the strain rate is high. The strain rate sensitivity increases with the deformation temperature, which indicates that formability could improve at high temperatures. Photographs showing both the fracture surfaces and the matrix near the fracture section indicated the ductile nature of the material. However, the fracture mechanisms varied according to the deformation condition, which influences the dynamic recrystallization (DRX condition, and the DRX was accompanied by the formation of voids. For samples deformed at high temperatures or low strain rates, coalescence of numerous voids formed in the recrystallized grains is responsible for fracture, while at high strain rates or low temperatures, the grains rupture mainly by splitting because of cracks formed around the inclusions.

  13. Strain rate dependency of bovine trabecular bone under impact loading at sideways fall velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns-Bray, William S; Ferguson, Stephen J; Helgason, Benedikt

    2018-05-03

    There is currently a knowledge gap in scientific literature concerning the strain rate dependent properties of trabecular bone at intermediate strain rates. Meanwhile, strain rates between 10 and 200/s have been observed in previous dynamic finite element models of the proximal femur loaded at realistic sideways fall speeds. This study aimed to quantify the effect of strain rate (ε̇) on modulus of elasticity (E), ultimate stress (σ u ), failure energy (U f ), and minimum stress (σ m ) of trabecular bone in order to improve the biofidelity of material properties used in dynamic simulations of sideways fall loading on the hip. Cylindrical cores of trabecular bone (D = 8 mm, L gauge  = 16 mm, n = 34) from bovine proximal tibiae and distal femurs were scanned in µCT (10 µm), quantifying apparent density (ρ app ) and degree of anisotropy (DA), and subsequently impacted within a miniature drop tower. Force of impact was measured using a piezoelectric load cell (400 kHz), while displacement during compression was measured from high speed video (50,000 frames/s). Four groups, with similar density distributions, were loaded at different impact velocities (0.84, 1.33, 1.75, and 2.16 m/s) with constant kinetic energy (0.4 J) by adjusting the impact mass. The mean strain rates of each group were significantly different (p < 0.05) except for the two fastest impact speeds (p = 0.09). Non-linear regression models correlated strain rate, DA, and ρ app with ultimate stress (R 2  = 0.76), elastic modulus (R 2  = 0.63), failure energy (R 2  = 0.38), and minimum stress (R 2  = 0.57). These results indicate that previous estimates of σ u could be under predicting the mechanical properties at strain rates above 10/s. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microstructure and Strain Rate-Dependent Tensile Deformation Behavior of Fiber Laser-Welded Butt Joints of Dual-Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Danyang; Han, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhibin; Wang, Lu; Dong, Qingwei

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and tensile deformation behavior of the fiber laser-welded similar and dissimilar dual-phase (DP) steel joints over a wide range of strain rates from 10-3 to 103 s-1 were investigated for the further applications on the lightweight design of vehicles. The high strain rate dynamic tensile deformation process and full-field strain distribution of the base metals and welded joints were examined using the digital image correlation method and high-speed photography. The strain rate effects on the stress-strain responses, tensile properties, deformation, and fracture behavior of the investigated materials were analyzed. The yield stress (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the dissimilar DP780/DP980 welded joints were lying in-between those of the DP780 and DP980 base metals, and all materials exhibited positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS. Owing to the microstructure heterogeneity, the welded joints showed relatively lower ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) than those of the corresponding base metals. The strain localization started before the maximum load was reached, and the strain localization occurred earlier during the whole deformation process with increasing strain rate. As for the dissimilar welded joint, the strain localization tended to occur in the vicinity of the lowest hardness value across the welded joint, which was in the subcritical HAZ at the DP780 side. As the strain rate increased, the typical ductile failure characteristic of the investigated materials did not change.

  15. Microstructure and Strain Rate-Dependent Tensile Deformation Behavior of Fiber Laser-Welded Butt Joints of Dual-Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Danyang; Han, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhibin; Wang, Lu; Dong, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure and tensile deformation behavior of the fiber laser-welded similar and dissimilar dual-phase (DP) steel joints over a wide range of strain rates from 10-3 to 103 s-1 were investigated for the further applications on the lightweight design of vehicles. The high strain rate dynamic tensile deformation process and full-field strain distribution of the base metals and welded joints were examined using the digital image correlation method and high-speed photography. The strain rate effects on the stress-strain responses, tensile properties, deformation, and fracture behavior of the investigated materials were analyzed. The yield stress (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the dissimilar DP780/DP980 welded joints were lying in-between those of the DP780 and DP980 base metals, and all materials exhibited positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS. Owing to the microstructure heterogeneity, the welded joints showed relatively lower ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) than those of the corresponding base metals. The strain localization started before the maximum load was reached, and the strain localization occurred earlier during the whole deformation process with increasing strain rate. As for the dissimilar welded joint, the strain localization tended to occur in the vicinity of the lowest hardness value across the welded joint, which was in the subcritical HAZ at the DP780 side. As the strain rate increased, the typical ductile failure characteristic of the investigated materials did not change.

  16. Effect of strain rate on the mechanical properties of magnesium alloy AMX602

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); Kondoh, K. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaragi, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Jones, T.L. [WMRD, US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Mathaudhu, S.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kecskes, L.J. [WMRD, US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Wei, Q., E-mail: qwei@uncc.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of strain rate on the mechanical properties, particularly the plastic deformation behavior of a magnesium alloy, AMX602 (Mg–6%Al–0.5%Mn–2%Ca; all wt%), fabricated by powder metallurgy, has been investigated under both quasi-static (strain rate 1×10{sup −3} s{sup −1}) and dynamic (strain rate 4×10{sup 3} s{sup −1}) compressive loading. The alloyed powder was extruded at three different temperatures. The microstructure of the alloy was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that AMX602 exhibits an impressive mechanical behavior but with a slight anisotropy along different directions in both strength and compressive ductility (or malleability). The strength was found to be nearly independent of the extrusion temperature, particularly, under dynamic loading. Nanoindentation strain rate jump test reveals a strain rate sensitivity of ~0.018 to ~0.015, depending on the extrusion temperature. Sub-micrometer-scale particles of the intermetallic compound Al{sub 2}Ca were found with sizes ranging from ~100 nm to ~1.0 μm. These intermetallic particles are believed to have precipitated out during the extrusion process. They contribute to the formation of the ultrafine equiaxed grains which, in turn, help to improve the strength of the alloy by acting as barriers to dislocation motion. Adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) were observed in the dynamically loaded samples, the propagation of which eventually leads to final fracture of the specimens.

  17. The High Strain Rate Deformation Behavior of High Purity Magnesium and AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livescu, Veronica; Cady, Carl M.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Henrie, Benjamin L.; Gray, George T.

    The deformation in compression of pure magnesium and AZ31B magnesium alloy, both with a strong basal pole texture, has been investigated as a function of temperature, strain rate, and specimen orientation. The mechanical response of both metals is highly dependent upon the orientation of loading direction with respect to the basal pole. Specimens compressed along the basal pole direction have a high sensitivity to strain rate and temperature and display a concave down work hardening behavior. Specimens loaded perpendicularly to the basal pole have a yield stress that is relatively insensitive to strain rate and temperature and a work hardening behavior that is parabolic and then linearly upwards. Both specimen orientations display a mechanical response that is sensitive to temperature and strain rate. Post mortem characterization of the pure magnesium was conducted on a subset of specimens to determine the microstructural and textural evolution during deformation and these results are correlated with the observed work hardening behavior and strain rate sensitivities were calculated.

  18. The effect of strain-rate on the tensile and compressive behavior of graphene reinforced epoxy/nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadlou, Shahin; Ahmadi-Moghadam, Babak; Taheri, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The epoxy/graphene nanocomposites were studied at various strain rates. • The variations in constitutive stress–strain response were scrutinized. • Positive reinforcing attributes of graphene diminished at higher strain rates. • Graphene particles have higher efficiency under compression loading than tension. • A new modification factor for Halpin–Tsai model was proposed. - Abstract: The effect of strain rate on the mechanical behavior of epoxy reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) is investigated. Nanocomposites containing various amounts of GNP are prepared and tested at four different strain rates (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10/s) under compressive and tensile loading regimes. The results show that incorporation of GNP highly affects the behavior of epoxy. The fracture surfaces of tensile specimens are also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to discern the surface features and dispersion state of GNP. Finally, the predictive capability of some of the available models for evaluating the strength of nanocomposites are assessed and compared against the experimental results. Moreover, a modification factor to the widely used Halpin–Tsai model is proposed to improve the accuracy of the model when evaluating the Young’s modulus of nanocomposites at various strain rates

  19. Bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature for different broiler chicken strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Tavares Nascimento

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate ideal bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature for broiler chicken strains during the rearing period and to evaluate the influence of time of exposure on bird physiological variables under different thermal stress conditions. The research was conducted in a climatic chamber during the six weeks of the rearing period, with Avian and Cobb strains exposed to two climatic conditions (comfort and stress, in three distinct times of exposure, in three conditions (before going to the chamber; at the end of exposure time; 30 minutes after the end of exposure, in four treatments: comfort with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 30 minutes of exposure; stress with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 90 minutes of exposure. Bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature were elaborated for both strains, for each one of the weeks of the rearing period. Strains differed, regardless of treatments and conditions adopted in the research on the third, fifth and sixth weeks of life in relation to the cloacal temperature. The Cobb strain is more tolerant to thermal stress in comparison with the Avian. There was difference for both variables between comfort and stress, but time of exposure to stress did not influence the physiological response of birds, except for cloacal temperature on the second week of life.

  20. Some contributions to the high strain rate deformation of solids and the thermally activated deformation of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, W George

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of metals as a function of rate of loading, strain rate, and temperature is discussed in terms of previous work by the author. Strain rates range from 10 -3 s -1 , obtained in a standard tensile testing machine, to 10 2 s -1 obtained in a hydraulic piston driven machine and up to 10 4 s -1 , very high strain rates with a Kolsky split Hopkinson bar using shear type loading. At rates less 10 3 s -1 the strength is a function of strain rate and temperature, is thermally activated and governed by the stress-assisted thermal activation of dislocations across short-range barriers in the crystal. At very high strain rates however the behaviour is controlled by interaction of dislocations with either phonons or electrons, giving a strength proportional to strain rate. The compressive strength of small clear samples of wood, Pinus radiata and Kahikatea, determined over the strain rate range 10 -3 s -1 to 10 3 s -1 as a function of strain rate, temperature and moisture content shows the behaviour to again be thermally activated with the strength a function of stain rate, temperature and moisture content. A rate theory of deformation is developed where the yield behaviour of wood is assumed to result from the stress-assisted thermally activated motion of elementary fibrils over short-range barriers. The moisture is assumed to affect the bond energy between elementary fibrils and the barrier energy is taken to be a linear decreasing function of increasing moisture content and the moisture to act like a plasticiser in separating the elementary fibrils. The theory more than adequately explains the observed behaviour.

  1. Exploration of mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of single chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Gu, YuanTong, E-mail: yuantong.gu@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-05-05

    Based on the characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy, we report that the mechanical property of single chondrocytes has dependency on the strain-rates. By comparing the mechanical deformation responses and the Young's moduli of living and fixed chondrocytes at four different strain-rates, we explore the deformation mechanisms underlying this dependency property. We found that the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of living cells is governed by both of the cellular cytoskeleton and the intracellular fluid when the fixed chondrocytes are mainly governed by their intracellular fluid, which is called the consolidation-dependent deformation behavior. Finally, we report that the porohyperelastic constitutive material model which can capture the consolidation-dependent behavior of both living and fixed chondrocytes is a potential candidature to study living cell biomechanics.

  2. Surface strain rate colour map of the Tatra Mountains region (Slovakia based on GNSS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednárik Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The surface deformation of the Tatra Mountains region in Western Carpathians can nowadays be studied directly thanks to precise geodetic measurements using the GNSS. The strain or stress tensor field is, however, a rather complex “data structure” difficult to present legibly and with sufficient resolution in the form of a classical map. A novel and promising approach to the solution of this problem is coding the three principal strain or stress values into the three colour channels (red, green, blue of an RGB colour. In our previous study, the colour depended on the stress tensor shape descriptors. In the current study, the adapted colouring scheme uses a subset of shape descriptors common to stress and strain, which differ only in the scaling factor. In this manner, we generate the colour map of the surface strain rate field, where the colour of each grid point carries the information about the shape of the strain rate tensor at that point. The resulting strain rate colour map can be displayed simultaneously with the map of the faults or elevations and be easily checked for the data or interpolation method errors and incompatibility with the geophysical and geological expectations.

  3. Strain Rate Dependent Behavior and Modeling for Compression Response of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the stress-strain characteristics of Hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC composites under dynamic compression using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB for strain rates in the range of 25 to 125 s-1. Three types of fibers - hooked ended steel fibers, monofilament crimped polypropylene fibers and staple Kevlar fibers were used in the production of HFRC composites. The influence of different fibers in HFRC composites on the failure mode, dynamic increase factor (DIF of strength, toughness and strain are also studied. Degree of fragmentation of HFRC composite specimens increases with increase in the strain rate. Although the use of high percentage of steel fibers leads to the best performance but among the hybrid fiber combinations studied, HFRC composites with relatively higher percentage of steel fibers and smaller percentage of polypropylene and Kevlar fibers seem to reflect the equally good synergistic effects of fibers under dynamic compression. A rate dependent analytical model is proposed for predicting complete stress-strain curves of HFRC composites. The model is based on a comprehensive fiber reinforcing index and complements well with the experimental results.

  4. Effect of temperature and strain rate on the compressive behaviour of supramolecular polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xuegang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecular polyurethanes (SPUs possess thermoresponsive and thermoreversible properties, and those characteristics are highly desirable in both bulk commodity and value-added applications such as adhesives, shape-memory materials, healable coatings and lightweight, impact-resistant structures (e.g. protection for mobile electronics. A better understanding of the mechanical properties, especially the rate and temperature sensitivity, of these materials are required to assess their suitability for different applications. In this paper, a newly developed SPU with tuneable thermal properties was studied, and the response of this SPU to compressive loading over strain rates from 10−3 to 104 s−1 was presented. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on the mechanical response was also demonstrated. The sample was tested using an Instron mechanical testing machine for quasi-static loading, a home-made hydraulic system for moderate rates and a traditional split Hopkinson pressure bars (SHPBs for high strain rates. Results showed that the compression stress-strain behaviour was affected significantly by the thermoresponsive nature of SPU, but that, as expected for polymeric materials, the general trends of the temperature and the rate dependence mirror each other. However, this behaviour is more complicated than observed for many other polymeric materials, as a result of the richer range of transitions that influence the behaviour over the range of temperatures and strain rates tested.

  5. Different transcriptional responses from slow and fast growth rate strains of Listeria monocytogenes adapted to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoska eCordero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes has become one of the principal foodborne pathogens worldwide. The capacity of this bacterium to grow at low temperatures has opened an interesting field of study in terms of the identification and classification of new strains of L. monocytogenes with different growth capacities at low temperatures. We determined the growth rate at 8 ºC of 110 strains of L. monocytogenes isolated from different food matrices. We identified a group of slow and fast strains according to their growth rate at 8 °C and performed a global transcriptomic assay in strains previously adapted to low temperature. We then identified shared and specific transcriptional mechanisms, metabolic and cellular processes of both groups; bacterial motility was the principal process capable of differentiating the adaptation capacity of L. monocytogenes strains with different ranges of tolerance to low temperatures. Strains belonging to the fast group were less motile, which may allow these strains to achieve a greater rate of proliferation at low temperature.

  6. Dynamic Response of AA2519 Aluminum Alloy under High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, Adewale Taiwo

    Like others in the AA2000 series, AA2519 is a heat-treatable Al-Cu alloy. Its excellent ballistic properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance, combined with other properties, qualify it as a prime candidate for armored vehicle and aircraft applications. However, available data on its high strain-rate response remains limited. In this study, AA2519 aluminum alloy was investigated in three different temper conditions: T4, T6, and T8, to determine the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic deformation behavior of the material at high strain rates ranging within 1000 ≤ epsilon ≤ 4000 s-1. Split Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with digital image correlation system was used for mechanical response characterization. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. Results showed heterogeneous deformation in the three temper conditions. It was observed that dynamic behavior in each condition was dependent on strength properties due to the aging type controlling the strengthening precipitates produced and initial microstructure. At 1500 s -1, AA2519-T6 exhibited peak dynamic yield strength and flow stress of 509 and 667 MPa respectively, which are comparable with what were observed in T8 condition at higher rate of 3500 s-1 but AA2519-T4 showed the least strength and flow stress properties. Early stress collapse, dynamic strain aging, and higher susceptibility to shear band formation and fracture were observed in the T6 condition within the selected range of high strain rates. The alloy's general mode of damage evolution was by dispersoid particle nucleation, shearing and cracking.

  7. A numerical basis for strain-gradient plasticity theory: Rate-independent and rate-dependent formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2014-01-01

    of a single plastic zone is analyzed to illustrate the agreement with earlier published results, whereafter examples of (ii) multiple plastic zone interaction, and (iii) elastic–plastic loading/unloading are presented. Here, the simple shear problem of an infinite slab constrained between rigid plates......A numerical model formulation of the higher order flow theory (rate-independent) by Fleck and Willis [2009. A mathematical basis for strain-gradient plasticity theory – part II: tensorial plastic multiplier. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 57, 1045-1057.], that allows for elastic–plastic...... loading/unloading and the interaction of multiple plastic zones, is proposed. The predicted model response is compared to the corresponding rate-dependent version of visco-plastic origin, and coinciding results are obtained in the limit of small strain-rate sensitivity. First, (i) the evolution...

  8. Cyclic behavior of Ta at low temperatures under low stresses and strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickler, C.; Knabl, W.; Stickler, R.; Weiss, B.

    2001-01-01

    The cyclic stress-strain response of recrystallized technically pure Ta was investigated in the stress range well below the technical flow stress, for temperatures between 173 K and 423 K, at loading rates between 0.042 Mpa/s and 4.2 Mpa/s with resulting plastic strains between -5 up to 1X10 -2 . Cyclic hardening-softening curves were recorded in multiple step tests. Cyclic stress strain curves exhibit straight portions associated with microplastic, transition range and macroplastic deformation mechanisms. The microstructure of the deformed specimens was characterized by SEM and TEM techniques which revealed typical dislocation arrangements related to plastic strain amplitudes and test temperatures. A mechanism of the microstrain deformation of Ta is proposed. (author)

  9. Effects of strain rate, stress condition and environment on iodine embrittlement of Ziracloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Une, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Zircaloy became higher with decreasing strain rate. Critical strain rate, below which high SCC severity was observed, substantially depended on Zircaloy stress condition. This strain rate (7 x 10 -3 min -1 ) under plane strain condition was about 3.5 times as fast as that (2 x 10 -3 min -1 ) under uniaxial condition. The maximum iodine embrittlement in Zircaloy was found in stress ratio α (axial/tangential stress) range of 0.5 to 0.7. No embrittlement occurred at α = infinity because of its texture effect. The SCC fracture stresses were about 39 kg/mm 2 for unirradiated and stress-relieved material, and about 34 kg/mm 2 for recrystallized material, whose ratios to yield strength of each material were 0.8 and 1.2. Impurity gases of oxygen and moisture in the iodine had the effects of reducing Zircaloy SCC susceptibility. Stress-relieved material was more sensitive to environmental impurities than recrystallized material

  10. Influence of Strain Rate on Heat Release under Quasi-Static Stretching of Metals. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, B. A.; Sventitskaya, V. E.; Smirnov, I. V.; Sud'enkov, Yu. V.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies of energy dissipation during a quasi-static stretching of metals and alloys at room temperature. The strain rates varied in the range of 10-3-10-2 s-1. Samples of M1 copper, AZ31B magnesium alloy, BT6 titanium, 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel, and D16AM aluminum alloy were analyzed. The experimental results demonstrated a significant dependence of the heat release on the strain rate in the absence of its influence on stress-strain diagrams for all the metals studied in this range of strain rates. The correlation of the changes in the character of heat release with the processes of structural transformations at various stages of plastic flow is shown on the qualitative level. A difference in the nature of the processes of heat release in materials with different ratios of the plasticity and strength is noted.

  11. Strain rate effect on fault slip and rupture evolution: Insight from meter-scale rock friction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Yamashita, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Kawakata, Hironori

    2018-05-01

    We conduct meter-scale rock friction experiments to study strain rate effect on fault slip and rupture evolution. Two rock samples made of Indian metagabbro, with a nominal contact dimension of 1.5 m long and 0.1 m wide, are juxtaposed and loaded in a direct shear configuration to simulate the fault motion. A series of experimental tests, under constant loading rates ranging from 0.01 mm/s to 1 mm/s and under a fixed normal stress of 6.7 MPa, are performed to simulate conditions with changing strain rates. Load cells and displacement transducers are utilized to examine the macroscopic fault behavior, while high-density arrays of strain gauges close to the fault are used to investigate the local fault behavior. The observations show that the macroscopic peak strength, strength drop, and the rate of strength drop can increase with increasing loading rate. At the local scale, the observations reveal that slow loading rates favor generation of characteristic ruptures that always nucleate in the form of slow slip at about the same location. In contrast, fast loading rates can promote very abrupt rupture nucleation and along-strike scatter of hypocenter locations. At a given propagation distance, rupture speed tends to increase with increasing loading rate. We propose that a strain-rate-dependent fault fragmentation process can enhance the efficiency of fault healing during the stick period, which together with healing time controls the recovery of fault strength. In addition, a strain-rate-dependent weakening mechanism can be activated during the slip period, which together with strain energy selects the modes of fault slip and rupture propagation. The results help to understand the spectrum of fault slip and rock deformation modes in nature, and emphasize the role of heterogeneity in tuning fault behavior under different strain rates.

  12. Biaxial direct tensile tests in a large range of strain rates. Results on a ferritic nuclear steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Montagnani, M.; Pizzinato, E.V.; Solomos, G.; Viaccoz, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    2000-09-01

    Constitutive equations are usually calibrated only trough the experimental results obtained by means of unixial tests because of the lack of adequate biaxial experimental data especially at high strain rate conditions. These data are however important for the validation of analytical models and also for the predictions of mechanical behaviour of real structures subjected to multiaxial loading by numerical simulations. In this paper some developments are shown concerning biaxial cruciform specimens and different experimental machines allowing biaxial tests in a large range of strain rates. This experimental campaign has also allowed study of the influence of changing the strain paths. Diagrams of equivalent stress versus straining direction and also equivalent plastic fracture strain versus straining direction are shown. (orig.)

  13. Warming Affects Growth Rates and Microcystin Production in Tropical Bloom-Forming Microcystis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Bui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warming climate is predicted to promote cyanobacterial blooms but the toxicity of cyanobacteria under global warming is less well studied. We tested the hypothesis that raising temperature may lead to increased growth rates but to decreased microcystin (MC production in tropical Microcystis strains. To this end, six Microcystis strains were isolated from different water bodies in Southern Vietnam. They were grown in triplicate at 27 °C (low, 31 °C (medium, 35 °C (high and 37 °C (extreme. Chlorophyll-a-, particle- and MC concentrations as well as dry-weights were determined. All strains yielded higher biomass in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration and dry-weight at 31 °C compared to 27 °C and then either stabilised, slightly increased or declined with higher temperature. Five strains easily grew at 37 °C but one could not survive at 37 °C. When temperature was increased from 27 °C to 37 °C total MC concentration decreased by 35% in strains with MC-LR as the dominant variant and by 94% in strains with MC-RR. MC quota expressed per particle, per unit chlorophyll-a and per unit dry-weight significantly declined with higher temperatures. This study shows that warming can prompt the growth of some tropical Microcystis strains but that these strains become less toxic.

  14. Measuring Local Strain Rates In Ductile Shear Zones: A New Approach From Deformed Syntectonic Dykes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Leloup, P.; Rubatto, D.; Galland, O.; Yue, Y.; Ding, L.

    2006-12-01

    At the Earth surface, deformation is mostly localized in fault zones in between tectonic plates. In the upper crust, the deformation is brittle and the faults are narrow and produce earthquakes. In contrast, deformation in the lower ductile crust results in larger shear zones. While it is relatively easy to measure in situ deformation rates at the surface using for example GPS data, it is more difficult to determinate in situ values of strain rate in the ductile crust. Such strain rates can only be estimated in paleo-shear zones. Various methods have been used to assess paleo-strain rates in paleo-shear zones. For instance, cooling and/or decompression rates associated with assumptions on geothermic gradients and shear zone geometry can lead to such estimates. Another way to estimate strain rates is the integration of paleo-stress measurements in a power flow law. But these methods are indirect and imply strong assumptions. Dating of helicitic garnets or syntectonic fibres are more direct estimates. However these last techniques have been only applied in zones of low deformation and not in major shear zones. We propose a new direct method to measure local strain rates in major ductile shear zones from syntectonic dykes by coupling quantification of deformation and geochronology. We test our method in a major shear zone in a well constrained tectonic setting: the Ailao-Shan - Red River Shear Zone (ASRRsz) located in SE Asia. For this 10 km wide shear zone, large-scale fault rates, determined in three independent ways, imply strain rates between 1.17×10^{-13 s-1 and 1.52×10^{-13 s-1 between 35 and 16 Ma. Our study focused on one outcrop where different generations of syntectonic dykes are observed. First, we quantified the minimum shear strain γ for each dyke using several methods: (1) by measuring the stretching of dykes with a surface restoration method (2) by measuring the final angle of the dykes with respect to the shear direction and (3) by combining the two

  15. The Influence of Forming Directions and Strain Rate on Dynamic Shear Properties of Aerial Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Meng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic shear properties under high strain rate are an important basis for studying the dynamic mechanical properties and microscopic mechanisms of materials. Dynamic impact shear tests of aerial aluminum alloy 7050-T7451 in rolling direction (RD, transverse direction (TD and normal direction (ND were performed at a range of strain rates from 2.5 × 104 s−1 to 4.5 × 104 s−1 by High Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB. The influence of different forming directions and strain rates on the dynamic shear properties of material and the microstructure evolution under dynamic shear were emphatically analyzed. The results showed that aluminum alloy 7050-T7451 had a certain strain rate sensitivity and positive strain rate strengthening effect, and also the material had no obvious strain strengthening effect. Different forming directions had a great influence on dynamic shear properties. The shear stress in ND was the largest, followed by that in RD, and the lowest was that in TD. The microstructure observation showed that the size and orientation of the grain structure were different in three directions, which led to the preferred orientation of the material. All of those were the main reasons for the difference of dynamic shear properties of the material.

  16. Tensile characterisation of the aorta across quasi-static to blast loading strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Danyal; Proud, William; Haller, Antoine; Jouffroy, Apolline

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic tensile failure mechanisms of the aorta during Traumatic Aortic Injury (TAI) are poorly understood. In automotive incidents, where the aorta may be under strains of the order of 100/s, TAI is the second largest cause of mortality. In these studies, the proximal descending aorta is the most common site where rupture is observed. In particular, the transverse direction is most commonly affected due to the circumferential orientation of elastin, and hence the literature generally concentrates upon axial samples. This project extends these dynamic studies to the blast loading regime where strain-rates are of the order of 1000/s. A campaign of uniaxial tensile experiments are conducted at quasi-static, intermediate (drop-weight) and high (tensile Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar) strain rates. In each case, murine and porcine aorta models are considered and the extent of damage assessed post-loading using histology. Experimental data will be compared against current viscoelastic models of the aorta under axial stress. Their applicability across strain rates will be discussed. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, the conditions applied to the samples replicate in vivo conditions, employing a blood simulant-filled tubular specimen surrounded by a physiological solution.

  17. Limitations of Hollomon and Ludwigson stress-strain relations in assessing the strain hardening parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, K G

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the deviation from the ideal Hollomon relation in describing the stress-strain behaviour is characteristic of all materials at low strains. The Ludwigson relation describing the deviation from the Hollomon relation at low strains is critically analysed and it is shown that the deviation at low strains is a consequence of some unknown 'plastic strain equivalent' present in the material. Stress strain curves obeying an ideal Hollomon relation as well as that of a structurally modified (prior cold worked) material were simulated and compared. The results show that the yield strength and the flow strength of a material at constant strain rate and temperature are dictated by the magnitude of the 'plastic strain equivalent' term. It is shown that this component need not necessarily mean a prior plastic strain present in the material due to prior cold work alone and that prior cold work strain will add to this. If this component is identified, the stress-strain behaviour can be adequately described by the Swift relation. It is shown that in both formalisms, the strain hardening index is a function of the yield strength of the material

  18. High Strain Rate Testing of Rocks using a Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiessler, Ruprecht; Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael; Nau, Siegfried; Hess, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic mechanical testing of rocks is important to define the onset of rate dependency of brittle failure. The strain rate dependency occurs through the propagation velocity limit (Rayleigh wave speed) of cracks and their reduced ability to coalesce, which, in turn, significantly increases the strength of the rock. We use a newly developed pressurized air driven Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar (SHPB), that is specifically designed for the investigation of high strain rate testing of rocks, consisting of several 10 to 50 cm long strikers and bar components of 50 mm in diameter and 2.5 meters in length each. The whole set up, composed of striker, incident- and transmission bar is available in aluminum, titanium and maraging steel to minimize the acoustic impedance contrast, determined by the change of density and speed of sound, to the specific rock of investigation. Dynamic mechanical parameters are obtained in compression as well as in spallation configuration, covering a wide spectrum from intermediate to high strain rates (100-103 s-1). In SHPB experiments [1] one-dimensional longitudinal compressive pulses of diverse shapes and lengths - formed with pulse shapers - are used to generate a variety of loading histories under 1D states of stress in cylindrical rock samples, in order to measure the respective stress-strain response at specific strain rates. Subsequent microstructural analysis of the deformed samples is aimed at quantification fracture orientation, fracture pattern, fracture density, and fracture surface properties as a function of the loading rate. Linking mechanical and microstructural data to natural dynamic deformation processes has relevance for the understanding of earthquakes, landslides, impacts, and has several rock engineering applications. For instance, experiments on dynamic fragmentation help to unravel super-shear rupture events that pervasively pulverize rocks up to several hundred meters from the fault core [2, 3, 4]. The dynamic, strain

  19. Effect of Strain Rate on Joint Strength and Failure Mode of Lead-Free Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Lei, Yongping; Fu, Hanguang; Guo, Fu

    2018-03-01

    In surface mount technology, the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint has a shorter impact lifetime than a traditional lead-tin solder joint. In order to improve the impact property of SnAgCu lead-free solder joints and identify the effect of silver content on tensile strength and impact property, impact experiments were conducted at various strain rates on three selected SnAgCu based solder joints. It was found that joint failure mainly occurred in the solder material with large plastic deformation under low strain rate, while joint failure occurred at the brittle intermetallic compound layer without any plastic deformation at a high strain rate. Joint strength increased with the silver content in SnAgCu alloys in static tensile tests, while the impact property of the solder joint decreased with increasing silver content. When the strain rate was low, plastic deformation occurred with failure and the tensile strength of the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint was higher than that of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu; when the strain rate was high, joint failure mainly occurred at the brittle interface layer and the Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu solder joint had a better impact resistance with a thinner intermetallic compound layer.

  20. Identification of strain-rate and thermal sensitive material model with an inverse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peroni M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a numerical inverse method to extract material strength parameters from the experimental data obtained via mechanical tests at different strainrates and temperatures. It will be shown that this procedure is particularly useful to analyse experimental results when the stress-strain fields in the specimen cannot be correctly described via analytical models. This commonly happens in specimens with no regular shape, in specimens with a regular shape when some instability phenomena occur (for example the necking phenomena in tensile tests that create a strongly heterogeneous stress-strain fields or in dynamic tests (where the strain-rate field is not constant due to wave propagation phenomena. Furthermore the developed procedure is useful to take into account thermal phenomena generally affecting high strain-rate tests due to the adiabatic overheating related to the conversion of plastic work. The method presented requires strong effort both from experimental and numerical point of view, anyway it allows to precisely identify the parameters of different material models. This could provide great advantages when high reliability of the material behaviour is necessary. Applicability of this method is particularly indicated for special applications in the field of aerospace engineering, ballistic, crashworthiness studies or particle accelerator technologies, where materials could be submitted to strong plastic deformations at high-strain rate in a wide range of temperature. Thermal softening effect has been investigated in a temperature range between 20°C and 1000°C.

  1. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanaja, J., E-mail: jvanaja4@gmail.com [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Laha, K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2012-05-15

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300-873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  2. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Sam, Shiju; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2012-05-01

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300-873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  3. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Sam, Shiju; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2012-01-01

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr–1W–0.06Ta–0.22V–0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300–873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  4. Interaction of heat production, strain rate and stress power in a plastically deforming body under tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglietti, A.

    1982-01-01

    At high strain rates the heat produced by plastic deformation can give rise to a rate dependent response even if the material has rate independent constitutive equations. This effect has to be evaluated when interpreting a material test, or else it could erroneously be ascribed to viscosity. A general thermodynamic theory of tensile testing of elastic-plastic materials is given in this paper; it is valid for large strain at finite strain rates. It enables discovery of the parameters governing the thermodynamic strain rate effect, provides a method for proper interpretation of the results of the tests of dynamic plasticity, and suggests a way of planning experiments in order to detect the real contribution of viscosity.

  5. Noninvasive characterization of carotid plaque strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir A; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Hatsukami, Thomas; Cebral, Juan; Jones, Michael; Huston, John; Howard, George; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-06-01

    Current risk stratification of internal carotid artery plaques based on diameter-reducing percentage stenosis may be unreliable because ischemic stroke results from plaque disruption with atheroembolization. Biomechanical forces acting on the plaque may render it vulnerable to rupture. The feasibility of ultrasound-based quantification of plaque displacement and strain induced by hemodynamic forces and their relationship to high-risk plaques have not been determined. We studied the feasibility and reliability of carotid plaque strain measurement from clinical B-mode ultrasound images and the relationship of strain to high-risk plaque morphology. We analyzed carotid ultrasound B-mode cine loops obtained in patients with asymptomatic ≥50% stenosis during routine clinical scanning. Optical flow methods were used to quantify plaque motion and shear strain during the cardiac cycle. The magnitude (maximum absolute shear strain rate [MASSR]) and variability (entropy of shear strain rate [ESSR] and variance of shear strain rate [VSSR]) of strain were combined into a composite shear strain index (SSI), which was assessed for interscan repeatability and correlated with plaque echolucency. Nineteen patients (mean age, 70 years) constituting 36 plaques underwent imaging; 37% of patients (n = 7) showed high strain (SSI ≥0.5; MASSR, 2.2; ESSR, 39.7; VSSR, 0.03) in their plaques; the remaining clustered into a low-strain group (SSI routine B-mode imaging using clinical ultrasound machines. High plaque strain correlates with known high-risk echolucent morphology. Strain measurement can complement identification of patients at high risk for plaque disruption and stroke. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Microstructure Evolution of Dual-Phase Pipeline Steel with Plastic Deformation at Different Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L. K.; Xu, T.; Zhang, J. M.; Wang, H. T.; Tong, M. X.; Zhu, R. H.; Zhou, G. S.

    2017-07-01

    Tensile properties of the high-deformability dual-phase ferrite-bainite X70 pipeline steel have been investigated at room temperature under the strain rates of 2.5 × 10-5, 1.25 × 10-4, 2.5 × 10-3, and 1.25 × 10-2 s-1. The microstructures at different amount of plastic deformation were examined by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Generally, the ductility of typical body-centered cubic steels is reduced when its stain rate increases. However, we observed a different ductility dependence on strain rates in the dual-phase X70 pipeline steel. The uniform elongation (UEL%) and elongation to fracture (EL%) at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1 increase about 54 and 74%, respectively, compared to those at 2.5 × 10-5 s-1. The UEL% and EL% reach to their maximum at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1. This phenomenon was explained by the observed grain structures and dislocation configurations. Whether or not the ductility can be enhanced with increasing strain rates depends on the competition between the homogenization of plastic deformation among the microconstituents (ultra-fine ferrite grains, relatively coarse ferrite grains as well as bainite) and the progress of cracks formed as a consequence of localized inconsistent plastic deformation.

  7. Strain-rate behavior in tension of the tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadoni, Ezio; Dotta, Matteo; Forni, Daniele [University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland, P.O. Box 105, CH-6952 Canobbio (Switzerland); Spaetig, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.spatig@psi.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-07-31

    The tensile properties of the high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 were determined from tests carried out over a wide range of strain-rates on cylindrical specimens. The quasi-static tests were performed with a universal electro-mechanical machine, whereas a hydro-pneumatic machine and a JRC-split Hopkinson tensile bar apparatus were used for medium and high strain-rates respectively. This tempered martensitic stainless steel showed significant strain-rate sensitivity. The constitutive behavior was investigated within a framework of dislocations dynamics model using Kock's approach. The parameters of the model were determined and then used to predict the deformation range of the tensile deformation stability. A very good agreement between the experimental results and predictions of the model was found.

  8. Strain-rate behavior in tension of the tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoni, Ezio; Dotta, Matteo; Forni, Daniele; Spaetig, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The tensile properties of the high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 were determined from tests carried out over a wide range of strain-rates on cylindrical specimens. The quasi-static tests were performed with a universal electro-mechanical machine, whereas a hydro-pneumatic machine and a JRC-split Hopkinson tensile bar apparatus were used for medium and high strain-rates respectively. This tempered martensitic stainless steel showed significant strain-rate sensitivity. The constitutive behavior was investigated within a framework of dislocations dynamics model using Kock's approach. The parameters of the model were determined and then used to predict the deformation range of the tensile deformation stability. A very good agreement between the experimental results and predictions of the model was found.

  9. Solitary waves in morphogenesis: Determination fronts as strain-cued strain transformations among automatous cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian N.; Landis, Chad M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a simple theory of a strain pulse propagating as a solitary wave through a continuous two-dimensional population of cells. A critical strain is assumed to trigger a strain transformation, while, simultaneously, cells move as automata to tend to restore a preferred cell density. We consider systems in which the strain transformation is a shape change, a burst of proliferation, or the commencement of growth (which changes the shape of the population sheet), and demonstrate isomorphism among these cases. Numerical and analytical solutions describe a strain pulse whose height does not depend on how the strain disturbance was first launched, or the rate at which the strain transformation is achieved, or the rate constant in the rule for the restorative cell motion. The strain pulse is therefore very stable, surviving the imposition of strong perturbations: it would serve well as a timing signal in development. The automatous wave formulation is simple, with few model parameters. A strong case exists for the presence of a strain pulse during amelogenesis. Quantitative analysis reveals a simple relationship between the velocity of the leading edge of the pulse in amelogenesis and the known speed of migration of ameloblast cells. This result and energy arguments support the depiction of wave motion as an automatous cell response to strain, rather than as a response to an elastic energy gradient. The theory may also contribute to understanding the determination front in somitogenesis, moving fronts of convergent-extension transformation, and mitotic wavefronts in the syncytial drosophila embryo.

  10. Dynamic Brazilian Test of Rock Under Intermediate Strain Rate: Pendulum Hammer-Driven SHPB Test and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W. C.; Niu, L. L.; Li, S. H.; Xu, Z. H.

    2015-09-01

    The tensile strength of rock subjected to dynamic loading constitutes many engineering applications such as rock drilling and blasting. The dynamic Brazilian test of rock specimens was conducted with the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) driven by pendulum hammer, in order to determine the indirect tensile strength of rock under an intermediate strain rate ranging from 5.2 to 12.9 s-1, which is achieved when the incident bar is impacted by pendulum hammer with different velocities. The incident wave excited by pendulum hammer is triangular in shape, featuring a long rising time, and it is considered to be helpful for achieving a constant strain rate in the rock specimen. The dynamic indirect tensile strength of rock increases with strain rate. Then, the numerical simulator RFPA-Dynamics, a well-recognized software for simulating the rock failure under dynamic loading, is validated by reproducing the Brazilian test of rock when the incident stress wave retrieved at the incident bar is input as the boundary condition, and then it is employed to study the Brazilian test of rock under the higher strain rate. Based on the numerical simulation, the strain-rate dependency of tensile strength and failure pattern of the Brazilian disc specimen under the intermediate strain rate are numerically simulated, and the associated failure mechanism is clarified. It is deemed that the material heterogeneity should be a reason for the strain-rate dependency of rock.

  11. Evaluation of the strain rate effects on environmental fatigue life of CF8M cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ill Seok; Ha, Gak Hyun; Jeon, Hyun Ik

    2009-01-01

    The environmental fatigue life of CF8M cast stainless steel is influenced by mechanical, environmental and metallurgical parameters, such as strain rate, strain amplitude, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, water flow rate and so on. In an actual plant, the mechanical and environmental parameters are changing during the plant operation. Therefore, the effect of such mechanical and environmental parameter changes on fatigue life evaluation have to be studied. Low cycle fatigue life of structural materials diminishes remarkably as functions of various parameters in high temperature and high pressure environments. Such reduction can be estimated by the fatigue life reduction factor(F en ). In this study, fatigue tests were performed under changing conditions of strain amplitude, strain rate. Fatigue life was measured in terms of the number of cycles with the variation of strain amplitudes at 0.004 %/s strain rate, and the fatigue life correction factor was evaluated according to the equation modified by U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(U.S.NRC) and Japanese Environmental Fatigue Tests committee (JEFT).

  12. Hardening and strengthening behavior in rate-independent strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, C.; Niordson, C. F.; Nielsen, K.L.

    2018-01-01

    Two rate-independent strain gradient crystal plasticity models, one new and one previously published, are compared and a numerical framework that encompasses both is developed. The model previously published is briefly outlined, while an in-depth description is given for the new, yet somewhat...... related,model. The difference between the two models is found in the definitions of the plastic work expended in the material and their relation to spatial gradients of plastic strains. The model predictions are highly relevant to the ongoing discussion in the literature, concerning 1) what governs...... the increase in the apparent yield stress due to strain gradients (also referred to as strengthening)? And 2), what is the implication of such strengthening in relation to crystalline material behavior at the micron scale? The present work characterizes material behavior, and the corresponding plastic slip...

  13. Multi-scale Modeling of the Impact Response of a Strain Rate Sensitive High-Manganese Austenitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun eÖnal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-scale modeling approach was applied to predict the impact response of a strain rate sensitive high-manganese austenitic steel. The roles of texture, geometry and strain rate sensitivity were successfully taken into account all at once by coupling crystal plasticity and finite element (FE analysis. Specifically, crystal plasticity was utilized to obtain the multi-axial flow rule at different strain rates based on the experimental deformation response under uniaxial tensile loading. The equivalent stress – equivalent strain response was then incorporated into the FE model for the sake of a more representative hardening rule under impact loading. The current results demonstrate that reliable predictions can be obtained by proper coupling of crystal plasticity and FE analysis even if the experimental flow rule of the material is acquired under uniaxial loading and at moderate strain rates that are significantly slower than those attained during impact loading. Furthermore, the current findings also demonstrate the need for an experiment-based multi-scale modeling approach for the sake of reliable predictions of the impact response.

  14. Mechanical characterization of alloys in extreme conditions of high strain rates and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the description of the mechanical characterization of alloys under extreme conditions of temperature and loading. In fact, in the frame of the Cost Action CA15102 “Solutions for Critical Raw Materials Under Extreme Conditions (CRM-EXTREME)” this aspect is crucial and many industrial applications have to consider the dynamic response of materials. Indeed, for a reduction and substitution of CRMs in alloys is necessary to design the materials and understand if the new materials behave better or if the substitution or reduction badly affect their performance. For this reason, a deep knowledge of the mechanical behaviour at high strain-rates of considered materials is required. In general, machinery manufacturing industry or transport industry as well as energy industry have important dynamic phenomena that are simultaneously affected by extended strain, high strain-rate, damage and pressure, as well as conspicuous temperature gradients. The experimental results in extreme conditions of high strain rate and high temperature of an austenitic stainless steel as well as a high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 are presented.

  15. High strain-rate soft material characterization via inertial cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Jonathan B.; Barajas, Carlos; Henann, David L.; Johnsen, Eric; Franck, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical characterization of soft materials at high strain-rates is challenging due to their high compliance, slow wave speeds, and non-linear viscoelasticity. Yet, knowledge of their material behavior is paramount across a spectrum of biological and engineering applications from minimizing tissue damage in ultrasound and laser surgeries to diagnosing and mitigating impact injuries. To address this significant experimental hurdle and the need to accurately measure the viscoelastic properties of soft materials at high strain-rates (103-108 s-1), we present a minimally invasive, local 3D microrheology technique based on inertial microcavitation. By combining high-speed time-lapse imaging with an appropriate theoretical cavitation framework, we demonstrate that this technique has the capability to accurately determine the general viscoelastic material properties of soft matter as compliant as a few kilopascals. Similar to commercial characterization algorithms, we provide the user with significant flexibility in evaluating several constitutive laws to determine the most appropriate physical model for the material under investigation. Given its straightforward implementation into most current microscopy setups, we anticipate that this technique can be easily adopted by anyone interested in characterizing soft material properties at high loading rates including hydrogels, tissues and various polymeric specimens.

  16. Tensile strength of concrete under static and intermediate strain rates: Correlated results from different testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengxing; Chen Xudong; Zhou Jikai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tensile strength of concrete increases with increase in strain rate. ► Strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength of concrete depends on test method. ► High stressed volume method can correlate results from various test methods. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparative experiment and analysis of three different methods (direct tension, splitting tension and four-point loading flexural tests) for determination of the tensile strength of concrete under low and intermediate strain rates. In addition, the objective of this investigation is to analyze the suitability of the high stressed volume approach and Weibull effective volume method to the correlation of the results of different tensile tests of concrete. The test results show that the strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength depends on the type of test, splitting tensile strength of concrete is more sensitive to an increase in the strain rate than flexural and direct tensile strength. The high stressed volume method could be used to obtain a tensile strength value of concrete, free from the influence of the characteristics of tests and specimens. However, the Weibull effective volume method is an inadequate method for describing failure of concrete specimens determined by different testing methods.

  17. Establishment and comparison of four constitutive relationships of PC/ABS from low to high uniaxial strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhang, Yun; Huang, Zhigao; Tang, Zhongbin; Wang, Yanpei; Zhou, Huamin

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to accurately predict the rate/temperature-dependent deformation of a polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blend at low, moderate, and high strain rates for various temperatures. Four constitutive models have been employed to predict stress-strain responses of PC/ABS under these conditions, including the DSGZ model, the original Mulliken-Boyce (M-B) model, the modified M-B model, and an adiabatic model named the Wang model. To more accurately capture the large deformation of PC/ABS under the high strain rate loading, the original M-B model is modified by allowing for the evolution of the internal shear strength. All of the four constitutive models above have been implemented in the finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit. A comparison of prediction accuracies of the four constitutive models over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures has been presented. The modified M-B model is observed to be more accurate in predicting the deformation of PC/ABS at high strain rates for various temperatures than the original M-B model, and the Wang model is demonstrated to be the most accurate in simulating the deformation of PC/ABS at low, moderate, and high strain rates for various temperatures.

  18. Hydrostatic Stress Effects Incorporated Into the Analysis of the High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for modeling the effect of high strain rate on composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. The nonlinearity and strain rate dependence of the composite response is primarily due to the matrix constituent. Therefore, in developing material models to be used in the design of impact-resistant composite engine cases, the deformation of the polymer matrix must be correctly analyzed. However, unlike in metals, the nonlinear response of polymers depends on the hydrostatic stresses, which must be accounted for within an analytical model. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain tensile and shear deformation data for a representative polymer for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop, characterize, and correlate a material model in which the strain rate dependence and nonlinearity (including hydrostatic stress effects) of the polymer are correctly analyzed. To obtain the material data, Glenn s researchers designed and fabricated test specimens of a representative toughened epoxy resin. Quasi-static tests at low strain rates and split Hopkinson bar tests at high strain rates were then conducted at the Ohio State University. The experimental data confirmed the strong effects of strain rate on both the tensile and shear deformation of the polymer. For the analytical model, Glenn researchers modified state variable constitutive equations previously used for the viscoplastic analysis of metals to allow for the analysis of the nonlinear, strain-rate-dependent polymer deformation. Specifically, we accounted for the effects of

  19. A real-time heat strain risk classifier using heart rate and skin temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buller, Mark J; Latzka, William A; Yokota, Miyo; Tharion, William J; Moran, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Heat injury is a real concern to workers engaged in physically demanding tasks in high heat strain environments. Several real-time physiological monitoring systems exist that can provide indices of heat strain, e.g. physiological strain index (PSI), and provide alerts to medical personnel. However, these systems depend on core temperature measurement using expensive, ingestible thermometer pills. Seeking a better solution, we suggest the use of a model which can identify the probability that individuals are 'at risk' from heat injury using non-invasive measures. The intent is for the system to identify individuals who need monitoring more closely or who should apply heat strain mitigation strategies. We generated a model that can identify 'at risk' (PSI ≥ 7.5) workers from measures of heart rate and chest skin temperature. The model was built using data from six previously published exercise studies in which some subjects wore chemical protective equipment. The model has an overall classification error rate of 10% with one false negative error (2.7%), and outperforms an earlier model and a least squares regression model with classification errors of 21% and 14%, respectively. Additionally, the model allows the classification criteria to be adjusted based on the task and acceptable level of risk. We conclude that the model could be a valuable part of a multi-faceted heat strain management system. (note)

  20. Effects of Strain Rate and Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Medium Manganese Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Radhakanta [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Matlock, David K [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Speer, John G [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); De Moor, Emmanuel [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-16

    The effects of temperature (-60 to 100 °C) and strain rate (0.002 to 0.2 s-1) on the properties of Al-alloyed 7 and 10 wt-% Mn steels containing 34.8 and 57.3 vol-% austenite respectively were evaluated by tensile tests in isothermal liquid baths. The tensile strengths of both medium Mn steels increased with a decrease in temperature owing to the decreased austenite stability with a decrease in temperature. At lower temperatures the strength of the 10MnAl steel was highest, a consequence of the higher strain hardening rate caused by more austenite transformation to martensite with deformation. The resulting properties are assessed with a consideration of the effects of strain rate and deformation on adiabatic heating which was observed to be as high as 95o C.

  1. Stress strain flow curves for Cu-OFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, Rolf; Hallgren, Josefin

    2009-04-01

    Stress strain curves of oxygen free copper alloyed with phosphorus Cu-OFP have been determined in compression and tension. The compression tests were performed at room temperature for strain rates between 10 -5 and 10 -3 1/s. The tests in tension covered the temperature range 20 to 175 deg C for strain rates between 10 -7 and 5x10 -3 1/s. The results in compression and tension were close for similar strain rates. A model for stress strain curves has been formulated using basic dislocation mechanisms. The model has been set up in such a way that fitting of parameters to the curves is avoided. By using a fundamental creep model as a basis a direct relation to creep data has been established. The maximum engineering flow stress in tension is related to the creep stress giving the same strain rate. The model reproduces the measured flow curves as function of temperature and strain rate in the investigated interval. The model is suitable to use in finite-element computations of structures in Cu-OFP

  2. Influence of dynamic strain ageing on tensile strain energy of type 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac Samuel, B.; Choudhary, B.K.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2010-01-01

    Tensile tests were conducted on type 316 L(N) stainless steel over a wide temperature range of 300-1123 K employing strain rates ranging from 3.16 X 10 -5 to 3.16 X 10 -3/s . The variation of strain energy in terms of modulus of resilience and modulus of toughness over the wide range of temperatures and strain rates were examined. The variation in modulus of resilience with temperature and strain rate did not show the signatures of dynamic strain ageing (DSA). However, the modulus of toughness exhibited a plateau at the intermediate temperatures of 523-1023 K. Further, the distribution of energy absorbed till necking and energy absorbed from necking till fracture were found to characterise the deformation and damage processes, respectively, and exhibited anomalous variations in the temperature range 523-823 K and 823-1023 K, respectively. In addition to the observed manifestations of DSA such as serrated load-elongation curve, peaks/plateaus in flow stress, ultimate tensile strength and work hardening rate, negative strain rate sensitivity and ductility minima, the observed anomalous variations in modulus of toughness at intermediate temperatures (523-1023 K) can be regarded as yet another key manifestation of DSA. At temperatures above 1023 K, a sharp decrease in the modulus of toughness and also in the strain energies up to necking and from necking to fracture observed, with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate, reveal the onset of dynamic recovery leading to early cross slip and climb processes. (author)

  3. Tantalum strength model incorporating temperature, strain rate and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett; Brown, Justin; Lane, Matt

    Tantalum is a body-centered-cubic (BCC) refractory metal that is widely used in many applications in high temperature, strain rate and pressure environments. In this work, we propose a physically-based strength model for tantalum that incorporates effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. A constitutive model for single crystal tantalum is developed based on dislocation kink-pair theory, and calibrated to measurements on single crystal specimens. The model is then used to predict deformations of single- and polycrystalline tantalum. In addition, the proposed strength model is implemented into Sandia's ALEGRA solid dynamics code to predict plastic deformations of tantalum in engineering-scale applications at extreme conditions, e.g. Taylor impact tests and Z machine's high pressure ramp compression tests, and the results are compared with available experimental data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. The effects of temperature and strain rate on the dynamic flow behaviour of different steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-S.; Liu, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    A compressive type split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized to compare the impact plastic behaviour of three steels with different levels of carbon content. S15C low carbon steel, S50C medium alloy heat treatable steel (abbreviated hereafter to medium carbon steel) and SKS93 tool steel with a high carbon and low alloy content (abbreviated hereafter to high carbon steel) are tested under strain rates ranging from 1.1 x 10 3 s -1 to 5.5 x 10 3 s -1 and temperatures ranging from 25 to 800 deg. C. The effects of the carbon content, strain rate and temperature on the mechanical responses of the three steels are evaluated. The microstructures of the impacted specimens are studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). It is found that an increased carbon content enhances the dynamic flow resistance of the three steels. Additionally, the flow stress increases with strain and strain rate in every case. A thermal softening effect is identified in the plastic behaviour of the three steels. The activation energy, ΔG * , varies as a function of the strain rate and temperature, but is apparently insensitive to the carbon content level. The present study identifies maximum ΔG * values of 58 kJ/mol for the S15C low carbon steel, 54.9 kJ/mol for the S50C medium carbon steel, and 56.4 kJ/mol for the SKS93 high carbon steel. A Zerilli-Armstrong BCC constitutive model with appropriate coefficients is applied to describe the high strain rate plastic behaviours of the S15C, S50C and SKS93 steels. The errors between the calculated stress and the measured stress are found to be less than 5%. The microstructural observations reveal that the dislocation density and the degree of dislocation tangling increase with increasing strain rate in all three steels. Additionally, the TEM observations indicate that a higher strain rate reduces the size of the dislocation cells. The annihilation of dislocations occurs more readily at elevated temperatures. The square root of the dislocation

  5. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  6. Behavior of fiber reinforced metal laminates at high strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newaz, Golam; Sasso, Marco; Amodio, Dario; Mancini, Edoardo

    2018-05-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Laminate (CARALL) is a good system for energy absorption through plastic deformation in aluminum and micro-cracking in the composite layers. Moreover, CARALL FMLs also provide excellent impact resistance due to the presence of aluminum layer. The focus of this research is to characterize the CARALL behavior under dynamic conditions. High strain rate tests on sheet laminate samples have been carried out by means of direct Split Hopkinson Tension Bar. The sample geometry and the clamping system were optimized by FEM simulations. The clamping system has been designed and optimized in order reduce impedance disturbance due to the fasteners and to avoid the excessive plastic strain outside the gauge region of the samples.

  7. Strain preservation of experimental animals: vitrification of two-cell stage embryos for multiple mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Tomoo; Takahashi, Riichi; Kamisako, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Strain preservation of experimental animals is crucial for experimental reproducibility. Maintaining complete animal strains, however, is costly and there is a risk for genetic mutations as well as complete loss due to disasters or illness. Therefore, the development of effective vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of multiple experimental animal strains is important. We examined whether a vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions, P10 and PEPeS, is suitable for preservation of multiple inbred and outbred mouse strains. First, we investigated whether our vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions was suitable for two-cell stage mouse embryos. In vitro development of embryos exposed to the cryoprotectant solutions was similar to that of fresh controls. Further, the survival rate of the vitrified embryos was extremely high (98.1%). Next, we collected and vitrified two-cell stage embryos of 14 mouse strains. The average number of embryos obtained from one female was 7.3-33.3. The survival rate of vitrified embryos ranged from 92.8% to 99.1%, with no significant differences among mouse strains. In vivo development did not differ significantly between fresh controls and vitrified embryos of each strain. For strain preservation using cryopreserved embryos, two offspring for inbred lines and one offspring for outbred lines must be produced from two-cell stage embryos collected from one female. The expected number of surviving fetuses obtained from embryos collected from one female of either the inbred or outbred strains ranged from 2.9 to 19.5. The findings of the present study indicated that this vitrification method is suitable for strain preservation of multiple mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing Reaction Rates with the Distortion/Interaction-Activation Strain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias; Houk, Kendall N.

    2017-01-01

    The activation strain or distortion/interaction model is a tool to analyze activation barriers that determine reaction rates. For bimolecular reactions, the activation energies are the sum of the energies to distort the reactants into geometries they have in transition states plus the interaction

  9. Constant strain rate and peri-implant bone modeling: an in vivo longitudinal micro-CT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Els; Jaecques, Siegfried V N; Wevers, Martine; Sloten, Jos Vander; Naert, Ignace E

    2013-06-01

    Strain, frequency, loading time, and strain rate, among others, determine mechanical parameters in osteogenic loading. We showed a significant osteogenic effect on bone mass (BM) by daily peri-implant loading at 1.600µε.s(-1) after 4 weeks. To study the peri-implant osteogenic effect of frequency and strain in the guinea pig tibia by in vivo longitudinal micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis. One week after implant installation in both hind limb tibiae, one implant was loaded daily for 10' during 4 weeks, while the other served as control. Frequencies (3, 10, and 30Hz) and strains varied alike in the three series to keep the strain rate constant at 1.600µε.s(-1) . In vivo micro-CT scans were taken of both tibiae: 1 week after implantation but before loading (v1) and after 2 (v2) and 4 weeks (v3) of loading as well as postmortem (pm). BM (BM (%) bone-occupied area fraction) was calculated as well as the difference between test and control sides (delta BM) RESULTS: All implants (n=78) were clinically stable at 4 weeks. Significant increase in BM was measured between v1 and v2 (pimplant marrow 500 Region of Interest already 2 weeks after loading (p=.01) and was significantly larger (11%) in series 1 compared with series 2 (p=.006) and 3 (p=.016). Within the constraints of constant loading time and strain rate, the effect of early implant loading on the peri-implant bone is strongly dependent on strain and frequency. This cortical bone model has shown to be most sensitive for high force loading at low frequency. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of different aging statuses and strain rate on the adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum–lithium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Tan, G.Y.; Chen, P.X.; Zhang, Q.M.

    2012-01-01

    The adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum–lithium alloy was investigated by means of split Hopkinson pressure bar. The stress collapse in true stress–true strain curves and true stress–time curves was observed. The adiabatic shear susceptibility of different aging statuses and strain rate were discussed by means of metallography observation. The critical strain, stress collapse time and formation energy of adiabatic shear bands were compared. The results show that different aging statuses and strain rate have significant influences on adiabatic shear behaviors of 2195 aluminum–lithium alloy. The peak-aged specimen has the highest adiabatic shearing susceptibility, while the under-aged specimen has the least adiabatic shear susceptibility. The susceptibility of adiabatic shearing increases with the increases of strain rate.

  11. Effects of different aging statuses and strain rate on the adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Tan, G.Y., E-mail: yangyanggroup@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Chen, P.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Zhang, Q.M. [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-06-01

    The adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy was investigated by means of split Hopkinson pressure bar. The stress collapse in true stress-true strain curves and true stress-time curves was observed. The adiabatic shear susceptibility of different aging statuses and strain rate were discussed by means of metallography observation. The critical strain, stress collapse time and formation energy of adiabatic shear bands were compared. The results show that different aging statuses and strain rate have significant influences on adiabatic shear behaviors of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. The peak-aged specimen has the highest adiabatic shearing susceptibility, while the under-aged specimen has the least adiabatic shear susceptibility. The susceptibility of adiabatic shearing increases with the increases of strain rate.

  12. Effects of strain rate and temperature on deformation behaviour of IN 718 during high temperature deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L X [Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials, Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Baker, T N [Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials, Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1994-04-15

    The hot deformation characteristics of a wrought IN 718 alloy were investigated by compression testing at constant strain rates in the range of 0.1 to 5 x 10[sup -3] s[sup -1], and testing temperatures in the range of 950 to 1100 C using a 200 ton capacity microprocessor controlled Fielding hydraulic press. Examination of the microstructures was carried out by optical microscopy and TEM. The flow stress of the compression tests showed a single peak in the flow stress-strain curves, and indicated that a dynamic recrystallization transition took place during the hot compression. The relationship between the peak stresses ([sigma][sub p]) and the Zener-Hollomon parameter (z) can be expressed by [sigma][sub p] = 0.5 Z[sup 0.17]. Necklace'' microstructures were observed at testing temperatures below 1050 C, for strain of 0.7. The fraction of recrystallized grains increased with the increasing temperature and strain, and decreasing strain rate. Fully recrystallized microstructures were observed at temperatures 1050 C or greater, with a strain of 0.7. (orig.)

  13. Strain and rate-dependent neuronal injury in a 3D in vitro compression model of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Scimone, Mark T.; Estrada, Jonathan B.; Franck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the United States over 1.7 million cases of traumatic brain injury are reported yearly, but predictive correlation of cellular injury to impact tissue strain is still lacking, particularly for neuronal injury resulting from compression. Given the prevalence of compressive deformations in most blunt head trauma, this information is critically important for the development of future mitigation and diagnosis strategies. Using a 3D in vitro neuronal compression model, we investigated the role of impact strain and strain rate on neuronal lifetime, viability, and pathomorphology. We find that strain magnitude and rate have profound, yet distinctively different effects on the injury pathology. While strain magnitude affects the time of neuronal death, strain rate influences the pathomorphology and extent of population injury. Cellular injury is not initiated through localized deformation of the cytoskeleton but rather driven by excess strain on the entire cell. Furthermore we find that, mechanoporation, one of the key pathological trigger mechanisms in stretch and shear neuronal injuries, was not observed under compression. PMID:27480807

  14. Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.

  15. Characterization of high-strain rate mechanical behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy using 3D digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli; Xu, Hanbing; Erdman, Donald L.; Starbuck, Michael J.; Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Characterization of the material mechanical behavior at sub-Hopkinson regime (0.1 to 1 000 s{sup -1}) is very challenging due to instrumentation limitations and the complexity of data analysis involved in dynamic loading. In this study, AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet specimens are tested using a custom designed servo-hydraulic machine in tension at nominal strain rates up to 1 000 s{sup -1}. In order to resolve strain measurement artifacts, the specimen displacement is measured using 3D Digital Image correlation instead from actuator motion. The total strain is measured up to {approx} 30%, which is far beyond the measurable range of electric resistance strain gages. Stresses are calculated based on the elastic strains in the tab of a standard dog-bone shaped specimen. Using this technique, the stresses measured for strain rates of 100 s{sup -1} and lower show little or no noise comparing to load cell signals. When the strain rates are higher than 250 s{sup -1}, the noises and oscillations in the stress measurements are significantly decreased from {approx} 250 to 50 MPa. Overall, it is found that there are no significant differences in the elongation, although the material exhibits slight work hardening when the strain rate is increased from 1 to 100 s{sup -1}. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Strain rate effect on sooting characteristics in laminar counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The effects of strain rate, oxygen enrichment and fuel type on the sooting characteristics of counterflow diffusion flames were studied. The sooting structures and relative PAH concentrations were measured with laser diagnostics. Detailed soot

  17. Experimental investigation of the behaviour of tungsten and molybdenum alloys at high strain-rate and temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Scapin, Martina; Carra, Federico; Peroni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction in recent years of new, extremely energetic particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) gives impulse to the development and testing of refractory metals and alloys based on molybdenum and tungsten to be used as structural materials. In this perspective, in this work the experimental results of a tests campaign on Inermet® IT180 and pure Molybdenum (sintered by two different producers) are presented. The investigation of the mechanical behaviour was performed in tension varying the strain-rates, the temperatures and both of them. Overall six orders of magnitude in strain-rate (between 10−3 and 103 s−1) were covered, starting from quasi-static up to high dynamic loading conditions. The high strain-rate tests were performed using a direct Hopkinson Bar setup. Both in quasi-static and high strain-rate conditions, the heating of the specimens was obtained with an induction coil system, controlled in feedback loop, based on measurements from thermocouples directly welded on...

  18. Fracto-mechanoluminescent light emission of EuD4TEA-PDMS composites subjected to high strain-rate compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyeon; Castaño, Nicolas; Bhakta, Raj; Kimberley, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to understand light emission characteristics of fracto-mechanoluminescent (FML) europium tetrakis(dibenzoylmethide)-triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. As a sensing material that can play a pivotal role for the self-powered impact sensor technology, it is important to understand transformative light emission characteristics of the FML EuD4TEA crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. First, EuD4TEA crystals were synthesized and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to fabricate EuD4TEA-PDMS composite test specimens. Second, the prepared EuD4TEA-PDMS composites were tested using the modified Kolsky bar setup equipped with a high-speed camera. Third, FML light emission was captured to yield 12 bit grayscale video footage, which was processed to quantify the FML light emission. Finally, quantitative parameters were generated by taking into account pixel values and population of pixels of the 12 bit grayscale images to represent FML light intensity. The FML light intensity was correlated with high strain-rate compressive strain and strain rate to understand the FML light emission characteristics under high strain-rate compressive loading that can result from impact occurrences.

  19. Strain rate effects on mechanical properties in tension of aluminium alloys used in armour applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, E.; Dotta, M.; Forni, D.; Bianchi, S.; Kaufmann, H.

    2012-08-01

    The mechanical properties in tension of two aluminium alloys (AA5059-H131 and AA7039-T651) used in armour applications were determined from tests carried out over a wide range of strain-rates on round specimens. The experimental research was developed in the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The target strain rates were set at the following four levels: 10-3, 30, 300 and 1000s-1. The quasi-static tests were performed with a universal electromechanical machine, whereas a hydro-pneumatic machine and a Split Hopkinson Tensile Bar apparatus were used for medium and high strain-rates respectively. The required parameters by the Johnson-Cook constitutive law were also determined.

  20. Forming limit curves of DP600 determined in high-speed Nakajima tests and predicted by two different strain-rate-sensitive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß-Borkowski, Nathalie; Lian, Junhe; Camberg, Alan; Tröster, Thomas; Münstermann, Sebastian; Bleck, Wolfgang; Gese, Helmut; Richter, Helmut

    2018-05-01

    Determination of forming limit curves (FLC) to describe the multi-axial forming behaviour is possible via either experimental measurements or theoretical calculations. In case of theoretical determination, different models are available and some of them consider the influence of strain rate in the quasi-static and dynamic strain rate regime. Consideration of the strain rate effect is necessary as many material characteristics such as yield strength and failure strain are affected by loading speed. In addition, the start of instability and necking depends not only on the strain hardening coefficient but also on the strain rate sensitivity parameter. Therefore, the strain rate dependency of materials for both plasticity and the failure behaviour is taken into account in crash simulations for strain rates up to 1000 s-1 and FLC can be used for the description of the material's instability behaviour at multi-axial loading. In this context, due to the strain rate dependency of the material behaviour, an extrapolation of the quasi-static FLC to dynamic loading condition is not reliable. Therefore, experimental high-speed Nakajima tests or theoretical models shall be used to determine the FLC at high strain rates. In this study, two theoretical models for determination of FLC at high strain rates and results of experimental high-speed Nakajima tests for a DP600 are presented. One of the theoretical models is the numerical algorithm CRACH as part of the modular material and failure model MF GenYld+CrachFEM 4.2, which is based on an initial imperfection. Furthermore, the extended modified maximum force criterion considering the strain rate effect is also used to predict the FLC. These two models are calibrated by the quasi-static and dynamic uniaxial tensile tests and bulge tests. The predictions for the quasi-static and dynamic FLC by both models are presented and compared with the experimental results.

  1. Measurement of mean rotation and strain-rate tensors by using stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Oktay; Meyer, Knud Erik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2005-01-01

    A technique is described for measuring the mean velocity gradient (rate-of-displacement) tensor by using a conventional stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) system. Planar measurement of the mean vorticity vector, rate-of-rotation and rate-of-strain tensors and the production of turbule...

  2. Associations between strain in domestic work and self-rated health: a study of employed women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staland-Nyman, Carin; Alexanderson, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the association between strain in domestic work and self-rated health among employed women in Sweden, using two different methods of measuring strain in domestic work. Questionnaire data were collected on health and living conditions in paid and unpaid work for employed women (n=1,417), aged 17-64 years. "Domestic job strain'' was an application of the demand-control model developed by Karasek and Theorell, and "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction'' was measured by questions on the division of and responsibility for domestic work and relationship with spouse/cohabiter. Self-rated health was measured using the SF-36 Health Survey. Associations were analysed by bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, and reported as standardized regression coefficients. Higher strain in domestic work was associated with lower self-rated health, also after controlling for potential confounders and according to both strain measures. "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction'' showed for example negative associations with mental health beta -0.211 (p<0.001), vitality beta -0.195 (p<0.001), social function -0.132 (p<0.01) and physical role beta -0.115 (p<0.01). The highest associations between "Domestic job strain'' and SF-36 were found for vitality beta -0.156 (p<0.001), mental health beta -0.123 (p<0.001). Strain in domestic work, including perceived inequity in the relationship and lack of a satisfactory relationship with a spouse/cohabiter, was associated with lower self-rated health in this cross-sectional study. Future research needs to address the specific importance of strain in domestic work as a contributory factor to women's ill-health.

  3. The compressive behaviour and constitutive equation of polyimide foam in wide strain rate and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimoto Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, polymer foams, such as polyurethane foam and polystyrene foam, are used in various situations as a thermal insulator or shock absorber. In general, however, their strength is insufficient in high temperature environments because of their low glass transition temperature. Polyimide is a polymer which has a higher glass transition temperature and high strength. Its mechanical properties do not vary greatly, even in low temperature environments. Therefore, polyimide foam is expected to be used in the aerospace industry. Thus, the constitutive equation of polyimide foam that can be applied across a wide range of strain rates and ambient temperature is very useful. In this study, a series of compression tests at various strain rates, from 10−3 to 103 s−1 were carried out in order to examine the effect of strain rate on the compressive properties of polyimide foam. The flow stress of polyimide foam increased rapidly at dynamic strain rates. The effect of ambient temperature on the properties of polyimide foam was also investigated at temperature from − 190 °C to 270°∘C. The flow stress decreased with increasing temperature.

  4. Spall damage of a mild carbon steel: Effects of peak stress, strain rate and pulse duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Li, B.; Huang, J.Y.; Ma, H.H.; Zhu, M.H.; Zhu, J.; Luo, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate spall damage of a mild carbon steel under high strain-rate loading, regarding the effects of peak stress, strain rate, and pulse duration on spall strength and damage, as well as related microstructure features, using gas gun plate impact, laser velocimetry, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Our experiments demonstrate strong dependences of spall strength on peak stress and strain rate, and its weak dependence on pulse duration. We establish numerical relations between damage and peak stress or pulse duration. Brittle and ductile spall fracture modes are observed at different loading conditions. Damage nucleates at grain boundaries and triple junctions, either as transgranular cleavage cracks or voids.

  5. Spall damage of a mild carbon steel: Effects of peak stress, strain rate and pulse duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Li, B.; Huang, J.Y. [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ma, H.H. [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Zhu, M.H. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhu, J., E-mail: zhujun01@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Luo, S.N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2016-04-13

    We investigate spall damage of a mild carbon steel under high strain-rate loading, regarding the effects of peak stress, strain rate, and pulse duration on spall strength and damage, as well as related microstructure features, using gas gun plate impact, laser velocimetry, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Our experiments demonstrate strong dependences of spall strength on peak stress and strain rate, and its weak dependence on pulse duration. We establish numerical relations between damage and peak stress or pulse duration. Brittle and ductile spall fracture modes are observed at different loading conditions. Damage nucleates at grain boundaries and triple junctions, either as transgranular cleavage cracks or voids.

  6. Improvement of life prediction accuracy by introduction of strain-rate effect into modified ductility exhaustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    It is important to use a reliable creep-fatigue damage evaluation method to prevent failures due to creep-fatigue damage accumulated during operation life in the structural design for fast breeder reactor plants. In this study, slow strain-rate fatigue tests were conducted for SUS316 steel for fast breeder application (316FR) and the improvement of creep-fatigue life estimation method was proposed based on test results. Main results can be summarized as follows: (1) In the slow strain-rate fatigue tests, life reduction caused by creep damage was observed as in the case of strain-hold creep-fatigue tests. (2) Strain-rate dependency of creep damage was introduced into the modified ductility exhaustion method previously proposed by the author. Good agreement of predicted lives with observed lives was achieved for SUS304 and 316FR steels with the method proposed here. (author)

  7. Morphology and mycelial growth rate of Pleurotus spp. strains from the Mexican mixtec region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Mendoza, P.C.; del Toro, G. Valencia; Ramírez-Carrillo, R.; Robles-Martínez, F.; Yáñez-Fernández, J.; Garín-Aguilar, M.E.; Hernández, C.G.; Bravo-Villa, G.

    2014-01-01

    Two native Pleurotus spp. strains (white LB-050 and pale pink LB-051) were isolated from rotten tree trunks of cazahuate (Ipomoea murucoides) from the Mexican Mixtec Region. Both strains were chemically dedikaryotized to obtain their symmetrical monokaryotic components (neohaplonts). This was achieved employing homogenization time periods from 60 to 65 s, and 3 day incubation at 28 °C in a peptone-glucose solution (PGS). Pairing of compatible neohaplonts resulted in 56 hybrid strains which were classified into the four following hybrid types: (R1-nxB1-n, R1-nxB2-1, R2-nxB1-n and R2-nxB2-1). The mycelial growth of Pleurotus spp. monokaryotic and dikaryotic strains showed differences in texture (cottony or floccose), growth (scarce, regular or abundant), density (high, regular or low), and pigmentation (off-white, white or pale pink). To determine the rate and the amount of mycelium growth in malt extract agar at 28 °C, the diameter of the colony was measured every 24 h until the Petri dish was completely colonized. A linear model had the best fit to the mycelial growth kinetics. A direct relationship between mycelial morphology and growth rate was observed. Cottony mycelium presented significantly higher growth rates (p < 0.01) in comparison with floccose mycelium. Thus, mycelial morphology can be used as criterion to select which pairs must be used for optimizing compatible-mating studies. Hybrids resulting from cottony neohaplonts maintained the characteristically high growth rates of their parental strains with the hybrid R1-nxB1-n being faster than the latter. PMID:25477920

  8. Flow and failure of an aluminium alloy from low to high temperature and strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Rafael; Cendón, David; Gálvez, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical behaviour of an aluminium alloy is presented in this paper. The study has been carried out to analyse the flow and failure of the aluminium alloy 7075-T73. An experimental study has been planned performing tests of un-notched and notched tensile specimens at low strain rates using a servo-hydraulic machine. High strain rate tests have been carried out using the same geometry in a Hopkinson Split Tensile Bar. The dynamic experiments at low temperature were performed using a cryogenic chamber, and the high temperature ones with a furnace, both incorporated to the Hopkinson bar. Testing temperatures ranged from - 50 ∘C to 100 ∘C and the strain rates from 10-4 s-1 to 600 s-1. The material behaviour was modelled using the Modified Johnson-Cook model and simulated using LS-DYNA. The results show that the Voce type of strain hardening is the most accurate for this material, while the traditional Johnson-Cook is not enough accurate to reproduce the necking of un-notched specimens. The failure criterion was obtained by means of the numerical simulations using the analysis of the stress triaxiality versus the strain to failure. The diameters at the failure time were measured using the images taken with an image camera, and the strain to failure was computed for un-notched and notched specimens. The numerical simulations show that the analysis of the evolution of the stress triaxiality is crucial to achieve accurate results. A material model using the Modified Johnson-Cook for flow and failure is proposed.

  9. Soft Tissue Strain Rates in Side-Blast Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-02

    increase of strain rate is known to cause the stiffening of soft connective tissues ( Haut and Haut 1997 [49]; Panjabi et al. 1998 [50]; Crisco et al...Réseau Québécois de Calcul de Haute Performance, with a peak compute performance of 27 596 GFlops). Figure 2: Torso motion imposed in the model...Yan YP. 2003. Mechanical properties of nasal fascia and periosteum. Clinical Biomechanics. 18:760-764. [49] Haut TL, Haut RC. 1997. The state of

  10. Mechanisms of large strain, high strain rate plastic flow in the explosively driven collapse of Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olney, K L; Chiu, P H; Nesterenko, V F; Higgins, A; Serge, M; Weihs, T P; Fritz, G; Stover, A; Benson, D J

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Al laminates have shown promise as reactive materials due to their high energy release through intermetallic reaction. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, the reaction may be initiated in hot spots that can be created during mechanical loading. The explosively driven thick walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on two Ni-Al laminates composed of thin foil layers with different mesostructues: concentric and corrugated. These experiments were conducted to examine how these materials accommodate large plastic strain under high strain rates. Finite element simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow. The dependence of dynamic behaviour on mesostructure may be used to tailor the hot spot formation and therefore the reactivity of the material system.

  11. Parameters identification in strain-rate and thermal sensitive visco-plastic material model for an alumina dispersion strengthened copper

    CERN Document Server

    Scapin, M; Peroni, M

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is getting strain-hardening, thermal and strain-rate parameters for a material model in order to correctly reproduce the deformation process that occurs in high strain-rate scenario, in which the material reaches also high levels of plastic deformation and temperature. In particular, in this work the numerical inverse method is applied to extract material strength parameters from experimental data obtained via mechanical tests at different strain-rates (from quasi-static loading to high strain-rate) and temperatures (between 20 C and 1000 C) for an alumina dispersion strengthened copper material, which commercial name is GLIDCOP. Thanks to its properties GLIDCOP finds several applications in particle accelerator technologies, where problems of thermal management, combined with structural requirements, play a key role. Currently, it is used for the construction of structural and functional parts of the particle beam collimation system. Since the extreme condition in which the m...

  12. Characterization of strain rate sensitivity and activation volume using the indentation relaxation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Baoxing; Chen Xi; Yue Zhufeng

    2010-01-01

    We present the possibility of extracting the strain rate sensitivity, activation volume and Helmholtz free energy (for dislocation activation) using just one indentation stress relaxation test, and the approach is demonstrated with polycrystalline copper. The Helmholtz free energy measured from indentation relaxation agrees well with that from the conventional compression relaxation test, which validates the proposed approach. From the indentation relaxation test, the measured indentation strain rate sensitivity exponent is found to be slightly larger, and the indentation activation volume much smaller, than their counterparts from the compression test. The results indicate the involvement of multiple dislocation mechanisms in the indentation test.

  13. TEM sample preparation by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling for high-rate TEM straining experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Thomas; Grapes, Michael D. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zhang, Yong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lorenzo, Nicholas; Ligda, Jonathan; Schuster, Brian [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Weihs, Timothy P. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    To model mechanical properties of metals at high strain rates, it is important to visualize and understand their deformation at the nanoscale. Unlike post mortem Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which allows one to analyze defects within samples before or after deformation, in situ TEM is a powerful tool that enables imaging and recording of deformation and the associated defect motion during mechanical loading. Unfortunately, all current in situ TEM mechanical testing techniques are limited to quasi-static strain rates. In this context, we are developing a new test technique that utilizes a rapid straining stage and the Dynamic TEM (DTEM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new straining stage can load samples in tension at strain rates as high as 4×10{sup 3}/s using two piezoelectric actuators operating in bending while the DTEM at LLNL can image in movie mode with a time resolution as short as 70 ns. Given the piezoelectric actuators are limited in force, speed, and displacement, we have developed a method for fabricating TEM samples with small cross-sectional areas to increase the applied stresses and short gage lengths to raise the applied strain rates and to limit the areas of deformation. In this paper, we present our effort to fabricate such samples from bulk materials. The new sample preparation procedure combines femtosecond laser machining and ion milling to obtain 300 µm wide samples with control of both the size and location of the electron transparent area, as well as the gage cross-section and length. - Highlights: • Tensile straining TEM specimens made by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling. • Accurate positioning of the electron transparent area within a controlled gauge region. • Optimization of femtosecond laser and ion milling parameters. • Fast production of numerous samples with a highly repeatable geometry.

  14. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, R. G. P.; Nillesen, M. M.; Verrijp, C. N.; Singh, S. K.; Lammens, M. M. Y.; van der Laak, J. A. W. M.; van Wetten, H. B.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2010-02-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  15. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of strain rate effect on low cycle fatigue behaviour of AA 5754 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Singh, A.

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with evaluation of low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of aluminum alloy 5754 (AA 5754) at different strain rates. This alloy has magnesium (Mg) as main alloying element (Al-Mg alloy) which makes this alloy suitable for Marines and Cryogenics applications. The testing procedure and specimen preparation are guided by ASTM E606 standard. The tests are performed at 0.5% strain amplitude with three different strain rates i.e. 0.5×10-3 sec-1, 1×10-3 sec-1 and 2×10-3 sec-1 thus the frequency of tests vary accordingly. The experimental results show that there is significant decrease in the fatigue life with the increase in strain rate. LCF behavior of AA 5754 is also simulated at different strain rates by finite element method. Chaboche kinematic hardening cyclic plasticity model is used for simulating the hardening behavior of the material. Axisymmetric finite element model is created to reduce the computational cost of the simulation. The material coefficients used for “Chaboche Model” are determined by experimentally obtained stabilized hysteresis loop. The results obtained from finite element simulation are compared with those obtained through LCF experiments.

  17. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the tensile behaviour of uranium 2 w/o molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, J.; Boyd, G.A.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the uniaxial tensile behaviour of uranium 2 w/o molybdenum alloy over a wide range of temperature and strain rate. Specimen blanks taken from co-reduced and extruded U 2 w/o Mo rods were given one of two heat treatments. Longitudinal tensile test pieces, taken from these blanks at near surface locations were tested in the temperature range -150 deg C to +100 deg C at strain rates from quasistatic (10 -4 s -1 ) to 10 3 s -1 . To achieve this range of testing rates three machines were required: an Instron screw driven machine for rates up to 0.1 s -1 , a second specially constructed hydraulic machine for the range 0.1 s -1 to 50 s -1 and a drop weight machine for the highest strain rates. The ways in which the mechanical properties - elongation to fracture, flow stresses and ultimate tensile stress - vary with both temperature and strain rate are presented and discussed for material in both heat treatment conditions. (author)

  18. Determination of strain rate in Friction Stir Welding by three-dimensional visualization of material flow using X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisada, Y.; Imaizumi, T.; Fujii, H.

    2015-01-01

    Recrystallization, which is mainly caused by the induced strain, is one of the most important factors of Friction Stir Welding. In this study, strain and strain rate are directly obtained by the change in the material flow velocity which is observed by three-dimensional visualization of the material flow. The grain size of the pure aluminum in the stir zone estimated by the Zener–Hollomon parameter using the obtained strain rate shows good agreement with that observed by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction mapping

  19. Motor unit recruitment patterns 2: the influence of myoelectric intensity and muscle fascicle strain rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2008-06-01

    To effectively meet the force requirements of a given movement an appropriate number and combination of motor units must be recruited between and within muscles. Orderly recruitment of motor units has been shown to occur in a wide range of skeletal muscles, however, alternative strategies do occur. Faster motor units are better suited to developing force rapidly, and produce higher mechanical power with greater efficiency at faster shortening strain rates than slower motor units. As the frequency content of the myoelectric signal is related to the fibre type of the active motor units, we hypothesised that, in addition to an association between myoelectric frequency and intensity, there would be a significant association between muscle fascicle shortening strain rate and myoelectric frequency content. Myoelectric and sonomicrometric data were collected from the three ankle extensor muscles of the rat hind limb during walking and running. Myoelectric signals were analysed using wavelet transformation and principal component analysis to give a measure of the signal frequency content. Sonomicrometric signals were analysed to give measures of muscle fascicle strain and strain rate. The relationship between myoelectric frequency and both intensity and muscle fascicle strain rate was found to change across the time course of a stride, with differences also occurring in the strength of the associations between and within muscles. In addition to the orderly recruitment of motor units, a mechanical strategy of motor unit recruitment was therefore identified. Motor unit recruitment is therefore a multifactorial phenomenon, which is more complex than typically thought.

  20. Occupational stress and strain in the Royal Navy 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, R S; Brasher, K; Dew, A; Kilminster, S

    2008-12-01

    Previous surveys of psychological strain in the Naval Service (NS) have shown higher than expected levels of strain when compared to the general population. To repeat the survey last carried out in 2004 and to obtain further information on the nature of the occupational stressors associated with strain. General Health Questionnaire-12 strain rates and job/life stressors were measured using a Work and Well-Being Questionnaire. Models of strain were developed for male and female personnel in the Royal Navy (RN) and males in the Royal Marines (RM). The response rate was 57%. The psychological strain rate was 31.5% overall. Personnel suffering from strain tended to be 'overcommitted' to work, had low levels of commitment to the NS and had suffered stressful life events (SLEs) in the previous 12 months. Strain rates declined with age and rank in males, but not in females. Strain was significantly positively correlated with levels of overcommitment, effort-reward imbalance (ERI), role conflict, work-family conflict, organizational commitment and exposure to SLEs. Models of strain in the males and females in the RN and in the RM accounted for between 37 and 44% of the variance in strain. The survey provides evidence for both the demand control and ERI models-components of these models contribute independently to strain. High levels of commitment to the organization were associated with lower strain and exposure to SLEs to higher strain.

  1. Comminution of solids caused by kinetic energy of high shear strain rate, with implications for impact, shock, and shale fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Zdenek P; Caner, Ferhun C

    2013-11-26

    Although there exists a vast literature on the dynamic comminution or fragmentation of rocks, concrete, metals, and ceramics, none of the known models suffices for macroscopic dynamic finite element analysis. This paper outlines the basic idea of the macroscopic model. Unlike static fracture, in which the driving force is the release of strain energy, here the essential idea is that the driving force of comminution under high-rate compression is the release of the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate. The density of this energy at strain rates >1,000/s is found to exceed the maximum possible strain energy density by orders of magnitude, making the strain energy irrelevant. It is shown that particle size is proportional to the -2/3 power of the shear strain rate and the 2/3 power of the interface fracture energy or interface shear stress, and that the comminution process is macroscopically equivalent to an apparent shear viscosity that is proportional (at constant interface stress) to the -1/3 power of this rate. A dimensionless indicator of the comminution intensity is formulated. The theory was inspired by noting that the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate plays a role analogous to the local kinetic energy of eddies in turbulent flow.

  2. Experimental Study and Modelling of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) and Polycarbonate Compressive Behavior from Low to High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Qoubaa, Z.; Colard, L.; Matadi Boumbimba, R.; Rusinek, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper concerns an experimental investigation of Polycarbonate and Poly (methyl methacrylate) compressive behavior from low to high strain rates. Experiments were conducted from 0.001/s to ≈ 5000/s for PC and from 0.001/s to ≈ 2000/s for PMMA. The true strain-stress behavior is established and analyzed at various stain rates. Both PC and PMMA mechanical behavior appears as known, to be strain rate and temperature dependent. The DSGZ model is selected for modelling the strain-stress curves while the yield stress is reproduced using the cooperative model and a modified Eyring equation based on Eyring first process theory. All the three models predictions are in agreement with experiments performed on PC and PMMA.

  3. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M [Department of Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: R.Lopata@cukz.umcn.nl

    2010-02-21

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve ({delta}p: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy ({delta}p = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  4. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L; Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M; Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B; Kapusta, L

    2010-01-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  5. The mechanical behavior of metal alloys with grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, V. A.; Skripnyak, V. V.; Skripnyak, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper discusses a multiscale simulation approach for the construction of grain structure of metals and alloys, providing high tensile strength with ductility. This work compares the mechanical behavior of light alloys and the influence of the grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates. The influence of the grain size distribution on the inelastic deformation and fracture of aluminium and magnesium alloys is investigated by computer simulations in a wide range of strain rates. It is shown that the yield stress depends on the logarithm of the normalized strain rate for light alloys with a bimodal grain distribution and coarse-grained structure.

  6. Analytical and experimental studies on the strain rate effects in penetration of 10wt % ballistic gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L; Jia, Z; Ma, X L; Fan, Y R

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates on modeling the super-elastic behavior of 10wt% ballistic gelatin at 4°C and the mechanical responses at quasi-static and high-speed penetrations. Uniaxial compression and simple shearing experiments were carried out to determine the moduli in Mooney-Rivlin model describing the elastic behavior of gelatin at low strain rates. The failure mode is determined to be elastic fracture as the tensile stretch ratio exceeds a critical value. For high compression strain rates, the available results from the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments for 10wt% gelatin were carefully examined and assessed. Linear relationship between the moduli and the strain rate is established. Based on these material parameters, an analytic solution of stress for the quasi-static and quasi-dynamic expansion of spherical cavity in gelatin is derived. As a consequence, the work needed to open unit volume of cavity, P s , which is the key parameter in studying penetration problems, is linearly increasing with the characteristic strain rate. The application of P s to our quasi-static and high-speed penetration experiments is discussed and assessed

  7. The contribution of the expanding shell test to the modeling of elastoplaticity at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Fabrice; Buy, Francois

    2002-01-01

    The expanding shell test allows to load a material in the domain of high strain levels while strain rate is about 104s-1. This test submits an hemisphere to a radial expanding free flight, using a pyrotechnic device. The experiment (experimental apparatus, measurements...) is described with the difficulties encountered for the interpretation of the experimental data. Under some assumptions, the numerical transformation of radial velocities gives indications about the evolution of the strain, stress, strain rate and temperature rise, this last one being related to plastic work. We show how it is possible to associate both analytical and numerical approaches. Numerical simulation of the test is presented in a companion paper (see [Buy01]). Results obtained for copper, tantalum and TA6V4 are presented. The contribution of this test to the modeling of elastoplastic behavior is discussed and further works are proposed

  8. Magnetic field effect on microplastic strain rate in C690 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, B.I.; Shpejzman, V.V.; Peschanskaya, N.N.; Nikolaev, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Microplastic strain in magnetic field and beyond it, as well as, subsequent to preliminary exposure of C 60 crystals to magnetic field was investigated by means of laser interferometer enabling to measure rate of strain on the basis of 0.15 μm linear shifting. It is shown that introduction and removal of specimen from 0.2 T induction field immediately during deformation of specimen result in variation of its rate, and at reduction of rate one observes discontinuous interruption of deformation. Sign of effect depends on temperature: at room temperature magnetic field promotes deformation, at 100 K - shows it down. Effect of preliminary exposure within 0.2 and 2T induction field turned to be analogous one. One analyzed possible reasons of the observed manifestation of magnetoplastic effect in C 60 and relation of its sign with phase transition under 260 K temperature [ru

  9. Effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the deformation and failure of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.M. (Schlumberger Cambridge Research (GB)); Sheppard, M.C. (Anadrill/Schlumberger (US)); Houwen, O.H. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1991-06-01

    Previous work on shale mechanical properties has focused on the slow deformation rates appropriate to wellbore deformation. Deformation of shale under a drill bit occurs at a very high rate, and the failure properties of the rock under these conditions are crucial in determining bit performance and in extracting lithology and pore-pressure information from drilling parameters. Triaxial tests were performed on two nonswelling shales under a wide range of strain rates and confining and pore pressures. At low strain rates, when fluid is relatively free to move within the shale, shale deformation and failure are governed by effective stress or pressure (i.e., total confining pressure minus pore pressure), as is the case for ordinary rock. If the pore pressure in the shale is high, increasing the strain rate beyond about 0.1%/sec causes large increases in the strength and ductility of the shale. Total pressure begins to influence the strength. At high stain rates, the influence of effective pressure decreases, except when it is very low (i.e., when pore pressure is very high); ductility then rises rapidly. This behavior is opposite that expected in ordinary rocks. This paper briefly discusses the reasons for these phenomena and their impact on wellbore and drilling problems.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of strain rate on material properties of the high strength concrete used in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shirai, Koji; Takayanagi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Concrete physical properties (compressive strength, tensile strength, initial elastic modulus and maximum strain) affected by strain rate weren't fully utilize for material model in dynamic response analysis for seismic and impact load because of few reports and various difficulties of impact tests. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) methods are the most popular high-speed material testing and were also applied for composite material. We applied SHPB for concrete specimen and reported the strain rate effect to the concrete physical property. We used hydraulic testing device for 10 -5 /s to 10 0 /s strain rate and SHPB methods for over 10 1 /s. Four cases of concrete tests (high (50MPa at 28days)/low (35MPa at 28days) compressive strength (based on the test of exiting nuclear power facilities) and dry/wet condition) were done. And we formulated strain rate effect about compressive strength and initial elastic modulus from comparing with previous studies. (author)

  11. Ratchetting strain prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noban, Mohammad; Jahed, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    A time-efficient method for predicting ratchetting strain is proposed. The ratchetting strain at any cycle is determined by finding the ratchetting rate at only a few cycles. This determination is done by first defining the trajectory of the origin of stress in the deviatoric stress space and then incorporating this moving origin into a cyclic plasticity model. It is shown that at the beginning of the loading, the starting point of this trajectory coincides with the initial stress origin and approaches the mean stress, displaying a power-law relationship with the number of loading cycles. The method of obtaining this trajectory from a standard uniaxial asymmetric cyclic loading is presented. Ratchetting rates are calculated with the help of this trajectory and through the use of a constitutive cyclic plasticity model which incorporates deviatoric stresses and back stresses that are measured with respect to this moving frame. The proposed model is used to predict the ratchetting strain of two types of steels under single- and multi-step loadings. Results obtained agree well with the available experimental measurements

  12. Microstructure and strain rate effects on the mechanical behavior of particle reinforced epoxy-based reactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradley William

    The effects of reactive metal particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of epoxy-based composites is investigated in this work. Particle reinforced polymer composites show promise as structural energetic materials that can provide structural strength while simultaneously being capable of releasing large amounts of chemical energy through highly exothermic reactions occurring between the particles and with the matrix. This advanced class of materials is advantageous due to the decreased amount of high density inert casings needed for typical energetic materials and for their ability to increase payload expectancy and decrease collateral damage. Structural energetic materials can be comprised of reactive particles that undergo thermite or intermetallic reactions. In this work nickel (Ni) and aluminum (Al) particles were chosen as reinforcing constituents due to their well characterized mechanical and energetic properties. Although, the reactivity of nickel and aluminum is well characterized, the effects of their particle size, volume fractions, and spatial distribution on the mechanical behavior of the epoxy matrix and composite, across a large range of strain rates, are not well understood. To examine these effects castings of epoxy reinforced with 20--40 vol.% Al and 0--10 vol.% Ni were prepared, while varying the aluminum nominal particle size from 5 to 50 mum and holding the nickel nominal particle size constant at 50 mum. Through these variations eight composite materials were produced, possessing unique microstructures exhibiting different particle spatial distributions and constituent makeup. In order to correlate the microstructure to the constitutive response of the composites, techniques such as nearest-neighbor distances, and multiscale analysis of area fractions (MSAAF) were used to quantitatively characterize the microstructures. The composites were investigated under quasi-static and dynamic compressive loading conditions to characterize

  13. Deformation patterning driven by rate dependent non-convex strain gradient plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalcinkaya, T.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    A rate dependent strain gradient plasticity framework for the description of plastic slip patterning in a system with non-convex energetic hardening is presented. Both the displacement and the plastic slip fields are considered as primary variables. These fields are determined on a global level by

  14. An improved model for considering strain rate effects on reinforced concrete elements behavior under dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, J.; Soroushian, P.

    1989-01-01

    An improved model for predicting the reinforced concrete element behavior under dynamic strain rates was developed using the layer modeling technique. The developed strain rate sensitive model for axial/flexural analysis of reinforced concrete elements was used to predict the test results, performed at different loading rates, and the predictions were reasonable. The developed analysis technique was used to study the loading rate sensitivity of reinforced concrete beams and columns with different geometry and material properties. Two design formulas for computing the loading rate dependent axial and flexural strengths of reinforced concrete sections are suggested

  15. IMPACT OF STRAIN RATE ON MICROALLOYED STEEL SHEET BREAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Mihaliková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Strain rate is a significant external factor and its influence on material behavior in forming process is a function of its internal structure. The contribution is analysis of the impact of loading rate from 1.6 x 10-4 ms-1 to 24 ms-1 to changes in the fracture of steel sheet used for bodywork components in cars. Experiments were performed on samples taken from HC420LA grade strips produced by cold rolling and hot dip galvanizing. Material strength properties were compared based on measured values, and changes to fracture surface character were observed.

  16. Ductile fracture mechanism of low-temperature In-48Sn alloy joint under high strain rate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Woong; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2012-04-01

    The failure behaviors of In-48Sn solder ball joints under various strain rate loadings were investigated with both experimental and finite element modeling study. The bonding force of In-48Sn solder on an Ni plated Cu pad increased with increasing shear speed, mainly due to the high strain-rate sensitivity of the solder alloy. In contrast to the cases of Sn-based Pb-free solder joints, the transition of the fracture mode from a ductile mode to a brittle mode was not observed in this solder joint system due to the soft nature of the In-48Sn alloy. This result is discussed in terms of the relationship between the strain-rate of the solder alloy, the work-hardening effect and the resulting stress concentration at the interfacial regions.

  17. Tensile behaviour of geopolymer-based materials under medium and high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Costantino; Asprone, Domenico; Forni, Daniele; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Bozza, Anna; Prota, Andrea; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    Geopolymers are a promising class of inorganic materials typically obtained from an alluminosilicate source and an alkaline solution, and characterized by an amorphous 3-D framework structure. These materials are particularly attractive for the construction industry due to mechanical and environmental advantages they exhibit compared to conventional systems. Indeed, geopolymer-based concretes represent a challenge for the large scale uses of such a binder material and many research studies currently focus on this topic. However, the behaviour of geopolymers under high dynamic loads is rarely investigated, even though it is of a fundamental concern for the integrity/vulnerability assessment under extreme dynamic events. The present study aims to investigate the effect of high dynamic loading conditions on the tensile behaviour of different geopolymer formulations. The dynamic tests were performed under different strain rates by using a Hydro-pneumatic machine and a modified Hopkinson bar at the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The results are processed in terms of stress-strain relationships and strength dynamic increase factor at different strain-rate levels. The dynamic increase factor was also compared with CEB recommendations. The experimental outcomes can be used to assess the constitutive laws of geopolymers under dynamic load conditions and implemented into analytical models.

  18. Strain bidimensional na cardiopatia de Takotsubo Two-dimensional strain in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bellini G. Gomes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este relato apresenta o seguimento tardio de um caso de cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo com boa evolução clínica e melhora da função sistólica global ventricular esquerda. Contudo, observou-se persistência de significativa disfunção sistólica regional longitudinal que foi avaliada por meio de nova técnica ecocardiográfica (speckle tracking, com as medidas do strain (S e strain rate (SR correspondentes. Ressaltamos a importância desse novo método para o acompanhamento dessa cardiopatia, pois permite identificar os pacientes que persistem com disfunção sistólica e que possivelmente serão beneficiados com a manutenção da terapêutica clínica.This report presents the late follow-up of a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with good clinical outcome and improved left ventricular global systolic function. However, there was persistence of significant regional longitudinal systolic dysfunction evaluated using a new echocardiographic technique (speckle tracking, with corresponding measures of strain (S and strain rate (SR. We emphasize the importance of this new method to monitoring this cardiomyopathy, since it identifies patients with persistent systolic dysfunction who will possibly benefit from maintenance of clinical therapy

  19. Effect of strain rate on cavity closure during compression between flat platens using superplastic tin-lead alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Al-Tamimi, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Superplasticity is a feature of a material or alloy which allows the material to deform plastically to an extremely large strain at low values of stress under certain loading conditions of strain rate and temperature. Eutectic tin-lead alloy is a practical material for research investigations as it possesses a superplastic behavior at room temperature and low strain rate which makes it a useful tool in simulating the ordinary engineering materials at high strain rate and temperature. This alloy has been extensively used as a model material to simulate behavior of engineering materials at high strain rates and temperatures. In this paper, superplastic tin-lead alloy was used at room temperature to simulate the closure of cavities in steels at high temperatures in the hot region under dynamic loading (high strain rate) under the effect of compressive loads using flat platens (open dies). Hollow specimens having different values of bore diameter (D/sub b/) to outer diameter (D/sub out/), of the same height and volume were investigated under different values of height reduction percentages ranging from 20% to 80% , and the percentage of cavity closure at each reduction percentage was determined. It was found that the cavity closure percentage increases or decreases at slow rate for reduction percentage in height less than 40% and increases more rapidly for reduction percentages in height above this value. Furthermore, specimens having smaller values of ratio (D/sub b//D/sub out/) resulted in higher percentage of cavity closure than specimens having higher ratios at the same value of reduction in height percentage. Complete cavity closure has occurred in specimens having the ratios of 0.1 and 0.2 at 75% reduction in height. (author)

  20. Job strain and resting heart rate: a cross-sectional study in a Swedish random working sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Eriksson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have reported an association between stressing work conditions and cardiovascular disease. However, more evidence is needed, and the etiological mechanisms are unknown. Elevated resting heart rate has emerged as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relation to work-related stress. This study therefore investigated the association between job strain, job control, and job demands and resting heart rate. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected men and women in Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden (West county of Sweden (n = 1552. Information about job strain, job demands, job control, heart rate and covariates was collected during the period 2001–2004 as part of the INTERGENE/ADONIX research project. Six different linear regression models were used with adjustments for gender, age, BMI, smoking, education, and physical activity in the fully adjusted model. Job strain was operationalized as the log-transformed ratio of job demands over job control in the statistical analyses. Results No associations were seen between resting heart rate and job demands. Job strain was associated with elevated resting heart rate in the unadjusted model (linear regression coefficient 1.26, 95 % CI 0.14 to 2.38, but not in any of the extended models. Low job control was associated with elevated resting heart rate after adjustments for gender, age, BMI, and smoking (linear regression coefficient −0.18, 95 % CI −0.30 to −0.02. However, there were no significant associations in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Low job control and job strain, but not job demands, were associated with elevated resting heart rate. However, the observed associations were modest and may be explained by confounding effects.

  1. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw

  2. Adiabatic shear bands as predictors of strain rate in high speed machining of ramax-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, M.A.; Irfan, M.A.; Velduis, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Shear band formation was studied in the chips obtained by turning of stainless steel- Ramax-2 (AISI 420F). The machining was performed on a CNC lathe using a PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) cutting tool insert. The cutting speeds ranged from 50 m/ min to 250 m/min. Dry cutting conditions were employed. At cutting speeds higher than 30 m/mill, the chip did not remain intact with the workpiece using quick stop device. It was difficult to get the chip root SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) micrographs at further higher speeds. Therefore, the width of the shear bands was used as the predictor of the strain rates involved at various cutting speeds. The results showed that the strain rates are quite in agreement with the amount of strain rate found during machining of such types of stainless steels. It was also observed that shear band density increased with increasing cutting speed. (author)

  3. Growth rates of three geographically separated strains of the ichthyotoxic Prymnesium parvum (Prymnesiophyceae) in response to six different pH levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysgaard, Maria L.; Eckford-Soper, Lisa; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2018-05-01

    Continued anthropogenic carbon emissions are expected to cause a decline in global average pH of the oceans to a projected value of 7.8 by the end of the century. Understanding how harmful algal bloom (HAB) species will respond to lowered pH levels will be important when predicting future HAB events and their ecological consequences. In this study, we examined how manipulated pH levels affected the growth rate of three strains of Prymnesium parvum from North America, Denmark and Japan. Triplicate strains were grown under pH conditions ranging from 6.6 to 9.1 to simulate plausible future levels. Different tolerances were evident for all strains. Significantly higher growth rates were observed at pH 6.6-8.1 compared to growth rates at pH 8.6-9.1 and a lower pH limit was not observed. The Japanese strain (NIES-1017) had the highest maximum growth rate of 0.39 divisions day-1 at pH 6.6 but a low tolerance (0.22 divisions day-1) to high levels (pH 9.1) with growth declining markedly after pH 7.6. The Danish (SCCAP K-0081) and North American (UTEX LB 2797) strains had maximum growth rates of 0.26 and 0.35 divisions day-1, respectively between pH 6.6-8.1. Compared to the other two strains the Danish strain had a statistically lower growth rate across all pH treatments. Strain differences were either attributed to their provenance or the length of time the strain had been in culture.

  4. Effect of strain rate and stress triaxiality on tensile behavior of Titanium alloy Ti-10-2-3 at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh, E-mail: ravindranadh@dmrl.drdo.in; Madhu, Vemuri

    2016-06-14

    In this study, Split hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) has been employed to investigate the dynamic tensile flow behavior of Ti-10-2-3 alloy at high strain rates and elevated temperatures. The combined effect of stress triaxiality, strain rate and temperature and on the tensile behavior of the alloy was evaluated. Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive and fracture models were developed based on high strain rate tensile data. A modified Johnson–Cook model was established and proved to have high accuracy. A comparative assessment has been done to confirm the accuracy of modified J–C model based on finite element method (FEM). The improved model provides better description on the influence of equivalent plastic strain rate and temperature on the plastic flow. The simulation results proved to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The fracture surfaces of specimens tested under various strain rates and temperatures were studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  6. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the tensile behaviour of uranium - 2sup(w)/o molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, J.; Boyd, G.A.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the uniaxial tensile behaviour of uranium 2 w/o molybdenum alloy over a wide range of temperature and strain rate. Specimen blanks taken from co-reduced and extruded U2 w/o Mo rods were given one of two heat treatments. Longitudinal tensile test pieces, taken from these blanks at near surface locations were tested in the temperature range -150 deg C to +100 deg C at strain rates from quasistatic (10 -4 s -1 ) to 10 3 s -1 . To achieve this range of testing rates three machines were required: an Instron screw driven machine for rates up to 0.1 s -1 , a second specially constructed hydraulic machine for the range 0.1 s -1 to 50 s -1 and a drop weight machine for the highest strain rates. The ways in which the mechanical properties - elongation to fracture, flow stresses and ultimate tensile stress - vary with both temperature and strain rate are presented and discussed for material in both heat treatment conditions. (author)

  7. Verification of a mechanistic model for the strain rate of zircaloy-4 fuel sheaths during transient heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.E.L.

    1980-10-01

    A mechanistic strain rate model for Zircaloy-4, named NIRVANA, was tested against experiments where pressurized fuel sheaths were strained during complex temperature-stress-time histories. The same histories were then examined to determine the spread in calculated strain which may be expected because of variations in dimensions, chemical content and mechanical properties which are allowed in the fuel sheath specifications. It was found that the variations allowed by the specifications could result in a probable spread in the predicted strain of plus or minus a factor of two from the mean value. The experimental results were well within this range. (auth)

  8. Sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Huanhu; Jing Hua; Ma Aiping; Kang Xiuli; Yang Liping; Huang Mingjing; Ma Buzhou; Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan

    2005-01-01

    The sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation was studied. The results showed that the survival rate of 21 wheat varieties (strains) at the dose of 6 x 10 16 Ar + /cm 2 could be divided into five groups: surplus sensitive varieties (strains), sensitive varieties (strains), transitional varieties (strains), obtuse varieties (strains) and surplus obtuse varieties (strains). The sensibility of wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + injection is high-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > medium-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > dry land wheat varieties (strains). The study has provided theoretical basis in induced mutation medial lethal dose of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation. (authors)

  9. Slow strain rate stress corrosion cracking under multiaxial deformation conditions: technique and application to admiralty brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, W.K.; Heldt, L.A.; Koss, D.

    1984-01-01

    A set of straightforward experimental techniques are described for the examination of slow strain rate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of sheet deforming under nearly all multiaxial deformation conditions which result in sheet thinning. Based on local fracture strain as a failure criterion, the results contrast stress corrosion susceptibility in uniaxial tension with those in both plane strain and balanced biaxial tension. These results indicate that the loss of ductility of the brass increases as the stress state changes from uniaxial toward balanced biaxial tension

  10. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  11. Continent-Wide Estimates of Antarctic Strain Rates from Landsat 8-Derived Velocity Grids and Their Application to Ice Shelf Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, K. E.; Scambos, T.; Anderson, R. S.; Rajaram, H.; Pope, A.; Haran, T.

    2017-12-01

    Strain rates are fundamental measures of ice flow used in a wide variety of glaciological applications including investigations of bed properties, calculations of basal mass balance on ice shelves, application to Glen's flow law, and many other studies. However, despite their extensive application, strain rates are calculated using widely varying methods and length scales, and the calculation details are often not specified. In this study, we compare the results of nominal and logarithmic strain-rate calculations based on a satellite-derived velocity field of the Antarctic ice sheet generated from Landsat 8 satellite data. Our comparison highlights the differences between the two commonly used approaches in the glaciological literature. We evaluate the errors introduced by each code and their impacts on the results. We also demonstrate the importance of choosing and specifying a length scale over which strain-rate calculations are made, which can have large local impacts on other derived quantities such as basal mass balance on ice shelves. We present strain-rate data products calculated using an approximate viscous length-scale with satellite observations of ice velocity for the Antarctic continent. Finally, we explore the applications of comprehensive strain-rate maps to future ice shelf studies, including investigations of ice fracture, calving patterns, and stability analyses.

  12. Breeding of a xylose-fermenting hybrid strain by mating genetically engineered haploid strains derived from industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Seitaro; Matsushika, Akinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2 is a promising host strain to genetically engineer xylose-utilizing yeasts for ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Two IR-2-based haploid strains were selected based upon the rate of xylulose fermentation, and hybrids were obtained by mating recombinant haploid strains harboring heterogeneous xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) (wild-type NAD(+)-dependent XDH or engineered NADP(+)-dependent XDH, ARSdR), xylose reductase (XR) and xylulose kinase (XK) genes. ARSdR in the hybrids selected for growth rates on yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) agar and YP-xylose agar plates typically had a higher activity than NAD(+)-dependent XDH. Furthermore, the xylose-fermenting performance of the hybrid strain SE12 with the same level of heterogeneous XDH activity was similar to that of a recombinant strain of IR-2 harboring a single set of genes, XR/ARSdR/XK. These results suggest not only that the recombinant haploid strains retain the appropriate genetic background of IR-2 for ethanol production from xylose but also that ARSdR is preferable for xylose fermentation.

  13. Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Understand Mechanical Response of Thaumasite under Temperature and Strain Rate Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajilar, Shahin; Shafei, Behrouz; Cheng, Tao; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres

    2017-06-22

    Understanding the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of thaumasite is of great interest to the cement industry, mainly because it is the phase responsible for the aging and deterioration of civil infrastructures made of cementitious materials attacked by external sources of sulfate. Despite the importance, effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical response of thaumasite had remained unexplored prior to the current study, in which the mechanical properties of thaumasite are fully characterized using the reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) method. With employing a first-principles based reactive force field, the RMD simulations enable the description of bond dissociation and formation under realistic conditions. From the stress-strain curves of thaumasite generated in the x, y, and z directions, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain are determined for the three orthogonal directions. During the course of each simulation, the chemical bonds undergoing tensile deformations are monitored to reveal the bonds responsible for the mechanical strength of thaumasite. The temperature increase is found to accelerate the bond breaking rate and consequently the degradation of mechanical properties of thaumasite, while the strain rate only leads to a slight enhancement of them for the ranges considered in this study.

  14. Comparative developmental trajectory of four strains of chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated egg traits, embryonic growth, and early growth rate in four strains of chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), Arbor acre, Hubbard, and Marshall broiler strains. Embryonic weights, yolk ...

  15. The importance of the strain rate and creep on the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Omar F.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Schvartzman, Monica M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is a nuclear, power, petrochemical, and other industries equipment and components (like pressure vessels, nozzles, tubes, accessories) life degradation mode, involving fragile fracture. The stress corrosion cracking failures can produce serious accidents, and incidents which can put on risk the safety, reliability, and efficiency of many plants. These failures are of very complex prediction. The stress corrosion cracking mechanisms are based on three kinds of factors: microstructural, mechanical and environmental. Concerning the mechanical factors, various authors prefer to consider the crack tip strain rate rather than stress, as a decisive factor which contributes to the process: this parameter is directly influenced by the creep strain rate of the material. Based on two KAPL-Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory experimental studies in SSRT (slow strain rate test) and CL (constant load) test, for prediction of primary water stress corrosion cracking in nickel based alloys, it has done a data compilation of the film rupture mechanism parameters, for modeling PWSCC of Alloy 600 and discussed the importance of the strain rate and the creep on the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms and models. As derived from this study, a simple theoretical model is proposed, and it is showed that the crack growth rate estimated with Brazilian tests results with Alloy 600 in SSRT, are according with the KAPL ones and other published literature. (author)

  16. Solution hardening and strain hardening at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocks, U.F.

    1982-10-01

    Solutes can significantly increase the rate of strain hardening; as a consequence, the saturation stress, at which strain hardening tends to cease for a given temperature and strain rate, is increased more than the yield stress: this is the major effect of solutes on strength at elevated temperatures, especially in the regime where dynamic strain-aging occurs. It is shown that local solute mobility can affect both the rate of dynamic recovery and the dislocation/dislocation interaction strength. The latter effect leads to multiplicative solution strengthening. It is explained by a new model based on repeated dislocation unlocking, in a high-temperature limit, which also rationalizes the stress dependence of static and dynamic strain-aging, and may help explain the plateau of the yield stress at elevated temperatures. 15 figures

  17. Strain rate dependent orthotropic properties of pristine and impulsively loaded porcine temporomandibular joint disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, M W; Bruno, M J; Iwasaki, L R; Nickel, J C

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the tensile stress-strain behavior of the porcine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk with respect to collagen orientation and strain rate dependency. The apparent elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength, and strain at maximum stress were measured at three elongation rates (0.5, 50, and 500 mm/min) for dumbbell-shaped samples oriented along either anteroposterior or mediolateral axes of the disks. In order to study the effects of impact-induced fissuring on the mechanical behavior, the same properties were measured along each orientation at an elongation rate of 500 mm/min for disks subjected to impulsive loads of 0.5 N. s. The results suggested a strongly orthotropic nature to the healthy pristine disk. The values for the apparent modulus and ultimate strength were 10-fold higher along the anteroposterior axis (p disks for either orientation (p > 0.05). The results demonstrated the importance of choosing an orthotropic model for the TMJ disk to conduct finite element modeling, to develop failure criteria, and to construct tissue-engineered replacements. Impact-induced fissuring requires further study to determine if the TMJ disk is orthotropic with respect to fatigue.

  18. Determination of dynamic fracture initiation toughness of elastic-plastic materials at intermediate strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Saez, J.; Luna de, S.; Rubio, L.; Perez-Castellanos, J. L.; Navarro, C.

    2001-01-01

    An earlier paper dealt with the experimental techniques used to determine the dynamic fracture properties of linear elastic materials. Here we describe those most commonly used as elastoplastic materials, limiting the study to the initiation fracture toughness at the intermediate strain rate (of around 10''2 s''-1). In this case the inertial forces are negligible and it is possible to apply the static solutions. With this stipulation, the analysis can be based on the methods of testing in static conditions. The dynamic case differs basically, from the static one, in the influence of the strain rate on the properties of the material. (Author) 57 refs

  19. Strain rate dependence of twinning at 450 Degree-Sign C and its effect on microstructure of an extruded magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Q., E-mail: qma@cavs.msstate.edu [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Li, B.; Oppedal, A.L.; Whittington, W.R.; Horstemeyer, S.J.; Marin, E.B.; Wang, P.T. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Horstemeyer, M.F. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39762 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Deformation twinning in magnesium alloys at elevated temperatures has received relatively little attention because it is generally deemed that dislocation slip dominates plastic deformation. In this work, twinning at 450 Degree-Sign C in an extruded Mg-Al-Mn magnesium alloy (AM30) was studied by interrupted compression tests at various strain rates within a practical range for lab-scale extrusion (<1.0 s{sup -1}). Microstructure and texture evolution were examined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) at different strain levels. The results show that sporadic twins started to appear at strain rate of 0.1 s{sup -1}, whereas profuse twinning was activated at strain rates of 0.5 and 0.8 s{sup -1}. The deformation twins quickly lost original morphology because of dynamic recrystallization. These results show that deformation twinning has a significant effect on microstructural and texture evolution of wrought Mg alloys at elevated temperatures within practical strain rate range.

  20. A Study of the Mechanical Behavior of OFHC Copper in Tension at Various Strain Rates and Heating Rates Using the Two-Dimensional Integrated Speckle Measuring System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durant, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... A modified dog bone specimen was heated using resistive heating techniques. The effects of high temperature, medium strain rates, and high heating rates on the stress-strain results were observed...

  1. Borehole strain observations of very low frequency earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Ghosh, A.; Hutchinson, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the signals of very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) in PBO borehole strain data in central Cascadia. These MW 3.3 - 4.1 earthquakes are best observed in seismograms at periods of 20 to 50 seconds. We look for the strain they produce on timescales from about 1 to 30 minutes. First, we stack the strain produced by 13 VLFEs identified by a grid search moment tensor inversion algorithm by Ghosh et. al. (2015) and Hutchinson and Ghosh (2016), as well as several thousand VLFEs detected through template matching these events. The VLFEs are located beneath southernmost Vancouver Island and the eastern Olympic Peninsula, and are best recorded at co-located stations B005 and B007. However, even at these stations, the signal to noise in the stack is often low, and the records are difficult to interpret. Therefore we also combine data from multiple stations and VLFE locations, and simply look for increases in the strain rate at the VLFE times, as increases in strain rate would suggest an increase in the moment rate. We compare the background strain rate in the 12 hours centered on the VLFEs with the strain rate in the 10 minutes centered on the VLFEs. The 10-minute duration is chosen as a compromise that averages out some instrumental noise without introducing too much longer-period random walk noise. Our results suggest a factor of 2 increase in strain rate--and thus moment rate--during the 10-minute VLFE intervals. The increase gives an average VLFE magnitude around M 3.5, within the range of magnitudes obtained with seismology. Further analyses are currently being carried out to better understand the evolution of moment release before, during, and after the VLFEs.

  2. The effect of cooling rate from the γ-phase on the strain-rate sensitivity of a uranium 2 sup(w)/o molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, G.A.C.; Harding, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile tests have been performed at strain rates from 10 -4 to about 2000/s and temperatures from -150 deg C to +250 deg C on a uranium 2 w/o molybdenum alloy which had been aged for 2 hours at 500 deg C after a fast gas cool from the γ-phase at a controlled rate of 40 deg C/minute. The results are compared with those for standard as-extruded material which had received the same aging treatment. Stress-strain curves are presented and the effect of strain rate and temperature on the flow stress, the ultimate tensile stress and the elongation to fracture is determined. A thorough structural characterisation of the specimen materials, using X-ray analysis and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, allows the different mechanical responses to be related to the corresponding microstructural state of the material. Flow stress data at different temperatures and strain rates are analysed in terms of the theory of thermally-activated flow and estimates made of the various activation parameters. (author)

  3. Influence of particle size on the low and high strain rate behavior of dense colloidal dispersions of nanosilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asija, Neelanchali; Chouhan, Hemant; Gebremeskel, Shishay Amare; Bhatnagar, Naresh, E-mail: nareshb@mech.iitd.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Mechanical Engineering Department (India)

    2017-01-15

    Shear thickening is a non-Newtonian flow behavior characterized by the increase in apparent viscosity with the increase in applied shear rate, particularly when the shear rate exceeds a critical value termed as the critical shear rate (CSR). Due to this remarkable property of shear-thickening fluids (STFs), they are extensively used in hip protection pads, protective gear for athletes, and more recently in body armor. The use of STFs in body armor has led to the development of the concept of liquid body armor. In this study, the effect of particle size is explored on the low and high strain rate behavior of nanosilica dispersions, so as to predict the efficacy of STF-aided personal protection systems (PPS), specifically for ballistic applications. The low strain rate study was conducted on cone and plate rheometer, whereas the high strain rate characterization of STF was conducted on in-house fabricated split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Spherical nanosilica particles of three different sizes (100, 300, and 500 nm) as well as fumed silica particles of four different specific surface areas (Aerosil A-90, A-130, A-150, and A-200), respectively, were used in this study. The test samples were prepared by dispersing nanosilica particles in polypropylene glycol (PPG) using ultrasonic homogenization method. The low strain rate studies aided in determining the CSR of the synthesized STF dispersions, whereas the high strain rate studies explored the impact-resisting ability of STFs in terms of the impact toughness and the peak stress attained during the impact loading of STF in SHPB testing.

  4. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  5. Tissue strain rate estimator using ultrafast IQ complex data

    OpenAIRE

    TERNIFI , Redouane; Elkateb Hachemi , Melouka; Remenieras , Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Pulsatile motion of brain parenchyma results from cardiac and breathing cycles. In this study, transient motion of brain tissue was estimated using an Aixplorer® imaging system allowing an ultrafast 2D acquisition mode. The strain was computed directly from the ultrafast IQ complex data using the extended autocorrelation strain estimator (EASE), which provides great SNRs regardless of depth. The EASE first evaluates the autocorrelation function at each depth over a set...

  6. Development of intra-strain self-cloning procedure for breeding baker's yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Youji; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Chisato; Yamamura, Hideki; Iimura, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Previously reported self-cloning procedures for breeding of industrial yeast strains require DNA from other strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis. Therefore, we aimed to construct a self-cloning baker's yeast strain that exhibits freeze tolerance via an improved self-cloning procedure. We first disrupted the URA3 gene of a prototrophic baker's yeast strain without the use of any marker gene, resulting in a Δura3 homozygous disruptant. Then, the URA3 gene of the parental baker's yeast strain was used as a selection marker to introduce the constitutive TDH3 promoter upstream of the PDE2 gene encoding high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. This self-cloning procedure was performed without using DNA from other Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis and was therefore designated an intra-strain self-cloning procedure. Using this self-cloning procedure, we succeeded in producing self-cloning baker's yeast strains that harbor the TDH3p-PDE2 gene heterozygously and homozygously, designated TDH3p-PDE2 hetero and TDH3p-PDE2 homo strains, respectively. These self-cloning strains expressed much higher levels of PDE2 mRNA than the parental strain and exhibited higher viability after freeze stress, as well as higher fermentation ability in frozen dough, when compared with the parental strain. The TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain was genetically more stable than the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain. These results indicate that both heterozygous and homozygous strains of self-cloning PDE2-overexpressing freeze-tolerant strains of industrial baker's yeast can be prepared using the intra-strain self-cloning procedure, and, from a practical viewpoint, the TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain constructed in this study is preferable to the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain for frozen dough baking. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-28

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 10 3 to 10 4  s -1 using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 103 to 104 s-1 using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  9. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of a Polymer Matrix Composite with Different Microstructures Subjected to Off-Axis Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the comprehensive influence of three microstructure parameters (fiber cross-section shape, fiber volume fraction, and fiber off-axis orientation and strain rate on the macroscopic property of a polymer matrix composite. During the analysis, AS4 fibers are considered as elastic solids, while the surrounding PEEK resin matrix exhibiting rate sensitivities are described using the modified Ramaswamy-Stouffer viscoplastic state variable model. The micromechanical method based on generalized model of cells has been used to analyze the representative volume element of composites. An acceptable agreement is observed between the model predictions and experimental results found in the literature. The research results show that the stress-strain curves are sensitive to the strain rate and the microstructure parameters play an important role in the behavior of polymer matrix.

  10. Evaluation of Dynamic Deformation Behaviors in Metallic Materials under High Strain-Rates Using Taylor Bar Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyung Oh; Shin, Hyung Seop [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To ensure the reliability and safety of various mechanical systems in accordance with their high-speed usage, it is necessary to evaluate the dynamic deformation behavior of structural materials under impact load. However, it is not easy to understand the dynamic deformation behavior of the structural materials using experimental methods in the high strain-rate range exceeding 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. In this study, the Taylor bar impact test was conducted to investigate the dynamic deformation behavior of metallic materials in the high strain-rate region, using a high-speed photography system. Numerical analysis of the Taylor bar impact test was performed using AUTODYN S/W. The results of the analysis were compared with the experimental results, and the material behavior in the high strain-rate region was discussed.

  11. Creep of ex-service AISI-316H steel at very low strain rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloc, Lubos; Sklenicka, Vaclav [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics of Materials; Spindler, Michael [British Energy Generation, Barbwood, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The creep response of ex-service Type 316H austenitic steel was investigated at temperatures from 470 to 550 C and stresses from 80 to 120 MPa. These conditions lead to very low strain rates. Both helicoid spring specimen tests and conventional uniaxial creep tests were used to measure these very low creep strains. An internal stress model was used to analyse the creep curves and the results were compared to creep curves obtained on a Type 316H in the as-received condition, which for austenitic steels is after solution heat treatment. The creep behavior of the ex-service steel was very similar to that of the as-received steel. Thus, no creep damage or significant change of microstructure was detected during the service period of 65,000 hours at {proportional_to} 520 C. It was found that the helicoid spring specimen technique provides results compatible with that of conventional creep tests, but with superior accuracy with very low creep strains. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of the Temperature and Strain-Rate Dependences of Strain Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyca, Johannes; Kozeschnik, Ernst

    2018-01-01

    A classical constitutive modeling-based Ansatz for the impact of thermal activation on the stress-strain response of metallic materials is compared with the state parameter-based Kocks-Mecking model. The predicted functional dependencies suggest that, in the first approach, only the dislocation storage mechanism is a thermally activated process, whereas, in the second approach, only the mechanism of dynamic recovery is. In contradiction to each of these individual approaches, our analysis and comparison with experimental evidence shows that thermal activation contributes both to dislocation generation and annihilation.

  13. Quantitation of stress echocardiography by tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging: a dream come true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Maurizio; Mele, Donato; Marino, Paolo Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TD) is an ultrasound tool providing a quantitative agreement of left ventricular regional myocardial function in different modalities. Spectral pulsed wave (PW) TD, performed online during the examination, measures instantaneous myocardial velocities. By means of color TD, velocity images are digitally stored for subsequent off-line analysis and mean myocardial velocities are measured. An implementation of color TD includes strain rate imaging (SRI), based on post-processing conversion of regional velocities in local myocardial deformation rate (strain rate) and percent deformation (strain). These three modalities have been applied to stress echocardiography for quantitative evaluation of regional left ventricular function and detection of ischemia and viability. They present advantages and limitations. PWTD does not permit the simultaneous assessment of multiple walls and therefore is not compatible with clinical stress echocardiography while it could be used in a laboratory setting. Color TD provides a spatial map of velocity throughout the myocardium but its results are strongly affected by the frame rate. Both color TD and PWTD are also influenced by overall cardiac motion and tethering from adjacent segments and require reference velocity values for interpretation of regional left ventricular function. High frame rate (i.e. > 150 ms) post-processing-derived SRI can potentially overcome these limitations, since measurements of myocardial deformation have not any significant apex-to-base gradient. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results about the ability of SRI to detect ischemia and viability, in terms of both strain rate changes and/or evidence of post-systolic thickening. SRI is, however, Doppler-dependent and time-consuming. Further technical refinements are needed to improve its application and introduce new ultrasound modalities to overcome the limitations of the Doppler-derived deformation analysis.

  14. Experimental investigation of the failure envelope of unidirectional carbon-epoxy composite under high strain rate transverse and off-axis tensile loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of the carbon-epoxy material system HexPly IM7-8552 was investigated under transverse tension and combined transverse tension / in-plane shear loading at quasi-static and dynamic strain rates. The dynamic tests of the transverse tension and off-axis tension specimens were carried out on a split-Hopkinson tension bar system, while the quasi-static reference tests were performed on a standard electro-mechanical testing machine. Digital image correlation was used for data reduction at both strain rate regimes. For the high rate tests, the strain rate in loading direction was adjusted to reach approximately the same strain rate value in the fracture plane for each specimen. The measured axial strengths were transformed from the global coordinate system into the combined transverse tension-shear stress space of the material coordinate system and compared with the Puck Mode A criterion for inter-fibre failure. A good correlation between the experimental data and the predicted failure envelopes was found for both investigated strain rate regimes.

  15. The effect of strain rate on the viscoplastic behavior of isotactic polypropylene at finite strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey D.; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2002-01-01

    prior to testing. A constitutive model is developed for the viscoplastic behavior of isotactic polypropylene at finite strains. A semicrystalline polymer is treated as equivalent heterogeneous network of chains bridged by permanent junctions (physical cross-links and entanglements). The network...... is thought of as an ensemble of meso-regions connected with each other by links (lamellar blocks). In the sub-yield region of deformations, junctions between chains in meso-domains slide with respect to their reference positions (which reflects sliding of nodes in the amorphous phase and fine slip...... responses of non-annealed and annealed specimens: (i) necking of samples not subjected to thermal treatment precedes coarse slip and fragmentation of lamellar blocks, whereas cold-drawing of annealed specimens up to a longitudinal strain of 80% does not induce spatial heterogeneity of their deformation; (ii...

  16. Strain rate effects on the mechanical properties and fracture mode of skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Michael; Tovar, Nick; Yoo, Daniel [Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry (United States); Sobieraj, Micheal [Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Joint Diseases (United States); Gupta, Nikhil [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, NYU-Poly (United States); Branski, Ryan C. [Dept of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine (United States); Coelho, Paulo G., E-mail: pc92@nyu.edu [Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the mechanical response of beagle sartorius muscle fibers under strain rates that increase logarithmically (0.1 mm/min, 1 mm/min and 10 mm/min), and provide an analysis of the fracture patterns of these tissues via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Muscle tissue from dogs' sartorius was excised and test specimens were sectioned with a lancet into sections with nominal length, width, and thickness of 7, 2.5 and 0.6 mm, respectively. Trimming of the tissue was done so that the loading would be parallel to the direction of the muscle fiber. Samples were immediately tested following excision and failures were observed under the SEM. No statistically significant difference was observed in strength between the 0.1 mm/min (2.560 ± 0.37 MPa) and the 1 mm/min (2.702 ± 0.55 MPa) groups. However, the 10 mm/min group (1.545 ± 0.50 MPa) had a statistically significant lower strength than both the 1 mm/min group and the 0.1 mm/min group with p < 0.01 in both cases. At the 0.1 mm/min rate the primary fracture mechanism was that of a shear mode failure of the endomysium with a significant relative motion between fibers. At 1 mm/min this continues to be the predominant failure mode. At the 10 mm/min strain rate there is a significant change in the fracture pattern relative to other strain rates, where little to no evidence of endomysial shear failure nor of significant motion between fibers was detected.

  17. Parametric Study of Strain Rate Effects on Nanoparticle-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Soltannia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crashworthiness, energy absorption capacity, and safety are important factors in the design of lightweight vehicles made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite (FRP components. The relatively recent emergence of the nanotechnology industry has presented a novel means to augment the mechanical properties of various materials. As a result, recent attempts have contemplated the use of nanoparticles to further improve the resiliency of resins, especially when resins are used for mating FRP components. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the response of nanoreinforced polymer composites, subjected to various rates of loading, is of paramount importance for developing reliable structures. In this paper, the effects of nanoreinforcement on the mechanical response of a commonly used epoxy resin subjected to four different strain rates, are systematically investigated. The results are then compared to those of the neat resin. To characterize the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite, a combination of the strain rate-dependent mechanical (SRDM model of Goldberg and his coworkers and Halpin-Tsai’s micromechanical approach is employed. Subsequently, a parametric study is conducted to ascertain the influences of particle type and their weight percentage. Finally, the numerical results are compared to the experimental data obtained from testing of the neat and the nanoreinforced epoxy resin.

  18. The role of creep in stress strain curves for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandström, Rolf; Hallgren, Josefin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A dislocation based model takes into account both dynamic and static recovery. ► Tests at constant load and at constant strain rate modelled without fitting parameters. ► The model can describe primary and secondary creep of Cu-OFP from 75 to 250 °C. ► The temperature and strain rate dependence of stress strain curves can be modelled. ► Intended for the slow strain rates in canisters for storage of nuclear waste. - Abstract: A model for plastic deformation in pure copper taking work hardening, dynamic recovery and static recovery into account, has been formulated using basic dislocation mechanisms. The model is intended to be used in finite-element computations of the long term behaviour of structures in Cu-OFP for storage of nuclear waste. The relation between the strain rate and the maximum flow stress in the model has been demonstrated to correspond to strain rate versus stress in creep tests for oxygen free copper alloyed with phosphorus Cu-OFP. A further development of the model can also represent the primary and secondary stage of creep curves. The model is compared to stress strain curves in compression and tension for Cu-OFP. The compression tests were performed at room temperature for strain rates between 5 × 10 −5 and 5 × 10 −3 s −1 . The tests in tension covered the temperature range 20–175 °C for strain rates between 1 × 10 −7 and 1 × 10 −4 s −1 . Consequently, it is demonstrated that the model can represent mechanical test data that have been generated both at constant load and at constant strain rate without the use of any fitting parameters.

  19. A Combined Precipitation, Yield Stress, and Work Hardening Model for Al-Mg-Si Alloys Incorporating the Effects of Strain Rate and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, Ole Runar; Hopperstad, Odd Sture; Børvik, Tore

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a combined precipitation, yield strength, and work hardening model for Al-Mg-Si alloys known as NaMo has been further developed to include the effects of strain rate and temperature on the resulting stress-strain behavior. The extension of the model is based on a comprehensive experimental database, where thermomechanical data for three different Al-Mg-Si alloys are available. In the tests, the temperature was varied between 20 °C and 350 °C with strain rates ranging from 10-6 to 750 s-1 using ordinary tension tests for low strain rates and a split-Hopkinson tension bar system for high strain rates, respectively. This large span in temperatures and strain rates covers a broad range of industrial relevant problems from creep to impact loading. Based on the experimental data, a procedure for calibrating the different physical parameters of the model has been developed, starting with the simplest case of a stable precipitate structure and small plastic strains, from which basic kinetic data for obstacle limited dislocation glide were extracted. For larger strains, when work hardening becomes significant, the dynamic recovery was linked to the Zener-Hollomon parameter, again using a stable precipitate structure as a basis for calibration. Finally, the complex situation of concurrent work hardening and dynamic evolution of the precipitate structure was analyzed using a stepwise numerical solution algorithm where parameters representing the instantaneous state of the structure were used to calculate the corresponding instantaneous yield strength and work hardening rate. The model was demonstrated to exhibit a high degree of predictive power as documented by a good agreement between predictions and measurements, and it is deemed well suited for simulations of thermomechanical processing of Al-Mg-Si alloys where plastic deformation is carried out at various strain rates and temperatures.

  20. Effects that different types of sports have on the hearts of children and adolescents and the value of two-dimensional strain-strain-rate echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnetoğlu, Fatih Köksal; Babaoğlu, Kadir; Altun, Gürkan; Kayabey, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Whether the hypertrophy found in the hearts of athletes is physiologic or a risk factor for the progression of pathologic hypertrophy remains controversial. The diastolic and systolic functions of athletes with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy usually are normal when measured by conventional methods. More precise assessment of global and regional myocardial function may be possible using a newly developed two-dimensional (2D) strain echocardiographic method. This study evaluated the effects that different types of sports have on the hearts of children and adolescents and compared the results of 2D strain and strain-rate echocardiographic techniques with conventional methods. Athletes from clubs for five different sports (basketball, swimming, football, wrestling, and tennis) who had practiced regularly at least 3 h per week during at least the previous 2 years were included in the study. The control group consisted of sedentary children and adolescents with no known cardiac or systemic diseases (n = 25). The athletes were grouped according to the type of exercise: dynamic (football, tennis), static (wrestling), or static and dynamic (basketball, swimming). Shortening fraction and ejection fraction values were within normal limits for the athletes in all the sports disciplines. Across all 140 athletes, LV geometry was normal in 58 athletes (41.4 %), whereas 22 athletes (15.7 %) had concentric remodeling, 20 (14.3 %) had concentric hypertrophy, and 40 (28.6 %) had eccentric hypertrophy. Global LV longitudinal strain values obtained from the average of apical four-, two-, and three-chamber global strain values were significantly lower for the basketball players than for all the other groups (p < 0.001).

  1. Study of dynamic strain aging in dual phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, R.R.U.; Cunha, F.G.G.; Gonzalez, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of the high temperature mechanical behavior of a dual phase steel. ► Determination of the effect of dynamic strain aging on the strain hardening rate. ► Identification of the mechanism associated with dynamic strain aging. ► The value of the interaction energy carbon–dislocation in ferrite was confirmed. - Abstract: The susceptibility to dynamic strain aging of a dual phase steel was evaluated by the variation of mechanical properties in tension with the temperature and the strain rate. The tensile tests were performed at temperatures varying between 25 °C and 600 °C and at strain rates ranging from 10 −2 to 5 × 10 −4 s −1 . The studied steel presented typical manifestations related to dynamic strain aging: serrated flow (the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect) for certain combinations of temperature and strain rates; the presence of a plateau in the variation of yield stress with temperature; a maximum in the curves of tensile strength, flow stress, and work hardening exponent as a function of temperature; and a minimum in the variation of total elongation with temperature. The determined apparent activation energy values, associated with the beginning of the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect and the maximum in the variation of flow stress with temperature, were 83 kJ/mol and 156 kJ/mol, respectively. These values suggest that the mechanism responsible for dynamic strain aging in the dual phase steel is the locking of dislocations by carbon atoms in ferrite and that the formation of clusters and/or transition carbides and carbide precipitation in martensite do not interfere with the dynamic strain aging process.

  2. Intraspecies diversity of Lactobacillus sakei response to oxidative stress and variability of strain performance in mixed strains challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, Morgan; Zagorec, Monique; Chaillou, Stéphane; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is a meat-borne lactic acid bacterium species exhibiting a wide genomic diversity. We have investigated the diversity of response to various oxidative compounds, between L. sakei strains, among a collection representing the genomic diversity. We observed various responses to the different compounds as well as a diversity of response depending on the aeration conditions used for cell growth. A principal component analysis revealed two main phenotypic groups, partially correlating with previously described genomic clusters. We designed strains mixes composed of three different strains, in order to examine the behavior of each strain, when cultured alone or in the presence of other strains. The strains composing the mixtures were chosen as diverse as possible, i.e. exhibiting diverse responses to oxidative stress and belonging to different genomic clusters. Growth and survival rates of each strain were monitored under various aeration conditions, with or without heme supplementation. The results obtained suggest that some strains may act as "helper" or "burden" strains depending on the oxidative conditions encountered during incubation. This study confirms that resistance to oxidative stress is extremely variable within the L. sakei species and that this property should be considered when investigating starter performance in the complex meat bacterial ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases exhibits various strain rate hardening effects, both failure through adiabatic shear band. Ti-5553 alloy with Widmannstatten microstructure exhibit more obvious strain rate hardening effect, lower critical strain rate for ASB nucleation, compared with the alloy with Bimodal microstructures. Under dynamic compression, shock-induced beta to alpha” martensite transformation occurs.

  4. Numerical studies of tool diameter on strain rates, temperature rises and grain sizes in friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhao; Qi, Wu [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2015-10-15

    Fully coupled thermo-mechanical model is used to obtain the true strain components. The sizes of the TMAZ and the SZ are predicted according to the different behaviors of the traced material particles. The strain rate and the temperature histories are used to calculate the Zener-Hollomon parameter and then the grain size in the SZ. Results indicate that the contribution from the temperatures is much more important than the one from the deformations. The strain rates at the advancing side are higher than the ones at the retreating side on the top surface but become symmetrical on the bottom surface. The widths of the TMAZ and the SZ become narrower in smaller shoulder diameter. Smaller shoulder can lead to smaller grain size in the SZ.

  5. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-04-01

    Strain anisotropy was investigated at temperatures in the range 293 to 1117K in circular tensile specimens prepared from rolled Zircaloy-2 plate so that their tensile axes were parallel to and transverse to the rolling direction. The strain anisotropy factor for both types of specimen increased markedly in the high alpha phase region above 923K reaching a maximum at circa 1070K. Above this temperature in the alpha-plus-beta phase region the strain anisotropy decreased rapidly as the proportion of beta phase increased and was almost non-existent at 1173K. The strain anisotropy was markedly strain dependent, particularly in the high alpha phase region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 type fuel rod tubing specimens which were strained under biaxial conditions using cooling conditions which promoted uniform diametral strain over most of their lengths (circa 250 mm). In these circumstances the strain anisotropy is manifest by a reduction in length. Measurement of this change along with that in diameter and wall thickness produced data from which the strain anisotropy factor was calculated. The results, although influenced by additional factors discussed in the paper, were similar to those observed in the uniaxial Zircaloy-2 tensile tests. (author)

  6. Step width alters iliotibial band strain during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey A; Campbell, Samuel; Derrick, Timothy R

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the effect of step width during running on factors related to iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 15 healthy recreational runners during overground running under various step width conditions (preferred and at least +/- 5% of their leg length). Strain and strain rate were estimated from a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. Greater ITB strain and strain rate were found in the narrower step width condition (p running, especially in persons whose running style is characterized by a narrow step width, may be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of running-related ITB syndrome.

  7. [Screening and optimization of cholesterol conversion strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan; Xiong, Bingjian; Pang, Cuiping; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2014-10-04

    Bacterial strain SE-1 capable of transforming cholesterol was isolated from soil and characterized. The transformation products were identified. Fermentation conditions were optimized for conversion. Cholesterol was used as sole carbon source to isolate strain SE-1. Morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain SE-1 were studied. 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fermentation supernatants were extracted with chloroform, the transformation products were analyzed by silica gel thin layer chromatography and Sephadex LH20. Their structures were identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Fermentation medium including carbon and nitrogen, methods of adding substrates and fermentation conditions for Strain SE-1 were optimized. Strain SE-1 was a Gram-negative bacterium, exhibiting the highest homologs to Burkholderia cepacia based on the physiological analysis. The sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of SE-1 strain and comparison with related Burkholderia show that SE-1 strain was very close to B. cepacia (Genbank No. U96927). The similarity was 99%. The result of silica gel thin layer chromatography shows that strain SE-1 transformed cholesterol to two products, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and the minor product was 7-oxocholesterol. The optimum culture conditions were: molasses 5%, (NH4 )2SO4 0.3%, 4% of inoculation, pH 7.5 and 36 degrees C. Under the optimum culture condition, the conversion rate reached 34.4% when concentration of cholesterol-Tween 80 was 1 g/L. Cholesterol 7beta-hydroxylation conversion rate under optimal conditions was improved by 20.8%. Strain SE-1 isolated from soil is capable of converting cholesterol at lab-scale.

  8. Correlation between the tissue Doppler, strain rate, strain imaging during the dobutamine infusion and coronary fractional flow reserve during catheterization: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Sinan; Yuce, Murat; Emiroglu, Yunus; Ergelen, Mehmet; Pala, Selcuk; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Izgi, Akin; Kirma, Cevat

    2005-06-22

    Coronary fractional flow reserve (FFR) as an invasive, and dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) as a noninvasive technique were used to detect critical coronary stenosis. This study was undertaken to assess correlation between these two techniques by using tissue Doppler, strain rate (SR), and strain imaging (S). In 17 patients (aged 54.9+/-12.6, 4 F), a total of 22 vessels were studied. On dobutamine stress echocardiography, baseline and peak systolic (Sm), early (Em) and late (Am) diastolic myocardial velocities, SR and S were recorded from parasternal view (mid-posterior segment) for radial and apical view (mid-septum) for longitudinal deformation. Then coronary FFR was performed by using intracoronary adenosine infusion, and the value of system were analyzed for longitudinal SR and S values, it had a mild correlation with SR (r = 0.47, p = 0.044) and a good correlation with S (r = 0.66, p = 0.002). The quantification of regional myocardial deformation by using DSE rather than the motion would be more appropriate in detecting the ischemic dysfunctional segment supplied by the critical coronary stenosis. Strain measurement during the dobutamine infusion may provide an information on the FFR results of the culprit vessel.

  9. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzar, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 103 to 104 s−1 using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual–Forquin–Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates’. PMID:27956504

  10. Yield strength of molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten at high strain rates and very high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škoro, G.P.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Edgecock, T.R.; Booth, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New experimental data on the yield strength of molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten. ► High strain rate effects at record high temperatures (up to 2700 K). ► Test of the consistency of the Zerilli–Armstrong model at very high temperatures. - Abstract: Recently reported results of the high strain rate, high temperature measurements of the yield strength of tantalum and tungsten have been analyzed along with new experimental results on the yield strength of molybdenum. Thin wires are subjected to high stress by passing a short, fast, high current pulse through a thin wire; the amplitude of the current governs the stress and the repetition rate of the pulses determines the temperature of the wire. The highest temperatures reached in the experiments were 2100 °C (for molybdenum), 2250 °C (for tantalum) and 2450 °C (for tungsten). The strain-rates in the tests were in the range from 500 to 1500 s −1 . The parameters for the constitutive equation developed by Zerilli and Armstrong have been determined from the experimental data and the results have been compared with the data obtained at lower temperatures. An exceptionally good fit is obtained for the deformation of tungsten.

  11. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous ulcers (CU in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H. ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. H. ducreyi also causes genital ulcers (GU and was thought to be exclusively transmitted by microabrasions that occur during sex. In human volunteers, the GU strain 35000HP does not infect intact skin; wounds are required to initiate infection. These data led to several questions: Are CU strains a new variant of H. ducreyi or did they evolve from GU strains? Do CU strains contain additional genes that could allow them to infect intact skin? Are CU strains susceptible to azithromycin?To address these questions, we performed whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 5 CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu and 9 archived class I and class II GU strains. Except for single nucleotide polymorphisms, the CU strains were genetically almost identical to the class I strain 35000HP and had no additional genetic content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that class I and class II strains formed two separate clusters and CU strains evolved from class I strains. Class I strains diverged from class II strains ~1.95 million years ago (mya and CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP ~0.18 mya. CU and GU strains evolved under similar selection pressures. Like 35000HP, the CU strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin.These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions.

  12. Factors affecting finite strain estimation in low-grade, low-strain clastic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Meere, Patrick A.; Mulchrone, Kieran F.

    2009-12-01

    The computer strain analysis methods SAPE, MRL and DTNNM have permitted the characterization of finite strain in two different regions with contrasting geodynamic scenarios; (1) the Talas Ala Tau (Tien Shan, Kyrgyzs Republic) and (2) the Somiedo Nappe and Narcea Antiform (Cantabrian to West Asturian-Leonese Zone boundary, Variscan Belt, NW of Iberia). The performed analyses have revealed low-strain values and the regional strain trend in both studied areas. This study also investigates the relationship between lithology (grain size and percentage of matrix) and strain estimates the two methodologies used. The results show that these methods are comparable and the absence of significant finite strain lithological control in rocks deformed under low metamorphic and low-strain conditions.

  13. Strain Anomalies during an Earthquake Sequence in the South Iceland Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadottir, T.; Haines, A. J.; Geirsson, H.; Hreinsdottir, S.

    2017-12-01

    The South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) accommodates E-W translation due to oblique spreading between the North American/Hreppar microplate and Eurasian plate, in South Iceland. Strain is released in the SISZ during earthquake sequences that last days to years, at average intervals of 80-100 years. The SISZ is currently in the midst of an earthquake sequence that started with two M6.5 earthquakes in June 2000, and continued with two M6 earthquakes in May 2008. Estimates of geometric strain accumulation, and seismic strain release in these events indicate that they released at most only half of the strain accumulated since the last earthquake cycle in 1896-1912. Annual GPS campaigns and continuous measurements during 2001-2015 were used to calculate station velocities and strain rates from a new method using the vertical derivatives of horizontal stress (VDoHS). This new method allows higher resolution of strain rates than other (older) approaches, as the strain rates are estimated by integrating VDoHS rates obtained by inversion rather than differentiating interpolated GPS velocities. Estimating the strain rates for eight 1-2 year intervals indicates temporal and spatial variation of strain rates in the SISZ. In addition to earthquake faulting, the strain rates in the SISZ are influenced by anthropogenic signals due to geothermal exploitation, and magma movements in neighboring volcanoes - Hekla and Eyjafjallajökull. Subtle signals of post-seismic strain rate changes are seen following the June 2000 M6.5 main shocks, but interestingly, much larger strain rate variations are observed after the two May 2008 M6 main shocks. A prominent strain anomaly is evident in the epicentral area prior to the May 2008 earthquake sequence. The strain signal persists over at least 4 years in the epicentral area, leading up to the M6 main shocks. The strain is primarily extension in ESE-WNW direction (sub-parallel to the direction of plate spreading), but overall shear across the N

  14. Present-day crustal deformation and strain transfer in northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Liu, Mian; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional present-day crustal deformation and strain partitioning in northeastern Tibetan Plateau are analyzed using available GPS and precise leveling data. We used the multi-scale wavelet method to analyze strain rates, and the elastic block model to estimate slip rates on the major faults and internal strain within each block. Our results show that shear strain is strongly localized along major strike-slip faults, as expected in the tectonic extrusion model. However, extrusion ends and transfers to crustal contraction near the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The strain transfer is abrupt along the Haiyuan Fault and diffusive along the East Kunlun Fault. Crustal contraction is spatially correlated with active uplifting. The present-day strain is concentrated along major fault zones; however, within many terranes bounded by these faults, intra-block strain is detectable. Terranes having high intra-block strain rates also show strong seismicity. On average the Ordos and Sichuan blocks show no intra-block strain, but localized strain on the southwestern corner of the Ordos block indicates tectonic encroachment.

  15. Tension–compression asymmetry in an extruded Mg alloy AM30: Temperature and strain rate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariah, Z.; Tatiparti, Sankara Sarma V.; Mishra, S.K.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Ramamurty, U.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strain rate, ε, and temperature, T, on the tension–compression asymmetry (TCA) in a dilute and wrought Mg alloy, AM30, over a temperature range that covers both twin accommodated deformation (below 250 °C in compression) as well as dislocation-mediated plasticity (above 250 °C) has been investigated. For this purpose, uniaxial tension and compression tests were conducted at T ranging from 25 to 400 °C with ε varying between 10 −2 and 10 s −1 . In most of the cases, the stress–strain responses in tension and compression are distinctly different; with compression responses ‘concaving upward,’ due to {101-bar 2} tensile twinning at lower plastic strains followed by slip and strain hardening at higher levels of deformation, for T below 250 °C. This results in significant levels of TCA at T −1 , suggesting that twin-mediated plastic deformation takes precedence at high rates of loading even at sufficiently high T. TCA becomes negligible at T=350 °C; however at T=400 °C, as ε increases TCA gets higher. Microscopy of the deformed samples, carried out by using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), suggests that at T>250 °C dynamic recrystallization begins between accompanied by reduction in the twinned fraction that contributes to the decrease of the TCA

  16. On strain and stress in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian N.; Smith, David W.

    2014-11-01

    Recent theoretical simulations of amelogenesis and network formation and new, simple analyses of the basic multicellular unit (BMU) allow estimation of the order of magnitude of the strain energy density in populations of living cells in their natural environment. A similar simple calculation translates recent measurements of the force-displacement relation for contacting cells (cell-cell adhesion energy) into equivalent volume energy densities, which are formed by averaging the changes in contact energy caused by a cell's migration over the cell's volume. The rates of change of these mechanical energy densities (energy density rates) are then compared to the order of magnitude of the metabolic activity of a cell, expressed as a rate of production of metabolic energy per unit volume. The mechanical energy density rates are 4-5 orders of magnitude smaller than the metabolic energy density rate in amelogenesis or bone remodeling in the BMU, which involve modest cell migration velocities, and 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller for innervation of the gut or angiogenesis, where migration rates are among the highest for all cell types. For representative cell-cell adhesion gradients, the mechanical energy density rate is 6 orders of magnitude smaller than the metabolic energy density rate. The results call into question the validity of using simple constitutive laws to represent living cells. They also imply that cells need not migrate as inanimate objects of gradients in an energy field, but are better regarded as self-powered automata that may elect to be guided by such gradients or move otherwise. Thus Ġel=d/dt 1/2 >[(C11+C12)ɛ02+2μγ02]=(C11+C12)ɛ0ɛ˙0+2μγ0γ˙0 or Ġel=ηEɛ0ɛ˙0+η‧Eγ0γ˙0 with 1.4≤η≤3.4 and 0.7≤η‧≤0.8 for Poisson's ratio in the range 0.2≤ν≤0.4 and η=1.95 and η‧=0.75 for ν=0.3. The spatial distribution of shear strains arising within an individual cell as cells slide past one another during amelogenesis is not known

  17. SDOF models for reinforced concrete beams under impulsive loads accounting for strain rate effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stochino, F., E-mail: fstochino@unica.it [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Carta, G., E-mail: giorgio_carta@unica.it [Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Cagliari, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Flexural failure of reinforced concrete beams under blast and impact loads is studied. • Two single degree of freedom models are formulated to predict the beam response. • Strain rate effects are taken into account for both models. • The theoretical response obtained from each model is compared with experimental data. • The two models give a good estimation of the maximum deflection at collapse. - Abstract: In this paper, reinforced concrete beams subjected to blast and impact loads are examined. Two single degree of freedom models are proposed to predict the response of the beam. The first model (denoted as “energy model”) is developed from the law of energy balance and assumes that the deformed shape of the beam is represented by its first vibration mode. In the second model (named “dynamic model”), the dynamic behavior of the beam is simulated by a spring-mass oscillator. In both formulations, the strain rate dependencies of the constitutive properties of the beams are considered by varying the parameters of the models at each time step of the computation according to the values of the strain rates of the materials (i.e. concrete and reinforcing steels). The efficiency of each model is evaluated by comparing the theoretical results with experimental data found in literature. The comparison shows that the energy model gives a good estimation of the maximum deflection of the beam at collapse, defined as the attainment of the ultimate strain in concrete. On the other hand, the dynamic model generally provides a smaller value of the maximum displacement. However, both approaches yield reliable results, even though they are based on some approximations. Being also very simple to implement, they may serve as an useful tool in practical applications.

  18. Fracture and strain rate behavior of airplane fuselage materials under blast loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Soetens, F.; Kroon, E.; Aanhold, van J.E.; Meulen, van der O.R.; Sagimon, M.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of three commonly used airplane fuselage materials is investigated, namely of Al2024-T3, Glare-3 and CFRP. Dynamic tensile tests using a servo-hydraulic and a light weight shock testing machine (LSM) have been performed. The results showed no strain rate effect on Al2024-T3 and

  19. Cells as strain-cued automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian N.; Snead, Malcolm L.

    2016-02-01

    homogeneous populations and network formation by invaders, morphological outcomes are governed by the ratio of the rates of two competing time dependent processes, one a migration velocity and the other a relaxation velocity related to the propagation of strain information. Relaxation velocities are approximately constant for different species and organs, whereas cell migration rates vary by three orders of magnitude. We conjecture that developmental processes use rapid cell migration to achieve certain outcomes, and slow migration to achieve others. We infer from analysis of host relaxation during network formation that a transition exists in the mechanical response of a host cell from animate to inanimate behavior when its strain changes at a rate that exceeds 10-4-10-3 s-1. The transition has previously been observed in experiments conducted in vitro.

  20. Recovery of strain-hardening rate in Ni-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. L.; Zhang, Z. J.; Cai, T.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the recovery of strain-hardening rate (RSHR) was discovered for the first time in polycrystalline materials (Ni-Si alloys) that have only dislocation activities during tensile test. Detailed microstructure characterizations show that the activation of dislocations in the secondary slip systems during tensile deformation is the major reason for this RSHR. By taking into account other metals that also exhibit RSHR during tension, a more general mechanism for the RSHR was proposed, i.e. the occurrence of a sharp decrease of dislocation mean free path (Λ) during plastic deformation, caused by either planar defects or linear defects.

  1. Creep strain accumulation in a typical LMFBR piperun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis described allows the strain concentrations in typical LMFBR two anchor point uniplanar piperuns to be calculated. Account is taken of the effect of pipe elbows in attracting creep strain to themselves as well as possible movements of the thrust line due to strain redistribution. The influence of the initial load conditions is also examined. The stress relaxation analysis is facilitated by making the assumption that a cross-sectional stress distribution determined by the asymptotic fully developed state of creep exists at all times. Use is then made of Hoff(s) analogy between materials with a creep law of the Norton type and those with a corresponding non-linear elastic stress strain law, to determine complementary strain energy rates for straight pipes and bends. Ovalisation of the latter produces an increased strain energy rate which can be simply calculated by comparison with an equal length of straight pipe through employing a creep flexibility factor due to Spence. Deflection rates at any location in the pipework can then be evaluated in terms of the thermal restraint forces at that location by an application of Castigliano's principle. In particular for an anchor point the deflection rates are identically zero and this leads to the generation of 3 simultaneous differential equations determining the relaxation of the anchor reactions. Indicative results are presented for the continuous relaxation at 570 deg C of the thermally induced stress in a planar approximation to a typical LMFBR pipe run chosen to have peak elbow stresses close to the code maximum. The results indicate a ratio, after 10 5 hours, of 3 for creep strain concentration relative to initial peak strain (calculated on the assumption of fully elastic behavior) in the most severely affected elbow, when either austenitic 316 or 321 creep properties are employed

  2. Strain ageing in welds of nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterberg, R.; Karlsson, C.

    1979-01-01

    Static and dynamic strain ageing have been investigated on submerged-arc welds and repair welds from plates of the pressure vessel steel A 533B. The results permit the determination of the worst strain ageing conditions existing in a nuclear pressure vessel. Static strain ageing was investigated by means of data from tension tests, hardness measurements and Charpy-V impact properties for prestrained and aged material for ageing temperatures from room temperature to 350 deg C and ageing times up to 1000h. Dynamic strain ageing was investigated by tensile tests up to 350 deg C at different strain rates. At the most static strain ageing was found to increase the impact transition temperature from -75 deg C in the as-received condition to -55 deg C after prestraining and ageing for the plate material, from -35 to -10 deg C for the submerged arc weld and from -90 to -40 deg C for the repair weld. Approximately 10 deg C of the deleterious effect is due to the effect of ageing for the two former materials whereas the corresponding figure for the repair weld amounts to 35 deg C. The dynamic strain ageing is strongest at very low strain rates at temperatures just below 300 deg C. The effect of strain ageing can be reduced by stress relief heat treatment or by other means decreasing the content of nitrogen in solution. (author)

  3. Computational model of 18650 lithium-ion battery with coupled strain rate and SOC dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Wang, Xinyi; Hu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An anisotropic model to describe mechanical behaviors of LIB is established. • SOC dependency is included in the mechanical model of the jellyroll. • Dynamic effect is considered in the model for LIB. - Abstract: Highly nonlinear structures and constituent materials and hazardous experiment situations have resulted in a pressing need for a numerical mechanical model for lithium-ion battery (LIB). However, such a model is still not well established. In this paper, an anisotropic homogeneous model describing the jellyroll and the battery shell is established and validated through compression, indentation, and bending tests at quasi-static loadings. In this model, state-of-charge (SOC) dependency of the LIB is further included through an analogy with the strain-rate effect. Moreover, with consideration of the inertia and strain-rate effects, the anisotropic homogeneous model is extended into the dynamic regime and proven capable of predicting the dynamic response of the LIB using the drop-weight test. The established model may help to predict extreme cases with high SOCs and crashing speeds with an over 135% improved accuracy compared to traditional models. The established coupled strain rate and SOC dependencies of the numerical mechanical model for the LIB aims to provide a solid step toward unraveling and quantifying the complicated problems for research on LIB mechanical integrity.

  4. Predictions and Experimental Microstructural Characterization of High Strain Rate Failure Modes in Layered Aluminum Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikar, Prasenjit

    Different aluminum alloys can be combined, as composites, for tailored dynamic applications. Most investigations pertaining to metallic alloy layered composites, however, have been based on quasi-static approaches. The dynamic failure of layered metallic composites, therefore, needs to be characterized in terms of strength, toughness, and fracture response. A dislocation-density based crystalline plasticity formulation, finite-element techniques, rational crystallographic orientation relations and a new fracture methodology were used to predict the failure modes associated with the high strain rate behavior of aluminum layered composites. Two alloy layers, a high strength alloy, aluminum 2195, and an aluminum alloy 2139, with high toughness, were modeled with representative microstructures that included precipitates, dispersed particles, and different grain boundary (GB) distributions. The new fracture methodology, based on an overlap method and phantom nodes, is used with a fracture criteria specialized for fracture on different cleavage planes. One of the objectives of this investigation, therefore, was to determine the optimal arrangements of the 2139 and 2195 aluminum alloys for a metallic layered composite that would combine strength, toughness and fracture resistance for high strain-rate applications. Different layer arrangements were investigated for high strain-rate applications, and the optimal arrangement was with the high toughness 2139 layer on the bottom, which provided extensive shear strain localization, and the high strength 2195 layer on the top for high strength resistance. The layer thickness of the bottom high toughness layer also affected the bending behavior of the roll-boned interface and the potential delamination of the layers. Shear strain localization, dynamic cracking and delamination were the mutually competing failure mechanisms for the layered metallic composite, and control of these failure modes can be optimized for high strain-rate

  5. Fracture and strain rate behavior of airplane fuselage materials under blast loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Soetens, F.; Kroon, E.; Aanhold, J.E. van; Meulen, O.R. van der; Sagimon, M.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of three commonly used airplane fuselage materials is investigated, namely of Al2024-T3, Glare-3 and CFRP. Dynamic tensile tests using a servo-hydraulic and a light weight shock testing machine (LSM) have been performed. The results showed no strain rate effect on Al2024-T3 and

  6. Elastic-plastic potential functionals for rates and increments of stress and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, R.A.; Zouain, N.

    1990-03-01

    In this work attention is focused in the derivation of variational formulations of the constutive relationship in the form of conjugate potential functionals from which stress and strain rates are derived as elements of the corresponding sub-differential sets. The main result obtained is a pair of potential functionals. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  7. High Strain Rate Deformation Mechanisms of Body Centered Cubic Material Subjected to Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, William

    Low carbon steel is the most common grade of structural steel used; it has carbon content of 0.05% to 0.25% and very low content of alloying elements. It is produced in great quantities and provides material properties that are acceptable for many engineering applications, particularly in the construction industry in which low carbon steel is widely used as the strengthening phase in civil structures. The overall goal of this dissertation was to investigate the deformation response of A572 grade 50 steel when subjected to impact loading. This steel has a 0.23% by weight carbon content and has less than 2% additional alloying elements. The deformation mechanisms of this steel under shock loading conditions include both dislocation motion and twin formation. The goal of this work was achieved by performing experimental, analytical and numerical research in three integrated tasks. The first is to determine the relationship between the evolution of deformation twins and the impact pressure. Secondly, a stress criterion for twin nucleation during high strain rate loading was developed which can account for the strain history or initial dislocation density. Lastly, a method was applied for separating the effects of dislocations and twins generated by shock loading in order to determine their role in controlling the flow stress of the material. In this regard, the contents of this work have been categorically organized. First, the active mechanisms in body centered cubic (BCC) low carbon steel during shock loading have been determined as being a composed of the competing mechanisms of dislocations and deformation twins. This has been determined through a series of shock loading tests of the as-received steel. The shock loading tests were done by plate impact experiments at several impact pressures ranging from 2GPa up to 13GPa using a single stage light gas gun. A relationship between twin volume fraction and impact pressure was determined and an analytical model was

  8. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  9. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  10. A constitutive model for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-static and dynamic tension tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites at strain rates ranging from 0.0001/s to 1000/s and at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 650 °C Based on the experimental results, a constitutive model, which considers the effects of strain rate and temperature on hot deformation behavior, was proposed for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures by using Zener-Hollomon equations including Arrhenius terms. All the material constants used in the model were identified by fitting Zener-Hollomon equations against the experimental results. By comparison of theoretical predictions presented by the model with experimental results, a good agreement was achieved, which indicates that this constitutive model can give an accurate and precise estimate for high temperature flow stress for the studied titanium matrix composites and can be used for numerical simulations of hot deformation behavior of the composites.

  11. 38 CFR 4.58 - Arthritis due to strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arthritis due to strain... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.58 Arthritis due to strain. With service incurred lower extremity amputation or shortening, a disabling arthritis, developing in...

  12. Unified Hall-Petch description of nano-grain nickel hardness, flow stress and strain rate sensitivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Balasubramanian, N.

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that: (i) nano-grain nickel flow stress and hardness data at ambient temperature follow a Hall-Petch (H-P) relation over a wide range of grain size; and (ii) accompanying flow stress and strain rate sensitivity measurements follow an analogous H-P relationship for the reciprocal "activation volume", (1/v*) = (1/A*b) where A* is activation area. Higher temperature flow stress measurements show a greater than expected reduction both in the H-P kɛ and in v*. The results are connected with smaller nano-grain size (tested at very low imposed strain rates.

  13. Study on strain transfer of embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rujun; Zheng, Bailin; Fu, Kunkun; He, Pengfei; Tan, Yuegang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a theoretical model of embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors was developed to provide predictions of the strain transfer rate and average strain transfer rate without the assumption that the host material is subjected to uniform axial stress. Further, a finite element (FE) analysis was performed to validate the present model. It was shown that the theoretical results with the present model are in good agreement with those by FE analysis. Finally, the parametric analysis was used to quantitatively investigate the effect of the parameters of the adhesive layer and host material on the strain transfer rate and average strain transfer rate.

  14. The importance of strain localisation in shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Paul D.; Finch, Melanie; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Griera, Albert; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Steinbach, Florian; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of various types of shear bands (C, C', C'') in shear zones indicate that heterogeneity of strain is common in strongly deformed rocks. However, the importance of strain localisation is difficult to ascertain if suitable strain markers are lacking, which is usually the case. Numerical modelling with the finite-element method has so far not given much insight in the development of shear bands. We suggest that this is not only because the modelled strains are often not high enough, but also because this technique (that usually assumes isotropic material properties within elements) does not properly incorporate mineral deformation behaviour. We simulated high-strain, simple-shear deformation in single- and polyphase materials with a full-field theory (FFT) model coupled to the Elle modelling platform (www.elle.ws; Lebensohn 2001; Bons et al. 2008). The FFT-approach simulates visco-plastic deformation by dislocation glide, taking into account the different available slip systems and their critical resolved shear stresses in relations to the applied stresses. Griera et al. (2011; 2013) have shown that this approach is particularly well suited for strongly anisotropic minerals, such as mica and ice Ih (Llorens 2015). We modelled single- and polyphase composites of minerals with different anisotropies and strengths, roughly equivalent to minerals such as ice Ih, mica, quartz and feldspar. Single-phase polycrystalline aggregates show distinct heterogeneity of strain rate, especially in case of ice Ih, which is mechanically close to mica (see also Griera et al. 2015). Finite strain distributions are heterogeneous as well, but the patterns may differ from that of the strain rate distribution. Dynamic recrystallisation, however, usually masks any strain and strain rate localisation (Llorens 2015). In case of polyphase aggregates, equivalent to e.g. a granite, we observe extensive localisation in both syn- and antithetic shear bands. The antithetic shear bands

  15. Influence of cold rolling and strain rate on plastic response of powder metallurgy and chemical vapor deposition rhenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, B.J.; Subhash, G.

    1999-01-01

    The plastic response of two kinds of rhenium processed via powder metallurgy (PM) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were investigated under uniaxial compression over a range of strain rates. The PM rhenium, further cold rolled to 50 and 80 pct of the original thickness, was also investigated to assess the influence of cold work on the plastic behavior. A strong basal texture was detected in all the preceding materials as a result of processing and cold work. Both CVD and PM rhenium exhibited an increase in yield strength and flow stress with increasing strain rate. In PM rhenium, cold work resulted in an increase in hardness and yield strength and a decrease in the work hardening rate. The deformed microstructures revealed extensive twinning in CVD rhenium. At large strains, inhomogeneous deformation mode in the form of classical cup and cone fracture was noticed

  16. Predicting creep rupture from early strain data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Stefan; Auerkari, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    To extend creep life modelling from classical rupture modelling, a robust and effective parametric strain model has been developed. The model can reproduce with good accuracy all parts of the creep curve, economically utilising the available rupture models. The resulting combined model can also be used to predict rupture from the available strain data, and to further improve the rupture models. The methodology can utilise unfailed specimen data for life assessment at lower stress levels than what is possible from rupture data alone. Master curves for creep strain and rupture have been produced for oxygen-free phosphorus-doped (OFP) copper with a maximum testing time of 51,000 h. Values of time to specific strain at given stress (40-165 MPa) and temperature (125-350 deg. C) were fitted to the models in the strain range of 0.1-38%. With typical inhomogeneous multi-batch creep data, the combined strain and rupture modelling involves the steps of investigation of the data quality, extraction of elastic and creep strain response, rupture modelling, data set balancing and creep strain modelling. Finally, the master curves for strain and rupture are tested and validated for overall fitting efficiency. With the Wilshire equation as the basis for the rupture model, the strain model applies classical parametric principles with an Arrhenius type of thermal activation and a power law type of stress dependence for the strain rate. The strain model also assumes that the processes of primary and secondary creep can be reasonably correlated. The rupture model represents a clear improvement over previous models in the range of the test data. The creep strain information from interrupted and running tests were assessed together with the rupture data investigating the possibility of rupture model improvement towards lower stress levels by inverse utilisation of the combined rupture based strain model. The developed creep strain model together with the improved rupture model is

  17. Strain rate effects on fracture behavior of Austempered Ductile Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Andrew; Bonora, Nicola; Gentile, Domenico; Iannitti, Gianluca; Testa, Gabriel; Hörnqvist Colliander, Magnus; Masaggia, Stefano; Vettore, Federico

    2017-06-01

    Austempered Ductile Irons (ADIs), combining high strength, good ductility and low density, are candidates to be a suitable alternative to high-strength steels. Nevertheless, the concern about a low ductility under dynamic loads often leads designers to exclude cast irons for structural applications. However, results from dynamic tensile tests contradict this perception showing larger failure strain with respect to quasistatic data. The fracture behaviour of ADIs depends on damage mechanisms occurring in the spheroids of graphite, in the matrix and at their interface, with the matrix (ausferrite) consisting of acicular ferrite in carbon-enriched austenite. Here, a detailed microstructural analysis was performed on the ADI 1050-6 deformed under different conditions of strain rates, temperatures, and states of stress. Beside the smooth specimens used for uniaxial tensile tests, round notched bars to evaluate the ductility reduction with increasing stress triaxiality and tophat geometries to evaluate the propensity to shear localization and the associated microstructural alterations were tested. The aim of the work is to link the mechanical and fracture behavior of ADIs to the load condition through the microstructural modifications that occur for the corresponding deformation path.

  18. Yield and strength properties of the Ti-6-22-22S alloy over a wide strain rate and temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, L.; Kanel, G.I.; Razorenov, S.V.; Bezrouchko, G.S.; Meyer, L.

    2002-01-01

    A mechanical behavior of the Ti-6-22-22S alloy was studied under uniaxial strain conditions at shock-wave loading and under uniaxial compressive stress conditions over a strain rate range of 10-4 s-1 to 103 s-1. The test temperature was varied from -175 deg. C to 620 deg. C. The strain-rate and the temperature dependencies of the yield stress obtained from the uniaxial stress tests and from the shock-wave experiments are in a good agreement and demonstrate a significant decrease in the yield strength as the temperature increases. This indicates the thermal activation mechanism of plastic deformation of the alloy is maintained at strain rates up to 106 s-1. Variation of sample thickness from 2.24 to 10 mm results in relatively small variations in the dynamic yield strength and the spall strength over the whole temperature range

  19. Modelling and simulation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) in OFHC copper at very high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, G.; Bonora, N.; Ruggiero, A.; Iannitti, G.; Persechino, I.; Hörnqvist, M.; Mortazavi, N.

    2017-01-01

    At high strain rates, deformation processes are essentially adiabatic and if the plastic work is large enough dynamic recrystallization can occur. In this work, an examination on microstructure evolution of OFHC copper in Dynamic Tensile Extrusion (DTE) test, performed at 400 m/s, was carried out. EBSD investigations, along the center line of the fragment remaining in the extrusion die, showed a progressive elongation of the grains, and an accompanying development of a strong + dual fiber texture. Discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred at larger strains, and it was showed that nucleation occurred during straining. A criterion for DRX to occur, based on the evolution of Zener-Hollomon parameter during the dynamic deformation process, is proposed. Finally, DTE test was simulated using the modified Rusinek-Klepaczko constitutive model incorporating a model for the prediction of DRX initiation.

  20. A Modified Eyring Equation for Modeling Yield and Flow Stresses of Metals at Strain Rates Ranging from 10−5 to 5 × 104 s−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In several industrial applications, metallic structures are facing impact loads. Therefore, there is an important need for developing constitutive equations which take into account the strain rate sensitivity of their mechanical properties. The Johnson-Cook equation was widely used to model the strain rate sensitivity of metals. However, it implies that the yield and flow stresses are linearly increasing in terms of the logarithm of strain rate. This is only true up to a threshold strain rate. In this work, a three-constant constitutive equation, assuming an apparent activation volume which decreases as the strain rate increases, is applied here for some metals. It is shown that this equation fits well the experimental yield and flow stresses for a very wide range of strain rates, including quasi-static, high, and very high strain rates (from 10−5 to 5 × 104 s−1. This is the first time that a constitutive equation is showed to be able to fit the yield stress over a so large strain rate range while using only three material constants.

  1. Recruitment of faster motor units is associated with greater rates of fascicle strain and rapid changes in muscle force during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S M; de Boef Miara, Maria; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M

    2013-01-15

    Animals modulate the power output needed for different locomotor tasks by changing muscle forces and fascicle strain rates. To generate the necessary forces, appropriate motor units must be recruited. Faster motor units have faster activation-deactivation rates than slower motor units, and they contract at higher strain rates; therefore, recruitment of faster motor units may be advantageous for tasks that involve rapid movements or high rates of work. This study identified motor unit recruitment patterns in the gastrocnemii muscles of goats and examined whether faster motor units are recruited when locomotor speed is increased. The study also examined whether locomotor tasks that elicit faster (or slower) motor units are associated with increased (or decreased) in vivo tendon forces, force rise and relaxation rates, fascicle strains and/or strain rates. Electromyography (EMG), sonomicrometry and muscle-tendon force data were collected from the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscles of goats during level walking, trotting and galloping and during inclined walking and trotting. EMG signals were analyzed using wavelet and principal component analyses to quantify changes in the EMG frequency spectra across the different locomotor conditions. Fascicle strain and strain rate were calculated from the sonomicrometric data, and force rise and relaxation rates were determined from the tendon force data. The results of this study showed that faster motor units were recruited as goats increased their locomotor speeds from level walking to galloping. Slow inclined walking elicited EMG intensities similar to those of fast level galloping but different EMG frequency spectra, indicating that recruitment of the different motor unit types depended, in part, on characteristics of the task. For the locomotor tasks and muscles analyzed here, recruitment patterns were generally associated with in vivo fascicle strain rates, EMG intensity and tendon force. Together, these data provide

  2. Recruitment of faster motor units is associated with greater rates of fascicle strain and rapid changes in muscle force during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S. M.; de Boef Miara, Maria; Arnold, Allison S.; Biewener, Andrew A.; Wakeling, James M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Animals modulate the power output needed for different locomotor tasks by changing muscle forces and fascicle strain rates. To generate the necessary forces, appropriate motor units must be recruited. Faster motor units have faster activation–deactivation rates than slower motor units, and they contract at higher strain rates; therefore, recruitment of faster motor units may be advantageous for tasks that involve rapid movements or high rates of work. This study identified motor unit recruitment patterns in the gastrocnemii muscles of goats and examined whether faster motor units are recruited when locomotor speed is increased. The study also examined whether locomotor tasks that elicit faster (or slower) motor units are associated with increased (or decreased) in vivo tendon forces, force rise and relaxation rates, fascicle strains and/or strain rates. Electromyography (EMG), sonomicrometry and muscle-tendon force data were collected from the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscles of goats during level walking, trotting and galloping and during inclined walking and trotting. EMG signals were analyzed using wavelet and principal component analyses to quantify changes in the EMG frequency spectra across the different locomotor conditions. Fascicle strain and strain rate were calculated from the sonomicrometric data, and force rise and relaxation rates were determined from the tendon force data. The results of this study showed that faster motor units were recruited as goats increased their locomotor speeds from level walking to galloping. Slow inclined walking elicited EMG intensities similar to those of fast level galloping but different EMG frequency spectra, indicating that recruitment of the different motor unit types depended, in part, on characteristics of the task. For the locomotor tasks and muscles analyzed here, recruitment patterns were generally associated with in vivo fascicle strain rates, EMG intensity and tendon force. Together, these

  3. Effect of strain rate and notch geometry on tensile properties and fracture mechanism of creep strength enhanced ferritic P91 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Chandan; Mahapatra, M. M.; Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, N.

    2018-01-01

    Creep strength enhanced ferritic (CSEF) P91 steel were subjected to room temperature tensile test for quasi-static (less than 10-1/s) strain rate by using the Instron Vertical Tensile Testing Machine. Effect of different type of notch geometry, notch depth and angle on mechanical properties were also considered for different strain rate. In quasi-static rates, the P91 steel showed a positive strain rate sensitivity. On the basis of tensile data, fracture toughness of P91 steel was also calculated numerically. For 1 mm notch depth (constant strain rate), notch strength and fracture toughness were found to be increased with increase in notch angle from 45° to 60° while the maximum value attained in U-type notch. Notch angle and notch depth has found a minute effect on P91 steel strength and fracture toughness. The fracture surface morphology was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  4. Comparison of Thermal Creep Strain Calculation Results Using Time Hardening and Strain Hardening Rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junehyung; Cheon, Jinsik; Lee, Byoungoon; Lee, Chanbock

    2014-01-01

    One of the design criteria for the fuel rod in PGSFR is the thermal creep strain of the cladding, because the cladding is exposed to a high temperature for a long time during reactor operation period. In general, there are two kind of calculation scheme for thermal creep strain: time hardening and strain hardening rules. In this work, thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules are compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule are compared with those by using MACSIS. Thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules were compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule were compared with those by using MACSIS. Tertiary creep started earlier in time hardening rule than in strain hardening rule. Also, calculation results by MACSIS with strain hardening and those obtained by using LIFE-METAL were almost identical to each other

  5. Elevated temperature stress strain behavior of beryllium powder product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeln, S.P.; Field, R.; Mataya, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Several grades of beryllium powder product were tested under isothermal conditions in compression over a temperature range of room temperature to 1000 C and a strain rate range from 0.001 s -1 to 1 s -1 . Samples were compressed to a total strain of 1 (64% reduction in height). It is shown that all the grades are strain rate sensitive and that strain rate sensitivity increases with temperature. Yield points were exhibited by some grades up to a temperature of 500 C, and appeared to be primarily dependent on prior thermal history which determined the availability of mobile dislocations. Serrated flow in the form of stress drops was seen in all the materials tested and was most pronounced at 500 C. The appearance and magnitude of the stress drops were dependent on accumulated strain, strain rate, sample orientation, and composition. The flow stress and shape of the flow curves differed significantly from grade to grade due to variations in alloy content, the size and distribution of BeO particles, aging precipitates, and grain size. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was determined for each grade of material and shown to be dependent on composition and thermal treatment. Structure/property relationships are discussed using processing history, microscopy (light and transmission), and property data

  6. Modulation of virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains by Enterococcus faecium probiotic strain culture fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditu, Lia-Mara; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Voltsi, Chrysa; Bleotu, Coralia; Pelinescu, Diana; Mihaescu, Grigore; Lazar, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    The increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance drastically reduced the efficiency of conventional antibiotics and led to the reconsideration of the interspecies interactions in influencing bacterial virulence and response to therapy. The aim of the study was the investigation of the influence of the soluble and cellular fractions of Enterococcus (E.) faecium CMGB16 probiotic culture on the virulence and antibiotic resistance markers expression in clinical enteropathogenic Escherichia (E.) coli strains. The 7 clinical enteropathogenic E. coli strains, one standard E. coli ATCC 25,922 and one Bacillus (B.) cereus strains were cultivated in nutrient broth, aerobically at 37 °C, for 24 h. The E. faecium CMGB16 probiotic strain was cultivated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C in MRS (Man Rogosa Sharpe) broth, and co-cultivated with two pathogenic strains (B. cereus and E. coli O28) culture fractions (supernatant, washed sediment and heat-inactivated culture) for 6 h, at 37 °C. After co-cultivation, the soluble and cellular fractions of the probiotic strain cultivated in the presence of two pathogenic strains were separated by centrifugation (6000 rpm, 10 min), heat-inactivated (15 min, 100 °C) and co-cultivated with the clinical enteropathogenic E. coli strains in McConkey broth, for 24 h, at 37 °C, in order to investigate the influence of the probiotic fractions on the adherence capacity and antibiotic susceptibility. All tested probiotic combinations influenced the adherence pattern of E. coli tested strains. The enteropathogenic E. coli strains susceptibility to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams and quinolones was increased by all probiotic combinations and decreased for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. This study demonstrates that the plurifactorial anti-infective action of probiotics is also due to the modulation of virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility expression in E. coli pathogenic strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  8. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.

    2016-10-24

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor e(i), with the vorticity vector omega, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors vertical bar e(i) . (omega) over cap vertical bar are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e(1), in contrast to the global tendency for omega to be aligned in parallelwith the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008)]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between omega and nonlocal e(1) and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  9. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G. E.; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Buxton, O. R. H.

    2016-01-01

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor e(i), with the vorticity vector omega, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors vertical bar e(i) . (omega) over cap vertical bar are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e(1), in contrast to the global tendency for omega to be aligned in parallelwith the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008)]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between omega and nonlocal e(1) and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  10. Effect of strain, substrate surface and growth rate on B-doping in selectively grown SiGe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandi, R.; Kolahdouz, M.; Hallstedt, J.; Wise, R.; Wejtmans, Hans; Radamson, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the role of strain and growth rate on boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-doped Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.15-0.25) layers in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and B incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers

  11. Effect of strain, substrate surface and growth rate on B-doping in selectively grown SiGe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandi, R. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: ghandi@kth.se; Kolahdouz, M.; Hallstedt, J. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden); Wise, R.; Wejtmans, Hans [Texas Instrument, 13121 TI Boulevard, Dallas, Tx 75243 (United States); Radamson, H.H. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)

    2008-11-03

    In this work, the role of strain and growth rate on boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-doped Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.15-0.25) layers in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and B incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers.

  12. Strain rate and temperature effects on the stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 steam generator tubing in the primary water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, U.C.; van Rooyen, D.

    1985-01-01

    A single heat of Inconel Alloy 600 was examined in this work, using slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in simulated primary water at temperatures of 325 0 -345 0 -365 0 C. The best measure of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was percent SCC present on the fracture surface. Strain rate did not seem to affect crack growth rate significantly, but there is some question about the accuracy of calculating these values in the absence of a direct indication of when a crack initiates. Demarcation was determined between domains of temperature/strain rate where SCC either did, or did not, occur. Slower extension rates were needed to produce SCC as the temperature was lowered. 10 figs

  13. Statistics of strain rates and surface density function in a flame-resolved high-fidelity simulation of a turbulent premixed bluff body burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, Anurag; Proch, Fabian; Kempf, Andreas M.; Chakraborty, Nilanjan

    2018-06-01

    The statistical behavior of the surface density function (SDF, the magnitude of the reaction progress variable gradient) and the strain rates, which govern the evolution of the SDF, have been analyzed using a three-dimensional flame-resolved simulation database of a turbulent lean premixed methane-air flame in a bluff-body configuration. It has been found that the turbulence intensity increases with the distance from the burner, changing the flame curvature distribution and increasing the probability of the negative curvature in the downstream direction. The curvature dependences of dilatation rate ∇ṡu → and displacement speed Sd give rise to variations of these quantities in the axial direction. These variations affect the nature of the alignment between the progress variable gradient and the local principal strain rates, which in turn affects the mean flame normal strain rate, which assumes positive values close to the burner but increasingly becomes negative as the effect of turbulence increases with the axial distance from the burner exit. The axial distance dependences of the curvature and displacement speed also induce a considerable variation in the mean value of the curvature stretch. The axial distance dependences of the dilatation rate and flame normal strain rate govern the behavior of the flame tangential strain rate, and its mean value increases in the downstream direction. The current analysis indicates that the statistical behaviors of different strain rates and displacement speed and their curvature dependences need to be included in the modeling of flame surface density and scalar dissipation rate in order to accurately capture their local behaviors.

  14. Effects of temperature and strain rate on the tensile behaviors of SIMP steel in static lead bismuth eutectic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian, E-mail: jliu12b@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Yan, Wei [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Sha, Wei [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Wang, Wei; Shan, Yiyin [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China)

    2016-05-15

    In order to assess the susceptibility of candidate structural materials to liquid metal embrittlement, this work investigated the tensile behaviors of ferritic-martensitic steel in static lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). The tensile tests were carried out in static lead bismuth eutectic under different temperatures and strain rates. Pronounced liquid metal embrittlement phenomenon is observed between 200 °C and 450 °C. Total elongation is reduced greatly due to the liquid metal embrittlement in LBE environment. The range of ductility trough is larger under slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. - Highlights: • The tensile behaviors of SIMP steel in LBE are investigated for the first time. • The SIMP is susceptible to LME at different strain rates and temperatures. • The total elongation is reduced greatly. • The ductility trough is wider under SSRT. • The tensile specimens rupture in brittle manner without obvious necking.

  15. Effects of temperature and strain rate on the tensile behaviors of SIMP steel in static lead bismuth eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian; Yan, Wei; Sha, Wei; Wang, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the susceptibility of candidate structural materials to liquid metal embrittlement, this work investigated the tensile behaviors of ferritic-martensitic steel in static lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). The tensile tests were carried out in static lead bismuth eutectic under different temperatures and strain rates. Pronounced liquid metal embrittlement phenomenon is observed between 200 °C and 450 °C. Total elongation is reduced greatly due to the liquid metal embrittlement in LBE environment. The range of ductility trough is larger under slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. - Highlights: • The tensile behaviors of SIMP steel in LBE are investigated for the first time. • The SIMP is susceptible to LME at different strain rates and temperatures. • The total elongation is reduced greatly. • The ductility trough is wider under SSRT. • The tensile specimens rupture in brittle manner without obvious necking.

  16. Effect of strain rate on the mechanical properties of a gum metal with various microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Silu; Pan, Z.L.; Zhao, Y.H.; Topping, T.; Valiev, R.Z.; Liao, X.Z.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhu, Y.T.; Wei, Q.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a bulk gum metal (GM) was fabricated via arc melting from high purity powders. The ingots were first extruded using a conventional route followed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The mechanical behavior of the extruded GM and ECAP-processed GM was studied under both quasi-static and high strain rate compression conditions to evaluate the influence of strain rate. In addition, the associated mechanical anisotropy, or the lack thereof, was investigated through loading in different orientations with respect to the extrusion or ECAP direction. Precipitous stress drops were observed under dynamic compression of both extruded and ECAP-processed GM specimens when loading perpendicular to the extrusion direction. Adiabatic shear banding (ASB) was found to be associated with the precipitous stress drops on the dynamic stress-strain curves. The details of the ASBs were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, with emphasis on electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The mechanisms responsible for the formation of ASB were examined both from thermal softening and geometrical softening perspectives. Significant microstructure refinement within ASBs was established, and a possible grain refinement mechanism was proposed.

  17. Temperature-strain rate dependence of mechanical properties of a beryllium of the DShG-200 brand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutov, A.M.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Mikhailov, V.S.; Nikolaev, G.N.; Timofeev, R.Yu.; Chernov, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Beryllium preforms of the DShG-200 brand of improved quality were manufactured by the method of a powder metallurgy and the mechanical tests on tension in longitudinal and transversal directions in temperature range 20-600 C and strain rates of 0,02 - 20 mm/min were held. It was shown, that at an alteration of strain rate within the indicated limits the values of stresses of flow and of the relative elongation can vary by several times. Comparison testing for tension by the Russian and American procedures (GOST and ASTM) was made. The obtained results can be beneficial at calculations of thermal stresses originating in fusion reactors (FR). (orig.)

  18. Development of transformation bands in TiNi SMA for various stress and strain rates studied by a fast and sensitive infrared camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieczyska, E A; Kulasinski, K; Tobushi, H

    2013-01-01

    TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) was subjected to tension at various strain rates for stress- and strain-controlled tests. The nucleation, development and saturation of the stress-induced martensitic transformation were investigated, based on the specimen temperature changes, measured by a fast and sensitive infrared camera. It was found that the initial, macroscopically homogeneous phase transformation occurs at the same stress level for all strain rates applied, regardless of the loading manner, while the stress of the localized transformation increases with the strain rate. At higher strain rate, a more dynamic course of the transformation process was observed, revealed in the creation of numerous fine transformation bands. An inflection point was noticed on the stress–strain curve, dividing the transformation range into two stages: the first heterogeneous, where transformation bands nucleate and evolve throughout the sample; the second, where the bands overlap, related to significant temperature increase and an upswing region of the curve. In the final part of the SMA loading a decrease of the average sample temperature revealed the saturation stage of the transformation. It was also observed that nucleation of the localized martensitic forward transformation takes place in the weakest area of the sample in both approaches, whereas the reverse transformation always initiates in its central part. (paper)

  19. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-03-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of the variant cells as compared to the diameter of the parental 3153A strain showed a relationship similar to that of the diameters of haploid versus diploid S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that those strains may be representative of the imperfect stage of C. albicans.

  20. Amerindian Helicobacter pylori strains go extinct, as european strains expand their host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Domínguez-Bello

    Full Text Available We studied the diversity of bacteria and host in the H. pylori-human model. The human indigenous bacterium H. pylori diverged along with humans, into African, European, Asian and Amerindian groups. Of these, Amerindians have the least genetic diversity. Since niche diversity widens the sets of resources for colonizing species, we predicted that the Amerindian H. pylori strains would be the least diverse. We analyzed the multilocus sequence (7 housekeeping genes of 131 strains: 19 cultured from Africans, 36 from Spanish, 11 from Koreans, 43 from Amerindians and 22 from South American Mestizos. We found that all strains that had been cultured from Africans were African strains (hpAfrica1, all from Spanish were European (hpEurope and all from Koreans were hspEAsia but that Amerindians and Mestizos carried mixed strains: hspAmerind and hpEurope strains had been cultured from Amerindians and hpEurope and hpAfrica1 were cultured from Mestizos. The least genetically diverse H. pylori strains were hspAmerind. Strains hpEurope were the most diverse and showed remarkable multilocus sequence mosaicism (indicating recombination. The lower genetic structure in hpEurope strains is consistent with colonization of a diversity of hosts. If diversity is important for the success of H. pylori, then the low diversity of Amerindian strains might be linked to their apparent tendency to disappear. This suggests that Amerindian strains may lack the needed diversity to survive the diversity brought by non-Amerindian hosts.

  1. Effect of test temperature and strain rate on the tensile properties of high-strength, high-conductivity copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of wrought GlidCop AL25 (ITER grade zero, IGO) solutionized and aged CuCrZr, and cold-worked and aged and solutionized and aged Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500{degrees}C at strain rates between 4 x 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} and 0.06 s{sup {minus}1}. The measured room temperature electrical conductivity ranged from 64 to 90% IACS for the different alloys. All of the alloys were relatively insensitive to strain rate at room temperature, but the strain rate sensitivity of GlidCop Al25 increased significantly with increasing temperature. The CuNiBe alloys exhibited the best combination of high strength and high conductivity at room temperature. The strength of CuNiBe decreased slowly with increasing temperature. However, the ductility of CuNiBe decreased rapidly with increasing temperature due to localized deformation near grain boundaries, making these alloy heats unsuitable for typical structural applications above 300{degrees}C. The strength and uniform elongation of GlidCop Al25 decreased significantly with increasing temperature at a strain rate of 1 x 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}, whereas the total elongation was independent of test temperature. The strength and ductility of CuCrZr decreased slowly with increasing temperature.

  2. Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Fracture Mode of Lake Ice at Moderate Strain Rates Based on a Digital Speckle Correlation Method for Deformation Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijian Lian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding of the complex mechanical properties of ice is the foundation to predict the ice fail process and avoid potential ice threats. In the present study, uniaxial compressive strength and fracture mode of natural lake ice are investigated over moderate strain-rate range of 0.4–10 s−1 at −5 °C and −10 °C. The digital speckle correlation method (DSCM is used for deformation measurement through constructing artificial speckle on ice sample surface in advance, and two dynamic load cells are employed to measure the dynamic load for monitoring the equilibrium of two ends’ forces under high-speed loading. The relationships between uniaxial compressive strength and strain-rate, temperature, loading direction, and air porosity are investigated, and the fracture mode of ice at moderate rates is also discussed. The experimental results show that there exists a significant difference between true strain-rate and nominal strain-rate derived from actuator displacement under dynamic loading conditions. Over the employed strain-rate range, the dynamic uniaxial compressive strength of lake ice shows positive strain-rate sensitivity and decreases with increasing temperature. Ice obtains greater strength values when it is with lower air porosity and loaded vertically. The fracture mode of ice seems to be a combination of splitting failure and crushing failure.

  3. Effect of hydriding temperature and strain rate on the ductile-brittle transition in β treated Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of hydriding temperature and strain rate on the ductile-brittle transition in β treated Zircaloy-4 has been investigated. The hydriding temperature used is 700degC, strain rates being 4x10 -4 s -1 and 4x10 -3 s -1 . The results show that at same conditions the ductility of hydrides decreases as the hydriding temperature decreases. There exists a critical temperature (transition temperature) of 250degC for hydriding at 700degC, below which the hydrided specimens (and so for the hydrides) are brittle, while above it they are ductile. This transition temperature is lower than the one mentioned by various authors obtained for hydriding at 400degC. For the same hydriding temperature of 700degC, the specimens tested at 4x10 -3 s -1 are less ductile than those tested at 4x10 -4 s -1 . Furthermore, unlike at a strain rate of 4x10 -4 s -1 , there is no more a clear ductile-brittle transition behaviour. (author)

  4. Tension–compression asymmetry in an extruded Mg alloy AM30: Temperature and strain rate effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariah, Z. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Tatiparti, Sankara Sarma V.; Mishra, S.K.; Ramakrishnan, N. [General Motors Technical Center, ITPL, Whitefield, Bangalore 560066 (India); Ramamurty, U., E-mail: ramu@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2013-06-10

    The effect of strain rate, ε, and temperature, T, on the tension–compression asymmetry (TCA) in a dilute and wrought Mg alloy, AM30, over a temperature range that covers both twin accommodated deformation (below 250 °C in compression) as well as dislocation-mediated plasticity (above 250 °C) has been investigated. For this purpose, uniaxial tension and compression tests were conducted at T ranging from 25 to 400 °C with ε varying between 10{sup −2} and 10 s{sup −1}. In most of the cases, the stress–strain responses in tension and compression are distinctly different; with compression responses ‘concaving upward,’ due to {101-bar 2} tensile twinning at lower plastic strains followed by slip and strain hardening at higher levels of deformation, for T below 250 °C. This results in significant levels of TCA at T<250 °C, reducing substantially at high temperatures. At T=150 and 250 °C, high ε leads to high TCA, in particular at T=250 °C and ε=10 s{sup −1}, suggesting that twin-mediated plastic deformation takes precedence at high rates of loading even at sufficiently high T. TCA becomes negligible at T=350 °C; however at T=400 °C, as ε increases TCA gets higher. Microscopy of the deformed samples, carried out by using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), suggests that at T>250 °C dynamic recrystallization begins between accompanied by reduction in the twinned fraction that contributes to the decrease of the TCA.

  5. Effect of strain rate on sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels: Sooting temperature index and sooting sensitivity index

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2014-05-01

    The effect of the strain rate on the sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames was investigated in various gaseous hydrocarbon fuels by varying the nitrogen dilution in the fuel and oxidizer streams. The sooting limit was defined as the critical fuel and oxygen mole fraction at which soot started to appear in the elastic light scattering signal. The sooting region for normal alkane fuels at a specified strain rate, in terms of the fuel and oxygen mole fraction, expanded as the number of carbon atoms increased. The alkene fuels (ethylene, propene) tested had a higher propensity for sooting as compared with alkane fuels with the same carbon numbers (ethane, propane). Branched iso-butane had a higher propensity for sooting than did n-butane. An increase in the strain rate reduced the tendency for sooting in all the fuels tested. The sensitivity of the sooting limit to the strain rate was more pronounced for less sooting fuels. When plotted in terms of calculated flame temperature, the critical oxygen mole fraction exhibited an Arrhenius form under sooting limit conditions, which can be utilized to significantly reduce the effort required to determine sooting limits at different strain rates. We found that the limiting temperatures of soot formation flames are viable sooting metrics for quantitatively rating the sooting tendency of various fuels, based on comparisons with threshold soot index and normalized smoke point data. We also introduce a sooting temperature index and a sooting sensitivity index, two quantitative measures to describe sooting propensity and its dependence on strain rate. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  6. Interference with the quorum sensing systems in a Vibrio harveyi strain alters the growth rate of gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinh, N T N; Linh, N D; Wood, T K; Dierckens, K; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of Vibrio harveyi strains on the growth rate of the gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, and to establish whether quorum sensing is involved in the observed phenomena. Gnotobiotic B. plicatilis sensu strictu, obtained by hatching glutaraldehyde-treated amictic eggs, were used as test organisms. Challenge tests were performed with 11 V. harveyi strains and different quorum sensing mutants derived from the V. harveyi BB120 strain. Brominated furanone [(5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone] as a quorum sensing inhibitor was tested in Brachionus challenge tests. Some V. harveyi strains, such as strain BB120, had a significantly negative effect on the Brachionus growth rate. In the challenge test with MM77, an isogenic strain of BB120 in which the two autoinducers (HAI-1 and AI-2) are both inactivated, no negative effect was observed. The effect of single mutants was the same as that observed in the BB120 strain. This indicates that both systems are responsible for the growth-retarding (GR) effect of the BB120 strain towards Brachionus. Moreover, the addition of an exogenous source of HAI-1 or AI-2 could restore the GR effect in the HAI-1 and AI-2 nonproducing mutant MM77. The addition of brominated furanone at a concentration of 2.5 mg l(-1) could neutralize the GR effect of some strains such as BB120 and VH-014. Two quorum sensing systems in V. harveyi strain BB120 (namely HAI-1 and AI-2-mediated) are necessary for its GR effect on B. plicatilis. With some other V. harveyi strains, however, growth inhibition towards Brachionus does not seem to be related to quorum sensing. Interference with the quorum sensing system might help to counteract the GR effect of some V. harveyi strains on Brachionus. However, further studies are needed to demonstrate the positive effect of halogenated furanone in nongnotobiotic Brachionus cultures and eventually, in other segments of the aquaculture industry.

  7. Monotonic and cyclic responses of impact polypropylene and continuous glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene composites at different strain rates

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief

    2016-03-08

    Impact copolymer polypropylene (IPP), a blend of isotactic polypropylene and ethylene-propylene rubber, and its continuous glass fiber composite form (glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene, GFIPP) are promising materials for impact-prone automotive structures. However, basic mechanical properties and corresponding damage of IPP and GFIPP at different rates, which are of keen interest in the material development stage and numerical tool validation, have not been reported. Here, we applied monotonic and cyclic tensile loads to IPP and GFIPP at different strain rates (0.001/s, 0.01/s and 0.1/s) to study the mechanical properties, failure modes and the damage parameters. We used monotonic and cyclic tests to obtain mechanical properties and define damage parameters, respectively. We also used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images to visualize the failure mode. We found that IPP generally exhibits brittle fracture (with relatively low failure strain of 2.69-3.74%) and viscoelastic-viscoplastic behavior. GFIPP [90]8 is generally insensitive to strain rate due to localized damage initiation mostly in the matrix phase leading to catastrophic transverse failure. In contrast, GFIPP [±45]s is sensitive to the strain rate as indicated by the change in shear modulus, shear strength and failure mode.

  8. Effect of Particle Size on Mechanical Properties of Sawdust-High Density Polyethylene Composites under Various Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliza Jaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to understand the effect of wood particle size, as it affects the characteristics of wood-based composites. This study considers the effect of wood particle size relative to the dynamic behavior of wood composites. The compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB was introduced to execute dynamic compression testing at the strain rate of 650 s-1, 900 s-1, and 1100 s-1, whereas a conventional universal testing machine (UTM was used to perform static compression testing at the strain rate of 0.1 s-1, 0.01 s-1, and 0.001 s-1 for four different particle sizes (63 µm, 125 µm, 250 µm, and 500 µm. The results showed that mechanical properties of composites were positively affected by the particle sizes, where the smallest particle size gave the highest values compared to the others. Moreover, the particle size also affected the rate sensitivity and the thermal activation volume of sawdust/HDPE, where smaller particles resulted in lower rate sensitivity. For the post-damage analysis, the applied strain rates influenced deformation behavior differently for all particle sizes of the specimens. In a fractographic analysis under dynamic loading, the composites with large particles experienced severe catastrophic deformation and damages compared to the smaller particles.

  9. Deformation-strain field in Sichuan and its surrounding areas based on GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchao Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The strain rate in Sichuan and its surrounding areas, and the activity rate and strain rate in two block boundary fault zones were calculated according to the block movement parameters estimated using the station speed obtained from regional GPS station observation data in these areas for 2009–2011 and GPS continuous station data for 2011–2013. The movement field characteristics in these areas were analyzed with the Sichuan Basin as the reference. Results show that the principal strain rate and maximum shear strain rate of the Bayan Har block were the largest, followed by those of the Sichuan–Yunnan block and Sichuan Basin. The deep normal strain rate in the Longmenshan fault zone was compressive and large over the study period. The normal strain rate in the Xianshuihe fault zone was tensile.

  10. How fault evolution changes strain partitioning and fault slip rates in Southern California: Results from geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiyang; Liu, Mian

    2017-08-01

    In Southern California, the Pacific-North America relative plate motion is accommodated by the complex southern San Andreas Fault system that includes many young faults (faults and their impact on strain partitioning and fault slip rates are important for understanding the evolution of this plate boundary zone and assessing earthquake hazard in Southern California. Using a three-dimensional viscoelastoplastic finite element model, we have investigated how this plate boundary fault system has evolved to accommodate the relative plate motion in Southern California. Our results show that when the plate boundary faults are not optimally configured to accommodate the relative plate motion, strain is localized in places where new faults would initiate to improve the mechanical efficiency of the fault system. In particular, the Eastern California Shear Zone, the San Jacinto Fault, the Elsinore Fault, and the offshore dextral faults all developed in places of highly localized strain. These younger faults compensate for the reduced fault slip on the San Andreas Fault proper because of the Big Bend, a major restraining bend. The evolution of the fault system changes the apportionment of fault slip rates over time, which may explain some of the slip rate discrepancy between geological and geodetic measurements in Southern California. For the present fault configuration, our model predicts localized strain in western Transverse Ranges and along the dextral faults across the Mojave Desert, where numerous damaging earthquakes occurred in recent years.

  11. Length-scale and strain rate-dependent mechanism of defect formation and fracture in carbon nanotubes under tensile loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering (India); Raha, S. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Computational and Data Sciences (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: droymahapatra@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering (India)

    2017-02-15

    Electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical forces play a major role in nanotube-based materials and devices. Under high-energy electron transport or high current densities, carbon nanotubes fail via sequential fracture. The failure sequence is governed by certain length scale and flow of current. We report a unified phenomenological model derived from molecular dynamic simulation data, which successfully captures the important physics of the complex failure process. Length-scale and strain rate-dependent defect nucleation, growth, and fracture in single-walled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range of 0.47 to 2.03 nm and length which is about 6.17 to 26.45 nm are simulated. Nanotubes with long length and small diameter show brittle fracture, while those with short length and large diameter show transition from ductile to brittle fracture. In short nanotubes with small diameters, we observe several structural transitions like Stone-Wales defect initiation, its propagation to larger void nucleation, formation of multiple chains of atoms, conversion to monatomic chain of atoms, and finally complete fracture of the carbon nanotube. Hybridization state of carbon-carbon bonds near the end cap evolves, leading to the formation of monatomic chain in short nanotubes with small diameter. Transition from ductile to brittle fracture is also observed when strain rate exceeds a critical value. A generalized analytical model of failure is established, which correlates the defect energy during the formation of atomic chain with aspect ratio of the nanotube and strain rate. Variation in the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, tensile strength, and fracture strain with the size and strain rate shows important implications in mitigating force fields and ways to enhance the life of electronic devices and nanomaterial conversion via fracture in manufacturing.

  12. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  13. A Geodetic Strain Rate Model for the Pacific-North American Plate Boundary, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreemer, C.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Holland, A. A.; Bennett, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    We present a model of crustal strain rates derived from GPS measurements of horizontal station velocities in the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the western United States. The model reflects a best estimate of present-day deformation from the San Andreas fault system in the west to the Basin and Range province in the east. Of the total 2,846 GPS velocities used in the model, 1,197 are derived by ourselves, and 1,649 are taken from (mostly) published results. The velocities derived by ourselves (the "UNR solution") are estimated from GPS position time-series of continuous and semi-continuous stations for which data are publicly available. We estimated ITRF2005 positions from 2002-2011.5 using JPL's GIPSY-OASIS II software with ambiguity resolution applied using our custom Ambizap software. Only stations with time-series that span at least 2.25 years are considered. We removed from the time-series continental-scale common-mode errors using a spatially-varying filtering technique. Velocity uncertainties (typically 0.1-0.3 mm/yr) assume that the time-series contain flicker plus white noise. We used a subset of stations on the stable parts of the Pacific and North American plates to estimate the Pacific-North American pole of rotation. This pole is applied as a boundary condition to the model and the North American - ITRF2005 pole is used to rotate our velocities into a North America fixed reference frame. We do not include parts of the time-series that show curvature due to post-seismic deformation after major earthquakes and we also exclude stations whose time-series display a significant unexplained non-linearity or that are near volcanic centers. Transient effects longer than the observation period (i.e., slow viscoelastic relaxation) are left in the data. We added to the UNR solution velocities from 12 other studies. The velocities are transformed onto the UNR solution's reference frame by estimating and applying a translation and rotation that minimizes

  14. Dynamic strains for earthquake source characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew J.; Crowell, Brendan W

    2017-01-01

    Strainmeters measure elastodynamic deformation associated with earthquakes over a broad frequency band, with detection characteristics that complement traditional instrumentation, but they are commonly used to study slow transient deformation along active faults and at subduction zones, for example. Here, we analyze dynamic strains at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeters (BSM) associated with 146 local and regional earthquakes from 2004–2014, with magnitudes from M 4.5 to 7.2. We find that peak values in seismic strain can be predicted from a general regression against distance and magnitude, with improvements in accuracy gained by accounting for biases associated with site–station effects and source–path effects, the latter exhibiting the strongest influence on the regression coefficients. To account for the influence of these biases in a general way, we include crustal‐type classifications from the CRUST1.0 global velocity model, which demonstrates that high‐frequency strain data from the PBO BSM network carry information on crustal structure and fault mechanics: earthquakes nucleating offshore on the Blanco fracture zone, for example, generate consistently lower dynamic strains than earthquakes around the Sierra Nevada microplate and in the Salton trough. Finally, we test our dynamic strain prediction equations on the 2011 M 9 Tohoku‐Oki earthquake, specifically continuous strain records derived from triangulation of 137 high‐rate Global Navigation Satellite System Earth Observation Network stations in Japan. Moment magnitudes inferred from these data and the strain model are in agreement when Global Positioning System subnetworks are unaffected by spatial aliasing.

  15. Thermomechanical Studies of Yielding and Strain Localization Phenomena of Gum Metal under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta A. Pieczyska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of investigation of multifunctional β-Ti alloy Gum Metal subjected to tension at various strain rates. Digital image correlation was used to determine strain distributions and stress-strain curves, while infrared camera allowed for us to obtain the related temperature characteristics of the specimen during deformation. The mechanical curves completed by the temperature changes were applied to analyze the subsequent stages of the alloy loading. Elastic limit, recoverable strain, and development of the strain localization were studied. It was found that the maximal drop in temperature, which corresponds to the yield limit of solid materials, was referred to a significantly lower strain value in the case of Gum Metal in contrast to its large recoverable strain. The temperature increase proves a dissipative character of the process and is related to presence of ω and α″ phases induced during the alloy fabrication and their exothermic phase transformations activated under loading. During plastic deformation, both the strain and temperature distributions demonstrate that strain localization for higher strain rates starts nucleating just after the yield limit leading to specimen necking and rupture. Macroscopically, it is exhibited as softening of the stress-strain curve in contrast to the strain hardening observed at lower strain rates.

  16. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  17. Dependence of Subduction Zone seismicity on Strain-Rate-Dependent Critical Homologous Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes mainly occur in crust or mantle that is below a critical temperature for the tectonic strain-rate, such that stress builds up to the breaking point before it can relax due to creep. Then long-range stress correlation gives rise to power law seismicity with large events. The limiting temperature depends on pressure, which is taken into account by finding a critical homologous temperature THc=T/TM above which earthquakes are rarely observed. We find that THc for ocean plates is ˜0.55. For California earthquakes, it is also close to 0.55. The uppermost mantle layer of oceanic plates of thickness ˜50 km is composed of harzburgite and depleted peridotite from which basalt has been removed to form ocean crust. Thus it has a higher melting temperature than the peridotite of the surrounding mantle, or the lower halves of plates. Thicknesses of seismicity in deep subduction zones, determined from 2D polynomial fits to a relocated catalog, are ˜50 km, which suggests that the earthquake channel is confined to this layer. We construct models to find homologous temperatures in slabs, and find that seismicity thicknesses are also, on average, confined to TH ≤ 0.55 ± 0.05. The associated rheology is compared with that obtained from flexure models of ocean lithosphere. The brittle-ductile transition occurs where viscosity drops from high values in the cold cores of slabs to values of 1022 to $1023 Pa s, i.e., where creep strain-rates become comparable to tectonic rates. The cutoff for deep earthquakes is not sharp. However they appear unlikely to occur if homologous temperature is high TH>0.55. Exceptions to the rule are anomalously deep earthquakes such as those beneath the Iceland and the Hawaiian hotspots, and the Newport Inglewood Fault. These are smaller events with short-range stress correlation, and can be explained if strain-rates are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than those associated with earthquakes located where TH ≤0.55. We conclude that the

  18. Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70 degrees F), 150 degrees F, and -20 degrees F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain

  19. Analysis of the Lankford coefficient evolution at different strain rates for AA6016-T4, DP800 and DC06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Matthias; Merklein, Marion

    2017-10-01

    In the automotive sector, a major challenge is the deep-drawing of modern lightweight sheet metals with limited formability. Thus, conventional material models lack in accuracy due to the complex material behavior. A current field of research takes into account the evolution of the Lankford coefficient. Today, changes in anisotropy under increasing degree of deformation are not considered. Only a consolidated average value of the Lankford coefficient is included in conventional material models. This leads to an increasing error in prediction of the flow behavior and therefore to an inaccurate prognosis of the forming behavior. To increase the accuracy of the prediction quality, the strain dependent Lankford coefficient should be respected, because the R-value has a direct effect on the contour of the associated flow rule. Further, the investigated materials show a more or less extinct rate dependency of the yield stress. For this reason, the rate dependency of the Lankford coefficient during uniaxial tension is focused within this contribution. To quantify the influence of strain rate on the Lankford coefficient, tensile tests are performed for three commonly used materials, the aluminum alloy AA6016-T4, the advanced high strength steel DP800 and the deep drawing steel DC06 at three different strain rates. The strain measurement is carried out by an optical strain measurement system. An evolution of the Lankford coefficient was observed for all investigated materials. Also, an influence of the deformation velocity on the anisotropy could be detected.

  20. Comparative Genomic Characterization of the Highly Persistent and Potentially Virulent Cronobacter sakazakii ST83, CC65 Strain H322 and Other ST83 Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Chase

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter (C. sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen and has been associated with serious infections with high mortality rates predominantly in pre-term, low-birth weight and/or immune compromised neonates and infants. Infections have been epidemiologically linked to consumption of intrinsically and extrinsically contaminated lots of reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, thus contamination of such products is a challenging task for the PIF producing industry. We present the draft genome of C. sakazakii H322, a highly persistent sequence type (ST 83, clonal complex (CC 65, serotype O:7 strain obtained from a batch of non-released contaminated PIF product. The presence of this strain in the production environment was traced back more than 4 years. Whole genome sequencing (WGS of this strain together with four more ST83 strains (PIF production environment-associated confirmed a high degree of sequence homology among four of the five strains. Phylogenetic analysis using microarray (MA and WGS data showed that the ST83 strains were highly phylogenetically related and MA showed that between 5 and 38 genes differed from one another in these strains. All strains possessed the pESA3-like virulence plasmid and one strain possessed a pESA2-like plasmid. In addition, a pCS1-like plasmid was also found. In order to assess the potential in vivo pathogenicity of the ST83 strains, each strain was subjected to infection studies using the recently developed zebrafish embryo model. Our results showed a high (90–100% zebrafish mortality rate for all of these strains, suggesting a high risk for infections and illness in neonates potentially exposed to PIF contaminated with ST83 C. sakazakii strains. In summary, virulent ST83, CC65, serotype CsakO:7 strains, though rarely found intrinsically in PIF, can persist within a PIF manufacturing facility for years and potentially pose significant quality assurance challenges to the PIF manufacturing industry.

  1. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  2. Strain Rate Dependant Material Model for Orthotropic Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignjevic, Rade

    2016-01-01

    In manufacturing processes anisotropic metals are often exposed to the loading with high strain rates in the range from 10"2 s"-"1 to 10"6 s"-"1 (e.g. stamping, cold spraying and explosive forming). These types of loading often involve generation and propagation of shock waves within the material. The material behaviour under such a complex loading needs to be accurately modelled, in order to optimise the manufacturing process and achieve appropriate properties of the manufactured component. The presented research is related to development and validation of a thermodynamically consistent physically based constitutive model for metals under high rate loading. The model is capable of modelling damage, failure and formation and propagation of shock waves in anisotropic metals. The model has two main parts: the strength part which defines the material response to shear deformation and an equation of state (EOS) which defines the material response to isotropic volumetric deformation [1]. The constitutive model was implemented into the transient nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D [2] and our in house SPH code. Limited model validation was performed by simulating a number of high velocity material characterisation and validation impact tests. The new damage model was developed in the framework of configurational continuum mechanics and irreversible thermodynamics with internal state variables. The use of the multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient makes the model applicable to arbitrary plastic and damage deformations. To account for the physical mechanisms of failure, the concept of thermally activated damage initially proposed by Tuller and Bucher [3], Klepaczko [4] was adopted as the basis for the new damage evolution model. This makes the proposed damage/failure model compatible with the Mechanical Threshold Strength (MTS) model Follansbee and Kocks [5], 1988; Chen and Gray [6] which was used to control evolution of flow stress during plastic

  3. Fine-Tuning Strain and Electronic Activation of Strain-Promoted 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions with Endocyclic Sulfamates in SNO-OCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eileen G; Gold, Brian; Hoang, Trish T; Raines, Ronald T; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-06-14

    The ability to achieve predictable control over the polarization of strained cycloalkynes can influence their behavior in subsequent reactions, providing opportunities to increase both rate and chemoselectivity. A series of new heterocyclic strained cyclooctynes containing a sulfamate backbone (SNO-OCTs) were prepared under mild conditions by employing ring expansions of silylated methyleneaziridines. SNO-OCT derivative 8 outpaced even a difluorinated cyclooctyne in a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with benzylazide. The various orbital interactions of the propargylic and homopropargylic heteroatoms in SNO-OCT were explored both experimentally and computationally. The inclusion of these heteroatoms had a positive impact on stability and reactivity, where electronic effects could be utilized to relieve ring strain. The choice of the heteroatom combinations in various SNO-OCTs significantly affected the alkyne geometries, thus illustrating a new strategy for modulating strain via remote substituents. Additionally, this unique heteroatom activation was capable of accelerating the rate of reaction of SNO-OCT with diazoacetamide over azidoacetamide, opening the possibility of further method development in the context of chemoselective, bioorthogonal labeling.

  4. Crash simulation of hybrid structures considering the stress and strain rate dependent material behavior of thermoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Schöngart, M.; Weber, M.; Klein, J.

    2015-05-01

    Thermoplastic materials are more and more used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in the automotive industry. Since these materials do not provide the mechanical properties, which are required to manufacture supporting elements like an auto body or a cross bearer, plastics are combined with metals in so called hybrid structures. Normally, the plastics components are joined to the metal structures using different technologies like welding or screwing. Very often, the hybrid structures are made of flat metal parts, which are stiffened by a reinforcement structure made of thermoplastic materials. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in the crash situation of an automobile. Due to the large stiffness variation of metal and thermoplastic materials, complex states of stress and very high local strain rates occur in the contact zone under impact conditions. Since the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is highly dependent on these types of load, the crash failure of metal plastic hybrid parts is very complex. The problem is that the normally used strain rate dependent elastic/plastic material models are not capable to simulate the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials depended on the state of stress. As part of a research project, a method to simulate the mechanical behavior of hybrid structures under impact conditions is developed at the IKV. For this purpose, a specimen for the measurement of mechanical properties dependet on the state of stress and a method for the strain rate depended characterization of thermoplastic materials were developed. In the second step impact testing is performed. A hybrid structure made from a metal sheet and a reinforcement structure of a Polybutylenterephthalat Polycarbonate blend is tested under impact conditions. The measured stress and strain rate depended material data are used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the hybrid structure under highly dynamic load with

  5. Rat Strain Ontology: structured controlled vocabulary designed to facilitate access to strain data at RGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Rajni; Munzenmaier, Diane H; Worthey, Elizabeth A; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary; Jacob, Howard J

    2013-11-22

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD) ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/) is the premier site for comprehensive data on the different strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). The strain data are collected from various publications, direct submissions from individual researchers, and rat providers worldwide. Rat strain, substrain designation and nomenclature follow the Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains, instituted by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. While symbols and names aid in identifying strains correctly, the flat nature of this information prohibits easy search and retrieval, as well as other data mining functions. In order to improve these functionalities, particularly in ontology-based tools, the Rat Strain Ontology (RS) was developed. The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) reflects the breeding history, parental background, and genetic manipulation of rat strains. This controlled vocabulary organizes strains by type: inbred, outbred, chromosome altered, congenic, mutant and so on. In addition, under the chromosome altered category, strains are organized by chromosome, and further by type of manipulations, such as mutant or congenic. This allows users to easily retrieve strains of interest with modifications in specific genomic regions. The ontology was developed using the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) file format, and is organized on the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure. Rat Strain Ontology IDs are included as part of the strain report (RS: ######). As rat researchers are often unaware of the number of substrains or altered strains within a breeding line, this vocabulary now provides an easy way to retrieve all substrains and accompanying information. Its usefulness is particularly evident in tools such as the PhenoMiner at RGD, where users can now easily retrieve phenotype measurement data for related strains, strains with similar backgrounds or those with similar introgressed regions. This

  6. Effects of strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior of carbon black reinforced elastomers based on butyl rubber and high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, M.

    2018-06-01

    The influence of the mechanical property and morphology of different blend ratio of Butyl rubber (IIR)/high molecular weight polyethylene (PE) by temperature and strain rate are performed. Special attention has been considered to a ductile-brittle transition that is known to occur at around 60 °C. The idea is to explain the unexpected phenomenon of brittleness which directly related to all tensile mechanical properties such as the strength of blends, modulus of elasticity of filled and unfilled IIR-polyethylene blends. In particular, the initial Young's modulus, tensile strength and strain at failure exhibit similar dependency on strain rate and temperature. These quantities lowered and increased with an increment of temperature, whereas the increased with increasing of strain rate. Furthermore, the tensile strength and strain at failure decreases for all temperatures range with the increase of PE content in the blend, except Young's modulus in reverse. The strain rate sensitivity index parameter of the examined polymeric materials is consistent with the micro-mechanisms of deformation and the behavior was well described by an Eyring relationship leading to an activation volume of ∼1 nm3, except for the highest value of unfilled IIR ∼8.45 nm3.

  7. Carbazole degradation in the soil microcosm by tropical bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef B. Salam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, three bacterial strains isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and phylogenetically identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonassp. strain SL4 and Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6 displayed angular dioxygenation and mineralization of carbazole in batch cultures. In this study, the ability of these isolates to survive and enhance carbazole degradation in soil were tested in field-moist microcosms. Strain SL4 had the highest survival rate (1.8 x 107 cfu/g after 30 days of incubation in sterilized soil, while there was a decrease in population density in native (unsterilized soil when compared with the initial population. Gas chromatographic analysis after 30 days of incubation showed that in sterilized soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg, 66.96, 82.15 and 68.54% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6, respectively, with rates of degradation of 0.093, 0.114 and 0.095 mg kg−1 h−1. The combination of the three isolates as inoculum in sterilized soil degraded 87.13% carbazole at a rate of 0.121 mg kg−1 h−1. In native soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg, 91.64, 87.29 and 89.13% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6 after 30 days of incubation, with rates of degradation of 0.127, 0.121 and 0.124 mg kg−1h−1, respectively. This study successfully established the survivability (> 106 cfu/g detected after 30 days and carbazole-degrading ability of these bacterial strains in soil, and highlights the potential of these isolates as seed for the bioremediation of carbazole-impacted environments.

  8. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-01-01

    The strong crystallographic texture which is developed during the fabrication of zirconium-based alloys causes pronounced anisotropy in their mechanical properties, particularly deformation. The tendency for circular-section tension specimens with a high concentration of basal poles in one direction to become elliptical when deformed in tension has been used in this study to provide quantitative data on the effects of both strain and temperature on strain anisotropy. Tension tests were carried out over a temperature range of 293 to 1193 K on specimens machined from Zircaloy-2 plate. The strain anisotropy was found to increase markedly at temperatures over 923 K, reaching a maximum in the region of 1070 K. The strain anisotropy increased with increasing strain in this temperature region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized-water reactor fuel cladding by carrying out tube swelling tests and evaluating the axial deformation produced. Although scatter in the test results was higher than that exhibited in the tension tests, the general trend in the data was similar. The effects of the strain anisotropy observed are discussed in relation to the effects of temperature on the ductility of Zircaloy fuel cladding tubes during postulated largebreak loss-of-coolant accidents

  9. Internal state variable plasticity-damage modeling of AISI 4140 steel including microstructure-property relations: temperature and strain rate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacif el Alaoui, Reda

    Mechanical structure-property relations have been quantified for AISI 4140 steel. under different strain rates and temperatures. The structure-property relations were used. to calibrate a microstructure-based internal state variable plasticity-damage model for. monotonic tension, compression and torsion plasticity, as well as damage evolution. Strong stress state and temperature dependences were observed for the AISI 4140 steel. Tension tests on three different notched Bridgman specimens were undertaken to study. the damage-triaxiality dependence for model validation purposes. Fracture surface. analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to quantify the void. nucleation and void sizes in the different specimens. The stress-strain behavior exhibited. a fairly large applied stress state (tension, compression dependence, and torsion), a. moderate temperature dependence, and a relatively small strain rate dependence.

  10. High strain rate superplasticity in a friction stir processed 7075 Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.S.; Mahoney, M.W.; McFaden, S.X.; Mara, N.A.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1999-12-31

    In this paper, the authors report the first results using friction stir processing (FSP). In the last ten years, a new technique of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has emerged as an exciting solid state joining technique for aluminum alloys. This technique, developed by The Welding Institute (TWI), involves traversing a rotating tool that produces intense plastic deformation through a stirring action. The localized heating is produced by friction between the tool shoulder and the sheet top surface, as well as plastic deformation of the material in contact with the tool. This results in a stirred zone with a very fine grain size in a single pass. Mahoney et al. observed a grain size of 3 {micro}m in a 7075 Al alloy. This process can be easily adopted as a processing technique to obtain fine grain size. FSP of a commercial 7075 Al alloy resulted in significant enhancement of superplastic properties. The optimum superplastic strain rate was 10{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} at 490 C in the FSP 7075 Al alloy, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude in strain rate. The present results suggest an exciting possibility to use a simple FSP technique to enhance grain size dependent properties.

  11. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  12. Influence of primary α-phase volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at different strain rates and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu; Zhou, Shimeng; Luo, Wenbo; Xue, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yajing

    2018-03-01

    Bimodal microstructures with primary α-phase volume fractions ranging from 14.3% to 57.1% were gained in Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy through annealed in two-phase region at various temperatures below the β-transus point. Then the influence of the primary α-phase volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Ti-64 were studied. The results show that, at room temperature and a strain rate of 10‑3 s‑1, the yield stress decreases but the fracture strain augments with added primary α-phase volume fraction. The equiaxed primary α-phase possesses stronger ability to coordinate plastic deformation, leading to the improvement of the ductile as well as degradation of the strength of Ti-64 with higher primary α-phase volume fraction. As the temperature goes up to 473 K, the quasi-static yield stress and ultimate strength decrease first and then increase with the incremental primary α-phase volume fraction, due to the interaction between the work hardening and the softening caused by the DRX and the growth of the primary α-phase. At room temperature and a strain rate of 3×103 s‑1, the varying pattern of strength with the primary α-phase volume fraction resembles that at a quasi-static strain rate. However, the flow stress significantly increases but the strain-hardening rate decreases compared to those at quasi-static strain rate due to the competition between the strain rate hardening and the thermal softening during dynamic compression process.

  13. [3H] Thymidine incorporation to estimate growth rates of anaerobic bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winding, A.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [ 3 H] thymidine by axenic cultures of anaerobic bacteria was investigated as a means to measure growth. The three fermentative strains and one of the methanogenic strains tested incorporated [ 3 H] thymidine during growth. It is concluded that the [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation method underestimates bacterial growth in anaerobic environments

  14. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  15. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  16. Methodology to measure strains at high temperatures using electrical strain gages with free filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanazio Filho, Nelson N.; Gomes, Paulo T. Vida; Scaldaferri, Denis H.B.; Silva, Luiz L. da; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental methodology used for strains measuring at high temperatures is show in this work. In order to do the measurements, it was used electric strain gages with loose filaments attached to a stainless steel 304 beam with specific cements. The beam has triangular shape and a constant thickness, so the strain is the same along its length. Unless the beam surface be carefully prepared, the strain gage attachment is not efficient. The showed results are for temperatures ranging from 20 deg C to 300 deg C, but the experimental methodology could be used to measure strains at a temperature up to 900 deg C. Analytical calculations based on solid mechanics were used to verify the strain gage electrical installation and the measured strains. At a first moment, beam deformations as a temperature function were plotted. After that, beam deformations with different weighs were plotted as a temperature function. The results shown allowed concluding that the experimental methodology is trustable to measure strains at temperatures up to 300 deg C. (author)

  17. Global Existence Results for Viscoplasticity at Finite Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Alexander; Rossi, Riccarda; Savaré, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    We study a model for rate-dependent gradient plasticity at finite strain based on the multiplicative decomposition of the strain tensor, and investigate the existence of global-in-time solutions to the related PDE system. We reveal its underlying structure as a generalized gradient system, where the driving energy functional is highly nonconvex and features the geometric nonlinearities related to finite-strain elasticity as well as the multiplicative decomposition of finite-strain plasticity. Moreover, the dissipation potential depends on the left-invariant plastic rate, and thus depends on the plastic state variable. The existence theory is developed for a class of abstract, nonsmooth, and nonconvex gradient systems, for which we introduce suitable notions of solutions, namely energy-dissipation-balance and energy-dissipation-inequality solutions. Hence, we resort to the toolbox of the direct method of the calculus of variations to check that the specific energy and dissipation functionals for our viscoplastic models comply with the conditions of the general theory.

  18. Management of digital eye strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Sulley, Anna; Young, Graeme

    2018-05-23

    Digital eye strain, an emerging public health issue, is a condition characterised by visual disturbance and/or ocular discomfort related to the use of digital devices and resulting from a range of stresses on the ocular environment. This review aims to provide an overview of the extensive literature on digital eye strain research with particular reference to the clinical management of symptoms. As many as 90 per cent of digital device users experience symptoms of digital eye strain. Many studies suggest that the following factors are associated with digital eye strain: uncorrected refractive error (including presbyopia), accommodative and vergence anomalies, altered blinking pattern (reduced rate and incomplete blinking), excessive exposure to intense light, closer working distance, and smaller font size. Since a symptom may be caused by one or more factors, a holistic approach should be adopted. The following management strategies have been suggested: (i) appropriate correction of refractive error, including astigmatism and presbyopia; (ii) management of vergence anomalies, with the aim of inducing or leaving a small amount of heterophoria (~1.5 Δ Exo); (iii) blinking exercise/training to maintain normal blinking pattern; (iv) use of lubricating eye drops (artificial tears) to help alleviate dry eye-related symptoms; (v) contact lenses with enhanced comfort, particularly at end-of-day and in challenging environments; (vi) prescription of colour filters in all vision correction options, especially blue light-absorbing filters; and (vii) management of accommodative anomalies. Prevention is the main strategy for management of digital eye strain, which involves: (i) ensuring an ergonomic work environment and practice (through patient education and the implementation of ergonomic workplace policies); and (ii) visual examination and eye care to treat visual disorders. Special consideration is needed for people at a high risk of digital eye strain, such as computer

  19. The amyR-deletion strain of Aspergillus niger CICC2462 is a suitable host strain to express secreted protein with a low background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Xiang Xiang; Ji, Wei; Song, Fuping; Zhao, Yue; Li, Jie

    2016-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited as an important expression host for industrial production. The glucoamylase high-producing strain A. niger CICC2462 has been used as a host strain for the establishment of a secretion expression system. It expresses recombinant xylanase, mannase and asparaginase at a high level, but some high secretory background proteins in these recombinant strains still remain, such as alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase; lead to a low-purity of fermentation products. The aim was to construct an A. niger host strain with a low background of protein secretion. The transcription factor amyR was deleted in A. niger CICC2462, and the results from enzyme activity assays and SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the glucoamylase and amylase activities of the ∆amyR strains were significantly lower than those of the wild-type strain. High-throughput RNA-sequencing and shotgun LC-MS/MS proteomic technology analysis demonstrated that the expression of amylolytic enzymes was decreased at both the transcriptional and translational levels in the ∆amyR strain. Interestingly, the ∆amyR strain growth rate better than the wild-type strain. Our findings clearly indicated that the ∆amyR strain of A. niger CICC2462 can be used as a host strain with a low background of protein secretion.

  20. Sleep monitoring sensor using flexible metal strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Jinyong; Kim, Kunnyun

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a sleep monitoring sensor based on a flexible metal strain gauge. As quality of life has improved, interest in sleep quality, and related products, has increased. In this study, unlike a conventional single sensor based on a piezoelectric material, a metal strain gauge-based array sensor based on polyimide and nickel chromium (NiCr) is applied to provide movement direction, respiration, and heartbeat data as well as contact-free use by the user during sleeping. Thin-film-type resistive strain gage sensors are fabricated through the conventional flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) process, which is very useful for commercialization. The measurement of movement direction and respiratory rate during sleep were evaluated, and the heart rate data were compared with concurrent electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An algorithm for analyzing sleep data was developed using MATLAB, and the error rate was 4.2% when compared with ECG for heart rate.

  1. Experimental characterization and modelling of UO2 mechanical behaviour at high temperatures and high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize and model the mechanical behavior of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) during a Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA). The fuel loading during a RIA is characterized by high strain rates (up to 1/s) and high temperatures (1000 C - 2500 C). Two types of UO 2 pellets (commercial and high density) were therefore tested in compression with prescribed displacement rates (0.1 to 100 mm/min corresponding to strain rates of 10 -4 - 10 -1 /s) and temperatures (1100 C - 1350 C - 1550 C et 1700 C). Experimental results (geometry, yield stress and microstructure) allowed us to define a hyperbolic sine creep law and a Drucker-Prager criterion with associated plasticity, in order to model grain boundaries fragmentation at the macroscopic scale. Finite Element Simulations of these tests and of more than 200 creep tests were used to assess the model response to a wide range of temperatures (1100 C - 1700 C) and strain rates (10 -9 /s - 10 -1 /s). Finally, a constitutive law called L3F was developed for UO 2 by adding to the previous model irradiation creep and tensile macroscopic cracking. The L3F law was then introduced in the 1.5D scheme of the fuel performance code ALCYONE-RIA to simulate the REP-Na tests performed in the experimental reactor CABRI. Simulation results are in good agreement with post tests examinations. (author) [fr

  2. Strain mapping near a triple junction in strained Ni-based alloy using EBSD and biaxial nanogauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, A. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Foucault, M.; Calonne, O. [Areva ANP, Centre Technique Departement Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l' industrie, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Lacroute, Y.; Markey, L.; Salazar, M.; Vignal, V. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Finot, E., E-mail: Eric.Finot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Surface strains measured using nanogauge were compared to the texture obtained by EBSD. > Statistics of the principal strain discern the grains according to the Schmid factor. > Strain hotspots were localized near a triple junction of alloy 600 under tensile loading. > Asymetrical profile of the GB strains is a criterion for surface cracking initiation. - Abstract: A key element for analyzing the crack initiation in strained polycrystalline alloys is the local quantification of the surface strain distribution according to the grain texture. Using electron backscattered diffraction, the local microstructure was determined to both localize a triple junction and deduce the local Schmid factors. Kernel average misorientation (KAM) was also used to map the areas of defect concentration. The maximum principal strain and the in-plane shear strain were quantified using the biaxial nanogauge. Distortions of the array of nanodots used as spot markers were analyzed near the triple junction. The crystallographic orientation and the surface strain were then investigated both statistically for each grain and locally at the grain boundaries. The superimposition of microstructure and strain maps allows the high strain gradient (reaching 3-fold the applied strain) to be localized at preferential grain boundaries near the triple junction. The Schmid factors and the KAM were compared to the maximum principal strain and the in-plane shear strain respectively. The polycrystalline deformation was attributable first to the rotation of some grains, followed by the elongation of all grains along their preferential activated slip systems.

  3. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the elevated temperature tensile flow behavior of service-exposed 2.25Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girish Shastry, C.; Parameswaran, P.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Mannan, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The elevated temperature tensile flow behavior of service-exposed 2.25Cr-1Mo steel has been critically examined with respect to strain rate sensitivity (m) and apparent activation energy (Q) for tensile deformation. The predominant role of forest dislocations in determining the relative flow response at true plastic strains greater than 0.01 is inferred from the profile of 'm' against flow stress. The variation of 'm' with temperature and strain is discussed based on the kinetics of dislocation generation and recovery. The decrease in Q with the increase in strain rate or temperature is attributed to the increase in recovery processes like dislocation annihilation and subcell/subgrain formation. This suggestion has been supported by transmission electron microscopy

  4. The mutant strain of ZHJ6 degrading organophosphorous pesticide by 60Co-γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Renbang; Chi Jian; He Yi

    2013-01-01

    The strain of Penicillium oxalicum ZHJ6 that can degrade methamidophos was employed to obtain the mutant stain which has higher degradation rate than original strain by 60 Co-γ irradiation. Results showed that the Penicillium oxalicum ZHJ6 was sensitive to 60 Co-γ irradiation, and was easy to be killed by 60 Co-γ irradiation. Under the absorbed dose of 2.1 kGy, the survival rate of the strain was 0.04%. Two strains of A17 and A18 were obtained from the irradiated strains after first- and second- screening and the degradation rate of methamidophos of A17 and A18 strains were 10% higher than that of A0 strain (original stain). Moreover, the abilities to degrade folimat, phoxim and glyphosate were improved. Through 5 generations, the variation coefficient in degradation rate of methamidophos in the 6th day was 1.2%, showing that the new strains had hereditary stability. (authors)

  5. Work strain in decontamination of hot cells, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Ikezawa, Yoshio

    1991-01-01

    In decontamination of hot cells, the workers should wear suitable protective clothing to protect them from internal exposure and skin contamination. But such protective clothing causes some work strain, especially heat-stress. As a simple method to evaluate quantitative work strain, we used sweat rates of the wearers. In the previous paper, sweat rates for workers with two types of protective clothing were reported. In the present paper, sweat rates under severer working conditions are measured for three types: (1) pressure ventilated blouse; (2) full-face mask and polyethylene coverall; (3) full-face mask and vinyl anorak. The measured values for 65 subjects widely scatter from 0.2 to 2.5 l/h for all the protective clothing. Based on these values, the effects of protective clothing and working conditions (ambient temperature and humidity) on work strain are discussed. (author)

  6. Electrocardiogram of Clinically Healthy Mithun (Bos frontalis): Variation among Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Sagar; Das, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, Probal Ranjan; Das, Kinsuk; Vupru, Kezha V.; Rajkhowa, Chandan; Mondal, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the normal electrocardiogram in four different genetic strains of mithun (Bos frontalis). Electrocardiography, cardiac electrical axis, heart rate, rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded in a total of 32 adult male mithun of four strains (n = 8 each). It was found that the respiration and heart rates were higher (P electrocardiogram of mithun revealed that the amplitude and duration of P wave, QRS complex and T wave were different among four different genetic strains of mithun and the electrical axis of QRS complex for Nagamese and Mizoram mithuns are dissimilar to bovine species. PMID:20886013

  7. Intramyocardial strain estimation from cardiac cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnakib, Ahmed; Beache, Garth M; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2015-08-01

    Functional strain is one of the important clinical indicators for the quantification of heart performance and the early detection of cardiovascular diseases, and functional strain parameters are used to aid therapeutic decisions and follow-up evaluations after cardiac surgery. A comprehensive framework for deriving functional strain parameters at the endocardium, epicardium, and mid-wall of the left ventricle (LV) from conventional cine MRI data was developed and tested. Cine data were collected using short TR-/TE-balanced steady-state free precession acquisitions on a 1.5T Siemens Espree scanner. The LV wall borders are segmented using a level set-based deformable model guided by a stochastic force derived from a second-order Markov-Gibbs random field model that accounts for the object shape and appearance features. Then, the mid-wall of the segmented LV is determined based on estimating the centerline between the endocardium and epicardium of the LV. Finally, a geometrical Laplace-based method is proposed to track corresponding points on successive myocardial contours throughout the cardiac cycle in order to characterize the strain evolutions. The method was tested using simulated phantom images with predefined point locations of the LV wall throughout the cardiac cycle. The method was tested on 30 in vivo datasets to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed framework to index functional strain parameters. The cine MRI-based model agreed with the ground truth for functional metrics to within 0.30 % for indexing the peak systolic strain change and 0.29 % (per unit time) for indexing systolic and diastolic strain rates. The method was feasible for in vivo extraction of functional strain parameters. Strain indexes of the endocardium, mid-wall, and epicardium can be derived from routine cine images using automated techniques, thereby improving the utility of cine MRI data for characterization of myocardial function. Unlike traditional texture-based tracking, the

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains exhibit differential and strain-specific molecular signatures in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvubu, Nontobeko Eunice; Pillay, Balakrishna; Gamieldien, Junaid; Bishai, William; Pillay, Manormoney

    2016-12-01

    Although pulmonary epithelial cells are integral to innate and adaptive immune responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, global transcriptomic changes in these cells remain largely unknown. Changes in gene expression induced in pulmonary epithelial cells infected with M. tuberculosis F15/LAM4/KZN, F11, F28, Beijing and Unique genotypes were investigated by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform generated 50 bp reads that were mapped to the human genome (Hg19) using Tophat (2.0.10). Differential gene expression induced by the different strains in infected relative to the uninfected cells was quantified and compared using Cufflinks (2.1.0) and MeV (4.0.9), respectively. Gene expression varied among the strains with the total number of genes as follows: F15/LAM4/KZN (1187), Beijing (1252), F11 (1639), F28 (870), Unique (886) and H37Rv (1179). A subset of 292 genes was commonly induced by all strains, where 52 genes were down-regulated while 240 genes were up-regulated. Differentially expressed genes were compared among the strains and the number of induced strain-specific gene signatures were as follows: F15/LAM4/KZN (138), Beijing (52), F11 (255), F28 (55), Unique (186) and H37Rv (125). Strain-specific molecular gene signatures associated with functional pathways were observed only for the Unique and H37Rv strains while certain biological functions may be associated with other strain signatures. This study demonstrated that strains of M. tuberculosis induce differential gene expression and strain-specific molecular signatures in pulmonary epithelial cells. Specific signatures induced by clinical strains of M. tuberculosis can be further explored for novel host-associated biomarkers and adjunctive immunotherapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of density step on stirring properties of a strain flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M; Paranthoen, P

    2009-01-01

    The influence of steep density gradient on stirring properties of a strain flow is addressed by considering the problem in which an interface separating two regions with different constant densities is stabilized within a stagnation-point flow. The existence of an analytic solution for the two-dimensional incompressible flow field allows the exact derivation of the velocity gradient tensor and of parameters describing the local flow topology. Stirring properties are affected not only by vorticity production and jump of strain intensity at the interface, but also by rotation of strain principal axes resulting from anisotropy of pressure Hessian. The strain persistence parameter, which measures the respective effects of strain and effective rotation (vorticity plus rotation rate of strain basis), reveals a complex structure. In particular, for large values of the density ratio, it indicates dominating effective rotation in a restricted area past the interface. Information on flow structure derived from the Okubo-Weiss parameter, by contrast, is less detailed. The influence of the density step on stirring properties is assessed by the Lagrangian evolution of the gradient of a passive scalar. Even for a moderate density ratio, alignment of the scalar gradient and growth rate of its norm are deeply altered. Past the interface effective rotation indeed drives the scalar gradient to align with a direction determined by the local strain persistence parameter, away from the compressional strain direction. The jump of strain intensity at the interface, however, opposes the lessening effect of the latter mechanism on the growth rate of the scalar gradient norm and promotes the rise of the gradient.

  10. Strain gradient crystal plasticity effects on flow localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    for metals described by the reformulated Fleck-Hutchinson strain gradient plasticity theory. The theory is implemented numerically within a finite element framework using slip rate increments and displacement increments as state variables. The formulation reduces to the classical crystal plasticity theory...... in the absence of strain gradients. The model is used to study the effect of an internal material length scale on the localization of plastic flow in shear bands in a single crystal under plane strain tension. It is shown that the mesh sensitivity is removed when using the nonlocal material model considered...

  11. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  12. Molecular typing of Brucella melitensis endemic strains and differentiation from the vaccine strain Rev-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsios, Georgios T; Papi, Rigini M; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Minas, Anastasios; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2012-03-01

    In the present study forty-four Greek endemic strains of Br. melitensis and three reference strains were genotyped by Multi locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat (ML-VNTR) analysis based on an eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence that was revealed in eight loci of Br. melitensis genome. The forty-four strains were discriminated from the vaccine strain Rev-1 by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The ML-VNTR analysis revealed that endemic, reference and vaccine strains are genetically closely related, while most of the loci tested (1, 2, 4, 5 and 7) are highly polymorphic with Hunter-Gaston Genetic Diversity Index (HGDI) values in the range of 0.939 to 0.775. Analysis of ML-VNTRs loci stability through in vitro passages proved that loci 1 and 5 are non stable. Therefore, vaccine strain can be discriminated from endemic strains by allele's clusters of loci 2, 4, 6 and 7. RFLP and DGGE were also employed to analyse omp2 gene and reveled different patterns among Rev-1 and endemic strains. In RFLP, Rev-1 revealed three fragments (282, 238 and 44 bp), while endemic strains two fragments (238 and 44 bp). As for DGGE, the electrophoretic mobility of Rev-1 is different from the endemic strains due to heterologous binding of DNA chains of omp2a and omp2b gene. Overall, our data show clearly that it is feasible to genotype endemic strains of Br. melitensis and differentiate them from vaccine strain Rev-1 with ML-VNTR, RFLP and DGGE techniques. These tools can be used for conventional investigations in brucellosis outbreaks.

  13. An Experimental Technique for Developing Intermediate Strain Rates in Ductile Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    detecting small changes is resistance [45]. Figure 2.11 shows a basic strain gage Wheatstone bridge circuit where R1, R2, R3, and R4 are individual resistors ...all of the resistances of the resistors and the strain gage in the bridge circuit are equal such that, R = R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 and the bridge is...piezoelectric material [45]. Figure 2.13 [45] shows a piezo - electric accelerometer configured such that a mass is threaded onto a post above a

  14. Genome sequencing and analysis of BCG vaccine strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine against tuberculosis (TB has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Comparative genomic analysis of 19 M. tuberculosis complex strains showed that BCG strains underwent repeated human manipulation, had higher region of deletion rates than those of natural M. tuberculosis strains, and lost several essential components such as T-cell epitopes. A total of 188 BCG strain T-cell epitopes were lost to various degrees. The non-virulent BCG Tokyo strain, which has the largest number of T-cell epitopes (359, lost 124. Here we propose that BCG strain protection variability results from different epitopes. This study is the first to present BCG as a model organism for genetics research. BCG strains have a very well-documented history and now detailed genome information. Genome comparison revealed the selection process of BCG strains under human manipulation (1908-1966. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the cause of BCG vaccine strain protection variability at the genome level and supported the hypothesis that the restoration of lost BCG Tokyo epitopes is a useful future vaccine development strategy. Furthermore, these detailed BCG vaccine genome investigation results will be useful in microbial genetics, microbial engineering and other research fields.

  15. Genome-Wide Transcription Study of Cryptococcus neoformans H99 Clinical Strain versus Environmental Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Movahed

    Full Text Available The infection of Cryptococcus neoformans is acquired through the inhalation of desiccated yeast cells and basidiospores originated from the environment, particularly from bird's droppings and decaying wood. Three environmental strains of C. neoformans originated from bird droppings (H4, S48B and S68B and C. neoformans reference clinical strain (H99 were used for intranasal infection in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that the H99 strain demonstrated higher virulence compared to H4, S48B and S68B strains. To examine if gene expression contributed to the different degree of virulence among these strains, a genome-wide microarray study was performed to inspect the transcriptomic profiles of all four strains. Our results revealed that out of 7,419 genes (22,257 probes examined, 65 genes were significantly up-or down-regulated in H99 versus H4, S48B and S68B strains. The up-regulated genes in H99 strain include Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (MVA1, Mitochondrial matrix factor 1 (MMF1, Bud-site-selection protein 8 (BUD8, High affinity glucose transporter 3 (SNF3 and Rho GTPase-activating protein 2 (RGA2. Pathway annotation using DAVID bioinformatics resource showed that metal ion binding and sugar transmembrane transporter activity pathways were highly expressed in the H99 strain. We suggest that the genes and pathways identified may possibly play crucial roles in the fungal pathogenesis.

  16. Microstructure and micro-texture evolution during large strain deformation of Inconel alloy IN718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayan, Niraj [Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695 022 (India); Gurao, N.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Narayana Murty, S.V.S., E-mail: susarla.murty@gmail.com [Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695 022 (India); Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; George, Koshy M. [Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695 022 (India)

    2015-12-15

    The hot deformation behaviour of Inconel alloy IN718 was studied in the temperature range of 950–1100 °C and at strain rates of 0.01 and 1 s{sup −1} with a view to understand the microstructural evolution as a function of strain rate and temperature. For this purpose, a single hit, hot isothermal plane strain compression (PSC) technique was used. The flow curves obtained during PSC exhibited weak flow softening at higher temperatures. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis (EBSD) of the PSC tested samples at the location of maximum strain revealed dynamic recrystallisation occurring at higher temperatures. Based on detailed microstructure and microtexture analyses, it was concluded that single step, large strain deformation has a distinct advantage in the thermo-mechanical processing of Inconel alloy IN718. - Highlights: • Plane strain compression (PSC) on IN718 was conducted. • Evolution of microstructure during large strain deformation was studied. • Flow curves exhibited weak softening at higher temperatures and dipping of the flow curve at a strain rate of 1 s{sup −1}. • Optimization of microstructure and process parameter for hot rolling possible by plane strain compression testing • Dynamic recrystallisation occurs in specimens deformed at higher temperatures and lower strain rates.

  17. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  18. Life Stress, Strain, and Deviance Across Schools: Testing the Contextual Version of General Strain Theory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinwu; Liu, Jianhong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Anquan

    2017-08-01

    General Strain Theory delineates different types of strain and intervening processes from strain to deviance and crime. In addition to explaining individual strain-crime relationship, a contextualized version of general strain theory, which is called the Macro General Strain Theory, has been used to analyze how aggregate variables influence aggregate and individual deviance and crime. Using a sample of 1,852 students (Level 1) nested in 52 schools (Level 2), the current study tests the Macro General Strain Theory using Chinese data. The results revealed that aggregate life stress and strain have influences on aggregate and individual deviance, and reinforce the individual stress-deviance association. The current study contributes by providing the first Macro General Strain Theory test based on Chinese data and offering empirical evidence for the multilevel intervening processes from strain to deviance. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  19. Strain-engineered band parameters of graphene-like SiC monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Harihar; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Using full-potential density functional theory (DFT) calculations we show that the band gap and effective masses of charge carriers in SiC monolayer (ML-SiC) in graphene-like two-dimensional honeycomb structure are tunable by strain engineering. ML-SiC was found to preserve its flat 2D graphene-like structure under compressive strain up to 7%. A transition from indirect-to-direct gap-phase is predicted to occur for a strain value lying within the interval (1.11 %, 1.76%). In both gap-phases band gap decreases with increasing strain, although the rate of decrease is different in the two gap-phases. Effective mass of electrons show a non-linearly decreasing trend with increasing tensile strain in the direct gap-phase. The strain-sensitive properties of ML-SiC, may find applications in future strain-sensors, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS) and other nano-devices

  20. Dependence of the brittle ductile transition on strain-rate-dependent critical homologous temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul M.

    2017-05-01

    Earthquakes mainly occur in crust or mantle that is below a critical temperature for the tectonic strain-rate, \\dot{e}_t, such that stress builds up to the breaking point before it can relax due to creep. Then long-range stress correlation gives rise to power law seismicity including large events. The limiting temperature depends on pressure, which is taken into account by finding a critical homologous temperature THc = T/TM above which earthquakes are rarely observed (where T, TM are temperature and average melting temperature of constituent minerals). We find that THc for ocean plates is ∼0.55. For California earthquakes, it is also close to 0.55. The uppermost mantle layer of oceanic plates of thickness ∼50 km is composed of harzburgite and depleted peridotite from which basalt has been removed to form ocean crust. Thus it has a higher melting temperature than the peridotite of the surrounding mantle, or the lower halves of plates. Thicknesses of seismicity in deep subduction zones, determined from 2-D polynomial fits to a relocated catalogue, are ∼50 km, which suggests that the earthquake channel is confined to this layer. We construct models to find homologous temperatures in slabs, and find that seismicity thicknesses are also, on average, confined to TH ≤ 0.55 ± 0.05. The associated rheology is compared with that obtained from flexure models of ocean lithosphere. The brittle-ductile transition occurs where viscosity drops from high values in the cold cores of slabs to values of 1022-1023 Pa s, that is, where creep strain-rates become comparable to tectonic rates. The cut-off for deep earthquakes is not sharp. However they appear unlikely to occur if homologous temperature is high TH > 0.55. Exceptions to the rule are anomalously deep earthquakes such as those beneath the Iceland and the Hawaiian hotspots, and the Newport Inglewood Fault. These are smaller events with short-range stress correlation, and can be explained if strain-rates are two to

  1. Strain Pattern in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Hajnal, David; Klix, Christian; Keim, Peter; Fuchs, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Investigations of strain correlations at the glass transition reveal unexpected phenomena. The shear strain fluctuations show an Eshelby-strain pattern [˜cos (4 θ ) /r2 ], characteristic of elastic response, even in liquids, at long times. We address this using a mode-coupling theory for the strain fluctuations in supercooled liquids and data from both video microscopy of a two-dimensional colloidal glass former and simulations of Brownian hard disks. We show that the long-ranged and long-lived strain signatures follow a scaling law valid close to the glass transition. For large enough viscosities, the Eshelby-strain pattern is visible even on time scales longer than the structural relaxation time τ and after the shear modulus has relaxed to zero.

  2. The plane strain shear fracture of the advanced high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li

    2013-01-01

    The “shear fracture” which occurs at the high-curvature die radii in the sheet metal forming has been reported to remarkably limit the application of the advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automobile industry. However, this unusual fracture behavior generally cannot be predicted by the traditional forming limit diagram (FLD). In this research, a new experimental system was developed in order to simulate the shear fracture, especially at the plane strain state which is the most common state in the auto-industry and difficult to achieve in the lab due to sample size. Furthermore, the system has the capability to operate in a strain rate range from quasi-static state to the industrial forming state. One kinds of AHSS, Quenching-Partitioning (QP) steels have been performed in this test and the results show that the limiting fracture strain is related to the bending ratio and strain rate. The experimental data support that deformation-induced heating is an important cause of “shear fracture” phenomena for AHSS: a deformation-induced quasi-heating caused by smaller bending ratio and high strain rate produce a smaller limiting plane strain and lead a “shear fracture” in the component

  3. Linezolid susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori, including strains with multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Gergova, Galina; Yaneva, Penka; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to linezolid. The aim of the present study was to assess linezolid susceptibility in H. pylori, including strains with double/multidrug resistance. The susceptibility of 53 H. pylori strains was evaluated by Etest and a breakpoint susceptibility testing method. Helicobacter pylori resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin, 1.9%; metronidazole, 37.7%; clarithromycin, 17.0%; tetracycline, 1.9%; levofloxacin, 24.5%; and linezolid (>4 mg/L), 39.6%. The linezolid MIC50 value was 31.2-fold higher than that of clarithromycin and 10.5-fold higher than that of levofloxacin; however, 4 of 11 strains with double/multidrug resistance were linezolid-susceptible. The MIC range of the oxazolidinone agent was larger (0.125-64 mg/L) compared with those in the previous two reports. The linezolid resistance rate was 2.2-fold higher in metronidazole-resistant strains and in strains resistant to at least one antibiotic compared with the remaining strains. Briefly, linezolid was less active against H. pylori compared with clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and linezolid resistance was linked to resistance to metronidazole as well as to resistance to at least one antibiotic. However, linezolid activity against some strains with double/multidrug resistance may render the agent appropriate to treat some associated H. pylori infections following in vitro susceptibility testing of the strains. Clinical trials are required to confirm this suggestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological assay of attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeling, W L; Pejsak, Z; Paul, P S

    1984-11-01

    Attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) were titrated in vivo and in vitro under similar conditions to provide a better understanding of some of the factors involved in virulence of PPV in causing maternal reproductive failure of swine. Both strains cause fetal death when they are injected directly into fetal fluids, but only strain NADL-8 does so when administered to pregnant swine. The strains were tested for their hemagglutinating activity (HA), median cell culture infective dose (CCID50), median fetal infective dose (FID50), and median fetal lethal dose (FLD50). The FID50 and FLD50 were determined by injecting virus directly into the amniotic fluid of fetuses in utero at 44 +/- 2 days of gestation and collecting the fetuses 15 +/- 1 days later. Both strains had an HA titer of 64, suggesting that there is a similar number of virions in stock preparations. However, other measurements differed markedly. The CCID50, FID50, and FLD50 were 10(5.5), 10(3.5), and 10(0.5), respectively, for strain NADL-2, and 10(4.5), 10(7.7), and 10(6.3), respectively, for strain NADL-8. Collectively, the values indicate that more than 10,000 times as much strain NADL-2 would need to reach the conceptus transplacentally to establish infection. These observations may help to explain the different consequences of oronasal exposure of pregnant swine to these strains of PPV.

  5. Haldane model under nonuniform strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen-Hung; Castro, Eduardo V.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the Haldane model under strain using a tight-binding approach, and compare the obtained results with the continuum-limit approximation. As in graphene, nonuniform strain leads to a time-reversal preserving pseudomagnetic field that induces (pseudo-)Landau levels. Unlike a real magnetic field, strain lifts the degeneracy of the zeroth pseudo-Landau levels at different valleys. Moreover, for the zigzag edge under uniaxial strain, strain removes the degeneracy within the pseudo-Landau levels by inducing a tilt in their energy dispersion. The latter arises from next-to-leading order corrections to the continuum-limit Hamiltonian, which are absent for a real magnetic field. We show that, for the lowest pseudo-Landau levels in the Haldane model, the dominant contribution to the tilt is different from graphene. In addition, although strain does not strongly modify the dispersion of the edge states, their interplay with the pseudo-Landau levels is different for the armchair and zigzag ribbons. Finally, we study the effect of strain in the band structure of the Haldane model at the critical point of the topological transition, thus shedding light on the interplay between nontrivial topology and strain in quantum anomalous Hall systems.

  6. Dynamic testing at high strain rates of an ultrafine-grained magnesium alloy processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.; Joshi, S.; Azevedo, K.; Ma, E.; Ramesh, K.T.; Figueiredo, R.B.; Langdon, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    A ZK60 magnesium alloy was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 473 K to produce a grain size of ∼0.8 μm and it was then tested under dynamic conditions at strain rates up to 4.0 x 10 3 s -1 using a split-Hopkinson bar. The stress-strain curves in dynamic testing exhibited upwards concave curvature suggesting the occurrence of twinning. Examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that dislocation slip played a major role in the flow behavior with dislocation accumulation as the main source of work hardening. An identification of Burgers vectors revealed the extensive presence of prismatic dislocations. Rod-shaped Mg 1 (Zn,Zr) 1 precipitates present in the as-received alloy become fragmented and overaged during ECAP.

  7. The mechanical response of a PBX and binder: combining results across the strain-rate and frequency domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drodge, D R; Williamson, D M; Palmer, S J P; Proud, W G; Govier, R K

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical response of a polymer bonded explosive (PBX) has been measured using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar at a strain-rate of 2000 s -1 , across a range of temperatures from 173 to 333 K, with the aim of observing its behaviour in the glassy regime. The yield stresses increased monotonically with decreasing temperature and no plateau was found. The failure mechanism was found to transition from shear-banding with crystal debonding fracture to brittle failure with some evidence of crystal fracture. Similar experiments were performed on samples of its nitrocellulose-based binder material, at a strain-rate of 3000 s -1 across a temperature range 173-273 K. The failure stresses of the binder approach that of the composite at temperatures near -70 0 C. The elastic moduli were estimated from post-equilibrium regions of the stress-strain curves, and compared with those obtained for the composite using 5 MHz ultrasonic sound-speed measurement, and powder dynamic mechanical analysis measurements and quasi-static behaviour reported in a previous paper. The moduli were plotted on a common frequency axis: a temperature shift was applied to collapse the curves, which agreed with the Cox-Merz rule.

  8. Strain enhanced lithium adsorption and diffusion on silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Luo, Youhua; Yan, Ting; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Meng

    2017-03-01

    The performance of Li-ion batteries relies heavily on the capacity and stability of constituent electrodes. Recently synthesized 2D silicene has demonstrated excellent Li-ion capacity with high charging rates. To explore the external influences for battery performance, in this work, first-principles calculations are employed to investigate the effect of external strain on the adsorption and diffusion of Li on silicene monolayers. It was found that tensile strain could enhance Li binding on silicene. The diffusion barrier is also calculated and the results show that Li diffusion through silicene is facilitated by tensile strain, whereas the strain has a limited effect on the energy barrier of diffusion parallel to the plane of pristine silicene. Our results suggest that silicene could be a promising electrode material for lithium ion batteries.

  9. Determine variation of poisson ratios and thermal creep stresses and strain rates in an isotropic disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seth's transition theory is applied to the problem of thermal creep transition stresses and strain rates in a thin rotating disc with shaft having variable density by finite deformation. Neither the yield criterion nor the associated flow rule is assumed here. The results obtained here are applicable to compressible materials. If the additional condition of incompressibility is imposed, then the expression for stresses corresponds to those arising from Tresca yield condition. Thermal effect decreased value of radial stress at the internal surface of the rotating isotropic disc made of compressible material as well as incompressible material and this value of radial stress further much increases with the increase in angular speed. With the introduction of thermal effects, the maximum value of strain rates further increases at the internal surface for compressible materials as compare to incompressible material.

  10. Conduction band structure and electron mobility in uniaxially strained Si via externally applied strain in nanomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Feng [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Euaruksakul, Chanan; Himpsel, F J; Lagally, Max G [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Liu Zheng; Liu Feng, E-mail: lagally@engr.wisc.edu [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2011-08-17

    Strain changes the band structure of semiconductors. We use x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the change in the density of conduction band (CB) states when silicon is uniaxially strained along the [1 0 0] and [1 1 0] directions. High stress can be applied to silicon nanomembranes, because their thinness allows high levels of strain without fracture. Strain-induced changes in both the sixfold degenerate {Delta} valleys and the eightfold degenerate L valleys are determined quantitatively. The uniaxial deformation potentials of both {Delta} and L valleys are directly extracted using a strain tensor appropriate to the boundary conditions, i.e., confinement in the plane in the direction orthogonal to the straining direction, which correspond to those of strained CMOS in commercial applications. The experimentally determined deformation potentials match the theoretical predictions well. We predict electron mobility enhancement created by strain-induced CB modifications.

  11. Integrated experimental and computational studies of deformation of single crystal copper at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, S.; Chandra, S.; Chavan, V. M.; Sharma, S.; Warrier, M.; Chaturvedi, S.; Patel, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-static (0.0033 s-1) and dynamic (103 s-1) compression experiments were performed on single crystal copper along ⟨100⟩ and ⟨110⟩ directions and best-fit parameters for the Johnson-Cook (JC) material model, which is an important input to hydrodynamic simulations for shock induced fracture, have been obtained. The deformation of single crystal copper along the ⟨110⟩ direction showed high yield strength, more strain hardening, and less strain rate sensitivity as compared to the ⟨100⟩ direction. Although the JC model at the macro-scale is easy to apply and describes a general response of material deformation, it lacks physical mechanisms that describe the influence of texture and initial orientation on the material response. Hence, a crystal plasticity model based on the theory of thermally activated motion of dislocations was used at the meso-scale, in which the evolution equations permit one to study and quantify the influence of initial orientation on the material response. Hardening parameters of the crystal plasticity model show less strain rate sensitivity along the ⟨110⟩ orientation as compared to the ⟨100⟩ orientation, as also shown by the JC model. Since the deformation process is inherently multiscale in nature, the shape changes observed in the experiments due to loading along ⟨100⟩ and ⟨110⟩ directions are also validated by molecular dynamics simulations at the nano-scale.

  12. Strain improvement and metabolic flux analysis in the wild-type and a mutant Lactobacillus lactis strain for L(+)-lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Xue-Ming; Li, Xin-Gang; Xu, Shi-Min

    2004-12-20

    The effects of initial glucose concentration and calcium lactate concentration on the lactic acid production by the parent strain, Lactobacillus lactis BME5-18, were studied. The results of the experiments indicated that glucose and lactate repressed the cell growth and the lactic acid production by Lactobacillus lactis BME5-18. A L(+)-lactic acid overproducing strain, Lactobacillus lactis BME5-18M, was screened by mutagenizing the parent strain with ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation and selecting the high glucose and lactate calcium concentration repression resistant mutant. Starting with a concentration of 100g L(-1) glucose, the mutant produced 98.6 g L(-1) lactic acid after 60 h in flasks, 73.9% higher than that of the parent strain. The L(+)-lactic acid purity was 98.1% by weight based on the amount of total lactic acid. The culture of the parent strain could not be analyzed well by conventional metabolic flux analysis techniques, since some pyruvate were accumulated intracellularly. Therefore, a revised flux analysis method was proposed by introducing intracellular pyruvate pool. Further studies demonstrate that there is a high level of NADH oxidase activity (12.11 mmol mg(-1) min(-1)) in the parent strain. The molecular mechanisms of the strain improvement were proposed, i.e., the high level of NADH oxidase activity was eliminated and the uptake rate of glucose was increased from 82.1 C-mmol (g DW h)(-1) to 98.9 C-mmol (g DW h)(-1) by mutagenizing the parent strain with UV, and therefore the mutant strain converts mostly pyruvate to lactic acid with a higher productivity (1.76 g L(-1) h(-1)) than the parent strain (0.95 g L(-1) h(-1)).

  13. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  14. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-01-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of t...

  15. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.; Zakharov, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    45 of radiosensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated by Curly/Lobe technique after EMS treatment of Livadia population males. The lethality of non-Curly late larvae after gamma-irradiation (4000r) characterized radiosensitivity strains. Most of them exhibited higher frequency of the spontaneous dominant lethals (up to 69%). The males of 6 strains were semi-sterile. 5 of these strains exhibited higher frequency of X-chromosome non-disjunction

  16. Segregation of genes from donor strain during the production of recombinant congenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zutphen, L F; Den Bieman, M; Lankhorst, A; Demant, P

    1991-07-01

    Recombinant congenic strains (RCS) constitute a set of inbred strains which are designed to dissect the genetic control of multigenic traits, such as tumour susceptibility or disease resistance. Each RCS contains a small fraction of the genome of a common donor strain, while the majority of genes stem from a common background strain. We tested at two stages of the inbreeding process in 20 RCS, derived from BALB/cHeA and STS/A, to see whether alleles from the STS/A donor strain are distributed over the RCS in a ratio as would theoretically be expected. Four marker genes (Pep-3; Pgm-1; Gpi-1 and Es-3) located at 4 different chromosomes were selected and the allelic distribution was tested after 3-4 and after 12 generations of inbreeding. The data obtained do not significantly deviate from the expected pattern, thus supporting the validity of the concept of RCS.

  17. Identification and antifungal activity of an actinomycete strain against Alternaria spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Gao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria alternata (Fries Keissler is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for tobacco brown spot disease. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity of strain 163 against A. alternata and clarify its taxonomic status. The evaluation of the antifungal activity of strain 163 and its bacteria-free filtrate of fermentation broth was done through measuring the diameters of inhibition zones, and testing the antimicrobial spectrum and the inhibition effect on mycelial growth in vitro. The biocontrol activity of the bacteria-free filtrate in vivo was evaluated by using detached tobacco leaves method and assaying the inhibition rate to disease incidence in growth chamber. A polyphasic approach was taken in the identification of strain 163. The bacterial strain 163 showed inhibitory effect in vitro against A. alternata. The bacteria-free filtrate of the strain 163 fermentation broth showed a 56.7% inhibition rate in a detached leaf assay. In growth chamber conditions, it showed greater biocontrol activity when applied before plants being inoculated with A. alternata than after, the inhibition rate being 46.05%. Investigations into the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical properties of strain 163 found it to be most similar to Streptomyces microflavus. Its classification into cell wall type I and sugar type C further confirmed its Streptomyces characteristics. Construction of a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA verified that strain 163 was most closely related to Streptomyces microflavus. From polyphasic taxonomical analysis, strain 163 was found to be identical to S. microflavus.

  18. On the homogenization of metal matrix composites using strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2014-01-01

    The homogenized response of metal matrix composites (MMC) is studied using strain gradient plasticity. The material model employed is a rate independent formulation of energetic strain gradient plasticity at the micro scale and conventional rate independent plasticity at the macro scale. Free...

  19. A new strain gage method for measuring the contractile strain ratio of Zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.K.; Sabol, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    An improved strain gage method for determining the contractile strain ratio (CSR) of Zircaloy tubing was developed. The new method consists of a number of load-unload cyclings at approximately 0.2% plastic strain interval. With this method the CSR of Zircaloy-4 tubing could be determined accurately because it was possible to separate the plastic strains from the elastic strain involvement. The CSR values determined by use of the new method were in good agreement with those calculated from conventional post-test manual measurements. The CSR of the tubing was found to decrease with the amount of deformation during testing because of uneven plastic flow in the gage section. A new technique of inscribing gage marks by use of a YAG laser is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Unified inelastic constitutive equations incorporating dynamic strain aging for Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaguchi, Masatsugu; Takahashi, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    A unified constitutive model considering dynamic strain aging effect was developed in order to describe inelastic deformation behavior of the Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel precisely. The inelastic behavior of the steel was summarized as follows. A rate dependent deformation was observed above 500degC, and there was no rate dependency under 400degC. However, stress relaxation behavior was observed even at rate independent temperature region. Further, a stress after relaxation depended on prior loading strain rate, and it showed a higher value as the strain rate was slow. A feature of the proposed constitutive model was that an applied stress consists of three stress components: a back stress, an overstress and an aging stress which corresponds to dynamics strain aging and shows a negative strain rate dependency. The aging stress was measured by strain rate change tests, and it showed larger values as the strain rates were slow and the temperatures were low. The backstress and the overstress were measured by strain dip tests. The backstress was approximately rate independent under 400degC, however it showed rate dependency above 500degC. The overstress showed larger values as the strain rates were fast and the temperatures were high. The material constants were determined systematically based on the measured values of each internal variable. In order to evaluate the validity of the constitutive model, numerical simulations were done for various inelastic deformation behavior of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel. The simulations agreed with experimental results very well in all cases. (author)

  1. Dynamic tensile stress–strain characteristics of carbon/epoxy laminated composites in through-thickness direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakai Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of strain rate up to approximately ε̇ = 102/s on the tensile stress–strain properties of unidirectional and cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminated composites in the through-thickness direction is investigated. Waisted cylindrical specimens machined out of the laminated composites in the through-thickness direction are used in both static and dynamic tests. The dynamic tensile stress–strain curves up to fracture are determined using the split Hopkinson bar (SHB. The low and intermediate strain-rate tensile stress–strain relations up to fracture are measured on an Instron 5500R testing machine. It is demonstrated that the ultimate tensile strength and absorbed energy up to fracture increase significantly, while the fracture strain decreases slightly with increasing strain rate. Macro- and micro-scopic examinations reveal a marked difference in the fracture surfaces between the static and dynamic tension specimens.

  2. Thermal strain measurement of EAST W/Cu divertor structure using electric resistance strain gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xingli [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wang, Wanjing, E-mail: wjwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wang, Jichao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wei, Ran; Sun, Zhaoxuan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Li, Qiang; Xie, Chunyi [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Chen, Hong-En; Wang, Kaiqiang; Wu, Lei; Chen, Zhenmao [State Key Lab for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University (China); Luo, Guang-Nan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei, 230022 (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230027 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • To understand the service behavior of W/Cu divertor, an electrical resistance strain gauge system had been introduced in a thermal strain measurement experiment. • The measurement system successfully finished the experiment and obtained valued thermal strain data. • Two thermomechanical analyses had also been carried out and compared with the measurement results. • Experiment results corresponded well to simulations and threw a light upon the failure of W/Cu divertor in the previous baking tests. - Abstract: W/Cu divertor has complex structure and faces extreme work environment in EAST Tokamak device. To measure its thermal strain shall be a valued way to understand its service behavior and then optimize its design and manufacturing process. This work presents a preliminary study on measuring thermal strain of EAST W/Cu divertor structure using electric resistance strain gauges. Eight gauges had been used in the experiment and the heating temperature had been set to 230 °C with respect to the work temperature. To realize the measuring experiment, an appropriate fixing method of gauges in divertor narrow spaces had been taken and tested, which could not only withstand high temperature but also had no damage to the divertor sample. The measurement results were that three gauges showed positive strain while other three showed negative strain after having been compensated, which corresponded to tensile stress and compressed stress respectively. Two thermomechanical simulations had also been carried out and used for comparing with the experiment.

  3. Characterization and degradation potential of diesel-degrading bacterial strains for application in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Kidd, Petra S; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Weyens, Nele; Monterroso, Carmen; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2017-10-03

    Bioremediation of polluted soils is a promising technique with low environmental impact, which uses soil organisms to degrade soil contaminants. In this study, 19 bacterial strains isolated from a diesel-contaminated soil were screened for their diesel-degrading potential, biosurfactant (BS) production, and biofilm formation abilities, all desirable characteristics when selecting strains for re-inoculation into hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Diesel-degradation rates were determined in vitro in minimal medium with diesel as the sole carbon source. The capacity to degrade diesel range organics (DROs) of strains SPG23 (Arthobacter sp.) and PF1 (Acinetobacter oleivorans) reached 17-26% of total DROs after 10 days, and 90% for strain GK2 (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus). The amount and rate of alkane degradation decreased significantly with increasing carbon number for strains SPG23 and PF1. Strain GK2, which produced BSs and biofilms, exhibited a greater extent, and faster rate of alkane degradation compared to SPG23 and PF1. Based on the outcomes of degradation experiments, in addition to BS production, biofilm formation capacities, and previous genome characterizations, strain GK2 is a promising candidate for microbial-assisted phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils. These results are of particular interest to select suitable strains for bioremediation, not only presenting high diesel-degradation rates, but also other characteristics which could improve rhizosphere colonization.

  4. Nanocrystallization in Al85Ce8Ni5Co2 amorphous alloy obtained by different strain rate during high pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henits, P.; Kovacs, Zs.; Schafler, E.; Varga, L.K.; Labar, J.L.; Revesz, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to elucidate the role of total strain and strain rate during high pressure torsion of Al 85 Ce 8 Ni 5 Co 2 metallic glass, different deformation conditions were applied to devitrify the as-quenched alloy. The disk-shaped specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and thermal analysis.

  5. Can regional strain and strain rate measurement be performed during both dobutamine and exercise echocardiography, and do regional deformation responses differ with different forms of stress testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidavicius, Giedrius; Kowalski, Miroslaw; Williams, R Ian; D'hooge, Jan; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Pierre-Justin, Gilbert; Claus, Piet; Rademakers, Frank; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Fraser, Alan G; Pierard, Luc A; Bijnens, Bart; Sutherland, George R

    2003-04-01

    Regional strain (epsilon) and strain rate (SR) measurement could be the optimal approach to quantifying stress echocardiography images. However, signal noise could preclude their use. Study aims Our aim was to compare the feasibility of regional peak systolic (p) velocity (Vel), pSR/epsilon measurement, and their normal responses during upright (group 1, n = 10) and supine (group 2, n = 10) bicycle exercise and (group 3, n = 10) dobutamine stress. For each type of stress study, pVel/pSR/epsilon data were acquired at baseline, low (100-120 bpm), and peak (140-160 bpm) heart rate (HR); and during recovery. During dobutamine pVel/pSR/epsilon were interpretable in >95% of segments at every stress stage, whereas in groups 1 and 2 pSR/epsilon responses were noninterpretable in >36% of segments (P pVel and SR values increased linearly and reached maximal value at peak HR (P pVel increased linearly, whereas pepsilon response was biphasic as a result of the reduced filling at higher HRs.

  6. Bragg-edge neutron transmission strain tomography for in situ loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensrich, C.M., E-mail: christopher.wensrich@newcastle.edu.au [School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Hendriks, J.N.; Gregg, A. [School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Meylan, M.H. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Luzin, V. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Tremsin, A.S. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    An approach for tomographic reconstruction of three-dimensional strain distributions from Bragg-edge neutron transmission strain images is outlined and investigated. This algorithm is based on the link between Bragg-edge strain measurements and the Longitudinal Ray Transform, which has been shown to be sensitive only to boundary displacement. By exploiting this observation we provide a method for reconstructing boundary displacement from sets of Bragg-edge strain images. In the case where these displacements are strictly the result of externally applied tractions, corresponding internal strain fields can then be found through traditional linear-static finite element methods. This approach is tested on synthetic data in two-dimensions, where the rate of convergence in the presence of measurement noise and beam attenuation is examined.

  7. Drug gastrointestinal absorption in rat: Strain and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltra-Noguera, Davinia; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Colon-Useche, Sarin; González-Álvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-10-12

    Predictive animal models of intestinal drug absorption are essential tools in drug development to identify compounds with promising biopharmaceutical properties. In situ perfusion absorption studies are routinely used in the preclinical setting to screen drug candidates. The objective of this work is to explore the differences in magnitude and variability on intestinal absorption associated with rat strain and gender. Metoprolol and Verapamil absorption rate coefficients were determined using the in situ closed loop perfusion model in four strains of rats and in both genders. Strains used were Sprague-Dawley, Wistar-Han, Wistar-Unilever, Long-Evans and CD∗IGS. In the case of Metoprolol only CD∗IGS and Wistar Unilever showed differences between males and females. For Verapamil, Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley strains do not show differences between male and female rats. That means that in these strains permeability data from male and female could be combined. In male rats, which are commonly used for permeability estimation, there were differences for Metoprolol permeability between Sprague-Dawley (with lower permeability values) and the other strains, while for Verapamil Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Han showed the lower permeability values. In conclusion, the selection of rat's strain and gender for intestinal absorption experiments is a relevant element during study design and data from different strains may not be always comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Revealing differences in metabolic flux distributions between a mutant strain and its parent strain Gluconacetobacter xylinus CGMCC 2955.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhong

    Full Text Available A better understanding of metabolic fluxes is important for manipulating microbial metabolism toward desired end products, or away from undesirable by-products. A mutant strain, Gluconacetobacter xylinus AX2-16, was obtained by combined chemical mutation of the parent strain (G. xylinus CGMCC 2955 using DEC (diethyl sulfate and LiCl. The highest bacterial cellulose production for this mutant was obtained at about 11.75 g/L, which was an increase of 62% compared with that by the parent strain. In contrast, gluconic acid (the main byproduct concentration was only 5.71 g/L for mutant strain, which was 55.7% lower than that of parent strain. Metabolic flux analysis indicated that 40.1% of the carbon source was transformed to bacterial cellulose in mutant strain, compared with 24.2% for parent strain. Only 32.7% and 4.0% of the carbon source were converted into gluconic acid and acetic acid in mutant strain, compared with 58.5% and 9.5% of that in parent strain. In addition, a higher flux of tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was obtained in mutant strain (57.0% compared with parent strain (17.0%. It was also indicated from the flux analysis that more ATP was produced in mutant strain from pentose phosphate pathway (PPP and TCA cycle. The enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, which is one of the key enzymes in TCA cycle, was 1.65-fold higher in mutant strain than that in parent strain at the end of culture. It was further validated by the measurement of ATPase that 3.53-6.41 fold higher enzymatic activity was obtained from mutant strain compared with parent strain.

  9. Friction stir processing: a new grain refinement technique to achieve high strain rate superplasticity in commercial alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.S. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Mahoney, M.W. [Rockwell International Corp., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States). Science Center

    2001-07-01

    Friction stir processing is a new thermo-mechanical processing technique that leads to a microstructure amenable for high strain rate superplasticity in commercial aluminum alloys. Friction stirring produces a combination of very fine grain size and high grain boundary misorientation angles. Preliminary results on a 7075 Al demonstrate high strain rate superplasticity in the temperature range of 430-510 C. For example, an elongation of >1000% was observed at 490 C and 1 x 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}. This demonstrates a new possibility to economically obtain a superplastic microstructure in commercial aluminum alloys. Based on these results, a three-step manufacturing process to fabricate complex shaped components can be envisaged: cast sheet or hot-pressed powder metallurgy sheet + friction stir processing + superplastic forging or forming. (orig.)

  10. Mumps Hoshino and Torii vaccine strains were distinguished from circulating wild strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihito; Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-06-01

    Aseptic meningitis and acute parotitis have been observed after mumps vaccination. Mumps outbreaks have been reported in Japan because of low vaccine coverage, and molecular differentiation is required to determine whether these cases are vaccine associated. RT-nested PCR was performed in the small hydrophobic gene region, and viruses were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. A total of 584 nucleotides were amplified. The PCR product of the Hoshino strain was cut into two fragments (313 and 271 nucleotides) by MfeI; that of the Torii strain was digested with EcoT22I, resulting in 332- and 252-nucleotide fragments. Both strains were genotype B and had an XbaI site, resulting in two fragments: 299 and 285 nucleotides. Current circulating wild types were cut only by XbaI or MfeI. However, the MfeI site of the wild types was different from that of the Hoshino strain, resulting in 451- and 133-nucleotide fragments. Using three restriction enzymes, two mumps vaccine strains were distinguished from wild types, and this separation was applied to the identification of vaccine-related adverse events.

  11. Effects of Temperature and Strain Rate on Tensile Deformation Behavior of 9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W-VNb Ferritic Heat-Resistant Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Weng, Xiaoxiang; Jiang, Yong; Gong, Jianming

    2017-09-01

    A series of uniaxial tensile tests were carried out at different strain rate and different temperatures to investigate the effects of temperature and strain rate on tensile deformation behavior of P92 steel. In the temperature range of 30-700 °C, the variations of flow stress, average work-hardening rate, tensile strength and ductility with temperature all show three temperature regimes. At intermediate temperature, the material exhibited the serrated flow behavior, the peak in flow stress, the maximum in average work-hardening rate, and the abnormal variations in tensile strength and ductility indicates the occurrence of DSA, whereas the sharp decrease in flow stress, average work-hardening rate as well as strength values, and the remarkable increase in ductility values with increasing temperature from 450 to 700 °C imply that dynamic recovery plays a dominant role in this regime. Additionally, for the temperature ranging from 550 to 650 °C, a significant decrease in flow stress values is observed with decreasing in strain rate. This phenomenon suggests the strain rate has a strong influence on flow stress. Based on the experimental results above, an Arrhenius-type constitutive equation is proposed to predict the flow stress.

  12. Static and dynamic strain energy release rates in toughened thermosetting composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, the static and dynamic fracture properties of several thermosetting resin based composite laminates are presented. Two classes of materials are explored. These are homogeneous, thermosetting resins and toughened, multi-phase, thermosetting resin systems. Multi-phase resin materials have shown enhancement over homogenous materials with respect to damage resistance. The development of new dynamic tests are presented for composite laminates based on Width Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam (WTDCB) for Mode 1 fracture and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The WTDCB sample was loaded via a low inertia, pneumatic cylinder to produce rapid cross-head displacements. A high rate, piezo-electric load cell and an accelerometer were mounted on the specimen. A digital oscilloscope was used for data acquisition. Typical static and dynamic load versus displacement plots are presented. The ENF specimen was impacted in three point bending with an instrumented impact tower. Fracture initiation and propagation energies under static and dynamic conditions were determined analytically and experimentally. The test results for Mode 1 fracture are relatively insensitive to strain rate effects for the laminates tested in this study. The test results from Mode 2 fracture indicate that the toughened systems provide superior fracture initiation and higher resistance to propagation under dynamic conditions. While the static fracture properties of the homogeneous systems may be relatively high, the apparent Mode 2 dynamic critical strain energy release rate drops significantly. The results indicate that static Mode 2 fracture testing is inadequate for determining the fracture performance of composite structures subjected to conditions such as low velocity impact. A good correlation between the basic Mode 2 dynamic fracture properties and the performance is a combined material/structural Compression After Impact (CAI) test is found. These results underscore the importance of

  13. Deformation modeling and the strain transient dip test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.B.; Rohde, R.W.; Swearengen, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Recent efforts in material deformation modeling reveal a trend toward unifying creep and plasticity with a single rate-dependent formulation. While such models can describe actual material deformation, most require a number of different experiments to generate model parameter information. Recently, however, a new model has been proposed in which most of the requisite constants may be found by examining creep transients brought about through abrupt changes in creep stress (strain transient dip test). The critical measurement in this test is the absence of a resolvable creep rate after a stress drop. As a consequence, the result is extraordinarily sensitive to strain resolution as well as machine mechanical response. This paper presents the design of a machine in which these spurious effects have been minimized and discusses the nature of the strain transient dip test using the example of aluminum. It is concluded that the strain transient dip test is not useful as the primary test for verifying any micromechanical model of deformation. Nevertheless, if a model can be developed which is verifiable by other experimentts, data from a dip test machine may be used to generate model parameters

  14. A quantitative prediction model of SCC rate for nuclear structure materials in high temperature water based on crack tip creep strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.Q.; Xue, H.; Zhao, L.Y.; Fang, X.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Creep is considered to be the primary mechanical factor of crack tip film degradation. • The prediction model of SCC rate is based on crack tip creep strain rate. • The SCC rate calculated at the secondary stage of creep is recommended. • The effect of stress intensity factor on SCC growth rate is discussed. - Abstract: The quantitative prediction of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of structure materials is essential in safety assessment of nuclear power plants. A new quantitative prediction model is proposed by combining the Ford–Andresen model, a crack tip creep model and an elastic–plastic finite element method. The creep at the crack tip is considered to be the primary mechanical factor of protective film degradation, and the creep strain rate at the crack tip is suggested as primary mechanical factor in predicting the SCC rate. The SCC rates at secondary stage of creep are recommended when using the approach introduced in this study to predict the SCC rates of materials in high temperature water. The proposed approach can be used to understand the SCC crack growth in structural materials of light water reactors

  15. An Embeddable Strain Sensor with 30 Nano-Strain Resolution Based on Optical Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective, robust and embeddable optical interferometric strain sensor with nanoscale strain resolution is presented in this paper. The sensor consists of an optical fiber, a quartz rod with one end coated with a thin gold layer, and two metal shells employed to transfer the strain and orient and protect the optical fiber and the quartz rod. The optical fiber endface, combining with the gold-coated surface, forms an extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer. The sensor was firstly calibrated, and the result showed that our prototype sensor could provide a measurement resolution of 30 nano-strain (nε and a sensitivity of 10.01 µε/µm over a range of 1000 µε. After calibration of the sensor, the shrinkage strain of a cubic brick of mortar in real time during the drying process was monitored. The strain sensor was compared with a commercial linear variable displacement transducer, and the comparison results in four weeks demonstrated that our sensor had much higher measurement resolution and gained more detailed and useful information. Due to the advantages of the extremely simple, robust and cost-effective configuration, it is believed that the sensor is significantly beneficial to practical applications, especially for structural health monitoring.

  16. Effect of strain rate and temperature on mechanical properties of selected building Polish steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moćko Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the computer programs of CAD type are basic tool for designing of various structures under impact loading. Application of the numerical calculations allows to substantially reduce amount of time required for the design stage of such projects. However, the proper use of computer aided designing technique requires input data for numerical software including elastic-plastic models of structural materials. This work deals with the constitutive model developed by Rusinek and Klepaczko (RK applied for the modelling of mechanical behaviour of selected grades structural St0S, St3SX, 18GS and 34GS steels and presents here results of experimental and empirical analyses to describe dynamic elastic-plastic behaviours of tested materials at wide range of temperature. In order to calibrate the RK constitutive model, series of compression tests at wide range of strain rates, including static, quasi-static and dynamic investigations at lowered, room and elevated temperatures, were carried out using two testing stands: servo-hydraulic machine and split Hopkinson bar. The results were analysed to determine influence of temperature and strain rate on visco-plastic response of tested steels, and show good correlation with experimental data.

  17. CONDITIONAL FLOW STATISTICS AND ALIGNMENT OF PRINCIPAL STRAIN RATES, VORTICITY, AND SCALAR GRADIENTS IN A TURBULENT NONPREMIXED JET FLAME

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The alignment of vorticity and gradients of conserved and reactive scalars with the eigenvectors of the strain rate tensor (i.e., the principal strains) is investigated in a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent nonpremixed flame achieving a Taylor’s scale Reynolds number in the range 100≤Reλ≤150 (Attili et al. Comb. Flame, 161, 2014). The vorticity vector displays a pronounced tendency to align with the direction of the intermediate strain. These alignment statistics are in almost perfect agreement with those in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (Ashurst et al. Physics of Fluids 30, 1987) and differ significantly from the results obtained in other nonpremixed flames in which vorticity alignment with the most extensive strain was observed (Boratavet al. Physics of Fluids 8, 1996). The gradients of conserved and reactive scalars align with the most compressive strain. It is worth noting that conditioning on the local values of the mixture fraction, or equivalently conditioning on the distance from the flame sheet, does not affect the statistics. Our results suggest that turbulence overshadows the effects of heat release and chemical reactions. This may be due to the larger Reynolds number achieved in the present study compared to that in previous works.

  18. CONDITIONAL FLOW STATISTICS AND ALIGNMENT OF PRINCIPAL STRAIN RATES, VORTICITY, AND SCALAR GRADIENTS IN A TURBULENT NONPREMIXED JET FLAME

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The alignment of vorticity and gradients of conserved and reactive scalars with the eigenvectors of the strain rate tensor (i.e., the principal strains) is investigated in a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent nonpremixed flame achieving a Taylor’s scale Reynolds number in the range 100≤Reλ≤150 (Attili et al. Comb. Flame, 161, 2014). The vorticity vector displays a pronounced tendency to align with the direction of the intermediate strain. These alignment statistics are in almost perfect agreement with those in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (Ashurst et al. Physics of Fluids 30, 1987) and differ significantly from the results obtained in other nonpremixed flames in which vorticity alignment with the most extensive strain was observed (Boratavet al. Physics of Fluids 8, 1996). The gradients of conserved and reactive scalars align with the most compressive strain. It is worth noting that conditioning on the local values of the mixture fraction, or equivalently conditioning on the distance from the flame sheet, does not affect the statistics. Our results suggest that turbulence overshadows the effects of heat release and chemical reactions. This may be due to the larger Reynolds number achieved in the present study compared to that in previous works.

  19. Kinetoplast adaptations in American strains from Trypanosoma vivax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, Gonzalo; Rodriguez, Matías; Reyna-Bello, Armando; Robello, Carlos; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • American T. vivax strains exhibit a drastic process of mitochondrial genome degradation. • T. vivax mitochondrial genes have among the fastest evolutionary rates in eukaryotes. • High rates of kDNA evolution are associated with relaxation of selective constrains. • Relaxed selective pressures are the result of mechanical transmission. • The evolutionary strategy of T. vivax differs from that of T. brucei-species complex. - Abstract: The mitochondrion role changes during the digenetic life cycle of African trypanosomes. Owing to the low abundance of glucose in the insect vector (tsetse flies) the parasites are dependent upon a fully functional mitochondrion, capable of performing oxidative phosphorylation. Nevertheless, inside the mammalian host (bloodstream forms), which is rich in nutrients, parasite proliferation relies on glycolysis, and the mitochondrion is partially redundant. In this work we perform a comparative study of the mitochondrial genome (kinetoplast) in different strains of Trypanosoma vivax. The comparison was conducted between a West African strain that goes through a complete life cycle and two American strains that are mechanically transmitted (by different vectors) and remain as bloodstream forms only. It was found that while the African strain has a complete and apparently fully functional kinetoplast, the American T. vivax strains have undergone a drastic process of mitochondrial genome degradation, in spite of the recent introduction of these parasites in America. Many of their genes exhibit different types of mutations that are disruptive of function such as major deletions, frameshift causing indels and missense mutations. Moreover, all but three genes (A6-ATPase, RPS12 and MURF2) are not edited in the American strains, whereas editing takes place normally in all (editable) genes from the African strain. Two of these genes, A6-ATPase and RPS12, are known to play an essential function during bloodstream stage

  20. Kinetoplast adaptations in American strains from Trypanosoma vivax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greif, Gonzalo [Unidad de Biología Molecular, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, Matías [Sección Biomatemática, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay); Reyna-Bello, Armando [Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Carrera en Ingeniería en Biotecnología, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas (Ecuador); Centro de Estudios Biomédicos y Veterinarios, Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez-IDECYT, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Robello, Carlos [Unidad de Biología Molecular, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo (Uruguay); Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República Uruguay (Uruguay); Alvarez-Valin, Fernando, E-mail: falvarez@fcien.edu.uy [Sección Biomatemática, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • American T. vivax strains exhibit a drastic process of mitochondrial genome degradation. • T. vivax mitochondrial genes have among the fastest evolutionary rates in eukaryotes. • High rates of kDNA evolution are associated with relaxation of selective constrains. • Relaxed selective pressures are the result of mechanical transmission. • The evolutionary strategy of T. vivax differs from that of T. brucei-species complex. - Abstract: The mitochondrion role changes during the digenetic life cycle of African trypanosomes. Owing to the low abundance of glucose in the insect vector (tsetse flies) the parasites are dependent upon a fully functional mitochondrion, capable of performing oxidative phosphorylation. Nevertheless, inside the mammalian host (bloodstream forms), which is rich in nutrients, parasite proliferation relies on glycolysis, and the mitochondrion is partially redundant. In this work we perform a comparative study of the mitochondrial genome (kinetoplast) in different strains of Trypanosoma vivax. The comparison was conducted between a West African strain that goes through a complete life cycle and two American strains that are mechanically transmitted (by different vectors) and remain as bloodstream forms only. It was found that while the African strain has a complete and apparently fully functional kinetoplast, the American T. vivax strains have undergone a drastic process of mitochondrial genome degradation, in spite of the recent introduction of these parasites in America. Many of their genes exhibit different types of mutations that are disruptive of function such as major deletions, frameshift causing indels and missense mutations. Moreover, all but three genes (A6-ATPase, RPS12 and MURF2) are not edited in the American strains, whereas editing takes place normally in all (editable) genes from the African strain. Two of these genes, A6-ATPase and RPS12, are known to play an essential function during bloodstream stage

  1. An ultrasensitive strain sensor with a wide strain range based on graphene armour scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Fan; Tao, Lu-Qi; Pang, Yu; Tian, He; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-06-12

    An ultrasensitive strain sensor with a wide strain range based on graphene armour scales is demonstrated in this paper. The sensor shows an ultra-high gauge factor (GF, up to 1054) and a wide strain range (ε = 26%), both of which present an advantage compared to most other flexible sensors. Moreover, the sensor is developed by a simple fabrication process. Due to the excellent performance, this strain sensor can meet the demands of subtle, large and complex human motion monitoring, which indicates its tremendous application potential in health monitoring, mechanical control, real-time motion monitoring and so on.

  2. Breeding study of hyper citric acid strain by progressive heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jihong; Hu Wei; Li Wenjian; Liu Jing; Wang Shuyang; Wei Zihao

    2013-01-01

    Heavy "1"2C"6"+ ion beams in various high doses were employed to irradiate H3001 strain for screening Aspergillus niger strain for hyper citric acid production. Three high-yield strains were obtained after shaker fermentation test. Among the three strains, the strain hw317 was implemented shaker fermentation for stability test and 10∼100 L pilot fermentation tank for citric acid productive maximization. Acid-base neutralization method was applied to determinate the content of citric acid in fermented liquid. The results showed that: when the secondary heavy ion "1"2C"6"+ dose was 857.8 Gy, both of the fatality rate (94.5%) and the positive mutation rate (8%) were highest. Through the shaker fermentation tests and 10∼100 L pilot fermentation test, one strain hw317 was screened and obtained for hyper citric acid production. Consequently, the final citric acid acidity can reach up to 19.2±0.2% with controlling fermentation cycle for 60 h. (authors)

  3. Physical strain in daily life of wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T W; van Oers, C A; van der Woude, L H; Hollander, A P

    Forty-three men (age 33 +/- 9 yr) with spinal cord injuries (SCI) were observed during a normal workday while heart rate was recorded continuously. Physical strain was estimated using the heart rate response expressed relative to the individual heart rate reserve (%HRR). The mean physical strain

  4. Shape recovery and irrecoverable strain control in polyurethane shape-memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobushi, Hisaaki; Ejiri, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Syunichi; Hoshio, Kazumasa

    2008-01-01

    In shape-memory polymers, large strain can be fixed at a low temperature and thereafter recovered at a high temperature. If the shape-memory polymer is held at a high temperature for a long time, the irrecoverable strain can attain a new intermediate shape between the shape under the maximum stress and the primary shape. Irrecoverable strain control can be applied to the fabrication of a shape-memory polymer element with a complex shape in a simple method. In the present study, the influence of the strain-holding conditions on the shape recovery and the irrecoverable strain control in polyurethane shape-memory polymer is investigated by tension test of a film and three-point bending test of a sheet. The higher the shape-holding temperature and the longer the shape-holding time, the higher the irrecoverable strain rate. The equation that expresses the characteristics of the irrecoverable strain control is formulated

  5. Phenomenological approach to precise creep life prediction by means of quantitative evaluation of strain rate acceleration in secondary creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Takaya

    2010-01-01

    A method of creep life prediction by means of Strain-Acceleration-Parameter (SAP), α, is presented. The authors show that the shape of creep curve can be characterized by SAP that reflects magnitude of strain-rate change in secondary creep. The SAP-values, α are evaluated on magnesium-aluminium solution hardened alloys. Reconstruction of creep curves by combinations of SAP and minimum-creep rates are successfully performed, and the curves reasonably agree with experiments. The advantage of the proposed method is that the required parameters evaluated from individual creep curves are directly connected with the minimum creep rate. The predicted times-to-failure agree well with that obtained by experiments, and possibility of precise life time prediction by SAP is pronounced.

  6. Progress toward isolation of strains and genetically engineered strains of microalgae for production of biofuel and other value added chemicals: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Ashmita; Khanra, Saumyakanti; Mondal, Madhumanti; Halder, Gopinath; Tiwari, O.N.; Saini, Supreet; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Gayen, Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sample collection, isolation and identification to obtain a pure microalgal species. • Isolation of microalgal strains worldwide based on continent and habitat. • Genetic engineering tools for enhanced production of biodiesel and value added chemicals. • Cultivation systems for genetically modified strain. - Abstract: Microalgae and cyanobacteria are promising sources of biodiesel because of their high oil content (∼10 fold higher) and shorter cultivation time (∼4 fold lesser) than conventional oil producing territorial plants (e.g., soybean, corn and jatropha). These organisms also provide source of several valuable natural chemicals including pigments, food supplements like eicosapentanoic acid [EPA], decosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and vitamins. In addition, many cellular components of these organisms are associated with therapeutic properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, and antiviral. Isolation and identification of high-yielding strains with the faster growth rate is the key for successful implementation of algal biodiesel (or other products) at a commercial level. A number of research groups in Europe, America, and Australia are thus extensively involved in exploration of novel microalgal strain. Further, genetic engineering provides a tool to engineer the native strain resulting in transgenic strain with higher yields. Despite these efforts, no consensus has yet been reached so far in zeroing on the best microalgal strain for sustainable production of biofuel at reasonable cost. The search for novel microalgal strain and transgenesis of microalgae, are continuing side by side with the hope of commercial scale production of microalgae biofuel in near future. However, no consolidated review report exists which guides to isolate and identify a uncontaminated microalgal strain along with their transgenesis. The present review is focused on: (i) key factors for sample collection, isolation, and identification to

  7. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  8. An incremental flow theory for crystal plasticity incorporating strain gradient effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christopher; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2017-01-01

    The present work investigates a new approach to formulating a rate-independent strain gradient theory for crystal plasticity. The approach takes as offset recent discussions published in the literature for isotropic plasticity, and a key ingredient of the present work is the manner in which...... a gradient enhanced effective slip measure governs hardening evolution. The effect of both plastic strains and plastic strain gradients are combined into this scalar effective slip quantity, the energy associated with plastic strain is dissipative (unrecoverable), while the energy from plastic strain...... gradients is recoverable (free). The framework developed forms the basis of a finite element implementation and is demonstrated on benchmark problems designed to bring out effects such as strengthening and hardening. Monotonic loading and plane strain deformation is assumed throughout, but despite this, non...

  9. Origin of the Strain Sensitivity for an Organic Heptazole Thin-Film and Its Strain Gauge Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Heesun; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Lee, Kimoon

    2018-04-01

    The authors report on the origin of the strain sensitivity for an organic C26H16N2 (heptazole) thinfilm and its application for the detection of tensile strain. From the electrical characterization on the thin-film transistor adopting a heptazole channel, heptazole film exhibits p-channel conduction with a relatively low value of field-effect mobility (0.05 cm2/Vs), suggesting a hopping conduction behavior via hole carriers. By analyzing the strain and temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity, we reveal that the electrical conduction for a heptazole thin-film is dominated by the variable range hopping process with quite a large energy separation (224.9 meV) between the localized states under a relatively long attenuation length (10.46 Å). This indicates that a change in the inter-grain spacing that is much larger than the attenuation length is responsible for the reversible modification of electrical conductivity depending on strain for the heptazole film. By utilizing our heptazole thin-film both as a strain sensitive passive resistor and an active semiconducting channel layer, we can achieve a strain gauge device exhibiting reversible endurance for tensile strains up to 2.12%. Consequently, this study advances the understanding of the fundamental strain sensing mechanism in a heptazole thin-film toward finding a promise material with a strain gauge for applications as potential flexible devices and/or wearable electronics.

  10. A Summary of Fault Recurrence and Strain Rates in the Vicinity of the Hanford Site--Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize available data and analyses relevant to fault recurrence and strain rates within the Yakima Fold Belt. Strain rates have met with contention in the expert community and may have a significant potential for impact on the seismic hazard estimate at the Hanford Site. This report identifies the alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, suggests some prospective approaches to reducing uncertainties about earthquake recurrence rates for the Yakima Fold Belt.

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...... to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...

  12. Plastic strain accumulation during asymmetric cyclic loading of Zircaloy-2 at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpurohit, R.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C.; Singh, Vakil

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric cyclic loading leads to accumulation of cyclic plastic strain and reduces the fatigue life of components. This phenomenon is known as ratcheting fatigue. Zircaloy-2 is a important structural material in nuclear reactors and used as pressure tubes and fuel cladding in pressurized light and heavy water nuclear reactors. Due to power fluctuations, these components experience plastic strain cycles in the reactor and their life is reduced due to strain cycles. Power fluctuations also cause asymmetric straining of the material and leads to accumulation of plastic strain. The present investigation deals with the effect of the magnitude of mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate on hardening/softening behavior of Zircaloy-2 under asymmetric cyclic loading, at room temperature. It was observed that plastic strain accumulation increased with mean stress and stress amplitude; however, it decreased with stress rate. (author)

  13. The Formation and Evolution of Shear Bands in Plane Strain Compressed Nickel-Base Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation and evolution of shear bands in Inconel 718 nickel-base superalloy under plane strain compression was investigated in the present work. It is found that the propagation of shear bands under plane strain compression is more intense in comparison with conventional uniaxial compression. The morphology of shear bands was identified to generally fall into two categories: in “S” shape at severe conditions (low temperatures and high strain rates and “X” shape at mild conditions (high temperatures and low strain rates. However, uniform deformation at the mesoscale without shear bands was also obtained by compressing at 1050 °C/0.001 s−1. By using the finite element method (FEM, the formation mechanism of the shear bands in the present study was explored for the special deformation mode of plane strain compression. Furthermore, the effect of processing parameters, i.e., strain rate and temperature, on the morphology and evolution of shear bands was discussed following a phenomenological approach. The plane strain compression attempt in the present work yields important information for processing parameters optimization and failure prediction under plane strain loading conditions of the Inconel 718 superalloy.

  14. Strain-controlled nonvolatile magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geprägs, S.; Brandlmaier, A.; Brandt, M. S.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate different approaches towards a nonvolatile switching of the remanent magnetization in single-crystalline ferromagnets at room temperature via elastic strain using ferromagnetic thin film/piezoelectric actuator hybrids. The piezoelectric actuator induces a voltage-controllable strain along different crystalline directions of the ferromagnetic thin film, resulting in modifications of its magnetization by converse magnetoelastic effects. We quantify the magnetization changes in the hybrids via ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. These measurements demonstrate a significant strain-induced change of the magnetization, limited by an inefficient strain transfer and domain formation in the particular system studied. To overcome these obstacles, we address practicable engineering concepts and use a model to demonstrate that a strain-controlled, nonvolatile magnetization switching should be possible in appropriately engineered ferromagnetic/piezoelectric actuator hybrids.

  15. A study on microstructure and strain-hardening rate of friction stir welded Al-Mg-Si alloys using a weak beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukedai, E; Yokoyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of a friction stir welded Al-Mg-Si (6061-T6Al) alloy are evaluated by a tensile test. It is found that the strain-hardening rate is higher than that of a base material. In order to investigate the origin, TEM observations have been performed about 4 kinds of materials; base- and friction stir welded-materials, and both materials deformed to 5 % strain by tension. There are not so large differences about dislocation density, size and density of precipitates and crystal defects between the base material and the friction stir welded-materials, but a significant decrease of grain-size in the friction stir welded-materials is recognized. These results suggest a dynamic recovery occurs during FSW process, and it is speculated that the recovery leads to the differences of yield stress and strain-hardening rate between both materials.

  16. Fatigue Life of Stainless Steel in PWR Environments with Strain Holding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taesoon; Kim, Kyuhyung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Myeonggyu; Jang, Changheui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many components and structures of nuclear power plants are exposed to the water chemistry conditions during the operation. Recently, as design life of nuclear power plant is expanded over 60 years, the environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) due to these water chemistry conditions has been considered as one of the important damage mechanisms of the safety class 1 components. Therefore, many studies to evaluate the effect of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments on fatigue life of materials have been conducted. Many EAF test results including Argonne National Laboratory’s consistently indicated the substantial reduction of fatigue life in the light water reactor environments. However, there is a discrepancy between laboratory test data and plant operating experience regarding the effects of environment on fatigue: while laboratory test data suggest huge accumulation of fatigue damage, very limited experience of cracking caused by the low cycle fatigue in light water reactor. These hold-time effect tests are preformed to characterize the effects of strain holding on the fatigue life of austenitic stainless steels in PWR environments in comparison with the existing fixed strain rate results. Low cycle fatigue life tests were conducted for the type 316 stainless steel in 310℃ air and