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Sample records for strain injuries recommendations

  1. Traumatic brain injury pharmacological treatment: recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Anghinah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article presents the recommendations on the pharmacological treatment employed in traumatic brain injury (TBI at the outpatient clinic of the Cognitive Rehabilitation after TBI Service of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. A systematic assessment of the consensus reached in other countries, and of articles on TBI available in the PUBMED and LILACS medical databases, was carried out. We offer recommendations of pharmacological treatments in patients after TBI with different symptoms.

  2. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches

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    John Orchard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Trefor James2, Alex Kountouris2, Marc Portus21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09. In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket. It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’ are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season, perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is

  3. Rehabilitation and return to sport after hamstring strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Erickson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present the challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.

  4. Sciatic Nerve Conductivity is Impaired by Hamstring Strain Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzaki, Karina; Nakazato, Koichi; Mizuno, Masuhiko; Yonechi, Tooru; Higo, Yusuke; Kubo, Yoshiaki; Kono, Tokuyoshi; Hiranuma, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess sciatic nerve conductivity in athletes with a history of hamstring strain injuries. Twenty-seven athletes with a history of hamstring strain injuries were included in the injured group. The control group consisted of 16 uninjured participants. We measured the proximal and distal latencies and calculated the sciatic nerve conduction velocity to evaluate neuronal conductivity. The results were expressed as median values and interquartile ranges. Both proximal latency and distal latency of the injured limb in the injured group were significantly longer than those of the uninjured limb (phamstring strain injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Exercise recommendations for individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Patrick L; Nash, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    within the paralysed tissues. The recommendations for endurance and strength training in persons with SCI do not vary dramatically from the advice offered to the general population. Systems of functional electrical stimulation activate muscular contractions within the paralysed muscles of some persons with SCI. Coordinated patterns of stimulation allows purposeful exercise movements including recumbent cycling, rowing and upright ambulation. Exercise activity in persons with SCI is not without risks, with increased risks related to systemic dysfunction following the spinal injury. These individuals may exhibit an autonomic dysreflexia, significantly reduced bone density below the spinal lesion, joint contractures and/or thermal dysregulation. Persons with SCI can benefit greatly by participation in exercise activities, but those benefits can be enhanced and the relative risks may be reduced with accurate classification of the spinal injury.

  6. Patient Satisfaction in the Treatment of Acute Hamstring Strain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LingLing- Lai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The impact of musculoskeletal injuries often caused loss time in sport participation. Athletes who suffered from these injuries experienced a decrease in performance and physical disability. Although a variety of treatments have been implemented to the muscle injuries, the administration of autologous blood injection is replacing the conventional rehabilitation to expedite the process of muscle recovery. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is relatively new in muscle injury treatment and there is lack of evidence of the satisfaction of PRP treatment in muscle injuries. Purposes: The study aimed to investigate the patient satisfaction in the administration of PRP treatment and rehabilitation program for acute hamstring strain injury. Methods: Participants (competitive, semi-competitive and recreational athletes with acute hamstring strain injury (Grade II were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into either the PRP treatment or rehabilitation program. Participants were required to attend weekly follow up assessment for recovery evaluation. All the participants were required to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-18 at the end of study.  The questionnaire is divided into seven sub-scales: general satisfaction, technical quality, interpersonal manner, communication, financial aspect, time spent with doctor, accessibility and convenience. Results: Participants were 22.35 ± 3.41 years. Duration from injury to first presentation in clinic ranged from two to ten days. Mean duration of recovery was 5.64 weeks. No statistically significant difference in the patient satisfaction sub-scales score between the two groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that PRP treatment is as satisfactory as conventional rehabilitation program in managing acute hamstring strain injury. Both  modalities are correspondingly safe and have high degree of satisfaction. Given the acceptable outcomes, patients are likely to

  7. Invisible Wounds of War: Recommendations for Addressing Psychological and Cognitive Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanielian, Terri

    2008-01-01

    My testimony will briefly discuss several recommendations for addressing the psychological and cognitive injuries among servicemembers returning from deployments to Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Dr...

  8. Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, N

    1994-12-01

    Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies.

  9. Youth injury prevention in Canada: use of the Delphi method to develop recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Ian; Piedt, Shannon; Davison, Colleen M; Russell, Kelly; Macpherson, Alison K; Pickett, William

    2015-12-22

    The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey is one of very few cross-national health surveys that includes information on injury occurrence and prevention within adolescent populations. A collaboration to develop a Canadian youth injury report using these data resulted in, Injury among Young Canadians: A national study of contextual determinants. The objective of this study was to develop specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations arising from the national report, using a modified-Delphi process with a panel of expert stakeholders. Eight injury prevention experts and a 3-person youth advisory team associated with a Canadian injury prevention organization (Parachute Canada) reviewed, edited and commented on report recommendations through a three-stage iterative modified-Delphi process. From an initial list of 27 draft recommendations, the modified-Delphi process resulted in a final list of 19 specific recommendations, worded to resonate with the group(s) responsible to lead or take the recommended action. Two recommendations were rated as "extremely important" or "very important" by 100 % of the expert panel, two were deleted, a further two recommendations were deleted but the content included as text in the report, and four were merged with other existing recommendations. The modified-Delphi process was an appropriate method to achieve agreement on 19 specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations to complement the national youth injury report. In providing their input, it is noted that the injury stakeholders each acted as individual experts, unattached to any organizational position or policy. These recommendations will require multidisciplinary collaborations in order to support the proposed policy development, additional research, programming and clear decision-making for youth injury prevention.

  10. Strain and rate-dependent neuronal injury in a 3D in vitro compression model of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Scimone, Mark T.; Estrada, Jonathan B.; Franck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the United States over 1.7 million cases of traumatic brain injury are reported yearly, but predictive correlation of cellular injury to impact tissue strain is still lacking, particularly for neuronal injury resulting from compression. Given the prevalence of compressive deformations in most blunt head trauma, this information is critically important for the development of future mitigation and diagnosis strategies. Using a 3D in vitro neuronal compression model, we investigated the role of impact strain and strain rate on neuronal lifetime, viability, and pathomorphology. We find that strain magnitude and rate have profound, yet distinctively different effects on the injury pathology. While strain magnitude affects the time of neuronal death, strain rate influences the pathomorphology and extent of population injury. Cellular injury is not initiated through localized deformation of the cytoskeleton but rather driven by excess strain on the entire cell. Furthermore we find that, mechanoporation, one of the key pathological trigger mechanisms in stretch and shear neuronal injuries, was not observed under compression. PMID:27480807

  11. Are we having fun yet? Fostering adherence to injury preventive exercise recommendations in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Melanie R; Emery, Carolyn A; Finch, Caroline F

    2012-03-01

    Sport and recreational activities are the leading cause of injury in youth, yet there is increasing evidence that many sport-related injuries are preventable. For injury prevention strategies to be effective, individuals must understand, adopt and adhere to the recommended prevention strategy or programme. Despite the recognized importance of a behavioural approach, the inclusion of behavioural change strategies in sport injury prevention has been historically neglected. The purpose of this commentary is to outline the rationale for the inclusion and application of behavioural science in reducing the burden of injury by increasing adherence to proven prevention strategies. In an effort to provide an illustrative example of a behavioural change approach, the authors suggest a specific plan for the implementation of a neuromuscular training strategy to reduce the risk of lower limb injury in youth sport. Given the paucity of evidence in the sport injury prevention setting, and the lack of application of theoretical frameworks to predicting adoption and adherence to injury preventive exercise recommendations in youth sport, data from the related physical activity promotion domain is utilized to describe how sound, theory-based injury prevention exercise interventions in youth may be developed. While the question of how to facilitate behavioural change and optimize adherence to preventive exercise recommendations remains an ongoing challenge, the authors detail several strategies based on two prominent behavioural theories to aid the reader in conceptualizing, designing and implementing effective interventions. Despite the minimal application of behavioural theory within the field of sport injury prevention in youth, behavioural science has the potential to make a significant impact on the understanding and prevention of youth sport injury. Appropriate evaluation of adherence and maintenance components based on models of behavioural change should be a critical

  12. Physical strain in daily life of wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T W; van Oers, C A; van der Woude, L H; Hollander, A P

    Forty-three men (age 33 +/- 9 yr) with spinal cord injuries (SCI) were observed during a normal workday while heart rate was recorded continuously. Physical strain was estimated using the heart rate response expressed relative to the individual heart rate reserve (%HRR). The mean physical strain

  13. Therapy Recommendation “Act as Usual” in Patients with Whiplash Injuries QTF I°

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    Dehner, Christoph; Kraus, Michael; Schöll, Hendrik; Schneider, Florian; Richter, Peter; Kramer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Up to now no therapy study has used the classification system of the Quebec Task Force (QTF) to differentiate between patients with (QTF II°) and without functional disorders (QTF I°). This differentiation seems meaningful, as this difference may be relevant for the correct treatment planning. In this context the effect of the therapy recommendation “act as usual” has been evaluated in a homogeneous patient collective with whiplash injuries QTF I°. 470 patients with acute whiplash injuries had been catched in this study and classified according to the QTF. 359 patients (76.4%) with QTF I° injuries could be identified. Out of that 162 patients were enrolled to the study and received the therapy recommendation “act as usual” and the adapted pain treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). After six months the outcome was evaluated by phone. After injury the median pain score assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) was 5.4 (min = 3.3; max = 8.5). After six months 5 of the 162 patients complained intermittent pain symptoms (VAS values whiplash injuries QTF I° do not need physical therapy. An escalation of therapy measures should be reserved to patients with complicated healing processes. PMID:23121740

  14. Therapy recommendation "act as usual" in patients with whiplash injuries QTF I°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehner, Christoph; Kraus, Michael; Schöll, Hendrik; Schneider, Florian; Richter, Peter; Kramer, Michael

    2012-08-20

    Up to now no therapy study has used the classification system of the Quebec Task Force (QTF) to differentiate between patients with (QTF II°) and without functional disorders (QTF I°). This differentiation seems meaningful, as this difference may be relevant for the correct treatment planning. In this context the effect of the therapy recommendation "act as usual" has been evaluated in a homogeneous patient collective with whiplash injuries QTF I°. 470 patients with acute whiplash injuries had been catched in this study and classified according to the QTF. 359 patients (76.4%) with QTF I° injuries could be identified. Out of that 162 patients were enrolled to the study and received the therapy recommendation "act as usual" and the adapted pain treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). After six months the outcome was evaluated by phone. After injury the median pain score assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) was 5.4 (min = 3.3; max = 8.5). After six months 5 of the 162 patients complained intermittent pain symptoms (VAS values < 2). This is consistent with a chronification rate of 3.1%. After injury, the median pain disability index (PDI) was 3.9 (min = 1.9; max = 7.7). After six months 3 of the 162 patients stated persisting disability during sporting and physical activities (VAS values < 1). The therapy recommendation "act as usual" in combination with an adapted pain treatment is sufficient. Usually patients with whiplash injuries QTF I° do not need physical therapy. An escalation of therapy measures should be reserved to patients with complicated healing processes.

  15. Participation in recreation and sports for persons with spinal cord injury: review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Daniel; Meade, Michelle A

    2004-01-01

    Recreation and sports following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) are beneficial, but under-studied, aspects of community integration. Previous studies have shown that sports and recreation can offer numerous physiological and psychological benefits to those who participate. This manuscript critically reviews available literature focused upon participation in recreation and sports among persons with SCI. Issues of participation, technology and safety are discussed and recommendations are provided.

  16. Imaging evidence and recommendations for traumatic brain injury: advanced neuro- and neurovascular imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, M; Sanelli, P C; Anzai, Y; Tsiouris, A J; Whitlow, C T

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of patients with traumatic brain injury, with NCCT as the first-line of imaging for patients with traumatic brain injury and MR imaging being recommended in specific settings. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, including MR imaging DTI, blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, PET/SPECT, and magnetoencephalography, are of particular interest in identifying further injury in patients with traumatic brain injury when conventional NCCT and MR imaging findings are normal, as well as for prognostication in patients with persistent symptoms. These advanced neuroimaging techniques are currently under investigation in an attempt to optimize them and substantiate their clinical relevance in individual patients. However, the data currently available confine their use to the research arena for group comparisons, and there remains insufficient evidence at the time of this writing to conclude that these advanced techniques can be used for routine clinical use at the individual patient level. TBI imaging is a rapidly evolving field, and a number of the recommendations presented will be updated in the future to reflect the advances in medical knowledge. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Hyperextension strain of ''whiplash'' injuries to the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, H.J.; Olson, P.N.; Everson, L.I.; Winemiller, M.

    1995-01-01

    A full cervical spine radiographic series (including flexion and extension views) was reviewed in 40 patients with clinically proven ''whiplash'' injuries and compared to the radiographs in 105 normal controls. The level and degree of kinking or kyphosis, subluxation, and the difference in the amount of fanning between spinous processes on flexion and extension films were measured in each patient. Localized kinking greater than 10 and over 12 mm of fanning, often occurring at the level below the kinking or kyphosis, occurred mainly in the group of whiplash patients (sensitivity 81%, specificity 76%, accuracy 80%). (orig./VHE)

  18. Hyperextension strain of ``whiplash`` injuries to the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Olson, P.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Everson, L.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Winemiller, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A full cervical spine radiographic series (including flexion and extension views) was reviewed in 40 patients with clinically proven ``whiplash`` injuries and compared to the radiographs in 105 normal controls. The level and degree of kinking or kyphosis, subluxation, and the difference in the amount of fanning between spinous processes on flexion and extension films were measured in each patient. Localized kinking greater than 10 and over 12 mm of fanning, often occurring at the level below the kinking or kyphosis, occurred mainly in the group of whiplash patients (sensitivity 81%, specificity 76%, accuracy 80%). (orig./VHE)

  19. Estimation of ligament strains and joint moments in the ankle during a supination sprain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Chan, Kai-Ming; Haut, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the ankle ligament strains and ankle joint moments during an accidental injury event diagnosed as a grade I anterior talofibular ligament (ATaFL) sprain. A male athlete accidentally sprained his ankle while performing a cutting motion in a laboratory setting. The kinematic data were input to a three-dimensional rigid-body foot model for simulation analyses. Maximum strains in 20 ligaments were evaluated in simulations that investigated various combinations of the reported ankle joint motions. Temporal strains in the ATaFL and the calcaneofibular ligament (CaFL) were then compared and the three-dimensional ankle joint moments were evaluated from the model. The ATaFL and CaFL were highly strained when the inversion motion was simulated (10% for ATaFL and 12% for CaFL). These ligament strains were increased significantly when either or both plantarflexion and internal rotation motions were added in a temporal fashion (up to 20% for ATaFL and 16% for CaFL). Interestingly, at the time strain peaked in the ATaFL, the plantarflexion angle was not large but apparently important. This computational simulation study suggested that an inversion moment of approximately 23 N m plus an internal rotation moment of approximately 11 N m and a small plantarflexion moment may have generated a strain of 15-20% in the ATaFL to produce a grade I ligament injury in the athlete's ankle. This injury simulation study exhibited the potentially important roles of plantarflexion and internal rotation, when combined with a large inversion motion, to produce a grade I ATaFL injury in the ankle of this athlete.

  20. MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Thelen, Darryl G.; Enright, Timothy; Tuite, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. MR images were obtained from 14 athletes who sustained a clinically diagnosed grade I-II hamstring strain injury between 5 and 23 months prior as well as five healthy controls. Qualitative bilateral comparisons were used to assess the presence of fatty infiltration and changes in morphology that may have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon-scar volumes were quantified in both limbs for the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), biceps femoris short head (BFSH), the proximal semimembranosus tendon, and the proximal conjoint biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon. Differences in muscle and tendon volume between limbs were statistically compared between the previously injured and healthy control subjects. Increased low-intensity signal was present along the musculotendon junction adjacent to the site of presumed prior injury for 11 of the 14 subjects, suggestive of persistent scar tissue. The 13 subjects with biceps femoris injuries displayed a significant decrease in BFLH volume (p < 0.01), often accompanied by an increase in BFSH volume. Two of these subjects also presented with fatty infiltration within the previously injured BFLH. The results of this study provide evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many athletes are likely returning to sport with residual atrophy of the BFLH and/or hypertrophy of the BFSH. It is possible that long-term changes in musculotendon structure following injury alters contraction mechanics during functional movement, such as running and may contribute to reinjury risk. (orig.)

  1. MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silder, Amy [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Heiderscheit, Bryan C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Madison, WI (United States); Thelen, Darryl G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Enright, Timothy; Tuite, Michael J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Department of Radiology

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this study was to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. MR images were obtained from 14 athletes who sustained a clinically diagnosed grade I-II hamstring strain injury between 5 and 23 months prior as well as five healthy controls. Qualitative bilateral comparisons were used to assess the presence of fatty infiltration and changes in morphology that may have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon-scar volumes were quantified in both limbs for the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), biceps femoris short head (BFSH), the proximal semimembranosus tendon, and the proximal conjoint biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon. Differences in muscle and tendon volume between limbs were statistically compared between the previously injured and healthy control subjects. Increased low-intensity signal was present along the musculotendon junction adjacent to the site of presumed prior injury for 11 of the 14 subjects, suggestive of persistent scar tissue. The 13 subjects with biceps femoris injuries displayed a significant decrease in BFLH volume (p < 0.01), often accompanied by an increase in BFSH volume. Two of these subjects also presented with fatty infiltration within the previously injured BFLH. The results of this study provide evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many athletes are likely returning to sport with residual atrophy of the BFLH and/or hypertrophy of the BFSH. It is possible that long-term changes in musculotendon structure following injury alters contraction mechanics during functional movement, such as running and may contribute to reinjury risk. (orig.)

  2. Sonography and MRI of latissimus dorsi strain injury in four elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedret, Carles; Balius, Ramon; Idoate, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the MR and sonographic findings in latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle strain in athletes, and to review the most common injuries described in the literature, most of which are humeral avulsions. Four injuries and two reinjuries of the myotendinous junction of the LD were followed from the day of injury until the return to play. Sonography (US) and MR imaging were performed in each case to confirm the diagnosis and to monitor the healing process. All cases had acute and isolated pain in the back of the shoulder while performing an eccentric maneuver of the arm and the shoulder. US and MR images demonstrated that injuries were located in the middle and cranial portion of the latissimus dorsi surrounding the myotendinous junction. After rehabilitation, all players played at high level again. Isolated lesions of LD are very rare. They can be demonstrated by US and MR images. (orig.)

  3. Sonography and MRI of latissimus dorsi strain injury in four elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedret, Carles [Unitat Medicina Esportiva Consorci Sanitari del Garraf, Barcelona (Spain); Centre Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Balius, Ramon [Generalitat of Catalonia, Sports Catalan Council, Catalonia (Spain); Idoate, Fernando [Clinica San Miguel, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the MR and sonographic findings in latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle strain in athletes, and to review the most common injuries described in the literature, most of which are humeral avulsions. Four injuries and two reinjuries of the myotendinous junction of the LD were followed from the day of injury until the return to play. Sonography (US) and MR imaging were performed in each case to confirm the diagnosis and to monitor the healing process. All cases had acute and isolated pain in the back of the shoulder while performing an eccentric maneuver of the arm and the shoulder. US and MR images demonstrated that injuries were located in the middle and cranial portion of the latissimus dorsi surrounding the myotendinous junction. After rehabilitation, all players played at high level again. Isolated lesions of LD are very rare. They can be demonstrated by US and MR images. (orig.)

  4. Draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BR 3267, an elite strain recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Luiz Simões-Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract The strain BR 3267 is a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria isolated from soil of semi-arid area of Brazilian Northeast using cowpea as the trap plant. This strain is used as commercial inoculant for cowpea and presents high efficient in nitrogen fixation as consequence of its adaptation potential to semi-arid conditions. We report here the draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BR 3267, an elite bacterium used as inoculant for cowpea. Whole genome sequencing of BR 3267 using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology has 55 scaffolds with a total genome size of 7,904,309 bp and C+G 63%. Annotation was added by the RAST prokaryotic genome annotation service and has shown 7314 coding sequences and 52 RNA genes.

  5. Occupational repetitive strain injuries and gender in Ontario, 1986 to 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbury, F D

    1995-04-01

    Repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) in Ontario were examined with respect to gender for the period 1986 to 1991, using data from Ontario Workers' Compensation Board systems. Technical issues surrounding analysis of workplace injuries and theoretical suggestions raised by the data are discussed. Analyses revealed that the risk of RSIs for women is greater than that for men. Furthermore, women receive compensation benefits because of RSIs for a longer period than do their male counterparts, which may indicate a longer-term effect of RSIs on women.

  6. The Relation between Hamstring Strain Injury and Physical Characteristics of Japanese Collegiate Sepak Takraw Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Y; Nakazato, K; Koyama, K; Tahara, Y; Funaki, A; Hiranuma, K

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the injuries in Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players. We primarily focused on hamstring strain injury (HSI), and investigated the associated physical characteristics. The study included 77 Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players who were interviewed; data were collected regarding injuries sustained by them during the game within the past year. The hip range of motion (ROM) was measured. The total number of injuries was 48 in a year. The rate of HSI was the highest (31.3%) among all the injuries. All HSIs occurred in the dominant leg because of the sunback spike. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, significant differences in age and sport-related experience were observed between the injured group and uninjured group. Upon using logistic regression analysis, the presence of a HSI was found to be associated with the sport-related experience (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.77) and the hip extension ROM (adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99) after adjusting for sex, sport-related experience, and the hip ROM. HSI is the most common injury in Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players. Short sport-related experience and small hip extension ROM are related with the occurrence of HSI. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. INCOG recommendations for management of cognition following traumatic brain injury, part II: attention and information processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie; Bayley, Mark; Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine; Togher, Leanne; Velikonja, Diana; McIntyre, Amanda; Janzen, Shannon; Tate, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, due to its diffuse nature and high frequency of injury to frontotemporal and midbrain reticular activating systems, may cause disruption in many aspects of attention: arousal, selective attention, speed of information processing, and strategic control of attention, including sustained attention, shifting and dividing of attention, and working memory. An international team of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) convened to develop recommendations for the management of attentional problems. The experts selected recommendations from published guidelines and then reviewed literature to ensure that recommendations were current. Decision algorithms incorporating the recommendations based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of published trials were developed. The team then prioritized recommendations for implementation and developed audit criteria to evaluate adherence to these best practices. The recommendations and discussion highlight that metacognitive strategy training focused on functional everyday activities is appropriate. Appropriate use of dual task training, environmental modifications, and cognitive behavioral therapy is also discussed. There is insufficient evidence to support mindfulness meditation and practice on de-contextualized computer-based tasks for attention. Administration of the medication methylphenidate should be considered to improve information-processing speed. The INCOG recommendations for rehabilitation of attention provide up-to-date guidance for clinicians treating people with traumatic brain injury.

  8. The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jack; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) have remained the most prevalent injury in the Australian Football League (AFL) over the past 21 regular seasons. The effect of HSIs in sports is often expressed as regular season games missed due to injury. However, the financial cost of athletes missing games due to injury has not been investigated. The aim of this report is to estimate the financial cost of games missed due to HSIs in the AFL. Data were collected using publicly available information from the AFL's injury report and the official AFL annual report for the past 10 competitive AFL seasons. Average athlete salary and injury epidemiology data were used to determine the average yearly financial cost of HSIs for AFL clubs and the average financial cost of a single HSI over this time period. Across the observed period, average yearly financial cost of HSIs per club increased by 71% compared with a 43% increase in average yearly athlete salary. Over the same time period the average financial cost of a single HSI increased by 56% from $A25,603 in 2003 to $A40,021 in 2012, despite little change in the HSI rates during the period. The observed increased financial cost of HSIs was ultimately explained by the failure of teams to decrease HSI rates, but coupled with increases in athlete salaries over the past 10 season. The information presented in this report highlights the financial cost of HSIs and other sporting injuries, raising greater awareness and the need for further funding for research into injury prevention strategies to maximise economical return for investment in athletes.

  9. Systematic review of clinical practice guidelines to identify recommendations for rehabilitation after stroke and other acquired brain injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannin, Natasha A; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Rehabilitation clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contain recommendation statements aimed at optimising care for adults with stroke and other brain injury. The aim of this study was to determine the quality, scope and consistency of CPG recommendations for rehabilitation covering the acquired brain injury populations. Design Systematic review. Interventions Included CPGs contained recommendations for inpatient rehabilitation or community rehabilitation for adults with an acquired brain injury diagnosis (stroke, traumatic or other non-progressive acquired brain impairments). Electronic databases (n=2), guideline organisations (n=4) and websites of professional societies (n=17) were searched up to November 2017. Two independent reviewers used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument, and textual syntheses were used to appraise and compare recommendations. Results From 427 papers screened, 20 guidelines met the inclusion criteria. Only three guidelines were rated high (>75%) across all domains of AGREE-II; highest rated domains were ‘scope and purpose’ (85.1, SD 18.3) and ‘clarity’ (76.2%, SD 20.5). Recommendations for assessment and for motor therapies were most commonly reported, however, varied in the level of detail across guidelines. Conclusion Rehabilitation CPGs were consistent in scope, suggesting little difference in rehabilitation approaches between vascular and traumatic brain injury. There was, however, variability in included studies and methodological quality. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016026936. PMID:29490958

  10. Hamstring and Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength Deficits Are Weak Risk Factors for Hamstring Strain Injuries: A 4-Year Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Whiteley, Rodney; Tol, Johannes L.; Kumar, Bhavesh D.; Hamilton, Bruce; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik

    2016-01-01

    A hamstring strain injury (HSI) has become the most common noncontact injury in soccer. Isokinetic muscle strength deficits are considered a risk factor for HSIs. However, underpowered studies with small sample sizes unable to determine small associations have led to inconclusive results regarding

  11. Final Report: Summary of Findings and Recommendations for Suction Devices for Management of Prehospital Combat Casualty Care Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Airway Final Report: Summary of Findings and Recommendations for Suction Devices for Management of Prehospital Combat Casualty Care Injuries...Consumer Style Comparison Table of Suction Pump Devices ............................. 103 Appendix H – Web Links for Images for Consumer- Style ...0022 pg. 6 Executive Summary Suction is a critical component of airway management , which is the second leading cause of preventable

  12. Recommendations for translation and reliability testing of International Spinal Cord Injury Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Alexander, M S; Burns, S; Charlifue, S; DeVivo, M; Dietz, V; Krassioukov, A; Marino, R; Noonan, V; Post, M W M; Stripling, T; Vogel, L; Wing, P

    2011-03-01

    To provide recommendations regarding translation and reliability testing of International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Sets. The Executive Committee for the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. Translations of any specific International SCI Data Set can be accomplished by translation from the English version into the target language, and be followed by a back-translation into English, to confirm that the original meaning has been preserved. Another approach is to have the initial translation performed by translators who have knowledge of SCI, and afterwards controlled by other person(s) with the same kind of knowledge. The translation process includes both language translation and cultural adaptation, and therefore shall not be made word for word, but will strive to include conceptual equivalence. At a minimum, the inter-rater reliability should be tested by no less than two independent observers, and preferably in multiple countries. Translations must include information on the name, role and background of everyone involved in the translation process, and shall be dated and noted with a version number. By following the proposed guidelines, translated data sets should assure comparability of data acquisition across countries and cultures. If the translation process identifies irregularities or misrepresentation in either the original English version or the target language, the working group for the particular International SCI Data Set shall revise the data set accordingly, which may include re-wording of the original English version in order to accomplish a compromise in the content of the data set.

  13. Work-Related Injuries of Radiologists and Possible Ergonomic Solutions: Recommendations From the ACR Commission on Human Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Gordon; Bluth, Edward I; Bender, Claire E; Parikh, Jay R

    2017-10-01

    Increasingly, radiologists' workplaces revolve around PACS and digital imaging. Use of these technologies can lead to repetitive strain injuries, many of which can be exacerbated by specific features of a radiology practice environment. Ergonomic approaches, such as proper reading room structure, lighting, temperature, noise, and equipment setup, can help decrease the frequency and severity of repetitive strain injuries and improve radiologist productivity. However, ergonomic approaches are complex, include all aspects of the radiology practice environment, and are best implemented along with proper training of the practicing radiologists. The ergonomic approaches considered most important by members of the ACR Commission on Human Resources are presented in this report, and this information may serve as an aid in departmental planning. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Higher Drop in Speed during a Repeated Sprint Test in Soccer Players Reporting Former Hamstring Strain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola D.; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bogen, Bård E.; Wisnes, Alexander; Engeseth, Merete S.; Nilsen, Ann-Kristin; Iversen, Vegard V.; Mæland, Silje; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Hamstring strain injury is common in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical capacity of players who have and have not suffered from hamstring strain injury in a sample of semi-professional and professional Norwegian soccer players in order to evaluate characteristics and to identify possible indications of insufficient rehabilitation. Method: Seventy-five semi-professional and professional soccer players (19 ± 3 years) playing at the second and third level in the Norwegian league participated in the study. All players answered a questionnaire, including one question about hamstring strain injury (yes/no) during the previous 2 years. They also performed a 40 m maximal sprint test, a repeated sprint test (8 × 20 m), a countermovement jump, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, strength tests and flexibility tests. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences in the physical capacity of the players who had suffered from hamstring strain injury and those who had not. Mixed between-within subject's analyses of variance was used to compare changes in speed during the repeated sprint test between groups. Results: Players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous two years (16%) had a significantly higher drop in speed (0.07 vs. 0.02 s, p = 0.007) during the repeated sprint test, compared to players reporting no previous hamstring strain injury. In addition, there was a significant interaction (groups × time) (F = 3.22, p = 0.002), showing that speed in the two groups changed differently during the repeated sprint test. There were no significant differences in relations to age, weight, height, body fat, linear speed, countermovement jump height, leg strength, VO2max, or hamstring flexibility between the groups. Conclusion: Soccer players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous 2 years showed significant higher drop in speed during the repeated sprint test compared to players with no hamstring

  15. The role of high airway pressure and dynamic strain on ventilator-induced lung injury in a heterogeneous acute lung injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sumeet V; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Satalin, Joshua; Searles, Quinn; Dombert, Luke; Abdel-Razek, Osama; Yepuri, Natesh; Leonard, Antony; Gruessner, Angelika; Andrews, Penny; Fazal, Fabeha; Meng, Qinghe; Wang, Guirong; Gatto, Louis A; Habashi, Nader M; Nieman, Gary F

    2017-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome causes a heterogeneous lung injury with normal and acutely injured lung tissue in the same lung. Improperly adjusted mechanical ventilation can exacerbate ARDS causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We hypothesized that a peak airway pressure of 40 cmH 2 O (static strain) alone would not cause additional injury in either the normal or acutely injured lung tissue unless combined with high tidal volume (dynamic strain). Pigs were anesthetized, and heterogeneous acute lung injury (ALI) was created by Tween instillation via a bronchoscope to both diaphragmatic lung lobes. Tissue in all other lobes was normal. Airway pressure release ventilation was used to precisely regulate time and pressure at both inspiration and expiration. Animals were separated into two groups: (1) over-distension + high dynamic strain (OD + H DS , n = 6) and (2) over-distension + low dynamic strain (OD + L DS , n = 6). OD was caused by setting the inspiratory pressure at 40 cmH 2 O and dynamic strain was modified by changing the expiratory duration, which varied the tidal volume. Animals were ventilated for 6 h recording hemodynamics, lung function, and inflammatory mediators followed by an extensive necropsy. In normal tissue (N T ), OD + L DS caused minimal histologic damage and a significant reduction in BALF total protein (p < 0.05) and MMP-9 activity (p < 0.05), as compared with OD + H DS . In acutely injured tissue (ALI T ), OD + L DS resulted in reduced histologic injury and pulmonary edema (p < 0.05), as compared with OD + H DS . Both N T and ALI T are resistant to VILI caused by OD alone, but when combined with a H DS , significant tissue injury develops.

  16. Needle stick injuries among dental students: risk factors and recommendations for prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, Kamis; Warbuton, Dorothy; Sihmbly, Kamal; Renton, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs) sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL) Dental Institute. Materials and methods A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA) and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%). Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training. PMID:22741025

  17. Needle stick injuries among dental students: risk factors and recommendations for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamis Gaballah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL Dental Institute. Materials and methods: A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results: This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%. Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion: Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training.

  18. Blunt renal trauma in children: healing of renal injuries and recommendations for imaging follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalati, H.; Bulas, D.I.; Sivit, C.J.; Majd, M.; Rushton, H.G.; Eichelberger, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Initial CT grading of renal injury was correlated with the frequency of complications and the time course of healing in 35 children. All renal contusions (grade 1, 8) and small parenchymal lacerations (grade 2, 8) healed without complications. All lacerations extending to the collecting system (grade 3, 9) resulted in mild to severe loss of renal function with progressive healing over 4 months. One of four segmental infarcts (grade 4 A), and five of six vascular pedicle injuries (grade 4 B) resulted in severe loss of renal function. Complications, including urinoma (2), sepsis (1), hydronephrosis (1), and persistent hypertension (2), were limited to grade 3 and 4 injuries. Our results suggest that mild renal injuries do not require follow-up imaging. Major renal lacerations and vascular pedicle injuries, however, often result in loss of renal function and should be followed up closely due to the risk of delayed complications. Follow-up examinations should continue for 3-4 months until healing is documented. (orig.)

  19. Amikacin Dosing and Monitoring in Spinal Cord Injury Patients: Variation in Clinical Practice Between Spinal Injury Units and Differences in Experts' Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to determine the current practice on amikacin dosing and monitoring in spinal cord injury patients from spinal cord physicians and experts. Physicians from spinal units and clinical pharmacologists were asked to provide protocol for dosing and monitoring of amikacin therapy in spinal cord injury patients. In a spinal unit in Poland, amikacin is administered usually 0.5 g twice daily. A once-daily regimen of amikacin is never used and amikacin concentrations are not determined. In Belgium, Southport (U.K., Spain, and the VA McGuire Medical Center (Richmond, Virginia, amikacin is given once daily. Whereas peak and trough concentrations are determined in Belgium, only trough concentration is measured in Southport. In both these spinal units, modification of the dose is not routinely done with a nomogram. In Spain and the VA McGuire Medical Center, monitoring of serum amikacin concentration is not done unless a patient has renal impairment. In contrast, the dose/interval of amikacin is adjusted according to pharmacokinetic parameters at the Edward Hines VA Hospital (Hines, Illinois, where amikacin is administered q24h or q48h, depending on creatinine clearance. Spinal cord physicians from Denmark, Germany, and the Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation (West Orange, New Jersey state that they do not use amikacin in spinal injury patients. An expert from Canada does not recommend determining serum concentrations of amikacin, but emphasizes the value of monitoring ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Experts from New Zealand recommend amikacin in conventional twice- or thrice-daily dosing because of the theoretical increased risk of neuromuscular blockade and apnea with larger daily doses in spinal cord injury patients. On the contrary, experts from Greece, Israel, and the U.S. recommend once-daily dosing and determining amikacin pharmacokinetic parameters for each patient. As there is considerable variation in clinical

  20. Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, Nirav; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Opar, David A

    2016-08-01

    To systematically review the evidence base related to hamstring strength and flexibility in previously injured hamstrings. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was conducted of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and EMBASE from inception to August 2015. Full-text English articles which included studies which assessed at least one measure of hamstring strength or flexibility in men and women with prior hamstring strain injury within 24 months of the testing date. Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. Previously injured legs demonstrated deficits across several variables. Lower isometric strength was found hamstring to quadricep strength ratios were also reduced well after return to play (60:60°/s, d=-0.32; 240:240°/s, d=-0.43) and functional (30:240°/s, d=-0.88), but these effects were inconsistent across measurement methods. After hamstring strain, acute isometric and passive straight leg raise deficits resolve within 20-50 days. Deficits in eccentric and concentric strength and strength ratios persist after return to play, but this effect was inconsistent across measurement methods. Flexibility and isometric strength should be monitored throughout rehabilitation, but dynamic strength should be assessed at and following return to play. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Strain-time cell death threshold for skeletal muscle in a tissue-engineered model system for deep tissue injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefen, A.; Nierop, van B.J.; Bader, D.L.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe pressure ulcer that results from sustained deformation of muscle tissue overlying bony prominences. In order to understand the etiology of DTI, it is essential to determine the tolerance of muscle cells to large mechanical strains. In this study, a new

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury and the Transition to Postsecondary Education: Recommendations for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Susan C.; Trunk, Daniel J.; Kramer, Michaela M.

    2014-01-01

    For many students with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), postsecondary education presents a new set of cognitive, academic, social, and emotional challenges. Students with TBI warranted services and accommodations through an Individualized Education Program or 504 plan may find supports and services not readily accessible at the postsecondary…

  3. A Review of Computational Spinal Injury Biomechanics Research and Recommendations for Future Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Hongo et al. found high compressive and tensile strains at the base of the pedicle of T10, L1, and L4, indicating that the base of the pedicle is the...fracture process using a combined experimental and finite element approach. European Spine Journal 2004, 13, 481–488. 27 35. Hongo , M.; Abe, E.; Shimada

  4. Relevance of the international spinal cord injury basic data sets to youth: an Inter-Professional review with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A; Vogel, L C; Zebracki, K; Noonan, V K; Biering-Sørensen, F; Mulcahey, M J

    2017-09-01

    Mixed methods, using the Modified Delphi Technique and Expert Panel Review. To evaluate the utility and relevance of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Core and Basic Data Sets for children and youth with SCI. International. Via 20 electronic surveys, an interprofessional sample of healthcare professionals with pediatric SCI experience participated in an iterative critical review of the International SCI Data Sets, and submitted suggestions for modifications for use with four pediatric age groups. A panel of 5 experts scrutinized the utility of all data sets, correlated any modifications with the developing National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) pediatric SCI Common Data Elements (CDE) and distributed final recommendations for modifications required to the adult data sets to the International SCI Data Set Committee and the associated Working Groups. Two International SCI Data Sets were considered relevant and appropriate for use with children without any changes. Three were considered not appropriate or applicable for use with children, regardless of age. Recommendations were made for five data sets to enhance their relevance and applicability to children across the age groups, and recommendations for seven data sets were specific to infants and younger children. The results of this critical review are significant in that substantive recommendations to align the International SCI Core and Basic Data Sets to pediatric practice were made. This project was funded by the Rick Hansen Institute Grant# 2015-27.

  5. Causes of ring-related leg injuries in birds - evidence and recommendations from four field studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Griesser

    Full Text Available One of the main techniques for recognizing individuals in avian field research is marking birds with plastic and metal leg rings. However, in some species individuals may react negatively to rings, causing leg injuries and, in extreme cases, the loss of a foot or limb. Here, we report problems that arise from ringing and illustrate solutions based on field data from Brown Thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla (2 populations, Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus and Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens (Malurus coronatus. We encountered three problems caused by plastic rings: inflammations triggered by material accumulating under the ring (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens, contact inflammations as a consequence of plastic rings touching the foot or tibio-tarsal joint (Brown Thornbills, and toes or the foot getting trapped in partly unwrapped flat-band colour rings (Siberian Jays. Metal rings caused two problems: the edges of aluminium rings bent inwards if mounted on top of each other (Brown Thornbills, and too small a ring size led to inflammation (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens. We overcame these problems by changing the ringing technique (using different ring types or larger rings, or using different adhesive. Additionally, we developed and tested a novel, simple technique of gluing plastic rings onto metal rings in Brown Thornbills. A review of studies reporting ring injuries (N = 23 showed that small birds (35 g tend to get rings stuck over their feet. We give methodological advice on how these problems can be avoided, and suggest a ringing hazard index to compare the impact of ringing in terms of injury on different bird species. Finally, to facilitate improvements in ringing techniques, we encourage online deposition of information regarding ringing injuries of birds at a website hosted by the European Union for Bird Ringing (EURING.

  6. Effects of nutritional supplementation with l-arginine on repair of injuries due to muscle strain: experimental study on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Izabel Medeiros Couto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of oral supplementation with arginine on regeneration of injuries due to straining of the anterior tibial muscle of rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats of weight 492.5 ± 50.45 g were used. Injuries were induced through straining the anterior tibial muscles. The rats were separated into three groups of eight rats each. In the untreated group (UTG, after induction of injuries, the rats were observed for 24 h. In the simulation group (SG and the arginine group (AG respectively, the rats received isotonic saline solution and arginine solution via direct gavage, over a seven-day period. At the end of the period, blood samples were collected for serum evaluations of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and C-reactive protein (CRP. The right and left anterior tibial muscles were resected for histopathological evaluations on the muscle injuries, investigating edema, hemorrhage and disorganization or morphometric alteration of the muscle fibers. The tissue repair was investigated in terms of proliferation of adipose tissue, angiogenesis and collagen fibers. The ANOVA and Student's tmethods were used and p≤ 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. RESULTS: In the serum evaluations, the AG showed lower CK assay values and higher AST values. In the histopathological evaluation, the UTG presented edema and hemorrhage compatible with injuries due to strain; the SG presented edema and hemorrhage with proliferation of adipose tissue and collagen fibers; and the AG presented not only the findings of the SG but also, especially, intense angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: Oral supplementation with arginine did not cause any significant metabolic alterations that would contraindicate its use and it induced angiogenesis during the repair of muscles injured due to strain.

  7. Low sensitivity of three-phase bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of repetitive strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of repetitive strain injury (RSI is subjective and solely based on clinical signs and physical examination. The aim of this paper was to assess the usefulness of three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS in diagnosing RSI. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at the Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: Seventy-three patients (mean age 31.2 years; 47 males with clinical suspicion of RSI in the upper limbs were studied. A total of 127 joints with suspicion of RSI were studied. The shoulders, elbows and wrists were analyzed semi-quantitatively, using the shafts of the humeri and ulnae as references. The results were compared with a control group of 40 normal individuals. The patients’ signs and symptoms were used as the "gold standard" for calculating the probabilities. RESULTS: From visual analysis, abnormalities were observed in the flow phase for four joints, in the blood pool phase for 11 joints and in the delayed images for 26 joints. Visual analysis of the joints of the control group did not show any abnormalities. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that most of the patients’ joint ratios were normal. The exceptions were the wrists of patients with left-sided RSI (p = 0.0216. However, the sensitivity (9% and accuracy (41% were very low. CONCLUSION: TPBS with semi-quantitative analysis has very low sensitivity and accuracy in the detection of RSI abnormalities in the upper limbs.

  8. Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, M N; Opar, D A; Williams, M D; Al Najjar, A; Shield, A J

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine: (a) the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE); (b) whether previously injured hamstrings display activation deficits during the NHE; and (c) whether previously injured hamstrings exhibit altered cross-sectional area (CSA). Ten healthy, recreationally active men with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging of their thighs before and after six sets of 10 repetitions of the NHE. Transverse (T2) relaxation times of all hamstring muscles [biceps femoris long head (BFlh); biceps femoris short head (BFsh); semitendinosus (ST); semimembranosus (SM)] were measured at rest and immediately after the NHE and CSA was measured at rest. For the uninjured limb, the ST's percentage increase in T2 with exercise was 16.8%, 15.8%, and 20.2% greater than the increases exhibited by the BFlh, BFsh, and SM, respectively (P hamstring muscles (n = 10) displayed significantly smaller increases in T2 post-exercise than the homonymous muscles in the uninjured contralateral limb (mean difference -7.2%, P = 0.001). No muscles displayed significant between-limb differences in CSA. During the NHE, the ST is preferentially activated and previously injured hamstring muscles display chronic activation deficits compared with uninjured contralateral muscles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Understanding decision-making towards housework among women with upper limb repetitive strain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Therma W C; Clemson, Lindy; O'Loughlin, Kate; Shuttleworth, Russell

    2016-02-01

    Among women with upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI), occupational therapy interventions include education to facilitate ergonomic practices in housework. From a client-centred perspective, an understanding of women's decision-making about housework is needed to design effective occupational therapy programmes. This study addresses a gap in research in this area by exploring women's views about changing housework habits. The aim was to construct a conceptual representation to explain decision-making in housework by drawing on experiences of a sample of Singapore Chinese women with upper limb RSI from one hand therapy clinic. Based on a constructivist grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 15 women. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analysed with line by line coding, focussed coding and axial coding with constant comparison throughout data collection. Decision-making in housework among these women involved three main themes: (i) emotional attachment to housework; (ii) cognitively informed decision; and (iii) emotionally influenced decision. Women with upper limb RSI had to make cognitive decisions for or against a change in housework to manage their condition. However, the women's cognitively informed decisions were shaped by their emotional attachment to housework. As such, they experienced strong emotional barriers to changing their housework practices even when they had cognitively accepted the necessity and possibility of making a change. Therapists need to be aware that counselling to address the emotional barriers experienced by women is important during ergonomic education. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. The strains recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471) can be certified as non-genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Yamada, Masami; Awogi, Takumi; Hakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity. The present article explains the reasons why these tester strains should be classified as non-GMOs.

  11. Recommendations for clinical practice and research in severe brain injury in intensive rehabilitation: the Italian Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tanti, A; Zampolini, M; Pregno, S

    2015-02-01

    The paper reports the final statements of the jury of a National Consensus Conference organized in November 2010 at Salsomaggiore (Parma) to draw up recommendations on the rehabilitation programs for acquired brain injury (sABI) patients in the intensive hospital phase. Because of the few clinical studies of good quality found by means of the literature research we choose a mixed approach: a systematic review of the published studies and a consensus conference in order to obtain recommendations that come from the clinical evidence and the expert opinion. The final recommendations of the jury, based on the best available evidence combined with clinical expertise and the experience of persons with disabilities and other stakeholders, cover 13 topics: 1) Management of paroxysmal manifestations (sympathetic storms); 2) management of neuroendocrine problems; 3) nutrition; 4) swallowing; 5) ventilation/respiration, 6) clinical and instrument diagnosis and prognosis of vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS), 7) rehabilitative and pharmacological facilitation of renewed contact with surroundings; 8) neurosurgical complications and hydrocephalus; 9) sensorimotor impairment and disability; 10) rehabilitation methods; 11) assessment and treatment of cognitive-behavioural impairment and disability; 12) methodology and organization of care; 13) involving family and caregivers in rehabilitation.

  12. Injury rates and profiles of elite competitive weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, G; Fry, A C

    1999-07-01

    To determine injury types, natures, anatomical locations, recommended amount of time missed, and injury rates during weightlifting training. We collected and analyzed medical injury records of resident athletes and during numerous training camps to generate an injury profile. Elite US male weightlifters who were injured during training at the United States Olympic Training Centers. United States Olympic Training Center weightlifting injury reports from a 6-year period were analyzed. Data were expressed as percentages and were analyzed via x(2) tests. The back (primarily low back), knees, and shoulders accounted for the most significant number of injuries (64.8%). The types of injuries most prevalent in this study were strains and tendinitis (68.9%). Injuries of acute (59.6%) or chronic (30.4%) nature were significantly more common than recurrent injuries and complications. The recommended number of training days missed for most injuries was 1 day or fewer (90.5%). Injuries to the back primarily consisted of strains (74.6%). Most knee injuries were tendinitis (85.0%). The majority of shoulder injuries were classified as strains (54.6%). Rates of acute and recurring injuries were calculated to be 3.3 injuries/1000 hours of weightlifting exposure. The injuries typical of elite weightlifters are primarily overuse injuries, not traumatic injuries compromising joint integrity. These injury pattems and rates are similar to those reported for other sports and activities.

  13. Effect of high-speed running on hamstring strain injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhig, Steven; Shield, Anthony J; Opar, David; Gabbett, Tim J; Ferguson, Cameron; Williams, Morgan

    2016-12-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are common within the Australian Football League (AFL) with most occurring during high-speed running (HSR). Therefore, this study investigated possible relationships between mean session running distances, session ratings of perceived exertion (s-RPE) and HSIs within AFL footballers. Global positioning system (GPS)-derived running distances and s-RPE for all matches and training sessions over two AFL seasons were obtained from one AFL team. All HSIs were documented and each player's running distances and s-RPE were standardised to their 2-yearly session average, then compared between injured and uninjured players in the 4 weeks (weeks -1, -2, -3 and -4) preceding each injury. Higher than 'typical' (ie, z=0) HSR session means were associated with a greater likelihood of HSI (week -1: OR=6.44, 95% CI=2.99 to 14.41, p<0.001; summed weeks -1 and -2: OR=3.06, 95% CI=2.03 to 4.75, p<0.001; summed weeks -1, -2 and -3: OR=2.22, 95% CI=1.66 to 3.04, p<0.001; and summed weeks -1, -2, -3 and -4: OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.54 to 2.51, p<0.001). However, trivial differences were observed between injured and uninjured groups for standardised s-RPE, total distance travelled and distances covered whilst accelerating and decelerating. Increasing AFL experience was associated with a decreased HSI risk (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.97, p=0.02). Furthermore, HSR data modelling indicated that reducing mean distances in week -1 may decrease the probability of HSI. Exposing players to large and rapid increases in HSR distances above their 2-yearly session average increased the odds of HSI. However, reducing HSR in week -1 may offset HSI risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Genomic identification and characterization of the elite strains Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense BR 3267 and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi BR 3262 recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jakson; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luiz; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Zilli, Jerri Édson

    2017-03-31

    The leguminous inoculation with nodule-inducing bacteria that perform biological nitrogen fixation is a good example of an "eco-friendly agricultural practice". Bradyrhizobium strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 are recommended for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) inoculation in Brazil and showed remarkable responses; nevertheless neither strain was characterized at species level, which is our goal in the present work using a polyphasic approach. The strains presented the typical phenotype of Bradyrhizobium with a slow growth and a white colony on yeast extract-mannitol medium. Strain BR 3267 was more versatile in its use of carbon sources compared to BR 3262. The fatty acid composition of BR 3267 was similar to the type strain of Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense; while BR 3262 was similar to Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and three housekeeping genes placed both strains within the genus Bradyrhizobium: strain BR 3267 was closest to B. yuanmingense and BR 3262 to B. pachyrhizi. Genome average nucleotide identity and DNA-DNA reassociation confirmed the genomic identification of B. yuanmingense BR 3267 and B. pachyrhizi BR 3262. The nodC and nifH gene analyses showed that strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 hold divergent symbiotic genes. In summary, the results indicate that cowpea can establish effective symbiosis with divergent bradyrhizobia isolated from Brazilian soils. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  15. Outcome measures in spinal cord injury: recent assessments and recommendations for future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Anderson, K D; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2009-01-01

    Study design:Review by the spinal cord outcomes partnership endeavor (SCOPE), which is a broad-based international consortium of scientists and clinical researchers representing academic institutions, industry, government agencies, not-for-profit organizations and foundations. Objectives:Assessme......Study design:Review by the spinal cord outcomes partnership endeavor (SCOPE), which is a broad-based international consortium of scientists and clinical researchers representing academic institutions, industry, government agencies, not-for-profit organizations and foundations. Objectives......:Assessment of current and evolving tools for evaluating human spinal cord injury (SCI) outcomes for both clinical diagnosis and clinical research studies. Methods:a framework for the appraisal of evidence of metric properties was used to examine outcome tools or tests for accuracy, sensitivity, reliability and validity...... for human SCI. Results:Imaging, neurological, functional, autonomic, sexual health, bladder/bowel, pain and psychosocial tools were evaluated. Several specific tools for human SCI studies have or are being developed to allow the more accurate determination for a clinically meaningful benefit (improvement...

  16. Recommendations for publishing case studies of cell transplantation for spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Bruce H

    2010-10-01

    Cellular transplantation for subacute and chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) continues to proceed around the world, but clinicians and patients have only 10 English language publications of case reports and self-serving Web page anecdotes to guide them. Recent publications about the use of olfactory ensheathing, bone marrow stromal, and fetal tissue stem cells in human subjects are examined to assess the adequacy of their designs, conclusions, and interpretation. Case series reports to date reveal adverse responses to cellular therapy when clinicians look for these and no clear functional effects when a matched group that is not treated is compared. Rehabilitation that focuses on potential targets for sensorimotor and functional gains must precede a transplantation until a plateau of change is reached and then continue for at least 6 months if not a year. Criteria are listed as the minimum requirements for any further case series reports to be considered by journals in regard to cellular interventions for SCI. Based on available reports, the published interventions should not be given to additional patients. One or two of the strategies can be considered for testing in a randomized trial with blinded assessors and an independent data monitoring committee to examine for biological activity in patients with motor complete SCI of greater than 4 to 6 months duration.

  17. Ugly duckling or Nosferatu? Cardiac injury in endurance sport - screening recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischik, R; Dworrak, B

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning sporting activity may be exhausting, but over time, physical activity turns out to have beneficial effects to the body and even extended cycling or running is an emotional and healthy enrichment in life. On the other hand, spectacular sudden deaths during marathon, football and, just recently, in the trend discipline triathlon seem to support the dark side of the sporting activity. Since years there are constantly appearing reports about a potential myocardial injury induced by intensive sporting activities. Cardiac hypertrophy is the heart's response to arterial hypertension and to physical activity, but can be associated with an unfavorable outcome - in worst case for example with sudden death. The question of the right dose of sporting activity, the question how to prevent cardiac death induced by physical activity and the question how to screen the athletes for the possible risk of sudden death or other cardiac complications during sporting activity are those that will be answered by this review article. In this review we summarize recent insights into the problem of endurance sport and possible negative cardiac remodeling as well as the question how to screen the athletes.

  18. Methodological issues and research recommendations for prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristman, Vicki L; Borg, Jörgen; Godbolt, Alison K

    2014-01-01

    methodological concerns and knowledge gaps in the literature. Here we report and make recommendations on how to avoid methodological flaws found in prognostic studies of MTBI. Additionally, we discuss issues of MTBI definition and identify topic areas in need of further research to advance the understanding......, Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation Task Force on the prognosis of MTBI. Of 299 relevant studies, 101 were accepted as scientifically admissible. The methodological quality of the research literature on MTBI prognosis has not improved since the 2002 Task Force report. There are still many...... of prognosis after MTBI. Priority research areas include but are not limited to the use of confirmatory designs, studies of measurement validity, focus on the elderly, attention to litigation/compensation issues, the development of validated clinical prediction rules, the use of MTBI populations other than...

  19. The genetic basis of strain-dependent differences in the early phase of radiation injury in mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franko, A.J.; Sharplin, J.; Ward, W.F.; Hinz, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Substantial differences between mouse strains have been reported in the lesions present in the lung during the early phase of radiation injury. Some strains show only classical pneumonitis, while other strains develop substantial fibrosis and hyaline membranes which contribute appreciably to respiratory insufficiency, in addition to pneumonitis. Other strains are intermediate between these extremes. These differences correlate with intrinsic differences in activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme. The genetic basis of these differences was assessed by examining histologically the early reaction in lungs of seven murine hybrids available commercially after whole-thorax irradiation. Crosses between fibrosing and nonfibrosing parents were uniformly nonfibrosing, and crosses between fibrosing and intermediate parents were uniformly intermediate. No evidence of sex linkage was seen. Thus the phenotype in which fibrosis is found is controlled by autosomal recessive determinants. Strains prone to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hyaline membranes exhibited intrinsically lower activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme than either the nonfibrosing strains or the nonfibrosing hybrid crosses. The median time of death of the hybrids was genetically determined primarily by the longest-lived parent regardless of the types of lesions expressed

  20. Multi-scale mechanics of traumatic brain injury : predicting axonal strains from head loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloots, R.J.H.; Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Kleiven, S.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The length scales involved in the development of diffuse axonal injury typically range from the head level (i.e., mechanical loading) to the cellular level. The parts of the brain that are vulnerable to this type of injury are mainly the brainstem and the corpus callosum, which are regions with

  1. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  2. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Ama Espinosa Gurutze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.

  3. Gender dimorphic ACL strain in response to combined dynamic 3D knee joint loading: implications for ACL injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kiyonori; Andrish, Jack T; van den Bogert, Antonie J; McLean, Scott G

    2009-12-01

    While gender-based differences in knee joint anatomies/laxities are well documented, the potential for them to precipitate gender-dimorphic ACL loading and resultant injury risk has not been considered. To this end, we generated gender-specific models of ACL strain as a function of any six degrees of freedom (6DOF) knee joint load state via a combined cadaveric and analytical approach. Continuously varying joint forces and torques were applied to five male and five female cadaveric specimens and recorded along with synchronous knee flexion and ACL strain data. All data (approximately 10,000 samples) were submitted to specimen-specific regression analyses, affording ACL strain predictions as a function of the combined 6 DOF knee loads. Following individual model verifications, generalized gender-specific models were generated and subjected to 6 DOF external load scenarios consistent with both a clinical examination and a dynamic sports maneuver. The ensuing model-based strain predictions were subsequently examined for gender-based discrepancies. Male and female specimen-specific models predicted ACL strain within 0.51%+/-0.10% and 0.52%+/-0.07% of the measured data respectively, and explained more than 75% of the associated variance in each case. Predicted female ACL strains were also significantly larger than respective male values for both simulated 6 DOF load scenarios. Outcomes suggest that the female ACL will rupture in response to comparatively smaller external load applications. Future work must address the underlying anatomical/laxity contributions to knee joint mechanical and resultant ACL loading, ultimately affording prevention strategies that may cater to individual joint vulnerabilities.

  4. Methodological issues and research recommendations for prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury: results of the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristman, Vicki L; Borg, Jörgen; Godbolt, Alison K; Salmi, L Rachid; Cancelliere, Carol; Carroll, Linda J; Holm, Lena W; Nygren-de Boussard, Catharina; Hartvigsen, Jan; Abara, Uko; Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David

    2014-03-01

    The International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) Prognosis performed a comprehensive search and critical review of the literature from 2001 to 2012 to update the 2002 best-evidence synthesis conducted by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Neurotrauma, Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation Task Force on the prognosis of MTBI. Of 299 relevant studies, 101 were accepted as scientifically admissible. The methodological quality of the research literature on MTBI prognosis has not improved since the 2002 Task Force report. There are still many methodological concerns and knowledge gaps in the literature. Here we report and make recommendations on how to avoid methodological flaws found in prognostic studies of MTBI. Additionally, we discuss issues of MTBI definition and identify topic areas in need of further research to advance the understanding of prognosis after MTBI. Priority research areas include but are not limited to the use of confirmatory designs, studies of measurement validity, focus on the elderly, attention to litigation/compensation issues, the development of validated clinical prediction rules, the use of MTBI populations other than hospital admissions, continued research on the effects of repeated concussions, longer follow-up times with more measurement periods in longitudinal studies, an assessment of the differences between adults and children, and an account for reverse causality and differential recall bias. Well-conducted studies in these areas will aid our understanding of MTBI prognosis and assist clinicians in educating and treating their patients with MTBI. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BR 3262, an effective microsymbiont recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Araújo, Jean Luiz; Leite, Jakson; Marie Rouws, Luc Felicianus; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Zilli, Jerri Édson

    The strain BR 3262 was isolated from nodule of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) growing in soil of the Atlantic Forest area in Brazil and it is reported as an efficient nitrogen fixing bacterium associated to cowpea. Firstly, this strain was assigned as Bradyrhizobium elkanii, however, recently a more detailed genetic and molecular characterization has indicated it could be a Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi species. We report here the draft genome sequence of B. pachyrhizi strain BR 3262, an elite bacterium used as inoculant for cowpea. The whole genome with 116 scaffolds, 8,965,178bp and 63.8% of C+G content for BR 3262 was obtained using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Annotation was added by the RAST prokaryotic genome annotation service and shown 8369 coding sequences, 52 RNAs genes, classified in 504 subsystems. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  6. Draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BR 3262, an effective microsymbiont recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Luiz Simões-Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract The strain BR 3262 was isolated from nodule of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp growing in soil of the Atlantic Forest area in Brazil and it is reported as an efficient nitrogen fixing bacterium associated to cowpea. Firstly, this strain was assigned as Bradyrhizobium elkanii, however, recently a more detailed genetic and molecular characterization has indicated it could be a Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi species. We report here the draft genome sequence of B. pachyrhizi strain BR 3262, an elite bacterium used as inoculant for cowpea. The whole genome with 116 scaffolds, 8,965,178 bp and 63.8% of C+G content for BR 3262 was obtained using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Annotation was added by the RAST prokaryotic genome annotation service and shown 8369 coding sequences, 52 RNAs genes, classified in 504 subsystems.

  7. Relations of meeting national public health recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with strength, body composition, and obesity: the Women's Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Jackson, Allen W; Morrow, James R

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relations of meeting or not meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with percentage of body fat, body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters, squared), muscular strength, and obesity classification in women. We analyzed data on 918 women aged 20 to 83 years in the Women's Injury Study from 2007 to 2009. A baseline orthopedic examination included measurement of height, body weight, skinfolds, and muscle strength. Women who met muscle strengthening activity recommendations had significantly lower BMI and percentage of body fat and higher muscle strength. Women not meeting those recommendations were more likely to be obese (BMI ≥ 30) compared with women who met the recommendations after we adjusted for age, race, and aerobic physical activity (odds ratio = 2.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.61, 3.23). There was a small but significant positive association between meeting muscle strengthening activity recommendations and muscular strength, a moderate inverse association with body fat percentage, and a strong inverse association with obesity classification, providing preliminary support for the muscle strengthening activity recommendation for women.

  8. Bilateral changes in forearm oxygen consumption at rest and after exercise in patients with unilateral Repetitive Strain Injury : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Oosterhof; D. Thijssen; M. Hopman; J. Brunnekreef

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether oxygen consumption and blood flow at rest and after exercise are lower in the affected arm of patients with repetitive strain injury (RSI) compared to controls, and lower in the healthy nonaffected forearm within patients with unilateral RSI. RSI is considered an upper

  9. Hamstring and Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength Deficits Are Weak Risk Factors for Hamstring Strain Injuries: A 4-Year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Whiteley, Rodney; Tol, Johannes L; Kumar, Bhavesh D; Hamilton, Bruce; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik

    2016-07-01

    A hamstring strain injury (HSI) has become the most common noncontact injury in soccer. Isokinetic muscle strength deficits are considered a risk factor for HSIs. However, underpowered studies with small sample sizes unable to determine small associations have led to inconclusive results regarding the role of isokinetic strength and strength testing in HSIs. To examine whether differences in isokinetic strength measures of knee flexion and extension represent risk factors for hamstring injuries in a large cohort of professional soccer players in an adequately powered study design. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 614 professional soccer players from 14 teams underwent isokinetic strength testing during preseason screening. Testing consisted of concentric knee flexion and extension at 60 deg/s and 300 deg/s and eccentric knee extension at 60 deg/s. A clustered multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with the risk of HSIs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to determine sensitivity and specificity. Of the 614 players, 190 suffered an HSI during the 4 seasons. Quadriceps concentric strength at 60 deg/s (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03-1.92; P = .03) and hamstring eccentric strength at 60 deg/s (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01-1.85; P = .04) adjusted for bodyweight were independently associated with the risk of injuries. The absolute differences between the injured and uninjured players were 6.9 N·m and 9.1 N·m, with small effect sizes (d hamstring eccentric strength, respectively, indicating a failed combined sensitivity and specificity of the 2 strength variables identified in the logistic regression models. This study identified small absolute strength differences and a wide overlap of the absolute strength measurements at the group level. The small associations between lower hamstring eccentric strength and lower quadriceps concentric strength with HSIs can only be considered as weak

  10. The Association of Vitamin D Status in Lower Extremity Muscle Strains and Core Muscle Injuries at the National Football League Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Brian J; Bernard, Johnathan A; Werner, Brian C; Finlay, Andrea K; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Dare, David M; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the association between serum vitamin D level and the prevalence of lower extremity muscle strains and core muscle injuries in elite level athletes at the National Football League (NFL) combine. During the 2015 NFL combine, all athletes with available serum vitamin D levels were included for study. Baseline data were collected, including age, race, body mass index, position, injury history specific to lower extremity muscle strain or core muscle injury, and Functional Movement Screen scores. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was collected and defined as normal (≥32 ng/mL), insufficient (20-31 ng/mL), and deficient (history. Subsequent multivariate regression analysis was used to examine this relation with adjustment for collected baseline data variables. The study population included 214 athletes, including 78% African American athletes and 51% skilled position players. Inadequate vitamin D was present in 59%, including 10% with deficient levels. Lower extremity muscle strain or core muscle injury was present in 50% of athletes, which was associated with lower vitamin D levels (P = .03). Athletes with a positive injury history also showed significantly lower vitamin D levels as compared with uninjured athletes (P = .03). African American/black race (P history (P history (P = .07). Inadequate vitamin D levels are a widespread finding in athletes at the NFL combine. Players with a history of lower extremity muscle strain and core muscle injury had a higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin D. Level IV, retrospective study-case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High fluid shear strain causes injury in silver shark: Preliminary implications for Mekong hydropower turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, L. J. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Narrandera Fisheries Centre, Narrandera NSW Australia; Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Thorncraft, G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, National University of Laos, Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Phonekhampheng, O. [Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, National University of Laos, Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Boys, C. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Nelson Bay NSW Australia; Navarro, A. [Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Robinson, W. [Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Brown, R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-02-09

    Fluid shear arises when two bodies of water, travelling at different velocities, intersect. Fish entrained at the interface of these two water masses will experience shear stress; which can be harmful. The stress magnitude is dependent on waterbody mass and velocity; with the fish impact largely related to body size. Elevated shear stress occurs where rapidly flowing water passes near spillways, across screens, within turbine draft tubes or other passage routes. A flume was used to determine critical tolerances of silver shark (Balantiocheilos melanopterus) to different shear stress rates generated by a high velocity jet. Fish experienced higher levels of injury and mortality as shear stress was increased. Excessive shear forces had damaging impacts on fish. Mortality occurred at shear levels higher that 600/s. It is important that developers should attempt to model potential shear profiles expected during turbine passage in selected designs. These data will be critical to determine potential impacts on fish. If the likelihood of adverse impact is high, then alternative designs which have lower shear stress could be explored.

  12. Rat Strain Differences in Susceptibility to Alcohol-Induced Chronic Liver Injury and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. DeNucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of more severe steatohepatitis in alcohol fed Long Evans (LE compared with Sprague Dawley (SD and Fisher 344 (FS rats prompted us to determine whether host factors related to alcohol metabolism, inflammation, and insulin/IGF signaling predict proneness to alcohol-mediated liver injury. Adult FS, SD, and LE rats were fed liquid diets containing 0% or 37% (calories ethanol for 8 weeks. Among controls, LE rats had significantly higher ALT and reduced GAPDH relative to SD and FS rats. Among ethanol-fed rats, despite similar blood alcohol levels, LE rats had more pronounced steatohepatitis and fibrosis, higher levels of ALT, DNA damage, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ADH, ALDH, catalase, GFAP, desmin, and collagen expression, and reduced insulin receptor binding relative to FS rats. Ethanol-exposed SD rats had intermediate degrees of steatohepatitis, increased ALT, ADH and profibrogenesis gene expression, and suppressed insulin receptor binding and GAPDH expression, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were similarly increased as in LE rats. Ethanol feeding in FS rats only reduced IL-6, ALDH1–3, CYP2E1, and GAPDH expression in liver. In conclusion, susceptibility to chronic steatohepatitis may be driven by factors related to efficiency of ethanol metabolism and degree to which ethanol exposure causes hepatic insulin resistance and cytokine activation.

  13. Can surgery improve neurological function in penetrating spinal injury? A review of the military and civilian literature and treatment recommendations for military neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimo, Paul; Ragel, Brian T; Rosner, Michael; Gluf, Wayne; McCafferty, Randall

    2010-05-01

    Penetrating spinal injury (PSI), although an infrequent injury in the civilian population, is not an infrequent injury in military conflicts. Throughout military history, the role of surgery in the treatment of PSI has been controversial. The US is currently involved in 2 military campaigns, the hallmark of both being the widespread use of various explosive devices. The authors reviewed the evidence for or against the use of decompressive laminectomy to treat PSI to provide a triservice (US Army, Navy, and Air Force) consensus and treatment recommendations for military neurosurgeons and spine surgeons. A US National Library of Medicine PubMed database search that identified all literature dealing with acute management of PSI from military conflicts and civilian urban trauma centers in the post-Vietnam War period was undertaken. Nineteen retrospective case series (11 military and 8 civilian) met the study criteria. Eleven military articles covered a 20-year time span that included 782 patients who suffered either gunshot or blast-related projectile wounds. Four papers included sufficient data that analyzed the effectiveness of surgery compared with nonoperative management, 6 papers concluded that surgery was of no benefit, 2 papers indicated that surgery did have a role, and 3 papers made no comment. Eight civilian articles covered a 9-year time span that included 653 patients with spinal gunshot wounds. Two articles lacked any comparative data because of treatment bias. Two papers concluded that decompressive laminectomy had a beneficial role, 1 paper favored the removal of intracanal bullets between T-12 and L-4, and 5 papers indicated that surgery was of no benefit. Based on the authors' military and civilian PubMed literature search, most of the evidence suggests that decompressive laminectomy does not improve neurological function in patients with PSI. However, there are serious methodological shortcomings in both literature groups. For this and other reasons

  14. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstring injury Overview A hamstring injury occurs when you strain or pull one of your hamstring muscles — the group of three muscles that run along ... You may be more likely to get a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis ...

  15. What are the disruptive symptoms of behavioral disorders after traumatic brain injury? A systematic review leading to recommendations for good practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stéfan, Angélique; Mathé, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral disorders are major sequelae of severe traumatic brain injury. Before considering care management of these disorders, and in the absence of a precise definition for TBI-related behavioral disorder, it is essential to refine, according to the data from the literature, incidence, prevalence, predictive factors of commonly admitted disruptive symptoms. Systematic review of the literature targeting epidemiological data related to behavioral disorders after traumatic brain injury in order to elaborate good practice recommendations according to the methodology established by the French High Authority for Health. Two hundred and ninety-nine articles were identified. The responsibility of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the onset of behavioral disorders is unequivocal. Globally, behavioral disorders are twice more frequent after TBI than orthopedic trauma without TBI (Masson et al., 1996). These disorders are classified into disruptive primary behaviors by excess (agitation 11-70%, aggression 25-39%, irritability 29-71%, alcohol abuse 7-26% drug abuse 2-20%), disruptive primary behaviors by default (apathy 20-71%), affective disorders - anxiety - psychosis (depression 12-76%, anxiety 0.8-24,5%, posttraumatic stress 11-18%, obsessive-compulsive disorders 1.2-30%, psychosis 0.7%), suicide attempts and suicide 1%. The improvement of care management for behavioral disorders goes through a first step of defining a common terminology. Four categories of posttraumatic behavioral clinical symptoms are defined: disruptive primary behaviors by excess, by default, affective disorders-psychosis-anxiety, suicide attempts and suicide. All these symptoms yield a higher prevalence than in the general population. They impact all of life's domains and are sustainable over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Injuries in Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardiwala, Dinshaw N; Rao, Nandan N; Varshney, Ankit V

    Cricket is a popular global sport that requires a combination of physical fitness, skill, and strategy. Although a noncontact sport, overuse and impact injuries are common since players engage in a wide range of physical activities, including running, throwing, batting, bowling, catching, and diving. Significant or match time-loss injuries are defined as those that either prevent a player from being fully available for selection in a major match, or during a major match, cause a player to be unable to bat, bowl, or keep wicket when required by either the rules or the team's captain. This review describes the various region-wise injuries sustained in cricket along with their epidemiology, biomechanics, treatment, and prevention. Data were collected from peer-reviewed articles (obtained via PubMed search) published through November 2016 that involved the medical, biomechanical, and epidemiological aspects of cricket injuries. Clinical review. Level 4. Cricket was one of the first sports to publish recommended methods for injury surveillance in 2005 from England, South Africa, Australia, the West Indies, and India. While the incidence of injuries is about the same, the prevalence of injuries has increased due to game format changes, increasing number of matches played, and decreased rest between matches. Bowling (41.3%), fielding, and wicket keeping (28.6%) account for most injuries. Acute injuries are most common (64%-76%), followed by acute-on-chronic (16%-22.8%) and chronic ones (8%-22%). The most common modern-day cricket injury is hamstring strain, and the most severe is lumbar stress fracture in young fast bowlers. With improved understanding of the scientific and medical aspects of cricket, along with advances in surgical and nonsurgical treatment techniques, the time to return to play has shortened considerably. While the prevalence of cricket injuries has increased, their severity has decreased over the past decades.

  17. Erognomic education on housework for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI): a conceptual representation of therapists' clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Therma W C; Clemson, Lindy; O' Loughlin, Kate; Shuttleworth, Russell

    2017-09-18

    Ergonomic education in housework that aims to facilitate behavior change is important for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury. Therapists usually conduct such programs based on implicit reasoning. Making this reasoning explicit is important in contributing to the profession's knowledge. To construct a conceptual representation of how occupational therapists make clinical decisions for such program. Based on a constructivist-grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 14 occupational therapists from a major hospital in Singapore. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data was analyzed with line by line, focused and axial coding with constant data comparison throughout data collection. Therapists made clinical decisions based on their perceptions of their clients' behavior change in three stages: (i) listen; (ii) try; and (iii) persevere, bearing significant similarities to the transtheoretical theory of change. The study also showed that therapists may not have considered the full range of meanings that their clients attach to housework when interacting with them, a gap that needs to be addressed. The present study indicates the importance of therapists' understanding of the meanings that their clients attach to housework. Further research needs to address how to achieve this in a time-pressured clinical environment. Implications for Rehabilitation This study used qualitative research to demonstrate the process of translating therapists' tacit knowledge into an explicit form. It elucidates the following major implications for practice when therapists conduct ergonomic education to facilitate behavior change in housework for female homemakers with upper limb RSI:The conceptual framework of clinical reasoning constructed from the results can be used to increase therapists' awareness of how they make clinical decisions during an intervention. This framework can also be used for training new therapists. It is

  18. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform...... the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers...... internationally with expertise in epidemiology, injury prevention and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Input and resultant consensus was established through teleconference, face to face and email correspondence over a 1 year period. Recommendations for injury prevention RCTs include context specific considerations...

  19. LER - lesão por esforços repetitivos: um conceito falho e prejudicial RSI - Repetitive Strain Injury: a questionable and harmful concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ TEOTONIO DE OLIVEIRA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de que movimentos repetitivos ou posturas prolongadas causam lesões não tem suporte científico. Os sintomas dolorosos e sensitivos apresentados pelos pacientes são melhor explicados como um fenômeno psicológico e psicossocial, como insatisfação e desadaptação no trabalho e desejo de obter benefícios. O conceito de lesões por esforços repetitivos é iatrogênico e de custo elevado para a sociedade, devendo ser abandonado.The hypothesis that repetitive movements and postures cause musculoskeletal injury is not supported by scientific data. The sensory and pain symptoms are better explained as of psychological and psychosocial nature, such as job insatisfaction or disajustment, with financial gains objectives. The repetitive strain injury concept is iatrogenic and costly to society, and must be abandonned.

  20. Rehabilitation After Hamstring-Strain Injury Emphasizing Eccentric Strengthening at Long Muscle Lengths: Results of Long-Term Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Timothy F; Schmitt, Brandon M; Nicholas, Stephen J; McHugh, Malachy P

    2017-04-01

    Hamstring-strain injuries have a high recurrence rate. To determine if a protocol emphasizing eccentric strength training with the hamstrings in a lengthened position resulted in a low recurrence rate. Longitudinal cohort study. Sports-medicine physical therapy clinic. Fifty athletes with hamstring-strain injury (age 36 ± 16 y; 30 men, 20 women; 3 G1, 43 G2, 4 G3; 25 recurrent injuries) followed a 3-phase rehabilitation protocol emphasizing eccentric strengthening with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. Injury recurrence; isometric hamstring strength at 80°, 60°, 40°, and 20° knee flexion in sitting with the thigh flexed to 40° above the horizontal and the seat back at 90° to the horizontal (strength tested before return to sport). Four of the 50 athletes sustained reinjuries between 3 and 12 mo after return to sport (8% recurrence rate). The other 42 athletes had not sustained a reinjury at an average of 24 ± 12 mo after return to sport. Eight noncompliant athletes did not complete the rehabilitation and returned to sport before initiating eccentric strengthening in the lengthened state. All 4 reinjuries occurred in these noncompliant athletes. At time of return to sport, compliant athletes had full restoration of strength while noncompliant athletes had significant hamstring weakness, which was progressively worse at longer muscle lengths (compliance × side × angle P = .006; involved vs noninvolved at 20°, compliant 7% stronger, noncompliant 43% weaker). Compliance with rehabilitation emphasizing eccentric strengthening with the hamstrings in a lengthened position resulted in no reinjuries.

  1. The therapeutic protection of a living and dead Lactobacillus strain against aluminum-induced brain and liver injuries in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengwei Tian

    Full Text Available Our previous study found that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 had the ability to alleviate acute aluminum (Al toxicity when the strain was introduced simultaneously with Al exposure. This research was designed to elucidate the therapeutic effects of living and dead L. plantarum CCFM639 against chronic Al toxicity and to gain insight into the protection modes of this strain. Animals were assigned into control, Al only, Al + living CCFM639, and Al + dead CCFM639 groups. The Al exposure model was established by drinking water for the first 4 weeks. The strain was given after Al exposure by oral gavage at 109 colony-forming units once per day for 12 weeks. The results show that the Al binding ability of dead CCFM639 was similar to that of living CCFM639 in vitro. The ingestion of living or dead CCFM639 has similar effects on levels of Al and trace element in tissues, but living strains led to more significant amelioration of oxidative stress and improvement of memory deficits in Al-exposed mice. In conclusion, in addition to intestinal Al sequestration, CCFM639 treatment offers direct protection against chronic Al toxicity by alleviation of oxidative stress. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 has a potential as dietary supplement ingredient that provides protection against Al-induced injury.

  2. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  3. Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Kylee B; Meyers, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the sport of mountain biking has experienced extensive growth in youth participation. Due to the unpredictable nature of outdoor sport, a lack of rider awareness and increased participation, the number of injuries has unnecessarily increased. Many believe that the actual incidence of trauma in this sport is underestimated and is just the 'tip of the iceberg'. The most common mechanism of injury is usually attributed to downhill riding and forward falling. Although rare, this type of fall can result in serious cranial and thoraco-abdominal trauma. Head and neck trauma continue to be documented, often resulting in concussions and the possibility of permanent neurological sequelae. Upper limb injuries range from minor dermal abrasions, contusions and muscular strains to complex particular fracture dislocations. These are caused by attempting to arrest the face with an outstretched hand, leading to additional direct injury. Common overuse injuries include repeated compression from the handlebars and vibration leading to neurovascular complications in the hands. Along with reports of blunt abdominal trauma and lumbar muscle strains, lower extremity injuries may include various hip/pelvic/groin contusions, patellofemoral inflammation, and various muscle strains. The primary causes of mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents include overuse, excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Additional factors contributing to trauma among this age group involve musculoskeletal immaturity, collisions and falls, excessive speed, environmental conditions, conditioning and fitness status of the rider, nonconservative behavioural patterns, and inadequate medical care. The limited available data restrict the identification and understanding of specific paediatric mountain biking injuries and injury mechanisms. Education about unnecessary risk of injury, use of protective equipment, suitable bikes

  4. Alleviating gender role strain in adult men with traumatic brain injury: an evaluation of a set of guidelines for occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, S A

    1999-01-01

    A set of guidelines to assist men with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to alleviate gender role strain was assessed to determine its effectiveness and acceptability to participants. Four adult male participants with TBI received the intervention (the set of guidelines) for 4 months. The intervention consisted of rebuilding self-identified gendered social roles and activities. Focused interviews and participant observation were used to determine whether gender role strain changed after intervention. The participants reported that the intervention enabled them to (a) enhance their gender role satisfaction through newly rebuilt roles and activities, (b) attain certain long-held personal goals, (c) feel more like members of society, (d) perceive a greater congruency between their internal self-images and external postinjury roles, (e) learn more about personal skills and values as men, (f) feel more comfortable using help-seeking behaviors, (g) feel a sense of shared experience and affinity, (h) feel more understood and accepted, and (i) contribute to others through community member roles. The set of guidelines for alleviating gender role strain was effective in assisting these participants to enhance their gender role satisfaction through rebuilding desired male-gendered social roles and activities. Dating, courtship, extended family member, community member, friend, and mentor-protege roles, lost as a result of TBI, were rebuilt through gender-neutral activities that facilitated a sense of volitional control, competency, and normalcy. Nonetheless, the men continued to lack desired rites of passage leading from male adolescence to adulthood.

  5. MRP-1 expression levels determine strain-specific susceptibility to sodium arsenic-induced renal injury between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiko; Ishida, Yuko; Wada, Takashi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Mukaida, Naofumi; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    To clarify the pathophysiological mechanism underlying acute renal injury caused by acute exposure to arsenic, we subcutaneously injected both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with sodium arsenite (NaAs; 13.5 mg/kg). BALB/c mice exhibited exaggerated elevation of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels, compared with C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, half of BALB/c mice died by 24 h, whereas all C57BL/6 mice survived. Histopathological examination on kidney revealed severe hemorrhages, acute tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, cast formation, and disappearance of PAS-positive brush borders in BALB/c mice, later than 10 h. These pathological changes were remarkably attenuated in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied with lower intrarenal arsenic concentrations, compared with BALB/c mice. Among heavy metal inducible proteins including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-1, multidrug resistance gene (MDR)-1, metallothionein (MT)-1, and arsenite inducible, cysteine- and histidine-rich RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), intrarenal MDR-1, MT-1, and AIRAP gene expression was enhanced to a similar extent in both strains, whereas NaAs challenge augmented intrarenal MRP-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice. Moreover, the administration of a specific inhibitor of MRP-1, MK-571, significantly exaggerated acute renal injury in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, MRP-1 is crucially involved in arsenic efflux and eventually prevention of acute renal injury upon acute exposure to NaAs

  6. Relative strain in the anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament during simulated jump landing and sidestep cutting tasks: implications for injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Nesbitt, Rebecca J; Shearn, Jason T; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-09-01

    The medial collateral (MCL) and anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are, respectively, the primary and secondary ligamentous restraints against knee abduction, which is a component of the valgus collapse often associated with ACL rupture during athletic tasks. Despite this correlation in function, MCL ruptures occur concomitantly in only 20% to 40% of ACL injuries. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how athletic tasks load the knee joint in a manner that could lead to ACL failure without concomitant MCL failure. It was hypothesized that (1) the ACL would provide greater overall contribution to intact knee forces than the MCL during simulated motion tasks and (2) the ACL would show greater relative peak strain compared with the MCL during simulated motion tasks. Controlled laboratory study. A 6-degrees-of-freedom robotic manipulator articulated 18 cadaveric knees through simulations of kinematics recorded from in vivo drop vertical jump and sidestep cutting tasks. Specimens were articulated in the intact-knee and isolated-ligament conditions. After simulation, each ACL and MCL was failed in uniaxial tension along its fiber orientations. During a drop vertical jump simulation, the ACL experienced greater peak strain than the MCL (6.1% vs 0.4%; P < .01). The isolated ACL expressed greater peak anterior force (4.8% vs 0.3% body weight; P < .01), medial force (1.6% vs 0.4% body weight; P < .01), flexion torque (8.4 vs 0.4 N·m; P < .01), abduction torque (2.6 vs 0.3 N·m; P < .01), and adduction torque (0.5 vs 0.0 N·m; P = .03) than the isolated MCL. During failure testing, ACL specimens preferentially loaded in the anteromedial bundle failed at 637 N, while MCL failure occurred at 776 N. During controlled physiologic athletic tasks, the ACL provides greater contributions to knee restraint than the MCL, which is generally unstrained and minimally loaded. Current findings support that multiplanar loading during athletic tasks preferentially loads the ACL

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  8. Human and behavioral factors contributing to spine-based neurological cockpit injuries in pilots of high-performance aircraft: recommendations for management and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Hart, S. F.; Baskin, D. S.; Effenhauser, R.; Johnson, S. L.; Novas, M. A.; Jennings, R.; Davis, J.

    2000-01-01

    In high-performance aircraft, the need for total environmental awareness coupled with high-g loading (often with abrupt onset) creates a predilection for cervical spine injury while the pilot is performing routine movements within the cockpit. In this study, the prevalence and severity of cervical spine injury are assessed via a modified cross-sectional survey of pilots of multiple aircraft types (T-38 and F-14, F-16, and F/A-18 fighters). Ninety-five surveys were administered, with 58 full responses. Fifty percent of all pilots reported in-flight or immediate post-flight spine-based pain, and 90% of fighter pilots reported at least one event, most commonly (> 90%) occurring during high-g (> 5 g) turns of the aircraft with the head deviated from the anatomical neutral position. Pre-flight stretching was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neck pain episodes in this evaluation, whereas a regular weight training program in the F/A-18 group approached a significant reduction (mean = 2.492; p < 0.064). Different cockpit ergonomics may vary the predisposition to cervical injury from airframe to airframe. Several strategies for prevention are possible from both an aircraft design and a preventive medicine standpoint. Countermeasure strategies against spine injury in pilots of high-performance aircraft require additional research, so that future aircraft will not be limited by the human in control.

  9. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  10. Rugby World Cup 2015: World Rugby injury surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Injuries in air transport emergency evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    Twelve air transport evacuations are reviewed. Injuries are discussed with emphasis on configurational and procedural contributing factors. Recommendations and information about possible methods of reducing injuries are provided.

  12. Plasma microRNAs are sensitive indicators of inter-strain differences in the severity of liver injury induced in mice by a choline- and folate-deficient diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Latendresse, John R.; Montgomery, Beverly; Ross, Sharon A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Pogribny, Igor P.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, conserved, tissue-specific regulatory non-coding RNAs that modulate a variety of biological processes and play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association between inter-individual differences in susceptibility to NAFLD and altered miRNA expression is largely unknown. In view of this, the goals of the present study were (i) to determine whether or not individual differences in the extent of NAFLD-induced liver injury are associated with altered miRNA expression, and (ii) assess if circulating blood miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers for the noninvasive evaluation of the severity of NAFLD. A panel of seven genetically diverse strains of inbred male mice (A/J, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, 129S/SvImJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ) were fed a choline- and folate-deficient (CFD) diet for 12 weeks. This diet induced liver injury in all mouse strains; however, the extent of NAFLD-associated pathomorphological changes in the livers was strain-specific, with A/J, C57BL/6J, and C3H/HeJ mice being the least sensitive and WSB/EiJ mice being the most sensitive. The morphological changes in the livers were accompanied by differences in the levels of hepatic and plasma miRNAs. The levels of circulating miR-34a, miR-122, miR-181a, miR-192, and miR-200b miRNAs were significantly correlated with a severity of NAFLD-specific liver pathomorphological features, with the strongest correlation occurring with miR-34a. These observations suggest that the plasma levels of miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for noninvasive monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury and susceptibility to NAFLD. -- Highlights: ► Choline- and folate-deficiency induces a strain-specific fatty liver injury in mice. ► The extent of liver pathology was accompanied by the changes in microRNA expression. ► The levels of circulating microRNAs mirror the magnitude of

  13. Recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu L.; Medo M.; Yeung C.H.; Zhang Y.-C.; Zhang Z.-K.; Zhou T.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article...

  14. A prospective epidemiological study of injury incidence and injury patterns in a Hong Kong male professional football league during the competitive season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wai-Yuk Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from injury recorders team visits. Operational injury definitions and procedures followed the recommendations of a football consensus. The overall injury incidence was 7.4 injuries/1000 player hours and 296 injuries were recorded. The relative risk of match injury was 17 times greater than the risk of training injury [relative ratio (RR, 17.3; 95% confidence injury (CI, 11.6–25.7; p < 0.001]. Ankle sprain was the most common injury type (16.2% of all injuries and 52% of these injuries were recurrent. Thigh strain was the second most common injury type with 82% of the injuries involving the hamstring muscle and 80% of hamstring strains were noncontact injuries. During the competitive season, the relative risk of injury was highest in October (RR, 6.8; 95% CI, 6.7–6.9; p < 0.001 and February (RR, 4.7; 95% CI, 4.3–5.2; p < 0.001. This highlighted that Hong Kong professional football has a high match injury incidence. The relative risk of injury was highest at the beginning of the competitive season. A prospective multicentre epidemiological study is warranted to examine regional differences in injury risks. Coaches, players, health professionals, and researchers should join their efforts to investigate the effect on injury incidence and injury pattern associated with the duration and content of the preseason period, and the number of friendly matches held during preseason.

  15. Proposed Iraq/Afghanistan War-Lung Injury (IAW-LI) Clinical Practice Recommendations: National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine Burn Pits Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szema, Anthony; Mirsaidi, Niely; Patel, Bhumika; Viens, Laura; Forsyth, Edward; Li, Jonathan; Dang, Sophia; Dukes, Brittany; Giraldo, Jheison; Kim, Preston; Burns, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    High rates of respiratory symptoms (14%) and new-onset asthma in previously healthy soldiers (6.6%) have been reported among military personnel post-deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan. The term Iraq/Afghanistan War-Lung Injury (IAW-LI) is used to describe the constellation of respiratory diseases related to hazards of war, such as exposure to burning trash in burn pits, improvised explosive devices, and sandstorms. Burnpits360.org is a nonprofit civilian website which voluntarily tracks medical symptoms among soldiers post-deployment to the Middle East. Subsequent to initiation of the Burnpits360.org website, the Department of Veterans Affairs started the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit registry. This paper: (a) analyzes the latest 38 patients in the Burnpits360.org registry, validated by DD214 Forms; (b) compares strengths and weaknesses of both registries as outlined at the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine Burn Pits Workshop; (c) further characterizes the spectrum of disease in IAW-LI; (d) describes the risk factors of affected populations; (e) summarizes current practices regarding management of the condition; and (f) defines future research objectives.

  16. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  17. The effect of prone positioning in acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury: a meta-analysis. Areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroug, Fekri; Ouanes-Besbes, Lamia; Elatrous, Souheil; Brochard, Laurent

    2008-06-01

    To compare the effects of ventilation in prone and in supine position in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BioMedCentral, PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase (to November 2007), with additional information from authors. From selected randomised controlled trials comparing positioning in ALI/ARDS we extracted data concerning study design, disease severity, clinical outcomes, and adverse events. Five trials including 1,372 patients met the inclusion criteria for mortality analysis; one trial was added to assess the effects on acquisition of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The included trials were significantly underpowered and enrolled patients with varying severity. Prone positioning duration and mechanical ventilation strategy were not standardised across studies. Using a fixed-effects model, we did not find a significant effect of prone positioning (proning) on mortality (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.77-1.22). The PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio increased significantly more with proning (weighted means difference 25 mmHg, p VAP (p=0.09), and with no increase in major adverse airway complications: OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.71-1.43. Length of intensive care unit stay was marginally and not significantly increased by proning. Prone position is not associated with a significant reduction in mortality from ALI/ARDS despite a significant increase in PaO(2)/FiO(2), is safe, and tends to decrease VAP. Published studies exhibit substantial clinical heterogeneity, suggesting that an adequately sized study optimising the duration of proning and ventilation strategy is warranted to enable definitive conclusions to be drawn.

  18. Usefulness of real-time elastography strain ratio in the assessment of bile duct ligation-induced liver injury and the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan: an experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudea, Marina; Clichici, Simona; Olteanu, Diana Elena; Nagy, Andras; Cucoş, Maria; Dudea, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to evaluate the usefulness of the elastographic strain ratio in the assessment of liver changes in an experimental animal setting and the hepatoprotective effects of chitosan. Ultrasonography and Strain Ratio calculation were performed before and after bile duct ligation (BDL) in three groups of Wistar albino rats (n = 10 animals per group): (i) rats subjected to bile duct ligation only; (ii) rats subjected to bile duct ligation and administered chitosan for 14 d; (iii) rats subjected to bile duct ligation and administered chitosan for 7 d. The results were compared with the laboratory data and pathologic findings. Strain ratios revealed an increase in liver stiffness after bile duct ligation (p liver response to injury. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting on the usefulness of the sonoelastographic liver-to-kidney strain ratio in assessing the effects of experimentally induced liver lesions. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Overuse Injury Assessment Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuhmiller, James H; Shen, Weixin; Sih, Bryant

    2005-01-01

    ... bone stresses and strains from kinematic and ground reaction force measures. We broaden the work to address not only the overuse injuries, but the performance enhancement and metabolic demands associated with training...

  20. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  1. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  2. LER - Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos: uma reflexão sobre os aspectos psicossociais Repetitive Strain Injury: a reflection on psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Elena Rodrigues Gravina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi o de contribuir para a compreensão dos fenômenos que envolvem as LER e sua relação com o mundo do trabalho, refletindo sobre a multiplicidade dos fatores, dando ênfase à dimensão psicossocial a partir de depoimentos de pessoas com LER. A opção foi pela metodologia qualitativa e, pelas características da pesquisa, o instrumental escolhido foi o estudo de caso. Foram realizadas entrevistas com quatro bancárias com diagnóstico de LER e que estavam afastadas do trabalho. As entrevistas foram realizadas individualmente utilizando-se um roteiro semi estruturado, em data e horários previamente marcados e tiveram a duração media de duas horas cada uma. As pessoas apresentaram: descrédito no adoecimento; insatisfação e revolta por não poder mais fazer coisas importantes para a vida pessoal; dificuldades em mostrar a doença e fazer com que os outros acreditem nela; falta de reconhecimento pelo trabalho realizado; perda de identidade; ansiedade pelo desconhecido; estado de estresse e esgotamento muito acentuado; limitações impostas pela doença. Em conclusão pode ser apresentado: interferência da organização do trabalho e das relações de trabalho no adoecimento; o sofrimento físico que antecede e precede o adoecimento; onipresença da dor e as limitações impostas em nível físico e mental que impossibilitam projetos de vida; dificuldades no diagnóstico e tratamento; comprometimento da vida pessoal e familiar.The aim of this study was contributing to the understanding of the phenomena that involves the Repetitive Straisn Injury (RSI and its relation with the work arena. It was carried out through the reflection on the multiplicity of factors and emphasis on the psychosocial dimension based on the statements of people affected by RSI. The qualitative method was used and the case study tool was chosen based on the characteristics of the research clerks on leave for RSI diagnosis were interviwed

  3. Eccentric Exercises Reduce Hamstring Strains in Elite Adult Male Soccer Players: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Ian B; Cacolice, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Hamstring strains are a common sport-related injury, which may limit athletic performance for an extended period of time. These injuries are common in the soccer setting. As such, it is important to determine an appropriate prevention program to minimize the risk of such an injury for these athletes. Eccentric hamstring training may be an effective and practical hamstring strain prevention strategy. What is the effect of eccentric exercises on hamstring strain prevention in adult male soccer players? Summary of Key Findings: Current literature was searched for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that investigated the effect of eccentric exercises in preventing hamstring strains in adult male soccer players. Three articles returned from the literature search met the inclusion criteria. A fourth article looked at differences in strength gains between eccentric and concentric hamstring strengthening exercises, but did not record hamstring strain incidence. A fifth article, a systematic review, met all the criteria except for the correct population. Of the 3 studies, 2 were randomized control trails and 1 was a cohort study. Clinical Bottom Line: There is robust supportive evidence that eccentric hamstring exercises can prevent a hamstring injury to an elite adult male soccer player. Therefore, it is recommended that athletic trainers and other sports medicine providers evaluate current practices relating to reducing hamstring strains and consider implementing eccentric exercise based prevention programs. Strength of Recommendation: All evidence was attained from articles with a level of evidence 2b or higher, based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) criteria, stating that eccentric exercises can decrease hamstring strains.

  4. The incidence and nature of injuries in South African rugby players in the rugby Super 12 competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzhausen, Louis J; Schwellnus, Martin P; Jakoet, Ismail; Pretorius, A L

    2006-12-01

    There are sparse scientific data concerning the aetiology and incidence of injuries in the Super 12 rugby competition. Aim. The aim of the study was to document the incidence, nature and risk factors associated with injuries during a Super 12 rugby competition. Injuries, defined as injuries preventing playing or training, or requiring medical treatment, were recorded in a cohort of 75 South African Super 12 players over one season. Injury severity was graded according to sessions missed: minor (1 - 3 missed), intermediate (4 - 9) and severe (> 9). During the tournament, a total of 740 player game hours and 4 900 player training hours were recorded. The overall incidence of injuries was 55.4 injuries/1,000 player game hours, and 4.3 injuries/1,000 player training hours. The most common injury types were: ligament sprains (25.8%), musculotendinous strains/tears (24.2%). The most common injured sites were: pelvis, hip (19.3%), head and knee (12.9% each). The tackle caused 40.3%, and rucks and mauls 11.3% of injuries. Injuries sustained during training accounted for 34%, and chronic overuse injuries 9.7% of injuries. There is a high injury rate during a Super 12 rugby competition. However, the majority of injuries were minor injuries. The most dangerous phase of play was the tackle. Training in tackling and rucking techniques, and rule enforcement are therefore recommended to reduce risk of injury. Injuries tended to occur late in games and early in the season, suggesting lack of physical conditioning and fatigue as possible causes of injury.

  5. Sports-related injuries of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochmuth, K.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J.; Kurth, A.A.; Zichner, L.

    2002-01-01

    Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.) [de

  6. ICRS Recommendation Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Engelhart, Luella; Ranstam, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    and function evaluated for validity and psychometric properties in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Results: The knee-specific instruments, titled the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score, both fulfill the basic......Abstract Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe and recommend patient-reported outcome instruments for use in patients with articular cartilage lesions undergoing cartilage repair interventions. Methods: Nonsystematic literature search identifying measures addressing pain...... constructs at all levels according to the International Classification of Functioning. Conclusions: Because there is no obvious superiority of either instrument at this time, both outcome measures are recommended for use in cartilage repair. Rescaling of the Lysholm Scoring Scale has been suggested...

  7. Analyses of Helsinki 2012 European Athletics Championships injury and illness surveillance to discuss elite athletes risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Depiesse, Frédéric; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2014-09-01

    To further analyze newly incurred injuries and illnesses (I&Is) during Athletics International Championships to discuss risk factors. Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. The 2012 European Athletics (EA) Championships in Helsinki, Finland. National team and local organizing committee physicians and physiotherapists and 1342 registered athletes. Incidence and characteristics of new injuries and illnesses. Ninety-three percent of athletes were covered by medical teams, with a response rate of 91%. One hundred thirty-three injuries were reported (incidence of 98.4 injuries per 1000 registered athletes). Sixty-two injuries (47%) resulted in time loss from sport. The most common diagnosis was hamstring strain (11.4% of injuries and 21% of time-loss injuries). Injury risk was higher in males and increased with age. The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle- and long-distance events. Twenty-seven illnesses were reported (4.0 illnesses per 1000 athlete days). The most common diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (33.3%) and gastroenteritis/diarrhea (25.9%). During outdoor EA Championships, injury and illness incidences were slightly lower and injury characteristics were comparable with those during outdoor World Athletics Championships. During elite athletics Championships, gender (male), age (older than 30 years), finals, and some events (combined events and middle- and long-distance races) seem to be injury risk factors. Illness risk factors remain unclear. As in previous recommendations, preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries, hamstring strains, and adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries, decreasing risk of infectious diseases transmission, appropriate event scheduling, sports clothes, and heat acclimatization.

  8. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow ... recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  12. Effectiveness of PRP Injection in Reducing Recovery Time of Acute Hamstring Injury: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Mary Lynn; Straub, Stephen J

    2017-07-17

    Clinical Scenario Hamstring strains are common athletic injuries, with a high recurrence rate (34%). 2 Recently, platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections have gained popularity as a potential treatment option to accelerate healing of hamstring injury. 3 Focused Clinical Question Does the combination of PRP injection and rehabilitation decrease recovery time of acute hamstring injury as compared to rehabilitation alone in collegiate athletes? Summary of Key Findings A literature search resulted in three randomized controlled trials (RCT). One study showed benefits in various outcome measures with PRP, compared to rehabilitation alone, while two showed no benefits. One study reported improved pain, ultrasonography regenerative indications, and recovery time with PRP injection following acute hamstring injury 1 , however, larger studies have shown no benefits. 7-9 The literature demonstrates conflicting evidence regarding benefits of PRP injections in hamstring injuries. Clinical Bottom Line At this time, PRP injections cannot be recommended as having value for hamstring injuries, compared to rehabilitation alone. Strength of Recommendation Due to inconsistent or limited quality patient-oriented evidence in existing literature, the strength of this recommendation is grade B, based on the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT). 7 .

  13. Incidence of Patients With Knee Strain and Sprain Occurring at Sports or Recreation Venues and Presenting to United States Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Aaron M; Buford, William L

    2015-11-01

    Knee injuries account for a substantial percentage of all athletic injuries. The relative rates of knee injury for a variety of sports by sex and age need to be understood so we can better allocate resources, such as athletic trainers, to properly assess and treat injuries and reduce injury risk. To describe the epidemiology of patients with sport-related knee strain and sprain presenting to US emergency departments from 2002 to 2011. Cross-sectional study. Using the Consumer Products Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and the US Census Bureau, we extracted raw data to estimate national rates of patients with knee strain and sprain presenting to emergency departments. Participants were individuals sustaining a knee strain or sprain at sports or recreation venues and presenting to local emergency departments for treatment. We included 12 popular sports for males and 11 for females. Ages were categorized in six 5-year increments for ages 5 to 34 years and one 10-year increment for ages 35 to 44 years. Incidence rates were calculated using weights provided by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and reported with their 95% confidence intervals for sport, sex, and age. Strain and sprain injury rates varied greatly by sport, sex, and age group. The highest injury rates occurred in football and basketball for males and in soccer and basketball for females. The most at-risk population was 15 to 19 years for both sexes. Athletes experience different rates of knee strain and sprain according to sport, sex, and age. Increased employment of athletic trainers to care for the highest-risk populations, aged 10 to 19 years, is recommended to reduce emergency department use and implement injury-prevention practices.

  14. Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  15. Karate and karate injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    McLatchie, G.

    1981-01-01

    The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes, mandatory provision of protective equipment such as padded flooring, and the outlawing of certain uncontrollable m...

  16. Musculoskeletal injuries in officer training: one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, T

    1998-04-01

    This study attempts to map the incidence and types of musculoskeletal injury during officer training. Officer cadets from three training schools (N = 321) were monitored through a 1-year training course. A total of 278 injuries were sustained by 194 of the 321 cadets (60%). The incidence was highest during an introductory 5- or 6-week period of intensive basic training. During this period, rates at various training schools ranged from 26.7 to 45.5 injuries per 100 cadet-months, which was five to nine times higher than during the rest of the year. The most common types of injury were overuse knee injuries, periostitis or compartment syndromes, Achilles tendinitis, and sprains of joint capsules or ligaments. Women and older cadets sustained more injuries than their respective male (p = 0.02) or younger (p = 0.02) counterparts. The study shows that musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently during officer training, especially during the first weeks. Recommendations for injury prevention include a more gentle start with slower progression in strain, slow introduction of combat boots, and differentiation of strain according to individual risk factors such as age and gender.

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite David, ... injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  18. Ice hockey injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the distribution and determinants of injuries reported in the pediatric ice hockey literature, and suggests potential injury prevention strategies and directions for further research. Thirteen electronic databases, the ISI Web of Science, and 'grey literature' databases were searched using a combination of Medical Subject Headings and text words to identify potentially relevant articles. The bibliographies of selected studies were searched to identify additional articles. Studies were selected for review based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A comparison between studies on this topic area was difficult due to the variability in research designs, definition of injury, study populations, and measurements used to assess injury. The majority of injuries were sustained during games compared with practices. The two most commonly reported injuries were sprains/strains and contusions. Players competing at the Minor hockey, High School, and Junior levels of competition sustained most of their injuries to the upper extremity, head, and lower extremity, respectively. The primary mechanism of injury was body checking, followed by stick and puck contact. The frequency of catastrophic eye injuries has been significantly reduced with the world-wide mandation of full facial protection for all Minor hockey players. Specific hockey-related injury risk factors are poorly delineated and rarely studied among pediatric ice hockey players leaving large gaps in the knowledge of appropriate prevention strategies. Risk management strategies should be focused at avoiding unnecessary foreseeable risk, and controlling the risks inherent to the sport. Suggestions for injury prevention and future research are discussed.

  19. Physical principles demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle relative to the other hamstring muscles exerts the most force: implications for hamstring muscle strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Bronwyn; Verrall, Geoffrey; Reid, Iain

    2014-07-01

    Of the hamstring muscle group the biceps femoris muscle is the most commonly injured muscle in sports requiring interval sprinting. The reason for this observation is unknown. The objective of this study was to calculate the forces of all three hamstring muscles, relative to each other, during a lengthening contraction to assess for any differences that may help explain the biceps femoris predilection for injury during interval sprinting. To calculate the displacement of each individual hamstring muscle previously performed studies on cadaveric anatomical data and hamstring kinematics during sprinting were used. From these displacement calculations for each individual hamstring muscle physical principles were then used to deduce the proportion of force exerted by each individual hamstring muscle during a lengthening muscle contraction. These deductions demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle is required to exert proportionally more force in a lengthening muscle contraction relative to the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles primarily as a consequence of having to lengthen over a greater distance within the same time frame. It is hypothesized that this property maybe a factor in the known observation of the increased susceptibility of the biceps femoris muscle to injury during repeated sprints where recurrent higher force is required.

  20. Review of musculoskeletal injuries and prevention in the endoscopy practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvin, Glenn

    2014-08-01

    Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces.

  1. Ultrasound of skeletal muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eamon Su Chun; McNally, Eugene G

    2007-06-01

    The professional and recreational demands of modern society make the treatment of muscle injury an increasingly important clinical problem, particularly in the athletic population. In the elite athlete, significant financial and professional pressures may also exist that emphasize the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment. With new advances in ultrasound technology, images of exquisite detail allow diagnosis of muscle injury that matches the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, the benefits of real-time and Doppler imaging, ability to perform interventional procedures, and relative cost benefits compared with MRI place ultrasound at the forefront for investigation for these injuries in many circumstances. Muscle injury may be divided into acute and chronic pathology, with muscle strain injury the most common clinical problem presenting to sports physicians. This article reviews the spectrum of acute and chronic muscle injuries, with particular attention to clinical features and some common or important muscle strain injuries.

  2. [Recommendation on temperature management after cardiopulmonary arrest and severe traumatic brain injury in childhood beyond the neonatal period : Statement of the German Society for Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care Medicine (GNPI) and the scientific Working Group for Paediatric Anaesthesia (WAKKA) of the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (DGAI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, S; Eich, C; Rellensmann, G; Schuhmann, M U; Nicolai, T; Hoffmann, F

    2017-02-01

    The available data on the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in different patient groups are heterogeneous. Although the benefits have been proven for some collectives, recommendations for the use of hypothermia treatment in other groups are based on less robust data and conclusions by analogy. This article gives a review of the current evidence of temperature management in all age groups and based on this state of knowledge, recommends active temperature management with the primary aim of strict normothermia (36-36.5 °C) for 72 hours after cardiopulmonary arrest or severe traumatic brain injury for children beyond the neonatal period.

  3. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  4. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2016 [ ...

  5. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook ... not grass or dirt. More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention frame support disabled and/ ...

  6. Groin injuries in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Timothy F; Silvers, Holly J; Gerhardt, Michael B; Nicholas, Stephen J

    2010-05-01

    An in-season groin injury may be debilitating for the athlete. Proper diagnosis and identification of the pathology are paramount in providing appropriate intervention. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly can become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the 6 muscles of the adductor muscle group can be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (grade 1), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (grade 3), in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Persistent groin pain and muscle imbalance may lead to athletic pubalgia. Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database from 1990 to 2009, as well as a manual review of reference lists of identified sources. Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey and soccer players throughout the world, approximately 10% to 11% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries have been linked to hip muscle weakness, a previous injury to that area, preseason practice sessions, and level of experience. This injury may be prevented if these risk factors are addressed before each season. Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for athletes, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. If groin pain persists, the possibility of athletic pubalgia needs to be explored, because of weakening or tears in the abdominal wall muscles. A diagnosis is confirmed by exclusion of other pathology.

  7. Constitutively reduced sensory capacity promotes better recovery after spinal cord-injury (SCI) in blind rats of the dystrophic RCS strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Svenja; Bendella, Habib; Alsolivany, Kurdin; Meyer, Carolin; Woehler, Aliona; Jansen, Ramona; Isik, Zeynep; Stein, Gregor; Wennmachers, Sina; Nakamura, Makoto; Angelov, Doychin N

    2018-01-01

    We compared functional, electrophysiological and morphological parameters after SCI in two groups of rats Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with normal vision and blind rats from a SD-substrain "Royal College of Surgeons" (SD/RCS) who lose their photoreceptor cells after birth due to a genetic defect in the retinal pigment epithelium. For these animals skin-, intramuscular-, and tendon receptors are major available means to resolve spatial information. The purpose of this study was to check whether increased sensitivity in SD/RCS rats would promote an improved recovery after SCI. All rats were subjected to severe compression of the spinal cord at vertebra Th8, spinal cord segment Th10. Recovery of locomotion was analyzed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after SCI using video recordings of beam walking and inclined ladder climbing. Five functional parameters were studied: foot-stepping angle (FSA), rump-height index (RHI) estimating paw placement and body weight support, respectively, number of correct ladder steps (CLS) assessing skilled hindlimb movements, the BBB-locomotor score and an established urinary bladder score (BS). Sensitivity tests were followed by electrophysiological measurement of M- and H-wave amplitudes from contractions of the plantar musculature after stimulation of the tibial nerve. The closing morphological measurements included lesion volume and expression of astro- and microglia below the lesion. Numerical assessments of BBB, FSA, BS, lesion volume and GFAP-expression revealed no significant differences between both strains. However, compared to SD-rats, the blind SD/RCS animals significantly improved RHI and CLS by 6 - 12 weeks after SCI. To our surprise the withdrawal latencies in the blind SD/RCS rats were longer and the amplitudes of M- and H-waves lower. The expression of IBA1-immunoreactivity in the lumbar enlargement was lower than in the SD-animals. The longer withdrawal latencies suggest a decreased sensitivity in the blind SD/RCS rats, which

  8. Badminton injuries in youth competitive players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, S L; Mokhtar, A H; Mohamad Ali, M R

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine sports injury pattern and establish cost of injuries in relation to training of 58 competitive badminton players in a Malaysian National Sports School. This one-year prospective observational study recruited all the 13-16 year old students after obtaining informed consent from their appointed guardian. All participants were requested to report any injuries, which were pain or disabilities that occur within the study period (September 1, 2008 to August 31, 2009) either during training or competition. Injured students were to seek treatment from the researcher(s) who made weekly visits and they were then followed up accordingly until they return to full training. Details and progress of the injuries were documented during each visit. Sixty-three injuries were recorded. Soft tissue sprains/strains were the commonest injury (64%). About one third of the injuries occurred in the lower limb especially the knees and was followed by back injuries; 38% of the injuries did not require training modification, half of these injuries resumed training within one week. Upon full training, half of them were still symptomatic. Injury risk was 57%; injury rate was 0.9 injuries/ player/1000 training hours. Badminton injuries mostly involved the lower limb and almost all overuse injuries occurred in the lower limb. However, badminton injuries as a whole were predominantly sprains and strains, and not overuse in nature as widely believed.

  9. Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos (LER: uma doença emblemática Repetition Strain Injury (RSI: an emblematic illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herval Pina Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As lesões ósteo-musculares dos membros superiores por esforços repetitivos atribuídas ao trabalho (LER são hoje a mais freqüente das doenças do trabalho nos países precoce ou tardiamente industrializados. O autor sustenta que mais do que uma doença do trabalho, as LER são um modo de adoecimento emblemático, revelador das contradições e da patogenicidade social desse novo ciclo de desenvolvimento e crise do modo de produção capitalista. Discutindo essa dimensão social e histórica maior, insiste em que a baixa eficácia das intervenções técnicas no âmbito da engenharia, da ergonomia ou da Medicina para a prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento adequados e precoces dessa doença da pós-modernidade e as dificuldades de reinserção dos adoecidos ou ex-adoecidos no trabalho refletem, justamente, essa determinação mais abrangente, externa ao trabalho senso estrito, porque a apropriacão, a incorporação e uso das inovações tecnológicas e as novas formas de administração do trabalho se fazem no interesse exclusivo do capital. Com isso, um contingente cada vez maior de trabalhadores jovens, a maioria do gênero feminino, das mais diferentes categorias estão perdendo ou ameaçados de perder a saúde e a capacidade de trabalho, bens públicos essenciais e intimamente relacionados. A saída para resolver a questão LER deve ser política e coletiva.Muscular-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs resulting from work involving repetition strain (RSI are now the most frequent work-related diseases in early or late industrialized countries. The author maintains that in addition to being work-related diseases, RSIs are symbolic illnesses revealing the contradictions and social pathogenesis of the new cycle of development and crisis in capitalist production. Discussing the social and historical dimensions of this process, the author insists that the low efficacy of technical interventions by labor engineering, ergonomics, and

  10. The Injury Profile of an Australian Specialist Policing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Larsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the injuries sustained by an Australian specialist police division. Injury records spanning four-years were analyzed. The role being performed when the injury occurred, injury cause, body part injured, and injury-related costs were quantified. The percentage of personnel injured multiple times was documented. One hundred and thirty eight personnel reported injuries, 58 of these on multiple occasions. This resulted in 229 injuries and 76 claims being raised. Half of the injuries occurred during operational policing tasks, however training activities accounted for >30% of injuries. The most common injury was strain/sprain, and upper body injuries were 2.5-times more common than lower-body or torso injuries. 1107 shifts were lost, and injuries cost the organization $487,159 (Australian Dollars over the four-year period. The injury costs (both financial and in manpower may prompt policy makers to review the current training and post-injury rehabilitation protocols.

  11. Injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targett, S G

    1998-10-01

    To document injury rates in professional rugby players in the Rugby Super 12 competition and to act as a pilot study for future studies of rugby injuries. Prospective longitudinal study encompassing the 1997 Super 12 rugby season. A New Zealand Super 12 rugby squad. 25 professional rugby players (replacement players were used for unavailable players, so although 30 different players were used during the season, there were only 25 in the squad at any one time). An "injury" was defined as something that prevented a player from taking part in two training sessions, from playing the next week, or something requiring special medical treatment (suturing or special investigations). An injury was "significant" if it prevented the player from being able to play one week after sustaining it (that is, if it made the player miss the next match). The overall injury rate was 120/1000 player hours. The rate of significant injuries was 45/1000 player hours. Those playing the position of "forward" had a higher overall injury rate than other players, but there was no difference in significant injury rate between the forwards and the backs. Injuries that caused players to miss game time occurred almost exclusively during the pre-season program or in the final third of the season. The majority of injuries were musculo-tendinous sprains or strains. The phase of play responsible for the majority of injuries was the tackle. The most frequently injured body part was the head and face. No catastrophic injuries occurred during the study period. Injury rates increase with increasing grade of rugby, injury rates in the Super 12 competition being higher than in first grade rugby. There is very little quality data on rugby injuries, and the few studies available use different methods of data collection and injury definition. There is a pressing need for the collection of accurate ongoing epidemiological data on injuries in rugby.

  12. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  13. Golf Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Golf Injuries Golf looks like an easy game to ... WHAT TYPES OF INJURIES ARE MOST COMMON IN GOLF? Acute injuries are usually the result of a ...

  14. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  15. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinga, Joan M; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2012-09-01

    : Q ratio. Hip-adduction-to-abduction strength is a predictive test for hip adductor muscle strain. Studies do not agree on whether ROM of the hamstring is a predictive screening tool for groin injury. Body mass index and the age of an athlete could contribute to an ankle sprain. There is support in the literature to suggest that greater strength of the plantar flexors may be a predictive measure for sustaining an ankle injury. Furthermore, there is some agreement that the measurement of postural sway is a predictive test for an ankle injury. The screening tools mentioned above can be recommended to medical staff and coaches for screening their athletes. Future research should focus on prospective studies in larger groups and should follow athletes over several seasons.

  16. Injuries in Competitive Dragon Boating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Swarup; Leong, Hin Fong; Chen, Simin; Foo, Yong Xiang Wayne; Pek, Hong Kiat

    2014-11-01

    Dragon boating is a fast-growing team water sport and involves forceful repetitive motions that predispose athletes to overuse injuries. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is a lack of studies on injury epidemiology in dragon boating. To investigate the injury epidemiology in competitive dragon boating athletes. Descriptive epidemiological study. A total of 95 dragon boaters (49 males, 46 females) representing their respective universities took part in this study. Data were collected retrospectively using a reliable and valid self-report questionnaire. The study period was from August 2012 to July 2013. A total of 104 musculoskeletal injuries were reported (3.82 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures), 99% of which occurred during training. The most commonly injured regions were the lower back (22.1%), shoulder (21.1%), and wrist (17.3%). The majority of injuries were due to overuse (56.3%), and incomplete muscle-tendon strain was the most prevalent type of injury (50.5%). The time loss from injuries varied. In addition, a significant majority of the dragon boating athletes incurred nonmusculoskeletal injuries, with abrasions (90.5%), blisters (78.9%), and sunburns (72.6%) being the most common. Competitive dragon boating has a moderately high injury incidence, and there seems to be a direct relationship between exposure time and injury rate. A majority of the injuries are overuse in nature, and the body parts most actively involved in paddling movement are at higher risk of injuries. The high incidence of nonmusculoskeletal injuries in dragon boaters suggested that these injuries are likely outcomes of participation in the sport.

  17. Hamstring injuries: update article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Ernlund

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring (HS muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports. They are correlated to long rehabilitations and have a great tendency to recur. The HS consist of the long head of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The patient's clinical presentation depends on the characteristics of the lesion, which may vary from strain to avulsions of the proximal insertion. The most recognized risk factor is a previous injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the injury diagnosis and classification. Many classification systems have been proposed; the current classifications aim to describe the injury and correlate it to the prognosis. The treatment is conservative, with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute phase followed by a muscle rehabilitation program. Proximal avulsions have shown better results with surgical repair. When the patient is pain free, shows recovery of strength and muscle flexibility, and can perform the sport's movements, he/she is able to return to play. Prevention programs based on eccentric strengthening of the muscles have been indicated both to prevent the initial injury as well as preventing recurrence.

  18. Semantically Enhanced Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montiel, Manuela; Aldana-Montes, José F.

    Recommender Systems have become a significant area in the context of web personalization, given the large amount of available data. Ontologies can be widely taken advantage of in recommender systems, since they provide a means of classifying and discovering of new information about the items to recommend, about user profiles and even about their context. We have developed a semantically enhanced recommender system based on this kind of ontologies. In this paper we present a description of the proposed system.

  19. Occupational open globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, U; Vasnaik, A; Battu, R R; Kurian, M; George, S

    2001-03-01

    Occupational ocular trauma is an important cause of acquired monocular blindness in a rapidly industrialising country like India. Knowledge of the epidemiology of occupational eye injuries is essential to formulate viable industrial safety measures. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occupational open globe injuries between 1994 and 1998. We documented the circumstances of the injuries, their clinical findings and the use of appropriate protective eyewear at the time of the injury. The visual acuity 6 months after the injury was the final outcome measure. In this study period we examined 43 patients with open globe injuries sustained at the work place. Thirty-four (79.1%) patients were young males. The iron and steel industry accounted for 19 (44.2%) cases while 8 (18.6%) patients each were from the agricultural, mining and other small scale industrial sectors. At the time of the injury, 33 (76.7%) were not wearing the recommended protective eyewear and 6 (13.9%) were under the influence of alcohol. The injuries were mild in 6 (13.9%), moderate in 18 (41.9%) and severe in 19 (44.2%) patients. At the end of 6 months, 2 (4.7%) patients had a visual acuity of 6/12 or better, 4 (9.3%) had a visual acuity of 6/18 to 6/60 and 29 (67.4.%) had a vision of eyewear and alcohol-free environment at the work place is likely to reduce the incidence of severe occupational open globe injuries.

  20. Karate injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetaruk, M N; Violan, M A; Zurakowski, D; Micheli, L J

    2000-05-01

    To identify risk factors for injury and to establish safety guidelines for children in Uechi-Ryu karate. A 1-year retrospective survey of injuries. A private karate school (Uechi-Ryu style) in Plymouth, MA. A total of 68 athletes (age 6-16 years; mean age 10 years) who participated in karate during the 1995-1996 season. None. The presence or absence of injury, with grading of injuries as major, moderate or minor. The types of injuries and body region involved were also analyzed. Twenty eight percent of athletes sustained at least one injury. All injuries were minor, with no time off from training required. The injuries consisted primarily of bruises (11 of 19). Other injuries included mild sprains or strains (5 of 19) and having their 'wind knocked out' (3 of 19). Most injuries were localized to the extremities. Logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for injury. Risk of injury increased with number of years of training (odds ratio 2.95; 95% confidence interval 1.81-4.82; PKarate is a relatively safe sport for children and adolescents when properly taught. Risk of injury increases with experience; therefore, greater supervision is required of higher ranks. Injury increases with weekly training; however, 3 h a week or less appears to be associated with a low risk of significant injury in this age group.

  1. Trust for intelligent recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, Touhid

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems are one of the recent inventions to deal with the ever-growing information overload in relation to the selection of goods and services in a global economy. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is one of the most popular techniques in recommender systems. The CF recommends items to a target user based on the preferences of a set of similar users known as the neighbors, generated from a database made up of the preferences of past users. In the absence of these ratings, trust between the users could be used to choose the neighbor for recommendation making. Better recommendations can b

  2. Upper extremity weightlifting injuries: Diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshani, Kayvon; Cinque, Mark E; O'Halloran, Peter; Softness, Kenneth; Keeling, Laura; Macdonell, J Ryan

    2018-03-01

    Common upper extremity injuries in resistance training athletes include muscle strains, ligament sprains, pectoralis major tendon ruptures, distal biceps tendon ruptures, and chronic shoulder pain and capsulolabral injuries. While each injury is unique in its specific anatomic location and mechanism, each is preventable with proper exercise technique, safety and maintenance of muscle balance. Conservative treatment is the therapeutic modality of choice and these injuries generally resolve with workout modification, appropriate recovery, anti-inflammatory medication, and physical therapy. If conservative treatment fails, surgical intervention is often successful and can return the weightlifter to a level of performance near their pre-injury level.

  3. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  4. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-04-02

    Apr 2, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Bangers, eye injuries, holidays, Nigeria ... antibiotic and cycloplegic eye drops, antibiotic ointment at night and .... Adeoti C. O, Bello T. O., Ashaye A. O. Blinding ... Can fireworks-related injuries to children during ...

  5. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while doing things like skiing, playing soccer or football, and jumping on a trampoline. When you injure ... severity of the injury, age, physical condition, medical history, and other injuries or illnesses. People who are ...

  6. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Knee Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Knee Injuries What's in ... can do to protect them. What's in a Knee? The knee is a joint , actually the largest ...

  7. Strain comparisons in aquaculture species: a manual

    OpenAIRE

    Ponzoni, R.W.; James, J.W.; Nguyen, N.H.; Mekkawy, W.; Khaw, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    When different strains or breeds of a particular species are available, the best choice is seldom immediately obvious for producers. Scientists are also interested in the relative performance of different strains because it provides a basis for recommendations to producers and it often stimulates the conduct of work aimed at unraveling the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the expression of such differences. Hence, strain or breed comparisons of some sort are frequently conducted. ...

  8. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E

    2001-10-01

    To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (pinjury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (pinjury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less.

  9. Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.

  10. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Xavier; L Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume

    2015-12-01

    Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP.

  11. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    injuries. Coaches should be cognisant of overtraining, vary day-to-day training routines to decrease repetitive musculoskeletal stress, focus on motor skills with equal emphasis on speed and efficiency of movement, and use drills that reinforce sport-specific, decision making processes to minimise mental mistakes. Conditioning programs that emphasise a combination of power, acceleration, flexibility, technical skill, functional capacity and injury prevention are recommended. Due to the limited body of knowledge presently available on this sport, a greater focus on injury surveillance would provide a clearer picture of injury causation and effective management procedures, leading toward safer participation and successful player development.

  12. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  13. Trampoline-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, B J; Davis, J W

    1995-08-01

    Two hundred and seventeen patients who had sustained an injury during the recreational use of a trampoline were managed in the emergency room of Logan Regional Hospital in Logan, Utah, from January 1991 through December 1992. We retrospectively reviewed the charts and radiographs of these patients to categorize the injuries. Additional details regarding the injuries of seventy-two patients (33 per cent) were obtained by means of a telephone interview with use of a questionnaire. The injuries occurred from February through November, with the peak incidence in July. The patients were eighteen months to forty-five years old (average, ten years old); ninety-four patients (43 per cent) were five to nine years old. Eighty-four patients (39 per cent) sustained a fracture; fifty-four (25 per cent), a sprain or strain; forty-five (21 per cent), a laceration; and thirty-four (16 per cent), a contusion. Fifty-seven injuries (26 per cent) involved the elbow or forearm; forty-six (21 per cent), the head or neck; forty (18 per cent), the ankle or foot; thirty-three (15 per cent), the knee or leg; nineteen (9 per cent), the trunk or back; thirteen (6 per cent), the shoulder or arm; and nine (4 per cent), the wrist or hand. Thirteen patients (6 per cent) had a back injury, but none of them had a permanent neurological deficit. One patient who had an ocular injury was transferred to a tertiary care center. One hundred and fifty-six patients (72 per cent) were evaluated radiographically, fifteen (7 per cent) were admitted to the hospital, and thirteen (6 per cent) had an operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Footwear traction and lower extremity noncontact injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannop, John W; Luo, Geng; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2013-11-01

    Football is the most popular high school sport; however, it has the highest rate of injury. Speculation has been prevalent that foot fixation due to high footwear traction contributes to injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the athlete's specific footwear traction (measured with their own shoes on the field of play) and lower extremity noncontact injury in high school football. For 3 yr, 555 high school football athletes had their footwear traction measured on the actual field of play at the start of the season, and any injury the athletes suffered during a game was recorded. Lower extremity noncontact injury rates, grouped based on the athlete's specific footwear traction (both translational and rotational), were compared. For translational traction, injury rate reached a peak of 23.3 injuries/1000 game exposures within the midrange of translational traction, before decreasing to 5.0 injuries/1000 game exposures in the high range of traction. For rotational traction, there was a steady increase in injury rate as footwear traction increased, starting at 4.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at low traction and reaching 19.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at high traction. A relationship exists between footwear traction and noncontact lower extremity injury, with increases in rotational traction leading to a greater injury rate and increases in translational traction leading to a decrease in injury. It is recommended that athletes consider selecting footwear with the lowest rotational traction values for which no detriment in performance results.

  15. Trampoline-related injuries in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Robert; Schalamon, Johannes; Singer, Georg; Huber, Sarah S; Spitzer, Peter; Höllwarth, Michael E

    2009-10-01

    Recommendations to prevent trampoline injuries were given since the 1970s. However, despite these educational efforts, safety recommendations seem to be ignored and the number of trampoline injuries is increasing. All children referred to our department for injuries related to trampolines over a period of 3 years were included. The patients' records were reviewed and a questionnaire was sent out in order to gain additional information. Injuries were classified as severe and mild. A total of 265 children (46% m, 54% f) with a median age of 8.2 years (range 1 to 14) were included. The injury rate was continuously growing from the year 2005 (10.6%) to 2007 (58.1%). Most of the injuries were recorded between April and September with a peak of injuries in August. Seventy-five percent of all accidents happened in the afternoon; 40% of the injuries were classified as severe, 60% as mild. Nets or equal security devices were used in 56.6%. Trampolining is associated with a significant risk for bodily harm at any age and results in severe injuries in 40% of cases. Though there may be still room for improvement in safety recommendations, all attempts over a period of more than 30 years to reduce the number of trampoline-related backyard injuries failed and the incidence is still increasing. At present, trampolines cannot be made safe for recreational activities and are of an unacceptable risk even under supervision.

  16. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct...

  17. Injury patterns in children with frequent emergency department visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B

    2006-01-01

    -14 years. Information on all ED visits was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry. Injury type, place of accident, injury mechanism, admission, and distance to ED were compared between children with frequent ED visits (five or more during the three years) and children with only one visit...... less severe injuries and more dislocations, sprains, and strains....

  18. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  1. Skateboarding injuries: An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Kristin M; Meyers, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    This in-depth literature review shows that skateboarding has experienced intermittent periods of popularity, with an estimated 6-15 million skateboarders in the US currently involved at all levels of recreational play and competition. Head trauma accounts for ∼ 3.5-13.1% of all skateboarding injuries. Injury occurs most often to the upper extremity (55-63%), whereas thoracoabdominal and spine injuries account for 1.5-2.9% of all trauma and lower extremity injuries occur 17-26% of the time. Few fatal injuries (1.1%) have been reported, oftentimes resulting from traumatic head injuries incurred from collisions with motor vehicles. Although skateparks may be perceived as a safer alternative to street skateboarding, injuries still occur when the skateboarder collides with an object or falls from the board. Factors leading to trauma include fatigue and overuse, age and skill level, inadequate medical care, environmental conditions, equipment concerns, lack of fitness and training, and the detrimental behavior of the competitor. Although not all skateboarding injuries are avoidable, numerous opportunities exist to instill safety involving education, instruction, and supervision and the proper use of protective gear to reduce predisposition to trauma. Future research recommendations include a more standardized data collection system, as well as an increased focus on kinetic analysis of the sport. Legislation involving helmet laws and the increased investment in a safer environment for the skateboarder may also assist in reducing injury in this sport.

  2. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  3. Obesity and occupational injury: a prospective cohort study of 69,515 public sector employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kouvonen

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight are suggested to increase the risk of occupational injury but longitudinal evidence to confirm this is rare. We sought to evaluate obesity and overweight as risk factors for occupational injuries.A total of 69,515 public sector employees (80% women responded to a survey in 2000-2002, 2004 or 2008. Body mass index (kg/m(2 was derived from self-reported height and weight and was linked to records of subsequent occupational injuries obtained from national registers. Different injury types, locations and events or exposures (the manner in which the injury was produced or inflicted were analyzed by body mass index category adjusting for baseline socio-demographic characteristics, work characteristics, health-risk behaviors, physical and mental health, insomnia symptoms, and sleep duration. During the mean follow-up of 7.8 years (SD = 3.2, 18% of the employees (N = 12,204 recorded at least one occupational injury. Obesity was associated with a higher overall risk of occupational injury; multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR 1.21 (95% CI 1.14-1.27. A relationship was observed for bone fractures (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.10-1.70, dislocations, sprains and strains (HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.25-1.49, concussions and internal injuries (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.11-1.44, injuries to lower extremities (HR = 1.62; 95%: 1.46-1.79 and injuries to whole body or multiple sites (HR = 1.37; 95%: 1.10-1.70. Furthermore, obesity was associated with a higher risk of injuries caused by slipping, tripping, stumbling and falling (HR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.40-1.73, sudden body movement with or without physical stress (HR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.10-1.41 and shock, fright, violence, aggression, threat or unexpected presence (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.03-1.72. The magnitude of the associations between overweight and injuries was smaller, but the associations were generally in the same direction as those of obesity.Obese employees record more occupational injuries than those with

  4. Imaging of hamstring injuries: therapeutic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulouris, George [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and General Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Connell, David [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Though recent research into the diagnosis and management of hamstring disorders has resulted in early and accurate recognition of injury, hamstring strain remains the most common form of muscle injury in the active population. With prompt recognition of hamstring strain, an appropriate rest and rehabilitation routine may be devised by the sports clinician in the hope of avoiding future and possibly more debilitating injury. As such, imaging has played a pivotal role in assisting athletes, both elite and recreational, in returning to activity expeditiously. (orig.)

  5. Imaging of hamstring injuries: therapeutic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulouris, George; Connell, David

    2006-01-01

    Though recent research into the diagnosis and management of hamstring disorders has resulted in early and accurate recognition of injury, hamstring strain remains the most common form of muscle injury in the active population. With prompt recognition of hamstring strain, an appropriate rest and rehabilitation routine may be devised by the sports clinician in the hope of avoiding future and possibly more debilitating injury. As such, imaging has played a pivotal role in assisting athletes, both elite and recreational, in returning to activity expeditiously. (orig.)

  6. Whiplash Injuries: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash injuries remain a significant public health problem throughout the developed industrialized world, with significant socioeconomic consequences. Studies looking at the natural history of whiplash injuries have suffered from problems of selection bias, retrospective reviewing and unclear outcomes. Etiology continues to be controversial, largely because of the misconception that all soft tissue injuries heal within six weeks. Recent studies have implicated the cervical facet joint as a cause of whiplash injury pain. A recent treatment study that successfully eliminated whiplash-associated facet joint pain demonstrated abnormal psychological profiles secondary to pain which normalized with successful pain elimination. The impact of compensation on recovery remains controversial, while the concept that mild traumatic brain injury occurs in the absence of loss of consciousness has been largely refuted. The Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders recently published a report in which the scientific literature was exhaustively reviewed and has made recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of whiplash and its associated disorders. The Quebec Task Force highlighted the paucity of good scientific evidence; however, they still provided consensus treatment guidelines, which have not been validated. There continues to be a need for further research.

  7. Recommender Systems for Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Technology enhanced learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test sociotechnical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of both individuals and organisations. It is therefore an application domain that generally covers technologies that support all forms of teaching and learning activities. Since information retrieval (in terms of searching for relevant learning resources to support teachers or learners) is a pivotal activity in TEL, the deployment of recommender systems has attracted increased interest. This brief attempts to provide an introduction to recommender systems for TEL settings, as well as to highlight their particularities compared to recommender systems for other application domains.

  8. 1990 recommendations of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Main Commission of ICRP finalised its new recommendations during its November 1990 meeting. The recommendations will appear in the Annals of the ICRP in 1991 as Publication 60. This paper represents a personal summary of these recommendations. It covers the basic biological risk estimates and the conceptual framework of the system of radiological protection, the definition of radiation detriment and its use both in the definition of radiation quantities and in the establishment of the dose limits adopted by the Main Commissions. (author)

  9. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  10. Paragliding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  11. Combination of radiation injuries: pathogenesis, clinic, therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyba, A.F.; Farshatova, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    Modern notions on combined radiation injuries (CRI) are presented. Characteristic of injurious factors of nuclear explosion and common regularities of the CRI origination is given. The data on the CRI clinical peculiarities, diagnostics and treatment, principles of medical assistance for the injured on the stages of medical evacuation and recommendations on rehabilitation are presented

  12. Injuries in karate: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Ornstein, Jodie

    2018-05-22

    to identify all studies of Karate injuries and assess injury rates, types, location, and causes. Six electronic and four grey literature databases were searched. Two reviewers independently assessed titles/abstracts, abstracted data and assessed risk-of-bias with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Average injury rates/1000AE (AE = athletic-encounter) and/1000minutesAE, injury location and type weighted by study size were calculated. In competitions rates of injury/1000AE and/1000 minutesAE were similar for males (111.4/1000AE, 75.4/1000 minAE) and females (105.8/1000AE, 72.8/1000 minAE). Location of injury rates/1000AE for males were 44.0 for head/neck, 11.9 lower extremities, 8.1 torso and 5.4 upper extremities and were similar for females: 41.2 head/neck, 12.4 lower extremities, 9.1 torso and 6.3 upper extremities. Injury rates varied widely by study. Rates/1000AE for type of injury were contusions/abrasions/lacerations/bruises/tooth avulsion for males (68.1) and females (30.4); hematomas/bleeding/epistaxis males (11.4) and females (12.1); strains/sprains males (3.5) and females (0.1); dislocations males (2.9) and females (0.9); concussions males (2.5) and females (3.9); and fractures males (2.9) and females (1.4). Punches were a more common mechanism of injury for males (59.8) than females (40.8) and kicks similar (males 19.7, females 21.7). Weighted averages were not calculated for weight class or belt colour because there were too few studies. Nineteen injury surveys reported annual injury rates from 30% to rates ten times higher but used different reporting methods. Studies provided no data to explain wide rate ranges. Studies need to adopt one injury definition, one data-collection form, and collect comprehensive data for each study for both training and competitions. More data are needed to measure the effect of weight, age and experience on injuries, rates and types of injury during training, and for competitors with high injury rates. RCTs are needed of

  13. IRCAD recommendation on safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Claudius; Wakabayashi, Go; Asbun, Horacio J; Dallemagne, Bernard; Demartines, Nicolas; Diana, Michele; Fuks, David; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Goumard, Claire; Kaneko, Hironori; Memeo, Riccardo; Resende, Alexandre; Scatton, Olivier; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Soubrane, Olivier; Tanabe, Minoru; van den Bos, Jacqueline; Weiss, Helmut; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Marescaux, Jacques; Pessaux, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    An expert recommendation conference was conducted to identify factors associated with adverse events during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with the goal of deriving expert recommendations for the reduction of biliary and vascular injury. Nineteen hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgeons from high-volume surgery centers in six countries comprised the Research Institute Against Cancer of the Digestive System (IRCAD) Recommendations Group. Systematic search of PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase was conducted. Using nominal group technique, structured group meetings were held to identify key items for safer LC. Consensus was achieved when 80% of respondents ranked an item as 1 or 2 (Likert scale 1-4). Seventy-one IRCAD HPB course participants assessed the expert recommendations which were compared to responses of 37 general surgery course participants. The IRCAD recommendations were structured in seven statements. The key topics included exposure of the operative field, appropriate use of energy device and establishment of the critical view of safety (CVS), systematic preoperative imaging, cholangiogram and alternative techniques, role of partial and dome-down (fundus-first) cholecystectomy. Highest consensus was achieved on the importance of the CVS as well as dome-down technique and partial cholecystectomy as alternative techniques. The put forward IRCAD recommendations may help to promote safe surgical practice of LC and initiate specific training to avoid adverse events. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. Probabilistic approaches to recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Nicola; Ritacco, Ettore

    2014-01-01

    The importance of accurate recommender systems has been widely recognized by academia and industry, and recommendation is rapidly becoming one of the most successful applications of data mining and machine learning. Understanding and predicting the choices and preferences of users is a challenging task: real-world scenarios involve users behaving in complex situations, where prior beliefs, specific tendencies, and reciprocal influences jointly contribute to determining the preferences of users toward huge amounts of information, services, and products. Probabilistic modeling represents a robus

  15. Use of cervical collar after whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak-Wójtowicz, Anna; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław Michał; Materek, Magdalena; Pietras, Marta; Bażant, Katarzyna

    2014-08-08

    Whiplash injuries, also known as neck sprains and strains, are currently some of the most common injuries of the cervical spine. Mechanism of injury is still controversial and current treatment methods do not provide satisfactory results. In this article we present QTF classification of related disorders, epidemiological data and treatment methods. We described basic principles of using a soft collar, goals and effects of collar use and potential complications ensuing from immobilization. Authors reviewed publications comparing the effects of collar use with other methods of treatment and physiotherapy following whiplash injury.

  16. A Hybrid Recommender System Based on User-Recommender Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu; Xu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are used to make recommendations about products, information, or services for users. Most existing recommender systems implicitly assume one particular type of user behavior. However, they seldom consider user-recommender interactive scenarios in real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid recommender system based on user-recommender interaction and evaluate its performance with recall and diversity metrics. First, we define the user-recommender interaction...

  17. Whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  18. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trauma can happen at home, school, play or sports. Most common injuries are scratches to the cornea or blunt trauma. Approved and tested eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and ...

  19. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat...

  20. Trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-12-01

    To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1-62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high-risk activity. However, a ban is not supported. The importance of having safety guidelines for the use of trampolines is emphasised.

  1. Hypopituitarism in Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    While hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was previously considered rare, it is now thought to be a major cause of treatable morbidity among TBI survivors. Consequently, recommendations for assessment of pituitary function and replacement in TBI were recently introduced. Given...

  2. The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Wan

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: A potential for hamstring injury exists during the late swing phase of sprinting. Peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting are negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility across individuals. The magnitude of peak muscle strains is different among hamstring muscles in sprinting, which may explain the different injury rate among hamstring muscles.

  3. Eficiência e competitividade de variantes espontâneos isolados de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp recomendadas para a cultura da soja (Glycine max Effectiveness and competitiveness of spontaneous mutants isolated from Bradyrhizobium spp strains recommended for soybean crop (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Gomes de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    inoculated with the same proportion of inoculants (1:1; v/v containing just one of the spontaneous mutants or in different combinations among them in comparison to a competitive strain (SEMIA 587 and 5019. Through the evaluation of nodulation, dry weight yields of plants, total N in plant and nodules occupancy, its was verified that the determinant factor for microorganisms symbiotic effectiveness in co-inoculated treatments was the synergism and the antagonistic interaction and not the nodule occupancy. It was also possible to select effective an competitive spontaneous mutants for soybean from parental strains recommended for commercial inoculants.

  4. Prospective study of injury in volleyball players: 6 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O

    2015-01-01

    The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.

  5. Summary (and) recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report looks at the Health and Safety record at the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston. The last outside report was by Pochin in 1978 which recommended that staffing for health physicists and maintenance staff should be increased and that some buildings where solid and liquid radioactive wastes were processed should be replaced. A new facility to process contaminated heavy equipment was also recommended. This report finds that none of the recommendations have been fully implemented. It also lists accidents, fires and worker contamination. It is concluded that some of the problems are that nuclear weapons production is inherently unsafe and cannot be made safe, that the secrecy surrounding the establishments' safety record is not good for improving it and finally the report calls for production at Aldermaston to be halted. (UK)

  6. Archetypal Game Recommender Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary users (players, consumers) of digital games have thousands of products to choose from, which makes nding games that t their interests challenging. Towards addressing this challenge, in this paper two dierent formulations of Archetypal Analysis for Top-L recommender tasks using implicit...... feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games....... Compared to four other recommender models (nearest neighbor, two popularity mod- els, random baseline), the archetype based models provide the highest recall rates showing that Archetypal Analysis can be successfully applied for Top-L recommendation purposes...

  7. Recommending Multidimensional Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Arnaud; Marcel, Patrick; Negre, Elsa

    Interactive analysis of datacube, in which a user navigates a cube by launching a sequence of queries is often tedious since the user may have no idea of what the forthcoming query should be in his current analysis. To better support this process we propose in this paper to apply a Collaborative Work approach that leverages former explorations of the cube to recommend OLAP queries. The system that we have developed adapts Approximate String Matching, a technique popular in Information Retrieval, to match the current analysis with the former explorations and help suggesting a query to the user. Our approach has been implemented with the open source Mondrian OLAP server to recommend MDX queries and we have carried out some preliminary experiments that show its efficiency for generating effective query recommendations.

  8. New Insulin Delivery Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Kreugel, Gillian; Grassi, Giorgio; Halimi, Serge; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Laurence J; Smith, Mike J; Wellhoener, Regine; Bode, Bruce W; Hirsch, Irl B; Kalra, Sanjay; Ji, Linong; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    Many primary care professionals manage injection or infusion therapies in patients with diabetes. Few published guidelines have been available to help such professionals and their patients manage these therapies. Herein, we present new, practical, and comprehensive recommendations for diabetes injections and infusions. These recommendations were informed by a large international survey of current practice and were written and vetted by 183 diabetes experts from 54 countries at the Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy: Expert Recommendations (FITTER) workshop held in Rome, Italy, in 2015. Recommendations are organized around the themes of anatomy, physiology, pathology, psychology, and technology. Key among the recommendations are that the shortest needles (currently the 4-mm pen and 6-mm syringe needles) are safe, effective, and less painful and should be the first-line choice in all patient categories; intramuscular injections should be avoided, especially with long-acting insulins, because severe hypoglycemia may result; lipohypertrophy is a frequent complication of therapy that distorts insulin absorption, and, therefore, injections and infusions should not be given into these lesions and correct site rotation will help prevent them; effective long-term therapy with insulin is critically dependent on addressing psychological hurdles upstream, even before insulin has been started; inappropriate disposal of used sharps poses a risk of infection with blood-borne pathogens; and mitigation is possible with proper training, effective disposal strategies, and the use of safety devices. Adherence to these new recommendations should lead to more effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  11. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  12. Review of ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Events in both the scientific world and in the public domain have added pressure to review the recommendations of the ICRP on which radiation protection legislation in most countries is founded. A brief editorial pleads for clarity in ICRP recommendations, suggests the use solely of cumulative with age individual occupational dose limits, suggests that collective doses including both occupational and to the public should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, judged on quantitative economic grounds, and suggests the setting of a probability for serious accidents which may be disregarded in planning. (UK)

  13. Badminton injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  14. Complete Genomic Sequences of H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus Strains Used as Vaccine Strains in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Takashi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kokado, Hiroshi

    2018-03-22

    We sequenced the eight segments of influenza A virus strains A/equine/Ibaraki/1/2007 and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, which are strains of the Florida sublineage clades 1 and 2 of the H3N8 subtype equine influenza virus. These strains have been used as vaccine strains in Japan since 2016 in accordance with World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations. Copyright © 2018 Nemoto et al.

  15. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Hamstring muscle strains in professional football players: a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marcus C C W; Zarins, Bertram; Powell, John W; Kenyon, Charles D

    2011-04-01

    Investigations into hamstring strain injuries at the elite level exist in sports such as Australian Rules football, rugby, and soccer, but no large-scale study exists on the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Injury rates will vary between different player positions, times in the season, and across different playing situations. Descriptive epidemiology study. Between 1989 and 1998, injury data were prospectively collected by athletic trainers for every NFL team and recorded in the NFL's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected included team, date of injury, activity the player was engaged in at the time of injury, injury severity, position played, mechanism of injury, and history of previous injury. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). An athlete-exposure was defined as 1 athlete participating in either 1 practice or 1 game. Over the 10-year study period 1716 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.77 per 1000 A-E. More than half (51.3%) of hamstring strains occurred during the 7-week preseason. The preseason practice IR was significantly elevated compared with the regular-season practice IR (0.82/1000 A-E and 0.18/1000 A-E, respectively). The most commonly injured positions were the defensive secondary, accounting for 23.1% of the injuries; the wide receivers, accounting for 20.8%; and special teams, constituting 13.0% of the injuries in the study. Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in football, with the majority of injuries occurring during the short preseason. In particular, the speed position players, such as the wide receivers and defensive secondary, as well as players on the special teams units, are at elevated risk for injury. These positions and situations with a higher risk of injury provide foci for preventative interventions.

  17. Radiology and injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The material available was grouped according to body regions and sport types. The first part contains data on radiography of the injured parts of the body and is intended to be a guide in the radiographic part of the diagnosis and treatment of the injured person. It also contains data on diagnostic pitfalls and recommendations for a comprehensive clarification of X-ray findings after an injury. The second part describes the sport types and hazards. Where possible, the injuries were documented by case studies and literature on the types of injury. The third part contains a collection of X-ray pictures with examples of various injuries. The presentation corresponds to the one of an up-to-date major text book on skeleton radiology. The pictures are presented as a series of problems for the reader to test his/her own diagnostic capabilities before he/she will read the solution to each example. With 411 figs [de

  18. Privacy enhanced recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Beye, Michael; Veugen, Thijs; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems are widely used in online applications since they enable personalized service to the users. The underlying collaborative filtering techniques work on user’s data which are mostly privacy sensitive and can be misused by the service provider. To protect the privacy of the users, we

  19. Recommendations for Alternative Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Ed; And Others

    Following a review of the mathematics topics taught in accounting, electronics, auto, food and clothing, and metals courses at Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon, recommendations were made to grant one semester of mathematics credit for completing a two-year sequence of these courses. The other required semester of mathematics should be…

  20. Towards Geosocial Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.; de By, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    The usage of social networks sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, and geosocial networks (GSNs), such as Foursquare, has increased tremendously over the past years. The willingness of users to share their current locations and experiences facilitate the creation of geographical recommender systems based

  1. Search and Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2014-01-01

    In just a little over half a century, the field of information retrieval has experienced spectacular growth and success, with IR applications such as search engines becoming a billion-dollar industry in the past decades. Recommender systems have seen an even more meteoric rise to success with wide...

  2. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  3. Privacy in Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeckmans, Arjan; Beye, Michael; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Ramzan, Naeem; van Zwol, Roelof; Lee, Jong-Seok; Clüver, Kai; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    In many online applications, the range of content that is offered to users is so wide that a need for automated recommender systems arises. Such systems can provide a personalized selection of relevant items to users. In practice, this can help people find entertaining movies, boost sales through

  4. The ICRP 2007 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2007-01-01

    The last comprehensive International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations have been published in 1991(1). Since that time new data in physics and biology that are relevant for radiological protection have appeared in the scientific literature. Also, the general thinking about safety standards at the workplace as well as for the protection of the public has developed. Thus, a review of the recommendations is needed. However, as the present standards have worked well, these new recommendations should build on the present ones. Only a process of further development should take place allowing for the following key points: - new biological and physical information and trends in the setting of safety standards; - improvement in the presentation of the recommendations; as much stability in the recommendations as is consistent with the new information and environmental aspects will be included. The fundamental principles of radiological protection will remain the same as they have been described in ICRP publication 60(1): Justification: Actions involving new exposures or changes in exposures of individuals have to be justified in advance. A positive net benefit must result. Optimisation: Exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable and should be optimised in relation to with dose constraints. Dose limits: The values will not to be changed from Publication 60. Dose constraints: Development of the concept proposed in Publication 60 will be explained. The ICRP Committees have prepared foundation documents in the fields for which they are responsible and their members have the corresponding expertise. These foundation documents will support the decisions and explain the various statements of the Main Commission in a broader sense. Some of them will be published as Annexes to the recommendations (Annex A: Biological and Epidemiological Information on Health Risks Attributable to Ionising Radiation; Annex B: Quantities used in Radiological

  5. The ICRP 2007 recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, C. [Chairman of ICRP Committee 2, Institute of Science and Ethics, University Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The last comprehensive International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations have been published in 1991(1). Since that time new data in physics and biology that are relevant for radiological protection have appeared in the scientific literature. Also, the general thinking about safety standards at the workplace as well as for the protection of the public has developed. Thus, a review of the recommendations is needed. However, as the present standards have worked well, these new recommendations should build on the present ones. Only a process of further development should take place allowing for the following key points: - new biological and physical information and trends in the setting of safety standards; - improvement in the presentation of the recommendations; as much stability in the recommendations as is consistent with the new information and environmental aspects will be included. The fundamental principles of radiological protection will remain the same as they have been described in ICRP publication 60(1): Justification: Actions involving new exposures or changes in exposures of individuals have to be justified in advance. A positive net benefit must result. Optimisation: Exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable and should be optimised in relation to with dose constraints. Dose limits: The values will not to be changed from Publication 60. Dose constraints: Development of the concept proposed in Publication 60 will be explained. The ICRP Committees have prepared foundation documents in the fields for which they are responsible and their members have the corresponding expertise. These foundation documents will support the decisions and explain the various statements of the Main Commission in a broader sense. Some of them will be published as Annexes to the recommendations (Annex A: Biological and Epidemiological Information on Health Risks Attributable to Ionising Radiation; Annex B: Quantities used in Radiological

  6. Management of whiplash injuries presenting to accident and emergency departments in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, A; Holt, M

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Questionnaires were sent to 76 full time accident and emergency staff across Wales inquiring into their management of soft tissue sprains/strains of the neck and soft collar use. Results: The overall response rate was 74% (SHO 70%, registrar 65%, consultant 100%). Half of consultants and more than half of the middle grade and junior staff reported soft collar use in this condition. As required wear was most commonly recommended and instructions for use ranged from one day only to until the patient was pain free. Conclusion: The study recommends treatment protocols for whiplash injuries prescribing regular analgesia, early home exercises with the help of an advice sheet, and physiotherapy if symptoms persist. PMID:12835348

  7. Recommendations for intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.; Descalzo, A.; Peralta, O.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is set a 'radiological protection criteria' for patients and staff involved for the purpose of the doses involved are as low as reasonably achievable considering the limitations that each technique and its objectives. Establish criteria for injury prevention in the patient's skin for long exposures and intense when complications arise in the process. Set levels for some well Dimensional procedures. Establish procedures for patient dosimetry control and operator personnel. These criteria will be established by the interventional radiology team with participation of specialists in radiation protection, medical physics, dosimetry and X rays equipment specialists

  8. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  9. Chilling injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... ROS avoidance genes play pivotal role in defense mechanism against chilling injury derived oxidative stress. ... Low temperature storage is a postharvest technology ..... crops is highly dependent on ethylene production and.

  10. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Power Saws for 2001 05/15/2002 Nail Gun Related Injuries and Deaths Home Maintenance & Construction 05/ ... Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: 800- ...

  11. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  12. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  13. Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-10-01

    Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p injuries (n = 2,565) showed that the oldest categories (19-22 and 23-30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to "dropping" and "pinching" in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines.

  14. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  15. Burns injury in children: Is antibiotic prophylaxis recommended?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is the most frequent complication in burn patients. There is a lack of guidelines on the use of systemic antibiotics in children to prevent this complication. Patients and Methods: A prospective study is carried out on 80 patients to evaluate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the control of infections. Results: The mean age was 34 months (9 months to 8 years. There was a male predominance with sex ratio of 1.66. The mean burn surface size burn was 26.5% with total burn surface area ranging from 5% to 33%, respectively. According to American Burn Association 37% (30/80 were severe burns with second and third degree burns >10% of the total surface body area in children aged <10 years old. Scalds represented 76.2% (61/80 of the burns. Burns by hot oil were 11 cases (13.7%, while 8 cases (10% were flame burns. The random distribution of the groups was as follow: Group A (amoxicilline + clavulanic acid = 25 cases, Group B (oxacilline = 20 cases and Group C (no antibiotics = 35 cases. Total infection rate was 20% (16/80, distributed as follow: 8 cases (50% in Group C, 5 cases (31.2% in Group A and 3 cases in Group B (18.7%. Infection rate in each individual group was: 22.9% (8 cases/35 in Group C, 20% (5 cases/25 in Group A and 15% (3 cases/20 in Group B (P = 0.7. They were distributed as follow: Septicaemia 12 cases/16 (75%, wound infection 4 cases/16 (25%. Bacteria isolated were with a decreasing order: Staphylococcus aureus (36.3%, Pseudomonas (27.2%, Escherichia coli (18.1%, Klebsiella (9% and Enterobacteria (9%. There is a tendency to a delayed cicatrisation (P = 0.07 in case of hot oil burns (65.18 ± 120 days than by flame (54.33 ± 19.8 days than by hot water (29.55 ± 26.2 days. Otherwise no toxic shock syndrome was recorded in this study. Conclusion: It is concluded that adequate and careful nursing of burn wounds seems to be sufficient to prevent complications and to obtain cicatrisation. Antibiotics are indicated only to treat confirmed infections.

  16. Femoral head injuries: Which treatment strategy can be recommended?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henle, Philipp; Kloen, Peter; Siebenrock, Klaus A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite different operative and non-operative treatment regimens, the outcome after femoral head fractures has changed little over the past decades. The initial trauma itself as well as secondary changes such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis or heterotopic ossification is often

  17. Head, Neck, Face, and Shoulder Injuries in Female and Male Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havkins, Sabina B.

    1986-01-01

    Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)

  18. Modification of γ-induced mutagenesis in Ames test-strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtaev, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    Glycerine and cysteamine protective effect on mutagenesis was studied in 3 strains of Salmonella typhimurium under γ-radiation. Glycerine modifying effect was shown to be not similar for various test-strains and depended on DNA injury nature. DNA complex injuries were shown to play significant role in mutagenesis of TA100 and TA102 strains. Absence of cysteamine modifying effect on γ-induced mutagenesis testified to cysteamine effect on enzyme balance. 20 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  19. The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in sprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Xianglin Wan; Feng Qu; William E. Garrett; Hui Liu; Bing Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effect of hamstring flexibility on the peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting, until now, remained unknown, which limited our understanding of risk factors of hamstring muscle strain injury (hamstring injury). As a continuation of our previous study, this study was aimed to examine the relationship between hamstring flexibility and peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting. Methods: Ten male and 10 female college students participated in this study. Hamstring flexibili...

  20. Badali recommends simplified bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    A report on the variety of retail electricity bills across the province, authored by Salvatore Badali of Deloitte Consulting, was recently released by the Ontario Government. The report was commissioned by the Government to examine the underlying reasons for the significant format differences and the wide variation of fixed and variable charges among the approximately 95 local electricity distribution companies across the province. Regarding the appropriateness of the charges the report recommends common definitions for local distribution company (LDC) fixed and variable costs, and consideration of options for reducing LDC charges, mainly by consolidating the sector and sharing such services as customer billing, accounting and out sourcing operations. Seven recommendations deal with bill simplification. These include bills that are clear and easy to read and provide sufficient information for consumers to verify charges; promote energy conservation, e.g. by including historical information; allow comparisons between retail suppliers and distributors; accommodate revenue collection, marketing needs and other billing services. The report also recommends clearly defined and consistently used terminology for standardized line items, suggests ways to provide consumer information in a form useful for making energy conservation decisions, development of an LDC scorecard to enable stake holders to compare their own LDCs with LDCs around the province, creation of a conservation and bill calculation website, consideration of further use of shared services, and solutions to address the removal of line losses from invoices

  1. Badali recommends simplified bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-04-01

    A report on the variety of retail electricity bills across the province, authored by Salvatore Badali of Deloitte Consulting, was recently released by the Ontario Government. The report was commissioned by the Government to examine the underlying reasons for the significant format differences and the wide variation of fixed and variable charges among the approximately 95 local electricity distribution companies across the province. Regarding the appropriateness of the charges the report recommends common definitions for local distribution company (LDC) fixed and variable costs, and consideration of options for reducing LDC charges, mainly by consolidating the sector and sharing such services as customer billing, accounting and out sourcing operations. Seven recommendations deal with bill simplification. These include bills that are clear and easy to read and provide sufficient information for consumers to verify charges; promote energy conservation, e.g. by including historical information; allow comparisons between retail suppliers and distributors; accommodate revenue collection, marketing needs and other billing services. The report also recommends clearly defined and consistently used terminology for standardized line items, suggests ways to provide consumer information in a form useful for making energy conservation decisions, development of an LDC scorecard to enable stake holders to compare their own LDCs with LDCs around the province, creation of a conservation and bill calculation website, consideration of further use of shared services, and solutions to address the removal of line losses from invoices.

  2. Women in agriculture: risks for occupational injury within the context of gendered role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C A; Carruth, A K; Reed, D B

    2002-02-01

    Women continue to make significant contributions to farming. Not only do women participate in the traditional roles of homemaker, caregiver, and wife, they also work side-by-side with their spouses in keeping the farm viable. More daughters are entering the farming business, either as partners with other family members or as independent operators. Each year since the United States Department of Agriculture began including gender in the Census of Agriculture, the percentage of women engaged in agriculture has increased, and women's participation in agriculture is increasing faster than in other business segments. This article examines the role of women in agriculture and how sociocultural, economic, and physical factors may affect women's exposure to injury-producing events and their knowledge and beliefs about injury prevention. To date, few studies have examined work-related unintentional injuries among farm women. Even less is known about the extent to which occupational risks are recognized when women seek medical care. Differences in size and stature, increased physical strain, and low maximal oxygen uptake may predispose women to ergonomic-related injuries. Limitations of current research and recommendations for future analyses are discussed.

  3. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Although there have been significant advances in management, associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. Extracranial injuries, especially chest injuries increase mortality in patients with TBI in both short.

  4. Too many pediatric trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnival, R A; Street, K A; Schunk, J E

    1999-05-01

    Recent reports note a dramatic increase in the number of pediatric trampoline injuries (PTI) during the past several years. In 1996, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission estimates that 83 000 patients received treatment for trampoline injuries in US hospital emergency departments (EDs), and that approximately 75% of these patients were trampolines accounted for 99% of PTI. Most injuries (66%) occurred on the trampoline, 28% resulted from falls off, and 4% from imaginative mechanisms. One hundred eleven patients (15%) suffered severe injury (1990 Abbreviated Injury Scale value >/=3), usually of an extremity (89 out of 111). Fractures occurred in 324 patients (45%). Spinal injuries were common (12%), including 7 patients with cervical or thoracic fractures, and 1 with C7 paraplegia. Fractures were more frequently associated with falls off the trampoline, whereas spinal injuries more frequently occurred on the trampoline. Eighty patients (11%) required prehospital medical transport to our ED, 584 (80%) had ED radiographs, and 382 (53%) required pediatric surgical subspecialty involvement. Seventeen percent of PTI patients (125 out of 727) were admitted to the hospital, including 9 to the pediatric intensive care unit; 99 (14%) required one or more operations. Mean hospital stay was 2 days (range, 1-63 days); 24 stays (19%) were for >/=3 days. We estimate that the hospital charges for the acute medical care of PTI study patients at our institution totaled approximately $700 000. PTI are dramatically increasing in number, and result in considerable childhood morbidity. Most PTI occur on privately owned trampolines. Few, if any, safety recommendations for the trampoline are followed. We support recommendations for a ban on the recreational, school, and competitive pediatric use of trampolines.

  5. body injury rates in adolescent female football players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All football injuries requiring medical attention (including stiffness, strains, contusions and sprains) and/or the removal from a session, leading to training restriction, were .... This was a descriptive pilot study based on the results of the high-.

  6. Mobile Application Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    With the amount of mobile applications available increasing rapidly, users have to put a lot of effort into finding applications of interest. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how to aid users in the process of discovering new mobile applications by providing them with recommendations. A prototype system is then built as a proof-of-concept. The work of the thesis is divided into three phases where the aim of the first phase is to study related work and related systems to identify p...

  7. Clinical Recommendation: Vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Andrea; Romano, Mary

    2016-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis is a commonly encountered condition among prepubertal and adolescent females. The objective of this report is to provide the latest evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and adolescent females. In this systematic review we used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation evidence system. Vulvovaginal complaints are common in the pediatric and adolescent age group. The patient's age in conjunction with history and associated complaints will guide evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment. Treatment should include counseling on hygiene and voiding techniques as well as therapy for any specific pathogens identified. Copyright © 2016.

  8. The new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.

    1977-01-01

    The new ICRP recommendations are based on the concept of risk. The doses received by workers have to be justified and kept as low as practically achievable. The acceptable annual occupational risk is of the order of 10 -4 . This corresponds to an average annual dose equivalent of about 5 mSv(0.5 Rem). The annual dose equivalent limit for whole body irradiation will remain 50 mSv/year (5 Rem/year) provided that the average is about 1/10th of this value. The concept of the critical organ is abandoned and is replaced by the concept of equidetriment. (author)

  9. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  10. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus : US preventive services task force recommendation statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Gordis, Leon; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Harris, Russell; Isham, George; LeFevre, Michael L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Marion, Lucy N.; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Siu, Albert L.; Teutsch, Steven M.; Yawn, Barbara P.

    2008-01-01

    Description: Update of 2003 U. S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation about screening for gestational diabetes. Methods: The USPSTF weighed the evidence on maternal and neonatal benefits (reduction in preeclampsia, mortality, brachial plexus injury, clavicular fractures, admission

  11. Recommender Systems in Commercial Use

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial recommender systems are deployed by marketing teams to increase revenue and/or personalize user experience. Marketers evaluate recommender systems not on its algorithms but on how well the vendor‘s expertise and interfaces will support achieving business goals. Driven by a business model that pays based on recommendation success, vendors guide clients through continuous optimization of recommendations. While recommender technology is mature, the solutions and market are still young...

  12. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrette, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents conclusions and recommendations at the closing session of the NEA/OECD Workshop held at Fontenay-aux-Roses on 12-14 June 1995. The conclusions refer to issues like: public reaction to foodstuffs containing radioisotope concentrations under the danger standards, possible non-adherence of manufacturers, processors, distributors, et al, to the instructions and guidance from radiation protection specialists, integration of all the food chain factors in the elaboration of the emergency intervention programs, etc. Among the most significant recommendations the following may be mentioned: 1. Differences between different intervention levels and the maximum admissible levels agreed upon by national, regional or international nutrition authorities should be further studied; 2. Problems created by the Chernobyl accident (as for instance, the methods of treatment of food chain products containing unacceptable radioactivity concentrations) are still present and must be solved; 3. Further studies should be done on the socio-cultural aspects of the communication, particularly on the information in rural environment; 4. The preventive measures in agriculture should be implemented as rapidly as possible; 5. In elaborating programmes of agriculture countermeasures, the management of contaminated media, particularly, of forests and their effect on agriculture

  13. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  17. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  1. Mining and representing recommendations in actively evolving recommender systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems provide an automatic means of filtering out interesting items, usually based on past similarity of user ratings. In previous work, we have suggested a model that allows users to actively build a recommender network. Users express trust, obtain transparency, and grow (anonymous......) recommender connections. In this work, we propose mining such active systems to generate easily understandable representations of the recommender network. Users may review these representations to provide active feedback. This approach further enhances the quality of recommendations, especially as topics...... of interest change over time. Most notably, it extends the amount of control users have over the model that the recommender network builds of their interests....

  2. Trampoline exercise vs. strength training to reduce neck strain in fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Ylinen, Jari; Siitonen, Simo

    2006-01-01

    Fighter pilots' muscular strength and endurance are subjected to very high demands. Pilots' fatigued muscles are at higher risk for injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different training methods in reducing muscular loading during in-flight and cervical loading testing (CLT). There were 16 volunteer Finnish Air Force cadets who were divided into 2 groups: a strength training group (STG) and a trampoline training group (TTG). During the 6-wk training period, the STG performed dynamic flexion and extension and isometric rotation exercises, and the TTG performed trampoline bouncing exercises. During in-flight and CLT, muscle strain from the sternocleidomastoid, cervical erector spinae, trapezius, and thoracic erector spinae muscles was recorded with EMG. In-flight muscle strain in the STG after the training period decreased in the sternocleidomastoid 50%, cervical erector spinae 3%, trapezius 4%, and thoracic erector spinae 8%. In the TTG, the decrease was 41%, 30%, 20%, and 6%, respectively. In CLT, the results were similar. After a 3-mo follow-up period with intensive high +Gz flying, EMG during CLT was still lower than in baseline measurements. Both training methods were found to be effective in reducing muscle strain during in-flight and CLT, especially in the cervical muscles. There was no statistically significant difference between the training groups. Introduced exercises expand muscles' capacities in different ways and the authors recommend both strength and trampoline training programs to be included in fighter pilots' physical education programs.

  3. Firefighter injuries are not just a fireground problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, D M; Beach, T A C; Crosby, I; McGill, S M

    2015-01-01

    Linking firefighter injury reporting to general motion patterns may provide insight into potential injury mechanisms and the development of prevention strategies. To characterize the injuries sustained by members of a large Canadian metropolitan fire department over a 5-year span. Data were taken from injury reports filed by career firefighters between 2007 and 2011. Injuries were described by job duty, type, body part affected, and the general motion pattern employed at the time of injury (e.g. lifting). Of the 1311 injuries reported, 64% were categorized as sprains and strains (musculoskeletal disorders -MSDs), the most frequent of which affected the back (32%). Categorized by job duty, 65% of MSDs were sustained while working at the fire station or during physical training-related activities. Only 15% were attributed to fireground operations. Furthermore, the associated job duty could not differentiate the types of injuries sustained; back injuries occurred primarily while lifting, knee injuries while stepping, and shoulder injuries during pushing/pulling-related activities. Firefighter injuries are not just a fireground problem. Injury causation may be better understood by linking the injury location and type with motion patterns rather than job duties. This information could assist in developing general prevention strategies for the fire service.

  4. Fingertip Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Fingertip Injury Email to a friend * required fields ...

  5. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  6. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/IAEA/GSF/SIDA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Cereal Grain Protein Improvement by Nuclear Techniques was a follow-up to the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Seed Protein Improvement. It was initiated in 1969 and ended in 1981. The objectives of the meeting were to review and evaluate the achievements of the current and previous programmes in order to draw conclusions on the possibility of genetic improvement of cereal grain protein using nuclear techniques, to identify unsolved problems and to discuss and propose possible approaches for their solution. Through reviews and discussions, conclusions and recommendations were made by the participants

  7. Recommendations for skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Further to the reecommendations for determining the surface contamination of the skin and estimating the radiation exposure of the skin after contamination (SAAS-Mitt--89-16), measures for skin decontamination are recommended. They are necessary if (1) after simple decontamination by means of water, soap and brush without damaging the skin the surface contamination limits are exceeded and the radiation exposure to be expected for the undamaged healthy skin is estimated as to high, and if (2) a wound is contaminated. To remove skin contaminations, in general universally applicable, non-aggressive decontamination means and methods are sufficient. In special cases, nuclide-specific decontamination is required taking into account the properties of the radioactive substance

  8. Injury in the national basketball association: a 17-year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Mark C; Domb, Benjamin; Starkey, Chad; Callahan, Lisa; Allen, Answorth A

    2010-07-01

    Injury patterns in elite athletes over long periods continue to evolve. The goal of this study was to review of the injuries and medical conditions afflicting athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) over a 17-year period. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injuries and player demographic information were reported by each team's athletic trainer. Criteria for reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care. The demographics, frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Lateral ankle sprains were the most frequent orthopaedic injury (n, 1658; 13.2%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (n, 1493; 11.9%), lumbar strains (n, 999; 7.9%), and hamstring strains (n, 413; 3.3%). The most games missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (n, 10 370; 17.5%), lateral ankle sprains (n, 5223; 8.8%), knee sprains (n, 4369; 7.4%), and lumbar strains (n, 3933; 6.6%). No correlations were found between injury rate and player demographics, including age, height, weight, and NBA experience. Professional athletes in the NBA experience a high rate of game-related injuries. Patellofemoral inflammation is the most significant problem in terms of days lost in competition, whereas ankle sprains are the most common injury. True ligamentous injuries of the knee were surprisingly rare. Importantly, player demographics were not correlated with injury rates. Further investigation is necessary regarding the consequences and sport-specific treatment of various injuries in NBA players. Knowledge of these injury patterns can help to guide treatments and provide more accurate guidelines for an athlete to return to play.

  9. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety regulation

  10. Radiation-induced skin injury in the animal model of scleroderma: implications for post-radiotherapy fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanath; Kolozsvary, Andrew; Kohl, Robert; Lu, Mei; Brown, Stephen; Kim, Jae Ho

    2008-01-01

    Radiation therapy is generally contraindicated for cancer patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) such as scleroderma due to an increased risk of fibrosis. The tight skin (TSK) mouse has skin which, in some respects, mimics that of patients with scleroderma. The skin radiation response of TSK mice has not been previously reported. If TSK mice are shown to have radiation sensitive skin, they may prove to be a useful model to examine the mechanisms underlying skin radiation injury, protection, mitigation and treatment. The hind limbs of TSK and parental control C57BL/6 mice received a radiation exposure sufficient to cause approximately the same level of acute injury. Endpoints included skin damage scored using a non-linear, semi-quantitative scale and tissue fibrosis assessed by measuring passive leg extension. In addition, TGF-β1 cytokine levels were measured monthly in skin tissue. Contrary to our expectations, TSK mice were more resistant (i.e. 20%) to radiation than parental control mice. Although acute skin reactions were similar in both mouse strains, radiation injury in TSK mice continued to decrease with time such that several months after radiation there was significantly less skin damage and leg contraction compared to C57BL/6 mice (p < 0.05). Consistent with the expected association of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) with late tissue injury, levels of the cytokine were significantly higher in the skin of the C57BL/6 mouse compared to TSK mouse at all time points (p < 0.05). TSK mice are not recommended as a model of scleroderma involving radiation injury. The genetic and molecular basis for reduced radiation injury observed in TSK mice warrants further investigation particularly to identify mechanisms capable of reducing tissue fibrosis after radiation injury

  11. Recommendation in evolving online networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, An; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Recommender system is an effective tool to find the most relevant information for online users. By analyzing the historical selection records of users, recommender system predicts the most likely future links in the user-item network and accordingly constructs a personalized recommendation list for each user. So far, the recommendation process is mostly investigated in static user-item networks. In this paper, we propose a model which allows us to examine the performance of the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in evolving networks. We find that the recommendation accuracy in general decreases with time if the evolution of the online network fully depends on the recommendation. Interestingly, some randomness in users' choice can significantly improve the long-term accuracy of the recommendation algorithm. When a hybrid recommendation algorithm is applied, we find that the optimal parameter gradually shifts towards the diversity-favoring recommendation algorithm, indicating that recommendation diversity is essential to keep a high long-term recommendation accuracy. Finally, we confirm our conclusions by studying the recommendation on networks with the real evolution data.

  12. Ski and snowboard school programs: Injury surveillance and risk factors for grade-specific injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sran, R; Djerboua, M; Romanow, N; Mitra, T; Russell, K; White, K; Goulet, C; Emery, C; Hagel, B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate incidence rates and profile of school program ski and snowboard-related injuries by school grade group using a historical cohort design. Injuries were identified via Accident Report Forms completed by ski patrollers. Severe injury was defined as those with ambulance evacuation or recommending patient transport to hospital. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the school grade group-specific injury rates adjusting for risk factors (sex, activity, ability, and socioeconomic status) and accounting for the effect of clustering by school. Forty of 107 (37%) injuries reported were severe. Adolescents (grades 7-12) had higher crude injury rates (91 of 10 000 student-days) than children (grades 1-3: 25 of 10 000 student-days; grades 4-6: 65 of 10 000 student-days). Those in grades 1-3 had no severe injuries. Although the rate of injury was lower in grades 1-3, there were no statistically significant grade group differences in adjusted analyses. Snowboarders had a higher rate of injury compared with skiers, while higher ability level was protective. Participants in grades 1-3 had the lowest crude and adjusted injury rates. Students in grades 7-12 had the highest rate of overall and severe injuries. These results will inform evidence-based guidelines for school ski/snowboard program participation by school-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nutritional recommendations for divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardot, Dan; Zimmermann, Wes; Cox, Gregory R; Marks, Saul

    2014-08-01

    Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. Evidence is increasing that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. On the basis of daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3,500 kcal and 2,650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3-8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2-1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30 g amounts and timed appropriately after training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient-dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e., calcium and iron) may be advisable. Although sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid-intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multidisciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment, and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions.

  14. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  15. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  16. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... for More Information Resources for Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to ...

  17. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  18. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety

  19. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  20. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  1. The cervical facet capsule and its role in whiplash injury: a biomechanical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelstein, B A; Nightingale, R W; Richardson, W J; Myers, B S

    2000-05-15

    Cervical facet capsular strains were determined during bending and at failure in the human cadaver. To determine the effect of an axial pretorque on facet capsular strains and estimate the risk for subcatastrophic capsular injury during normal bending motions. Epidemiologic and clinical studies have identified the facet capsule as a potential site of injury and prerotation as a risk factor for whiplash injury. Unfortunately, biomechanical data on the cervical facet capsule and its role in whiplash injury are not available. Cervical spine motion segments were tested in a pure-moment test frame and the full-field strains determined throughout the facet capsule. Motion segments were tested with and without a pretorque in pure bending. The isolated facet was then elongated to failure. Maximum principal strains during bending were compared with failure strains, by paired t test. Statistically significant increases in principal capsular strains during flexion-extension loading were observed when a pretorque was applied. All measured strains during bending were significantly less than strains at catastrophic joint failure. The same was true for subcatastrophic ligament failure strains, except in the presence of a pretorque. Pretorque of the head and neck increases facet capsular strains, supporting its role in the whiplash mechanism. Although the facet capsule does not appear to be at risk for gross injury during normal bending motions, a small portion of the population may be at risk for subcatastrophic injury.

  2. Musculoskeletal injuries in break-dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul Hyun; Song, Kwang Soon; Min, Byung Woo; Lee, Sung Moon; Chang, Hyuk Won; Eum, Dae Seup

    2009-11-01

    Since no epidemiologic studies have been reported about musculoskeletal injuries in break-dancers, there are no data on the rates and patterns of musculoskeletal injuries in this population that clinicians can use to find ways to decrease injury rate. We believe that the incidence of injuries in break-dancers is higher than assumed and that injury rates and patterns differ between professional and amateur dancers. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Of a total of 42 study subjects, 23 were professional dancers and 19 were amateur dancers. Injury frequency, site and type, along with the presence of supervised training, the use of protective devices and warm-up exercises done were recorded. Of the 42 study subjects, excluding two amateur dancers, 40 (95.2%) had had musculoskeletal injuries at more than one site. The mean number of sites per dancer was 4.60. The frequency of injury depended on the site and was as follows: wrist (69.0%), finger (61.9%), knee (61.9%), shoulder (52.4%), lumbar spine (50.0%), elbow (42.9%), cervical spine (38.1%), ankle (38.1%), foot (28.6%) and hip (16.7%). Sprain, strain and tendinitis were the most common injuries, accounting for the most cases. Of the 42 dancers, 13 (31%) had had fractures or dislocations. Eight (19.1%) learned break-dancing under supervised instruction, 17 (40.5%) used protective devices and 28 (66.7%) performed warm-up exercises before dancing. There were significant differences in age, dance career length, amount of dance training, mean number of injury sites and the presence of supervised training between professionals and amateurs (Pnature of the activities that result in both unusual and common injuries in break-dancers and educate them about safety. Careful screening, instruction and supervised training of break-dancers will help to prevent injuries.

  3. Psychosocial work factors in new or recurrent injuries among hospital workers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; You, Doohee; Gillen, Marion; Blanc, Paul D

    2015-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for psychosocial work factors in injury, but little is known about the interaction between psychosocial factors and previous injury experience on subsequent injury risk. We examined the relationships between psychosocial work factors and new or recurrent injury among hospital workers. We studied 492 hospital workers including 116 cases with baseline injury and 376 injury-free referents at baseline over follow-up. Job strain, total support, effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment, and musculoskeletal injury at baseline were examined in logistic regression models as predictors of new or recurrent injury experienced during a 2-year follow-up period. The overall cumulative incidence of injury over follow-up was 35.6 % (51.7 % for re-injury among baseline injury cases; 30.6 % for new injury among referents). Significantly increased risks with baseline job strain (OR 1.26; 95 % CI 1.02-1.55) and effort-reward imbalance (OR 1.42; 95 % CI 1.12-1.81) were observed for injury only among the referents. Overcommitment was associated with increased risk of injury only among the cases (OR 1.58; 95 % CI 1.05-2.39). The effects of psychosocial work factors on new or recurrent injury risk appear to differ by previous injury experience, suggesting the need for differing preventive strategies in hospital workers.

  4. Statistical considerations in the development of injury risk functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Poplin, Gerald S

    2015-01-01

    We address 4 frequently misunderstood and important statistical ideas in the construction of injury risk functions. These include the similarities of survival analysis and logistic regression, the correct scale on which to construct pointwise confidence intervals for injury risk, the ability to discern which form of injury risk function is optimal, and the handling of repeated tests on the same subject. The statistical models are explored through simulation and examination of the underlying mathematics. We provide recommendations for the statistically valid construction and correct interpretation of single-predictor injury risk functions. This article aims to provide useful and understandable statistical guidance to improve the practice in constructing injury risk functions.

  5. Roussely report: recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Roussely report on how to reinforce and support French nuclear industry, has been made public. This report recommends a series of measures. The main measures are: 1) the quick achievement in the best conditions possible of the Olkiluoto plant, 2) to assure the construction of Flamanville-3 under the best conditions of cost and delay, 3) to benefit totally from the feedback experiences of the construction of Olkiluoto and Flamanville-3 for the construction of Penly-3 and of the English program of EPR, 4) to confirm EDF as a leader for French industrial bids proposing nuclear power plants, 5) to diversify the offer of reactors for international bids, 6) to set a common body of rules for all the employees working in the nuclear sector in France, 7) to support the extension of service life of power reactors up to 60 years if safety is not at stake, 8) to promote French safety regulations at an international scale, and 9) to create a university of nuclear engineering. (A.C.)

  6. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  7. S-13: Interventions for Prevention and Rehabilitation of Hamstring Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The hamstring muscles have very important role in the stabilization of body posture, movement of the lower extremities and trunk movements in relation to the thigh. Hamstring injuries are common among athletes, especially in sports like soccer with sprinting demands, kicking, and sudden accelerations. Hamstring strains are frustrating for the injured athletes because the symptoms are persistent, healing is slow, and the rate of re-injury is high. This indicates a need to develop prevention strategies for hamstring injuries. The aims of this review are introducing hamstring strains, associated risk factors, and providing rehabilitative ecommendations for injured athletes to prevent re-injury. METHOD: Information was gathered from an online literatures search using the key words hamstring injuries, soccer injuries, injury prevention, hamstring rehabilitation, and stretching exercises. Screening of references and hand searches of relevant journals were also employed. All relevant studies in English were reviewed and abstracted.RESULTS: It has been shown that hamstring strains account for 12-16% of all injuries in athletes with a re-injury rate reported as high as 22-34%. The hamstrings have a tendency to shorten. Tight hamstrings with limited range of motion and flexibility may lead to postural deficiency and deformities. It also makes the hamstring susceptible to re-injury. Risk factors such as age, strength imbalance, previous injury and flexibility should be considered. CONCLUSION: Prevention intervention may minimize the risk factors of hamstring injuries. Training modalities should emphasize on eccentric strength training, and prevention of fatigue. There is wide disagreement about the impact of stretching exercise on prevention/rehabilitation of hamstring injuries.

  8. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment includes prevention of progression ischemia/necrosis, prevention of infection, and considering salvage or amputation. Definitive treatment for salvage includes anatomic reconstruction with stable internal fixation and early soft tissue coverage followed by aggressive rehabilitation. Prognosis after complex injuries is hard to predict. The various stages of the treatment are reviewed and recommendations are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermal injury in TAPIA breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Gunnarsson, Gudjon L.; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2017-01-01

    be due to the relative high frequency of this type of reconstructions. Reports of thermal injury to reconstructions using the Latissimus Dorsi flap are rare. The injuries previously described are most often caused by severe heat exposure. The thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP)-flap can be used...... as an alternative to the Latissimus Dorsi flap but it may be more susceptible to thermal insult due to the total denervation, the restricted blood supply and the limited thickness of the flap. Precautions are recommended to avoid this type of injury....

  10. Meat grinder injuries to the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, M; Bunkis, J; Trengove-Jones, G

    1985-05-01

    Three cases of hand injury caused by meat grinders are presented. All 3 injuries involved the dominant hand and resulted in varying degrees of deformity. Two of the 3 patients arrived in the emergency room with the injured hand still firmly wedged in the meat grinder. Although these injuries continue to prove very mutilating, maximum restoration of the injured hand can be accomplished by careful extrication, followed by preservation and reconstruction of all viable tissues. Perioperative antibiotics and wound irrigation with antibiotic solution are recommended. Microsurgical technique can be of value in treating selected patients.

  11. Comparison of minitrampoline- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries in the United States, 1990-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Brenda J; Fernandez, Soledad A; Smith, Gary A

    2005-07-01

    To compare mini- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries in the United States. A retrospective analysis of data was conducted for all ages from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1990 to 2002. We compared 137 minitrampoline-related injuries with 143 full-sized trampoline-related injuries, randomly selected from all full-sized trampoline-related injuries reported to the NEISS during the study period. Patients ranged in age from 1 to 80 years (mean [SD]: 13.9 [17.7]) and 2 to 52 years (mean [SD]: 11.0 [8.0]) for mini- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries, respectively. Most patients were younger than 18 years (82% mini, 91% full-sized). Thirty-two percent of minitrampoline- and 19% of full-sized trampoline-related injuries were to children who were younger than 6 years; girls predominated (63% mini, 51% full-sized). Children who were younger than 6 years were more likely to be injured on a minitrampoline than on a full-sized trampoline, when compared with 6- to 17-year-olds (odds ratio [OR]: 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-4.47). The majority of injuries occurred at home (87% mini, 89% full-sized). All patients who were injured on a minitrampoline were treated and released, whereas 5% of patients who were injured on a full-sized trampoline were admitted to the hospital. On minitrampolines, children who were younger than 6 years were at risk for head lacerations (OR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.71-16.03), and children who were 6 to 17 years were at risk for lower extremity strains or sprains (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 1.35-59.14). Children who were 6 to 17 years and injured on a full-sized trampoline were at risk for lower extremity strains or sprains (OR: 4.85; 95% CI: 1.09-44.93). Lower extremity strains or sprains were the most common injury sustained by adults (18 years and older; 33% mini, 15% full-sized). Injury patterns were similar for mini- and full-sized trampolines, although

  12. [Pattern of injuries and prophylaxis in paragliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, W; Hesse, B; Blatter, G; Schmidtler, B; Muhr, G

    2000-06-01

    This study will present trends and recommendations to increase active and passive safety in paragliding on the basis of current state-of-the-art equipment and typical patterns of injury. This German-Swiss teamwork presents data of 55 male and 9 female patients treated after paragliding accidents between 1994 to 1998 respectively 1996 to 1998. 43.7% of the pilots presented with multiple injuries, 62.5% suffered spinal fractures and 18.8% pelvic fractures. 28.4% of the injured pilots were admitted with injuries of the lower extremities mainly affecting the tarsus or the ankle joint. Only three patients with single injuries could be treated in an ambulatory setting. 54.0% of the injuries left the patients with lasting functional residues and complaints. Main causes of accidents were either pilot error in handling the paraglider or general lack of awareness about potential risk factors. 46.0% of injuries occurred during landing, 42.9% of injuries during the flight and another 11.1% of injuries during starting procedures. With noticeable enhanced performance sails of the beginners and intermediate level are increasingly popular. Protective helmets and sturdy footwear reaching above the ankle joint are indispensable pieces of equipment. The use of protective gloves is highly recommended. Back protection devices of the new generation provide the best passive prophylaxis for the pilot against pelvic and spinal cord injuries. This area hold the most promise for increasing safety and reducing risk of injury in future, apart from using beginners and intermediate wings. After acquisition of the pilot license performance and security training provide the best preparing to master unforeseeable situations.

  13. Missed injury – decreasing morbidity and mortality: A literature review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advanced Trauma Life Support®), although they may also be inju- ries identified after a defined .... highly recommended for practice quality assurance. ... when injuries are missed, continuous audit is essential in prevent- ing repeated errors!

  14. FastStats: Self-Inflicted Injury/Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Tables, table 17 [PDF – 676 KB] Mortality All suicides Number of deaths: 44,193 Deaths per 100, ...

  15. Upper extremity injuries associated with strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, H A

    2001-07-01

    Most injuries sustained during strength training are mild strains that resolve with appropriate rest. More severe injuries include traumatic shoulder dislocations, tendon ruptures of the pectoralis major, biceps, and triceps; stress fractures of the distal clavicle, humerus, radius, and ulna; traumatic fractures of the distal radius and ulna in adolescent weightlifters; and compressive and stretch neuropathies. These more severe injuries are usually the result of improperly performing a strength training exercise. Educating athletes regarding proper strength-training techniques serves to reverse established injury patterns and to prevent these injuries in the first place. Recognizing the association of anabolic steroid use to several of the injury patterns further reinforces the need for medical specialists to counsel athletes against their use. With the increasing use of supplements such as creatine, the incidence and nature of strength-training injuries may change further. Greater emphasis on the competitive performance of younger athletes undoubtedly will generate enthusiasm for strength training at earlier ages in both sexes. The importance of proper supervision of these young athletes by knowledgeable persons will increase. As the popularity of strength training grows, there will be ample opportunity to continue to catalog the injury patterns associated with this activity.

  16. [An overview of snow-boarding injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasca, N; Battaglia, H; Simmen, H P; Disler, P; Trentz, O

    1995-01-01

    Snowboarding is increasing dramatically in popularity in Switzerland as well as other countries. Work aimed at improving the design of the boards and of the boots and bindings has also increased rapidly during recent years. Most injured snowboarders are fit young men and boys who describe themselves as beginners and have had a minimal amount of instruction at an officially approved training centre. Appropriate snowboard training has mostly been quite inadequate, and protective devices (e.g. waterproofed support gloves). The anatomical distribution and the types of injuries sustained in snowboarding differ from those in alpine skiing. The wrist (and forearm) and the ankle are the most frequent locations of injuries (23%) as against the knee and thumb in alpine skiing. Sprains and strains were the most frequent types of injuries (46%), followed by fractures (28%) and contusions (13.5%). The snowboard injury rate was higher than in alpine skiing (1.7-8/1000 snowboard days versus 2-4/1000 ski days). Falling forward on the slope was the major mechanism of injury (80%), and torsion the next most frequent (20%). Snowboarding injuries were sustained most often on ice and hardpacked snow, compared with soft powder snow for alpine skiing injuries. Appropriate preseason conditioning, snowboarding lessons from a certified instructor, appropriate selection of rigorously tested equipment and use of protective devices are the main steps that must be taken to prevent injuries.

  17. The epidemiology of injury in skateboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the available literature to provide an epidemiological overview of skateboarding injuries, as well as to suggest possible areas for future research. A literature search was performed with the databases of PubMed, Sport Discus, Google and Google Scholar using the search terms 'skateboard', 'skateboarding', 'injury' and 'injuries', with all articles published in refereed journals in the English language being considered. An ancestry approach was also used. Articles from non-juried journals were also infrequently included to provide anecdotal information on the sport. Comparison of study results was compromised by the diversity of different study populations and variability of injury definitions across studies. The majority of injuries affect young males although conflicting arguments arise over the issues of age and experience in relation to injury severity. Most injuries are acutely suffered, and the most commonly affected body part was the wrist and forearm, with lower leg and ankle injuries also common. The incidence was relatively high but reports on severity differed. Clear conclusions could not be drawn on environmental location and risk factors. Most injuries tend to occur from a loss of balance leading to a fall, in more recent times due to a failed trick. Research on injury prevention is not conclusive although protective equipment and skatepark use are recommended. Further research using more rigorous study designs is required to gain a clearer picture of the incidence and determinants of injury, and to identify risk factors and viable injury countermeasures. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  19. Hospital-treated injuries from horse riding in Victoria, Australia: time to refocus on injury prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhán; Hitchens, Peta L; Fortington, Lauren V

    2018-01-01

    The most recent report on hospital-treated horse-riding injuries in Victoria was published 20 years ago. Since then, injury countermeasures and new technology have aimed to make horse riding safer for participants. This study provides an update of horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment in Victoria and examines changes in injury patterns compared with the earlier study. Horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment (hospital admission (HA) or emergency department (ED) presentations) were extracted from routinely collected data from public and private hospitals in Victoria from 2002-2003 to 2015-2016. Injury incidence rates per 100 000 Victorian population per financial year and age-stratified and sex-stratified injury incidence rates are presented. Poisson regression was used to examine trends in injury rates over the study period. ED presentation and HA rates were 31.1 and 6.6 per 100 000 person-years, increasing by 28.8% and 47.6% from 2002 to 2016, respectively. Female riders (47.3 ED and 10.1 HA per 100 000 person-years) and those aged between 10 and 14 years (87.8 ED and 15.7 HA per 100 000 person-years) had the highest incidence rates. Fractures (ED 29.4%; HA 56.5%) and head injuries (ED 15.4%; HA 18.9%) were the most common injuries. HA had a mean stay of 2.6±4.1 days, and the mean cost per HA was $A5096±8345. Horse-riding injuries have remained similar in their pattern (eg, types of injuries) since last reported in Victoria. HA and ED incidence rates have increased over the last 14 years. Refocusing on injury prevention countermeasures is recommended along with a clear plan for implementation and evaluation of their effectiveness in reducing injury.

  20. Justification for recommended uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronyaev, V.G.; Badikov, S.A.; Carlson, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    -2 MeV are discussed. The extent to which new measurements and evaluation methodologies will lead to revised results that may differ significantly from the presently recommended data is imponderable. While the present standard values are likely to be closer to the truth than earlier versions, and the given errors are reasonably well justified in the context of contemporary data and evaluation methodology, a healthy open minded attitude remains the most sensible approach, consistent with the fundamental spirit of scientific endeavour and enquiry

  1. [Recommendations for the prevention of drowning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, B; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Mintegi, S

    2015-01-01

    Drowning is the second leading cause of non-intentional death in children under the age of 19 in Europe. Weather conditions in Spain allow an extended period of contact with water, therefore increasing the risk of drowning (due to the increased exposure), and constitutes the second leading cause of accidental death in children less than 14 years of age. In children younger than 5 years, drowning occurs mostly in pools belonging to private homes or communities, while in older children, drowning is often linked to aquatic recreational activities in lakes, sea, rivers and canals, and at times associated with alcohol consumption. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of architectonic, educational and legislative recommendations to prevent such incidents. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the hamstring muscles after injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulouris, G.; Connell, D.; Burke, F.; Young, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to describe the imaging findings following acute hamstring injury. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of 224 examinations in 208 patients (192 male, 16 female, mean age 28.2 years). MR imaging was performed in 102 cases and sonography in 156 cases (both modalities were performed in 34 examinations). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.7 days (range 1-10 days). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle movement, the location of the injury within the musculotendinous unit, the extent of the injury and discriminating avulsion from musculotendinous injury. Sixteen patients underwent surgery. The biceps femoris was the most common muscle injured (150/224). Sixteen patients with surgical confirmation of a hamstring avulsion from the ischial tuberosity (14 conjoint, 2 biceps alone) were reliably diagnosed with MR imaging (16/16), but less so with ultrasound (7/12). Eighty-six patients (86/150) had injuries of the musculotendinous junction of biceps, 51/150 myofascial injuries and 13/150 muscle belly alone. Proximal injuries of the biceps were more common that the distal. Sixty-eight patients had injuries of semitendinosus and eight patients semimebranosus.The semitendinosus muscle was more often injured in the distal half of the muscle (42/68) as was semimebranosus (7/8). Three patients had a distal rupture of semitendinosus muscle with retraction. Haematoma was a common finding (170/224) and often tracked around the myofascial layer.This was felt to be a reliable sign for hamstring injury. Discriminating a hamstring tendon avulsion from myotendinous strain is important as these patients necessitate surgical management as opposed to conservative treatment. MR imaging is the preferred modality in the investigation of hamstring muscle and tendon injury. Ultrasound has a complimentary role and may be used to monitor hamstring tendon injuries prior to return to competitive sport. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty

  3. Radiodiagnosis of pelvic birth injuries and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konycheva, E.A.; Loskutova, L.A. (Bashkirskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    A study was made of the changes in the pelvic articulations in women with birth injuries 2-5 years following birth on the basis of the clinicoroentgenological findings. Pathological adhesion of birth injuries of the pelvic bones, that manifested itself in the formation of callus and arthrosis of the public and sacroiliac articulations, was noted. The study confirmed incomplete rehabilitation in this group of women. For prognosis of subsequent parturition roentgenopelvimetry is recommended for women with birth injuries of the pelvic girdle.

  4. Epidemiology of injury among handlers and dogs competing in the sport of agility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Fields, Sarah; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of dog sport-related injuries. This study examines injuries among handlers and dogs in the sport of dog agility. A cross-sectional pilot study captured data on demographics, exposures, and injury for a sample of agility handlers and dogs. Logistic regressions predicted odds of injury. Survey of 217 handlers and 431 dogs identified 31 handler injuries (1.55 training injuries per 1000 hours, 2.14 competition injuries per 1000 runs) and 38 dog injuries (1.74 training injuries per 1000 hours, 1.72 competition injuries per 1000 runs). Handlers most commonly injured knees (48.4%) and lower trunk (29.0%). Most common diagnoses were strains (51.6%) and sprains (32.3%). Obese handlers had increased odds of injury compared with normal weight handlers (OR = 5.5, P Dogs most commonly injured front paws (23.7%) and shoulders (15.8%). Most common diagnoses were strains (44.7%) and cut/scrapes (21.1%). Injury was positively associated with dog's age (P benefits, dog agility poses a risk of injury to both handlers and dogs. Future research on specific mechanisms of injury should drive evidence-based injury prevention strategies.

  5. Agricultural Farm-Related Injuries in Bangladesh and Convenient Design of Working Hand Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, M S; Shahriar, M M

    2018-01-01

    Injuries during cultivation of land are the significant causes of recession for an agricultural country like Bangladesh. Thousands of tools are used in agricultural farm having much probability of getting injury at their workplaces. For the injury prevention, proper hand tool designs need to be recommended with ergonomic evaluations. This paper represents the main causes of agricultural injuries among the Bangladeshi farmers. Effective interventions had been discussed in this paper to reduce the rate of injury. This study was carried out in the Panchagarh district of Bangladesh. Data on 434 agricultural injuries were collected and recorded. About 67% injuries of all incidents were due to hand tools, and the remaining 33% were due to machinery or other sources. Though most of the injuries were not serious, about 22% injuries were greater than or equal to AIS 2 (Abbreviated Injury Scale). The practical implication of this study is to design ergonomically fit agricultural hand tools for Bangladeshi farmers in order to avoid their injuries.

  6. Geriatric fall-related injuries | Hefny | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Falls are the leading cause of geriatric injury. ... and outcome of geriatric fall-related injuries in order to give recommendations regarding their prevention. Methods: All injured patients with an age ≥ 60 years who were admitted to ...

  7. Occupational cow horn eye injuries in Ibadan, Nigeria | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case series aims to describe the clinical features, management, and outcome of occupational eye injuries caused by cow horns and to recommend possible preventive measures. A review of patients with cow horn inflicted eye injuries seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between January 2006, and ...

  8. Functional bandage for ankle sprains. Recommendations for nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Isabel Arcos Cirauqui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Three quarters of ankle injuries are diagnosed as sprains. For the most part sprains are caused by a forced inversion movement with involvement of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL. One of the recommended guidelines is immobilization by taping. The aim of this article is to unify the recommendations for nursing, on taping in the treatment of ankle sprains. The methodology used was a literature review, analyzing the information found in books and journals in hospital libraries and nursing databases on the Internet. The main results are a set of guidelines for the most accurate and therapeutic taping.

  9. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  10. Association Between Concussion and Lower Extremity Injuries in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frances C; Burdette, G Trey; Joyner, A Barry; Llewellyn, Tracy A; Buckley, Thomas A

    Concussions have been associated with elevated musculoskeletal injury risk; however, the influence of unreported and unrecognized concussions has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between concussion and lower extremity musculoskeletal injury rates across a diverse array of sports among collegiate student-athletes at the conclusion of their athletic career. The hypothesis was that there will be a positive association between athletes who reported a history of concussions and higher rates of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Student-athletes (N = 335; 62.1% women; mean age, 21.2 ± 1.4 years) from 13 sports completed a reliable injury history questionnaire. Respondents indicated the total number of reported, unreported, and potentially unrecognized concussions as well as lower extremity injuries including ankle sprains, knee injuries, and muscle strains. Chi-square analyses were performed to identify the association between concussion and lower extremity injuries. There were significant associations between concussion and lateral ankle sprain ( P = 0.012), knee injury ( P = 0.002), and lower extremity muscle strain ( P = 0.031). There were also significant associations between reported concussions and knee injury ( P = 0.003), unreported concussions and knee injury ( P = 0.002), and unrecognized concussions and lateral ankle sprain ( P = 0.001) and lower extremity muscle strains ( P = 0.006), with odds ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.9. There was a positive association between concussion history and lower extremity injuries (odds ratios, 1.6-2.9 elevated risk) among student-athletes at the conclusion of their intercollegiate athletic careers. Clinicians should be aware of these elevated risks when making return-to-participation decisions and should incorporate injury prevention protocols.

  11. Recommendation systems in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Robillard, Martin P; Walker, Robert J; Zimmermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of public and private data stores and the emergence of off-the-shelf data-mining technology, recommendation systems have emerged that specifically address the unique challenges of navigating and interpreting software engineering data.This book collects, structures and formalizes knowledge on recommendation systems in software engineering. It adopts a pragmatic approach with an explicit focus on system design, implementation, and evaluation. The book is divided into three parts: "Part I - Techniques" introduces basics for building recommenders in software engineering, including techniques for collecting and processing software engineering data, but also for presenting recommendations to users as part of their workflow.?"Part II - Evaluation" summarizes methods and experimental designs for evaluating recommendations in software engineering.?"Part III - Applications" describes needs, issues and solution concepts involved in entire recommendation systems for specific software engineering tasks, fo...

  12. Surveillance of construction worker injuries through an urban emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, K L; Nessel-Stephens, L; Sanford, S M; Shesser, R; Welch, L S

    1994-03-01

    To learn more about the causes of nonfatal construction worker injuries, and to identify injury cases for further work-site investigations or prevention programs, an emergency department-based surveillance program was established. Construction workers with work-related injuries or illnesses were identified by reviewing the medical records of all patients treated at the George Washington University Emergency Department between November 1, 1990 and November 31, 1992. Information regarding the worker, the injury, and the injury circumstances were abstracted from medical records. Information was obtained on 592 injured construction workers from numerous trades. Lacerations were the most commonly treated injuries among these workers, followed by strains and sprains, contusions, and eye injuries. Injuries were most commonly caused by sharp objects (n = 155, 26%), falls (n = 106, 18%), and falling objects (n = 70, 12%). Thirty-five percent of injuries were to the hands, wrists, or fingers. Among the twenty-eight injuries severe enough to require hospital admission, eighteen (64%) were caused by falls. Laborers and Hispanic workers were overrepresented among these severe cases. Emergency Department records were a useful surveillance tool for the initial identification and description of work-related injuries. Although E codes were not that useful for formulating prevention strategies, detailed review of injury circumstances from Emergency Department records was valuable and has helped to establish priorities for prevention activities.

  13. An audit of injuries in six english professional soccer academies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2018-07-01

    Regulations now state that professional academies in the United Kingdom are required to substantially increase the volume of soccer training. This study assessed the current injury occurrence, providing an update to reports published prior to the introduction of the Elite Player Performance Plan (EPPP). 608 soccer players aged 11-18 years from six professional soccer clubs were prospectively monitored, recording injuries during the 2014-2015 season. An injury rate of 1.32 injuries per player/season was indicated with a mean time loss of 21.9 days per injury. The greatest time loss per injury was in the U14s-U15s, and the highest rate of severe injuries in the U15s. Strains and sprains were the most common injury type, with the knee and ankle the most frequently injured anatomical sites. Seasonal variation indicated two peaks in injury incidence, occurring in September and January. In comparison to a published audit prior to the inception of the EPPP, this study indicates that academy soccer players are three-times more likely to experience an injury. Given that time loss and injury severity also increased during periods that typically follow rapid growth, these players should be considered an important group for training load monitoring and injury prevention strategies.

  14. Multi-segment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain during treadmill and overground running

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Jonathan Kenneth; Taylor, Paul John; Vincent, Hayley

    2014-01-01

    Although physiologically beneficial, running is known to be associated with a high incidence of chronic injuries. Excessive coronal and transverse plane motions of the foot segments and strain experienced by the plantar fascia are linked to the development of a number of chronic injuries. This study examined differences in multi-segment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain during treadmill and overground running. Twelve male recreational runners ran at 4.0 m.s-1 in both treadmill and ove...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences ...

  19. Radiotherapy injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.; Bennet, J.; Couanet, D.; Masselot, J.

    1985-01-01

    Side effects of radiotherapy in pediatrics are reviewed including bone injuries and radio-induced bone tumors; nervous system injuries with emphasis on hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain and spinal cord; lung, digestive system and urinary tract injuries [fr

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  1. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  4. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? ...

  7. Radiation-induced heart injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Niibe, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    In order to identify radiation-induced heart injury and to differentiate it from heart disease, an attempt was made to clarify post-irradiation heart injury by investigating the histological changes which occur during the internal between the irradiation and the time of demonstrable histological changes. A study was made of 83 autopsies in which most of the primary neoplasms were breast cancers, lung cancers and mediastinal tumors. In 43 of these autopsies the heart had been irradiated. Sixty eight dd-strain mice were also used for microautoradiographic study. Histological changes in the heart were observed in 27 of the 43 cases receiving irradiation. The limit of the tolerance dose to the heart for indicating histological changes was 1220 ret in humans. The latent period without histological changes was 2.7 months after initiation of radiation therapy. Greater heart injury was observed after re-irradiation or after the combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy especially mitomycin (MMC). The histological findings after treatment with MMC were similar to those of radiation-induced heart injury. Results of the study indicate that the damage is secondary to radiation-induced changes of the vascula connective tissue. (Evans, G.)

  8. Recommendation Sets and Choice Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, Paolo Renato; Boutilier, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query users about their preferences and offer recommendations based on the system's belief about the user's utility function. We analyze the connection between...... the problem of generating optimal recommendation sets and the problem of generating optimal choice queries, considering both Bayesian and regret-based elicitation. Our results show that, somewhat surprisingly, under very general circumstances, the optimal recommendation set coincides with the optimal query....

  9. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  10. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  11. Sex Differences in “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Benefits of resistance training include improved muscle strength and sports performance, and may include reduced injuries. However, few studies have examined sex differences in resistance training related injuries. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate sex differences in injuries associated with weightlifting, in adolescents and young adults by type (sprains and strains, fractures), mechanism (accidental, non-accidental) and location (head, trunk, arm, hand, leg, foot) of injury...

  12. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  13. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  14. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  15. The National Basketball Association eye injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagelbaum, B M; Starkey, C; Hersh, P S; Donnenfeld, E D; Perry, H D; Jeffers, J B

    1995-06-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of eye injuries sustained by professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA). A prospective study involving all NBA athletes who sustained eye injuries between February 1, 1992, and June 20, 1993, was conducted. Twenty-seven NBA team athletic trainers, physicians, and ophthalmologists were provided data forms to complete for any player examined for an eye injury. Practice and game exposures during the preseason, regular season, playoffs, and championships were included. Of the 1092 injuries sustained by NBA players during the 17-month period, 59 (5.4%) involved the eye and adnexa. Eighteen (30.5%) of the injuries occurred while the player was in the act of rebounding, and 16 (27.1%) while the player was on offense. The most common diagnoses included 30 abrasions or lacerations to the eyelid (50.9%), 17 contusions (edema and/or ecchymosis) to the eyelid or periorbital region (28.8%), and seven corneal abrasions (11.9%). There were three orbital fractures (5.1%). Most injuries were caused by fingers (35.6%) or elbows (28.8%). Nine players (15.3%) missed subsequent games because of their injury. Fifty-seven players (96.6%) were not wearing protective eyewear at the time of injury. The incidence of eye injuries in NBA players during the 17-month period was 1.44 per 1000 game exposures. Frequent physical contact in professional basketball players leaves them at great risk for sustaining eye injuries. To prevent these injuries, protective eyewear is recommended.

  16. Prevalence of Injury in Ultra Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliaropoulos Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to find the rate of musculoskeletal injuries in ultra-trail runners, investigate the most sensitive anatomical areas, and discover associated predicting factors to aid in the effective prevention and rapid rehabilitation of trail running injuries. Methods. Forty ultra trail runners responded to an epidemiological questionnaire. Results. At least one running injury was reported by 90% of the sample, with a total of 135 injuries were reported (111 overuse injuries, 24 appeared during competing. Lower back pain was the most common source of injury (42.5%. Running in the mountains (p = 0.0004 and following a personalized training schedule (p = 0.0995 were found to be protective factors. Runners involved in physical labor are associated with more injuries (p = 0.058. Higher-level runners are associated with more injuries than lower-level cohorts (p = 0.067, with symptoms most commonly arising in the lower back (p = 0.091, hip joint (p = 0.083, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0.054. Experienced runners (> 6 years are at greater risk of developing injuries (p = 0.001, especially in the lower back (p = 0.012, tibia (p = 0.049, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0 .028. Double training sessions could cause hip joint injury (p = 0.060. Conclusions. In order to avoid injury, it is recommended to train mostly on mountain trails and have a training program designed by professionals.

  17. Domestic donkey (Equus africanus asinus bites: An unusual aetiology of severe scalp injuries in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Droussi

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: The bite of a donkey is rare aetiology of scalp injuries. Special features of these injuries, including a literature review, are discussed focusing on the care of these patients in the emergency centre, describing the surgical procedures required and antibiotic choice. Recommendations for the management of donkey bite scalp injuries are provided.

  18. Effect of altering starting length and activation timing of muscle on fiber strain and muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter

    2006-05-01

    Muscle strain injuries are some of the most frequent injuries in sports and command a great deal of attention in an effort to understand their etiology. These injuries may be the culmination of a series of subcellular events accumulated through repetitive lengthening (eccentric) contractions during exercise, and they may be influenced by a variety of variables including fiber strain magnitude, peak joint torque, and starting muscle length. To assess the influence of these variables on muscle injury magnitude in vivo, we measured fiber dynamics and joint torque production during repeated stretch-shortening cycles in the rabbit tibialis anterior muscle, at short and long muscle lengths, while varying the timing of activation before muscle stretch. We found that a muscle subjected to repeated stretch-shortening cycles of constant muscle-tendon unit excursion exhibits significantly different joint torque and fiber strains when the timing of activation or starting muscle length is changed. In particular, measures of fiber strain and muscle injury were significantly increased by altering activation timing and increasing the starting length of the muscle. However, we observed differential effects on peak joint torque during the cyclic stretch-shortening exercise, as increasing the starting length of the muscle did not increase torque production. We conclude that altering activation timing and muscle length before stretch may influence muscle injury by significantly increasing fiber strain magnitude and that fiber dynamics is a more important variable than muscle-tendon unit dynamics and torque production in influencing the magnitude of muscle injury.

  19. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  20. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  1. Baseball and softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  2. Sex differences in "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatman, Carmen E; Myer, Gregory D; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-10-01

    Benefits of resistance training include improved muscle strength and sports performance and may include reduced injuries. However, few studies have examined sex differences in resistance training-related injuries. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate sex differences in injuries associated with strength training in adolescents and young adults by type (sprains and strains, fractures), mechanism (accidental, nonaccidental), and location (head, trunk, arm, hand, leg, foot) of injury. We hypothesized that there would be sex differences in type, mechanism, and location of strength training injuries. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 14 and 30 years were included in the study. CPSC sampling weights were used to calculate national estimates from the sample of 3,713 patients (men = 3,102; women = 611). Weighted Chi-square analyses were used to compare differences in mechanism, type, and location of injury for men versus women. Men had significantly more sprains and strains (p = 0.004), whereas women demonstrated increased accidental injuries compared to men (p injuries than women (p injuries than men (p injuries during strength training (sprains and strains) compared to women, especially at the trunk. Conversely, women may be more susceptible to lower-extremity injuries resulting from accidents during resistance training.

  3. Robust human body model injury prediction in simulated side impact crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a parametric methodology to robustly predict occupant injuries sustained in real-world crashes using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM). One hundred and twenty near-side impact motor vehicle crashes were simulated over a range of parameters using a Toyota RAV4 (bullet vehicle), Ford Taurus (struck vehicle) FE models and a validated human body model (HBM) Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Three bullet vehicle crash parameters (speed, location and angle) and two occupant parameters (seat position and age) were varied using a Latin hypercube design of Experiments. Four injury metrics (head injury criterion, half deflection, thoracic trauma index and pelvic force) were used to calculate injury risk. Rib fracture prediction and lung strain metrics were also analysed. As hypothesized, bullet speed had the greatest effect on each injury measure. Injury risk was reduced when bullet location was further from the B-pillar or when the bullet angle was more oblique. Age had strong correlation to rib fractures frequency and lung strain severity. The injuries from a real-world crash were predicted using two different methods by (1) subsampling the injury predictors from the 12 best crush profile matching simulations and (2) using regression models. Both injury prediction methods successfully predicted the case occupant's low risk for pelvic injury, high risk for thoracic injury, rib fractures and high lung strains with tight confidence intervals. This parametric methodology was successfully used to explore crash parameter interactions and to robustly predict real-world injuries.

  4. Sports injuries during the Summer Olympic Games 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo L; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Renström, Per A F H; Aubry, Mark John; Dvorak, Jiri

    2009-11-01

    Standardized assessment of sports injuries provides important epidemiological information and also directions for injury prevention. To analyze the frequency, characteristics, and causes of injuries incurred during the Summer Olympic Games 2008. Descriptive epidemiology study. The chief physicians and/or chief medical officers of the national teams were asked to report daily all injuries newly incurred during the Olympic Games on a standardized injury report form. In addition, injuries were reported daily by the physicians at the medical stations at the different Olympic venues and at the polyclinic in the Olympic Village. Physicians and/or therapists of 92 national teams covering 88% of the 10,977 registered athletes took part in the study. In total, 1055 injuries were reported, resulting in an incidence of 96.1 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Half of the injuries (49.6%) were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. The most prevalent diagnoses were ankle sprains and thigh strains. The majority (72.5%) of injuries were incurred in competition. One third of the injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by overuse (22%) and noncontact incidences (20%). Injuries were reported from all sports, but their incidence and characteristics varied substantially. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in soccer, taekwondo, hockey, handball, weightlifting, and boxing (all >or=15% of the athletes) and lowest for sailing, canoeing/kayaking, rowing, synchronized swimming, diving, fencing, and swimming. The data indicate that the injury surveillance system covered almost all of the participating athletes, and the results highlight areas of high risk for sport injury such as the in-competition period, the ankle and thigh, and specific sports. The identification of these factors should stimulate future research and subsequent policy change to prevent injury in

  5. Teacher Leadership: Federal Policy Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Jackie; Young, Margaret; Broin, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief was developed specifically for federal policymakers, and builds upon the policy recommendations included in "Leading from Every Seat: Empowering Principals to Cultivate Teacher Leadership for School Improvement." The recommendations in this report include the following: (1) Uncover New Leadership Ideas and Seed…

  6. USGEO DMWG Cloud Computing Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; McInerney, M.; Frame, M. T.; Summers, C.

    2017-12-01

    The US Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) has been developing Cloud Computing Recommendations for Earth Observations. This inter-agency report is currently in draft form; DMWG hopes to have released the report as a public Request for Information (RFI) by the time of AGU. The recommendations are geared toward organizations that have already decided to use the Cloud for some of their activities (i.e., the focus is not on "why you should use the Cloud," but rather "If you plan to use the Cloud, consider these suggestions.") The report comprises Introductory Material, including Definitions, Potential Cloud Benefits, and Potential Cloud Disadvantages, followed by Recommendations in several areas: Assessing When to Use the Cloud, Transferring Data to the Cloud, Data and Metadata Contents, Developing Applications in the Cloud, Cost Minimization, Security Considerations, Monitoring and Metrics, Agency Support, and Earth Observations-specific recommendations. This talk will summarize the recommendations and invite comment on the RFI.

  7. Recommendation System for Adaptive Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang

    2018-01-01

    An adaptive learning system aims at providing instruction tailored to the current status of a learner, differing from the traditional classroom experience. The latest advances in technology make adaptive learning possible, which has the potential to provide students with high-quality learning benefit at a low cost. A key component of an adaptive learning system is a recommendation system, which recommends the next material (video lectures, practices, and so on, on different skills) to the learner, based on the psychometric assessment results and possibly other individual characteristics. An important question then follows: How should recommendations be made? To answer this question, a mathematical framework is proposed that characterizes the recommendation process as a Markov decision problem, for which decisions are made based on the current knowledge of the learner and that of the learning materials. In particular, two plain vanilla systems are introduced, for which the optimal recommendation at each stage can be obtained analytically.

  8. Musculoskeletal injuries and pain in dancers: a systematic review update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assemble and synthesize the best available literature from 2004 to 2008 on musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. MEDLINE and CINAHL were the primary sources of data. Indexed terms such as dance, dancer, dancing, athletic injuries, occupational injuries, sprains and strains, musculoskeletal diseases, bone density, menstruation disturbances, and eating disorders were used to search the databases. Citations were screened for relevance using a priori criteria, and relevant studies were critically reviewed for scientific merit by the best-evidence synthesis method. After screening, 19 articles were found to be scientifically admissible. Data from accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: prevalence and associated factors; incidence and risk factors; intervention; and injury characteristics and prognosis of musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. Principal findings included: a high prevalence and incidence of lower extremity, hip and back injuries; preliminary evidence that psychosocial and psychological issues such as stress and coping strategies affect injury frequency and duration; history of a previous lateral ankle sprain is associated with an increased risk of ankle sprain in the contralateral ankle in dance students; fatigue may play a role in ACL injury in dancers; acute hamstring strains in dancers affect tendon more than muscle tissue, often resulting in prolonged absence from dance. It is concluded that, while there are positive developments in the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of MSK injuries and pain in dancers, much room for improvement remains. Suggestions for future research are offered.

  9. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  10. The prevention of injuries in contact flag football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    American flag football is a non-tackle, contact sport with many moderate to severe contact-type injuries reported. A previous prospective injury surveillance study by the authors revealed a high incidence of injuries to the fingers, face, knee, shoulder and ankle. The objectives of the study were to conduct a pilot-prospective injury prevention study in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries as compared to a historical cohort, as well as to provide recommendations for a future prospective injury prevention study. A prospective injury prevention study was conducted involving 724 amateur male (mean age: 20.0 ± 3.1 years) and 114 female (mean age: 21.2 ± 7.2 years) players. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. An injury surveillance questionnaire was administered to record all time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of injured players, the number of finger/hand injuries, the incidence rate and the incidence proportion between the two cohorts (p football. Prevention strategies for a longer, prospective, randomised-controlled injury prevention study should include the strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate head gear, the use of comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards, and changing the blocking rules of the game.

  11. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Abbas, Alaa K; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-06-01

    Falls are the leading cause of geriatric injury. We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity, and outcome of geriatric fall-related injuries in order to give recommendations regarding their prevention. All injured patients with an age ≥ 60 years who were admitted to Al-Ain Hospital or died in the Emergency Department due to falls were prospectively studied over a four year period. We studied 92 patients. Fifty six of them (60.9%) were females. The mean (standard deviation) of age was 72.2 (9.6) years. Seventy three (89%) of all incidents occurred at home. Eighty three patients (90.2%) fell on the same level. The median (range) ISS was 4 (1-16) and the median GCS (range) was 15 (12-15). The lower limb was the most common injured body region (63%). There were no statistical significant differences between males and females regarding age, ISS, and hospital stay (p = 0.85, p = 0.57, and p = 0.35 respectively). The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk factors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries.

  12. Aspects of constitutive and acquired antibioresistance in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotescu, Carmen; Israil, Anca; Radu, Roxana; Alexandru, Ionela; Dobre, Georgeta

    2003-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the literature pointed out the implications of Aeromonas species in human pathology. These species were described as being involved in intestinal (several outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis of choleric/dysenteric form or chronic diarrhoea, ulcerative colitis, etc.) in normal adults or children, as well as in extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts. This last aspect included a large range of cutaneous injuries (micronecrosis, abscesses, bums, cellulites, furunculosis), joint, bones, respiratory, urinary tract, ocular infections up to meningitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, hepatobilliary disease, endotoxic shock and septicemia (as consequence of leech microvascular surgery). During the last decade, the literature reported a high mortality in Aeromonas infections determined by certain phenospecies (A. hydrophila and A. veronii) especially in extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised patients. In microbiologists' opinion this high rate of mortality was probably due to poor knowledge concerning the aspects of antibioresistance in Aeromonas strains, to empiric treatments with antibiotics to which these bacteria exhibiting constitutive resistance lead to insuccessful results, and at last to the increasing trend of aeromonads resistance to certain antibiotics after 1996. The literature mentioned also that for a great number of Beta-lactamase producing Aeromonas strains, the use of microdilution method (by comparison to disk diffusion in agar medium) giving false results made more difficult the true knowledge of Aeromonas antibioresistance patterns. At the same time, in 2002, the literature mentioned 4 ecological compartments considered as "reservoirs for dissemination and transfer of microbial antibioresistance i.e. humans, animals, plants and natural soil and water. In the last time, more and more data of the literature revealed that some bacteria with role of reservoir of antibioresistance in the natural environment, even

  13. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  14. The cost and distribution of firefighter injuries in a large Canadian Fire Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, D M; Beach, T A C; Crosby, I; McGill, S M

    2016-11-22

    There is limited data available regarding the cost of firefighter injuries. This information is necessary to develop targeted injury prevention strategies. To categorize the cost of injuries filed in 2012 by firefighters from a from a large department by job duty, injury type, body part affected, and the general motion pattern employed at the time of injury. Data were taken from reports filed by CFD personnel and claims filed with the Workers' Compensation Board (WCB) of Alberta between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. Of the 244 injuries reported, 65% were categorized as sprains and strains, the most frequent of which affected the back (32%). The total cost of all claims was $555,955; 77% were sprain/strain-related. Knee and back injuries were most costly ($157,383 and $100,459). Categorized by job duty, most sprains/strains (31%) were sustained while attending to fire station responsibilities, although physical training was associated with the highest costs (34%). Fireground operations were attributed to 18% of sprains/strains and 16% of costs. Lifting injuries were more frequent (23%) and costly (20%) than all injuries. The most common and costly injuries occurred while attending to fire station-related responsibilities and during physical training.

  15. Workplace injury data reported by occupational physicians and general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, R; Turner, S; Hussey, L; Page, F; Agius, R

    2015-06-01

    Accurate workplace injury data are useful in the prioritization of prevention strategies. In the UK, physicians report workplace ill-health data within The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network, including injury case reports. To compare workplace injury data reported by occupational physicians (OPs) and general practitioners (GPs) to THOR. Injury cases reported by OPs and GPs, reported to THOR between 2006 and 2012 were analysed. Demographics, industrial groups, nature of injury, kind of accident and site of injury were compared. Data on sickness absence for workplace injuries reported by GPs were investigated. In total, 2017 workplace injury cases were reported by OPs and GPs. Males were more likely to sustain a workplace accident than females. Sprains and strains were reported most often, with the upper limbs being affected most frequently. Slips, trips and falls were identified as important causal factors by both OPs and GPs. Psychological injuries also featured in THOR reporting, with a higher proportion reported by OPs (21%) than by GPs (3%). The proportion of people classified as 'unfit' by GPs reduced following the introduction of the 'fit' note. THOR reports returned by OPs and GPs provide a valuable source of information of workplace injury data, and complement other sources of information, such as the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations and the Labour Force Survey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  17. Statistical process control charts for monitoring military injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Anna; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-12-01

    An essential aspect of an injury prevention process is surveillance, which quantifies and documents injury rates in populations of interest and enables monitoring of injury frequencies, rates and trends. To drive progress towards injury reduction goals, additional tools are needed. Statistical process control charts, a methodology that has not been previously applied to Army injury monitoring, capitalise on existing medical surveillance data to provide information to leadership about injury trends necessary for prevention planning and evaluation. Statistical process control Shewhart u-charts were created for 49 US Army installations using quarterly injury medical encounter rates, 2007-2015, for active duty soldiers obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Injuries were defined according to established military injury surveillance recommendations. Charts display control limits three standard deviations (SDs) above and below an installation-specific historical average rate determined using 28 data points, 2007-2013. Charts are available in Army strategic management dashboards. From 2007 to 2015, Army injury rates ranged from 1254 to 1494 unique injuries per 1000 person-years. Installation injury rates ranged from 610 to 2312 injuries per 1000 person-years. Control charts identified four installations with injury rates exceeding the upper control limits at least once during 2014-2015, rates at three installations exceeded the lower control limit at least once and 42 installations had rates that fluctuated around the historical mean. Control charts can be used to drive progress towards injury reduction goals by indicating statistically significant increases and decreases in injury rates. Future applications to military subpopulations, other health outcome metrics and chart enhancements are suggested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The new ICRP general recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Lochard, J.; Holm, L.E.; Niwa, O.; Ishigure, N.; Kosako, T.; Kai, M.

    2007-01-01

    The new draft ICRP recommendations was presented by the ICRP chair, Professor Lars-Eric Holm. His presentation was followed by presentations by Japanese members of the various (CRP committees, discussing their views of the draft recommendations based on their own technical experience. After these presentations, questions from the floor raised many of the key issues of the conference: dose constrains, the LNT hypothesis, dose bands, etc. This showed that the conference participants had carefully and completely read the draft, and were very interested in building a final ICRP recommendation that appropriately addresses all their concerns. These issues were also discussed throughout the entire conference. (author)

  19. Acute injuries of the spinal cord and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, U.; Freund, M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal injuries may result in severe neurological deficits, especially if the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots are involved. Patients may even die of a spinal shock. Besides presenting the important embryologic and anatomical basis underlying the typical radiological findings of spinal trauma, the trauma mechanisms and the resulting injuries are correlated. Special situations, such as the involvement of the alar ligaments and typical injuries in children, will be discussed as well as specific traumatic patters relevant for imaging. Based on the actual literature and recommendations of professional organizations, an approach is provided to the radiologic evaluation of spinal injuries. Advantages and disadvantages of the individual imaging modalities are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  20. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  1. Sports-specific injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M

    1996-04-01

    Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  3. Early pathogenesis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Uttenthal, Åse

    2012-01-01

    between strains, however, lymphoid atrophy and growth retardation represented a consistent finding for all 4 strains. Virus distribution, viral load and in particular virus persistence differed, but supported present practice that recommends lymphoid tissue, most optimal tonsil and lymph nodes, as target...... material to be applied for early laboratory diagnosis. The present study demonstrated constraints associated with early detection of infections with CSFV strains of low virulence. Since neither clinical symptoms nor pathological lesions observed with these strains constituted characteristic signs of CSF...

  4. Laparoscopic hernia repair and bladder injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, K M; Bhoyrul, S; Mulvihill, S J

    2001-01-01

    Bladder injury is a complication of laparoscopic surgery with a reported incidence in the general surgery literature of 0.5% and in the gynecology literature of 2%. We describe how to recognize and treat the injury and how to avoid the problem. We report two cases of bladder injury repaired with a General Surgical Interventions (GSI) trocar and a balloon device used for laparoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. One patient had a prior appendectomy; the other had a prior midline incision from a suprapubic prostatectomy. We repaired the bladder injury, and the patients made a good recovery. When using the obturator and balloon device, it is important to stay anterior to the preperitoneal space and bladder. Prior lower abdominal surgery can be considered a relative contraindication to extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair. Signs of gas in the Foley bag or hematuria should alert the surgeon to a bladder injury. A one- or two-layer repair of the bladder injury can be performed either laparoscopically or openly and is recommended for a visible injury. Mesh repair of the hernia can be completed provided no evidence exists of urinary tract infection. A Foley catheter is placed until healing occurs.

  5. Safety of repair for severe duodenal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmahos, George C; Constantinou, Constantinos; Kasotakis, George

    2008-01-01

    There is ongoing debate about the management of severe duodenal injuries (SDIs), and earlier studies have recommended pyloric exclusion. The objective of this study was to compare primary repair with pyloric exclusion to examine if primary repair can be safely used in SDIs. The medical records of 193 consecutive patients who were admitted between August 1992 and January 2004 with duodenal injuries were reviewed. After excluding early deaths (n = 50), low-grade duodenal injuries (n = 81), and pancreatoduodenectomies for catastrophic trauma (n = 12), a total of 50 patients with SDIs (grade III, IV, or V) were analyzed. Primary repair (PR--simple duodenorrhaphy or resection and primary anastomosis) was performed in 34 (68%) and pyloric exclusion (PE) in 16 (32%). Characteristics and outcomes of these two groups were compared. PE and PR patients were similar for age, injury severity score, abdominal abbreviated injury score, physiologic status on admission, time to operation, and most abdominal organs injured. PE patients had more pancreatic injuries (63% vs. 24%, p duodenum (79% vs. 42%, p = 0.02), and a nonsignificant trend toward more grade IV and V injuries (37% vs. 18%, p = 0.11). There was no difference in morbidity (including complications specific to the duodenal repair), mortality, and intensive care unit and hospital length of stay between the two groups. Pyloric exclusion is not necessary for all patients with SDIs, as previously suggested. Selected SDI patients can be safely managed by simple primary repair.

  6. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  7. Severe pediatric influenza in California, 2003-2005: implications for immunization recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Janice K; Schechter, Robert; Honarmand, Somayeh; Guevara, Hugo F; Shoemaker, Trevor R; Madrigal, Nora Y; Woodfill, Celia J I; Backer, Howard D; Glaser, Carol A

    2006-04-01

    The 2003-2004 influenza season was marked by both the emergence of a new drift "Fujian" strain of influenza A virus and prominent reports of increased influenza-related deaths in children in the absence of baseline data for comparison. In December 2003, the California Department of Health Services initiated surveillance of children who were hospitalized in California with severe influenza in an attempt to measure its impact and to identify additional preventive measures. From December 2003 to May 2005, surveillance of children who were hospitalized in PICUs or dying in the hospital with laboratory evidence of influenza was performed by hospital infection control practitioners and local public health departments using a standardized case definition and reporting form. In the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 influenza seasons, 125 and 35 cases, respectively, of severe influenza in children were identified in California. The mean and median age of cases were 3.1 years and 1.5 years, with breakdown as follows: AAP) recommendations for immunization, but only 8 had been vaccinated. More than 3 times as many children were reported to be hospitalized in intensive care with influenza in California during the 2003-2004 season compared with the 2004-2005 season. Because children who are younger than 6 months remain at highest risk for severe influenza yet cannot currently be immunized, development and validation of preventive measures for them (eg, maternal immunization, breastfeeding, immunization of young infants and their close contacts) are urgently needed. ACIP's recent recommendation for influenza vaccination of children with conditions that can compromise respiratory function (eg, cognitive dysfunction, spinal cord injuries, seizure disorders, other neuromuscular disorders) is further supported by the frequency of underlying neurologic disease in these cases of severe influenza. A significant proportion of children with severe influenza in California, including children who are

  8. RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Valois Batista Jr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued and diversified growth of social networks has changed the way in which users interact with them. With these changes, what once was limited to social contact is now used for exchanging ideas and opinions, creating the need for new features. Users have so much information at their fingertips that they are unable to process it by themselves; hence, the need to develop new tools. Recommender systems were developed to address this need and many techniques were used for different approaches to the problem. To make relevant recommendations, these systems use large sets of data, not taking the social network of the user into consideration. Developing a recommender system that takes into account the social network of the user is another way of tackling the problem. The purpose of this project is to use the theory of six degrees of separation (Watts 2003 amongst users of a social network to enhance existing recommender systems.

  9. From micronutrient recommendations to policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique M.; Barnett, Julie

    2010-01-01

    towards achieving a greater link between micronutrient recommendations and behaviour. This study aims to examine the rationale and processes associated with consumer and stakeholder involvement in setting micronutrient recommendations across Europe. Subjects/Methods: Using the contacts established through......Background/Objectives: To achieve the nutritional goals stipulated by micronutrient recommendations, greater attention must be paid to the behavioural routes to such nutritional outcomes. Coopting stakeholders and consumers into decisions regarding micronutrient recommendations is an important step...... countries and its effect on final decisions. Stakeholders were not involved at the outset of the process ('framing' of the problem) in any of the countries, and there was no evidence of consumer involvement and open public fora. Conclusions: Some of the key explanatory factors for diversity in the degree...

  10. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  11. Analysis of sports injuries related with shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.

  12. Pediatric volleyball-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Katherine A; Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of pediatric volleyball-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments. Data for children younger than 18 years obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1990 through 2009 were analyzed. An estimated 692 024 volleyball-related injuries to children younger than 18 years occurred during the study period. The annual number of injuries declined significantly by 23% during the study period; however, the annual injury rate remained unchanged, and the number of volleyball-related concussions/closed head injuries increased significantly. Upper (48%) and lower (39%) extremity injuries occurred most frequently, as did strains/sprains (54%). Contact with the net/pole was associated with concussions/closed head injury our findings indicate opportunities for making volleyball an even safer sport for children. Protective padding, complying with US volleyball standards, should cover all volleyball poles and protruding hardware to prevent impact-related injuries.

  13. TOURISM RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM: EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana PETREVSKA; Saso KOCESKI

    2012-01-01

    The paper makes an attempt to justify the necessity of implementing recommendation system which will assist tourists in identification of their ideal holiday. The proposed recommendation system based on collaborative filtering notes positive impulses in the case of Macedonia. A software module is developed being capable to generate a personalized list of favorable and tailor-made items. The research outcomes indicate that the designed national tourism web portal can provide satisfactory perfo...

  14. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  15. Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses three book publications: C. Kerez: Uncertain Certainty, Tokyo, 2013 H. Hertzberger: Lessons for students in architecture, Rotterdam, 2006, (1991) A. Jorn: Om Formen, Silkeborg, 2014, (1958)......This article discusses three book publications: C. Kerez: Uncertain Certainty, Tokyo, 2013 H. Hertzberger: Lessons for students in architecture, Rotterdam, 2006, (1991) A. Jorn: Om Formen, Silkeborg, 2014, (1958)...

  16. Introduction on health recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bocanegra, C L; Sanchez-Laguna, F; Sevillano, J L

    2015-01-01

    People are looking for appropriate health information which they are concerned about. The Internet is a great resource of this kind of information, but we have to be careful if we don't want to get harmful info. Health recommender systems are becoming a new wave for apt health information as systems suggest the best data according to the patients' needs.The main goals of health recommender systems are to retrieve trusted health information from the Internet, to analyse which is suitable for the user profile and select the best that can be recommended, to adapt their selection methods according to the knowledge domain and to learn from the best recommendations.A brief definition of recommender systems will be given and an explanation of how are they incorporated in the health sector. A description of the main elementary recommender methods as well as their most important problems will also be made. And, to finish, the state of the art will be described.

  17. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  18. Clinical practice recommendations for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, G S; Adams, D; Porter, R; Wignall, A; Lampe, L; O'Connor, N; Paton, M; Newton, L A; Walter, G; Taylor, A; Berk, M; Mulder, R T

    2009-01-01

    To provide clinically relevant evidence-based recommendations for the management of depression in adults that are informative, easy to assimilate and facilitate clinical decision making. A comprehensive literature review of over 500 articles was undertaken using electronic database search engines (e.g. MEDLINE, PsychINFO and Cochrane reviews). In addition articles, book chapters and other literature known to the authors were reviewed. The findings were then formulated into a set of recommendations that were developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians who routinely deal with mood disorders. The recommendations then underwent consultative review by a broader advisory panel that included experts in the field, clinical staff and patient representatives. The clinical practice recommendations for depression (Depression CPR) summarize evidence-based treatments and provide a synopsis of recommendations relating to each phase of the illness. They are designed for clinical use and have therefore been presented succinctly in an innovative and engaging manner that is clear and informative. These up-to-date recommendations provide an evidence-based framework that incorporates clinical wisdom and consideration of individual factors in the management of depression. Further, the novel style and practical approach should promote uptake and implementation.

  19. The legal aspects involving repetitive strain injuries (RSI)

    OpenAIRE

    Techy, Antonio; Siena, Cesar; Helfenstein Junior, Milton [UNIFESP

    2009-01-01

    No relacionamento entre médico e paciente, além da boa prática da medicina, o médico está obrigado a conhecer e cumprir as leis, normas e convenções que podem garantir direitos a uns e gerar obrigações a outros, com base nas informações criadas e perenizadas em prontuários, atestados e pareceres, que servirão de referência às decisões de entidades públicas ou privadas na concessão ou na recusa de direitos e deveres legais. Apontamos como os médicos devem se comportar em relação aos pacientes ...

  20. Driver Injury Risk Variability in Finite Element Reconstructions of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaewsky, James P; Weaver, Ashley A; Koya, Bharath; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    A 3-phase real-world motor vehicle crash (MVC) reconstruction method was developed to analyze injury variability as a function of precrash occupant position for 2 full-frontal Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) cases. Phase I: A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was developed and tuned to mimic the frontal crash characteristics of the CIREN case vehicle (Camry or Cobalt) using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test data. Phase II: The Toyota HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was positioned in 120 precrash configurations per case within the SVM. Five occupant positioning variables were varied using a Latin hypercube design of experiments: seat track position, seat back angle, D-ring height, steering column angle, and steering column telescoping position. An additional baseline simulation was performed that aimed to match the precrash occupant position documented in CIREN for each case. Phase III: FE simulations were then performed using kinematic boundary conditions from each vehicle's event data recorder (EDR). HIC15, combined thoracic index (CTI), femur forces, and strain-based injury metrics in the lung and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated to predict injury. Tuning the SVM to specific vehicle models resulted in close matches between simulated and test injury metric data, allowing the tuned SVM to be used in each case reconstruction with EDR-derived boundary conditions. Simulations with the most rearward seats and reclined seat backs had the greatest HIC15, head injury risk, CTI, and chest injury risk. Calculated injury risks for the head, chest, and femur closely correlated to the CIREN occupant injury patterns. CTI in the Camry case yielded a 54% probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ chest injury in the baseline case simulation and ranged from 34 to 88% (mean = 61%) risk in the least and most dangerous occupant positions. The greater than 50% probability was consistent with the case occupant's AIS 2

  1. Injury Profile in Women Shotokan Karate Championships in Iran (2004-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabchi, Farzin; Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this paper were to record injury rates among Iranian women competitive Shotokan karate athletes and propose possible predisposing factors. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all matches in 6 consecutive women national Shotokan Karate Championships in all age groups in Iran (season 2004-2005) was performed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics (Age and Weight), athletic background (rank, years of experience, time spent training and previous injuries), type, location and reason for the injury, and the result of the match. Results indicate 186 recorded injuries from a total of 1139 bouts involving 1019 athletes, therefore there were 0.163 injury per bout [C.I. 95%: 0.142-0.184] and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes [C.I. 95%: 159-205]. Injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck (55.4%) followed by the lower limb (21%), upper limb (12.9%) and trunk (10.8%). Punches (48. 4%) were associated with more injuries than kicks (33.3%). The injuries consisted of muscle strain and contusion (81, 43.6%), hematoma and epistaxis (49, 26.3%), lacerations and abrasions (28, 15. 1%), concussion (13, 7%), tooth avulsion or subluxation (3, 1.6%), joint dislocation (3, 1.6%) and fractures (3, 1.6%). In conclusion, as the majority of injuries are minor, and severe or longstanding injuries are uncommon, it can be argued that shotokan karate is a relatively safe for females, despite its image as a combat sport, where ostensibly the aim appears to injure your opponent. Further research is needed to evaluate the effective strategies to minimize the risk of injuries. Key points 186 injuries were recorded during women competitions. Incidence rates of 0.163 injury per bout and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes were calculated. The injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck. Muscle strain and contusion, hematoma and epistaxis constitute the majority of injuries. PMID:24198704

  2. Evaluation of the hamstring muscle complex following acute injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulouris, George; Connell, David

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings following acute hamstring injury. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of hamstring muscle complex (HMC) strain in 170 patients referred to our institution over a 3-year period. A total of 179 injuries to the HMC were demonstrated in 170 patients (154 male, 16 female, mean age 28.2 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.7 days (range 1-10 days). MR imaging was performed in 97 cases and sonography in 102 cases (both modalities were performed in 20 examinations). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the muscle-tendon unit, the extent of the injury and discriminating avulsion from muscle injury. Twenty-one patients had proximal tendon injury, with sixteen avulsions and five partial tears. Sixteen of these patients had surgical confirmation of hamstring avulsion from the ischial tuberosity (14 conjoint, 2 biceps femoris alone) and all were reliably diagnosed with MR imaging (16/16), but less so with sonography (7/12). Four distal tendon avulsions were also observed (three semitendinosus, one biceps femoris). With respect to muscle injury, the biceps femoris was most commonly injured (124/154). Semimembranosus was an uncommon muscle injury (21/154) and semitendinosus rare (9/154). Imaging can discriminate a hamstring tendon avulsion from musculotendinous strain and helps identify which patients necessitate surgical management as opposed to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of the hamstring muscle complex following acute injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulouris, George; Connell, David [Department of Radiology, St Francis X Cabrini, Wattletree Rd, 3144, Malvern, Victoria (Australia)

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings following acute hamstring injury. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of hamstring muscle complex (HMC) strain in 170 patients referred to our institution over a 3-year period. A total of 179 injuries to the HMC were demonstrated in 170 patients (154 male, 16 female, mean age 28.2 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.7 days (range 1-10 days). MR imaging was performed in 97 cases and sonography in 102 cases (both modalities were performed in 20 examinations). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the muscle-tendon unit, the extent of the injury and discriminating avulsion from muscle injury. Twenty-one patients had proximal tendon injury, with sixteen avulsions and five partial tears. Sixteen of these patients had surgical confirmation of hamstring avulsion from the ischial tuberosity (14 conjoint, 2 biceps femoris alone) and all were reliably diagnosed with MR imaging (16/16), but less so with sonography (7/12). Four distal tendon avulsions were also observed (three semitendinosus, one biceps femoris). With respect to muscle injury, the biceps femoris was most commonly injured (124/154). Semimembranosus was an uncommon muscle injury (21/154) and semitendinosus rare (9/154). Imaging can discriminate a hamstring tendon avulsion from musculotendinous strain and helps identify which patients necessitate surgical management as opposed to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  4. Internally Mounting Strain Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, J. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.

  5. Running Title: Strained Yoghurts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... ever, the traditional method of producing strained yoghurt ... Food market studies have the essential function of providing ..... Communication No: 2001/21. ... fermented foods and beverages of Turkey. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr.

  6. Blunt splenic injury and severe brain injury: a decision analysis and implications for care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabbasi, Thamer; Nathens, Avery B.; Tien, Col Homer

    2015-01-01

    Background The initial nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients is common. In soldiers who experience blunt splenic injuries with concomitant severe brain injury while on deployment, however, NOM may put the injured soldier at risk for secondary brain injury from prolonged hypotension. Methods We conducted a decision analysis using a Markov process to evaluate 2 strategies for managing hemodynamically stable patients with blunt splenic injuries and severe brain injury — immediate splenectomy and NOM — in the setting of a field hospital with surgical capability but no angiography capabilities. We considered the base case of a 40-year-old man with a life expectancy of 78 years who experienced blunt trauma resulting in a severe traumatic brain injury and an isolated splenic injury with an estimated failure rate of NOM of 19.6%. The primary outcome measured was life expectancy. We assumed that failure of NOM would occur in the setting of a prolonged casualty evacuation, where surgical capability was not present. Results Immediate splenectomy was the slightly more effective strategy, resulting in a very modest increase in overall survival compared with NOM. Immediate splenectomy yielded a survival benefit of only 0.4 years over NOM. Conclusion In terms of overall survival, we would not recommend splenectomy unless the estimated failure rate of NOM exceeded 20%, which corresponds to an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grade III splenic injury. For military patients for whom angiography may not be available at the field hospital and who require prolonged evacuation, immediate splenectomy should be considered for grade III–V injuries in the presence of severe brain injury. PMID:26100770

  7. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  8. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  9. Management of lawn mower injuries to the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, J; Zamboni, W A; Zook, E G

    1993-09-01

    Seventy consecutive patients treated for lawn mower injuries to the foot and ankle were reviewed to determine optimal treatment, functional results, and complications. Injuries were classified into 1 or more functional-anatomical zones (I, digits; II, dorsum; III, plantar nonweight-bearing surface; IV, heel; and V, ankle) for a total of 96 injuries. Thirty-one patients were available for follow-up. Mean age was 36.7 years and 84% were males. Most injuries (67%) involved patients > 16 years old using a push mower; however, 18% involved children Lawn mower injuries to the foot and ankle can be closed primarily after adequate irrigation and debridement without compromise of infection rate or function. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended. One-sixth of these injuries involve children < 5 years of age and can be prevented.

  10. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON BLUNT INJURY ABDOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Kopperundevi; Jagadeesan; Kiruthiga

    2016-01-01

    Blunt injury abdomen is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. Blunt trauma differs from penetrating trauma as different organs are characteristically injured by compression from blunt straining. A total of 53 cases of blunt trauma were studied in this study for the period of 1 year. In this study, commonest cause for blunt abdominal trauma was road traffic accident. The maximum incidence was noted in 20-40 middle age group of which 90% male patients were ...

  11. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John; Farhart, Patrick; Kountouris, Alex; James, Trefor; Portus, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains. This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers in Australia during seasons 1998-1999 to 2008-2009 inclusive. There were 205 pace bowlers, 33 of whom suffered a lumbar stress fracture when playing first class cricket. Risk ratios ([RR] with 95% confidence intervals[CI]) were calculated to compare the seasonal incidence of various injuries between bowlers with a prior history of lumbar stress fracture and those with no history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of calf strain was strongly associated with prior lumbar stress fracture injury history (RR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4-7.1). Risks of both hamstring strain (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03-2.1) and quadriceps strain (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) were somewhat associated with history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of groin strain was not associated with history of lumbar stress fracture (RR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4-1.1). Other injuries showed little association with prior lumbar stress fracture, although knee cartilage injuries were more likely in the non-stress fracture group. Bony hypertrophy associated with lumbar stress fracture healing may lead to subsequent lumbar nerve root impingement, making lower limb muscle strains more likely to occur. Confounders may be responsible for some of the findings. In particular, bowling speed is likely to be independently correlated with risk of lumbar stress fracture and risk of muscle strain. However, as the relationship between lumbar stress fracture history and calf strain was very strong, and that there is a strong theoretical basis for the connection, it is likely that this is a true association.

  12. Traumatic injuries of the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, S.; Krestan, C.; Lomoschitz, F.; Robinson, S.; Glaser, C.; Staudenherz, A.

    2001-01-01

    Injuries of the temporomandibular joint are mostly due to injuries or fractures of the mandibular condyle. Fractures of the skull base involving the temporomandibular joint are rare. Classification of fractures refers to their anatomical positions and the presence or absence of a luxation. Further, it is important whether the fracture is intra- or extra-capsular. The primary imaging method should be orthopantomography. As for therapy planning, especially surgery, also evaluation of soft tissue is necessary, computed tomography is the imaging method of choice. For diagnosis of complications or internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint, magnetic resonance imaging is to be recommended. (orig.) [de

  13. Urological injuries following trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, C.; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M.; Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N.; Fotheringham, T.

    2008-01-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated

  14. Urological injuries following trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  15. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  16. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  18. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  19. Urological injuries following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, C; Iyngkaran, T; Power, N; Matson, M; Hajdinjak, T; Buchholz, N; Fotheringham, T

    2008-12-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  20. Mudanças no trabalho e na vida de bancários portadores de Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos: LER Cambios en el trabajo y en la vida de bancarios portadores de Lesiones por Esfuerzos Repetitivos: LER Changes in the work and life of bank employees with Repetitive Strain Injury: RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Tiemi Murofuse

    2001-01-01

    fuera de él. El desafío está en garantizar los derechos de estos trabajadores.Nowadays, Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI has been one of the most serious problems concerning workers' health. Aiming at analyzing the main changes in the work and life of RSI bearers from an RSI Bearers Association in Cascavel - Paraná, we developed this qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were applied to nine bank employees. The first symptoms had appeared during the period of automation and introduction of new technology in the Brazilian financial system, which was when changes in work organization took place. The main elements in this process were the increase in work load, use of computers, overtime work, absence of intervals, monotony, repetitive actions, intense work and productivity control, pressure and tension. The aggravation of injuries affected productivity and caused dependence to carry out activities at work and out of it. A challenge lies in ensuring these worker's rights.

  1. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  2. The new ICRP general recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Ch.; Kosako, T.; Kuniyoshi, H.; Kiryu, Y.; Choi, H.S.; Burns, P.A.; Pan, Z.Q.; Xia, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory views from Japan, South Korea, Australia, China and Indonesia were explained based on their regional context. Some issues, for example 'optimisation', 'dose constrains', 'natural radioactivity', were addressed from the viewpoint of how each country's current regulation system would adopt these new recommendations. It was noted that there would be a need for some flexibility in applying these new recommendations since different countries have different regulatory criteria and benchmarks as well different decision-making processes. It was also noted that definitions and terminologies should be given serious consideration with regard to non-English speaking countries to assure that the new ICRP recommendations are clearly understood, not misinterpreted, easily translated and finally applied in the field of radiation protection. In addition, some recent radiation protection activities, as well as views on utilisation of nuclear power in several countries were presented. (authors)

  3. Noncontiguous double-level unstable spinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Masanari; Okada, Motohiro; Enyo, Yoshio; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2017-01-01

    Noncontiguous double-level unstable spinal injuries (NDUSI) are uncommon and have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to better understand the patterns of NDUSI, in order to recommend proper diagnostic and treatment methods, as well as to raise awareness among traumatologists about the possibility of these uncommon injuries. A total of 710 consecutive patients with spine fractures were treated for >9 years since 2007 at a single regional trauma center. Of them, 18 patients with NDUSI were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NDUSI was 2.5 % of all spine fractures. In 17 of 18 patients (94.7 %), NDUSI was caused by a high-energy trauma. Nine patients (50.0 %) exhibited complete neurological deficit. Spinal cord injury occurred in the cranial injured region in all American Spinal Injury Association grade A cases. In one case, a second fracture was overlooked at the initial examination. NDUSI are common in cases of high-energy trauma and should be taken into consideration at the initial examination. A second fracture may be easily overlooked because of the high frequency of concomitant severe spinal cord injury in the cranial injured region and/or loss of consciousness due to associated injuries. To avoid overlooking injuries, full spine computed tomography is useful at the initial examination. Operative reduction and internal fixation with instrumentation through a posterior approach is recommendable for cases of NDUSI. In elderly patients, a very rapid stabilizing surgery should be planned before aspiration pneumonia occurs or the pulmonary condition worsens.

  4. The Triaging and Treatment of Cold-Induced Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Christoph; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Daigeler, Adrien; Goertz, Ole

    2015-10-30

    In Central Europe, cold-induced injuries are much less common than burns. In a burn center in western Germany, the mean ratio of these two types of injury over the past 10 years was 1 to 35. Because cold-induced injuries are so rare, physicians often do not know how to deal with them. This article is based on a review of publications (up to December 2014) retrieved by a selective search in PubMed using the terms "freezing," "frostbite injury," "non-freezing cold injury," and "frostbite review," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. Freezing and cold-induced trauma are part of the treatment spectrum in burn centers. The treatment of cold-induced injuries is not standardized and is based largely on case reports and observations of use. distinction is drawn between non-freezing injuries, in which there is a slow temperature drop in tissue without freezing, and freezing injuries in which ice crystals form in tissue. In all cases of cold-induced injury, the patient should be slowly warmed to 22°-27°C to prevent reperfusion injury. Freezing injuries are treated with warming of the body's core temperature and with the bathing of the affected body parts in warm water with added antiseptic agents. Any large or open vesicles that are already apparent should be debrided. To inhibit prostaglandin-mediated thrombosis, ibuprofen is given (12 mg/kg body weight b.i.d.). The treatment of cold-induced injuries is based on their type, severity, and timing. The recommendations above are grade C recommendations. The current approach to reperfusion has yielded promising initial results and should be further investigated in prospective studies.

  5. A comparison between clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging of acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Warren, Price; Connell, David A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physicians evaluating hamstring strains in professional football players are increasingly turning to magnetic resonance imaging to support the clinical diagnosis and management of the injury. However, little information is available to assess how magnetic resonance imaging compares with

  6. WISE recommendations to ensure the safety of injections in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, K

    2012-01-01

    Injections and fingersticks administered to patients with diabetes in health care settings present a risk of blood exposure to the injector as well as other workers in potential contact with sharps. Such exposures could lead to transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis and HIV. A recent EU Directive requires that where such risks have been identified, processes and devices must be put in place to reduce or eliminate the risk. The aim of this paper is to provide formal guidelines on the application of this Directive to diabetes care settings. These evidence-based recommendations were written and vetted by a large group of international safety experts. A systematic literature search was conducted for all peer-reviewed studies and publications which bear on sharps safety in diabetes. Initially a group of experts reviewed this literature and drafted the recommendations. These were then presented for review, debate and revision to 57 experts from 14 countries at the WISE workshop in October, 2011. After the WISE meeting, the revised Recommendations were circulated electronically to attendees on three occasions, each time in a new iteration with revisions. Each recommendation was graded by the weight it should have in daily practice and by its degree of support in the medical literature. The topics covered include Risks of Sharps Injury and Muco-cutaneous Exposure, The EU Directive, Device Implications, Injection Technique Implications, Education and Training (Creating a "Safety Culture"), Value, Awareness and Responsibility. These safety recommendations provide practical guidance and fill an important gap in diabetes management. If followed, they should help ensure safe, effective and largely injury-free injections and fingersticks. They will serve as the roadmap for applying the new EU Directive to diabetes care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. TOURISM RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM: EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana PETREVSKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes an attempt to justify the necessity of implementing recommendation system which will assist tourists in identification of their ideal holiday. The proposed recommendation system based on collaborative filtering notes positive impulses in the case of Macedonia. A software module is developed being capable to generate a personalized list of favorable and tailor-made items. The research outcomes indicate that the designed national tourism web portal can provide satisfactory performance and may be of high importance to all key-tourism actors in the process of identifying measures necessary for creating competitive tourism product.

  8. Injury and illness in college outdoor education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports

  9. Dressings as an adjunct to pressure ulcer prevention: consensus panel recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joyce; Clark, Michael; Dealey, Carol; Brindle, Christopher T; Alves, Paulo; Santamaria, Nick; Call, Evan

    2015-08-01

    The formulation of recommendations on the use of wound dressings in pressure ulcer prevention was undertaken by a group of experts in pressure ulcer prevention and treatment from Australia, Portugal, UK and USA. After review of literature, they concluded that there is adequate evidence to recommend the use of five-layer silicone bordered dressings (Mepilex Border Sacrum(®) and 3 layer Mepilex Heel(®) dressings by Mölnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden) for pressure ulcer prevention in the sacrum, buttocks and heels in high-risk patients, those in Emergency Department (ED), intensive care unit (ICU) and operating room (OR). Literature on which this recommendation is based includes one prospective randomised control trial, three cohort studies and two case series. Recommendations for dressing use in patients at high risk for pressure injury and shear injury were also provided. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  11. Ubiquitous Multicriteria Clinic Recommendation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Toly

    2016-05-01

    Advancements in information, communication, and sensor technologies have led to new opportunities in medical care and education. Patients in general prefer visiting the nearest clinic, attempt to avoid waiting for treatment, and have unequal preferences for different clinics and doctors. Therefore, to enable patients to compare multiple clinics, this study proposes a ubiquitous multicriteria clinic recommendation system. In this system, patients can send requests through their cell phones to the system server to obtain a clinic recommendation. Once the patient sends this information to the system, the system server first estimates the patient's speed according to the detection results of a global positioning system. It then applies a fuzzy integer nonlinear programming-ordered weighted average approach to assess four criteria and finally recommends a clinic with maximal utility to the patient. The proposed methodology was tested in a field experiment, and the experimental results showed that it is advantageous over two existing methods in elevating the utilities of recommendations. In addition, such an advantage was shown to be statistically significant.

  12. [Organizational recommendations for day surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    In France, the delayed development of day surgery compared to other countries led the ANAP and the HAS in 2011 to enter into a joint work program to provide some reference guide for hospitals to change their practices to outpatient. In this context, organizational guidelines and operational tools were published in May 2013. The method of construction of the recommendations resulting from an original work that combined a three-fold approach: field vision by identifying the highlights of 15 hospitals selected for their representative performance and analyzing the risks of five voluntary hospitals, mobilization organizational theories from the social sciences, using 53 professional experts. The work concluded on 16 organizational recommendations under four forms (basic principles, strategic elements, operational elements and perspectives). These recommendations are accompanied by tools and guides diagnosis and implementation, as well as productions for further reflection. These organizational recommendations confirmed the specificity of day surgery, which is not related to the act, but to the organization, management and optimization of different flows of a hospital (patient flow, professional flows, logistical, informational…). The performance of a day surgery organization is linked to its ability to control its flow and anticipation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Recommendations for DSD model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvelbar, F.

    1999-01-01

    The latest achievements of the DSD (direct-semidirect) capture model, such as the extension to unbound final states or to densely distributed bound states, and the introduction of the consistent DSD model are reviewed. Recommendations for the future use of the model are presented. (author)

  14. Recommendations for open data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gymrek, Melissa; Farjoun, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Life science research increasingly relies on large-scale computational analyses. However, the code and data used for these analyses are often lacking in publications. To maximize scientific impact, reproducibility, and reuse, it is crucial that these resources are made publicly available and are fully transparent. We provide recommendations for improving the openness of data-driven studies in life sciences.

  15. Recommendations for Institutional Prematriculation Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The recommendations presented in this article are provided to colleges and universities to facilitate the implementation of a comprehensive institutional prematriculation immunization policy. Vaccine-preventable diseases continue to occur on American campuses. In response to changing epidemiology and the introduction of new vaccines, the ACHA…

  16. Lower extremity injuries in runners. Advances in prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macera, C A

    1992-01-01

    Recreational and competitive running is practised by many individuals to improve cardiorespiratory function and general well-being. The major negative aspect of running is the high rate of injuries to the lower extremities. Several well-designed population-based studies have found no major differences in injury rates between men and women; no increasing effect of age on injuries; a declining injury rate with more years of running experience; no substantial effect of weight or height; an uncertain effect of psychological factors; and a strong effect of previous injury on future injuries. Among the modifiable risk factors studied, weekly distance is the strongest predictor of future injuries. Other training characteristics (speed, frequency, surface, timing) have little or no effect on future injuries after accounting for distance run. More studies are needed to address the effects of appropriate stretching practices and abrupt change in training patterns. For recreational runners who have sustained injuries, especially within the past year, a reduction in running to below 32 km per week is recommended. For those about to begin a running programme, moderation is the best advice. For competitive runners, great care should be taken to ensure that prior injuries are sufficiently healed before attempting any racing event, particularly a marathon.

  17. [The forensic medical assessment of the results of a study of laryngeal injuries in blunt trauma to the neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakov, A V; Korenev, S A; Akishin, A N

    1997-01-01

    Presents the methodological principles and succession of examination of the basic formations of the larynx in cases with blunt injuries of the neck. Describes variants of anatomic structure of the sublingual bone and laryngeal cartilages influencing the morphology of injuries thereof. Offers differential diagnostic criteria of various mechanisms of fractures of the basic formations and recommendations on medical criminological assessment of laryngeal injuries.

  18. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  20. Elbow Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You ...

  1. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your knee is bent also can cause this injury. Risk factors Being in a motor vehicle accident and participating in sports such as football and soccer are the most common risk factors for a PCL injury. Complications In ...

  2. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  4. Football injuries: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ...

  8. Mountain Biking Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Majid; Nourian, Ruhollah; Khodaee, Morteza

    With the increasing popularity of mountain biking, also known as off-road cycling, and the riders pushing the sport into extremes, there has been a corresponding increase in injury. Almost two thirds of acute injuries involve the upper extremities, and a similar proportion of overuse injuries affect the lower extremities. Mountain biking appears to be a high-risk sport for severe spine injuries. New trends of injury patterns are observed with popularity of mountain bike trail parks and freeride cycling. Using protective gear, improving technical proficiency, and physical fitness may somewhat decrease the risk of injuries. Simple modifications in bicycle-rider interface areas and with the bicycle (bike fit) also may decrease some overuse injuries. Bike fit provides the clinician with postural correction during the sport. In this review, we also discuss the importance of race-day management strategies and monitoring the injury trends.

  9. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  10. Injury & Safety Report - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Injury & Safety Report is a mandatory post trip legal document observers fill out to report any injuries they have incurred, illnesses they have had, or...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  13. Skateboarding injuries of today

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, L; Eriksson, A

    2001-01-01

    Background—Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction.

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain injury Some traumatic brain injuries have lasting effects, and some do not. You may be left with disabilities. These can be physical, behavioral, communicative, and/or mental. Customized treatment helps you to have as full ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  16. Downhill ski injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew; Higgins, Robert W; Skelly, William A

    2007-01-01

    injury, limitations have hampered reporting. These limitations include age and injury awareness, data collection challenges, lack of uniformity in the definition or delineation of age classification and lack of knowledge of predisposing factors prior to injury. Since skill level is the primary impetus in minimising ski injuries, formal instruction focusing on strategies such as collision avoidance and helmet use, fall training minimising lower extremity trauma, altering ski technique and avoiding behaviours that lead to excessive risk are, therefore, highly recommended. Skiing equipment should be outfitted to match the young skier's height, weight, level of experience, boot size and slope conditions. Additionally, particular attention should be paid to slope management (i.e. overcrowding, trail and obstacle marker upkeep) and minimising any opportunity for excessive speed where children are present. Whether increases in knowledge, education and technology will reduce predisposition to injury among this population remains to be seen. As with all high-risk sports, the answer may lie in increased wisdom and responsibility of both the skier and the parent to ensure an adequate level of ability, self-control and simply common sense as they venture out on the slopes.

  17. Ocular injuries among industrial welders in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebai, B; Awoyesuku, EA

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular injuries among industrial welders and rate the use of protective eyewear at work among industrial welders in Port Harcourt. Information from this study will provide a database for effective policy formation on prevention of occupational eye injuries in Port Harcourt Rivers State. Methods A cross-sectional survey of ocular injuries and use of protective eyewear among industrial welders in the Port Harcourt local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria, was carried out over a three-month period. Five hundred welders were selected by simple random sampling. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. All welders were examined in their workshops. Results Flying metal chips were the chief source of ocular injury, as reported by 199 (68.15%) of those who gave a history of work-related eye injury, while arc rays accounted for the remaining 93 (31.85%). There was a high level of awareness of the risk of sustaining an eye injury from welding (n = 490, 98%), but only 46 (15.3%) of the welders were using protective eyewear at the time of injury. Conclusion To minimize ocular injury and promote eye health amongst industrial welders, safety intervention programs, such as awareness campaigns, setting up of targeted programs by the relevant government agencies, and encouragement of locally produced eye protectors is recommended. The involvement of occupational medical practitioners is also strongly recommended. PMID:21966197

  18. Effects of muscle injury severity on localized bioimpedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nescolarde, L; Rosell-Ferrer, J; Yanguas, J; Lukaski, H; Alomar, X; Rodas, G

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injuries in the lower limb are common among professional football players. Classification is made according to severity and is diagnosed with radiological assessment as: grade I (minor strain or minor injury), grade II (partial rupture, moderate injury) and grade III (complete rupture, severe injury). Tetrapolar localized bioimpedance analysis (BIA) at 50 kHz made with a phase-sensitive analyzer was used to assess damage to the integrity of muscle structures and the fluid accumulation 24 h after injury in 21 injuries in the quadriceps, hamstring and calf, and was diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to identify the pattern of change in BIA variables as indicators of fluid [resistance (R)] and cell structure integrity [reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA)] according to the severity of the MRI-defined injury. The % difference compared to the non-injured contralateral muscle also measured 24-h after injury of R, Xc and PA were respectively: grade I (n = 11; −10.4, −17.5 and −9.0%), grade II (n = 8; −18.4, −32.9 and −16.6%) and grade III (n = 2; −14.1, −52.9 and −43.1%), showing a greater significant decrease in Xc (p < 0.001). The greatest relative changes were in grade III injuries. However, decreases in R, that indicate fluid distribution, were not proportional to the severity of the injury. Disruption of the muscle structure, demonstrated by the localized determination of Xc, increased with the severity of muscle injury. The most significant changes 24 h after injury was the sizeable decrease in Xc that indicates a pattern of disrupted soft tissue structure, proportional to the severity of the injury. (paper)

  19. Survey of upper extremity injuries among martial arts participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesselhorst, Matthew M; Rayan, Ghazi M; Pasque, Charles B; Peyton Holder, R

    2013-01-01

    To survey participants at various experience levels of different martial arts (MA) about upper extremity injuries sustained during training and fighting. A 21-s question survey was designed and utilised. The survey was divided into four groups (Demographics, Injury Description, Injury Mechanism, and Miscellaneous information) to gain knowledge about upper extremity injuries sustained during martial arts participation. Chi-square testing was utilised to assess for significant associations. Males comprised 81% of respondents. Involvement in multiple forms of MA was the most prevalent (38%). The hand/wrist was the most common area injured (53%), followed by the shoulder/upper arm (27%) and the forearm/elbow (19%). Joint sprains/muscle strains were the most frequent injuries reported overall (47%), followed by abrasions/bruises (26%). Dislocations of the upper extremity were reported by 47% of participants while fractures occurred in 39%. Surgeries were required for 30% of participants. Females were less likely to require surgery and more likely to have shoulder and elbow injuries. Males were more likely to have hand injuries. Participants of Karate and Tae Kwon Do were more likely to have injuries to their hands, while participants of multiple forms were more likely to sustain injuries to their shoulders/upper arms and more likely to develop chronic upper extremity symptoms. With advanced level of training the likelihood of developing chronic upper extremity symptoms increases, and multiple surgeries were required. Hand protection was associated with a lower risk of hand injuries. Martial arts can be associated with substantial upper extremity injuries that may require surgery and extended time away from participation. Injuries may result in chronic upper extremity symptoms. Hand protection is important for reducing injuries to the hand and wrist.

  20. Golf-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brittany A; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Friedenberg, Laura; Smith, Gary A

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates unintentional non-fatal golf-related injuries in the US using a nationally representative database. This study analyzed golf-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments from 1990 through 2011 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Injury rates were calculated using golf participation data. During 1990 through 2011, an estimated 663,471 (95% CI: 496,370-830,573) individuals ≥7years old were treated in US emergency departments for golf-related injuries, averaging 30,158 annually or 12.3 individuals per 10,000 golf participants. Patients 18-54years old accounted for 42.2% of injuries, but injury rates per 10,000 golf participants were highest among individuals 7-17years old (22.1) and ≥55years old (21.8) compared with 18-54years old (7.6). Patients ≥55years old had a hospital admission rate that was 5.01 (95% CI: 4.12-6.09) times higher than that of younger patients. Injured by a golf club (23.4%) or struck by a golf ball (16.0%) were the most common specified mechanisms of injury. The head/neck was the most frequently injured body region (36.2%), and sprain/strain (30.6%) was the most common type of injury. Most patients were treated and released (93.7%) and 5.9% required hospitalization. Although golf is a source of injury among all age groups, the frequency and rate of injury were higher at the two ends of the age spectrum. Given the higher injury and hospital admission rates of patients ≥55years, this age group merits the special attention of additional research and injury prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.

  2. Youth Versus Adult “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms: Accidental Versus Nonaccidental Injury Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Myer, GD, Quatman, CE, Khoury, J, Wall, EJ, and Hewett, TE. Youth versus adult “weightlifting” injuries presenting to united states emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms. J Strength Cond Res 23(7): 2054–2060, 2009—Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as “accidental” if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4, 111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p injuries (n = 2, 565) showed that the oldest categories (19–22 and 23–30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to “dropping” and “pinching” in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially

  3. Molecular characterization of the probiotic strain Bacillus cereus var. toyoi NCIMB 40112 and differentiation from food poisoning strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Günter

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus cereus var. toyoi strain NCIMB 40112 (Toyocerin), a probiotic authorized in the European Union as feed additive for swine, bovines, poultry, and rabbits, was characterized by DNA fingerprinting applying pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing and was compared with reference strains (of clinical and environmental origins). The probiotic strain was clearly characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the restriction enzymes Apa I and Sma I resulting in unique DNA patterns. The comparison to the clinical reference strain B. cereus DSM 4312 was done with the same restriction enzymes, and again a clear differentiation of the two strains was possible by the resulting DNA patterns. The use of the restriction enzymes Apa I and Sma I is recommended for further studies. Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed a sequence type (ST 111) that was different from all known STs of B. cereus strains from food poisoning incidents. Thus, a strain characterization and differentiation from food poisoning strains for the probiotic strain was possible. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  5. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  6. Lightning injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow ...

  9. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change.[4] The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.

  10. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  12. Knee injuries in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    swimming and basketball.1 In 2001 it was reported to have injury rates of 1 000 times ... knee injury in football are the age of the player, a previous injury and the ligamentous .... football is possible, although the success rates may vary from ...

  13. Groin injuries in atheletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Per

    2017-01-01

    Groin injuries have a bad reputation as very difficult to diagnose and treat. However, this is not justified and in the last two decades an increasing number of good scientific papers have been published. The key to the groin injuries is the anatomy. Groin injuries are related to muscles, tendons...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... What is a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  15. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  16. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  17. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship

  18. Injuries in synchronized skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravcic-Simunjak, S; Kuipers, H; Moran, J; Simunjak, B; Pecina, M

    2006-06-01

    Synchronized skating is a relatively new competitive sport and data about injuries in this discipline are lacking. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and pattern of acute and overuse injuries in synchronized skaters. Before and during the World Synchronized Skating Championship 2004, a questionnaire inquiring about the frequency of injuries in this skating discipline was given to 23 participating teams. A total of 514 women and 14 men senior skaters completed the questionnaires (100 % response). Two hundred and eighteen (42.4 %) female and 6 (42.9 %) male skaters had suffered from acute injuries during their synchronized skating career. As some skaters had suffered from more than one injury, the total number of acute injuries in females was 398 and in males 14. In female skaters 19.8 % of acute injuries were head injuries, 7.1 % trunk, 33.2 % upper, and 39.9 % lower extremity injuries. In male skaters 14.3 % were head injuries, 28.6 % upper, and 57.1 % lower extremity injuries, with no report of trunk injuries. Sixty-nine female and 2 male skaters had low back problems and 112 female and 2 male skaters had one or more overuse syndromes during their skating career. Of 155 overuse injuries in female skaters, 102 (65.8 %) occurred during their figure skating career, while 53 injuries (34.2 %) only occurred when they skated in synchronized skating teams. In male skaters, out of 5 overuse injuries, 4 (80 %) occurred in their figure skating career, while 1 (20 %) occurred during their synchronized skating career. Out of the total of 412 injuries, 338 (82 %) occurred during on-ice practice, while 74 (18 %) happened during off-ice training. Ninety-one (26.9 %) acute injures occurred while practicing individual elements, and 247 (73.1 %) on-ice injuries occurred while practicing different team elements. We conclude that injuries in synchronized skating should be of medical concern due to an increasing number of acute injuries, especially

  19. A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Songjie

    Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

  20. Epidemiological Review of Injury in Pre-Professional Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis; Goodwin, Brett J; Caine, Caroline G; Bergeron, Glen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an epidemiological review of the literature concerning ballet injuries affecting pre-professional ballet dancers. The literature search was limited to published peer-reviewed reports and involved an extensive examination of Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used in various combinations: ballet, injury, epidemiology, risk factor, pre-professional, and intervention. Additional citations were located using the ancestry approach. Unlike some other athletic activities that have been the focus of recent intervention research, there is a paucity of intervention and translational research in pre-professional ballet, and sample sizes have often been small and have not accounted for the multivariate nature of ballet injury. Exposure-based injury rates in this population appear similar to those reported for professional ballet dancers and female gymnasts. A preponderance of injuries affect the lower extremity of these dancers, with sprains and strains being the most frequent type of injury reported. The majority of injuries appear to be overuse in nature. Injury risk factors have been tested in multiple studies and indicate a variety of potential injury predictors that may provide useful guidance for future research.

  1. Monitoring of sport participation and injury risk in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. cricket: nature and incidence of fast-bowling injuries at an elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . T3. TT. Fig. 1. Seasonal injury incidence per anatomical area. 0. 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50 strain other sprain tear fracture bruise break dislocation. T1. T2. T3. TT. Fig. 2. The nature of injuries to fast bowlers. saJsM Vol 20 no. 2 2008.

  3. RARD: The Related-Article Recommendation Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Beel, Joeran; Carevic, Zeljko; Schaible, Johann; Neusch, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    Recommender-system datasets are used for recommender-system evaluations, training machine-learning algorithms, and exploring user behavior. While there are many datasets for recommender systems in the domains of movies, books, and music, there are rather few datasets from research-paper recommender systems. In this paper, we introduce RARD, the Related-Article Recommendation Dataset, from the digital library Sowiport and the recommendation-as-a-service provider Mr. DLib. The dataset contains ...

  4. Early vasopressor use following traumatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hylands, Mathieu; Toma, Augustin; Beaudoin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current guidelines suggest limiting the use of vasopressors following traumatic injury; however, wide variations in practice exist. Although excessive vasoconstriction may be harmful, these agents may help reduce administration of potentially harmful resuscitation fluids. This systema......OBJECTIVES: Current guidelines suggest limiting the use of vasopressors following traumatic injury; however, wide variations in practice exist. Although excessive vasoconstriction may be harmful, these agents may help reduce administration of potentially harmful resuscitation fluids...... trials are currently ongoing. No study measured long-term quality of life or cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Existing data on the effects of vasopressors following traumatic injury are of very low quality according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology...

  5. Hamstring Injury After Swimming in a Patient With Multiple Hereditary Osteochondromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Gürhan; Özçakar, Levent; Korkusuz, Feza

    2016-09-01

    Reported here is a 20-year-old male suffered a hamstring strain after a prolonged bout of swimming. After ultrasound imaging, the patient's injury was considered to be the result of nearby osteochondromas. Case reports have been previously published concerning anterior cruciate ligament injury, rotator cuff tears, subacromial impingement, or femoroacetabular impingement in multiple osteochondromatosis. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a hamstring injury secondary to an osteochondroma.

  6. Strains and Sprains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lot of pressure on a muscle or you push it too far, such as when lifting a heavy object. Strains may be more likely to happen if you haven't warmed up first to get blood circulating to the muscles. They're also common for someone returning to a sport after the off-season. That first time playing ...

  7. Scientific and educational recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, A. I.; Kireev, V. S.; Bochkarev, P. V.; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Philippov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the questions associated with the use of reference systems in the preparation of graduates in physical function. The objective of this research is creation of model of recommender system user from the sphere of science and education. The detailed review of current scientific and social network for scientists and the problem of constructing recommender systems in this area. The result of this study is to research user information model systems. The model is presented in two versions: the full one - in the form of a semantic network, and short - in a relational form. The relational model is the projection in the form of semantic network, taking into account the restrictions on the amount of bonds that characterize the number of information items (research results), which interact with the system user.

  8. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  9. [Trauma registry and injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, S C

    2001-10-01

    The trauma registry network constitutes an essential database in every injury prevention system. In order to rationally estimate the extent of injury in general, and injuries from traffic accidents in particular, the trauma registry systems should contain the most comprehensive and broad database possible, in line with the operational definitions. Ideally, the base of the injury pyramid should also include mild injuries and even "near-misses". The Israeli National Trauma Registry has come a long way in the last few years. The eventual inclusion of all trauma centers in Israel will enable the establishment of a firm base for the allocation of resources by decision-makers.

  10. Triathlon: running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  11. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  12. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  13. Imaging of American football injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.

  14. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G.; Unsell, Bryan J.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  15. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

  16. Group Recommendation in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    interests 8,822,921 DOUBAN Largest Chinese community providing user review and recommendation services for movies, books, and music . It also...doubles up as the Chinese language book, movie and music database. 46,850,000 FACEBOOK General 750,000,000+ FLIXSTER Movies 32,000,000 FOURSQUARE...groups, events and community pages) • More than 30 billion pieces of content (web links, news stories, blog posts, notes, photo albums , etc.) shared

  17. Workers and the ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbib, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    In both the preparation and the application of the recommendations presented by the ICRP one important voice has been absent: that of the workers in the nuclear industry. A large number of specialists are studying their situation from all points of view, in their different capacities as workers, consumers and male or female members of the public, but this extensive study is being done without consulting them, without their opinion even being asked for. The paper discusses such deficiencies, in particular all those aspects which distinguish these recommendations from a legal text. The lack of conciseness in the definition of the limit which the average annual dose to a large group of workers must not exceed (500 mrad) is considered. The possibility of a large number of workers being exposed for a long period is not acceptable if the decision is left to the manager of a nuclear facility alone. Cost-benefit analysis, as it is described in the ICRP text, cannot be considered to provide credible protection from the point of view of workers. Moreover, the various ICRP recommendations fail to mention such important matters as allowance for low-dose effects, disparities in the social security coverage offered to various categories of workers in the event of occupational illness, and the increasing use of migrant workers for difficult decontamination and maitenance tasks. At a time when it is thought that nuclear technology can be standardized, the French Democratic Labour Confederation (CFDT) expresses its fears concerning the practical application of the ICRP recommendations; for example, the text of ICRP Publication 26 has not yet been translated into French, but Euratom has already proposed directives for its application in Member States

  18. Recommended HSE-7 documents hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report recommends a hierarchy of waste management documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or ''Laboratory''). The hierarchy addresses documents that are required to plan, implement, and document waste management programs at Los Alamos. These documents will enable the waste management group and the six sections contained within that group to satisfy requirements that are imposed upon them by the US Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Albuquerque Operations, US Environmental Protection Agency, various State of New Mexico agencies, and Laboratory management

  19. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  20. Iliopsoas injury: an MRI study of patterns and prevalence correlated with clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Kimmie L.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Recht, Michael; Sundaram, Murali

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to retrospectively determine the prevalence and patterns of iliopsoas injuries based on consecutive MRI examinations, correlated with clinical findings. From 4,862 consecutive MRI examinations of the hips and pelvis, 32 patients with 33 iliopsoas injuries were identified and graded as muscle strain, partial tendon tear, and complete tendon tears. These patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, and cause of symptoms. The prevalence of iliopsoas tendon and myotendinous injuries was 0.66% (95% CI: 0.44-0.89). There were 18 females and 14 males whose ages ranged from 7 to 95 years (mean, 54 years). The most frequent presenting symptom was hip pain and the most frequent clinical diagnosis, an occult fracture. The most common injuries in patients under 65 years (16 patients) were muscle strains and partial tendon tears, most often due to an athletic injury. The most common injury in patients 65 years and older (16 patients) was a complete tear (8 patients, all females), 2 of which were spontaneous in origin. Each grade of iliopsoas injury occurred with similar frequency. The more advanced the age of the patient, the more severe the injury. Non-athletic injuries predominated in patients 65 years and older; athletic injuries were the most common cause of iliopsoas injury in patients under 65 years. (orig.)

  1. Aggregated recommendation through random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy.

  2. Efficient Tensor Strategy for Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboagye Emelia Opoku

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The era of big data has witnessed the explosion of tensor datasets, and large scale Probabilistic Tensor Factorization (PTF analysis is important to accommodate such increasing trend of data. Sparsity, and Cold-Start are some of the inherent problems of recommender systems in the era of big data. This paper proposes a novel Sentiment-Based Probabilistic Tensor Analysis technique senti-PTF to address the problems. The propose framework first applies a Natural Language Processing technique to perform sentiment analysis taking advantage of the huge sums of textual data generated available from the social media which are predominantly left untouched. Although some current studies do employ review texts, many of them do not consider how sentiments in reviews influence recommendation algorithm for prediction. There is therefore this big data text analytics gap whose modeling is computationally expensive. From our experiments, our novel machine learning sentiment-based tensor analysis is computationally less expensive, and addresses the cold-start problem, for optimal recommendation prediction.

  3. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  4. Martial arts injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieter, Willy

    2005-01-01

    To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.

  5. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect.

  6. Ice-skating injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D M; Lowdon, I M

    1986-05-01

    The range of injuries sustained at an ice-rink and presented to an Accident Service department is described. A total of 203 patients with 222 injuries presented themselves during a 2-month period. There were 103 noteworthy injuries, including 61 fractures, 2 dislocations and 2 severed tendons, but the commonest injuries were wounds, sprains and bruises. Beginners appear to be more prone to injury than experienced skaters. In addition to using well-fitting skate-boots to protect the ankle, some injuries could be avoided by wearing elbow and knee pads, and a thick pair of gloves. The number of injuries compared with the total number of skaters was small but produced a noteworthy increase in the workload of the Accident Service.

  7. On the importance of retaining stresses and strains in repositioning computational biomechanical models of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Yiadom, Solomon; Cronin, Duane S

    2018-01-01

    Human body models are created in a specific posture and often repositioned and analyzed without retaining stresses that result from repositioning. For example, repositioning a human neck model within the physiological range of motion to a head-turned posture prior to an impact results in initial stresses within the tissues distracted from their neutral position. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repositioning on the subsequent kinetics, kinematics, and failure modes, of a lower cervical spine motion segment, to support future research at the full neck level. Repositioning was investigated for 3 modes (tension, flexion, and extension) and 3 load cases. The model was repositioned and loaded to failure in one continuous load history (case 1), or repositioned then restarted with retained stresses and loaded to failure (case 2). In case 3, the model was repositioned and then restarted in a stress-free state, representing current repositioning methods. Not retaining the repositioning stresses and strains resulted in different kinetics, kinematics, or failure modes, depending on the mode of loading. For the motion segment model, the differences were associated with the intervertebral disc fiber reorientation and load distribution, because the disc underwent the largest deformation during repositioning. This study demonstrated that repositioning led to altered response and tissue failure, which is critical for computational models intended to predict injury at the tissue level. It is recommended that stresses and strains be included and retained for subsequent analysis when repositioning a human computational neck model. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Sports-related injuries of the spine; Sportverletzungen und -schaeden der Wirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochmuth, K. [Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik, Stiftung Friedrichsheim der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kurth, A.A.; Zichner, L. [Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik, Stiftung Friedrichsheim der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.) [German] Die verschiedenen Sportarten weisen unterschiedliche Verletzungshaeufigkeiten und -muster auf, die im Rahmen dieser Uebersichtsarbeit diskutiert werden sollen. Circa 3% der Sportunfaelle betreffen die Wirbelsaeule. Diese Verletzungen sind haeufig von besonderer Tragweite fuer den Patienten. Eine fruehestmoegliche und umfassende Diagnose aller Veraenderungen ist dabei entscheidend fuer die Einleitung einer adaequaten Therapie und somit fuer die Prognose der Verletzung. Auch in der Dokumentation von Spaetschaeden und in der Frage der Rehabilitation kommt der radiologischen Diagnostik eine entscheidende Bedeutung zu. Ein besonderer Fokus wird dabei auf die Magnetresonanztomographie-(MRT-)und Computertomographie-(CT-)Diagnostik gelegt.Die gesunde Wirbelsaeule des Menschen ist in der Regel allen statischen und dynamischen Belastungen der ueblichen Sportarten gewachsen. Formanomalien und Funktionsstoerungen der

  9. [Reports from Scientific Review Committees on Recommendations for Radiation Protection]. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A brief annual report is presented for work on recommendations dealing with management of radionuclides produced in nuclear power generation, radiation associated with medical examinations, radiation received by radiation employees, experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations, internal emitter standards, radionuclides in the environment, biological effects of magnetic fields, and radiation exposure and potentially related injury

  10. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw

  11. MR imaging diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament injury: importance of ancillary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kang Ik; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Hwoi; Ki, Tae Sung; Park, Jong Oag

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of two ancillary findings of anterior tibial plateau bruise/fracture and popliteus muscle strain on MR diagnosis of posterior cruicate ligament injury. We retrospectively evaluated 48 patients with confirmed posterior cruciate ligament tear. We studied the incidence of anterior tibial plateau injury and popliteus muscle strain, and the specificity of popliteus muscle strain with or without bony injury. A complete tear of the posterior cruciate ligament was noted in 37 cases, a partial tear in 11. Anterior tibial plateau lesion was found in 21 of 48 cases (44%); This total was made up of 17/37 PCL complete tears (46%) and 4/11 partial tears (36%). The difference in the incidence of complete and partial tears is not statistically significant. Popliteus muscle injury was found in 20 of 48 cases (42%), the total consisted of 19/37 PCL complete tears (51%) and 1/11 partial tears (10%). The incidence of 42% is relatively high, approximating that of bony injury. The difference in the incidence of complete and partial tears is statistically significant (p < 0.006). Specificity for posterior cruciate ligament tear is 69%(20/29), and when concomitant with anterior tibial plateau injury is 94%(16/17). As in the case of anterior cruciate ligament injury, these documented ancillary findings of anterior tibial plateau and popliteus muscle injuries are very helpful when MR diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament injury itself and differentiation of partial and complete rupture are doubtful

  12. Sex Differences in “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Benefits of resistance training include improved muscle strength and sports performance, and may include reduced injuries. However, few studies have examined sex differences in resistance training related injuries. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate sex differences in injuries associated with weightlifting, in adolescents and young adults by type (sprains and strains, fractures), mechanism (accidental, non-accidental) and location (head, trunk, arm, hand, leg, foot) of injury. We hypothesized that there would be sex differences in type, mechanism and location of “weightlifting” injuries. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried from 2002-2005, using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 14 and 30 were included in the study. CPSC sampling weights were used to calculate national estimates from the sample of 3,713 patients (Males= 3,102; Females= 611). Weighted Chi-square analyses were used to compare differences in mechanism, type, and location of injury for males versus females. Males had significantly more sprains and strains (P=0.004), while females demonstrated increased accidental injuries compared to males (Pinjuries than females (Pinjuries than males (Pinjuries during weightlifting (sprains and strains) compared to females, especially at the trunk. Conversely, females may be more susceptible to lower extremity injuries resulting from accidents during resistance training. PMID:19855331

  13. Snowboarding injuries. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladin, C; McCrory, P

    1995-05-01

    Over the last 10 years, snowboarding has become established as a popular and legitimate alpine sport. However, at present, there are few epidemiological studies examining the spectrum of injuries associated with this new sport. Snowboarders are typically male (male: female ratio of 3:1) and in their early twenties. They have an injury rate of 4 to 6 per 1000 visits, which is comparable to that which occurs with skiing. However, in contrast to skiing, in which only 34% of those injured are beginners, the majority (60%) of snowboarders injured are beginners. This is a reflection of the participant profile of this developing sport. 57% of injuries occur in the lower limbs, and 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries are simple sprains (31 to 53%), particularly of the ankles (23 to 26%) and knees (12 to 23%), followed by fractures (24 to 27%) and contusions (12%). Compared with skiing injuries, snowboarders have 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly of the upper limbs (constituting 21 vs 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23 vs 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23 vs 6% of lower limb injuries). Snowboarding knee injuries are less severe than those associated with skiing. Fracture of the lateral process of the talus is an unusual and uncommon snowboarding injury that can be misdiagnosed as a severe ankle sprain. Ankle injuries are more common with soft shell boots, whereas knee injuries and distal tibia fractures are more common with hard shell boots.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Mechanical Injury Induces Brain Endothelial-Derived Microvesicle Release: Implications for Cerebral Vascular Injury during Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Allison M; Lutton, Evan M; Merkel, Steven F; Razmpour, Roshanak; Ramirez, Servio H

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the endothelium responds to mechanical forces induced by changes in shear stress and strain. However, our understanding of vascular remodeling following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains incomplete. Recently published studies have revealed that lung and umbilical endothelial cells produce extracellular microvesicles (eMVs), such as microparticles, in response to changes in mechanical forces (blood flow and mechanical injury). Yet, to date, no studies have shown whether brain endothelial cells produce eMVs following TBI. The brain endothelium is highly specialized and forms the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which regulates diffusion and transport of solutes into the brain. This specialization is largely due to the presence of tight junction proteins (TJPs) between neighboring endothelial cells. Following TBI, a breakdown in tight junction complexes at the BBB leads to increased permeability, which greatly contributes to the secondary phase of injury. We have therefore tested the hypothesis that brain endothelium responds to mechanical injury, by producing eMVs that contain brain endothelial proteins, specifically TJPs. In our study, primary human adult brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) were subjected to rapid mechanical injury to simulate the abrupt endothelial disruption that can occur in the primary injury phase of TBI. eMVs were isolated from the media following injury at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h. Western blot analysis of eMVs demonstrated a time-dependent increase in TJP occludin, PECAM-1 and ICAM-1 following mechanical injury. In addition, activation of ARF6, a small GTPase linked to extracellular vesicle production, was increased after injury. To confirm these results in vivo, mice were subjected to sham surgery or TBI and blood plasma was collected 24 h post-injury. Isolation and analysis of eMVs from blood plasma using cryo-EM and flow cytometry revealed elevated levels of vesicles containing occludin following brain trauma

  15. A non-contact complete knee dislocation with popliteal artery disruption, a rare martial arts injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Y K; Rogers, I M

    1999-09-01

    Complete knee dislocation is a rare injury and an associated incidence of popliteal artery damage ranges from 16-60% of cases. It occurs commonly in road traffic accidents and in high velocity trauma where significant contact remains as the usual mode of injury. We describe a rare case of non-contact knee dislocation with popliteal artery injury sustained while practising Aikido, a type of martial art. This patient successfully underwent closed reduction of the knee with an emergency vein bypass graft. Similar injury in association with Aikido has not been described in the English literature previously. Various martial art injuries are briefly discussed and safety recommendations made.

  16. Bacillus cereus strain MCN as a debriding agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, H. P.; Haynes, B. W.; Stone, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Biologically active means are effective for rapidly removing scar tissue caused by burns or corrosive agents. Specially selected strain of bacteria applied to injury site releases enzymes which are active against eschar. These bacteria tend to locate between eschar and unburned tissue, thus providing optimal cell surface area arrangement for enzyme dispersal. Procedure may prove especially useful in treatment of disaster casualties under relatively primitive conditions.

  17. Interventional management of neuropathic pain: NeuPSIG recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Robert H.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Kent, Joel; Mackey, Sean C.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Stacey, Brett R.; Levy, Robert M.; Backonja, Miroslav; Baron, Ralf; Harke, Henning; Loeser, John D.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Turk, Dennis C.; Wells, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is often refractory to pharmacologic and non-interventional treatment. On behalf of the International Association for the Study of Pain Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group (NeuPSIG), the authors evaluated systematic reviews, clinical trials, and existing guidelines for the interventional management of NP. Evidence is summarized and presented for neural blockade, spinal cord stimulation (SCS), intrathecal medication, and neurosurgical interventions in patients with the following peripheral and central NP conditions: herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN); painful diabetic and other peripheral neuropathies; spinal cord injury NP; central post-stroke pain; radiculopathy and failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS); complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS); and trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy. Due to the paucity of high-quality clinical trials, no strong recommendations can be made. Four weak recommendations based on the amount and consistency of evidence, including degree of efficacy and safety, are: (1) epidural injections for herpes zoster; (2) steroid injections for radiculopathy; (3) SCS for FBSS; and (4) SCS for CRPS type 1. Based on the available data, we recommend not to use sympathetic blocks for PHN nor RF lesions for radiculopathy. No other conclusive recommendations can be made due to the poor quality of available of data. Whenever possible, these interventions should either be part of randomized clinical trials or documented in pain registries. Priorities for future research include randomized clinical trials; long-term studies; and head-to-head comparisons among different interventional and non-interventional treatments. PMID:23748119

  18. Measuring sports injuries on the pitch: a guide to use in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz C; Barboza, Saulo D; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Sports participation is a major ally for the promotion of physical activity. However, sports injuries are important adverse effects of sports participation and should be monitored in sports populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the basic concepts of injury monitoring and discuss the implementation of these concepts in practice. The aspects discussed are: (1) sports injury definition; (2) classification of sports injuries; (3) population at risk, prevalence, and incidence; (4) severity measures; (5) economic costs; (6) systems developed to monitor sports injuries; and (7) online technology. Only with reliable monitoring systems applied in a continuous and long-term manner will it be possible to identify the burden of injuries, to identify the possible cases at an early stage, to implement early interventions, and to generate data for sports injury prevention. The implementation of sports injuries monitoring systems in practice is strongly recommended.

  19. External laryngeal injuries in children--comparison of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka-Glos, L; Jakubowska, A; Frackiewicz, M; Brzewski, M

    2013-09-01

    The injuries of the larynx constitute around 1% of all injuries. The great majority of the injuries of the larynx happens during playing. The effects of these injuries may appear insignificant however, not always the direct clinical symptoms correlate with the degree of respiratory tract failure. The symptoms of laryngeal injuries depend on the extension and strength of the trauma and always relate to impair patency of respiratory tract. The aim of the study is to compare two diagnostic methods: laryngoscopy and ultrasonography in evaluation of laryngeal injuries in children. In the Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, in the period between 2004 and 2010 there were hospitalised 15 children with external injury of the larynx. From among 15 hospitalized children, 7 were qualified as not serious trauma and were treated preservatively and the other 8 as sever trauma. The mechanism of traumas was diverse. Dyspnea was a predominating symptom, the others included hoarsness, change in voice quality, even aphonia, pain while speaking and swallowing, cough and hemoptysis. Direct laryngoscopy is a standard in diagnostics of the injuries of the larynx. Ultrasonography of the larynx is recommended in every case of laryngeal injury as an additional non-invasive complementary diagnostic examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Anthony E; Sitrin, Robert G; Bauman, Kristy A

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury commonly results in neuromuscular weakness that impacts respiratory function. This would be expected to be associated with an increased likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing. (1) Understand the incidence and prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (2) Understand the relationship between injury and patient characteristics and the incidence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (3) Distinguish between obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea incidence in spinal cord injury. (4) Clarify the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and stroke, myocardial infarction, metabolic dysfunction, injuries, autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity incidence in persons with spinal cord injury. (5) Understand treatment tolerance and outcome in persons with spinal cord injury and sleep disordered breathing. Extensive database search including PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science. Given the current literature limitations, sleep disordered breathing as currently defined is high in patients with spinal cord injury, approaching 60% in motor complete persons with tetraplegia. Central apnea is more common in patients with tetraplegia than in patients with paraplegia. Early formal sleep study in patients with acute complete tetraplegia is recommended. In patients with incomplete tetraplegia and with paraplegia, the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing is significantly higher than the general population. With the lack of correlation between symptoms and SDB, formal study would be reasonable. There is insufficient evidence in the literature on the impact of treatment on morbidity, mortality and quality of life outcomes.

  1. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for a safe running program. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http:// ...

  2. Ulnar nerve injury associated with trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Melvin M; Novak, Christine B; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-08-01

    This study reports three cases of ulnar neuropathy after trampoline injuries in children. A chart review was performed on children who sustained an ulnar nerve injury from a trampoline accident. In all cases, surgical intervention was required. Injuries included upper-extremity fractures in two cases and an upper-extremity laceration in one case. All cases required surgical exploration with internal neurolysis and ulnar nerve transposition. Nerve grafts were used in two cases and an additional nerve transfer was used in one case. All patients had return of intrinsic hand function and sensation after surgery. Children should be followed for evolution of ulnar nerve neuropathy after upper-extremity injury with consideration for electrical studies and surgical exploration if there is no improvement after 3 months.

  3. MAIN CONTROVERSIES IN THE NONOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF BLUNT SPLENIC INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Jorge Roberto Marcante; Lopes-Filho, Gaspar de Jesus; Colleoni-Neto, Ramiro

    2016-03-01

    The nonoperative management of traumatic spleen injuries is the modality of choice in patients with blunt abdominal trauma and hemodynamic stability. However, there are still questions about the treatment indication in some groups of patients, as well as its follow-up. Update knowledge about the spleen injury. Was performed review of the literature on the nonoperative management of blunt injuries of the spleen in databases: Cochrane Library, Medline and SciELO. Were evaluated articles in English and Portuguese, between 1955 and 2014, using the headings "splenic injury, nonoperative management and blunt abdominal trauma". Were selected 35 articles. Most of them were recommendation grade B and C. The spleen traumatic injuries are frequent and its nonoperative management is a worldwide trend. The available literature does not explain all aspects on treatment. The authors developed a systematization of care based on the best available scientific evidence to better treat this condition.

  4. Update in the classification and treatment of complex renal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Kim, Fernando J; Moore, Ernest E; Hirano, Elcio Shiyoiti; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Nascimento, Barto; Rizoli, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    The "Evidence-Based Telemedicine - Trauma and Acute Care Surgery" (EBT-TACS) Journal Club performed a critical review of the literature and selected three up-to-date articles on the management of renal trauma defined as American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) injury grade III-V. The first paper was the proposal for the AAST grade 4renal injury substratification into grades 4a (Low Risk) and 4b (High Risk). The second paper was a revision of the current AAST renal injury grading system, expanding to include segmental vascular injuries and to establish a more rigorous definition of severe grade IV and V renal injuries.The last article analyses the diagnostic angiography and angioembolization in the acute management of renal trauma using a national data set in the USA. The EBT-TACS Journal Club elaborated conclusions and recommendations for the management of high-grade renal trauma.

  5. Mass casualties of radiation injuries after nuclear weapon explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1980-01-01

    Burns, mechanical lesions, radiation injuries as well as combinations of these types of injuries as a consequence of a nuclear explosion demand different basic lines of triage. The lack of a suitable physical dosimetry is a special problem for the evaluation of radiation injuries. While in cases of wounds and burns treatment, like surgery, is recommended to take place early, for example, within hours or days after those injuries, treatment of radiation victims is necessary only in the stage of severe haematologic changes including disturbances of coagulation and occurrence of high fever which appears after one or two weeks subsequent to exposure. The lack of medical personnel and medical equipment result in even a worse prognosis for the various injuries than in peace time accidents. (orig.) [de

  6. [Dance, art and top performance sport with specific injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Boni; van de Wiel, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Professional theatre dance has high and specific physical demands, comparable to top sport. Dance injuries are often caused by faulty technique due to compensation for physical limitations. Knowledge of these limitations and professional teaching can prevent many problems. Dance injuries mostly involve the lower limbs, especially the ankles and knees. Dance injuries require that the medical professional has knowledge of dance technique and respects the passion of the dancer. The advice to stop dancing has hardly ever to be given. Scientific, prospective dance medical research is recommended.

  7. Shoulder Acromioclavicular and Coracoclavicular Ligament Injuries: Common Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, James D; Johnson, Jeremiah D; DiVenere, Jessica; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2018-04-01

    Injuries to the acromioclavicular joint and coracoclavicular ligaments are common. Many of these injuries heal with nonoperative management. However, more severe injuries may lead to continued pain and shoulder dysfunction. In these patients, surgical techniques have been described to reconstruct the function of the coracoclavicular ligaments to provide stable relationship between the clavicle and scapula. These surgeries have been fraught with high complication rates including clavicle and coracoid fractures, infection, loss of reduction and fixation, hardware migration, and osteolysis. This article reviews common acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular repair and reconstruction techniques and associated complications, and provides recommendations for prevention and management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. BOXING, WRESTLING, AND MARTIAL ARTS RELATED INJURIES TREATED IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2002-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Pappas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of injury in combat sports has not been adequately reported although it is important to identify the nature and frequency of injuries prior to the implementation of prevention programs. This study compared injury rates treated in Hospital Emergency Departments between different combat sports of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts. A secondary objective described anatomic region and diagnosis of these injuries. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts-related injuries that were in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database and resulted in Emergency Department visits between 2002 and 2005. Pearson's chi-square statistics were calculated to compare injury rates for each activity accounting for complex sample design. Martial arts had lower injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling for all diagnoses (p<0.001. Boxing had lower injury rates compared to wrestling for strains/sprains and dislocations. Boxing and wrestling had similar injury rates for concussions. Injury prevention efforts should consider the distribution of injuries and concentrate on preventing strains/sprains in wrestling, concussions in boxing and wrestling, and fractures for all three activities. The findings of the present study do not provide evidence that combat sports have alarmingly high rates of injuries resulting in emergency department visits

  9. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  10. Sport and active recreation injuries in Australia: evidence from emergency department presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C.; Valuri, G.; Ozanne-Smith, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the rise in specialist clinical services for the management of sports and active recreation injury, many patients attend hospital emergency departments for treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe sports injury cases presented to selected hospital emergency departments around Australia for the period 1989-1993. METHODS: Routinely collected emergency department injury presentation data from the Australian National Injury Surveillance Unit were examined. Data on 98,040 sports and active recreation emergency department presentations were analysed. Sports and active recreation activities were ranked according to frequency of presentation. Relative proportions of injury type and body region injured were determined. Data are presented separately for children (15 years of age). RESULTS: Among the 10 activities that most commonly led to a sports or active recreation injury presentation for all ages were cycling, Australian football, basketball, soccer, cricket, netball, and rugby. For children, injuries were also commonly associated with roller skating/blading, skateboarding, and trampolining. Hockey, martial arts, and dancing injuries were frequent in adults. Most sporting injuries occurred during organised competition or practice whereas the active recreation injuries occurred in a variety of settings. Fractures, strains, and sprains, particularly to the lower and upper extremities, were common types of injury. CONCLUSION: The rich, but nevertheless limited, information available about sports and active recreation injuries from data collected in emergency departments indicates that these activities are a common context for injury at the community level in Australia. 


 PMID:9773170

  11. Sport and active recreation injuries in Australia: evidence from emergency department presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C; Valuri, G; Ozanne-Smith, J

    1998-09-01

    Despite the rise in specialist clinical services for the management of sports and active recreation injury, many patients attend hospital emergency departments for treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe sports injury cases presented to selected hospital emergency departments around Australia for the period 1989-1993. Routinely collected emergency department injury presentation data from the Australian National Injury Surveillance Unit were examined. Data on 98,040 sports and active recreation emergency department presentations were analysed. Sports and active recreation activities were ranked according to frequency of presentation. Relative proportions of injury type and body region injured were determined. Data are presented separately for children (15 years of age). Among the 10 activities that most commonly led to a sports or active recreation injury presentation for all ages were cycling, Australian football, basketball, soccer, cricket, netball, and rugby. For children, injuries were also commonly associated with roller skating/blading, skateboarding, and trampolining. Hockey, martial arts, and dancing injuries were frequent in adults. Most sporting injuries occurred during organised competition or practice whereas the active recreation injuries occurred in a variety of settings. Fractures, strains, and sprains, particularly to the lower and upper extremities, were common types of injury. The rich, but nevertheless limited, information available about sports and active recreation injuries from data collected in emergency departments indicates that these activities are a common context for injury at the community level in Australia.

  12. Thermal burn and electrical injuries among electric utility workers, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, Tiffani A; Kelsh, Michael; Lu, Elizabeth T; Sahl, Jack D; Yager, Janice W

    2007-03-01

    This study describes the occurrence of work-related injuries from thermal-, electrical- and chemical-burns among electric utility workers. We describe injury trends by occupation, body part injured, age, sex, and circumstances surrounding the injury. This analysis includes all thermal, electric, and chemical injuries included in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Occupational Health and Safety Database (OHSD). There were a total of 872 thermal burn and electric shock injuries representing 3.7% of all injuries, but accounting for nearly 13% of all medical claim costs, second only to the medical costs associated with sprain- and strain-related injuries (38% of all injuries). The majority of burns involved less than 1 day off of work. The head, hands, and other upper extremities were the body parts most frequently injured by burns or electric shocks. For this industry, electric-related burns accounted for the largest percentage of burn injuries, 399 injuries (45.8%), followed by thermal/heat burns, 345 injuries (39.6%), and chemical burns, 51 injuries (5.8%). These injuries also represented a disproportionate number of fatalities; of the 24 deaths recorded in the database, contact with electric current or with temperature extremes was the source of seven of the fatalities. High-risk occupations included welders, line workers, electricians, meter readers, mechanics, maintenance workers, and plant and equipment operators.

  13. Injury rates of the German Women’s American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ezechieli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE. The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE. Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined.

  14. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

  15. Towards Information Enrichment through Recommendation Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Tung; Xu, Yue; Li, Yuefeng; Nayak, Richi

    Nowadays most existing recommender systems operate in a single organisational basis, i.e. a recommender system recommends items to customers of one organisation based on the organisation's datasets only. Very often the datasets of a single organisation do not have sufficient resources to be used to generate quality recommendations. Therefore, it would be beneficial if recommender systems of different organisations with similar nature can cooperate together to share their resources and recommendations. In this chapter, we present an Ecommerce-oriented Distributed Recommender System (EDRS) that consists of multiple recommender systems from different organisations. By sharing resources and recommendations with each other, these recommenders in the distributed recommendation system can provide better recommendation service to their users. As for most of the distributed systems, peer selection is often an important aspect. This chapter also presents a recommender selection technique for the proposed EDRS, and it selects and profiles recommenders based on their stability, average performance and selection frequency. Based on our experiments, it is shown that recommenders' recommendation quality can be effectively improved by adopting the proposed EDRS and the associated peer selection technique.

  16. Strains in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  17. Perfil da demanda atendida em ambulatório de doenças profissionais e a presença de lesões por esforços repetitivos Profile of occupational disease outpatients and the presence of repetitive strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Reis

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o perfil do paciente atendido em ambulatório de doenças profissionais de um hospital geral e, em especial, o portador da condição patológica mais freqüente: as lesões por esforços repetitivos (LER. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas as 565 fichas-resumo de atendimento ambulatorial em saúde do trabalhador, em 1996, em função de variáveis sociodemográficas, de características do trabalho e de diagnóstico. Foram adotados os seguintes procedimentos: descrição univariável de todas as variáveis; análise bivariada, utilizando-se o teste do qui-quadrado (chi² para variáveis categóricas; comparação de médias ou amplitudes para variável categórica e outra quantitativa; análise multivariada por meio de modelos log-linear, com transformação logit, para detectar os grupos com maior proporção de LER. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio no atendimento de pacientes do sexo feminino com menos de 40 anos, sendo que, nos casos de LER, esse predomínio mostrou-se mais acentuado. As ocupações agrupadas apareceram em ordem decrescente, na seqüência: administrativos, operários e prestadores de serviços, sendo 59,6% pertencentes ao ramo de atividade econômica de serviços. As LER corresponderam a 56% dos diagnósticos feitos nas primeiras consultas. CONCLUSÕES: Confirmou-se a tendência de mudança no perfil epidemiológico das demandas atendidas no ambulatório de doenças profissionais, no final da década de 80, quando emergiram as LER. Deslocaram-se para uma minoria as antigas doenças profissionais decorrentes da exposição a riscos químicos e físicos, em função daquelas relacionadas às condições ergonômicas inadequadas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the profile of outpatients seen at an occupational disease clinic of a general and repetitive strain injury (RSI patients by using multivariate analyze. METHODS: The first 565 visit registries for the year 1996 were assessed regarding their social and demographics

  18. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  19. Dietetic recommendations in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Alhambra-Expósito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease that has a significant effect on patients’ physical, emotional, and social functioning. For decades, patients have used different diets to try to improve the symptoms of RA. The possible benefits of dietary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed in this article. Nutritional objectives for RA, are to halt the loss of bone mass, promote healing of bone fractures and improving bone-associated inflammatory disorders and joints. In general, diets low in saturated fat, rich in polyunsaturated fats: omega 3 and omega 6, rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber are recommended.

  20. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Skolarczyk, Justyna; Łabądź, Dawid; Pekar, Joanna; Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Skolarczyk Justyna, Łabądź Dawid, Pekar Joanna, Nieradko-Iwanicka Barbara. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(4):682-688. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.569050 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4423 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eI...