WorldWideScience

Sample records for stormwater pond sediment

  1. Microcosm investigations of stormwater pond sediment toxicity to embryonic and larval amphibians: Variation in sensitivity among species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, Joel W. [Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States)], E-mail: jsnodgrass@towson.edu; Casey, Ryan E. [Department of Chemistry, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Joseph, Debra; Simon, Judith A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Stormwater ponds have become common features of modern development and often represent significant amounts of open space in urbanized areas. Although stormwater ponds may provide habitat for wildlife, factors responsible for producing variation in wildlife use of ponds have received limited attention. To investigate the role of variation in species tolerances of pollutants in structuring pond-breeding amphibian assemblages, we exposed species tolerant (Bufo americanus) and not tolerant (Rana sylvatica) of urbanization to pond sediments in laboratory microcosms. Pond microcosms had elevated sediment metal levels and chloride water concentrations. Among R. sylvatica embryos, exposure to pond sediments resulted in 100% mortality. In contrast, B. americanus embryos and larvae experienced only sublethal effects (i.e., reduced size at metamorphosis) due to pond sediment exposure. Our results suggest variation in pollutant tolerance among early developmental stages of amphibians may act in concert with terrestrial habitat availability to structure amphibian assemblages associated with stormwater ponds. - Variation among species in sensitivity to pollutants can influence stormwater pond amphibian assemblages.

  2. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Kristin; Viklander, Maria; Scholes, Lian N. L.; Revitt, D. Mike

    2010-01-01

    Sedimentation is a widely used technique in structural best management practices to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants. This study has concentrated on stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks and reports on the accumulated metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the associated toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The metal concentrations are compared with guidelin...

  3. Numerical modelling of hydro-morphological processes dominated by fine suspended sediment in a stormwater pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mingfu; Ahilan, Sangaralingam; Yu, Dapeng; Peng, Yong; Wright, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Fine sediment plays crucial and multiple roles in the hydrological, ecological and geomorphological functioning of river systems. This study employs a two-dimensional (2D) numerical model to track the hydro-morphological processes dominated by fine suspended sediment, including the prediction of sediment concentration in flow bodies, and erosion and deposition caused by sediment transport. The model is governed by 2D full shallow water equations with which an advection-diffusion equation for fine sediment is coupled. Bed erosion and sedimentation are updated by a bed deformation model based on local sediment entrainment and settling flux in flow bodies. The model is initially validated with the three laboratory-scale experimental events where suspended load plays a dominant role. Satisfactory simulation results confirm the model's capability in capturing hydro-morphodynamic processes dominated by fine suspended sediment at laboratory-scale. Applications to sedimentation in a stormwater pond are conducted to develop the process-based understanding of fine sediment dynamics over a variety of flow conditions. Urban flows with 5-year, 30-year and 100-year return period and the extreme flood event in 2012 are simulated. The modelled results deliver a step change in understanding fine sediment dynamics in stormwater ponds. The model is capable of quantitatively simulating and qualitatively assessing the performance of a stormwater pond in managing urban water quantity and quality.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in stormwater detention pond sediments in coastal South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John E; Crawford, Kevin D; Garner, Thomas R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of stormwater detention ponds in coastal South Carolina. Levels of the sum of PAH analytes were significantly higher in the sediments of commercial ponds compared to that of reference, golf course, low-density residential, and high-density residential ponds. Isomer ratio analysis suggested that the predominant source of PAHs were pyrogenic; however, many ponds had a PAH signature consistent with mixed uncombusted and combusted PAH sources. PAH levels in these sediments could be modeled using both pond drainage area and pond surface area. These results demonstrate that the sediment from most commercial ponds, and a few residential and golf course ponds, were moderately contaminated with PAHs. PAH levels in these contaminated ponds exceeded between 42% and 75% of the ecological screening values for individual PAH analytes established by US EPA Region IV, suggesting that they may pose a toxicological risk to wildlife.

  5. Toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to Hyallela azteca (Amphipoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, N.K.; Sparling, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Stormwater wetlands are created to contain runoff from human developments and are designed to retain contaminants such as heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, silt, pesticides, and nutrients before the runoff enter natural waterways. Because of this design, stormwater wetlands have a potential of becoming toxic sinks to organisms utilizing the wetlands for habitat. We conducted a 10-day sediment bioassay on Hyallela azteca as part of a larger study on the possible hazards of stormwater wetlands to aquatic invertebrates. Water and sediments from 10 wetlands separated into reference, residential, commercial, and highway land uses were used. No differences in survival were observed among land use categories, possibly because the ratio of acid volatile sulfides/simultaneously extractable metals (AVS/SEM) was > 1.0 for all of the ponds tested; values > 1 in this ratio are indications that toxic metals may not be bioavailable. Survival and growth rates correlated positively with AVS.

  6. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, John E., E-mail: john.weinstein@citadel.edu [Department of Biology, The Citadel, Charleston, SC (United States); Crawford, Kevin D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Garner, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, Pendleton, SC (United States); Flemming, Alan J. [South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units ({Sigma}ESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the {Sigma}ESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  7. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, John E.; Crawford, Kevin D.; Garner, Thomas R.; Flemming, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units (ΣESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the ΣESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  8. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Kristin; Viklander, Maria; Scholes, Lian; Revitt, Mike

    2010-06-15

    Sedimentation is a widely used technique in structural best management practices to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants. This study has concentrated on stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks and reports on the accumulated metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the associated toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The metal concentrations are compared with guidelines and the toxicity results are assessed in relation to samples for which metal concentrations either exceed or conform to these values. The water phase metal concentrations were highest in the ponds whereas the sedimentation tanks exhibited a distinct decrease towards the outlet. However, none of the water samples demonstrated toxicity even though the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded the threshold values for the compared guidelines. The facilities with higher traffic intensities had elevated sediment concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn which increased towards the outlet for the sedimentation tanks in agreement with the highest percentage of fine particles. The sediments in both treatment facilities exhibited the expected toxic responses in line with their affinity for heavy metals but the role of organic carbon content is highlighted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Geochemistry and toxicity of sediment porewater in a salt-impacted urban stormwater detention pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, T.; Rochfort, Q.; Borgmann, U.; Snodgrass, W.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out to investigate the impacts of road salts on the benthic compartment of a small urban detention facility, Rouge River Pond. Although the pond is an engineered water body, it is representative of many small urban lakes, ponds and wetlands, which receive road runoff and are probable high impact areas. Specific objectives of the study were to document the porewater chemistry of an aquatic system affected by elevated salt concentrations and to carry out a toxicological assessment of sediment porewater to determine what factors may cause porewater toxicity. The results indicate that the sediment porewater may itself attain high salt concentrations. The computations show that increased chloride levels have important implications on the Cd complexation, augmenting its concentration in porewater. The toxicity tests suggest that the toxicity in porewater is caused by metals or other toxic chemicals, rather than high levels of chloride. - Effects of chlorides on metal chemistry and toxicity of sediment porewater in a stormwater detention pond impacted by road salts

  10. Invertebrates in stormwater wet detention pondsSediment accumulation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have no effect on biodiversity and community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate diversity in nine stormwater wet detention ponds (SWDP) was compared with the diversity in eleven small shallow lakes in the western part of Denmark. The SWDPs and lakes were chosen to reflect as large a gradient of pollutant loads and urbanization as possible. The invertebrates as well as the bottom sediments of the ponds and shallow lakes were analyzed for copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, aluminum, nickel, arsenic and the potentially limiting nutrient, phosphorus. The Principal Component Analysis showed that invertebrates in SWDPs and lakes differed with respect to bioaccumulation of these elements, as did the sediments, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the TWINSPAN showed that the invertebrate populations of the ponds and lakes could not be distinguished, with the possible exception of highway ponds presenting a distinct sub-group of wet detention ponds. The SWDPs and shallow lakes studied seemed to constitute aquatic ecosystems of similar taxon richness and composition as did the 11 small and shallow lakes. This indicates that SWDPs, originally constructed for treatment and flood protection purposes, become aquatic environments which play a local role for biodiversity similar to that of natural small and shallow lakes. - Highlights: • Biota of stormwater ponds had higher levels of metals compared to natural lakes. • Bioaccumulation of metals did not affect the biodiversity of the water bodies. • Biota composition in stormwater ponds and natural lakes was indistinguishable. • Stormwater ponds can play a role for biodiversity similar to natural lakes.

  11. Invertebrates in stormwater wet detention pondsSediment accumulation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have no effect on biodiversity and community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete, E-mail: das@civil.aau.dk [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Thomas Manns Vej 23, 9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Thomas Manns Vej 23, 9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild [Department of Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7H, 9200 Aalborg East (Denmark); Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Vollertsen, Jes [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Thomas Manns Vej 23, 9220 Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2016-10-01

    The invertebrate diversity in nine stormwater wet detention ponds (SWDP) was compared with the diversity in eleven small shallow lakes in the western part of Denmark. The SWDPs and lakes were chosen to reflect as large a gradient of pollutant loads and urbanization as possible. The invertebrates as well as the bottom sediments of the ponds and shallow lakes were analyzed for copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, aluminum, nickel, arsenic and the potentially limiting nutrient, phosphorus. The Principal Component Analysis showed that invertebrates in SWDPs and lakes differed with respect to bioaccumulation of these elements, as did the sediments, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the TWINSPAN showed that the invertebrate populations of the ponds and lakes could not be distinguished, with the possible exception of highway ponds presenting a distinct sub-group of wet detention ponds. The SWDPs and shallow lakes studied seemed to constitute aquatic ecosystems of similar taxon richness and composition as did the 11 small and shallow lakes. This indicates that SWDPs, originally constructed for treatment and flood protection purposes, become aquatic environments which play a local role for biodiversity similar to that of natural small and shallow lakes. - Highlights: • Biota of stormwater ponds had higher levels of metals compared to natural lakes. • Bioaccumulation of metals did not affect the biodiversity of the water bodies. • Biota composition in stormwater ponds and natural lakes was indistinguishable. • Stormwater ponds can play a role for biodiversity similar to natural lakes.

  12. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fauna from wet detention ponds for stormwater runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater detention ponds remove pollutants e.g. heavy metals and nutrients from stormwater runoff. These pollutants accumulate in the pond sediment and thereby become available for bioaccumulation in fauna living in the ponds. In this study the bioaccumulation was investigated by fauna samples...... from 5 wet detention ponds for analyses of heavy metal contents. Five rural shallow lakes were included in the study to survey the natural occurrence of heavy metals in water-dwelling fauna. Heavy metal concentrations in water-dwelling fauna were generally found higher in wet detention ponds compared...

  13. Heavy metal composition in stormwater and retention in ponds dependent on pond age, design and catchment type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Sønderup, Melanie J.; Grudinina, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals have toxic effects on flora and fauna in the aquatic environments and are of great concern in stormwater. Heavy metal runoff was studied in 37 stormwater ponds in Denmark with varying heavy metal load, catchment type and pond design. The studied metals were Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn...... difficult to retain. The removal efficiency in the ponds varied considerably, with the highest retention of Pb, Ni and Zn due to higher particulate fraction. The retention increased with increased pond volume-to-reduced catchment area ratio. In addition, the pond age affected the efficiency; whereas ponds...... less than 1-2 years efficiently removed all metals, 30-40-year-old ponds only removed Pb, Ni and Zn, but steeply decreasing over the years. Physical parameters such as pond size, age and sedimentation patterns were found to play a more significant role in the removal compared with chemical parameters...

  14. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Daria; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Matamoros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...

  15. Laboratory simulated transport of microcystin-LR and cylindrospermopsin in groundwater under the influence of stormwater ponds: implications for harvesting of infiltrated stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Wanielista, Martin P.; Loftin, Keith A.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Schirmer, Mario; Hoehn, Eduard; Vogt, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Water shortages in the southeastern United States have led to a need for more intensive management and usage of stormwater for beneficial uses such as irrigation. Harvesting of infiltrated stormwater from horizontal wells in sandy aquifer sediments beneath stormwater ponds has emerged as an alternative in need of evaluation. Cyanobacteria may proliferate in stormwater ponds; cyanotoxins produced by these organisms represent potential public health concerns. Results of two, saturated flow, sand column experiments indicate breakthrough of microcystin-LR (MCLR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYL) within 1―2 pore volumes indicating little removal attributable to sorption. Concentration-based MCLR removal efficiencies up to 90% were achieved, which we hypothesize were predominantly due to biodegradation. In contrast, CYL removal efficiencies were generally less than 15%. On the basis of these results, removal of sandy soil in the stormwater pond bottom and addition of sorption media with greater binding affinities to cyanotoxins may enhance natural attenuation processes prior to water withdrawal.

  16. Nutrient and metal uptake in wetland plants at stormwater detension ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and metals were analysed in tissues of various wetland plants growing in stormwater detention ponds in Denmark. Nutrient and metal concentrations in below and aboveground tissues were compared to the concentrations of the adjacent sediment. The results showed accumulation of heavy metal...

  17. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  18. Determining the Chemical and Biological Availability of Zinc in Urban Stormwater Retention Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.; Casey, R.; Lev, S. M.; Landa, E. R.; Snodgrass, J.

    2005-12-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems due to transport of contaminants that accumulate on road surfaces. Metals such as copper and zinc are major components of automobile brake pads and tires, respectively. As these automobile parts are degraded, these metal containing particulates are deposited on the roadway and are washed into storm water retention ponds and surface water bodies during precipitation events. It has been estimated that 15 to 60% of the Zn in urban stormwater runoff comes from tire wear and that tire wear is a significant source of Zn to the environment with release inventories comparable to waste incineration sources. In urban and sub-urban systems, this large source of Zn can accumulate in stormwater retention ponds which serve as habitat for a variety of species. Understanding the chemical and biological availability of Zn to biota is integral to assessing the habitat quality of retention ponds. This study is a first effort to relate the amount and speciation of Zn in a retention pond to Zn inputs through highway-derived runoff events. In addition, results suggest that the chemical speciation and availability of particulate Zn can be related to the bioavailability and toxicity of Zn to pond organisms (i.e. larval amphibians). The study site in Owings Mills, MD is located next to a four-lane highway from which it receives runoff through a single culvert. Five species of anurans are known to utilize the pond as a breeding site and Zn in amphibian tissues and retention pond sediments were highly elevated at this site in 2001 and 2002. A recent analysis of pond sediments, soils, roadway dust and storm water collected at this site suggests that roadway particulate matter transported during runoff events is the dominant source of Zn in this system. Overall, Zn and other trace metals were found to be most abundant in the clay sized faction of pond sediments and soils. The pond cores were found to have higher Zn and Cu

  19. Survey of PAH in low density residential stormwater ponds in coastal South Carolina: false dark mussels (Mytilopsis leucophaeata) as potential biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Alan T; Weinstein, John E; Lewitus, Alan J

    2008-09-01

    The distribution of PAHs was studied in sediment and false dark mussels, Mytilopsis leucophaeata, of three brackish stormwater retention ponds on Kiawah Island, a gated residential community and golf resort. Impervious surface in pond watersheds ranged from 5 to 30%. Sediment concentrations were lower than those found in other studies of suburban residential areas, and there were no significant differences among ponds or seasons. Mean summation PAH16 values for sediments in Ponds 67, 100, and 37 were 184.7+/-101.3ng g(-1), 67.5+/-26.0ng g(-1), and 84.3+/-75.5ng g(-1), respectively. Mussel summation PAH16 concentrations from Pond 67 in August (mean 734.5+/-148.1ng g(-1)), and from Pond 37 in December (mean 1115.1+/-87.7ng g(-1)), were significantly higher than other ponds. Mean summation PAH16 values for mussels in Ponds 67, 100, and, 37 were 555.9+/-219.7ng g(-1), 312.5+/-99.1ng g(-1) and 737.8+/-419.8ng g(-1), respectively. The mean biota-to-sediment ratio was 7.6+/-8.1. Isomer ratios generally suggested pyrogenic sources. False dark mussels are a promising indicator species for PAH contamination because they are abundant, easy to sample, bioaccumulate PAH profiles representative of the time-integrated sediment profiles, and their PAH levels are less variable than either stormwater or sediment samples.

  20. Balancing the Ecological Function of Residential Stormwater Ponds with Homeowner Landscaping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Paul; Hu, Shangchun; Hansen, Gail; Ott, Emily; Nealis, Charles; Morera, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Stormwater ponds are installed in urban developments to provide the ecosystem services of flood control and water treatment. In coastal areas, these ponds are connected to watersheds that can drain directly into protected estuaries, making their design, function, and maintenance critical to environmental protection. However, stormwater ponds in residential areas are increasingly managed as aesthetic amenities that add value to real estate rather than as engineered devices with special maintenance requirements. To help extend the life of neighborhood stormwater systems and improve ecosystem services, homeowners should follow best management practices for nutrient management and add shoreline plantings and non-invasive, beneficial aquatic plants to their ponds. This study used focus group and survey research to document the knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes of homeowners living near stormwater ponds in a master-planned community in Florida. The study was designed to use a social marketing research approach to promote Extension best practices. Findings indicate that many residents were aware of the functional components of stormwater systems and respondents' receptivity to best management practices was mediated by age, their attitudes about water quality and whether their home was adjacent to a pond. These findings can be used to target Extension audiences and improve adoption of stormwater pond best management practices for increased protection of water quality.

  1. Invertebrates in stormwater wet detention ponds - Sediment accumulation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have no effect on biodiversity and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-10-01

    The invertebrate diversity in nine stormwater wet detention ponds (SWDP) was compared with the diversity in eleven small shallow lakes in the western part of Denmark. The SWDPs and lakes were chosen to reflect as large a gradient of pollutant loads and urbanization as possible. The invertebrates as well as the bottom sediments of the ponds and shallow lakes were analyzed for copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, aluminum, nickel, arsenic and the potentially limiting nutrient, phosphorus. The Principal Component Analysis showed that invertebrates in SWDPs and lakes differed with respect to bioaccumulation of these elements, as did the sediments, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the TWINSPAN showed that the invertebrate populations of the ponds and lakes could not be distinguished, with the possible exception of highway ponds presenting a distinct sub-group of wet detention ponds. The SWDPs and shallow lakes studied seemed to constitute aquatic ecosystems of similar taxon richness and composition as did the 11 small and shallow lakes. This indicates that SWDPs, originally constructed for treatment and flood protection purposes, become aquatic environments which play a local role for biodiversity similar to that of natural small and shallow lakes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gain, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms

  3. Distribution of metals in fauna, flora and sediments of wet detention ponds and natural shallow lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, D.A.; Nielsen, A.H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna, flora, and sediment were collected from 9 wet detention ponds receiving stormwater runoff and 11 small natural shallow lakes. The fauna and flora samples were sorted into species or groups of species and, together with sediments, analyzed for aluminum, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium,...

  4. Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    ). The four simulated organic stormwater MP (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate — IPBC, benzene, glyphosate and pyrene) were selected according to their different urban sources and environmental fate. This ensures that the results can be extended to other relevant stormwater pollutants. All three models use......Urban water managers need to estimate the potential removal of organic micropollutants (MP) in stormwater treatment systems to support MP pollution control strategies. This study documents how the potential removal of organic MP in stormwater treatment systems can be quantified by using multimedia...... models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP...

  5. Metals in pond sediments as archives of anthropogenic activities: a study in response to health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, Joseph R.; Eriksen, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    An environmental geochemistry approach was applied in response to health concerns about present day and past exposure to pollutants within Broome County, New York by determining historical records of anthropogenic activities as preserved in sediment cores. Sediment was collected from a stormwater retention pond adjacent to a warehouse complex in the urban community of Hillcrest as well as from 3 other ponds in rural locations in Broome County. Metal concentrations and decay products of 210 Pb and 137 Cs were measured to determine the timing of source specific differences in the distribution of metals in the sediment cores. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Cd and As were elevated in the retention pond sediments when compared to sediment from other locations. Topography influenced atmospheric transport and deposition of pollutants within incised river valleys and enhanced runoff from impervious surfaces within an urban watershed contributed to the elevated metal concentrations at Hillcrest. Temporal changes in Pb deposition within retention pond sediment mimic the rise and fall in use of leaded gasoline. Arsenic concentrations decreased following placement of emission controls on nearby coal-fired power plant sources. Superimposed over the temporal trends of Pb and As are co-varying Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Cd concentrations; a suite of metals commonly used in metal plating processes by local industries. Analysis of sediment in stormwater retention ponds in other urban areas may provide opportunities for detailed records of pollution history to be obtained in many communities. Residents in urban communities located in incised river valley locations similar to Hillcrest may be particularly prone to enhanced exposure to metals from anthropogenic sources

  6. Two treatment methods for stormwater sediments--pilot plant and landfarming--and reuse of the treated sediments in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petavy, F; Ruban, V; Conil, P; Viau, J Y; Auriol, J C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to present a pilot plant for the treatment of stormwater sediments and to compare the decontamination rate to that obtained by landfarming. The possibilities for reuse of the treated sediments in civil engineering are also studied. Four sediments from retention/infiltration ponds or from street sweeping were studied. In each case organic matter (OM), total hydrocarbons (TH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured. Geotechnical tests were carried out to evaluate the reuse possibilities of the treated sediments. Treatment by means of the pilot plant was efficient at reducing TH and PAH concentrations: THs were reduced by 53-97% and PAHs were decreased by 60-95%. By comparison, a reduction of 45-75% in TH concentration is obtained with landfarming, whereas there is no significant decrease in PAHs. Furthermore, geotechnical tests showed that the treated fractions from the pilot plant can be reused as road embankments and as a capping layer. These results are most encouraging and show that stormwater sediments can valuably be reused after treatment in a pilot plant. Landfarming is less efficient but this technique could be used as a pretreatment in the case of high TH pollution.

  7. Research on Granular Media of Stormwater Sediments (On the Street and Stormwater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginta Cholomskytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In water management, to reach optimal exploitation of stormwater net it is required to value particle size witch accumulate on the roads and ways. The sediments from stormwater sedimentation tanks, sediments from Kalvarijų street and from the industrial area (Greičiūno street 35 were taken. Was established particle size of sediments. Research showed that the biggest part of sediments 80% in sedimentation tank (Verkiai ir Karoliniškės compose the smallest parts, size – 0,25 mm. Sample from the road that particles size 0,25 compose only 25-35%. To reduce negative effect to the stormwater net exploitation it is recommended to implement street sweeping.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Performance of an Underground Stormwater Detention Chamber and Comparison with Stormwater Management Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Drake

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The transportation of pollutants from impervious surfaces during runoff events to receiving water bodies is a serious environmental problem. Summer runoff is also heated by impervious surfaces, causing thermal enrichment in receiving water body systems and degradation of coldwater aquatic ecosystems. End-of-pipe stormwater management facilities that are open to the environment can result in further elevated temperatures due to exposure to solar radiation. Receiving water systems that provide coldwater habitat require cool water temperatures to sustain healthy conditions for cold water flora and fauna (e.g., trout, dace. Underground Stormwater Detention Chambers (USDC are a technology for the detention and treatment of stormwater runoff that can potentially solve the thermal issues associated with sun-exposed detention facilities while still providing an equivalent level of treatment services for stormwater pollutants. A field study of an USDC located in Southern Ontario was undertaken to characterize its treatment performance and effect on water temperature. The results were: the USDC was found to provide similar levels of stormwater treatment as wet detention ponds. On average, outlet maximum temperatures were 5 °C cooler than inlet maximum temperatures, and outlet water temperatures remained within the thermal regime for coldwater fish habitat throughout the evaluation period. There was little to no stratification of temperature, nor dissolved solids, but stratification of dissolved oxygen was observed mid-winter and into the spring.

  9. Characterisation and Treatment of Nano-sized Particles, Colloids and Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Stormwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine

    such as pH, Total Suspended Solid(TSS), turbidity, and electrical conductivity.The five sites where stormwater was sampled from used two different methods of stormwater treatment: settling and filtration, and four different treatment techniques: detention ponds, stormwater pond, disc filter and combined...... sedimentation tanks. From all sites, inlet and outlet stormwater were collected,and pollutant concentrations were quantified as well as the removal efficiencies calculated. The colloidal and nano-sized particle-enhanced transportation of pollutants was also scrutinised in the stormwater.The μm-range PSD...

  10. Effect of climate change on stormwater runoff characteristics and treatment efficiencies of stormwater retention ponds; a case study from Denmark using TSS and Cu as indicator pollutants. SpringerPlus, 5:1984, 1-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Vezzaro, Luca; Birch, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the potential effect of climate changes on stormwater pollution runoff characteristics and the treatment efficiency of a stormwater retention pond in a 95 ha catchment in Denmark. An integrated dynamic stormwater runoff quality and treatment model was used to simulate two...... scenarios: one representing the current climate and another representing a future climate scenario with increased intensity of extreme rainfall events and longer dry weather periods. 100-year long high-resolution rainfall time series downscaled from regional climate model projections were used as input...... concentrations. Similar results are expected for other particle bound pollutants including metals and slowly biodegradable organic substances such as PAH. Acute toxicity impacts to downstream surface waters seem to be only slightly affected. A minor increase in yearly loads of sediments and particle...

  11. Identifying biogeochemical processes beneath stormwater infiltration ponds in support of a new best management practice for groundwater protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P.; Xuan, Zhemin; Schirmer, Mario; Hoehn, Eduard; Vogt, Tobias

    2011-01-01

     When applying a stormwater infiltration pond best management practice (BMP) for protecting the quality of underlying groundwater, a common constituent of concern is nitrate. Two stormwater infiltration ponds, the SO and HT ponds, in central Florida, USA, were monitored. A temporal succession of biogeochemical processes was identified beneath the SO pond, including oxygen reduction, denitrification, manganese and iron reduction, and methanogenesis. In contrast, aerobic conditions persisted beneath the HT pond, resulting in nitrate leaching into groundwater. Biogeochemical differences likely are related to soil textural and hydraulic properties that control surface/subsurface oxygen exchange. A new infiltration BMP was developed and a full-scale application was implemented for the HT pond. Preliminary results indicate reductions in nitrate concentration exceeding 50% in soil water and shallow groundwater beneath the HT pond.

  12. Characterization of roadway stormwater system residuals for reuse and disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yong-Chul; Jain, Pradeep; Tolaymat, Thabet; Dubey, Brajesh; Singh, Shrawan; Townsend, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The chemical characterization of sediments accumulated in catch basins and stormwater ponds provides important information for assessing risks associated with management of these residuals upon removal of accumulated deposits in stormwater systems. In this study, over a period of 15 months, more than 150 residual samples were collected from 77 catch basin units and 22 stormwater ponds from 16 municipalities throughout the state of Florida. Concentrations (mg/kg) of metals and metalloids (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc) and trace organics (volatile organics, semi-volatile organics, herbicides, and pesticides) in the sediments were measured. In addition, the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was utilized to evaluate pollutant leachability risk for a subset of the samples collected. Measured pollutant concentrations were compared to corresponding risk-based guidelines in Florida (i.e., Florida soil cleanup target levels) to assess potential human health risks of beneficial use of these residuals through land application. Leached concentrations were compared to risk-based water quality guidelines (i.e., Florida groundwater cleanup target levels) to examine the potential for groundwater contamination. Although several metals (arsenic, barium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc) were routinely detected in the catch basin and stormwater pond sediments, their concentrations were generally lower than the Florida's risk-based cleanup target levels for soils. A small number of organochlorine compounds (e.g., 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT) were detected, but only in a limited number of the samples (less than 10%); leaching of trace organic pollutants above the Florida risk-based groundwater thresholds was rare. The results suggest that when land-applied or beneficially used, these residuals are not expected to pose a significant threat to human health or the environment and the results of this research

  13. Developing an ecosystem model of a floating wetland for water quality improvement on a stormwater pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Brendan; Ahn, Changwoo

    2017-11-01

    An ecosystem model was developed to assist with designing and implementing a floating wetland (FW) for water quality management of urban stormwater ponds, focusing on nitrogen (N) removal. The model is comprised of three linked submodels: hydrology, plant growth, and nitrogen. The model was calibrated with the data that resulted from a FW constructed and implemented as part of an interdisciplinary pedagogical project on a university campus, titled "The Rain Project", which raised awareness of stormwater issues while investigating the potential application of green infrastructure for sustainable stormwater management. The FW had been deployed during the summer of 2015 (i.e., May through mid-September) on a major stormwater pond located at the center of the Fairfax Campus of George Mason University near Washington, D.C. We used the model to explore the impact of three design elements of FW (i.e., hydraulic residence time (HRT), surface area coverage, and primary productivity) on the function of FW. Model simulations showed enhanced N removal performance as HRT and surface area coverage increased. The relatively low macrophyte productivity observed indicates that, in the case of our pond and FW, N removal was very limited. The model results suggest that even full pond surface coverage would result in meager N removal (∼6%) at a HRT of one week. A FW with higher plant productivity, more representative of that reported in the literature, would require only 10% coverage to achieve similar N removal efficiency (∼7%). Therefore, macrophyte productivity appears to have a greater impact on FW performance on N removal than surface area coverage or pond HRT. The outcome of the study shows that this model, though limited in scope, may be useful in aiding the design of FW to augment the performance of degraded stormwater ponds in an effort to meet local water quality goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Seasonal Trends in Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Fauna of Stormwater Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    seasonal trend in concentrations when looking at individual species or groups of species. The number of species caught in ponds and lakes was more or less identical, which together with an only slightly elevated heavy metal content of the fauna supported that stormwater ponds can contribute positively...... in bioaccumulation. The results were compared with similar results from two natural shallow lakes of the same region. The study showed that there was some tendency for copper and also to some degree for other metals to be present in slightly higher concentrations in fauna of the ponds. There was, however, no clear...

  15. Urban Stormwater Characterization, Control, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Trisha L; Rodak, Carolyn M; Vogel, Jason R

    2017-10-01

    A summary of 246 studies published in 2016 on topics related to the characterization and management of urban stormwater runoff is presented in the following review. The review is structured along three major topical areas: (1) general characterization of stormwater quantity and quality; (2) engineered systems for stormwater control and treatment, including erosion and sediment control practices, constructed stormwater ponds and wetlands, bioretention, permeable pavement, greenroofs, and rainwater harvesting and (3) watershedscale application of stormwater treatment and control practices. Common research themes and needs highlighted throughout this review include efforts to better understand stormwater transport and treatment mechanisms and their representation in models, advancements to optimize the design of stormwater control measures to meet specific hydrologic and/or water quality targets, and increasing understanding of the biophysical and social factors that influence watershed-scale implementation of low impact development and other stormwater control measures.

  16. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in two wet retention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Laila C.; Vollertsen, Jes; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Metal accumulation in stormwater ponds may contaminate the inhabiting fauna, thus jeopardizing their ecosystem servicing function. We evaluated bioaccumulation of metals in natural fauna and caged mussel indicator organisms in two wet retention ponds. Mussel cages were distributed throughout...... the ponds to detect bioaccumulation gradients and obtain a time-integrated measure of metal bioavailability. We further investigated if sediment metal concentrations correlate with those in the fauna and mussels. Metal concentrations in the fauna tended to be higher in the ponds than in a reference lake......, but statistical significance was only shown for Cu. Positive correlations were found for some metals in fauna and sediment. Sediment metal concentrations in one pond decreased from inlet to outlet while no gradients were observed in the mussels in either pond. These findings indicate that metal accumulation...

  17. Modeling the eutrophication of two mature planted stormwater ponds for runoff control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, A.H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    A model, targeting eutrophication of stormwater detention ponds was developed and applied to sim-ulate pH, dissolved oxygen and the development of algae and plant biomass in two mature plantedwetponds for run off control. The model evaluated algal and plant biomass growth into three groupsnamely;...

  18. Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented

  19. Stormwater impacts on a coldwater resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.

    1995-01-01

    The Kinnickinnic River in west-central Wisconsin is classified as a state outstanding resource water, and is a premiere Midwest trout stream, with a self-sustaining brown trout population. River Falls, Wisconsin (population 10,000), located in the heart of the Kinnickinnic River watershed, is developing rapidly because of its proximity to the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolis. With increasing residential, commercial, and industrial development, concerns about urban stormwater impacts on the Kinnickinnic River are also increasing. These impacts include higher stream flows, thermal pollution, and sedimentation, all of which pose threats to trout and aquatic habitat. In response to the concern about thermal pollution, the Kiap-TU-Wish Chapter of Trout Unlimited established a temperature monitoring network in 1992, at four Kinnickinnic River locations throughout River Falls. Data-logging thermometers continuously record stream temperatures at 10-minute intervals, clearly demonstrating stormwater-induced thermal changes. Rapidly-increasing stream temperatures are often evident at locations downstream from stormwater outfalls during summer rainfalls, and stormwater temperatures may exceed 80 F. The thermal impacts of two small municipal hydropower impoundments have also been documented. Storm event-based composite sampling of residential, commercial, and industrial areas of River Falls (1992) suggests that these areas are highly susceptible to soil erosion, with sediment concentrations greater than the NURP average. Concentrations of some sediment-associated metals are also high. In 1994, River Falls developed a stormwater management plan for the Kinnickinnic River. Plan recommendations include a limitation of 12% impervious area within the city, proper detention pond design to mitigate thermal impacts, stringent erosion control ordinances, additional stormwater BMP'S, and increased public awareness and involvement

  20. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites

  1. Monitoring, chemical fate modelling and uncertainty assessment in combination: a tool for evaluating emission control scenarios for micropollutants in stormwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Vezzaro, Luca; Birch, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    runoff and treatment systems under sparse data conditions. The framework was applied to an industrial/residential area in the outskirts of Copenhagen (Denmark), where stormwater is discharged in a separate channel system discharging to a wet detention pond. Analysis of economic activities and GIS data...... on land usage allowed characterizing the catchment and identifying the major potential sources of stormwater MP. Monitoring of the pond inlet and outlet, as well as sediment analyses, allowed assessing the current situation and highlighted potential risks for the downstream surface water environment...

  2. Sediment remediation of the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeloni, D.; Eby, M.; Jarvis, S.; Martin, P. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: danielle.angeloni@earthtech.ca

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' Low dissolved oxygen levels and large accumulated sediment remediation alternatives were examined to assemble the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge (HMP) into a healthier and more desirable recreational area in the City of Cambridge. The theory that a large amount of sediment has been deposited into the HMP from the Speed River upstream over a number of years predicts the depressed oxygen levels, high nutrient-loading rates and the odour problems in the summer months. The initial phase in the remediation plan for this project involved extensive background research and investigation. The focus was on determining the characteristics of the sediment and the history of the pond, to ultimately decide if the sediment was the source of the issues. Dissolved oxygen field tests and sediment sampling were conducted to get information on the magnitude of the problem and the environmental hazards potentially present in the pond. The pond was modelled utilising the Streeter-Phelps oxygen-sag model to predict the oxygen deficit. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD{sub 5}) testing was completed to determine the oxygen demand in the pond. These tests were conducted by using water samples obtained from various sample points at the pond. The proposed solution is a combined dredging and aeration approach. Mechanical dredging using a clamshell bucket and the installation of aerators is expected to solve the dissolved oxygen and water quality issues. (author)

  3. Toxicity of water and sediment from stormwater retarding basins to Hydra hexactinella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Pollino, Carmel A.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2008-01-01

    of 50 ml/L and 100 ml/L, while the 7 h pulse exposure caused a significant increase in the mean population growth rate compared to the control. Water samples from the two other retarding basins were found non-toxic to H. hexactinella. This is the first study to employ sediment tests with Hydra spp....... on stormwater sediments and a lower population growth rate was observed for organisms exposed to sediment from the Avoca St retarding basins. The behavioral study showed that H. hexactinella tended to avoid the sediment-water interface when exposed to sediment from all retarding basins, compared...... to the reference sediment. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of stormwater polluted sediments and acute effects due to organism exposure to short-term high concentrations during rain events. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Characterizing bacterial communities in tilapia pond surface sediment and their responses to pond differences and temporal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Limin; Barry, Kamira; Hu, Gengdong; Meng, Shunlong; Song, Chao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jianhong; Chen, Jiazhang; Xu, Pao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial community compositions in the surface sediment of tilapia ponds and their responses to pond characteristics or seasonal variations were investigated. For that, three ponds with different stocking densities were selected to collect the samples. And the method of Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to amplify the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. A total of 662, 876 valid reads and 5649 operational taxonomic units were obtained. Further analysis showed that the dominant phyla in all three ponds were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria. The phyla Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Chlorobi, and Spirochaetae were also relatively abundant. Among the eight phyla, the abundances of only Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Spirochaetae were affected by seasonal variations, while seven of these (with the exception of Acidobacteria) were affected by pond differences. A comprehensive analysis of the richness and diversity of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and of the similarity in bacterial community composition in sediment also showed that the communities in tilapia pond sediment were shaped more by pond differences than by seasonal variations. Linear discriminant analysis further indicated that the influences of pond characteristics on sediment bacterial communities might be related to feed coefficients and stocking densities of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT).

  5. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  6. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  7. Evaluation of factors affecting soil carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds in varying climate zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L S; Moore, T L C; Wang, J W; Osmond, D L; Al-Rubaei, A M; Smolek, A P; Blecken, G T; Viklander, M; Hunt, W F

    2017-04-01

    The carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds were investigated in four different climates: U.S., Northern Sweden, Southern Sweden, and Singapore, representing a range of annual mean temperatures, growing season lengths and rainfall depths: geographic factors that were not statistically compared, but have great effect on carbon (C) accumulation. A chronosequence was used to estimate C accumulations rates; C accumulation and decomposition rates were not directly measured. C accumulated significantly over time in vegetated shallow water areas (0-30cm) in the USA (78.4gCm -2 yr -1 ), in vegetated temporary inundation zones in Sweden (75.8gCm -2 yr -1 ), and in all ponds in Singapore (135gCm -2 yr -1 ). Vegetative production appeared to exert a stronger influence on relative C accumulation rates than decomposition. Comparing among the four climatic zones, the effects of increasing rainfall and growing season lengths (vegetative production) outweighed the effects of higher temperature on decomposition rates. Littoral vegetation was a significant source to the soil C pool relative to C sources draining from watersheds. Establishment of vegetation in the shallow water zones of retention ponds is vital to providing a C source to the soil. Thus, the width of littoral shelves containing this vegetation along the perimeter may be increased if C sequestration is a design goal. This assessment establishes that stormwater wet retention ponds can sequester C across different climate zones with generally annual rainfall and lengths of growing season being important general factors for C accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Methods of assessment of stormwater sediments quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sałata Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of heavy metal (cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc in sediments collected from the stormwater treatment plant located in the urbanised catchment were investigated using geo-accumulation index and enrichment factor to determine metal accumulation and pollution status. Total metal concentrations varied widely in studied materials and the mean values were higher than their background values. The Igeo results indicate that tested sediments were uncontaminated with respect to Cd. The study area is moderately to strongly contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cu. The other elements are within the scope moderate contamination.

  9. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrot Nicole; Wojciechowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS) is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature c...

  10. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrot Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature concerning the characteristics of sediments from SDS, with a particular focus on heavy metals in sediments deposited in the urban catchment area.

  11. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects

  12. The effect of oil sands tailings pond sediments on embryo-larval walleye (Sander vitreus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, J C; Turcotte, D; Tumber, V; Peru, K M; Wang, Z; Yang, C; Headley, J V; Parrott, J L

    2017-10-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) are a commercially important North American fish species that inhabit the Athabasca River. This river flows through the Athabasca oil sands where natural sources of bitumen erode from the McMurray formation. Little information is available on responses of walleye embryos to oil sands tailings pond sediments in a laboratory setting. The current study describes the design and implementation of a daily-renewal bioassay to assess the potential effects of tailings pond sediments from the Athabasca oil sands area on walleye development. Developing walleye embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of two tailings pond sediments (collected in the Athabasca oil sands area) until the completion of yolk absorption in control fish. Sediments from the tailings pond represent a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs. During the 31 day exposure, the walleye were examined for mortalities, weight, length and developmental abnormalities to provide an initial evaluation of the effects of the oil sands tailings pond sediments. Walleye embryo survival differed between the tailings pond sediments, and survival decreased with increasing sediment concentration. Alkylated PAH content differed between the two tailings pond sediments and lower embryo survival corresponded to higher total and alkylated PAH content. Tailings pond sediment-exposed walleye exhibited a delay in development, as well as increased percentages of larvae with heart and yolk sac edema, and cranial and spinal malformations. These abnormalities in development are often associated with PAH and alkylated PAH exposure. This study provides an exposure design that can be used to assess sediment toxicity to early developmental stages of a fish species not commonly tested in the lab, and lays the groundwork for future studies with this and other difficult-to-culture species. These results offer information on the potential effects of tailings pond sediments

  13. Measurements of radionuclide in Par Pond sediments with an underwater HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) effluent gamma emitting radionuclides in Par Pond sediment were examined in situ with an underwater HPGe detector prior to and following a 19 ft drawdown of the pond in 1991 to address dam repairs. These measurements provide a map of the 137 Cs concentrations of the pond sediment, indicating that 9.4 ± 1.5 Ci is exposed by the drawdown and that 46.6 ± 7.2 Ci is the entire pond inventory. The highest individual 137 Cs concentration was 25 μCi/m 2 for the exposed sediment and 50 μCi/m 2 for the entire pond. The results are consistent with parallel studies conducted by SREL, as well as historical data. Aside from 137 Cs, the only other SRS-produced isotope observed was 60 Co, with activity of only about 1% of that for 137 Cs. This observation was also confirmed in grab samples of pond sediment and vegetation, which were returned to the laboratory for ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry analysis. A special effort was required to calibrate the underwater HPGe detector, where both measurements and calculational models were used. The effects of sediment depth profiles for density and 137 Cs concentration were addressed in the calibration. Calibration factors for sediment surface concentrations (μCi/m 2 /cpm) and sediment mass concentrations (pCi/kg/cpm) were obtained. In general, the μCi/m 2 /cpm factor is recommended, as the pCi/kg/cpm factor depends on the depth location of the sediment of interest. However, a pCi/kg/cpm factor, which is dependent on the depth within the sediment is presented to address dose calculations that require it

  14. Aquatic biodiversity in sedimentation ponds receiving road runoff - What are the key drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenhua; Brittain, John E; Sokolova, Ekaterina; Thygesen, Helene; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Rauch, Sebastien; Meland, Sondre

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation. Multivariate statistical methods, including unconstrained and constrained analysis, were applied to examine the relationships between organisms and the water quality as well as physical factors (including plant cover). Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that the most important variables governing the variation in the biological community composition were pond size, average annual daily traffic, metals, chloride, distance to the closest pond from study pond, dissolved oxygen, hydrocarbons, and phosphorus. The presence of most taxa was positively correlated with pond size and negatively correlated with metals. Small ponds with high pollutant loadings were associated with a low diversity and dominated by a few pollution tolerant taxa such as oligochaetes. A comprehensive understanding of impacts of various environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity is important to effectively promote and conserve aquatic biodiversity in such sedimentation ponds. Our results indicate that road sedimentation ponds should be designed large enough, because large ponds are likely to provide a more heterogeneous habitat and thus contain a species rich fauna. In addition, larger ponds seem to be less contaminated due to dilution compared to smaller ponds, thereby maintaining a higher biodiversity. Finally, creating some additional ponds in the vicinity of the sedimentation ponds in areas with few water bodies would increase the

  15. Preliminary results of sedimentation study in SMART, Kg. Berembang holding pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremy Andy Dominic; Wan Zakaria Wan Md Tahir; Lakam Mejus; Juhari Mohd Yusuf; Kamaruzaman Mohamad; Mod Omar Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Spatial variations of the sediment bulk density profile in the Storm water Management And Road Tunnel (SMART) holding pond were measured at every 20 metre intervals along six cross section lines with a total of 72 sampling points using a Cs-137 nuclear backscatter probe. The bulk density profile at each sampling points were vertically measured at every 2 inches increment in an upward direction. The thickness of the deposited sediment varies spatially with a gradual increase towards the centre of the holding pond. The highest sediment deposition areas are located near the baffle walls, the centre and the south east corner of the holding pond. The maximum thickness of the deposited sediment adjacent to the baffle walls is 22 inch and at both the centre and south east area are 18 inch. The sediment bulk density profile varies from 1,010 kg.m -3 to 1,400 kg.m -3 . Spatial density variations are in correlation with the active and inactive zone in the pond area. The potential of sediment deposition and consolidation process is higher in the inactive zone compare to the active zone, therefore the bulk density value the inactive zone is much higher. (author)

  16. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik; Allan, Ian; Christensen, Jan H; Malmqvist, Linus M V; Meland, Sondre; Ranneklev, Sissel

    2016-10-01

    Road runoff is an important source of pollution to the aquatic environment, and sedimentation ponds have been installed to mitigate effects on the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a) fish from sedimentation ponds were affected by road pollution and; b) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also an improved condition. The latter results indicate that fish health was affected by road runoff. A closer investigation of PAH levels of the ecosystems of two sedimentation ponds (Skullerud and Vassum) and nearby environments were conducted. The concentration of the 16 EPA PAHs in sediments of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of PAHs showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular PAHs, both from sedimentation ponds with a petrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments; and from a lake with pyrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacteriophage Technique for Assessing Viral Removal in Constructed Wetland and Detention Pond Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yousefi, CM Davies, HJ Bavor

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetland and detention pond as a treatment system was applied for stormwater management in two adjacent areas in western Sydney. F-specific RNA and somatic coliphages were used as a model for assessing two systems for removal of viral pollution, fate, behavior and survival of viruses in the sediment. Water samples were collected weekly in sterile containers and sediment samples were collected three times using a box dredge sampler via a boat at the inlet, middle and outlet areas of the systems. F-specific RNA coliphages were enumerated using the double layer plaque assay (ISO 1995 with Salmonella typhimurium WG49 as a host. Survival test continued 28 d for each sub-sample. Viral removal in constructed wetland was more effective than the detention pond system. Survival of somatic coliphages in the inlet and middle of the systems was similar. Slope of declining for outlet of two systems was very slow and completely stable in whole of test duration. Constructed wetland may offer an attractive alternative to stormwater management for reducing the load of disease-causing viruses to the receiving waters.

  18. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    constituents and characteristics. Concentrations of sediment and concentrations of nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria, which are commonly transported with the sediment in stormwater, were measured. Total and dissolved concentrations of six trace metals were determined in the samples. Stormwater samples also were analyzed for organic compounds including 10 herbicides, 18 organochlorine pesticides, 7 Aroclor or polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, 44 volatile organic compounds, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Stormwater often transports large quantities of sediment and sediment-bound contaminants, including nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. Median event-mean concentrations of suspended sediment in stormwater at these facilities ranged from 54 milligrams per liter in Turkey Creek at North Charleston2 to 147 milligrams per liter in stormwater discharging from the Ballentine retention pond outfall. In general, event-mean concentrations of total nitrogen consisted mainly of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (organic nitrogen plus ammonia) rather than nitrate plus nitrite in stormwater, and the median event-mean concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 1.59 milligrams per liter at the Conway1 pipe outfall to 2.00 milligrams per liter at the Ballentine retention pond outfall. Median event-mean concentrations of total phosphorus in stormwater ranged from 0.15 milligram per liter at the Conway1 outfall to 0.42 milligram per liter in Turkey Creek at North Charleston1. Escherichia coli and enterococcus concentrations often varied by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude in grab samples collected during the “first flush” of stormwater discharging to the sampled outfalls of Turkey Creek. Additionally, enterococcus concentrations consistently were greater than the corresponding Escherichia coli concentrations in stormwater. Specifically, median "first-flush" Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 30 colonies per 100 milliliters at the Conway1 outfall to 4,359 colonies per 100

  19. Effect of heavy metals on soil mineral surfaces and bioretention pond performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Haibo Zhang and Mira S. Olson Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 As urban stormwater runoff flows across impervious surfaces, it collects and accumulates pollutants that are detrimental to the quality of local receiving water bodies. Heavy metal pollution, such as copper, lead and zinc, has been a concern in urban stormwater runoff. In addition, the presence of bacteria in stormwater has been frequently reported. The co-existence of both heavy metals and bacteria in stormwater and their complex interactions determine their transport and removal through bioretention pond. Stormwater runoff was sampled from a bioretention pond in Philadelphia, PA. The concentration of copper, lead and zinc were measured as 0.086ppm, 0.083ppm and 0.365ppm, respectively. Batch experiments were conducted with solutions of pure copper, lead and zinc, and with a synthetic stormwater solution amended with copper, lead and zinc. The solution was buffered to pH 7, within the range of the observed stormwater pH. In pure heavy metal solutions, the sorption of copper, lead and zinc onto soil are 96%, 99% and 85%, respectively. In synthetic stormwater containing nutrients and all three metals, the sorption of lead is 97%, while copper and zinc decrease to 29% and 71%, respectively. Mineralogy of a soil sample taken from the bioretention pond was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared before and after sorption experiments. Sorption and complexation of heavy metals is likely to change the mineralogy of soil particle surfaces, which will affect the attachment of bacteria and therefore its transport through soil. This study will benefit long-term predictions of the performance of bioretention ponds for urban stormwater runoff treatment. Keyword: Heavy metal pollution, sorption, surface complexation, urban stormwater runoff, bioretention pond

  20. Replacing natural wetlands with stormwater management facilities: Biophysical and perceived social values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, R C; Foote, L; Krogman, N; Pattison, J K; Wilson, M J; Bayley, S E

    2015-04-15

    Urban expansion replaces wetlands of natural origin with artificial stormwater management facilities. The literature suggests that efforts to mimic natural wetlands in the design of stormwater facilities can expand the provision of ecosystem services. Policy developments seek to capitalize on these improvements, encouraging developers to build stormwater wetlands in place of stormwater ponds; however, few have compared the biophysical values and social perceptions of these created wetlands to those of the natural wetlands they are replacing. We compared four types of wetlands: natural references sites, natural wetlands impacted by agriculture, created stormwater wetlands, and created stormwater ponds. We anticipated that they would exhibit a gradient in biodiversity, ecological integrity, chemical and hydrologic stress. We further anticipated that perceived values would mirror measured biophysical values. We found higher biophysical values associated with wetlands of natural origin (both reference and agriculturally impacted). The biophysical values of stormwater wetlands and stormwater ponds were lower and indistinguishable from one another. The perceived wetland values assessed by the public differed from the observed biophysical values. This has important policy implications, as the public are not likely to perceive the loss of values associated with the replacement of natural wetlands with created stormwater management facilities. We conclude that 1) agriculturally impacted wetlands provide biophysical values equivalent to those of natural wetlands, meaning that land use alone is not a great predictor of wetland value; 2) stormwater wetlands are not a substantive improvement over stormwater ponds, relative to wetlands of natural origin; 3) stormwater wetlands are poor mimics of natural wetlands, likely due to fundamental distinctions in terms of basin morphology, temporal variation in hydrology, ground water connectivity, and landscape position; 4) these

  1. On the risks from sediment and overlying water by replenishing urban landscape ponds with reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Dong; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xiaochang C; Liu, Yanzheng; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yue; Xue, Tao; Wang, Nan

    2018-05-01

    The extensive use of reclaimed wastewater (RW) as a source of urban landscape pond replenishment, stimulated by the lack of surface water (SW) resources, has raised public concern. Greater attention should be paid to pond sediments, which act as 'sinks' and 'sources' of contaminants to the overlying pond water. Three ponds replenished with RW (RW ponds) in three Chinese cities were chosen to investigate 22 indices of sediment quality in four categories: eutrophication, heavy metal, ecotoxicity and pathogens risk. RW ponds were compared with other ponds of similar characteristics in the same cities that were replenished with SW (SW ponds). Our results show a strong impact of RW to the eutrophication and pathogenic risks, which are represented by organic matter, water content, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and phosphorus fractions, and pathogens. In particular, total phosphorus concentrations in the RW pond sediments were, on average, 50% higher than those of SW ponds. Moreover, the content of phosphorus, extracted by bicarbonate/dithionite (normally represented by BD-P) and NaOH (NaOH-P), were 2.0- and 2.83-times higher in RW ponds, respectively. For pathogens, the concentrations of norovirus and rotavirus in RW pond sediments were, on average, 0.52 and 0.30- log times those of SW ponds. The duration of RW replenishment was proved to have a marked impact on the eutrophication and pathogens risks from sediments. The continued use of RW for replenishment increases the eutrophication risk, and the pathogens risk, especially by viral pathogens, becomes greater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) concentration in sediment of Blanakan fish ponds, Subang, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriawan, A.; Takarina, N. D.; Pin, T. G.

    2017-07-01

    Blanakan fish ponds receive water resource from Kali Malang and Blanakan rivers. Industrial and domestic activities along the river can cause pollution, especially heavy metals. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element that needed by an organism, while Lead (Pb) is a nonessential element that is not needed. Discharge of waste water from industries and anthropogenic activities continuously not only pollute the water but also the sediment and biota live on it. This research was aimed to know the heavy metals content in the sediment of Blanakan fish ponds. Sediment samples were taken on July and August 2016 at three locations. Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) Shimadzu 6300. The result of Lead (Pb) measurement showed that Fish Pond 1 had higher average concentration compared Fish Pond 2 and Fish Pond 3 which was 0.55 ppm. Standard for Lead (Pb) in sediment according to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008) is 31 ppm. Based on Zinc (Zn) measurement, it was known that average of Zinc (Zn) concentration also higher on Fish Pond 1 compared to Fish Pond 2 and 3 which was 1.93 ppm. According to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008), a standard for Zinc (Zn) in sediment is 120 ppm. This indicated that heavy metals in the sediment of fish ponds were below standards. Statistical analysis using t-test showed that there was no significant difference of heavy metals content among fish ponds.

  3. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kurt E.; Harris, Jamie V.; Green, Jasmin C.; Rahman, Faraz; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2014-01-01

    Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA) were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond), RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities. PMID:24672520

  4. Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

  5. Effectiveness of a stormwater collection and detention system for reducing constituent loads from bridge runoff in Pinellas County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Y.E.

    1996-01-01

    The quantity and quality of stormwater runoff from the Bayside Bridge were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the stormwater collection and detention pond system of the bridge in reducing constituent loads to Old Tampa Bay. Water-quality samples of stormwater runoff from the bridge and outflow from the detention pond were collected during and after selected storms. These samples were used to compute loads for selected constituents. Stormwater on the Bayside Bridge drained rapidly during rain events. The volume of stormwater runoff from 24 storms measured during the study ranged from 4,086 to 103,705 cubic feet. Storms were most frequent during July through September and were least frequent from February through May. Concentrations of most constituents in stormwater runoff before the bridge opened to traffic were less than or equal to concentrations measured after the bridge was opened to traffic. However, concentrations of arsenic in the outflow from the detention pond generally were greater before the bridge opened than concentrations after, and concentrations of orthophosphorus in the stormwater runoff and outflow from the pond were greater before the bridge opened than during over half the sampled storms after the bridge opened. Concentrations of most constituents measured in stormwater runoff from the bridge were greatest at the beginning of the storm and decreased as the storm continued. Variations in suspended solids, nutrients, and trace element concentrations were not always concurrent with each other. The source of the measured constituent (rainfall or road debris) and the phase of the constituent (suspended or dissolved) probably affected the timing of concentration changes. The quality of stormwater runoff from the Bayside Bridge varied with total runoff volume, with the length of the dry period before the storm, and with season. Average concentrations of suspended solids, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen

  6. Nitrogen removal in maturation waste stabilisation ponds via biological uptake and sedimentation of dead biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D; Newton, R J

    2010-01-01

    In this work a set of experiments was undertaken in a pilot-scale WSP system to determine the importance of organic nitrogen sedimentation on ammonium and total nitrogen removals in maturation ponds and its seasonal variation under British weather conditions, from September 2004 to May 2007. The nitrogen content in collected sediment samples varied from 4.17% to 6.78% (dry weight) and calculated nitrogen sedimentation rates ranged from 273 to 2868 g N/ha d. High ammonium removals were observed together with high concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the pond effluent. Moreover, chlorophyll-a had a very good correlation with the corresponding increment of VSS (algal biomass) and suspended organic nitrogen (biological nitrogen uptake) in the maturation pond effluents. Therefore, when ammonium removal reached its maximum, total nitrogen removal was very poor as most of the ammonia taken up by algae was washed out in the pond effluent in the form of suspended solids. After sedimentation of the dead algal biomass, it was clear that algal-cell nitrogen was recycled from the sludge layer into the pond water column. Recycled nitrogen can either be taken up by algae or washed out in the pond effluent. Biological (mainly algal) uptake of inorganic nitrogen species and further sedimentation of dead biomass (together with its subsequent mineralization) is one of the major mechanisms controlling in-pond nitrogen recycling in maturation WSP, particularly when environmental and operational conditions are favourable for algal growth.

  7. BMPs in urban stormwater management in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Viklander, M.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) for control of stormwater runoff include structural elemts (structural BMPs) that can be applied on the local scale (e.g. infiltration), the drainage catchment scale (e.g. ponds and treatment, or wetlands) and the receiving water scale (e.g. retrofitting of river ....... A review of recent experiences with selected stormwater BMPs in Denmark and Sweden is presented and discussed with respect to the current issues related to legislation and the forces driving future development in stormwater management.......Best Management Practices (BMPs) for control of stormwater runoff include structural elemts (structural BMPs) that can be applied on the local scale (e.g. infiltration), the drainage catchment scale (e.g. ponds and treatment, or wetlands) and the receiving water scale (e.g. retrofitting of river...... reaches), and non-structural BMPs, such as controls of chemicals or building materials, and street sweeping. The available knowledge of stormwater BMPs performance in pollution control is inconsistent and the effect of various BMPs on receiving water quality is either poorly understood, or not known...

  8. Structural stability, microbial biomass and community composition of sediments affected by the hydric dynamics of an urban stormwater infiltration basin. Dynamics of physical and microbial characteristics of stormwater sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Anne Laure; Monier, Armelle; Volatier, Laurence; Geremia, Roberto A; Delolme, Cécile; Bedell, Jean-Philippe

    2011-05-01

    The sedimentary layer deposited at the surface of stormwater infiltration basins is highly organic and multicontaminated. It undergoes considerable moisture content fluctuations due to the drying and inundation cycles (called hydric dynamics) of these basins. Little is known about the microflora of the sediments and its dynamics; hence, the purpose of this study is to describe the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the sediments at different hydric statuses of the infiltration basin. Sediments were sampled at five time points following rain events and dry periods. They were characterized by physical (aggregation), chemical (nutrients and heavy metals), and biological (total, bacterial and fungal biomasses, and genotypic fingerprints of total bacterial and fungal communities) parameters. Data were processed using statistical analyses which indicated that heavy metal (1,841 μg/g dry weight (DW)) and organic matter (11%) remained stable through time. By contrast, aggregation, nutrient content (NH₄⁺, 53-717 μg/g DW), pH (6.9-7.4), and biological parameters were shown to vary with sediment water content and sediment biomass, and were higher consecutive to stormwater flows into the basin (up to 7 mg C/g DW) than during dry periods (0.6 mg C/g DW). Coinertia analysis revealed that the structure of the bacterial communities is driven by the hydric dynamics of the infiltration basin, although no such trend was found for fungal communities. Hydric dynamics more than rain events appear to be more relevant for explaining variations of aggregation, microbial biomass, and shift in the microbial community composition. We concluded that the hydric dynamics of stormwater infiltration basins greatly affects the structural stability of the sedimentary layer, the biomass of the microbial community living in it and its dynamics. The decrease in aggregation consecutive to rewetting probably enhances access to organic matter (OM), explaining the consecutive release

  9. Chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments and implications for environmental management, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J.T.C.; Fossum, K.D.; Ingersoll, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly growing Phoenix metropolitan area of Maricopa County, Arizona, showed that the inorganic component of these sediments generally reflects geologic background values. Some concentrations of metals were above background values, especially cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these elements to the sediment chemistry. Concentrations, however, were not at levels that would require soil remediation according to guidelines of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic concentrations generally were above recommended values for remediation at a few sites, but these concentrations seem to reflect geologic rather than anthropogenic factors. Several organochlorine compounds no longer in use were ubiquitous in the Phoenix area, although concentrations generally were low. Chlordane, DDT and its decay products DDE and DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and PCBs were found at almost all sites sampled, although some of the pesticides in which these compounds are found have been banned for almost 30 years. A few sites showed exceptionally high concentrations of organochlorine compounds. On the basis of published guidelines, urban stormwater sediments do not appear to constitute a major regional environmental problem with respect to the chemical characteristics investigated here. At individual sites, high concentrations of organic compounds - chlordane, dieldrin, PCBs, and toxaphene - may require some attention. The possible environmental hazard presented by low-level organochlorine contamination is not addressed in this paper; however, high levels of toxicity in urban sediments are difficult to explain. Sediment toxicity varied significantly with time, which indicates that these tests should be evaluated carefully before they are used for management decisions.Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly

  10. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of PAHs showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular PAHs, both from sedimentation ponds......) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both...... populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also...

  12. Effects of conversion of mangroves into gei wai ponds on accumulation, speciation and risk of heavy metals in intertidal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongyu; Qiu, Guo Yu; Chai, Minwei; Shen, Xiaoxue; Zan, Qijie

    2018-06-23

    Mangroves are often converted into gei wai ponds for aquaculture, but how such conversion affects the accumulation and behavior of heavy metals in sediments is not clear. The present study aims to quantify the concentration and speciation of heavy metals in sediments in different habitats, including gei wai pond, mangrove marsh dominated by Avicennia marina and bare mudflat, in a mangrove nature reserve in South China. The results showed that gei wai pond acidified the sediment and reduced its electronic conductivity and total organic carbon (TOC) when compared to A. marina marsh and mudflat. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb at all sediment depths in gei wai pond were lower than the other habitats, indicating gei wai pond reduced the fertility and the ability to retain heavy metals in sediment. Gei wai pond sediment also had a lower heavy metal pollution problem according to multiple evaluation methods, including potential ecological risk coefficient, potential ecological risk index, geo-accumulation index, mean PEL quotients, pollution load index, mean ERM quotients and total toxic unit. Heavy metal speciation analysis showed that gei wai pond increased the transfer of the immobilized fraction of Cd and Cr to the mobilized one. According to the acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) analysis, the conversion of mangroves into gei wai pond reduced values of ([SEM] - [AVS])/f oc , and the role of TOC in alleviating heavy metal toxicity in sediment. This study demonstrated the conversion of mangrove marsh into gei wai pond not only reduced the ecological purification capacity on heavy metal contamination, but also enhanced the transfer of heavy metals from gei wai pond sediment to nearby habitats.

  13. Water quality of stormwater generated from an airport in a cold climate, function of an infiltration pond, and sampling strategy with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu; Ehlert, Ludwig; Wahlskog, Cecilia; Lundberg, Angela; Maurice, Christian

    2017-12-05

    Monitoring pollutants in stormwater discharge in cold climates is challenging. An environmental survey was performed by sampling the stormwater from Luleå Airport, Northern Sweden, during the period 2010-2013, when urea was used as a main component of aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs). The stormwater collected from the runway was led through an oil trap to an infiltration pond to store excess water during precipitation periods and enhance infiltration and water treatment. Due to insufficient capacity, an emergency spillway was established and equipped with a flow meter and an automatic sampler. This study proposes a program for effective monitoring of pollutant discharge with a minimum number of sampling occasions when use of automatic samplers is not possible. The results showed that 90% of nitrogen discharge occurs during late autumn before the water pipes freeze and during snow melting, regardless of the precipitation during the remaining months when the pollutant discharge was negligible. The concentrations of other constituents in the discharge were generally low compared to guideline values. The best data quality was obtained using flow controlled sampling. Intensive time-controlled sampling during late autumn (few weeks) and snow melting (2 weeks) would be sufficient for necessary information. The flow meters installed at the rectangular notch appeared to be difficult to calibrate and gave contradictory results. Overall, the spillway was dry, as water infiltrated into the pond, and stagnant water close to the edge might be registered as flow. Water level monitoring revealed that the infiltration capacity gradually decreased with time.

  14. Chemistry of uranium in evaporation pond sediment in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, using x-ray fluorescence and XANES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.C.; Amrhein, C.; Bertsch, P.M.; Hunter, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    Evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), CA, used for the disposal of irrigation drainage waters, contain elevated levels of uranium. The ponds are filled periodically and support algae which upon evaporation become incorporated in the sediments as layers of decaying organic matter. This rich source of organic matter promotes reducing conditions in the sediments. Our research was conducted to characterize oxidation/reduction reactions that affect soluble and sediment U(IV)/U(VI) concentrations in the SJV ponds. Studies were done to (1) determine soluble U(Vl)/U(IV) in waters in contact with a pond sediment subjected to changes in redox status, (2) observe U solid oxidation state as a reducing pond sediment underwent (in vitro) oxidation, and (3) determine U solid oxidation state with respect to depth in pond surface sediment layers. Low pressure ion-exchange chromatography with an eluent of 0.125 M H 2 C 2 O 4 /0.25 M HNO 3 was used for the separation of U(IV) and U(VI) oxidation states in the drainage waters. Soluble U(VI) and U(IV) coexisted in sediment suspensions exposed to changes in redox potential (Eh) (-260 mV to +330 mV), and U(VI) was highly soluble in the oxidized, surface pond sediments. X-ray near edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the U solid phases were 25% U(IV) and 75% U(VI) and probably a mixed solid [U 3 O 8(s) ] in highly reducing pond sediments. Sediment U(IV) increased slightly with depth in the surface pond sediment layers suggesting a gradual reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) with time. Under oxidized conditions, this mixed oxidation-state solid was highly soluble. 59 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Metre, Peter C Van; Crane, Judy L; Watts, Alison W; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E Spencer

    2012-03-20

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments-including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air-contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  16. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crane, Judy L.; Watts, Alison W.; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  17. Water Activities in Laxemar Simpevarp. Clab/encapsulation facility (Clink) - removal of groundwater, collection of cooling water from the sea and the construction of day water pond; Vattenverksamhet i Laxemar-Simpevarp. Clab/inkapslingsanlaeggning (Clink) - bortledande av grundvatten, uttag av kylvatten fraan havet samt anlaeggande av dagvattendamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    additional changes of groundwater levels in rock, directly adjacent to the facility. Calculations indicate that water saturation of rock caverns and recovery of groundwater levels in rock around the facility will require less than ten years subsequent to decommissioning of the facility and termination of the groundwater diversion. To sum up, the groundwater diversion is judged not to lead to any negative consequences for private wells or nature values. Water that is pumped from the rock shaft during the construction will pass a temporary oil separation and sedimentation facility, before it is discharged to recipient. The shaft will be grouted in order to reduce the inflow of groundwater. A number of measures are planned that will improve the storm-water handling at Clink compared to the present situation. One of these measures is to construct a new storm-water treatment pond in the vicinity of Clink. The purpose of the treatment pond is supplementary flow flattening and sedimentation in the existing storm-water system at Clab. It is judged that the construction of the storm-water treatment pond only causes insignificant ecological consequences. During operation of the storm-water treatment pond, heavy metals and other substances will accumulate in the bottom sediments of the pond, which will reduce the contaminant load on the storm-water recipient (the sea bay Herrgloet) compared to the present situation. Existing vegetation will be taken into consideration at construction of the storm-water treatment pond and improvement of the storm-water outlet to Herrgloet

  18. Road Salts as Environmental Constraints in Urban Pond Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Robin J.; Swan, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is an emerging environmental filter in urban aquatic ecosystems that receive chloride road salt runoff from vast expanses of impervious surface cover. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of chloride contamination on urban stormwater pond food webs through changes in zooplankton community composition as well as density and biomass of primary producers and consumers. From May – July 2009, we employed a 2×2×2 full-factorial design to manipulate chloride concentration (low = 177 mg L−1 Cl−/high = 1067 mg L−1 Cl−), gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles (presence/absence) and source of stormwater pond algae and zooplankton inoculum (low conductance/high conductance urban ponds) in 40, 600-L mesocosms. Road salt did serve as a constraint on zooplankton community structure, driving community divergence between the low and high chloride treatments. Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll [a] µg L−1) in the mesocosms was significantly greater for the high conductance inoculum (Psalts among algal resources and zooplankton taxa, and further suggest that road salts can act as a significant environmental constraint on urban stormwater pond communities. PMID:24587259

  19. The influence of stormwater management practices on denitrification rates of receiving streams in an urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronenberger, M. S.; McMillan, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing urbanization and the subsequent disruption of floodplains has led to the need for implementing stormwater management strategies to mitigate the effects of urbanization, including soil and streambank erosion, increased export of nutrients and contaminants and decreased biotic richness. Excessive stormwater runoff due to the abundance of impervious surfaces associated with an urban landscape has led to the ubiquitous use of best management practices (BMPs) to attenuate runoff events and prevent the destructive delivery of large volumes of water to stream channels. As a result, effluent from BMPs (i.e. wetlands and wet ponds) has the potential to alter the character of the receiving stream channel and thus, key ecosystem processes such as denitrification. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which BMPs, in the form of constructed wetlands and wet ponds, influence in-stream denitrification rates in the urban landscape of Charlotte, NC. Four sites, two of each BMP type, were evaluated. Sediment samples were collected upstream and downstream of the BMP outflow from May-July 2011 to determine the effect of wetland discharge on in-stream nitrogen removal via denitrification. Denitrification rates were determined using the acetylene block method; water column nutrient and carbon concentrations and sediment organic matter content were also measured. Generally, wetland sites exhibited higher denitrification rates, nitrate concentrations and sediment organic matter content. Our work and others has demonstrated a significant positive correlation between nitrate concentration and denitrification rates, which is the likely driver of the higher observed rates at the wetland sites. Geomorphology was also found to be a key factor in elevated denitrification rates at sites with riffles and boulder jams. Sediment organic matter was found to be higher downstream of BMP outflows at all four sites, but demonstrated no significant relationship with

  20. Modelling of sedimentation and remobilization in in-line storage sewers for stormwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehmann, T; Flores, C; Luekewille, F; Mietzel, T; Spengler, B; Geiger, W F

    2005-01-01

    A special arrangement of combined sewer overflow tanks is the in-line storage sewer with downstream discharge (ISS-down). This layout has the advantage that, besides the sewer system, no other structures are required for stormwater treatment. The verification of the efficiency with respect to the processes of sedimentation and remobilization of sediment within the in-line storage sewer with downstream discharge is carried out in a combination of a field and a pilot plant study. The model study was carried out using a pilot plant model scaled 1:13. The following is intended to present some results of the pilot plant study and the mathematical empirical modelling of the sedimentation and remobilization process.

  1. Effects of conversion of mangroves into gei wai ponds on sediment heavy metals accumulation in tidal flat estuary, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Qiu, G.; Chai, M.; Li, R.

    2017-12-01

    Gei wai ponds act as important component in mangrove ecosystem, but the conversion of mangroves into gei wai ponds and its ecological function on heavy metal accumulation is still not clear. The study quantified the sediment heavy metal concentration and speciation in gei wai pond, Avicennia marina marsh and mudflat in Futian mangrove wetlands, South China. The results showed that gei wai pond acidified the sediment and reduced its fertility due to reduced pH, electronic conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC) compared to A. marina marsh and mudflat. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb at all depth in gei wai pond sediment were also lower than other sites, indicating reduced storage function on heavy metals. Multiple analysis implied that heavy metals in all sites could be attributed to anthropogenic sources, with Cr as natural and anthropogenic sources in gei wai pond. Gei wai pond sediment had lower heavy metal pollution based on multiple evaluation methods, including potential ecological risk coefficient (Eir), potential ecological risk index (RI), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), mean PEL quotients (m-PEL-q), pollution load index (PLI), mean ERM quotients (m-ERM-q) and total toxic unit (∑TU). Heavy metal speciation analysis indicated that gei wai pond improved the conversion from the immobilized Cd and Cr to the mobilized fraction. SEM-AVS analysis indicated no adverse toxicity occurred in all sites, and the role of TOC in relieving sediment heavy metal toxicity of gei wai pond is limited.

  2. A spectroscopic and microscopic study of uranium speciation in the infiltration pond sediments at Hanford, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Zachara, J.M.; McKinley, J.P.; Smith, S.C.; Qafoku, O.; Catalano, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The infiltration ponds in the '300 area' of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site received large volumes of nuclear waste that contained tens of metric tons of uranium along with high concentrations of other metals such as Cu, Fe, Mn, Al and Ca during their operations from 1943 to 1975. Leaching and migration of uranium in the pond sediments threatens the integrity of the Columbia River that is with 100 m of these ponds. A clear understanding of the speciation of uranium in the pond sediments is key to predict the dissolution and migration behavior of uranium and to develop any necessary containment or decontamination strategies. In this work, we studied the speciation of uranium in a series of Hanford infiltration pond sediments and its changes after dissolution in various solution media including DDI water, sodium bicarbonate (pH 9.5) and 1 M sodium acetate (pH 4.8), using liquid-helium temperature time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectro-microscopy (TRLFISM), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). XAS analysis indicated that uranium in the sediment primarily existed in the 6+ oxidation state. The TRLFS spectra of uranium in several sediments resembled those in natural, uranyl-bearing calcite and those reported for uranium co-precipitated synthetic calcite and aragonite, suggesting the presence of similar uranyl coordination environments. The TRLFS spectra varied with both sediment location and depth and there was not a linear correlation between the spectral intensity and the overall concentration of uranium, indicating the presence of multiple uranium species. While for some sediment the major spectral characteristics appeared to remain the same after extraction using DDI water, sodium bicarbonate and even sodium acetate, for others, spectral changes were observed. Comparison of the sediment uranium TRLFS spectra with a standard spectral

  3. Sewer solids separation by sedimentation--the problem of modeling, validation and transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R; Brombach, H; Geiger, W F

    2007-01-01

    Sedimentation of sewer solids in tanks, ponds and similar devices is the most relevant process for the treatment of stormwater and combined sewer overflows in urban collecting systems. In the past a lot of research work was done to develop deterministic models for the description of this separation process. But these modern models are not commonly accepted in Germany until today. Water Authorities are sceptical with regard to model validation and transferability. Within this paper it is checked whether this scepticism is reasonable. A framework-proposal for the validation of mathematical models with zero or one dimensional spatial resolution for particle separation processes for stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment is presented. This proposal was applied to publications of repute on sewer solids separation by sedimentation. The result was that none of the investigated models described in literature passed the validation entirely. There is an urgent need for future research in sewer solids sedimentation and remobilization!

  4. Development of MCESC software for selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd [Civil Engineering Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajan, Selangor (Malaysia); Desa, Mohamed Nor Mohamed; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil and Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-07-01

    Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited into the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper aims to develop and apply Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) software called Multi Criteria Erosion and Sediment Control (MCESC) software in which it can be applied in selecting the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. Visual Basic 6 was adopted as a development tool. This software can help the engineers, contractors on site and decision makers to find the best stormwater control measure in any construction site in Malaysia. Users of the MCESC software are given the opportunity to select the best stormwater control measure via expert's judgments that are built in the system or via their own expertise. MCESC software has many benefits since the experts are not always available and the consultancy is a costly issue which add further financial allocations to the project.

  5. Leachability of solidified (Ba,Ra)SO/sub 4/ sediments in simulated settling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, T.W.; Snodgrass, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The decanted effluent from uranium tailings basins contains large amounts of dissolved Ra-226. To remove this Ra-226, the effluent is treated with barium chloride (BaCl/sub 2/) to precipitate barium-radium sulphate -(Ba,Ra)SO/sub 4/]. The sediments are stored on the bottom of the treatment pond and the treated effluent is discharged to a local water course. However, redissolution of Ra-226 fro these sediments may occur after the tailings area has been abandoned and thus cause contamination of receiving waters. This study was conducted to investigate the rate at which this dissolution occurred and to determine if this rate could be decreased by solidification of the sediments. Solidification (also referred to as chemical fixation or encapsulation) involves mixing the sediments with chemicals to produce a solid matrix analogous to concrete. The sediments used in the study were dredged in 1976 from the bottom of the North Nordic Lake settling pond in Elliot Lake, Ontario, which receives the effluent from the Nordic tailings area

  6. Leaching tendencies of uranium and regulated trace metals from the Hanford Site 300 Area North Process Pond sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented that address the leaching tendencies and the total chemical composition of metals in feed materials and soil-washed fines generated by Alternative Remediation Technology, Inc. during a pilot-scale soil physical separation test performed at the 300 Area North Process Pond (Facility 316-2) on the Hanford Site in the spring of 1994. Four 300 Area North Process Pond sediments and one sediment from outside the pond's fenced area were leach-tested using the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) and other modified US Environmental Protection Agency and American Society for Testing and Materials protocols. Finally, leachate from the most contaminated sediment was used to load the Hanford sediment obtained outside the facility to evaluate the potential for contaminant adsorption onto natural sediments. The sediment characterization, leach, and adsorption results will be used in the evaluation of remedial alternatives in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study

  7. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using {sup 137}Cs activities and radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Foucher, Anthony [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Laceby, J. Patrick [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cerdan, Olivier [Département Risques et Prévention, Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); and others

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24 km{sup 2}, Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n = 36) and subsurface channel bank (n = 17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n = 41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10 m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. {sup 137}Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of

  8. Transport and fate of viruses in sediment and stormwater from a managed aquifer recharge site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric viruses are one of the major concerns in water reclamation and reuse at managed aquifer recharge (MAR) sites. In this study, the transport and fate of bacteriophages MS2, PRD1, and FX174 were studied in sediment and stormwater (SW) collected from a MAR site in Parafield, Australia. Column ex...

  9. Internal loading of phosphorus in a sedimentation pond of a treatment wetland: effect of a phytoplankton crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Felgate, Elizabeth J; Mortimer, Robert J G; Krom, Michael D; Jarvie, Helen P; Williams, Richard J; Spraggs, Rachael E; Stratford, Charlie J

    2011-05-01

    Sedimentation ponds are widely believed to act as a primary removal process for phosphorus (P) in nutrient treatment wetlands. High frequency in-situ P, ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and dissolved oxygen measurements, alongside occasional water quality measurements, assessed changes in nutrient concentrations and productivity in the sedimentation pond of a treatment wetland between March and June. Diffusive equilibrium in thin films (DET) probes were used to measure in-situ nutrient and chemistry pore-water profiles. Diffusive fluxes across the sediment-water interface were calculated from the pore-water profiles, and dissolved oxygen was used to calculate rates of primary productivity and respiration. The sedimentation pond was a net sink for total P (TP), soluble reactive P (SRP) and NH(4)(+) in March, but became subject to a net internal loading of TP, SRP and NH(4)(+) in May, with SRP concentrations increasing by up to 41μM (1300μl(-1)). Reductions in chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentrations also occurred at this time. The sediment changed from a small net sink of SRP in March (average diffusive flux: -8.2μmolm(-2)day(-1)) to a net source of SRP in June (average diffusive flux: +1324μmolm(-2)day(-1)). A diurnal pattern in water column P concentrations, with maxima in the early hours of the morning, and minima in the afternoon, occurred during May. The diurnal pattern and release of SRP from the sediment were attributed to microbial degradation of diatom biomass, causing reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration and leading to redox-dependent release of P from the sediment. In June, 2.7mol-Pday(-1) were removed by photosynthesis and 23mol-Pday(-1) were supplied by respiration in the lake volume. SRP was also released through microbial respiration within the water column, including the decomposition of algal matter. It is imperative that consideration to internal recycling is given when maintaining sedimentation ponds, and before the installation of new

  10. Runoff of particle bound pollutants from urban impervious surfaces studied by analysis of sediments from stormwater traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jartun, Morten; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Steinnes, Eiliv; Volden, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Runoff sediments from 68 small stormwater traps around the harbor of urban Bergen, Norway, were sampled and the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in addition to grain size. Our study provides empirical data from a large area in the interface between the urban and marine environment, studying the active transport of pollutants from land-based sources. The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. The concentrations of different pollutants in urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the sewage systems with PCBs, PAHs and heavy metals such as lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The concentration of PCB 7 in the urban runoff sediments ranged between 16 , the concentration range was < 0.2-80 mg/kg, whereas the concentration ranges of Pb, Zn and Cd were 9-675, 51.3-4670 and 0.02-11.1 mg/kg respectively. Grain size distribution in 21 selected samples varied from a median particle diameter of 13 to 646 μm. However, several samples had very fine-grained particles even up to the 90 percentile of the samples, making them available for stormwater dispersion in suspended form. The sampling approach proposed in this paper will provide environmental authorities with a useful tool to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients

  11. Bench-scale demonstration of treatment technologies for contaminated sediments in Sydney Tar Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Punt, M.; Wong, B.; Weimer, L.; Tsangaris, A.; Brown, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to determine the capabilities of selected commercially available technologies for treating contaminated sediments from the South Pond of Sydney Tar Ponds. This study was conducted under the umbrella of a technology demonstration program aimed at evaluating technologies to be used in the remediation of such sediments. The following approach was proposed by SAIC Canada for the treatment of the sediments: (1) solvent extraction for the removal of organic contaminants, (2) acid/chelant leaching for the removal of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, and (3) plasma hearth process for the destruction of toxic streams resulting from the first two processes. Solvent extraction followed by plasma treatment proved effective for removing and destroying organic contaminants. The removal of metals did not achieve the expected results through leaching. An approach was proposed for treating those sediments based on the results of the study. The approach differed depending on the level of organic content. An assessment of associated process costs for both a pilot-scale field demonstration and a full-scale treatment was provided. 11 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Lucie; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Kierdorf, Uwe; Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2016-03-15

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of tubificid worms on nutrient fluxes across water-sediment interface in fish farm settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigagut J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of tubificid worms on nutrient translocation from water to fish farm sediments accumulating in settling ponds was addressed under laboratory conditions. Small microcosms of 0.5 L were filled up with 35 g of sludge from a fish farm settling pond and 0.15 L of filtered settling pond water. The experimental set up consisted of one control line (no worms added, a second experimental line with 1 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (550 individuals·m-2 and a third experimental line with 40 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (22 000 individuals·m-2. Nutrients translocation was determined by monitoring overlaying water concentration of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate for ten days. Results showed that abundances of 550 individuals·m-2 had no significant influence on the fluxes of nutrients here considered. However, the influence of higher abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2 was of significant extent on the translocation of nitrate and phosphate. Accordingly, bioturbation of tubificids caused 55% lower nitrate uptake by the sediment when compared to control conditions. Phosphorus released by the sediments of the control condition was ca. 90% higher than that recorded under abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2. Results obtained allowed us to estimate that fish farm settling ponds highly colonized by tubificid worms (22 000 individuals·m-2 may contribute to decrease phosphorus discharge (in terms of soluble phosphorus in ca. 5 g of P·ton-1 of fish produced.

  14. Lead levels in rivers, sediments and fish ponds in the Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead levels in rivers, sediments and fish ponds in the Ibadan metropolitan area, south-west Nigeria. ... The present situation therefore indicates severe lead contamination of aquatic systems in Ibadan City, which portends a serious public health risk to humans. A detailed assessment of other sources of lead pollution in the ...

  15. Heavy metal contents in the sediments of astatic ponds: Influence of geomorphology, hydroperiod, water chemistry and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Celewicz-Gołdyn, Sofia

    2015-08-01

    The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were analysed in the bottom sediments of 30 small, astatic ponds located in the agricultural landscape of Western Poland. The samples were collected from 118 stations located in patches of four vegetation types. Relationships between the contents of particular elements and four groups of factors (geomorphology, hydroperiod, water quality and vegetation) were tested using Redundancy Analysis (RDA). The most important factors influencing the heavy metal contents were the maximum depth and area of the pond, its hydroperiod, water pH and conductivity values. In general, low quantities of heavy metals were recorded in the sediments of kettle-like ponds (small but located in deep depressions) and high in water bodies of the shore-bursting type (large but shallow). Moreover, quantities of particular elements were influenced by the structure of the vegetation covering the pond. Based on the results, we show which types of astatic ponds are most exposed to contamination and suggest some conservation practices that may reduce the influx of heavy metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of salt pond restoration on benthic flux: Sediment as a source of nutrients to the water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Carter, James L.; Garrettt, Krista K.; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sarah; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding nutrient flux between the benthos and the overlying water (benthic flux) is critical to restoration of water quality and biological resources because it can represent a major source of nutrients to the water column. Extensive water management commenced in the San Francisco Bay, Beginning around 1850, San Francisco Bay wetlands were converted to salt ponds and mined extensively for more than a century. Long-term (decadal) salt pond restoration efforts began in 2003. A patented device for sampling porewater at varying depths, to calculate the gradient, was employed between 2010 and 2012. Within the former ponds, the benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus and that of dissolved ammonia were consistently positive (i.e., moving out of the sediment into the water column). The lack of measurable nitrate or nitrite concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface suggested negligible fluxes for dissolved nitrate and nitrite. The dominance of ammonia in the porewater indicated anoxic sediment conditions, even at only 1 cm depth, which is consistent with the observed, elevated sediment oxygen demand. Nearby openestuary sediments showed much lower benthic flux values for nutrients than the salt ponds under resortation. Allochthonous solute transport provides a nutrient advective flux for comparison to benthic flux. For ammonia, averaged for all sites and dates, benthic flux was about 80,000 kg/year, well above the advective flux range of −50 to 1500 kg/year, with much of the variability depending on the tidal cycle. By contrast, the average benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus was about 12,000 kg/year, of significant magnitude, but less than the advective flux range of 21,500 to 30,000 kg/year. These benthic flux estimates, based on solute diffusion across the sediment-water interface, reveal a significant nutrient source to the water column of the pond which stimulates algal blooms (often autotrophic). This benthic source may be

  17. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  18. TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER RUNOFF USING WET POND AND WETLAND MESOCOSMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban stormwater runoff is being recognized as a major source of pollutants to receiving waters and a number of recent investigations have evaluated stormwater runoff quality and best management practices to minimize pollutant input to receiving waters. Particle-bound contaminant...

  19. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, D., E-mail: damien.banas@u-psud.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Lab. Eco-Toxicologie, BP 1039, F-51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Univ. Nancy, UR-AFPA, INRA, 2 Av. Foret Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Marin, B., E-mail: beatrice.marin@univ-reims.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, EA3795 GEGENA, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, F-51100 Reims (France); Skraber, S., E-mail: skraber@lippmann.l [Centre de Recherche Public, Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Chopin, E.I.B., E-mail: chopin@oakland.ed [Oakland University, Department of Chemistry, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Zanella, A., E-mail: augusto.zanella@unipd.i [Univ. Padova, Facolta di Agraria, Viale dell' Universita 16, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu{sub diss}) and total Cu (Cu{sub tot}) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu{sub tot} concentrations in entering water was 53.6 mug/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 mug/L in seepage. Cu{sub tot} concentrations in basin water (>100 mug/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC{sub 50} values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu{sub tot}). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu{sub diss} variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  20. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, D.; Marin, B.; Skraber, S.; Chopin, E.I.B.; Zanella, A.

    2010-01-01

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu diss ) and total Cu (Cu tot ) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu tot concentrations in entering water was 53.6 μg/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 μg/L in seepage. Cu tot concentrations in basin water (>100 μg/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC 50 values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu tot ). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu diss variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  1. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flache, Lucie; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Kierdorf, Uwe; Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Encarnação, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats. - Highlights: • Changes in metal exposure of bats due to remediation measure are documented. • Bats are suitable bioindicators of metal pollution. • Bat hair is a useful monitoring unit in such studies.

  2. Elemental signature of terrigenous sediment runoff as recorded in coastal salt ponds: US Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Rebekka A.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Devine, Barry; Schwing, Patrick T.; Holmes, Charles W.; Jilbert, Tom; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-proxy approach is utilized on mm- to cm-scale laminated coastal salt pond sediments from St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, to determine: (1) the sedimentological signature of depositional events/processes, (2) link this sedimentological signature with known depositional events/processes in the historical (past ∼100 years) record; and, (3) project back into the recent geologic past (past ∼1400 years) to investigate the natural variability of depositional events/processes. High-resolution, short-lived radioisotope geochronology ("2"1"0Pb, "1"3"7Cs, "7Be) combined with high-resolution elemental scanning techniques (scanning XRF and scanning LA-ICP-MS) allows for the direct comparison of well-preserved salt pond deposits to historical records of depositional events (e.g., runoff/rainfall, tropical cyclones, tsunamis) to identify the sedimentary signature of each type of event. There is a robust sedimentary record of terrigenous sediment runoff linked to the frequency of rainfall events that exceed a threshold of ∼12 mm/day (minimum to mobilize and transport sediment) for study sites. This is manifested in the sedimentary record as increases in terrigenous indicator elements (%Al, %Fe, %Ti, %Si), which agree well with rainfall records over the past ∼50 years. Variability in the sedimentary record over the past ∼100 years reflects decadal-scale fluctuations between periods of increased frequency of rainfall events, and decreased frequency of rainfall events. Dm-scale variability in terrigenous indicator elements over the past ∼1400 years represents the natural system variability on a decadal–centennial scale, and provides a high-resolution, long-term baseline of natural variability of rainfall/runoff events. A period of increased terrigenous sediment delivery during the 1700s and 1800s likely indicates increased erosion in response to anthropogenic activities associated with the island’s plantation era, and perhaps increased

  3. Effects of light and microbial activity on the degradation of two fluoroquinolone antibiotics in pond water and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juo-Shan; Pan, Hung-Yu; Liu, Shiu-Mei; Lai, Hong-Thih

    2010-07-01

    Enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) are two fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics widely used to treat diseases of human beings and cultured animals. These two FQs are usually detected in the effluent of municipal sewage plants and related aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was to understand the fates of ENR and CIP in aquaculture pond water and a sediment slurry in a laboratory-scale experiment. Effects of light and microbial activity on the degradation of these two FQs were investigated. Results indicated that natural irradiation plays a major role in the degradation of ENR and CIP in pond water and the sediment slurry. The 50 % dissipation times (DT(50)) with non-sterile treatment were 0.01 and 18.4 d for ENR, and 0.04 and 17.3 d for CIP in the water and sediment slurry, respectively. On the other hand, the degradation of ENR and CIP under dark conditions was slow or even hindered, and all of their DT(50) values exceeded 100 d. These two FQs degraded faster in the sediment slurry than in pond water under dark conditions. Artificial ultraviolet (UV) and fluorescence light had similar effects on the degradation of ENR in the pond water and sediment slurry. Degradation of CIP was faster with UV than with fluorescence light treatment, while no such difference was found for ENR degradation. CIP was a degradation product of ENR under both light and dark conditions, and DT(50) values for both compounds were shorter in the presence of light. The phenomenon of biodegradation was observed during degradation of CIP in the sediment slurry under natural light.

  4. The stormwater management manual for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Nasir Md Noh

    2006-01-01

    The government of Malaysia considers land and water as two very important natural resources. Consequently, the conservation practice of these natural resources remain top priority agenda with various laws and policies apart from manuals and guidelines available for practitioners to follow right from planning, design and implementation stages. Among the laws and regulations are national land code, land conservation act, local government act, street, drainage and building act, town and country planning act, and environmental quality act among others. In addition, stormwater management manual for Malaysia developed by department of irrigation and drainage, guidelines on the prevention and control of soil erosion and siltation in Malaysia developed by department of environment, standard specification for road works established by public works department, use of flood detention ponds as part of open space set up by department of town and country planning, and guideline for agricultural development at slope terrain published by department of agriculture are some of the established manuals and guidelines utilized around the country. The stormwater management manual for malaysia (msma) is the latest of the series of guidelines available in the country for inculcating up to date stormwater management apart from ensuring sustainable soil and water conservation practice in Malaysia. This manual has been published in 2000 and started to be utilized since 1 January 2001. Ever since msma has been widely used for the planning, design and implementation of various land development activities in the country. Among the key points highlighted in this manual are water quantity control and water quality control. Water quantity control focuses on the flash flood control technique due to the increase rate of water flowing out of developed areas while water quality control meant for the controlled of non-point source pollution generated by developed areas by contemplating on the best

  5. Multi criteria analysis in environmental management: Selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Desa, Mohamed Nor Mohamed [Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenga Nasional, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil and Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malyasia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited in the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper presents the application of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) tool in choosing the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. The results obtained from the application of MCA in stormwater pollution control have many benefits to the contractors, consultants and decision makers by making them able to select the best control measure for every stage of construction.

  6. Transport and fate of viruses in sediment and stormwater from a Managed Aquifer Recharge site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Salini; Bradford, Scott A.; Šimůnek, Jiří; Torkzaban, Saeed; Vanderzalm, Joanne

    2017-12-01

    Enteric viruses are one of the major concerns in water reclamation and reuse at Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) sites. In this study, the transport and fate of bacteriophages MS2, PRD1, and ΦX174 were studied in sediment and stormwater (SW) collected from a MAR site in Parafield, Australia. Column experiments were conducted using SW, stormwater in equilibrium with the aquifer sediment (EQ-SW), and two pore-water velocities (1 and 5 m day-1) to encompass expected behavior at the MAR site. The aquifer sediment removed >92.3% of these viruses under all of the considered MAR conditions. However, much greater virus removal (4.6 logs) occurred at the lower pore-water velocity and in EQ-SW that had a higher ionic strength and Ca2+ concentration. Virus removal was greatest for MS2, followed by PRD1, and then ΦX174 for a given physicochemical condition. The vast majority of the attached viruses were irreversibly attached or inactivated on the solid phase, and injection of Milli-Q water or beef extract at pH = 10 only mobilized a small fraction of attached viruses ( μs > kdet > μl, and katt was several orders of magnitude greater than μl. Therefore, current microbial risk assessment methods in the MAR guideline may be overly conservative in some instances. Interestingly, virus BTCs exhibited blocking behavior and the calculated solid surface area that contributed to the attachment was very small. Additional research is therefore warranted to study the potential influence of blocking on virus transport and potential implications for MAR guidelines.

  7. Carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikuttan, K K; Adhikari, S; Kavitha, M; Jayasankar, P

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0.39 to 1.31 with an average value of 0.912 ± 0.321 whereas the carbon sequestration capacity ranged from 0.442 to 1.882 MgC/ha (1 Mg = 10(6) g) with an average value of 1.018 ± 0.447 MgC/ha. In the case of zooplankton and algae from pond, the percent organic carbon was 7.688 ± 0.196 and 2.354 ± 0.047, respectively, whereas the total estimated carbon burial rate was 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.150 ± 0.003 MgC/ha, respectively. These findings are discussed with the previous reports available at present and are found to be in comparable ranges.

  8. Next-Generation Sequencing Assessment of Eukaryotic Diversity in Oil Sands Tailings Ponds Sediments and Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Maria; Richardson, Elisabeth; Tan, BoonFei; Walker, Giselle; Dunfield, Peter F; Bass, David; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia; Dacks, Joel B

    2016-11-01

    Tailings ponds in the Athabasca oil sands (Canada) contain fluid wastes, generated by the extraction of bitumen from oil sands ores. Although the autochthonous prokaryotic communities have been relatively well characterized, almost nothing is known about microbial eukaryotes living in the anoxic soft sediments of tailings ponds or in the thin oxic layer of water that covers them. We carried out the first next-generation sequencing study of microbial eukaryotic diversity in oil sands tailings ponds. In metagenomes prepared from tailings sediment and surface water, we detected very low numbers of sequences encoding eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA representing seven major taxonomic groups of protists. We also produced and analysed three amplicon-based 18S rRNA libraries prepared from sediment samples. These revealed a more diverse set of taxa, 169 different OTUs encompassing up to eleven higher order groups of eukaryotes, according to detailed classification using homology searching and phylogenetic methods. The 10 most abundant OTUs accounted for > 90% of the total of reads, vs. large numbers of rare OTUs (< 1% abundance). Despite the anoxic and hydrocarbon-enriched nature of the environment, the tailings ponds harbour complex communities of microbial eukaryotes indicating that these organisms should be taken into account when studying the microbiology of the oil sands. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Thermal plasma treatment of stormwater sediments: comparison between DC non-transferred and partially transferred arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, O L; Guo, Y; Chang, J S; Saito, N

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of enormous amount of stormwater sediments becomes an emerging worldwide problem. Stormwater sediments are contaminated by heavy metals, phosphorus, trace organic and hydrocarbons, and cannot be disposed without treatment. Thermal plasma decontamination technology offers a high decomposition rate in a wide range of toxic organic compound and immobilization of heavy metal. In this study, we compared the treatment results between two different modes of thermal plasma: (1) a non-transferred direct current (DC) mode and (2) a partial DC-transferred mode. The reductions of total organic carbon (TOC) were, respectively, 25% and 80% for non-transferred and partially transferred plasma, respectively. Most of the toxic organic compounds were converted majorly to CxHy. In the gaseous emission, the accumulated CxHy, CO, NO and H2S were significantly higher in partially transferred mode than in non-transferred mode. The solid analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of Ca and Fe were enriched by 500% and 40%, respectively. New chemical compositions such as KAlSi3O8, Fe3O4, NaCl and CaSO4 were formed after treatment in partially DC-transferred mode. The power inputs were 1 and 10 kW, respectively, for non-transferred DC mode and a partially DC-transferred mode. With a lower energy input, non-transferred plasma treatment can be used for decontamination of sediments with low TOC and metal concentration. Meanwhile, partially transferred thermal plasma with higher energy input is suitable for treating sediments with high TOC percentage and volatile metal concentration. The organic compounds are converted into valuable gaseous products which can be recycled as an energy source.

  10. Radioactive pollution of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments. I. Water-physical properties, chemical compound and radioactive pollution of pore water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pirnach

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available First results of complex research of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments are presented. The general problematic is considered. Information about vertical distribution of bottom sediments water-physical properties, and also ionic compound and radioactive pollution 137Cs and 90Sr of pore water is received. The inventory of bottom sediments pore water activity is calculated. Strong correlations between concentration in pore water 137Cs, K +, NH4 + within the selected sediments columns are found out. Results of researches are intended for the forecast of radioecological situation change in the cooling pond water-soil complex during drying-up.

  11. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flache, Lucie, E-mail: Lucie.Flache@bio.uni-giessen.de [Mammalian Ecology Group, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ekschmitt, Klemens [Animal Ecology, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kierdorf, Uwe [Department of Biology, University of Hildesheim, Universitätsplatz 1, D-31141 Hildesheim (Germany); Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander [Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Encarnação, Jorge A. [Mammalian Ecology Group, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats. - Highlights: • Changes in metal exposure of bats due to remediation measure are documented. • Bats are suitable bioindicators of metal pollution. • Bat hair is a useful monitoring unit in such studies.

  12. Aquatic studies of Gable Mountain Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.

    1974-12-01

    Studies of the biotic and abiotic components of the Gable Mountain Pond (HAPO cooling water disposal pond) ecosystem were undertaken to determine if there was a potential problem for off-site transfer of radioactivity to man originating with the aquatic food web. Most of the 137 Cs in the pond is associated with the sediments which are probably the main source of 137 Cs for uptake by the biota. Generally, highest concentrations of 137 Cs and other radioisotopes were found in the upper two inches of sediments in the northwest end of the pond and in the deeper areas along the long-axis of the pond. Native goldfish had maximum and average 137 Cs concentrations of about 340 and 170 pCi/g dry wt, respectively. Algae, macrophytes, and detritus comprised the main food items of the goldfish, and the 137 Cs levels in the plants were usually higher than the 137 Cs concentration in the fish. The 137 Cs concentrations of wild experimental ducks restricted to Gable Mountain Pond were approximately the same as resident coots, but significantly higher than transient wild ducks. Neither the goldfish nor the waterfowl inhabiting the pond attained concentrations of 137 Cs exceeding acceptable limits. Sediment, however, could be a source of high concentrations of radioactivity or radioactive contamination concern if the concentration of radiocontaminants increased and/or the pond dries up, and the contaminated sediments become windborne. (U.S.)

  13. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  14. Partitioning of fluoranthene between free and bound forms in stormwater runoff and other urban discharges using passive dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Mayer, Philipp; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    2012-01-01

    to dissolved organic carbon was lower than partitioning to particulate organic carbon. Partitioning of fluoranthene to particulate organic matter in the 19 stormwater samples yielded a log KPOM of 5.18. The presented results can be used in stormwater quality modeling and assessment of efficiency of stormwater......Partitioning of fluoranthene in stormwater runoff and other urban discharges was measured by a new analytical method based on passive dosing. Samples were collected at the inlet (n = 11) and outlet (n = 8) from a stormwater retention pond in Albertslund (Denmark), and for comparison samples were...... of the different stormwater samples for carrying fluoranthene was 2–23 relative to pure water and decreasing during rain events. The enhanced capacity of stormwater showed a different relationship with suspended solid concentrations than the other types of urban discharges. Partitioning of fluoranthene...

  15. Calcium content in pond sediment and its effect on neutralizing capacity of water and fish production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, P.; Kutý, Michal; Hlaváč, D.; Regenda, J.; Vejsada, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1747-1754 ISSN 0967-6120 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pond sediment * Calcium * Hydrogen carbonates Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  16. Volatilization of selenium from agricultural evaporation pond sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, U; Frankenberger, W T

    1990-03-01

    Microbial volatilization of Se was evaluated as a means of detoxifying Se-contaminated sediments. Sediment samples containing 60.7 (Kesterson Reservoir) and 9.0 mg Se kg-1 (Peck ponds) were incubated for 273 days in closed systems located in the greenhouse. Volatile Se was collected from a continuous air-exchange stream using activated carbon. Various economical and readily available organic and inorganic amendments were tested for their capacity to enhance the microbial process, including Citrus (orange) peel, Vitis (grape) pomace, feedlot manure, barley straw, chitin, pectin, ZnSO4, (NH4)2SO4, and an inoculum of Acremonium falciforme (an active Se methylating fungus). With the Kesterson sediment, the highest Se removal (44.0%) resulted from the combined application of citrus peel and ZnSO4, followed by citrus peal alone (39.6%), and citrus peel combined with ZnSO4, (NH4)2SO4 and A. falciforme (30.1%). Manure (19.5%), pectin (16.4%), chitin (9.8%) and straw plus N (8.8%) had less pronounced effects. Without the amendments, cumulative Se volatilization was 6.1% of the initial inventory. Grape pomace (3.0%) inhibited the process. With the Peck sediment, the highest amount of Se removed was observed with chitin (28.6%), manure (28.5%), and citrus peel alone (27.3%). Without amendments, 14.0% of the native Se was volatilized in 273 days. Cumulative Se volatilization was 24.7% with citrus plus Zn and N, 17.2% with citrus plus Zn, and 18.8% with citrus plus Zn, N and A. falciforme. Pectin (15.2%), straw plus N (16.4%), and grape pomace (7.3%) were among the less effective amendments for the Peck sediment. The differences in the effectiveness of each treatment between the two seleniferous soils may be a result of the residual N content of the sediments. With the Kesterson sediment, which was high in organic C and N, added N inhibited volatilization of Se, while with Peck sediments (low in organic C and N) N-rich materials tended to accelerate Se volatilization

  17. Urbanization effects on sediment and trace metals distribution in an urban winter pond (Netanya, Israel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zohar, I.; Teutsch, N.; Levin, N.; Mackin, G.; de Stigter, H.; Bookman, R.

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThis paper aims to elucidate urban development-induced processes affecting the sediment and the distribution of contaminating metals in a seasonal pond located in the highly populated Israeli Coastal Plain. The paper demonstrates how an integrated approach, including geochemical,

  18. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Green Infrastructures on Community Stormwater Reduction and Utilization: A Case of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Weiping; Feng, Qi; Peng, Chi; Kang, Peng

    2016-12-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is demanded for guiding the plan, design and construction of green infrastructure practices in rapidly urbanized regions. We developed a framework to calculate the costs and benefits of different green infrastructures on stormwater reduction and utilization. A typical community of 54,783 m 2 in Beijing was selected for case study. For the four designed green infrastructure scenarios (green space depression, porous brick pavement, storage pond, and their combination), the average annual costs of green infrastructure facilities are ranged from 40.54 to 110.31 thousand yuan, and the average of the cost per m 3 stormwater reduction and utilization is 4.61 yuan. The total average annual benefits of stormwater reduction and utilization by green infrastructures of the community are ranged from 63.24 to 250.15 thousand yuan, and the benefit per m 3 stormwater reduction and utilization is ranged from 5.78 to 11.14 yuan. The average ratio of average annual benefit to cost of four green infrastructure facilities is 1.91. The integrated facilities had the highest economic feasibility with a benefit to cost ratio of 2.27, and followed by the storage pond construction with a benefit to cost ratio of 2.14. The results suggested that while the stormwater reduction and utilization by green infrastructures had higher construction and maintenance costs, their comprehensive benefits including source water replacements benefits, environmental benefits and avoided cost benefits are potentially interesting. The green infrastructure practices should be promoted for sustainable management of urban stormwater.

  19. Comparison of sediment and nutrient export and runoff characteristics from watersheds with centralized versus distributed stormwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kristina G; Loperfido, J V; Craig, Laura S; Noe, Gregory B; Hogan, Dianna M

    2017-12-01

    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are used to retain stormwater and pollutants. SCMs have traditionally been installed in a centralized manner using detention to mitigate peak flows. Recently, distributed SCM networks that treat runoff near the source have been increasingly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences among watersheds that vary in SCM arrangement by assessing differences in baseflow nutrient (NO x -N and PO 4 - ) concentrations and fluxes, stormflow export of suspended sediments and particulate phosphorus (PP), and runoff characteristics. A paired watershed approach was used to compare export between 2004 and 2016 from one forested watershed (For-MD), one suburban watershed with centralized SCMs (Cent-MD), and one suburban watershed with distributed SCMs (Dist-MD). Results indicated baseflow nitrate (NO x -N) concentrations typically exceeded 1 mg-N/L in all watersheds and were highest in Dist-MD. Over the last 10 years in Dist-MD, nitrate concentrations in both stream baseflow and in a groundwater well declined as land use shifted from agriculture to suburban. Baseflow nitrate export temporarily increased during the construction phase of SCM development in Dist-MD. This temporary pulse of nitrate may be attributed to the conversion of sediment control facilities to SCMs and increased subsurface flushing as infiltration SCMs came on line. During storm flow, Dist-MD tended to have less runoff and lower maximum specific discharge than Cent-MD for small events (runoff responses became increasingly similar to Cent-MD with increasing precipitation (>1.3 cm). Mass export estimated during paired storm events indicated Dist-MD exported 30% less sediment and 31% more PP than Cent-MD. For large precipitation events, export of sediment and PP was similar among all three watersheds. Results suggest that distributed SCMs can reduce runoff and sediment loads during small rain events compared to centralized SCMs, but these differences become

  20. Comparative studies of metals in fish organs, sediments and water from Nigerian fresh water fish ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipinmoroti, K.O.; Oshodi, A.A.; Owolabi, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fish samples (Illisha africana) were collected from six man-made fish pond in Edo and Ondo states, Nigeria. Some organs of the fish sediment and water from the fish habitat were analysed for Cd, Pb, Hg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cr, Physico-chemical properties of water samples from the ponds were also re-corded. The concentration of the metals varied in the sediment water as well as in different organs of the fish. However, chromium was absent in all the samples. The descending order of metal concentration in fish organs was: gills intestine, head and muscle. To avoid harmful accumulation of these metals in the human system, the gills and the intestine should preferably be discarded while processing fish for consumption. The head with a relatively high concentration of calcium might be useful in feed formulation. (author)

  1. Review on physical and chemical characterizations of contaminated sediments from urban stormwater infiltration basins within the framework of the French observatory for urban hydrology (SOERE URBIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mufleh, Amelène; Béchet, Béatrice; Ruban, Véronique; Legret, Michel; Clozel, Blandine; Barraud, Sylvie; Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Bedell, Jean-Philippe; Delolme, Cécile

    2014-04-01

    Urban stormwater infiltration basins are designed to hold runoff from impervious surfaces and allow the settling of sediments and associated pollutants. However concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants on groundwater, soils and ecosystems. In this context, sediment characterization represents a key issue for local authorities in terms of management strategies. During the last two decades, several studies were launched including either physical or chemical characterization of stormwater sediments but without real synthesis of data and methods used. Consequently, there is an important need for reviewing the current experimental techniques devoted to the physico-chemical characterization of sediment. The review is based on the outcomes of two experimental sites for which long term monitoring and data collection have been done: the Cheviré basin (near Nantes) and the Django Reinhardt basin (near Lyon). The authors summarize the studies dealing with bulk properties, pollutant contents, their potential mobility and speciation. This paper aims at promoting the significant progresses that were made through a multidisciplinary approach involving multi-scaled and combined experimental techniques.

  2. Phytoremediation to remove nutrients and improve eutrophic stormwaters using water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin; He, Zhenli L; Graetz, Donald A; Stoffella, Peter J; Yang, Xiaoe

    2010-01-01

    Water quality impairment by nutrient enrichment from agricultural activities has been a concern worldwide. Phytoremediation technology using aquatic plants in constructed wetlands and stormwater detention ponds is increasingly applied to remediate eutrophic waters. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and potential of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) in removing nutrients including nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from stormwater in the constructed water detention systems before it is discharged into the St. Lucie Estuary, an important surface water system in Florida, using phytoremediation technologies. In this study, water lettuce (P. stratiotes) was planted in the treatment plots of two stormwater detention ponds (East and West Ponds) in 2005-2007 and water samples from both treatment and control plots were weekly collected and analyzed for water quality properties including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, suspended solids, and nutrients (N and P). Optimum plant density was maintained and plant samples were collected monthly and analyzed for nutrient contents. Water quality in both ponds was improved, as evidenced by decreases in water turbidity, suspended solids, and nutrient concentrations. Water turbidity was decreased by more than 60%. Inorganic N (NH(4) (+) and NO(3) (-)) concentrations in treatment plots were more than 50% lower than those in control plots (without plant). Reductions in both PO(4) (3-) and total P were approximately 14-31%, as compared to the control plots. Water lettuce contained average N and P concentrations of 17 and 3.0 g kg(-1), respectively, and removed 190-329 kg N ha(-1) and 25-34 kg P ha(-1) annually. Many aquatic plants have been used to remove nutrients from eutrophic waters but water lettuce proved superior to most other plants in nutrient removal efficiency, owing to its rapid growth and high biomass yield potential. However, the growth and nutrient removal potential are affected by many

  3. Pollution loads from stormwater overflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge of the volume of combined effluents outflowing from overflows is not enough to allow a direct evaluation of polluting loads discharged into final receptors; the hypothesis of complete mixing between sewage and stormwater flow, fed in at a pollutant concentration level equal to zero, hasn't proved to be successful. The amount of the outflowing loads largely depends on the contamination of the stormwater runoff before inflow into the drainage system and on sedimentation and resuspension phenomena. This paper reports the main aspects connected with wet and dry atmospheric deposition of pollutants and with paved surface wash-out phenomena. The origin of pollutants flush, due to the resuspension and mass transport of polluting substances stored up in the sewer during draughts, is also described. Attention is drawn to the importance of the behaviour of the different pollutants with respect to the sedimentation phenomena. Reference is made to evaluations conducted on a drainage system for the recovery of a small pre-alpine lake

  4. Tolerance to road salt deicers in chronically exposed urban pond communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater salinization is a concern in urban aquatic ecosystems that receive road salt runoff from vast expanses of impervious surface cover. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of chloride contamination on urban stormwater pond food webs and to assess the tolerance o...

  5. Active Urbanization and Channel Adjustment in Apple Creek, Appleton, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Headwaters of the Apple Creek watershed have been and continue to be rapidly developed as part of the City of Appleton's long-term growth plan. Concurrent with early development, and prior to development over the past 4 years, two regional stormwater management facilities were constructed. Cross-sectional surveys and core transects were used to determine channel response to urbanization mitigated by stormwater management. The reach immediately downstream of the first pond complex has a narrow, but well established, wooded riparian zone and has not changed in size or shape over the past two years. An engineered reach approximately one mile downstream, however has exhibited widespread bed aggradation. Cross-sectional area decreased an average of 51% over the past four years. Despite the use of sediment and erosion control BMPs, sediment concentrations exceeding 1000 mg/L during base flow are not uncommon downstream of construction sites adjacent to the stream. The artificially widened channel, a reduction in stream gradient, and the backwater effect from downstream ponds caused much of this sediment to remain within the engineered reach. It is estimated that approximately 21,000 Mg of sediment is stored in this mile-long reach. As this sediment migrates downstream, the forebay of the second set of stormwater ponds will begin to fill, reducing storage capacity and thereby limiting its effectiveness in mitigating peak discharges and sequestering nutrients.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of Middleton's stormwater-management activities on streamflow and water-quality characteristics of Pheasant Branch, Dane County, Wisconsin 1975-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Warren A.; Rose, William J.; Garn, Herbert S.

    2012-01-01

    often expected to produce higher sediment and phosphorus loads. The biggest decreases in sediment and phosphorus loads occurred after 2001 when a large detention pond, the Confluence Pond, began operation. Since 2001, the annual suspended-sediment load has decreased from 2,650 tons per year to 1,450 tons per year for a 45-percent decrease. The annual total phosphorus load has decreased from 12,200 pounds per year to 6,300 pounds per year for a 48-percent decrease. A comparison of Pheasant Branch at Middleton with two other streams, Spring Harbor Storm Sewer and Yahara River at Windsor, that drain into Lake Mendota shows that suspended-sediment and total phosphorus load decreases were greatest at Pheasant Branch at Middleton. Prior to the construction of the Confluence Pond, annual suspended-sediment yield and total phosphorus yield from Pheasant Branch watershed was the largest of the three watersheds. After 2001, suspended-sediment yield was greatest at Spring Harbor Storm Sewer, and lowest at Yahara at Windsor; annual total phosphorus yield was greater at Yahara River at Windsor than that of Pheasant Branch. The stormwater-quality plan for Middleton shows that the city has met the present State of Wisconsin Administrative Code chap. NR216/NR151 requirements of reducing total suspended solids by 20 percent for the developed area in Middleton. In addition, the city already has met the 40-percent reduction in total suspended solids required by 2013. Snow and ice melt runoff from road surfaces and parking lots following winter storms can effect water quality because the runoff contains varying amounts of road salt. To evaluate the effect of road deicing on stream water quality in Pheasant Branch, specific conductance and chloride were monitored during two winter seasons. The maximum estimated concentration of chloride during the monitoring period was 931 milligrams per liter, which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency acute criterion of 860 milligrams per

  7. Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1975-05-01

    Preliminary results are reported from a study initiated on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste pond which has been receiving Pu processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization. In addition, the ecological distribution of Pu and Am was investigated. The pond is also highly enriched with nutrients, thus supporting a high level of algal and macrophyte production. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrators of Pu transuranics in the pond system. The major sink for Pu and Am in this system is the sediments. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments, is also a major concentrator of transuranics in this system []Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Dragonfly, larvae, watercress, and snails show concentrations which approximate those of the sediments but nearly all other food web components have levels of Pu and Am which are lower than those of the sediments, thus, Pu and Am seem to be relatively immobile in the aquatic ecosystem. (CH)

  8. Quantification of uncertainty in modelled partitioning and removal of heavy metals (Cu, Zn) in a stormwater retention pond and a biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Strategies for reduction of micropollutant (MP) discharges from stormwater drainage systems require accurate estimation of the potential MP removal in stormwater treatment systems. However, the high uncertainty commonly affecting stormwater runoff quality modelling also influences stormwater trea...

  9. Water-quality and sediment-chemistry data of drain water and evaporation ponds from Tulare Lake Drainage District, Kings County, California March 1985 to March 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and major ion concentrations were measured in water samples collected monthly between March 1985 and March 1986 at the MD-1 pumping station at the Tulare Lake Drainage District evaporation ponds, Kings County, California. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides several times during the year. Salinity, as measured by specific conductance, ranged from 11,500 to 37,600 microsiemens/centimeter; total recoverable boron ranged from 4,000 to 16,000 micrg/L; and total recoverable molybdenum ranged from 630 to 2,600 microg/L. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium were 97 and 2 microg/L. Atrazine, prometone, propazine, and simazine were the only pesticides detected in water samples collected at the MD-1 pumping station. Major ions, trace elements, and selected pesticides also were analyzed in water and bottom-sediment samples from five of the southern evaporation ponds at Tulare Lake Drainage District. Water enters the ponds from the MD-1 pumping station at pond 1 and flows through the system terminating at pond 10. The water samples increased in specific conductance (21,700 to 90,200 microsiemens/centimeter) and concentrations of total arsenic (110 to 420 microg/L), total recoverable boron (12,000 to 80,000 microg/L) and total recoverable molybdenum (1,200 to 5,500 microg/L) going from pond 1 to pond 10, respectively. Pesticides were not detected in water from any of the ponds sampled. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium in the bottom sediments were 4.0 and 0.9 microg/g, respectively. The only pesticides detected in bottom sediment samples from the evaporation ponds were DDD and DDE, with maximum concentration of 0.8 microg/kilogram. (Author 's abstract)

  10. [Studies on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds around Chaohu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-ye; Ma, Xiu-ling; Yang, Gui-de; Chen, Zheng; Wu, Hong-lin; Xuan, Huai-xiang

    2010-07-01

    There are a lot of ponds around Chaohu Lake. According to location and runoff supply of ponds, the ponds are divided into three types: ponds inner vellage (PIV), ponds adjacent vellage (PAV) and ponds outer vellage (POV). The samples of water and sediment were collected from 136 ponds around Chaohu Lake and the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in water and sediments were analyzed in this study. The results showed that mean contents of total nitrogen (TN), NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, NO2- -N, total phosphorus (TP), soluble PO4(3-) -P and COD were 2.53, 0.65, 0.18, 0.02, 0.97, 0.38 and 51.58 mg x L(-1) in pond water, respectively; and mean contents of TN, NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, NO2- -N, TP, inorganic phosphorus (IP), organic phosphorus (OP) and loss of ignition (LOI) in pond sediment were 1575.36, 35.73, 13.30, 2.88, 933.19, 490.14, 414.75 mg x kg(-1) and 5.44%, respectively. The ponds of more than 90% presented eutrophication in the contents of total nitrogen and phosphorus in water. The contents of TN and NH4+ -N in water and sediment of PIV were significantly higher than that of POV. And the contents of inorganic nitrogen in pond water and sediment displayed a following order: NH4+ -N > NO3- -N > NO2- -N. Data analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation between organic matter and total nitrogen and phosphorus in water and sediment. The nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds mainly sourced farmlands and village land surface. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds were affected by location and runoff supply of ponds. By retaining nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in runoff, the ponds can effectively decrease nutrient content into Chaohu Lake.

  11. The distribution of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in pond and stream sediments of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, J.J.; Halverson, J.E.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of 238 Pu, 239 , 240 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm were determined in sediment samples from five streams and two ponds on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and in four sediment samples from the Savannah River above and below the plant site. The following concentration ranges were determined: 238 Pu, 0.07-386 fCi g -1 ; 239 , 240 Pu, 0.37-1410 fCi g -1 ; 241 Am, 0.1-4360 fCi g -1 ; 244 Cm, -1 . Comparisons of the elemental and isotopic ratios of the sediments show that the majority of the sediments studied have been impacted upon by plant operations and that sediments outside the plant boundary in the Savannah River have only been influenced by aerial releases. Atom ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu indicate that up to 86% of the Pu in these sediments is derived from plant operations. However, comparisons of the concentration data with values for other impacted sediments near nuclear facilities indicate that the levels are relatively small. Finally, <13% of the Pu, Am or Cm in pond sediments is associated with humic or fulvic acids, indicating that little of the material should be remobilized in oxic environments through organic complexation. (author)

  12. Sorption of selected pesticides on soils, sediment and straw from a constructed agricultural drainage ditch or pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Romain; Dousset, Sylvie; Billet, David; Benoit, Marc

    2014-04-01

    Buffer zones such as ponds and ditches are used to reduce field-scale losses of pesticides from subsurface drainage waters to surface waters. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of these buffer zones, in particular constructed wetlands, focusing specifically on sorption processes. We modelled the sorption processes of three herbicides [2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-MCPA), isoproturon and napropamide] and three fungicides (boscalid, prochloraz and tebuconazole) on four substrates (two soils, sediment and straw) commonly found in a pond and ditch in Lorraine (France). A wide range of Freundlich coefficient (K fads) values was obtained, from 0.74 to 442.63 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1), and the corresponding K foc values ranged from 56 to 3,725 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1). Based on potential retention, the substrates may be classified as straw > sediments > soils. These results show the importance of organic carbon content and nature in the process of sorption. Similarly, the studied pesticides could be classified according to their adsorption capacity as follows: prochloraz > tebuconazole-boscalid > napropamide > MCPA-isoproturon. This classification is strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, especially solubility and K oc. Straw exhibited the largest quantity of non-desorbable pesticide residues, from 12.1 to 224.2 mg/L for all pesticides. The presence of plants could increase soil-sediment sorption capacity. Thus, establishment and maintenance of plants and straw filters should be promoted to optimise sorption processes and the efficiency of ponds and ditches in reducing surface water pollution.

  13. Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    During the past two years a unique study has been initiated on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste pond which has been receiving occasional low-level plutonium processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization. In addition, the ecological distribution of plutonium and americium is being investigated. The purpose of this work is to explain plutonium and americium concentrations at specific ecological sites, important export routes out of the pond, and potential pathways to man. The pond is also highly enriched with nutrients, thus supporting a high level of algal and macrophyte production. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrator of transuranics in the pond system. The major sink for plutonium and americium in this system is the sediments. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments, is also a major concentrator of transuranics in this system. Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Dragonfly larvae, watercress, and snails show concentrations which approximate those of the sediments but nearly all other food web components have levels of plutonium and americium which are lower than those of the sediments. Thus, plutonium and americium seem to be relatively immobile in the aquatic ecosystem. However, the role of algae as a potential mechanism for the long-range ecological transport of plutonium and americium will receive additional attention

  14. Contamination of Detained Sediment in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonie Allen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is a key water pollution remediation measure used to achieve stormwater quality improvement in Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS. The level of contamination of detained sediment within SuDS assets is not well documented, with published investigations limited to specific contaminant occurrence in ponds, wetlands or infiltration devices (bioretention cells and generally focused on solute or suspended sediment. Guidance on contamination threshold levels and potential deposited sediment contamination information is not included in current UK SuDS design or maintenance guidance, primarily due to a lack of evidence and understanding. There is a need to understand possible deposited sediment contamination levels in SuDS, specifically in relation to sediment removal maintenance activities and potential impact on receiving waterways of conveyed sediment. Thus, the objective of the research presented herein was to identify what major elements and trace metals were observable in (the investigated SuDS assets detained sediment, the concentration of these major elements and trace metals and whether they met/surpassed ecotoxicity or contaminated land thresholds. The research presented here provides evidence of investigated SuDS sediment major element and trace metal levels to help inform guidance and maintenance needs, and presents a new methodology to identify the general cause (anthropocentric land use and extent of detained SuDS fine urban sediment contamination through use of a contamination matrix.

  15. Pollution of soil and groundwater from infiltration of highly contaminated stormwater - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, P.S.; Häfliger, M.; Ochs, M.

    1997-01-01

    and subsurface sediments and some even exceeded guidelines fixed to preserve the fertility of soil. However, the contamination decreased rapidly with depth. None of the measured metal concentrations in simulated soil solutions exceeded defined drinking water quality standards. Surprisingly, the surface......A surface and a sub-surface infiltration system that received runoff water from trafficked roads for several decades was dug up and the contamination with heavy metals, PAH and AOX was investigated. Most measured solid phase concentrations exceeded background concentrations in nearby surface soils...... contamination due to stormwater infiltration, but highlights that well absorbable contaminants readily available in urban stormwater runoff eventually build up in surface soils and sub-surface sediments to environmentally critical concentration levels. Thus, on the one hand stormwater infiltration systems may...

  16. Heavy metal contamination in an urban stream fed by contaminated air-conditioning and stormwater discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Aisling; Wicke, Daniel; Cochrane, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Urban waterways are impacted by diffuse stormwater runoff, yet other discharges can unintentionally contaminate them. The Okeover stream in Christchurch, New Zealand, receives air-conditioning discharge, while its ephemeral reach relies on untreated stormwater flow. Despite rehabilitation efforts, the ecosystem is still highly disturbed. It was assumed that stormwater was the sole contamination source to the stream although water quality data were sparse. We therefore investigated its water and sediment quality and compared the data with appropriate ecotoxicological thresholds from all water sources. Concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in stream baseflow, stormwater runoff, air-conditioning discharge and stream-bed sediments were quantified along with flow regimes to ascertain annual contaminant loads. Metals were analysed by ICP-MS following accredited techniques. Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations from stormflow exceeded relevant guidelines for the protection of 90% of aquatic species by 18-, 9- and 5-fold, respectively, suggesting substantial ecotoxicity potential. Sporadic copper (Cu) inputs from roof runoff exceeded these levels up to 3,200-fold at >4,000 μg L⁻¹ while Cu in baseflow from air-conditioning inputs exceeded them 5.4-fold. There was an 11-fold greater annual Cu load to the stream from air-conditioning discharge compared to stormwater runoff. Most Zn and Cu were dissolved species possibly enhancing metal bioavailability. Elevated metal concentrations were also found throughout the stream sediments. Environmental investigations revealed unsuspected contamination from air-conditioning discharge that contributed greater Cu annual loads to an urban stream compared to stormwater inputs. This discovery helped reassess treatment strategies for regaining ecological integrity in the ecosystem.

  17. Stormwater management network effectiveness and implications for urban watershed function: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Bhaskar, Aditi S.; Hopkins, Kristina G.; Fanelli, Rosemary; Avellaneda, Pedro M.; McMillan, Sara K.

    2017-01-01

    Deleterious effects of urban stormwater are widely recognized. In several countries, regulations have been put into place to improve the conditions of receiving water bodies, but planning and engineering of stormwater control is typically carried out at smaller scales. Quantifying cumulative effectiveness of many stormwater control measures on a watershed scale is critical to understanding how small-scale practices translate to urban river health. We review 100 empirical and modelling studies of stormwater management effectiveness at the watershed scale in diverse physiographic settings. Effects of networks with stormwater control measures (SCMs) that promote infiltration and harvest have been more intensively studied than have detention-based SCM networks. Studies of peak flows and flow volumes are common, whereas baseflow, groundwater recharge, and evapotranspiration have received comparatively little attention. Export of nutrients and suspended sediments have been the primary water quality focus in the United States, whereas metals, particularly those associated with sediments, have received greater attention in Europe and Australia. Often, quantifying cumulative effects of stormwater management is complicated by needing to separate its signal from the signal of urbanization itself, innate watershed characteristics that lead to a range of hydrologic and water quality responses, and the varying functions of multiple types of SCMs. Biases in geographic distribution of study areas, and size and impervious surface cover of watersheds studied also limit our understanding of responses. We propose hysteretic trajectories for how watershed function responds to increasing imperviousness and stormwater management. Even where impervious area is treated with SCMs, watershed function may not be restored to its predevelopment condition because of the lack of treatment of all stormwater generated from impervious surfaces; non-additive effects of individual SCMs; and

  18. Identification of chitinolytic bacteria isolated from shrimp pond sediment and characterization of their chitinase encoding gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triwijayani, A. U.; Puspita, I. D.; Murwantoko; Ustadi

    2018-03-01

    Chitinolytic bacteria are a group of bacteria owning enzymes that able to hydrolyze chitin. Previously, we isolated chitinolytic bacteria from shrimp pond sediment in Bantul, Yogyakarta, and obtained five isolates showing high chitinolytic index named as isolate PT1, PT2, PT5, PT6 and PB2. The aims of this study were to identify chitinolytic bacteria isolated from shrimp pond sediment and to characterize the chitinase encoding gene from each isolate. The molecular technique was performed by amplification of 16S rDNA, amplification of chitinase encoding gene and sequence analysis. Two chitinolytic bacteria of PT1 and PT2 were similar to Aeromonas bivalvium strain D15, PT5 to Pseudomonas stutzeri strain BD-2.2.1, PT6 to Serratia marcescens strain FZSF02 and PB2 to Streptomyces misionensis strain OsiRt-1. The comparison of chitinase encoding gene between three isolates with those in Gen Bank shows that PT1 had similar sequences with the chi1 gene in Aeromonas sp. 17m, PT2 with chi1 gene in A. caviae (CB101) and PT6 with chiB gene in S. Marcescens (BJL200).

  19. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A plutonium (Pu) processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior of transuranics in this ecosystem. This ultra-eutrophic pond has a water inflow rate of 10 m 3 /min, of which 95% leaves the pond by percolation. Macrophytes (mainly Potamogeton), algae (mainly Cladophora), benthic invertebrates (mainly dipteran and odonate larvae, hemipterans, amphipods and gastropods) and goldfish are the major biotic components of the system. Sediments appear to be the principal repository of Pu and Am, having mean concentrations for 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu and 241 Am of 112, 121 and 71 pCi/g (dry), respectively. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Algal floc (decomposing algal material) is the major concentrator of Pu and Am in the pond having mean concentrations of 238 Pu of 986 pCi/g, for 239 240 Pu of 615 pCi/g, and for 241 Am of 256 pCi/g. Watercress (Rorippa) had Pu levels about equal to those of the sediments, while dragonfly larvae (Libellula) and snails (Lymnaea) along with watercress had Am levels approximating those of the sediments. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments.Preliminary in situ experiments indicate that goldfish reach an equilibrium level for Pu of about 15 pCi/g within a few days of exposure to the pond, after which they may remain active in the pond for many months without further accumulation. Experimental goldfish established ratios of 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu and 241 Am to 239 240 Pu that were similar to all other pond biota within 2 weeks of pond residence, suggesting a common source of biologically available Pu and Am

  20. Fate of Pyrethroids in Farmland Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, B. B.; Sørensen, P. B.; Stuer-Lauridsen, F.

    Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively. The measur......Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively...

  1. Radioactive pollution of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments. II. Distribution of 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pirnach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of complex research of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments are presented Data about vertical distribution of radioactive pollution 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase of sediments are received. Distribution coefficients 137Cs and 90Sr, selectivity coefficients of their exchange with similar cations and physical-chemical forms are defined. Results of research of radionuclide chemical recovery from the sediment samples are analyzed.

  2. Watershed Scale Impacts of Stormwater Green Infrastructure ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the increasing use of urban stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including detention ponds and rain gardens, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, Baltimore County, MD, Montgomery County, MD, and Washington, DC, were selected based on the availability of data on SGI, water quality, and stream flow. The watershed scale impact of SGI was evaluated by assessing how increased spatial density of SGI correlates with stream hydrology and nitrogen exports over space and time. The most common SGI types were detention ponds (58%), followed by marshes (12%), sand filters (9%), wet ponds (7%), infiltration trenches (4%), and rain gardens (2%). When controlling for watersheds size and percent impervious surface cover, watersheds with greater amounts of SGI (>10% SGI) have 44% lower peak runoff, 26% less frequent runoff events, and 26% less variable runoff than watersheds with lower SGI. Watersheds with more SGI also show 44% less NO3− and 48% less total nitrogen exports compared to watersheds with minimal SGI. There was no significant reduction in combined sewer overflows in watersheds with greater SGI. Based on specific SGI types, infiltration trenches (R2 = 0.35) showed the strongest correlation with hydrologic metrics, likely due to their ability to attenuate flow, while bioretention (R2 = 0.19) and wet ponds (R2 = 0.12) showed stronger

  3. EVALUATION OF RETENTION POND AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND BMPS FOR TREATING PARTICULATE-BOUND HEAVY METALS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sources of heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff are diverse (e.g., highways, road surfaces, roofs) and the release of metals into the environment is governed by several complex mechanisms. Heavy metals in stormwater are associated with suspended particulate materials that ...

  4. Nature of uranium contamination in the agricultural drainage water evaporation ponds of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.C.; Amrhein, C.; Bradford, G.

    1997-01-01

    Evaporation ponds used for agricultural subsurface drainage water disposal in the Tulare Lake Bed (TLB) of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA have elevated levels of U. Waterfowl which inhabit and forage the ponds and surrounding areas are threatened by exposure to U. The ponds, which receive irrigation drainage waters and seasonal rain, are subject to wetting and drying periods. The periods result in the accumulation of decaying algae and other organic material in surface sediments. Sediment and waters in the ponds were sampled to determine what factors control U solubility and sediment U concentrations. Data from a 1990 study conducted by Chilcott et al. in 1989 on the TLB ponds were used to help identify what factors may control U solubility. Pond sediment U concentrations decreased abruptly with depth and surface sediment U concentrations were related to dissolved Ca:HCO 3 ratios. Pond algal U bioaccumulation was favored in waters with high Ca:HCO 3 ratios, which had lower pH values and carbonate alkalinities than waters with low CA:HCO 3 ratios. Ponds with high salinities and high carbonate alkalinities contained the highest aqueous U concentrations relative to other TLB ponds. Sediment total organic carbon (TOC) was correlated with sediment U concentrations, suggesting that U is bound to organic matter. The source of TOC is most likely from algae deposition. (author)

  5. Effect of co-culture of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) on pond environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    Monoculture of sea cucumber (pond S) and polyculture of shrimp with sea cucumber (pond SS) were established to evaluate the effect of shrimp on the environmental conditions of sea cucumber farming pond. Contributions of sediment organic matter (SOM2) resuspended from benthic sediment and the suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) deposited from the water column to the precipitated organic matter (SOM1) collected with sediment traps were estimated with carbon stable isotope analysis. The results showed that the levels of SPOM and SOM2 in pond SS significantly decreased in comparison with those in pond S at the end of experiment ( P sea cucumber farming pond could purify the farming water. Carbon stable isotope analysis showed that the proportion of SOM2 in SOM1 in pond SS (84.97% ± 0.38%) was significantly lower than that in pond S (95.20% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), suggesting that the resuspension of organic matter from benthic sediment into overlying water was reduced in polyculture pond. In contrast, the proportion of SPOM in SOM1 in pond SS (15.03% ± 0.38%) was significantly higher than that in pond S (4.80% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), indicating that the sedimentation of SPOM from water column was enhanced in pond SS owing to the biodeposition effect of shrimp.

  6. The influence of temperature and salt on metal and sediment removal in stormwater biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søberg, Laila C; Viklander, Maria; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater biofilters are used to treat stormwater runoff. In countries with cold winter climates, biofilters are subject to low temperatures which, in some cases, are combined with potentially high salt concentrations from road de-icing, potentially affecting the biofilter's performance. Since stormwater biofilters have been developed without consideration of their critical winter use, a laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the performance of stormwater biofilters subjected to low and high temperatures, with and without salt. Both factors and their interaction had a significant effect on outflow concentrations and removal percentages. Salt had a negative impact on outflow concentrations, causing lower removal percentages for (especially dissolved) metals, this impact being most pronounced for Cu and Pb. The unrealistic combination of salt with high temperature seemed to further amplify the negative impacts of salt despite the fact that temperature alone did not cause significant differences in outflow concentrations and removal percentages. Still, biofilters showed the ability to treat stormwater efficiently under the simulated winter conditions; outflow concentrations for total metals as a minimum met the class 4 threshold value defined in the Swedish freshwater quality guidelines, while inflow concentrations clearly exceeded the threshold value for class 5. The relatively coarse filter material (which is recommended to facilitate infiltration during winter) did not seem to exacerbate biofilter performance.

  7. Mechanisms for parasites removal in a waste stabilisation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Roberto; Blanco, Saúl; Torres-Villamizar, Linda A; Bécares, Eloy

    2011-04-01

    A waste stabilisation pond (WSP) system formed by two anaerobic ponds, a facultative pond and a maturation pond was studied from December 2003 to September 2004 in north-western Spain in order to evaluate its efficiency in the removal of faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci), coliphages, helminth eggs and protozoan (oo)cysts (Cryptosporidium and Giardia). Furthermore, sediment samples were collected from the bottom of the ponds to assess the settling rates and thus determine the main pathogen removal mechanisms in the WSPs system. The overall removal ranged from 1.4 log units for coliphages in the cold period to 5.0 log units for E. coli in the hot period. Cryptosporidium oocysts were reduced by an average of 96%, Giardia cysts by 98% and helminth eggs by 100%. The anaerobic ponds showed significantly higher surface removal rates (4.6, 5.2 and 3.7 log (oo)cysts/eggs removed m(-2) day(-1), respectively) than facultative and maturation ponds. Sunlight and water physicochemical conditions were the main factors influencing C. parvum oocysts removal both in the anaerobic and maturation ponds, whereas other factors like predation or natural mortality were more important in the facultative pond. Sedimentation, the most commonly proposed mechanism for cyst removal had, therefore, a negligible influence in the studied ponds.

  8. SAFL Baffle retrofit for suspended sediment removal in storm sewer sumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Adam; Mohseni, Omid; Gulliver, John; Stefan, Heinz

    2011-11-15

    Standard sumps (manholes) provide a location for pipe junctions and maintenance access in stormwater drainage systems. Standard sumps can also remove sand and silt particles from stormwater, but have a high propensity for washout of the collected sediment. With appropriate maintenance these sumps may qualify as a stormwater best management practice (BMP) device for the removal of suspended sediment from stormwater runoff. To decrease the maintenance frequency and prevent standard sumps from becoming a source of suspended sediment under high flow conditions, a porous baffle, named the SAFL Baffle, has been designed and tested as a retrofit to the sump. Multiple configurations with varying percent open area and different angles of attack were evaluated in scale models. An optimum configuration was then constructed at the prototype scale and evaluated for both removal efficiency and washout. Results obtained with the retrofit indicate that with the right baffle dimensions and porosity, sediment washout from the sump at high flow rates can be almost eliminated, and removal efficiency can be significantly increased at low flow rates. Removal efficiency and washout functions have been developed for standard sumps retrofitted with the SAFL Baffle. The results of this research provide a new, versatile stormwater treatment device and implemented new washout and removal efficiency testing procedures that will improve research and development of stormwater treatment devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 100-D Ponds groundwater quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-D Ponds facility is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The pH of groundwater in a downgradient well is statistically different than local background, triggering an assessment of groundwater contamination under 40 CFR 265.93. Results of a similar assessment, conducted in 1993, show that the elevated pH is caused by the presence of alkaline ash sediments beneath the ponds, which are not part of the RCRA unit. The 100-D Ponds should remain in indicator evaluation monitoring

  10. Remediation of an oily leachate pond in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2005-12-01

    Until recent years, waste oil and oil-contaminated waters commonly ended up in landfills. At some dump sites, ponds of oily liquids and leachate were formed. To remediate such ponds, an interdisciplinary approach is now required, keeping costs at an affordable level, particularly in countries with changing economies. From 1974 to 1993, liquid oily wastes taken to the Laguja landfill, in Estonia, were disposed of in a pond with a surface area of 9800 m2. It was estimated that the pond contained 4500-6000 m3 of oily water and 3500 m3 of oil-containing bottom sediments. This study aimed at developing an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for remediation of the oily liquids, leachate and contaminated underlying sediment material, to meet the existing legal demands. It was concluded that treatment of contaminated water is well established and the procedures carried out to meet the regulatory demands achieved satisfactory results. However, regarding treatment of sediments it was concluded that legal and technological aspects, as well as monitoring procedures are not fully established and are usually underestimated. Laboratory investigations can provide valuable information in decision-making, and contribute to effective full-scale remediation planning.

  11. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1975-03-01

    A Pu processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior in this ecosystem. About 8.1 kg of Pu was reported to have been discharged into waste trenches leading to the pond. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, 0.61 for 241 Am to 238 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Levels of Pu and Am in the interstitial water range from 0.5 to 13 pCi/g (dry wt. of sediment). For 238 Pu in pond water the mean concentration is 0.007 pCi/l, for 239 240 Pu it is 0.002 pCi/l, and for 241 Am it is 1.08 pCi/l. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments. (U.S.)

  12. Further contributions to the understanding of nitrogen removal in waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, R K X; Rios, E N; Sánchez, I A

    2018-06-01

    A set of experiments were conducted in Brazil in a pilot-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) system (a four-maturation-pond series) treating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent. Over a year and a half the pond series was monitored under two flow rate conditions, hence also different hydraulic retention times and surface loading rates. On-site and laboratory trials were carried out to assess: (i) ammonia losses by volatilization using acrylic capture chambers placed at the surface of the ponds; (ii) organic nitrogen sedimentation rates using metal buckets placed at the bottom of the ponds for collecting settled particulate matter; (iii) nitrogen removal by algal uptake based on the nitrogen content of the suspended particulate matter in samples from the ponds' water column. In addition, nitrification and denitrification rates were measured in laboratory-based experiments using pond water and sediment samples. The pond system achieved high nitrogen removal (69% total nitrogen and 92% ammonia removal). The average total nitrogen removal rates varied from 10,098 to 3,849 g N/ha·d in the first and the last ponds, respectively, with the following fractions associated with the various removal pathways: (i) 23.5-45.6% sedimentation of organic nitrogen; (ii) 13.1-27.8% algal uptake; (iii) 1.2-3.1% ammonia volatilization; and (iv) 0.15-0.34% nitrification-denitrification.

  13. Assessment of forms finding of Chernobyl radionuclides in bottom sediments of cooling pond of the ChNPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Protsak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of forms finding of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am and dispersal composition of fuel particles in bottom sediments of cooling pond of the ChNPP is carried out. According to the results of re-search in the year of 2012 more than 98 % of radionuclides in bottom sediments were in non-exchange (ex-changeable state, while in the composition of the fuel particles can be contained about 70% 90Sr and more than 80 % 241Am and of the plutonium isotopes. Obtained results indicate the selective leaching of radionuclides from the matrix of fuel particles.

  14. Biofouling potential and material reactivity in a simulated water distribution network supplied with stormwater recycled via managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Dennis; Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Barry, Karen; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Kaksonen, Anna H; Dillon, Peter; Puzon, Geoff J; Sidhu, Jatinder; Wylie, Jason; Goodman, Nigel; Low, Jason

    2016-11-15

    The injection of stormwater into aquifers for storage and recovery during high water demand periods is a promising technology for augmenting conventional water reserves. Limited information exists regarding the potential impact of aquifer treated stormwater in distribution system infrastructure. This study describes a one year pilot distribution pipe network trial to determine the biofouling potential for cement, copper and polyvinyl chloride pipe materials exposed to stormwater stored in a limestone aquifer compared to an identical drinking water rig. Median alkalinity (123 mg/L) and colour (12 HU) in stormwater was significantly higher than in drinking water (82 mg/L and 1 HU) and pipe discolouration was more evident for stormwater samples. X-ray Diffraction and Fluorescence analyses confirmed this was driven by the presence of iron rich amorphous compounds in more thickly deposited sediments also consistent with significantly higher median levels of iron (∼0.56 mg/L) in stormwater compared to drinking water (∼0.17 mg/L). Water type did not influence biofilm development as determined by microbial density but faecal indicators were significantly higher for polyvinyl chloride and cement exposed to stormwater. Treatment to remove iron through aeration and filtration would reduce the potential for sediment accumulation. Operational and verification monitoring parameters to manage scaling, corrosion, colour, turbidity and microbial growth in recycled stormwater distribution networks are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gamma hazards and risk associated with NORM in sediment from amang processing recycling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasirian Mohesen; Ismail Bahari; Pauzi Abdullah; Azizah JAafar

    2007-01-01

    Amang processing is an important downstream activity of tin mining noted for technologically enhancing naturally occurring radioactive materials. A study was carried out to determine the gamma radiation hazards associated with amang processing with special reference to the sediment accumulated in amang processing ponds. Twenty eight sediment samples from two amang processing plants employing the recycling close water management system were collected and analyzed. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in sediments were measured using gamma spectrometry analysis, with a Hyper Pure Ge-Li detector coupled to a Multi Channel Analyzer detector system. The range of mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were between 40.94 - 189.58 Bq kg -1 , 104.90 - 516.17 Bq kg -1 and 74.8-848.0 Bq/ kg respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K recorded were higher than Malaysia average and the worlds natural highest. Gamma Radiation Representative Level Index, I γr associated with these levels of activity concentrations of radionuclide in sediments, warrants an immediate attention from the regulatory authorities. The contribution of amang processing and the use of recycling close water management system in enhancing potential environmental radiological risk are discussed. (author)

  16. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Responses in Shallow Ground Water Receiving Stormwater Runoff and Potential Transport of Contaminants to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jena M.; Thodal, Carl E.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2008-01-01

    Clarity of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada has been decreasing due to inflows of sediment and nutrients associated with stormwater runoff. Detention basins are considered effective best management practices for mitigation of suspended sediment and nutrients associated with runoff, but effects of infiltrated stormwater on shallow ground water are not known. This report documents 2005-07 hydrogeologic conditions in a shallow aquifer and associated interactions between a stormwater-control system with nearby Lake Tahoe. Selected chemical qualities of stormwater, bottom sediment from a stormwater detention basin, ground water, and nearshore lake and interstitial water are characterized and coupled with results of a three-dimensional, finite-difference, mathematical model to evaluate responses of ground-water flow to stormwater-runoff accumulation in the stormwater-control system. The results of the ground-water flow model indicate mean ground-water discharge of 256 acre feet per year, contributing 27 pounds of phosphorus and 765 pounds of nitrogen to Lake Tahoe within the modeled area. Only 0.24 percent of this volume and nutrient load is attributed to stormwater infiltration from the detention basin. Settling of suspended nutrients and sediment, biological assimilation of dissolved nutrients, and sorption and detention of chemicals of potential concern in bottom sediment are the primary stormwater treatments achieved by the detention basins. Mean concentrations of unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus in inflow stormwater samples compared to outflow samples show that 55 percent of nitrogen and 47 percent of phosphorus are trapped by the detention basin. Organic carbon, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc in the uppermost 0.2 foot of bottom sediment from the detention basin were all at least twice as concentrated compared to sediment collected from 1.5 feet deeper. Similarly, concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were

  17. Watershed Scale Impacts of Stormwater Green Infrastructure on Hydrology, Nitrogen Fluxes, and Combined Sewer Overflows in the Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the increasing use of urban stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including detention ponds and rain gardens, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, ...

  18. USING GIS TO MAP THE DEPTH TO SEDIMENT OF A POND USING A SONIC DEPTH METER AND A TRIMBLE GPS SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a research project to identify the source of Arsenic in a watershed, it became necessary to characterize the subsurface sediments in a pond associated with the watershed. This paper describes the process that we used to measure the depth and identify the location of the d...

  19. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics

  20. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  1. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Development of an indicator for characterizing particle size distribution and quality of stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Qionghua; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Lian, Bin; Wu, Yaketon; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2018-03-01

    Stormwater particles washed from road-deposited sediments (RDS) are traditionally characterized as either turbidity or total suspended solids (TSS). Although these parameters are influenced by particle sizes, neither of them characterizes the particle size distribution (PSD), which is of great importance in pollutant entrainment and treatment performance. Therefore, the ratio of turbidity to TSS (Tur/TSS) is proposed and validated as a potential surrogate for the bulk PSD and quality of stormwater runoff. The results show an increasing trend of Tur/TSS with finer sizes of both RDS and stormwater runoff. Taking heavy metals (HMs, including Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni) as typical pollutants in stormwater runoff, the concentrations (mg/kg) were found to vary significantly during rainfall events and tended to increase significantly with Tur/TSS. Therefore, Tur/TSS is a valid parameter to characterize the PSD and quality of stormwater. The high negative correlations between Tur/TSS and rainfall intensity demonstrate that stormwater with higher Tur/TSS generates under low intensity and, thus, characterizes small volume, finer sizes, weak settleability, greater mobility, and bioavailability. Conversely, stormwater with lower Tur/TSS generates under high intensity and, thus, characterizes large volume, coarser sizes, good settleability, low mobility, and bioavailability. These results highlight the need to control stormwater with high Tur/TSS. Moreover, Tur/TSS can aid the selection of stormwater control measures with appropriate detention storage, pollution loading, and removal effectiveness of particles.

  3. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  4. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  5. Sustainability Evaluation Framework of Urban Stormwater Drainage Options for Arid Environments Using Hydraulic Modeling and Multicriteria Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhumaid

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater drainage systems in urban areas located in arid environmental regions generally consist of storm-sewer networks and man-made ponds for the collection and disposal of runoff, respectively. Due to expansion in cities’ boundaries as a result of population growth, the capacity of existing drainage systems has been exhausted. Therefore, such systems overflow even during the smaller (than the design return period floods. At the same time, changing rainfall patterns and flash floods due to climate change are other phenomena that need appropriate attention. Consequently, the municipalities in arid environmental regions are facing challenges for effective decision-making concerning (i improvement needs for drainage networks for safe collection of stormwater, (ii selection of most feasible locations for additional ponds, and (iii evaluation of other suitable options, such as micro-tunneling. In this research, a framework has been developed to evaluate different stormwater drainage options for urban areas of arid regions. Rainfall-runoff modeling was performed with the help of Hydrological-Engineering-Centre, Hydrological-Modelling-System (HEC-HMS. To evaluate the efficacy of each option for handling a given design flood, hydraulic-modeling was performed using SewerGEMS. Meteorological and topographical data was gathered from the Municipality of Buraydah and processed to generate different inputs required for hydraulic modeling. Finally, multicriteria decision-making (MCDM was performed to evaluate all the options on the basis of four sustainability criteria, i.e., flood risk, economic viability, environmental impacts, and technical constraints. Criteria weights were established through group decision-making using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Preference-Ranking-Organization-Method for Enrichment-Evaluation (PROMETHEE II was used for final ranking of stormwater drainage options. The proposed framework has been implemented on a case of

  6. 0-6638: performance testing of coagulants to reduce stormwater runoff turbidity : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    During the last two decades, policy makers have : increasingly recognized that water quality is : adversely affected by sediment-laden : stormwater discharge from construction sites. : On December 1, 2009, the U.S. Environmental : Protection Agency (...

  7. Transportation and Bioavailability of Copper and Zinc in a Storm Water Retention Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.; Casey, R. E.; Wright, M. E.; Lev, S. M.; Landa, E. R.

    2006-05-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a non-point source of metals to storm water retention ponds. Zinc and copper are major components of tires and brake pads, respectively. As these automobile parts degrade, they deposit particulates onto the roadway surface. During a storm event, these metal containing particulates are washed into a storm water retention pond where they can then accumulate over time. These metals may be available to organisms inhabiting the pond and surrounding areas. This study focuses on tracking the metals from their deposition on the roadway to their transport and accumulation into a retention pond. The retention pond is located in Owings Mills, MD and collects runoff from an adjacent four lane highway. Pond sediments, background soils, road dust samples, and storm events were collected and analyzed. Copper and zinc concentrations in the pond sediments are higher than local background soils indicating that the pond is storing anthropogenically derived metals. Storm event samples also reveal elevated levels of copper and zinc transported through runoff, along with a large concentration of total suspended solids. After looking at the particulate and dissolved fractions of both metals in the runoff, the majority of the Zn and Cu are in the particulate fraction. Changes in TSS are proportional with changes in particulate bound Zn, indicating that the solid particulates that are entering into the pond are a major contributor of the total metal loading. Sequential extractions carried out on the road dust show that the majority of zinc is extracted in the second and third fractions and could become available to organisms in the pond. There is a small amount of Cu that is being released in the more available stages of the procedure; however the bulk of the Cu is seen in the more recalcitrant steps. In the pond sediments however, both Cu and Zn are only being released from the sediments in the later steps and are most likely not highly available.

  8. Spatial connectivity, scaling, and temporal trajectories as emergent urban stormwater impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, T.; Gironas, J. A.; Hale, R. L.; Mejia, A.

    2016-12-01

    Urban watersheds are structurally complex systems comprised of multiple components (e.g., streets, pipes, ponds, vegetated swales, wetlands, riparian corridors, etc.). These multiple engineered components interact in unanticipated and nontrivial ways with topographic conditions, climate variability, land use/land cover changes, and the underlying eco-hydrogeomorphic dynamics. Such interactions can result in emergent urban stormwater impacts with cascading effects that can negatively influence the overall functioning of the urban watershed. For example, the interaction among many detention ponds has been shown, in some situations, to synchronize flow volumes and ultimately lead to downstream flow amplifications and increased pollutant mobilization. Additionally, interactions occur at multiple temporal and spatial scales requiring that urban stormwater dynamics be represented at the long-term temporal (decadal) and across spatial scales (from the single lot to the watershed scale). In this study, we develop and implement an event-based, high-resolution, network hydro-engineering model (NHEM), and demonstrate an approach to reconstruct the long-term regional infrastructure and land use/land cover conditions of an urban watershed. As the study area, we select an urban watershed in the metropolitan area of Scottsdale, Arizona. Using the reconstructed landscapes to drive the NHEM, we find that distinct surficial, hydrologic connectivity patterns result from the intersection of hydrologic processes, infrastructure, and land use/land cover arrangements. These spatial patters, in turn, exhibit scaling characteristics. For example, the scaling of urban watershed dispersion mechanisms shows altered scaling exponents with respect to pre-urban conditions. For example, the scaling exponent associated with geomorphic dispersion tends to increase for urban conditions, reflecting increased surficial path heterogeneity. Both the connectivity and scaling results can be used to

  9. Sequential Sedimentation-Biofiltration System for the purification of a small urban river (the Sokolowka, Lodz) supplied by stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklarek, S; Wagner, I; Jurczak, T; Zalewski, M

    2018-01-01

    The study analyses the efficiency of a Sequentional Sedimentation-Biofiltration System (SSBS) built on the Sokolowka river in Lodz (Poland). It was constructed to purify a small urban river whose hydrological regime is dominated by stormwater and meltwater. The SSBS was constructed on a limited area as multi-zone constructed wetlands. The SSBS consists of three zones: sedimentation zone with structures added to improve sedimentation, a geochemical barrier made of limestone deposit and biofiltration zone. The purification processes of total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TP) and other nutrients: phosphates (PO 4 3- ), ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrates (NO 3 - ) of the SSBS were analyzed. Chloride (Cl - ) reduction was investigated. Monitoring conducted in the first two hydrological years after construction indicated that the SSBS removed 61.4% of TSS, 37.3% of TP, 30.4% of PO 4 3- , 46.1% of TN, 2.8% of NH4+, 44.8% of NO 3 - and 64.0% of Cl - . The sedimentation zone played a key role in removing TSS and nutrients. The geochemical barrier and biofiltration zone each significantly improved overall efficiency by 4-10% for TSS, PO 4 3- , TN, NO 3 - and Cl - . Although the system reduced the concentration of chloride, further studies are needed to determine the circulation of Cl - in constructed wetlands (CWs), and to assess its impact on purification processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 3D Modelling of Transport, Deposition and Resuspension of Highway Deposited Sediments in wet Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2010-01-01

    concrete channel with width of 0.8m and a water depth of approximately 0.8m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With a fairly good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved...... pollutants and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account....

  11. 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Duncan, D.W.; Graham, M.J.; Hall, M.D.; Hall, V.W.; Landeen, D.S.; Leitz, J.G.; Mitchell, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    The chemical, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has generated large volumes of radioactive liquid effluents. The majority of these effluents have been used strictly for cooling or other supportive functions and have been discharged to ditches and ponds. The 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch are two such disposal facilities. These facilities are components of an integrated system of ditches, ponds, and overflow facilities collectively referred to as the U-Pond disposal system. The U-Pond system has been used since 1943 and has received a large variety of radioisotopes from several sources. This study covered tho major aspects of the environment, including wind resuspension, biological uptake and transport, geologic distribution in surface and subsurface sediments, and ground-water impacts. The long-term use of U-Pond and the Z-19 Ditch has resulted in the localized accumulation of transuranic and fission product inventories as a result of sorption and filtration of particulates onto the uppermost sediments.

  12. 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch characterization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Duncan, D.W.; Graham, M.J.; Hall, M.D.; Hall, V.W.; Landeen, D.S.; Leitz, J.G.; Mitchell, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    The chemical, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has generated large volumes of radioactive liquid effluents. The majority of these effluents have been used strictly for cooling or other supportive functions and have been discharged to ditches and ponds. The 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch are two such disposal facilities. These facilities are components of an integrated system of ditches, ponds, and overflow facilities collectively referred to as the U-Pond disposal system. The U-Pond system has been used since 1943 and has received a large variety of radioisotopes from several sources. This study covered tho major aspects of the environment, including wind resuspension, biological uptake and transport, geologic distribution in surface and subsurface sediments, and ground-water impacts. The long-term use of U-Pond and the Z-19 Ditch has resulted in the localized accumulation of transuranic and fission product inventories as a result of sorption and filtration of particulates onto the uppermost sediments

  13. Fish Scale Evidence for Rapid Post Glacial Colonization of an Atlantic Coastal Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, R. A.; Peteet, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    Fish scales from the sediment of Allamuchy Pond, New Jersey, USA, indicate that fishes were present in the pond within 400 years of the time of the first deposition of organic material, at approximately 12,600 yrs BP. The earliest of the scales, from a white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, appears in sediment dated 12,260 +/- 220 yrs BP. Presence of scales in sediment deposited before I 0,000 yrs BP indicates that Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, sunfish, Lepomis sp., and yellow perch, Perca flavescens, also were early inhabitants of the pond. The timing of the arrival of each of these fishes suggests that they migrated out from Atlantic coastal refugia. A minnow scale, referred to Phoxininae, was also retrieved; it could not be matched to any cyprinid currently found in northeastern North America. The species present historically in this pond are from five families found currently in ponds throughout the Northeast and sugoest that the lentic palaeo-enviromnent was similar to present mid-elevation or high-latitude lentic systems.

  14. Flocculation of retention pond water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; McGregor, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    An integral part of the water management strategy proposed by Ranger Uranium Mining Pty. Ltd. involves the collection of runoff water in a series of retention ponds. This water will subsequently be used in the uranium milling plant or released to Magela Creek. Runoff water collected during the wet season caused a section of Magela Creek to become turbid when it was released. The eroded material causing the turbidity was very highly dispersed and showed little tendency to sediment out in the retention ponds. Results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of clarifying retention pond water by flocculation with alum are presented. A concentration of 30 Mg/L alum reduced turbidity from an initial 340 NTU to less than 30 NTU in four hours

  15. Analyses of outcrop and sediment grains observed and collected from the Sirena Deep and Middle Pond of the Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, K. P.; Bartlett, D. H.; Fryer, P.

    2012-12-01

    During a March 2012 expedition we recovered sediments from two locales within the Marina Trench - Middle Pond and Sirena Deep. Samples were recovered from a Niskin bottle deployed on a passive lander platform that released an arm after touching down on the seafloor. The impact of the arm holding the Niskin bottle caused sediments to enter the bottle; this process was seen in images and on video captured by the lander. The combination of imagery and preliminary analyses of the sediments indicates that the Sirena Deep locale is a region of serpentinization and active microbial communities. Images show several outcrops consistent with serpentinization, some of which are coated with filamentous microbial mats. Results and analyses of these samples will be presented.

  16. Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; González, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, we evaluated the concentration of ten heavy metals in the water, sediment, and Typha sp. in 16 runoff ponds ranging from 1 to 19 years old that were constructed in reclaimed opencast coal mines of northeastern Spain. To evaluate degree of mining pollution, we compared these data to those from a pit lake created in a local unreclaimed mine and to local streams as an unpolluted reference, as well as comparing toxicity levels in aquatic organisms. The runoff ponds showed toxic concentrations of Al, Cu, and Ni in the water and As and Ni in the sediment, which were maintained over time. Metal concentrations in runoff ponds were higher than in local streams, and macrophytes showed high metal concentrations. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in water and sediment in runoff ponds were lower than those in the pit lake. This study highlights the importance of mining reclamation to preserve the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggests the existence of chronic metal toxicity in the ponds, potentially jeopardizing pond ecological functions and services.

  17. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu--from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astebøl, Svein Ole; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Simonsen, Oyvind

    2004-12-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km(2) was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive area for both urbanisation and recreation. The residential area located centrally at Fornebu surrounds a centrally located park area. In the planning process, there was an expressed interest in using water as a life-giving element within the vegetation structure of the park. In Norway, stormwater in urban areas has traditionally been collected and transported in pipe systems to adjacent watercourses. However, there is an increasing interest in alternative "green" solutions for the management of stormwater. The paper presents a concept for sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu. A main objective is to improve the recreational and ecological value of stormwater while achieving a cost-effective solution. This objective is reached by replacing conventional urban drainage pipes with swales, filter strips, wetlands and ponds as collection, storage and treatment systems designed for natural processes. The paper thereby addresses integrated systems for stormwater management by approaching nature's way and sustainable development principles.

  18. Fuel particles in the Chernobyl cooling pond: current state and prediction for remediation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgakov, A.; Konoplev, A.; Smith, J.; Laptev, G.; Voitsekhovich, O.

    2009-01-01

    During the coming years, a management and remediation strategy for the Chernobyl cooling pond (CP) will be implemented. Remediation options include a controlled reduction in surface water level of the cooling pond and stabilisation of exposed sediments. In terrestrial soils, fuel particles deposited during the Chernobyl accident have now almost completely disintegrated. However, in the CP sediments the majority of 90 Sr activity is still in the form of fuel particles. Due to the low dissolved oxygen concentration and high pH, dissolution of fuel particles in the CP sediments is significantly slower than in soils. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the Pond, significant areas of sediments will be drained and exposed to the air. This will significantly enhance the dissolution rate and, correspondingly, the mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will increase with time. The rate of acidification of exposed bottom sediments was predicted on the basis of acidification of similar soils after liming. Using empirical equations relating the fuel particle dissolution rate to soil and sediment pH allowed prediction of fuel particle dissolution and 90 Sr mobilisation for different remediation scenarios. It is shown that in exposed sediments, fuel particles will be almost completely dissolved in 15-25 years, while in parts of the cooling pond which remain flooded, fuel particle dissolution will take about a century

  19. Geo-engineering experiments in two urban ponds to control eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijen, G.; Oosterhout, J.F.X.; Douglas, G.C.; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2016-01-01

    Many urban ponds experience detrimental algal blooms as the result of eutrophication. During a two year field experiment, the efficacy of five in situ treatments to mitigate eutrophication effects in urban ponds was studied. The treatments targeted the sediment phosphorus release and were intended

  20. Fate and effects of esfenvalerate in agricultural ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Gutavson, K.; Madsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    in enclosures in a natural lake and in the laboratory on surface (Cymatia coleoptrata) and sediment (Chironomus riparius) insects. The latter were used in sediment-plus-water and in water-only tests, measuring effects on emergence and mortality. The measurements in the artificial pond indicated exposure...

  1. 3D Numerical Modelling of Transport, Deposition and Resuspension of Highway Deposited Sediments in Wet Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2009-01-01

    concrete channel with width of 0.8 m and a water depth of approximately 0.8 m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved pollutants...... and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account....

  2. A Flexible framework for forward and inverse modeling of stormwater control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflaki, S.; Massoudieh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Models that allow for design considerations of green infrastructure (GI) practices to control stormwater runoff and associated contaminants have received considerable attention in recent years. While popular, generally, the GI models are relatively simplistic. However, GI model predictions are being relied upon by many municipalities and State/Local agencies to make decisions about grey vs. green infrastructure improvement planning. Adding complexity to GI modeling frameworks may preclude their use in simpler urban planning situations. Therefore, the goal here was to develop a sophisticated, yet flexible tool that could be used by design engineers and researchers to capture and explore the effect of design factors and properties of the media used in the performance of GI systems at a relatively small scale. We deemed it essential to have a flexible GI modeling tool that is capable of simulating GI system components and specific biophysical processes affecting contaminants such as reactions, and particle-associated transport accurately while maintaining a high degree of flexibly to account for the myriad of GI alternatives. The mathematical framework for a stand-alone GI performance assessment tool has been developed and will be demonstrated. The process-based model framework developed here can be used to model a diverse range of GI practices such as green roof, retention pond, bioretention, infiltration trench, permeable pavement and other custom-designed combinatory systems. Four demonstration applications covering a diverse range of systems will be presented. The example applications include a evaluating hydraulic performance of a complex bioretention system, hydraulic analysis of porous pavement system, flow colloid-facilitated transport, reactive transport and groundwater recharge underneath an infiltration pond and finally reactive transport and bed-sediment interactions in a wetland system will be presented.

  3. Food inputs, water quality and nutrient accumulation in integrated pond systems: A multivariate approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.; Milstein, A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A participatory on-farm study was conducted to explore the effects of food input patterns on water quality and sediment nutrient accumulation in ponds, and to identify different types of integrated pond systems. Ten integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farms, in which ponds associate with fruit

  4. Food web interactions and nutrients dynamics in polyculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial feed and fertilizers are the main sources of nutrients supporting fish growth in aquaculture ponds. The majority of the added nutrients are lost to the sediment, where they are no longer available for natural food production. By increasing resuspension of the sediment through the

  5. Toward city-scale water quality control: building a theory for smart stormwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkez, B.; Mullapudi, A. M.; Wong, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Urban stormwater systems are rarely designed as actual systems. Rather, it is often assumed that individual Best Management Practices (BMPs) will add up to achieve desired watershed outcomes. Given the rise of BMPs and green infrastructure, we ask: does doing "best" at the local scale guarantee the "best" at the global scale? Existing studies suggest that the system-level performance of distributed stormwater practices may actually adversely impact watersheds by increasing downstream erosion and reducing water quality. Optimizing spatial placement may not be sufficient, however, since precipitation variability and other sources of uncertainty can drive the overall system into undesirable states. To that end, it is also important to control the temporal behavior of the system, which can be achieved by equipping stormwater elements (ponds, wetlands, basins, bioswales, etc.) with "smart" sensors and valves. Rather than building new infrastructure, this permits for existing assets to be repurposed and controlled to adapt to individual storm events. While we have learned how to build and deploy the necessary sensing and control technologies, we do not have a framework or theory that combines our knowledge of hydrology, hydraulics, water quality and control. We discuss the development of such a framework and investigate how existing water domain knowledge can be transferred into a system-theoretic context to enable real-time, city-scale stormwater control. We apply this framework to water quality control in an urban watershed in southeast Michigan, which has been heavily instrumented and retrofitted for control over the past year.

  6. The effect of beaver ponds on water quality in rural coastal plain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bason, Christopher W.; Kroes, Daniel; Brinson, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    We compared water-quality effects of 13 beaver ponds on adjacent free-flowing control reaches in the Coastal Plain of rural North Carolina. We measured concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS) upstream and downstream of paired ponds and control reaches. Nitrate and SS concentrations decreased, ammonium concentrations increased, and SRP concentrations were unaffected downstream of the ponds and relative to the control reaches. The pond effect on nitrate concentration was a reduction of 112 ± 55 μg-N/L (19%) compared to a control-reach—influenced reduction of 28 ± 17 μg-N/L. The pond effect on ammonium concentration was an increase of 9.47 ± 10.9 μg-N/L (59%) compared to the control-reach—influenced reduction of 1.49 ± 1.37 μg-N/L. The pond effect on SS concentration was a decrease of 3.41 ± 1.68 mg/L (40%) compared to a control-reach—influenced increase of 0.56 ± 0.27 mg/L. Ponds on lower-order streams reduced nitrate concentrations by greater amounts compared to those in higher-order streams. Older ponds reduced SS concentrations by greater amounts compared to younger ponds. The findings of this study indicate that beaver ponds provide water-quality benefits to rural Coastal Plain streams by reducing concentrations of nitrate and suspended sediment.

  7. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure

  8. Spectroscopic characterization of uranium in evaporation basin sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, M. C.; Morris, D. E.; Hunter, D. B.; Bertsch, P. M.

    2000-05-01

    Evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), CA, used for the containment of irrigation drainage waters contain elevated levels of uranium (U) resulting from the extensive leaching by carbonate-rich irrigation waters of the local agricultural soils that contain low levels of naturally-occurring U. The SJV ponds are subjected to changes in redox chemistry with cycles of drying and flooding. Our past studies have shown that U in the SJV Pond 14 surface sediments is present as mostly the oxidized and soluble form, U(VI). However, we were uncertain whether the U in the soil was only present as a U oxide of mixed stoichiometry, such as U 3O 8(s) (pitchblende) or other species. Here we present characterization information, which includes wet chemical and in situ spectroscopic techniques (X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and low temperature time-resolved luminescence spectroscopies) for samples from two SJV Pond sediments. Surface sediments from SJV Pond 16 were characterized for average oxidation state of U with XANES spectroscopy. The fraction of U(VI) to U(IV) in the Pond 16 sediments decreased with depth with U(IV) being the dominant oxidation state in the 5 cm to 15 cm depth. Two luminescent U(VI) species were identified in the surface sediments from Pond 14; a U(VI)-tricarbonate phase and another phase likely comprised of U(VI)-hydroxide or hydroxycarbonate. The luminescent U(VI) population in the Pond 16 sediments is dominated by species with comparable spectral characteristics to the U(VI)-hydroxide or hydroxycarbonate species found in the Pond 14 sediments. The luminescence spectroscopic results were complemented by wet chemical U leaching methods, which involved the use of carbonate and sulfuric acid solutions and oxidizing solutions of peroxide, hypochlorite and Mn(IV). Leaching was shown to decrease the total U concentration in the sediments in all cases. However, results from luminescence studies of the residual fraction in the leached

  9. Pesticide and trace metal occurrence and aquatic benchmark exceedances in surface waters and sediments of urban wetlands and retention ponds in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, Graeme; Zhang, Pei; Bui, AnhDuyen; Allinson, Mayumi; Rose, Gavin; Marshall, Stephen; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    Samples of water and sediments were collected from 24 urban wetlands in Melbourne, Australia, in April 2010, and tested for more than 90 pesticides using a range of gas chromatographic (GC) and liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques, sample 'hormonal' activity using yeast-based recombinant receptor-reporter gene bioassays, and trace metals using spectroscopic techniques. At the time of sampling, there was almost no estrogenic activity in the water column. Twenty-three different pesticide residues were observed in one or more water samples from the 24 wetlands; chemicals observed at more than 40% of sites were simazine (100%), atrazine (79%), and metalaxyl and terbutryn (46%). Using the toxicity unit (TU) concept, less than 15% of the detected pesticides were considered to pose an individual, short-term risk to fish or zooplankton in the ponds and wetlands. However, one pesticide (fenvalerate) may have posed a possible short-term risk to fish (log10TUf > -3), and three pesticides (azoxystrobin, fenamiphos and fenvalerate) may have posed a risk to zooplankton (logTUzp between -2 and -3); all the photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicides may have posed a risk to primary producers in the ponds and wetlands (log10TUap and/or log10TUalg > -3). The wetland sediments were contaminated with 16 different pesticides; no chemicals were observed at more than one third of sites, but based on frequency of detection and concentrations, bifenthrin (33%, maximum 59 μg/kg) is the priority insecticide of concern for the sediments studied. Five sites returned a TU greater than the possible effect threshold (i.e. log10TU > 1) as a result of bifenthrin contamination of their sediments. Most sediments did not exceed Australian sediment quality guideline levels for trace metals. However, more than half of the sites had threshold effect concentration quotients (TECQ) values >1 for Cu (58%), Pb (50%), Ni (67%) and Zn (63%), and 75% of sites had mean probable effect concentration quotients

  10. Discussion on the source survey method in a natural evaporation pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaoshu; Fan Chengrong; Fu Yunshan

    2014-01-01

    A natural evaporation pond intended to be decommissioned. The survey of the pond focused on investigating radioactive contamination distribution and estimating the total amount of deposits in the pond, in order to provide support for subsequent decommissioning activities. Based on the source survey in the pond, this paper introduced how to implement radiation measurements and sampling (such as water and sediment) in the water. The movable work platform was built on the pond to facilitate sampling and measurement. In addition, a sludge sampler had been designed so as to accurately determine the amount of sampling and its depth. This paper also described the distribution of sampling points. (authors)

  11. Stormwater management at the ARID INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    NPDES stormwater permits are required for stormwater discharges to waters of the US (WUS). The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) applied for coverage under a general NPDES stormwater permit because there is some potential for stormwater discharge to the Big Lost River System, which could infiltrate to groundwater. The main requirements of the permit are to prevent contaminants from coming into contact with stormwater and prevent contaminated stormwater from running off of facilities into WUS or groundwater. All INEL major facility areas have prepared and implemented stormwater pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs). The INEL also applied for coverage under a separate NPDES general permit for stormwater discharges from construction sites. An INEL Generic SWPPP for construction activities was prepared and implemented for all construction projects at the INEL

  12. Dendritic Connectivity, Heterogeneity, and Scaling in Urban Stormwater Networks: Implications for Socio-Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, A.; Jovanovic, T.; Hale, R. L.; Gironas, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Urban stormwater networks (USNs) are unique dendritic (tree-like) structures that combine both artificial (e.g., swales and pipes) and natural (e.g., streams and wetlands) components. They are central to stream ecosystem structure and function in urban watersheds. The emphasis of conventional stormwater management, however, has been on localized, temporal impacts (e.g., changes to hydrographs at discrete locations), and the performance of individual stormwater control measures. This is the case even though control measures are implemented to prevent impacts on the USN. We develop a modeling approach to retrospectively study hydrological fluxes and states in USNs and apply the model to an urban watershed in Scottsdale, Arizona, USA. Using outputs from the model, we analyze over space and time the network properties of dendritic connectivity, heterogeneity, and scaling. Results show that as the network growth over time, due to increasing urbanization, it tends to become more homogenous in terms of topological features but increasingly heterogeneous in terms of dynamic features. We further use the modeling results to address socio-hydrological implications for USNs. We find that the adoption over time of evolving management strategies (e.g., widespread implementation of vegetated swales and retention ponds versus pipes) may be locally beneficial to the USN but benefits may not propagate systematically through the network. The latter can be reinforced by sudden, perhaps unintended, changes to the overall dendritic connectivity.

  13. Investigation of Composition of Particle Size in Sediments of Stormwater Sedimentation Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Daiva Laučytė; Regimantas Dauknys

    2011-01-01

    The main object for the storm water runoff treatment is to remove suspended solids before the storm water runoff is discharged into surface waters. Therefore the sedimentation tank is the most often used treatment facility. In order to optimise the sedimentation, the tendency of particle size distribution in bottom sediments must be known. Two similar size storm water runoff sedimentation tanks in Vilnius city were selected for the analysis of the particle size distribution in sediments. The ...

  14. Investigation of Composition of Particle Size in Sediments of Stormwater Sedimentation Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Laučytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main object for the storm water runoff treatment is to remove suspended solids before the storm water runoff is discharged into surface waters. Therefore the sedimentation tank is the most often used treatment facility. In order to optimise the sedimentation, the tendency of particle size distribution in bottom sediments must be known. Two similar size storm water runoff sedimentation tanks in Vilnius city were selected for the analysis of the particle size distribution in sediments. The composite samples of drained storm water runoff sediments were collected at the sedimentation tanks located in the districts of Verkiai and Karoliniskes on the 2nd of June, 2008. The analyses of grain size distribution were performed according the standard ISO/TS 17892-4:2004. The results showed that the particles with the particle size of 1–2 mm were obtained up to 10 m from the inlet and the particles with the size of 0,01–0,05 mm mainly were obtained close to the outlet of sedimentation tank. It is recommended to divide the sedimentation tank in two parts in order to get proper management of sediments: the particles that size is 1–10 mm could be managed as waste from grit chambers and particles of smaller size could be managed as primary sludge.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Pond bank access as an approach for managing toxic cyanobacteria in beef cattle pasture drinking water ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alan E; Chislock, Michael F; Yang, Zhen; Barros, Mário U G; Roberts, John F

    2018-03-25

    Forty-one livestock drinking water ponds in Alabama beef cattle pastures during were surveyed during the late summer to generally understand water quality patterns in these important water resources. Since livestock drinking water ponds are prone to excess nutrients that typically lead to eutrophication, which can promote blooms of toxigenic phytoplankton such as cyanobacteria, we also assessed the threat of exposure to the hepatotoxin, microcystin. Eighty percent of the ponds studied contained measurable microcystin, while three of these ponds had concentrations above human drinking water thresholds set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., 0.3 μg/L). Water quality patterns in the livestock drinking water ponds contrasted sharply with patterns typically observed for temperate freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Namely, we found several non-linear relationships between phytoplankton abundance (measured as chlorophyll) and nutrients or total suspended solids. Livestock had direct access to all the study ponds. Consequently, the proportion of inorganic suspended solids (e.g., sediment) increased with higher concentrations of total suspended solids, which underlies these patterns. Unimodal relationships were also observed between microcystin and phytoplankton abundance or nutrients. Euglenoids were abundant in the four ponds with chlorophyll concentrations > 250 μg/L (and dominated three of these ponds), which could explain why ponds with high chlorophyll concentrations would have low microcystin concentrations. Based on observations made during sampling events and available water quality data, livestock-mediated bioturbation is causing elevated total suspended solids that lead to reduced phytoplankton abundance and microcystin despite high concentrations of nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen. Thus, livestock could be used to manage algal blooms, including toxic secondary metabolites, in their drinking water ponds by allowing them to walk in the

  16. Managed flood effects on beaver pond habitat in a desert riverine ecosystem, bill williams river, Arizona USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.C.; Shafroth, P.B.; Pritekel, C.M.; O'Neill, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological effects of beaver in warm-desert streams are poorly documented, but potentially significant. For example, stream water and sediment budgets may be affected by increased evaporative losses and sediment retention in beaver ponds. We measured physical attributes of beaver pond and adjacent lotic habitats on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, the Bill Williams River, after ???11 flood-free months in Spring 2007 and Spring 2008. Neither a predicted warming of surface water as it passed through a pond nor a reduction in dissolved oxygen in ponds was consistently observed, but bed sediment sorted to finest in ponds as expected. We observed a river segment-scale downstream rise in daily minimum stream temperature that may have been influenced by the series of ??100 beaver ponds present. Channel cross-sections surveyed before and after an experimental flood (peak flow 65 m3/s) showed net aggradation on nine of 13 cross-sections through ponds and three of seven through lotic reaches. Our results indicate that beaver affect riverine processes in warm deserts much as they do in other biomes. However, effects may be magnified in deserts through the potential for beaver to alter the stream thermal regime and water budget. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

  17. Radioecological studies of 137Cs in limnological ecosystems. 137Cs concentrations in water, sediment and fishes at the pond in Saitama prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki; Izumo, Yoshiro

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of 137 Cs in water, sediment and fishes at the pond in Saitama prefecture were determined in order to elucidate the radioecology of 137 Cs in limnological ecosystems. 137 Cs concentration in water was 0.31±0.002 mBq/l (mean±standard error), and so indicated about 3 times higher than that (0.10 mBq/l) for the river in our previous report. 137 Cs concentrations in sediment, carp, Cyprinus carpio, crucian carp, Carassius auratus cuvieri, and Hakuren, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, were about 20000, 1200, 2400 and 3100 times higher than that of the water, respectively. These concentrations were higher than those of each sample for the river in our previous report. It was so suggested that 137 Cs tended to be accumulated in these samples at the pond more than the nuclide in the river. Moreover, concentration ratios, concentration of 137 Cs in sediment, crucian carp and Hakuren to that of the water, were about 30, 2 and 3 times higher than these of 40 K, respectively, except for carp of which 137 Cs and 40 K concentration ratios were almost same. These results showed difference in accumulation mechanism between 137 Cs and 40 K in these samples, as well as 137 Cs transfer mechanism in the limnological ecosystems in part. (author)

  18. Contamination of settling ponds of coal mines caused by natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, B.; Chalupnik, S.; Skubacz, K.; Wysocka, M.; Mielnikow, A.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of a discharge of the radium-bearing waters from coal mines into settlement ponds and later into rivers a significant increase of radium concentration in bottom sediments can be observed. Sometimes also a contamination of river banks, soils and vegetation occurs. Mine waters contain mainly radium isotopes i.e. 226 Ra from uranium series and 228 Ra from thorium series. Due to chemical properties of such brines, these waters contain usually no uranium, no thorium and rather seldom elevated concentration of other isotopes as lead ( 210 Pb) and polonium ( 210 Po). The deposition or adsorption of radium on bottom sediments may take place on a distance of several kilometers from the discharge points. After a deposition or adsorption of radium isotopes the built-up of the activity of their progeny begins. Therefore concentrations of radium isotopes are higher than the decay products. We are able to measure the disequilibrium in 226 Ra decay chain as well as in 228 Ra decay chain, which shows the approximate age of the deposit. The paper describes results of investigation of sediments with enhanced natural radioactivity occurring in settlement ponds, where mine waters have been dumped. The results of measurements show that these deposits contain mainly 226 Ra and 228 Ra and their progeny. Influence of bottom sediments with enhanced radium concentration on the natural environment in the vicinity of settlement ponds was studied on the example of two different water reservoirs where radium-bearing mine waters type A and B are released. The results show clearly enhanced radioactivity of bottom sediments and water in the settling ponds and in the rivers, but no evident enhancement was found in the adjacent land. Both coal mines are located in the drainage area of Vistula river, and bottom sediments with enhanced radium concentrations were found in Vistula up to 70 km downstream from the discharge point. (author)

  19. Removal of dissolved heavy metals from pre-settled stormwater runoff by iron-oxide coated sand (IOCS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J.; Ledin, Anna; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2002-01-01

    (Pb=20, Cu=40, Zn=110, and Cr=15 ppb). Column experiments were conducted to test the influence of the infiltration rate (1 or 3 m/h) and the type of iron(hydr)oxide mineral (amorphous ferrihydrite and goethite coated sand). The results show that at least 90% of lead, copper and zinc can be removed......Sorption to iron-oxide coated sand (IOCS) is a promosing technology for removal of the dissolved heavy metal fraction in stormwater runoff. The development of a new technology is necessary since studies of stormwater runoff from traffic areas indicate that an oil separator and detention pond may...... by IOCS after 480 pore volumes. Control columns with uncoated filter sand show that lead, copper and zinc were removed with >95%, 35% and 5%, respectively. The removal of the negative metaloxy-ion, CrO4-3 was insignificant in both IOCS and sand columns at pH=7.7. Destruction of the columns after...

  20. Geo-engineering experiments in two urban ponds to control eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waajen, Guido; van Oosterhout, Frank; Douglas, Grant; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-06-15

    Many urban ponds experience detrimental algal blooms as the result of eutrophication. During a two year field experiment, the efficacy of five in situ treatments to mitigate eutrophication effects in urban ponds was studied. The treatments targeted the sediment phosphorus release and were intended to switch the ponds from a turbid phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear-water state with a low phytoplankton biomass. Two eutrophic urban ponds were each divided into six compartments (300-400 m(2); 210-700 m(3)). In each pond the following treatments were tested: dredging in combination with biomanipulation (involving fish biomass control and the introduction of macrophytes) with and without the addition of the flocculant polyaluminiumchloride, interception and reduction of sediment phosphorus release with lanthanum-modified bentonite (Phoslock(®)) in combination with biomanipulation with and without polyaluminiumchloride; biomanipulation alone; and a control. Trial results support the hypothesis that the combination of biomanipulation and measures targeting the sediment phosphorus release can be effective in reducing the phytoplankton biomass and establishing and maintaining a clear-water state, provided the external phosphorus loading is limited. During the experimental period dredging combined with biomanipulation showed mean chlorophyll-a concentrations of 5.3 and 6.2 μg L(-1), compared to 268.9 and 52.4 μg L(-1) in the control compartments. Lanthanum-modified bentonite can be an effective alternative to dredging and in combination with biomanipulation it showed mean chlorophyll-a concentrations of 5.9 and 7.6 μg L(-1). Biomanipulation alone did not establish a clear-water state or only during a limited period. As the two experimental sites differed in their reaction to the treatments, it is important to choose the most promising treatment depending on site specific characteristics. In recovering the water quality status of urban ponds, continuing

  1. Innovative use of lamella clarifiers for central stormwater treatment in separate sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Lamella settlers have been used in the past few years for the sedimentation of particles in wastewater and stormwater applications. A new and very innovative approach for the treatment of stormwater flows is proposed which extends the portfolio of solutions beyond traditional settling tanks. Surface runoff is stored in a sewer or a basin and finally treated in a small but continuously operated lamella clarifier. The low throughput flow will yield good treatment efficiency at a small footprint. The possibilities of using existing storage volume in a storm sewer, as well as the structural flexibility of the arrangement are decisive benefits. As a large operational advantage, the lamellae may be cleaned mechanically, e.g. by pivoting under water. Finally, the flow and the sludge which will be sent to the downstream treatment plant will be minimized. A new comparative simulation method is proposed in order to assess an equivalent degree of stormwater treatment, either by achieving an equal annual volume of treated stormwater or, more directly, an equal amount of spilled pollutant load. The new solution is compared with a traditional settling tank according to current German design rules. Additionally, a case study from a real installation will be presented.

  2. Hydrology, water quality, and water-supply potential of ponds at Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia, November 2008-July 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrology, water quality, and water-supply potential of four ponds constructed to capture stormwater runoff at Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia, were evaluated as potential sources of supplemental irrigation supply. The ponds are, Oglethorpe Lake, Halstrum Pond, Wilson Gate Pond, and golf course pond. During the dry season, when irrigation demand is highest, ponds maintain water levels primarily from groundwater seepage. The availability of water from ponds during dry periods is controlled by the permeability of surficial deposits, precipitation and evaporation, and the volume of water stored in the pond. Net groundwater seepage (Gnet) was estimated using a water-budget approach that used onsite and nearby climatic and hydrologic data collected during November-December 2008 including precipitation, evaporation, pond stage, and discharge. Gnet was estimated at three of the four sites?Oglethorpe Lake, Halstrum Pond, and Wilson Gate Pond?during November-December 2008. Pond storage volume in the three ponds ranged from 5.34 to 12.8 million gallons. During November-December 2008, cumulative Gnet ranged from -5.74 gallons per minute (gal/min), indicating a net loss in pond volume, to 19 gal/min, indicating a net gain in pond volume. During several periods of stage recovery, daily Gnet rates were higher than the 2-month cumulative amount, with the highest rates of 178 to 424 gal/min following major rainfall events during limited periods. These high rates may include some contribution from stormwater runoff; more typical recovery rates were from 23 to 223 gal/min. A conservative estimate of the volume of water available for irrigation supply from three of the ponds was provided by computing the rate of depletion of pond volume for a variety of withdrawal rates based on long-term average July precipitation and evaporation and the lowest estimated Gnet rate at each pond. Withdrawal rates of 1,000, 500, and 250 gal/min were applied during an 8-hour daily

  3. Stormwater Management Concept Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A stormwater management concept is a statement or drawing, or both, describing the manner in which stormwater runoff from a proposed development will be controlled...

  4. Surface and subsurface soils at the Pond B dam: July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    Pond B, 685-13G, is an inactive reactor cooling impoundment built in 1961 on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Between 1961 and 1964, Pond B received R-Reactor cooling water discharges that were contaminated with 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium. Though the pond has not been used since 1964, radionuclides from the contaminated cooling water remain in the water and in the surface sediments of the pond. The current proposal to fix and repair the Pond B dam structure includes installing a new drain system and monitoring equipment. The dam will be reinforced with additional previous material on the downstream face of the dam. The objectives of this report are to describe the sampling methodology used during the July 1998 sampling event at the downstream face of the Pond B dam and in Pond B, present the results of the sampling event, and compare, where possible, these results to related risk-based standards

  5. Stormwater management and ecosystem services: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudencio, Liana; Null, Sarah E.

    2018-03-01

    Researchers and water managers have turned to green stormwater infrastructure, such as bioswales, retention basins, wetlands, rain gardens, and urban green spaces to reduce flooding, augment surface water supplies, recharge groundwater, and improve water quality. It is increasingly clear that green stormwater infrastructure not only controls stormwater volume and timing, but also promotes ecosystem services, which are the benefits that ecosystems provide to humans. Yet there has been little synthesis focused on understanding how green stormwater management affects ecosystem services. The objectives of this paper are to review and synthesize published literature on ecosystem services and green stormwater infrastructure and identify gaps in research and understanding, establishing a foundation for research at the intersection of ecosystems services and green stormwater management. We reviewed 170 publications on stormwater management and ecosystem services, and summarized the state-of-the-science categorized by the four types of ecosystem services. Major findings show that: (1) most research was conducted at the parcel-scale and should expand to larger scales to more closely understand green stormwater infrastructure impacts, (2) nearly a third of papers developed frameworks for implementing green stormwater infrastructure and highlighted barriers, (3) papers discussed ecosystem services, but less than 40% quantified ecosystem services, (4) no geographic trends emerged, indicating interest in applying green stormwater infrastructure across different contexts, (5) studies increasingly integrate engineering, physical science, and social science approaches for holistic understanding, and (6) standardizing green stormwater infrastructure terminology would provide a more cohesive field of study than the diverse and often redundant terminology currently in use. We recommend that future research provide metrics and quantify ecosystem services, integrate disciplines to

  6. Development of sustainable stormwater management using simulation-optimization approach under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-ru; Tung, Ching-pin

    2015-04-01

    Climate change had altered the hydrological processes globally with result that the extreme events have an increase in both the magnitude and the frequency. In particular, the high intensity rainfall cause the severe flooding had significantly impacted on human life and property in recently year. The traditional facility to handle runoff is the drainage system which is designed in accordance with the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve. However, the flooding occurs once the drainage capacity is overwhelmed by excess stormwater. Thus the general solution are that expanding and upgrading the existing drainage system or increasing the design return period for new development areas to reduce flooding. Besides, another technique which is low impact development(LID) is regarded as more sustainable solution for stormwater management. The concept of LID is to control stormwater at the source by decentralized practices and mimic the predevelopment hydrologic conditions including storage, retention and high rate of infiltration. In contrast to conventional drainage system aims to move runoff away as quickly as possible, the LID approach attempts to keep runoff on site to reduce peak and volume of flow. The purpose of this research is to identify the most cost-effective measures for stormwater management after the analysis of the strategies combining drainage system and LID on various land use planning. The case study is a rural community in Hsinchu in Taiwan, and having residential areas, farms and pond. It is assumed that two land use layout are planned and drainage system are designed for 2-,and 5-year return period events. On the other hand, three LID technologies, namely green roof, porous pavement and rain barrel, are selected to place in the scenario of the drainage system for 2-year return period event, and the minimal peak flow is target to optimize LID placement by simulated annealing algorithm. Moreover, the design storm under climate change are derived from

  7. Decision Support System (DSS) for MSMA Integrated Stormwater Management Ecohydrology for Sustainable Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohiyaden, H. A.; Haris, H.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Roseli, Z. A.; Norlida, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization has known to have several adverse impacts towards hydrological cycle due to increasing impervious surface and degradation of water quality in stormwater runoff. In the past, urban waterways have been confined to narrow river corridors with the channels canalised and concrete and other synthetic materials forming the bed and banks of the river. Apart from that, stormwater pollutants such as litter, debris and sediments in drainage system are common problems that can lead to flooding and the degradation of water quality. To solve this problem, implementing stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) proves very promising due to its near natural characteristics and multiple effects on the drainage of stormwater runoff in urban areas. This judgment of using BMPs depends on not only relevant theoretical considerations, but also a large amount of practical experience and the availability of relevant data, as well. To fulfil this task, the so-called Decision Support System (DSS) in MSMA Design Aid and Database system are able to assist engineers and developers in management and improvement of water quantity and quality entering urban rivers from urban regions. This system is also helpful when an expert level judgment procure some repetitive and large amount of cases, like in the planning of stormwater BMPs systems for an entire city catchment. One of the advantages of an expert system is that it provides automation of expert-level judgement using availability of checking tools system.

  8. Diversity of purple nonsulfur bacteria in shrimp ponds with varying mercury levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Mukkata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the diversity of purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB and to investigate the effect of Hg concentrations in shrimp ponds on PNSB diversity. Amplification of the pufM gene was detected in 13 and 10 samples of water and sediment collected from 16 shrimp ponds in Southern Thailand. In addition to PNSB, other anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (APB were also observed; purple sulfur bacteria (PSB and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB although most of them could not be identified. Among identified groups; AAPB, PSB and PNSB in the samples of water and sediment were 25.71, 11.43 and 8.57%; and 27.78, 11.11 and 22.22%, respectively. In both sample types, Roseobacter denitrificans (AAPB was the most dominant species followed by Halorhodospira halophila (PSB. In addition two genera, observed most frequently in the sediment samples were a group of PNSB (Rhodovulum kholense, Rhodospirillum centenum and Rhodobium marinum. The UPGMA dendrograms showed 7 and 6 clustered groups in the water and sediment samples, respectively. There was no relationship between the clustered groups and the total Hg (HgT concentrations in the water and sediment samples used (<0.002–0.03 μg/L and 35.40–391.60 μg/kg dry weight for studying the biodiversity. It can be concluded that there was no effect of the various Hg levels on the diversity of detected APB species; particularly the PNSB in the shrimp ponds.

  9. Stormwater runoff plumes in the Southern California Bight: A comparison study with SAR and MODIS imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Benjamin; Trinh, Rebecca; Gierach, Michelle M

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater runoff is the largest source of pollution in the Southern California Bight (SCB), resulting from untreated runoff and pollutants from urban watersheds entering the coastal waters after rainstorms. We make use of both satellite SAR and MODIS-Aqua ocean color imagery to examine two different components of runoff plumes, the surface slick and the sediment discharge. We expand on earlier satellite SAR studies by examining an extensive collection of multi-platform SAR imagery, spanning from 1992 to 2014, that provides a more comprehensive view of the plume surface slick characteristics, illustrated with distribution maps of the extent and flow direction of the plumes. The SAR-detected surface plumes are compared with coincident rain and runoff measurements, and with available measured shoreline fecal bacteria loads. We illustrate differences in the detection of SAR surface plumes with the sediment-related discharge plumes derived from MODIS imagery. A conceptual satellite stormwater runoff monitoring approach is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Restoration of a shady urban pond - The pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczak, Tomasz; Wojtal-Frankiewicz, Adrianna; Kaczkowski, Zbigniew; Oleksińska, Zuzanna; Bednarek, Agnieszka; Zalewski, Maciej

    2018-07-01

    The Bzura-7 pond (Łódź, Poland) is a typical shallow and shady urban reservoir situated on the Bzura River that is exposed to pollutants introduced mainly by internal loads and the supply from the catchment. In 2010-2012, the following characteristics were observed in the pond: a high allochthonous input of organic matter, high concentration of ammonium, low concentration of dissolved oxygen and low diversity of zooplankton, dominated mainly by Daphnia spp. From January to June 2013, restoration measures were performed, including sediment removal, increasing light access to the pond and construction of a sequential sedimentation-biofiltration system (SSBS). The aim of the present study was to investigate how the water quality in the Bzura-7 pond was affected by the restoration process, which included reducing pollutant inflows and enhancing habitat potential, thus increasing the diversity of this ecosystem. Restoration efforts improved the chemical and physical parameters of the water. The oxygen concentration increased, and the concentrations of TN and ammonium significantly decreased. Despite the increase in pond lighting, the growth of cyanobacteria was limited. However, we observed increased abundance of green algae and diatoms but less than adequate changes in the zooplankton community structures. Although we observed a significant increase in the zooplankton species richness after restoration, this increase was related to the small-bodied groups of zooplankton, rotifers and bosminiids, characteristic of eutrophic ecosystems. In addition, a planktivorous fish - sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus) - was identified as an unintended side effect of the restoration effort. Further conservation efforts in the Bzura-7 pond and monitoring of results are still needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mercury methylation in high and low-sulphate impacted wetland ponds within the prairie pothole region of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggarth, Cameron G.J.; Hall, Britt D.; Mitchell, Carl P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Using enriched stable 201 Hg injections into intact sediment cores, we provide the first reported Hg methylation potential rate constants (k m ) in prairie wetland ponds (0.016–0.17 d −1 ). Our k m values were similar to other freshwater wetlands and did not differ in ponds categorized with high compared to low surface water concentrations of sulphate. Sites with high sulphate had higher proportions of methylmercury (MeHg) in sediment (2.9 ± 1.6% vs. 1.0 ± 0.3%) and higher surface water MeHg concentrations (1.96 ± 1.90 ng L −1 vs. 0.56 ± 0.55 ng L −1 ). Sediment-porewater partitioning coefficients were small, and likely due to high ionic activity. Our work suggests while k m measurements are useful for understanding mercury cycling processes, they are less important than surface water MeHg concentrations for assessing MeHg risks to biota. Significant differences in MeHg concentrations between sites with high and low sulphate concentrations may also inform management decisions concerning wetland remediation and creation. - Highlights: • Wetlands of the PPR provide many vital ecosystem services, but can have high MeHg concentrations. • Methylation potentials in prairie ponds are similar to other freshwater wetlands. • MeHg and %MeHg in surface water of high sulphate ponds was greater than low sulphate ponds. • Sediment-porewater partitioning coefficients were small compared to other systems. • Potential methylation rate constants did not correlate to surface water concentrations. - Prairie wetland ponds with higher sulphate concentrations have greater sediment and surface water methylmercury concentrations, but potential methylation rates do not differ

  12. Report on the methylmercury situation in Par Pond. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, J.E.; Williams, D.J.; Alberts, J.J.

    1975-06-01

    Studies are reported on the methylation and accumulation of mercury in fish populations of the pond. Results showed that the majority of the mercury in the fish muscles was in the methyl mercury form. Very low concentrations of mercury were found in the pond sediments. Physiological methylation of the mercury could not be demonstrated by in vivo or in vitro techniques. Organic ligand methylation and reduction of the mercury was shown to be a possible mechanism to account for both the mercury distribution in the pond and the concentrations of methylmercury in the fish. Recommendations are made for remedial treatments to eliminate the mercury problem. (HLW)

  13. Performance evaluation and modelling studies of gravel--coir fibre--sand multimedia stormwater filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Manoj P; Senthilvel, S; Tamilmani, D; Mathew, A C

    2012-09-01

    A horizontal flow multimedia stormwater filter was developed and tested for hydraulic efficiency and pollutant removal efficiency. Gravel, coconut (Cocos nucifera) fibre and sand were selected as the media and filled in 1:1:1 proportion. A fabric screen made up of woven sisal hemp was used to separate the media. The adsorption behaviour of coir fibre was determined in a series of column and batch studies and the corresponding isotherms were developed. The hydraulic efficiency of the filter showed a diminishing trend as the sediment level in inflow increased. The filter exhibited 100% sediment removal at lower sediment concentrations in inflow water (>6 g L(-1)). The filter could remove NO3(-), SO4(2-) and total solids (TS) effectively. Removal percentages of Mg(2+) and Na(+) were also found to be good. Similar results were obtained from a field evaluation study. Studies were also conducted to determine the pattern of silt and sediment deposition inside the filter body. The effects of residence time and rate of flow on removal percentages of NO3(-) and TS were also investigated out. In addition, a multiple regression equation that mathematically represents the filtration process was developed. Based on estimated annual costs and returns, all financial viability criteria (internal rate of return, net present value and benefit-cost ratio) were found favourable and affordable to farmers for investment in the developed filtration system. The model MUSIC was calibrated and validated for field conditions with respect to the developed stormwater filter.

  14. A Review of Semivolatile and Volatile Organic Compounds in Highway Runoff and Urban Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Dionne, Shannon G.

    1998-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted since 1970 to characterize concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in highway runoff and urban stormwater. To a lesser extent, studies also have characterized concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), estimated loads of SVOCs, and assessed potential impacts of these contaminants on receiving streams. This review evaluates the quality of existing data on SVOCs and VOCs in highway runoff and urban storm- water and summarizes significant findings. Studies related to highways are emphasized when possible. The review included 44 articles and reports that focused primarily on SVOCs and VOCs. Only 17 of these publications are related to highways, and 5 of these 17 are themselves review papers. SVOCs in urban stormwater and sediments during the late 1970's to mid-1980's were the subject of most studies. Criteria used to evaluate data quality included documentation of sampling protocols, analytical methods, minimum reporting limit (MRL) or method detection limit (MDL), qualityassurance protocols, and quality-control samples. The largest deficiency in documenting data quality was that only 10 percent of the studies described where water samples were collected in the stream cross section. About 80 percent of SVOCs in runoff are in the suspended solids. Because suspended solids can vary significantly even in narrow channels, concentrations from discrete point samples and contaminant loads estimated from those samples are questionable without information on sample location or how well streamflow was mixed. Thirty percent or fewer of the studies documented the MRL, MDL, cleaning of samplers, or use of field quality-control samples. Comparing results of different studies and evaluating the quality of environmental data, especially for samples with low concentrations, is difficult without this information. The most significant factor affecting SVOC concentrations in water is suspended solids concentration. In sediment

  15. Partition of pollution between dissolved and particulate phases: what about emerging substances in urban stormwater catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Sally; Moilleron, Régis; Saad, Mohamed; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results about the occurrence, the concentrations of urban priority substances on both the dissolved and the particulate phases in stormwater. Samples were collected at the outlet of a dense urban catchment in Paris suburb (2.30 km(2)). 13 chemical groups were investigated including 88 individual substances. Results showed that stormwater discharges contained 45 substances among them some metals, organotins, PAHs, PCBs, alkylphenols, pesticides, phthalates, cholorophenols and one volatile organic compound, i.e. methylene chloride. With respect to the European Water Framework Directive, these substances included 47% of the priority hazardous substances (n = 8), 38% of the priority substances (n = 10). The remaining substances (n = 27) belong to a list of others specific urban substances not included in the Water Framework Directive but monitored during this work. Finally, stormwater quality was evaluated by comparing the substance concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQS) and the particulate content to Canadian sediment quality guidelines. This showed that stormwater was highly contaminated and should be treated before being discharged to receiving waters in order to avoid any adverse impact on the river quality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics, and estimates of constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.; Phillips, J.V.; Monical, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in the Phoenix, Arizona, area were monitored to determine the physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics of storm- water from areas having different land uses; to describe the characteristics of streamflow in a river that receives urban stormwater; and to estimate constituent loads in stormwater from unmonitored areas in Maricopa County, Arizona. Land use affects urban stormwater chemistry mostly because the percentage of impervious area controls the suspended-solids concentrations and varies with the type of land use. Urban activities also seem to concentrate cadmium, lead, and zinc in sediments. Urban stormwater had larger concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, oil and grease, and higher counts of fecal bacteria than streamflow and could degrade the quality of the Salt River. Most regression equations for estimating constituent loads require three explanatory variables (total rainfall, drainage area, and per- centage of impervious area) and had standard errors that were from 65 to 266 percent. Localized areas that appear to contribute a large proportion of the constituent loads typically have 40 percent or more impervious area and are associated with industrial, commercial, and high-density residential land uses. The use of the mean value of the event-mean constituent concentrations measured in stormwater may be the best way of estimating constituent concentrations.

  17. The Effects of Urbanization and Flood Control on Sediment Discharge of a Southern California River, Evidence of a Dilution Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J. A.; Orzech, K. M.; Rubin, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The southern California landscape has undergone dramatic urbanization and population growth during the past 60 years and currently supports almost 20 million inhabitants. During this time, rivers of the region have been altered with damming, channel straightening and hardening, and water transfer engineering. These changes have drastically altered water and sediment discharge from most of the region's drainage basins. Here we focus on changes in sediment discharge from the largest watershed of southern California, the Santa Ana River. Order-of-magnitude drops in the suspended sediment rating curves (the relationship between suspended sediment concentration and instantaneous river discharge) are observed between 1967 and 2001, long after the construction of a major flood control dam in 1941. These sediment concentration decreases do not, however, represent alteration of the total sediment flux from the basin (a common interpretation of sediment rating curves), but rather a dilution of suspended sediment by increases (approx. 4x) in stormwater discharge associated with urbanization. Increases in peak and total stormwater discharge are consistent with runoff patterns from urbanizing landscapes, supporting our hypothesis that the diluting water originated from stormwater runoff generated in urban areas both up- and downstream of dams. Our dilution hypothesis is further supported with water and sediment budgets, dilution calculations, and suspended and bed grain size information.

  18. Estuarine Sediment Deposition during Wetland Restoration: A GIS and Remote Sensing Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Michelle; Kuss, Amber; Kentron, Tyler; Remar, Alex; Choksi, Vivek; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of the industrial salt flats in the San Francisco Bay, California is an ongoing wetland rehabilitation project. Remote sensing maps of suspended sediment concentration, and other GIS predictor variables were used to model sediment deposition within these recently restored ponds. Suspended sediment concentrations were calibrated to reflectance values from Landsat TM 5 and ASTER using three statistical techniques -- linear regression, multivariate regression, and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), to map suspended sediment concentrations. Multivariate and ANN regressions using ASTER proved to be the most accurate methods, yielding r2 values of 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Predictor variables such as sediment grain size and tidal frequency were used in the Marsh Sedimentation (MARSED) model for predicting deposition rates for three years. MARSED results for a fully restored pond show a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 66.8 mm (<1) between modeled and field observations. This model was further applied to a pond breached in November 2010 and indicated that the recently breached pond will reach equilibrium levels after 60 months of tidal inundation.

  19. A highly sensitive underwater video system for use in turbid aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Tsao, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Kuo-Hao; Jang, Jia-Pu; Chang, Hsu-Kuang; Dobbs, Fred C

    2016-08-24

    The turbid, low-light waters characteristic of aquaculture ponds have made it difficult or impossible for previous video cameras to provide clear imagery of the ponds' benthic habitat. We developed a highly sensitive, underwater video system (UVS) for this particular application and tested it in shrimp ponds having turbidities typical of those in southern Taiwan. The system's high-quality video stream and images, together with its camera capacity (up to nine cameras), permit in situ observations of shrimp feeding behavior, shrimp size and internal anatomy, and organic matter residues on pond sediments. The UVS can operate continuously and be focused remotely, a convenience to shrimp farmers. The observations possible with the UVS provide aquaculturists with information critical to provision of feed with minimal waste; determining whether the accumulation of organic-matter residues dictates exchange of pond water; and management decisions concerning shrimp health.

  20. Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    nitrogen inputs (858 kilograms per year) were dominated (30 percent) by plume water from the septic leach field and, possibly, by swimmers (34 percent). Phosphorus inputs (32 kilograms per year) were dominated by atmospheric dry deposition, background ground water, and estimated swimmer inputs. Swimmer inputs may represent more than 50 percent of the phosphorus load during the summer. The septic-system plume did not contribute phosphorus, but increased the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio for inputs from 41 to 59, on an atom-to-atom basis. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in input loads and within the lake indicated algal growth would be strongly phosphorus limited. Nitrogen supply in excess of plant requirements may mitigate against nitrogen fixing organisms including undesirable blooms of cyanobacteria. Based on areal nutrient loading, Walden Pond is a mesotrophic lake. Hypolimnetic oxygen demand of Walden Pond has increased since a profile was measured in 1939. Currently (1999), the entire hypolimnion of Walden Pond becomes devoid of dissolved oxygen before fall turnover in late November; whereas historical data indicated dissolved oxygen likely remained in the hypolimnion during 1939. The complete depletion of dissolved oxygen likely causes release of phosphorus from the sediments. Walden Pond contains a large population of the deep-growing benthic macro alga Nitella, which has been hypothesized to promote water clarity in other clear-water lakes by sequestering nutrients and keeping large areas of the sediment surface oxygenated. Loss of Nitella populations in other lakes has correlated with a decline in water quality. Although the Nitella standing crop is large in Walden Pond, Nitella still appears to be controlled by nutrient availability. Decreasing phosphorus inputs to Walden Pond, by amounts under anthropogenic control would likely contribute to the stability of the Nitella population in the metalimnion, may reverse oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion, and decreas

  1. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  2. International experiences in stormwater fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, F A; Assunção, L B; Finotti, A R

    2017-04-01

    Stormwater management (SWM) includes a wide range of services aimed at environmental protection, enhancement of water resources and flood control. Local governments are responsible for managing all these aspects within their jurisdiction, but they often present limitations in generating revenues. Thus, many municipalities have been seeking a dedicated funding source for these programs and practices. This publication provides a brief overview of current legal issues associated with stormwater funding focusing on the most used method: fees. It is a successful mechanism to fund legal obligations of municipalities; however, it must have a significant value to motivate the reduction of runoff. Through literature, we found stormwater fees in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Ecuador, France, Germany, Poland, South Africa and the United States (USA). France had the highest average monthly fee, but this financing experience was suspended in 2014. Brazil has the lowest fee by m², comparable to the US fee. While in Brazil overall SWM represents low priority investments, the USA represents one of the most evolved countries in stormwater funding practices. It was noticed by reviewing the international experience that charging stormwater fees is a successful mechanism to fund the legal obligations and environmental protection.

  3. Model-based monitoring of stormwater runoff quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of micropollutants (MP) in stormwater is essential to evaluate the impacts of stormwater on the receiving aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to investigate how different strategies for monitoring of stormwater quality (combining a model with field sampling) affect the infor...

  4. Basal-topographic control of stationary ponds on a continuously moving landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J.A.; McKenna, J.P.; Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Slumgullion landslide in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado has been moving for at least the last few hundred years and has multiple ponds on its surface. We have studied eight ponds during 30 trips to the landslide between July 1998 and July 2007. During each trip, we have made observations on the variability in pond locations and water levels, taken ground-based photographs to document pond water with respect to moving landslide material and vegetation, conducted Global Positioning System surveys of the elevations of water levels and mapped pond sediments on the landslide surface. Additionally, we have used stereo aerial photographs taken in October 1939, October 1940 and July 2000 to measure topographic profiles of the eight pond locations, as well as a longitudinal profile along the approximate centerline of the landslide, to examine topographic changes over a 60- to 61-year period of time. Results from field observations, analyses of photographs, mapping and measurements indicate that all pond locations have remained spatially stationary for 60-300 years while landslide material moves through these locations. Water levels during the observation period were sensitive to changes in the local, spring-fed, stream network, and to periodic filling of pond locations by sediment from floods, hyperconcentrated flows, mud flows and debris flows. For pond locations to remain stationary, the locations must mimic depressions along the basal surface of the landslide. The existence of such depressions indicates that the topography of the basal landslide surface is irregular. These results suggest that, for translational landslides that have moved distances larger than the dimensions of the largest basal topographic irregularities (about 200 m at Slumgullion), landslide surface morphology can be used as a guide to the morphology of the basal slip surface. Because basal slip surface morphology can affect landslide stability, kinematic models and stability

  5. Molecular diversity of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in disused tin-mining ponds located within Kampar, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, S L S; Khoo, G; Chong, L K; Smith, T J; Harrison, P L; Ong, H K A

    2014-02-01

    Disused tin-mining ponds make up a significant amount of water bodies in Malaysia particularly at the Kinta Valley in the state of Perak where tin-mining activities were the most extensive, and these abundantly available water sources are widely used in the field of aquaculture and agriculture. However, the natural ecology and physicochemical conditions of these ponds, many of which have been altered due to secondary post-mining activities, remains to be explored. As ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are directly related to the nutrient cycles of aquatic environments and are useful bioindicators of environmental variations, the focus of this study was to identify AOBs associated with disused tin-mining ponds that have a history of different secondary activities in comparison to ponds which were left untouched and remained as part of the landscape. The 16S rDNA gene was used to detect AOBs in the sediment and water sampled from the three types of disused mining ponds, namely ponds without secondary activity, ponds that were used for lotus cultivation and post-aquaculture ponds. When the varying pond types were compared with the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the AOB clone libraries, both Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira-like AOB were detected though Nitrosospira spp. was seen to be the most ubiquitous AOB as it was present in all ponds types. However, AOBs were not detected in the sediments of idle ponds. Based on rarefaction analysis and diversity indices, the disused mining pond with lotus culture indicated the highest richness of AOBs. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that among the physicochemical properties of the pond sites, TAN and nitrite were shown to be the main factors that influenced the community structure of AOBs in these disused tin-mining ponds.

  6. Science in Action: National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Regulations that require the retention and/or treatment of frequent, small storms that dominate runoff volumes and pollutant loads are becoming more common. EPA has developed the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) to help support local, state, and national stormwater management objectives to reduce runoff through infiltration and retention using green infrastructure practices as low impact development (LID) controls. To inform the public on what the Stormwater Calculator is used for.

  7. Rain Gardens: Stormwater Infiltrating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...

  8. Are stormwater pollution impacts significant in life cycle assessment? A new methodology for quantifying embedded urban stormwater impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa; Apul, Defne

    2018-09-15

    Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models do not explicitly incorporate the impacts from urban stormwater pollution. To address this issue, a framework to estimate the impacts from urban stormwater pollution over the lifetime of a system has been developed, laying the groundwork for subsequent improvements in life cycle databases and LCA modelling. The proposed framework incorporates urban stormwater event mean concentration (EMC) data into existing LCA impact categories to account for the environmental impacts associated with urban land occupation across the whole life cycle of a system. It consists of five steps: (1) compilation of inventory of urban stormwater pollutants; (2) collection of precipitation data; (3) classification and characterisation within existing midpoint impact categories; (4) collation of inventory data for impermeable urban land occupation; and (5) impact assessment. The framework is generic and can be applied to any system using any LCA impact method. Its application is demonstrated by two illustrative case studies: electricity generation and production of construction materials. The results show that pollutants in urban stormwater have an influence on human toxicity, freshwater and marine ecotoxicity, marine eutrophication, freshwater eutrophication and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Among these, urban stormwater pollution has the highest relative contribution to the eutrophication potentials. The results also suggest that stormwater pollution from urban areas can have a substantial effect on the life cycle impacts of some systems (construction materials), while for some systems the effect is small (e.g. electricity generation). However, it is not possible to determine a priori which systems are affected so that the impacts from stormwater pollution should be considered routinely in future LCA studies. The paper also proposes ways to incorporate stormwater pollution burdens into the life cycle databases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Seasonal distribution and uptake of gamma emitting radionuclides at the test reactor area leaching ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive leaching ponds adjacent to the Test Reactor Area (TRA) located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site were investigated to determine the seasonal distribution and ecological behavior of gamma emitting radionuclides in various pond compartments. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the TRA ponds were documented including basic morphometry, water chemistry and species identification. Penetrating radiation exposure rates at the ponds ranged from 35 to 65 mR/d at the water surface and up to 3400 mR/d one meter above bottom sediments. Seasonal concentrations and concentration ratios were determined for 16 principle radionuclides in filtered water, sediment, seston, zooplankton, net plankton, nannoplankton, periphyton, macrophytes, thistle, speedwell and willow. Seston and nannoplankton had the highest concentration ratios with substantial decreases observed for higher trophic level compartments. Significant (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001) seasonal effects wee found for concentration ratios. Radionuclides without nutrient analogs had the highest ratios in spring for periphyton, macrophytes and littoral plants. Concentration ratios were highest in summer, fall or winter for radionuclides with nutrient analogs

  10. Pontibacter mucosus sp. nov., isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane-contaminated pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Namita; Kohli, Puneet; Mahato, Nitish Kumar; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    A halotolerant, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and light-pink-pigmented bacterial strain, PB3T, was isolated from a pond sediment near a hexachlorocyclohexane-producing factory, located at Chinhat, Lucknow, India. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain PB3T formed a distinct phyletic clade along with the members of the genus Pontibacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with other members of the genus Pontibacter ranged from 94.5 to 98.9 %. The cells were motile, aerobic, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C16:1ω5c, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω6c/C16:1ω7c) and summed feature 4 (iso-C17:1I/ anteiso-C17:1 B). The polar lipid profile of strain PB3T showed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, unknown aminolipids and other unknown polar lipids. DNA-DNA hybridization based homology of strain PB3T with respect to its most closely related species, Pontibacter chinhatensis LP51T, was 44.7 %. The DNA G+C content was 53.5 mol%. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolate belongs to the genus Pontibacter and represents a novel species, for which the name Pontibacter mucosus is proposed. The type strain is PB3T (=DSM 100162T=KCTC 42942T).

  11. Treatment conditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Hallberg, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The pollutant load in road runoff is related to traffic densities and road maintenance activities. Inurbanised areas treatment of road runoff is common and often considered necessary. The pollutantsare partitioned between the particulate and dissolved matter. However, the contaminantstend to have an affinity to the particulate material. Sedimentation, the predominant treatmentmethod for road runoff uses various types of ponds. Design tools used for stormwater treatmentsystems are based on ext...

  12. Do sediment type and test durations affect results of laboratory-based, accelerated testing studies of permeable pavement clogging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Peter W B; White, Richard; Lucke, Terry

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have attempted to quantify the clogging processes of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICPs) using accelerated testing methods. However, the results have been variable. This study investigated the effects that three different sediment types (natural and silica), and different simulated rainfall intensities, and testing durations had on the observed clogging processes (and measured surface infiltration rates) of laboratory-based, accelerated PICP testing studies. Results showed that accelerated simulated laboratory testing results are highly dependent on the type, and size of sediment used in the experiments. For example, when using real stormwater sediment up to 1.18 mm in size, the results showed that neither testing duration, nor stormwater application rate had any significant effect on PICP clogging. However, the study clearly showed that shorter testing durations generally increased clogging and reduced the surface infiltration rates of the models when artificial silica sediment was used. Longer testing durations also generally increased clogging of the models when using fine sediment (<300 μm). Results from this study will help researchers and designers better anticipate when and why PICPs are susceptible to clogging, reduce maintenance and extend the useful life of these increasingly common stormwater best management practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  14. Gamma emitting radionuclides of the Test Reactor Area leaching ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive leaching ponds adjacent to the Test Reactor Area (TRA) located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site were investigated to determine the seasonal distribution and ecological behavior of gamma emitting radionuclides. The potential hazards to man and the environment were considered through the biological export of radioactive materials from the ponds. Both biotic and abiotic pond compartments were sampled. Fall and winter biomass estimates showed that benthic periphyton comprised 52%, macrophytes and littoral vegetation 35%, and seston 10% of the total for all biotic compartments. Concentrations and concentration factors (CFs) for fall and winter are presented for Cr-51, Co-60, Zr-95, I-131, Cs-137, Ba-140, and Ce-141. Concentrations and CFs ranged over seven orders of magnitude for the various nuclides and compartments. Seston and zooplankton had the highest concentrations followed by periphyton, sediment, macrophytes, littoral plants, willow, and filtered water. Arthropods had variable concentrations and CFs. Significant seasonal differences were observed for concentrations and CFs in seston, macrophytes, and littoral vegetation. A compartmental inventory of total gamma emitting activity accounted for 254 Ci (9.25 TBq) of the 731 Ci (24.8 TBq) estimated to remain in the ponds at the time of sampling. Filtered water and surface sediments contained 99% of the total radioactivity, while periphyton and seston had most of the remaining 1%. An estimate of the avian export rate of radioactivity from the TRA ponds showed that potentially harvestable mourning doves had the lowest rate with 0.02 μCi/y. External tissues of migratory waterfowl were found to contribute 90% of the total exported activity for all birds. The total avian export rate was estimated to be 1350 μCi/y during 1975

  15. The role of trees in urban stormwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban impervious surfaces convert precipitation to stormwater runoff, which causes water quality and quantity problems. While traditional stormwater management has relied on gray infrastructure such as piped conveyances to collect and convey stormwater to wastewater treatment fac...

  16. Calculation of intercepted runoff depth based on stormwater quality and environmental capacity of receiving waters for initial stormwater pollution management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xue-Long; Wang, Hong-Wu; Chen, Yi; Cai, Hui-Yi

    2017-11-01

    While point source pollutions have gradually been controlled in recent years, the non-point source pollution problem has become increasingly prominent. The receiving waters are frequently polluted by the initial stormwater from the separate stormwater system and the wastewater from sewage pipes through stormwater pipes. Consequently, calculating the intercepted runoff depth has become a problem that must be resolved immediately for initial stormwater pollution management. The accurate calculation of intercepted runoff depth provides a solid foundation for selecting the appropriate size of intercepting facilities in drainage and interception projects. This study establishes a separate stormwater system for the Yishan Building watershed of Fuzhou City using the InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (InfoWorks ICM), which can predict the stormwater flow velocity and the flow of discharge outlet after each rainfall. The intercepted runoff depth is calculated from the stormwater quality and environmental capacity of the receiving waters. The average intercepted runoff depth from six rainfall events is calculated as 4.1 mm based on stormwater quality. The average intercepted runoff depth from six rainfall events is calculated as 4.4 mm based on the environmental capacity of the receiving waters. The intercepted runoff depth differs when calculated from various aspects. The selection of the intercepted runoff depth depends on the goal of water quality control, the self-purification capacity of the water bodies, and other factors of the region.

  17. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  18. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  19. An assessment of the impact of motorway runoff on a pond, wetland and stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriyaraj, K.; Shutes, R.B.E. [Middlesex University, London (United Kingdom). Urban Pollution Research Centre

    2001-07-01

    The impact of soil filtered runoff from a section of the M25 outer London motorway (constructed in 1981) on a pond, wetland and stream in a nature reserve was investigated by monitoring water, sediment. The tissues of the emergent plants Typha latifolia and Glyceria maxima collected from the pond were analysed for the heavy metals, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. Macroinvertebrates were monitored in the stream and biotic indices applied to the data. The plant tissue concentrations for Typha and Glyceria show decreasing metal concentrations from root to rhizome to leaf. This trend has previously been reported for Typha exposed to runoff although the tissue concentrations are lower in this study with the exception of Cd in root tissue. The Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) score and Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) for the stream at sites above and below the pond outlet are lower than the scores recorded by the Environment Agency for England and Wales at an upstream site above the Pond/Wetland. The sites have an Overall Quality Index of 'moderate water quality', and there is no evidence of a deterioration of biologically assessed water quality between them. The results of the study show the long-term impact on sediment of filtered road runoff discharges to a natural wetland and pond located in a nature reserve. The use of natural wetlands for the discharge of road runoff is inadvisable. Constructed wetlands in combination with other structures including settlement trenches and ponds should be considered as an alternative treatment option. (Author)

  20. The Record of Tsunamis and Storms in a Coastal Mangrove Pond, NW Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, B. E.; Buckley, M. L.; Watt, S. G.; Moya, J. C.; Richmond, B. M.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; La Selle, S.

    2017-12-01

    The written record of tsunamis in the Caribbean extends back over 500 years, yet, is incomplete. In particular, it is not known whether great earthquakes or submarine landslides near the Puerto Rico Trench have generated large tsunamis that impact the north coast of Puerto Rico. We cored a coastal mangrove pond in NW Puerto Rico to search for tsunami deposits. The pond extends from 150 to 350 m from the shoreline, and is 0.5 m above sea level. The area between the pond and the ocean presently has a high of 3 m above sea level, but had dunes up to 10 m high before they were mined for sand beginning in the 1960s. Pond sediments are predominately mud or mangrove peat and contain prominent sand layers. At the sediment surface, a tabular sandy overwash deposit up to 40 cm thick extends inland approximately 30 m from the pond's seaward edge and abruptly ends. This sand layer contains no evidence of vertical grading and was likely formed by one or more recent hurricanes, which with the removal of coastal dunes in the 1960s are able to flood the pond. In contrast, underlying the overwash deposit and mangrove peat at a depth of approximately 60 cm is a thin (1 - 7 cm thick) sand layer extending to the landward limit of the pond. This layer has features of a tsunami deposit, including suspension grading, which is a specific type of normal grading where the entire grain-size distribution shifts to finer sizes upward that is created when sediment settles out of suspension as a high-speed flow wanes, an erosive basal contact, and an organic cap. In addition, couplets or triplets of sand inter-layered with mud are present within the thin sandy layer at some locations. Alternation of sand and mud layers at this scale is a signature of series of tsunami waves. Radiocarbon dates from organic material above and below the thin sand layer constrain deposition as occurring sometime from 1446 to 1919 AD. We present the features of the coastal mangrove pond deposits and evaluate whether

  1. Sediment transport to and from small impoundments in northeast Kansas, March 2009 through September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; Lee, Casey J.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office, investigated sediment transport to and from three small impoundments (average surface area of 0.1 to 0.8 square miles) in northeast Kansas during March 2009 through September 2011. Streamgages and continuous turbidity sensors were operated upstream and downstream from Atchison County, Banner Creek, and Centralia Lakes to study the effect of varied watershed characteristics and agricultural practices on sediment transport in small watersheds in northeast Kansas. Atchison County Lake is located in a predominantly agricultural basin of row crops, with wide riparian buffers along streams, a substantial amount of tile drainage, and numerous small impoundments (less than 0.05 square miles; hereafter referred to as “ponds”). Banner Creek Lake is a predominantly grassland basin with numerous small ponds located in the watershed, and wide riparian buffers along streams. Centralia Lake is a predominantly agricultural basin of row crops with few ponds, few riparian buffers along streams, and minimal tile drainage. Upstream from Atchison County, Banner Creek, and Centralia Lakes 24, 38, and 32 percent, respectively, of the total load was transported during less than 0.1 percent (approximately 0.9 days) of the time. Despite less streamflow in 2011, larger sediment loads during that year indicate that not all storm events transport the same amount of sediment; larger, extreme storms during the spring may transport much larger sediment loads in small Kansas watersheds. Annual sediment yields were 360, 400, and 970 tons per square mile per year at Atchison County, Banner, and Centralia Lake watersheds, respectively, which were less than estimated yields for this area of Kansas (between 2,000 and 5,000 tons per square mile per year). Although Centralia and Atchison County Lakes had similar percentages of agricultural land use, mean annual sediment yields upstream from Centralia Lake were about 2.7 times

  2. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  3. Banyule unlocks local water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Banyule Council, Victoria has launched one of Melbourne's biggest stormwater harvesting schemes. After the Millenium Drought in the early 2000s, ratepayers and the community alike prompted the council to undertake a detailed water management study to improve water options for the many reserves and parklands. They launched three projects, with differing technical site issues, using such designs as gross pollutant traps, sediment ponds, bio-filtration, wetlands, and underground storage using waterproof geomembrane liners.

  4. The role of trees in urban stormwater management | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban impervious surfaces convert precipitation to stormwater runoff, which causes water quality and quantity problems. While traditional stormwater management has relied on gray infrastructure such as piped conveyances to collect and convey stormwater to wastewater treatment facilities or into surface waters, cities are exploring green infrastructure to manage stormwater at its source. Decentralized green infrastructure leverages the capabilities of soil and vegetation to infiltrate, redistribute, and otherwise store stormwater volume, with the potential to realize ancillary environmental, social, and economic benefits. To date, green infrastructure science and practice have largely focused on infiltration-based technologies that include rain gardens, bioswales, and permeable pavements. However, a narrow focus on infiltration overlooks other losses from the hydrologic cycle, and we propose that arboriculture – the cultivation of trees and other woody plants – deserves additional consideration as a stormwater control measure. Trees interact with the urban hydrologic cycle by intercepting incoming precipitation, removing water from the soil via transpiration, enhancing infiltration, and bolstering the performance of other green infrastructure technologies. However, many of these interactions are inadequately understood, particularly at spatial and temporal scales relevant to stormwater management. As such, the reliable use of trees for stormwater control depe

  5. Coal extraction causes sediment toxicity in aquatic environments in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimaira Amaral de Freitas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated water parameters in ponds affected by coal extraction. Allium cepa assay was used to measure genotoxicity/mutagenicity of the sediment. Samples were collected from four ponds in the southern state of Santa Catarina. Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and turbidity were measured. Sediments were analyzed for heavy metals. Elutriate samples were prepared at a ratio of 1:4 sediment:water. Allium cepa bulbs were placed in samples prepared from each pond, with ultrapure water used as negative control and methyl methane sulfonate as positive control. Root length, mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and nuclear abnormalities were measured. The pH of two ponds, as well as electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen of all ponds were below the minimum limits set by Brazilian regulation. All heavy metals analyzed were found in all sediment samples, but only Cd concentration was above the legal limit set by Brazilian law. Allium cepa root growth for samples from Ponds 1, 2, and 4 was significantly lower than the negative control. Meristematic cells exposed to elutriate samples showed no significant changes in cell division. There was a significant increase in total chromosomal aberrations in all treated samples in comparison with the negative control. This study demonstrates that even low concentrations of heavy metals can damage exposed biota, possibly due to synergistic effects. We also found the A. cepa bioassay to be a simple and useful tool for genotoxicity/mutagenicity analyses, and recommend its use for environmental monitoring and management in areas influenced by mining activities.

  6. (suspended solids and metals) removal efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Presented in this paper are the results of correlational analyses and logistic regression between metal substances (Cd, Cu,. Pb, Zn), as well as suspended solids removal, and physical pond parameters of 19 stormwater retention pond case studies obtained from the International Stormwater BMP database.

  7. Can terraced pond wetland systems improve urban watershed water quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Ho, M.; Flanagan, N. E.; Richardson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Properly built constructed wetlands are a more economic and efficient way of wastewater treatment compared with traditional methods, although their mechanisms are far from completely understood. As part of the Stream and Wetland Assessment Management Park (SWAMP), which is aimed to improve the water quality of downstream and thereby enhance watershed ecosystem services, a terraced three-pond wetland system was created near Duke University in 2014. This project is expected to promote the retention and settling of pollutants and sediment before runoffs enter downstream flow. The goal of this study is to examine: (1) whether a terraced pond wetland system improves water quality, during both baseline (low flow) and storm events (high flow), which increases pollutant inputs; and (2) how this system functions to remove pollutants, namely what components of this system (plant, soil or water) increase or decrease the level of pollutants. By analyzing a dataset consisting of more than four-year monthly samplings from Pond 1 (first pond in the system) and Pond 3 (last pond in the system), we found that the pond system has reduced total suspended solids (TSS) but only when elevated inputs occur. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is closely related to temperature and macrophytes growth; whereas acidity (pH), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) did not show retention in the early stages of the system development. This system reaches its optimum for reducing TSS at the second pond, but the third pond has important effects on DO, pH, TN and TP. A monitoring in 2017 shows this pond system significantly reduces TSS while increasing dissolved oxygen and neutralizing pH after a storm event; although greater variations incurred within the system as time progresses after storm, overall retention function remained valid. Retention of the pollutants is primarily accomplished by the settling process, which occurs in stilled waterbody of the ponds and by the filtration of macrophytes. We

  8. Deep subsurface life from North Pond: enrichment, isolation, characterization and genomes of heterotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Russell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of subsurface microorganisms have yielded few environmentally relevant isolates for laboratory studies. In order to address this lack of cultivated microorganisms, we initiated several enrichments on sediment and underlying basalt samples from North Pond, a sediment basin ringed by basalt outcrops underlying an oligotrophic water-column west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 22°N. In contrast to anoxic enrichments, growth was observed in aerobic, heterotrophic enrichments from sediment of IODP site U1382B at 4 and 68 meters below seafloor (mbsf. These sediment depths, respectively, correspond to the fringes of oxygen penetration from overlying seawater in the top of the sediment column and upward migration of oxygen from oxic seawater from the basalt aquifer below the sediment. Here we report the enrichment, isolation, and initial characterizations of three isolated aerobic heterotrophs from North Pond sediments; an Arthrobacter species from 4 mbsf, and Paracoccus and Pseudomonas species from 68 mbsf. These cultivated bacteria are represented in the amplicon 16S rRNA gene libraries created from whole sediments, albeit at low (up to 2% relative abundance. We provide genomic evidence from our isolates demonstrating that the Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas isolates have the potential to respire nitrate and oxygen, though dissimilatory nitrate reduction could not be confirmed in laboratory cultures. The cultures from this study represent members of environmentally significant phyla, and allow for further studies into geochemical factors impacting life in the deep subsurface.

  9. Deep Subsurface Life from North Pond: Enrichment, Isolation, Characterization and Genomes of Heterotrophic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joseph A; León-Zayas, Rosa; Wrighton, Kelly; Biddle, Jennifer F

    2016-01-01

    Studies of subsurface microorganisms have yielded few environmentally relevant isolates for laboratory studies. In order to address this lack of cultivated microorganisms, we initiated several enrichments on sediment and underlying basalt samples from North Pond, a sediment basin ringed by basalt outcrops underlying an oligotrophic water-column west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 22°N. In contrast to anoxic enrichments, growth was observed in aerobic, heterotrophic enrichments from sediment of IODP Hole U1382B at 4 and 68 m below seafloor (mbsf). These sediment depths, respectively, correspond to the fringes of oxygen penetration from overlying seawater in the top of the sediment column and upward migration of oxygen from oxic seawater from the basalt aquifer below the sediment. Here we report the enrichment, isolation, initial characterization and genomes of three isolated aerobic heterotrophs from North Pond sediments; an Arthrobacter species from 4 mbsf, and Paracoccus and Pseudomonas species from 68 mbsf. These cultivated bacteria are represented in the amplicon 16S rRNA gene libraries created from whole sediments, albeit at low (up to 2%) relative abundance. We provide genomic evidence from our isolates demonstrating that the Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas isolates have the potential to respire nitrate and oxygen, though dissimilatory nitrate reduction could not be confirmed in laboratory cultures. The cultures from this study represent members of abundant phyla, as determined by amplicon sequencing of environmental DNA extracts, and allow for further studies into geochemical factors impacting life in the deep subsurface.

  10. Chapter 5: Quality assurance/quality control in stormwater sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling the quality of stormwater presents unique challenges because stormwater flow is relatively short-lived with drastic variability. Furthermore, storm events often occur with little advance warning, outside conventional work hours, and under adverse weather conditions. Therefore, most stormwat...

  11. Comparison of different water pollution control methods in decreaseing sediment load from peat mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeve, B.

    1997-11-01

    Different water treatment alternatives used to reduce sediment from peat mines were compared with a mathematical model. The simulation tested the benefit of different alternatives to reduce sediment transport during a simulated storm. Traditional structures such as bed ditch pipe barriers, sedimentation ponds were compared against new alternatives such as artificial floodplains, and peak runoff control structures. The results of simulations show that detention of peak discharge is the most efficient way to reduce sediment transport. When runoff peaks are reduced traditional sedimentation ponds seem to have a smaller effect on sediment transport; increased settling is achieved by using shallow settling basins such as artificial floodplains. (orig.) 21 refs.

  12. Comparison of different water pollution control methods in decreaseing sediment load from peat mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeve, B.

    1997-01-01

    Different water treatment alternatives used to reduce sediment from peat mines were compared with a mathematical model. The simulation tested the benefit of different alternatives to reduce sediment transport during a simulated storm. Traditional structures such as bed ditch pipe barriers, sedimentation ponds were compared against new alternatives such as artificial floodplains, and peak runoff control structures. The results of simulations show that detention of peak discharge is the most efficient way to reduce sediment transport. When runoff peaks are reduced traditional sedimentation ponds seem to have a smaller effect on sediment transport; increased settling is achieved by using shallow settling basins such as artificial floodplains. (orig.) 21 refs

  13. Development and investigation of a pollution control pit for treatment of stormwater from metal roofs and traffic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, C; Göbel, P; Lohmann, M; Coldewey, W G

    2006-01-01

    Source control by on-site retention and infiltration of stormwater is a sustainable and proven alternative to classical drainage methods. Unfortunately, sedimentary particles and pollutants from drained surfaces cause clogging and endanger soil and groundwater during long-term operation of infiltration devices. German water authorities recommend the use of infiltration devices, such as swales or swale-trench-systems. Direct infiltration by underground facilities, such as pipes, trenches or sinks, without pretreatment of runoff is generally not permitted. Problems occur with runoff from metal roofs, traffic areas and industrial sites. However, due to site limitations, underground systems are often the only feasible option. To overcome this situation, a pollution control pit was developed with a hydrodynamic separator and a multistage filter made of coated porous concrete. The system treats runoff at source and protects soil, groundwater and receiving waterways. Typically, more than 90% of the pollutants such as sedimentary particles, hydrocarbons and heavy metals can be removed. Filters have been developed to treat even higher polluted stormwater loads from metal roofs and industrial sites. The treatment process is based on sedimentation, filtration, adsorption and chemical precipitation. Sediments are trapped in a special chamber within the pit and can be removed easily. Other pollutants are captured in the concrete filter upstream of the sediment separator chamber. Filters can be easily replaced.

  14. Waste Stabilisation Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Waste Stabilisation Ponds is the third volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The major variants of pond systems are fully covered, namely: facultative ponds anaerobic ponds aerated lagoons maturation ponds The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects, operational guidelines and sludge managment for pond systems. About the series: The series is...

  15. EVALUATING THE ECOLOGICAL RESILIENT DRIVEN PERFORMANCE OF A TROPICAL WASTE STABILIZATION POND SYSTEM USING ECOLOGICAL SIGNATURE OF BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Lahiri Ganguly; Dipanwita Sarkar Paria; B. B. Jana

    2015-01-01

    Using ecological signature of biological integrity as a measure of performance, the reclamation efficiency of waste stabilization ponds was evaluated over a period of four years in a tropical sewage treatment plant – cum fish culture consisting of two anaerobic, two facultative and four maturation ponds located serially across the sewage effluent gradient. The four maturation ponds were used for batch culture of fish. Samples of surface and bottom water as well as surface sediment were collec...

  16. Links between contaminant hotspots in low flow estuarine systems and altered sediment biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Michael D.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Scanes, Peter; Potts, Jaimie; Simpson, Stuart L.; Sim, Vivian X. Y.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2017-11-01

    The urbanisation of coastal zones is a major threat to the health of global estuaries and has been linked to increased contamination (e.g. metals) and excess organic matter. Urban stormwater networks collect and funnel contaminants into waterways at point sources (e.g. stormdrains). Under dry, low flow conditions, these stormwater contaminants can accumulate in sediments over time and result in modifications to benthic sediment biogeochemical processes. To quantify these processes, this field study measured differences in benthic metabolism (CR, GPP, NEM) and sediment-water nutrient fluxes (NH3, NOx, PO4) associated with stormdrains (0 m, 200 m and 1000 m away) and increased water-retention (embayments vs channels). Significant changes to benthic metabolism were detected with distance from stormdrains, and with differences in water-retention rates, above natural spatial and temporal variation. Oxygen consumption was ∼50% higher at stormdrains (0 m) compared to 1000 m away and >70% higher at stormdrains (0 m) located in embayments compared to channels. Oxygen production also appeared to decrease with distance from stormdrains in embayments, but patterns were variable. These changes to benthic metabolism were of a magnitude expected to influence benthic nutrient cycling, but NH3, NOx and PO4 fluxes were generally low, and highly spatially and temporally variable. Overall, metal (Cu) contamination explained most of the variation in sediment biogeochemical processes between embayments and channels, while sediment grain size explained differences in fluxes with distance from stormdrains. Importantly, although there was evidence of increased productivity associated with stormdrains, we also detected evidence of early hypoxia suggesting that systems with legacy stormwater contaminants exist on a tipping point. Future work should investigate changes to sediment processes after a major rainfall event, when large and sudden inputs of potentially toxic contaminants occur

  17. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve bores were sunk adjacent to three stormwater infiltration basins in the Perth metropolitan area to examine the impact of runoff from a light industrial area, a medium-density residential area, and a major arterial road on groundwater quality, and to examine the hydrological response of the aquifer to runoff recharge. Automatic and manual water level monitoring between April and November 1990 indicated that groundwater levels responded within minutes to recharge from the infiltration basins. Peak water levels of up to 2.5 m above rest levels occurred 6 24 h after the commencement of ponding in the infiltration basins. There was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins. Concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were low and generally well within Australian drinking water guidelines. However, sediment in the base of an infiltration basin draining a major road contained in excess of 3500 ppm of lead. Phthalates, which are US EPA priority pollutants, were detected in all but one bore near the infiltration basins. Their detection may be a sampling artifact, but they may also be derived from the plastic litter that accumulates in the infiltration basins. The concentration of iron in groundwater near the infiltration basins appears to be controlled by dissolved oxygen concentrations, with high iron concentrations occurring where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. Pumping bores located near infiltration basins may suffer from iron encrustation problems caused by the mixing of shallow, oxygenated groundwater with water containing higher concentrations of iron from deeper in the aquifer.

  18. Changes in Uranium Speciation through a Depth Sequence of Contaminated Hanford Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, Jeffrey G.; McKinley, James P.; Zachara, John M.; Heald, Steve M.; Smith, Steven C.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2006-01-01

    The disposal of basic sodium-aluminate and acidic U(VI)-Cu(II) wastes into the now-dry North and South 300 A Process Ponds at the Hanford site resulted in U(VI) groundwater plume. To gain insight into the geochemical processes that occurred during waste disposal and that will affect the future fate and transport of this uranium plume, the solid-phase speciation of uranium in a depth sequence from the base of the North Process Pond through the vadose zone to the water table was investigated using electron microprobe measurements and x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Uranium in sediments from the base of the pond was predominantly coprecipitated with calcite. From ∼2 m below the pond base to the water table uranium occurred dominantly in a sorbed form, likely on the surface aluminosilicate clay minerals. The presence of a U(VI)-phosphate phase was also observed in this region, but it only occurred as a major uranium species at one depth. The initial sequestration of U(VI) in these sediments likely occurred through coprecipitation with calcite as conditions did not favor adsorption. As the calcite-bearing pond sediments have been removed as part of a remediation effort, future uranium fate and transport will likely be controlled primarily by adsorption/desorption phenomena

  19. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  20. Understanding the factors influencing the removal of heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an infiltration trench equipped with an extensive pretreatment and filter bed consisting of woodchip, sand and gravel was utilized as a low impact development technique to manage stormwater runoff from a highly impervious road with particular emphasis on heavy metal removal. Findings revealed that the major factors influencing the removal of heavy metals were the concentration of the particulate matters and heavy metals in runoff, runoff volume and flow rates. The reduction of heavy metals was enhanced by sedimentation of particulates through pretreatment. Fine particles (heavy metals, thus, enhanced adsorption and filtration using various filter media were important design considerations. Sediment was most highly attached on the surface area of woodchip than to other filter media like sand, gravel and geotextile. It is suggested that maintenance must be performed after the end of the winter season wherein high sediment rate was observed to maintain the efficiency of the treatment system.

  1. Boron in Pariette Wetland Sediments, Aquatic Vegetation & Benthic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, P.; Jones, C. P.; Powelson, D.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands are comprised of 20 ponds located in Utah's Uintah Basin. Boron concentration in the Pariette Wetlands have been observed to exceed the total maximum daily limit of 750 µg L-1. Considering water flow in and out of the wetlands, boron is accumulating within the wetlands where it is sorbed to sediments and bioconcentrated by wetland plant and macro invertebrates. Since boron is an avian teratogen, an estimate of boron ingestion exposure is warranted. Samples from 3 of the 23 Pariette Wetland ponds with one pond near the inlet, one near the outlet, and one in the middle were collected. Five sampling points were designated along a 100 m transect of each pond. At each sampling point duplicate (or triplicate) samples of water, sediments, benthic organisms and wetland vegetation were collected. The sediments were collected with a KB-corer and divided at depths of 0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm from the sediment surface. Sample splits were sent to the USU Bug lab for identification of invertebrate species. Whenever this transect was not intercepting vegetation, 2-3 additional sample sites were identified at the pond within stands of representative vegetation where bird nests are located. The plant parts used for boron analyses will include seeds, shoot and roots of vascular plants, as well as algae or duckweeds skimmed from the surface. Samples were processed within 2 days of collection. Water samples filtered through a 0.45 μ membrane filter were analyzed for DOC, pH and ECe. The dried and washed vegetation samples were ground and stored. The benthic organisms and macro invertebrates were netted at the water surface. The dried samples were weighed, ground and stored. Samples were weighed, oven dried and reweighed. For plant and macro-invertebrate samples, a nitric and hydrogen peroxide digestion procedure is used to dissolve environmentally available elements. The Hot Water extraction and DTPA-Sorbitol extraction were compared to estimate wetland plant

  2. Best practices for quality management of stormwater pipe construction : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Although largely unseen, stormwater pipe : systems are integral and important features : of the transportation network. Stormwater : systems support the safety and integrity of : roadways by directing stormwater away from : roadway structures to disc...

  3. Antimicrobial media for passive removal of pathogen by stormwater biofilters

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yali

    2017-01-01

    Stormwater biofilters (designed primarily for nutrient and metal removal) are gaining popularity globally for the treatment of urban stormwater runoff. However, their reported faecal indicator removal efficiency varies from several log to net leaching, and the effluent concentrations rarely meet the requirements for stormwater harvesting. In order to improve the stormwater biofilter design for reliable pathogen treatment, research in three Stages is therefore conducted systematically: identif...

  4. Source-Flux-Fate Modelling of Priority Pollutants in Stormwater Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca

    quality management. The thesis provides a framework for the trustworthy application of models to estimate PP fluxes from their sources, and through stormwater drainage systems, and to the sink. This fills a knowledge gap regarding stormwater PP and it supplies urban water managers with modelling tools......The increasing focus on management of stormwater Priority Pollutants (PP) enhances the role of mathematical models as support for the assessment of stormwater quality control strategies. This thesis investigates and presents modelling approaches that are suitable to simulate PP fluxes across...... stormwater systems, supporting the development of pollution control strategies. This is obtained by analyzing four study areas: (i) catchment characterization, (ii) pollutant release and transport models, (iii) stormwater treatment models, and (iv) combination of the above into an integrated model. Given...

  5. Mercury Cycling in Salt Marsh Pond Ecosystems: Cape Cod, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Gonneea, M. E.; Lamborg, C. H.; Kroeger, K. D.; Swarr, G.; Vadman, K. J.; Baldwin, S.; Brooks, T. W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We are measuring total mercury (HgT) and monomethylmercury (CH3Hg+ or MMHg) in pore water, surface water, and sediment cores from two salt marsh pond systems on the south shore of Cape Cod, MA to characterize the distribution of mercury species and to identify features that influence mercury speciation and transport. Sage Lot Pond is relatively undisturbed and has low nitrogen loading (12 kg ha-1 y-1). It is part of the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Reserve and is surrounded by undeveloped wooded uplands. In contrast, Great Pond is highly impacted. Nitrogen loading to the site is elevated (600 kg ha-1 y-1) and the marsh is adjacent to a large residential area. In both systems, a 1 to 2 m organic-rich peat layer overlies the permeable sand aquifer. Groundwater in this region is typically oxic, where pore water within salt marsh peat is suboxic to anoxic. We hypothesize that redox gradients at the transition from the root zone to peat and at the peat-sand interface may provide habitat for MMHg-producing anaerobic bacteria. Preliminary results from a 2-m nearshore depth profile at Sage Lot Pond indicate HgT in groundwater within the sand aquifer occurred primarily in the > 0.2 μm fraction, with unfiltered concentrations exceeding 100 pM. Filtered (fraction of filtered HgT in peat pore water. Although MMHg in both groundwater and pore water remained around 1 pM throughout our depth profile, we observed an increase in sediment MMHg (0.3 to 1.6 μg/kg) at the peat-sand interface. MMHg comprised ~50% of the HgT concentration in pore water suggesting mercury in the salt marsh peat is biologically available.

  6. Stormwater Controls for Pollutant Removal on GDOT Right-Of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) operates a large number of roadside stormwater treatment facilities to contain and treat roadside stormwater runoff. The stormwater best management practices (BMPs) were designed with an emphasis on the...

  7. Monitoring of stormwater between 2002 and 2010. What is the evolution of stormwater quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Deffontis, Stéphanie; Vialle, Claire; Sablayrolles, Caroline; Breton, Audrey; Vignoles, Christian; Montrejaud-Vignoles, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    The city of Toulouse with its separate storm sewer system is ideal for studying stormwater. That is why since 2002, three stormwater sampling campaigns were conducted. Samples were taken from the outlets of two storm drains located in heavily and moderately urbanized areas. Sampling was undertaken during wet weather and dry weather during the year 2002 for the first campaign, during the year 2007 for the second one and during the year 2010 for the last one. The overall pollution parameters we...

  8. Assessment of Drywells as Effective Tools for Stormwater Management and Aquifer Recharge: Results of a Two-Year Field and Numerical Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E.; Washburn, B.; Harter, T.; Fogg, G. E.; Nelson, C.; Lock, B.; Li, X.

    2016-12-01

    Drywells are gravity-fed, excavated pits with perforated casings used to facilitate stormwater infiltration and groundwater recharge in areas with low permeability soils or cover. Stormwater runoff that would otherwise be routed to streams or drains in urban areas can be used as a source of aquifer recharge, potentially mitigating the effects of drought and harm to natural water bodies. However, the potential for groundwater contamination caused by urban runoff bypassing surface soil and near surface sediment attenuation processes has prevented more widespread use of drywells as a recharge mechanism. A field study was conducted in Elk Grove, CA, to determine the effects of drywell-induced stormwater infiltration on the local hydrogeologic system. Two drywells 13.5 meters in depth were constructed for the project: one in a preexisting drainage basin fed by residential lots, and one at an industrial site. Both sites were outfitted with vegetated pretreatments, and upgradient and downgradient groundwater monitoring wells. Site stormwater and groundwater were sampled between November, 2014, and May, 2016, and analyzed for contaminants. Results of water quality sampling have been statistically analyzed for trends and used to determine the contaminants of interest and the concentrations of these contaminants in influent stormwater. The fate and transport of these contaminants have been simulated using a 1D variably saturated flow and transport model and site specific parameters to predict long-term effects of stormwater infiltration on the surrounding hydrogeologic system. The potential for remobilization of geogenic heavy metals from changes in subsurface hydrochemistry caused by drywell infiltration have also been assessed. The results of the field study and numerical modeling assessment indicate that the study's drywells do not pose a long-term threat to groundwater quality and may be an effective source of aquifer recharge and tool for urban stormwater management.

  9. Optimizing stormwater treatment practices a handbook of assessment and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices: A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance provides the information necessary for developing and operating an effective maintenance program for stormwater treatment. The book offers instructions on how to measure the level of performance of stormwater treatment practices directly and bases proposed maintenance schedules on actual performance and historical maintenance efforts and costs. The inspection methods, which are proven in the field and have been implemented successfully, are necessary as regulatory agencies are demanding evaluations of the performance of stormwater treatment practices. The authors have developed a three-tiered approach that offers readers a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices currently in place. This book also: Provides a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices Assists readers with identifying which assessment techniques to use for stormwa...

  10. Estimation of Stormwater Interception Rate for various LID Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Lee, O.; Choi, J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the stormwater interception rate is proposed to apply in the design of LID facilities. For this purpose, EPA-SWMM is built with some areas of Noksan National Industrial Complex where long-term observed stormwater data were monitored and stormwater interception rates for various design capacities of various LID facilities are estimated. While the sensitivity of stormwater interception rate according to design specifications of bio-retention and infiltration trench facilities is not large, the sensitivity of stormwater interception rate according to local rainfall characteristics is relatively big. As a result of comparing the present rainfall interception rate estimation method which is officially operated in Korea with the one proposed in this study, it will be presented that the present method is highly likely to overestimate the performance of the bio-retention and infiltration trench facilities. Finally, a new stormwater interception rate formulas for the bio-retention and infiltration trench LID facilities will be proposed. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (2016000200002) from Public Welfare Technology Development Program funded by Ministry of Environment of Korean government.

  11. EVALUATING THE ECOLOGICAL RESILIENT DRIVEN PERFORMANCE OF A TROPICAL WASTE STABILIZATION POND SYSTEM USING ECOLOGICAL SIGNATURE OF BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Lahiri Ganguly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using ecological signature of biological integrity as a measure of performance, the reclamation efficiency of waste stabilization ponds was evaluated over a period of four years in a tropical sewage treatment plant – cum fish culture consisting of two anaerobic, two facultative and four maturation ponds located serially across the sewage effluent gradient. The four maturation ponds were used for batch culture of fish. Samples of surface and bottom water as well as surface sediment were collected twice a month from different ponds of the system and examined for some nutrient cycling bacteria, primary production, chlorophyll content of micro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton abundance, fish growth and water quality parameters. Computation of ecological signature using aerobic mineralization index for heterotrophic and ammonifying bacteria revealed steady increase across the sewage effluent gradient. The heterotrophic and ammonifying bacterial populations appeared to have a direct function with the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand of water. The sum of total scores for different optimal conditions for fish growth increased as a function of the distance from the source of effluent implying that ecological resilience of the waste stabilization ponds has been accomplished by the sedimentation, chelation, and biological functional attributes mediated through redundancy of different subsystems, self- purification capacity of the system as a whole.

  12. Effects of season on ecological processes in extensive earthen tilapia ponds in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E G P; Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Milstein, A

    2015-11-01

    In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

  13. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M.; Anderson, Andrew R.; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. - Highlights: • Green streets can be used for both stormwater and air quality management. • Design considerations must be made to minimize human exposure to air pollutants. • Urban vegetation can improve air quality with careful selection and placement.

  14. Beaver ponds' impact on fluvial processes (Beskid Niski Mts., SE Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriat, Dorota; Gorczyca, Elżbieta; Sobucki, Mateusz

    2016-02-15

    Beaver (Castor sp.) can change the riverine environment through dam-building and other activities. The European beaver (Castor fiber) was extirpated in Poland by the nineteenth century, but populations are again present as a result of reintroductions that began in 1974. The goal of this paper is to assess the impact of beaver activity on montane fluvial system development by identifying and analysing changes in channel and valley morphology following expansion of beaver into a 7.5 km-long headwater reach of the upper Wisłoka River in southeast Poland. We document the distribution of beaver in the reach, the change in river profile, sedimentation type and storage in beaver ponds, and assess how beaver dams and ponds have altered channel and valley bottom morphology. The upper Wisłoka River fluvial system underwent a series of anthropogenic disturbances during the last few centuries. The rapid spread of C. fiber in the upper Wisłoka River valley was promoted by the valley's morphology, including a low-gradient channel and silty-sand deposits in the valley bottom. At the time of our survey (2011), beaver ponds occupied 17% of the length of the study reach channel. Two types of beaver dams were noted: in-channel dams and valley-wide dams. The primary effect of dams, investigated in an intensively studied 300-m long subreach (Radocyna Pond), was a change in the longitudinal profile from smooth to stepped, a local reduction of the water surface slope, and an increase in the variability of both the thalweg profile and surface water depths. We estimate the current rate of sedimentation in beaver ponds to be about 14 cm per year. A three-stage scheme of fluvial processes in the longitudinal and transverse profile of the river channel is proposed. C. fiber reintroduction may be considered as another important stage of the upper Wisłoka fluvial system development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulated Benefits of Green Infrastructure for Urban Stormwater Management under Climate Change in Different Hydroclimatic and Archetypal Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. E.; Butcher, J.; Sarkar, S.; Clark, C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change could significantly alter the occurrence and management of urban stormwater runoff quantity and quality. Responding to this challenge requires an improved understanding of potential changes together with the effectiveness of management responses for reducing impacts under range of potential future climatic conditions. Traditional gray stormwater infrastructure generally uses single-purpose, hard structures including detention basins and storm sewers to dispose of rainwater. Green infrastructure (GI) uses vegetation and soil to manage rainwater where it falls. GI has been gaining in popularity, and has been shown to provide a number of benefits for adapting to climate change including effects on stormwater quantity, quality and carbon and nutrient biogeochemical cycling. Uncertainty remains, however, due to limited understanding of GI performance in different hydroclimatic and urban settings, and in response to changes in climate. In this study we use simulation modeling to assess the impacts of climate change on both gray (wet ponds) and green infrastructure practices (green roofs, swales, bioretention) in different hydroclimatic and urban settings. Simulations were conducted using RHESSYs, a mechanistic, hydrologic and biogeochemical model, for 36 characteristic urban "archetypes" (AUSs) representing different development patterns and GI practices found in typical U.S. cities. Climate change scenarios are based on dynamically and temporally downscaled, mid-21st century climate model output from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Results suggest altered mass and energy inputs will cause changes in performance of these practices for water quantity, water quality, and carbon sequestration that vary across the country. Infrastructure design should take these potential changes into consideration.

  16. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Adaption of the microbial community to continuous exposures of multiple residual antibiotics in sediments from a salt-water aquacultural farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiuping; Wang, Min; Chen, Yongshan; Yu, Shen; Hong, Youwei; Ma, Jun; Wu, Qian; Lin, Qiaoyin; Xu, Xiangrong

    2015-06-15

    Residual antibiotics from aquacultural farming may alter microbial community structure in aquatic environments in ways that may adversely or positively impact microbially-mediated ecological functions. This study investigated 26 ponds (26 composited samples) used to produce fish, razor clam and shrimp (farming and drying) and 2 channels (10 samples) in a saltwater aquacultural farm in southern China to characterize microbial community structure (represented by phospholipid fatty acids) in surface sediments (0-10 cm) with long-term exposure to residual antibiotics. 11 out of 14 widely-used antibiotics were quantifiable at μg kg(-1) levels in sediments but their concentrations did not statistically differ among ponds and channels, except norfloxacin in drying shrimp ponds and thiamphenicol in razor clam ponds. Concentrations of protozoan PLFAs were significantly increased in sediments from razor clam ponds while other microbial groups were similar among ponds and channels. Both canonical-correlation and stepwise-multiple-regression analyses on microbial community and residual antibiotics suggested that roxithromycin residuals were significantly related to shifts in microbial community structure in sediments. This study provided field evidence that multiple residual antibiotics at low environmental levels from aquacultural farming do not produce fundamental shifts in microbial community structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Centralised urban stormwater harvesting for potable reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, P; Gleeson, J; Hammond, T; Heslop, E; Holden, R; Kuczera, G

    2011-01-01

    Urban impervious areas provide a guaranteed source of runoff, especially in cities with high rainfall - this represents a source of water with low sensitivity to unfavourable climate change. Whilst the potential to reuse stormwater has long been recognised, its quality has largely limited usage to non-potable applications requiring the use of a third-pipe network, a prohibitively expensive option in established urban areas. Given recent advances in membrane filtration, this study investigates the potential of harvesting and treating stormwater to a potable standard to enable use of the potable distribution network. A case study based on the Throsby Creek catchment in Newcastle explores the issue. The high seasonally uniform rainfall provides insight into the maximum potential of such an option. Multicriterion optimisation was used to identify Pareto optimal solutions for harvesting, storing and treating stormwater. It is shown that harvesting and treating stormwater from a 13 km² catchment can produce yields ranging from 8.5 to 14.2 ML/day at costs ranging from AU$2.60/kL to AU$2.89/kL, which may become viable as the cost of traditional supply continues to grow. However, there are significant social impacts to deal with including alienation of public land for storage and community acceptance of treated stormwater.

  19. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  20. Price Endogeneity and Marginal Cost Effects on Incentive Compatible Stormwater Management Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Matthew C.; Willis, David B.; Hayes, John C.; Privette, Charles V., III

    2010-01-01

    Incentive based stormwater management policies offer the prospect of reducing urban stormwater runoff while increasing developer profits. An incentive compatible Stormwater Banking Program (SBP) is presented that allows developers to build at higher residential densities in exchange for including low impact stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) in the development’s stormwater management infrastructure. Price endogeneity presents itself when the smaller residential lots created by buildi...

  1. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M; Anderson, Andrew R; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F

    2017-12-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Legacies in urban stormwater management and the effect on gully formation in a Piedmont region of the US Mid Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, L.; Wehner, C. E.; Santangelo, T.; Soroka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces in urban areas lead to increased stormwater runoff and produce flashier hydrology which can lead to stream bank erosion and increased sediment delivery to downstream ecosystems. Since the early 1990s the EPA has enforced stormwater regulation and nowadays, practices must be implemented that minimize water quality impacts. However, legacies of stormwater management in pre-regulated areas could be an important factor in the degradation of water quality. From a larger watershed perspective there is therefore a disconnect between investments in newly developed areas where water quality deterioration is perhaps minor vs. minimal investments in pre-regulation areas where water quality deterioration is perhaps major. In this study we examine such legacies in urban stormwater management and the effect on gully formation, with the objective to identify hotspots of water quality degradation and optimal locations for reducing water quality impacts. Our research primarily focuses on older developments (pre-1990s) in the Piedmont region of the Christina River basin (CRB), a tributary of the Delaware River. Many of the streams in the CRB have impaired water quality. We used a combination of methodological approaches, including historical surveys (aerial imagery, land-use maps, stormwater design reports), field observations (WQ sampling, topographic surveys), hydrological modeling, and geospatial analysis. We developed a simple GIS-based model that predicts susceptibility for gully erosion. The model calculates runoff (using Curve Number method), performs hydrologic routing, and based on topographic indices it estimates gully susceptibility for stream reaches draining urban developments. Our results show that the gully susceptibility model produces accurate predictions, including the location of deeply incised gullies. Through geospatial analysis we also identify benefits of structural stormwater control measures and BMPs, and the role of spatial variable land

  3. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned

  4. Stormwater quality management in rail transportation--past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Phuong Tram; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhou, John L; Listowski, Andrzej; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin; Bui, Xuan Thanh

    2015-04-15

    Railways currently play an important role in sustainable transportation systems, owing to their substantial carrying capacity, environmental friendliness and land-saving advantages. Although total pollutant emissions from railway systems are far less than that of automobile vehicles, the pollution from railway operations should not be underestimated. To date, both scientific and practical papers dealing with stormwater management for rail tracks have solely focused on its drainage function. Unlike roadway transport, the potential of stormwater pollution from railway operations is currently mishandled. There have been very few studies into the impact of its operations on water quality. Hence, upon the realisation on the significance of nonpoint source pollution, stormwater management priorities should have been re-evaluated. This paper provides an examination of past and current practices of stormwater management in the railway industry, potential sources of stormwater pollution, obstacles faced in stormwater management and concludes with strategies for future management directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban Stormwater Management Model and Tools for Designing Stormwater Management of Green Infrastructure Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, H.; Chow, M. F.; Usman, F.; Sidek, L. M.; Roseli, Z. A.; Norlida, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization is growing rapidly in Malaysia. Rapid urbanization has known to have several negative impacts towards hydrological cycle due to decreasing of pervious area and deterioration of water quality in stormwater runoff. One of the negative impacts of urbanization is the congestion of the stormwater drainage system and this situation leading to flash flood problem and water quality degradation. There are many urban stormwater management softwares available in the market such as Storm Water Drainage System design and analysis program (DRAINS), Urban Drainage and Sewer Model (MOUSE), InfoWorks River Simulation (InfoWork RS), Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model (DR3M), Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), XP Storm Water Management Model (XPSWMM), MIKE-SWMM, Quality-Quantity Simulators (QQS), Storage, Treatment, Overflow, Runoff Model (STORM), and Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). In this paper, we are going to discuss briefly about several softwares and their functionality, accessibility, characteristics and components in the quantity analysis of the hydrological design software and compare it with MSMA Design Aid and Database. Green Infrastructure (GI) is one of the main topics that has widely been discussed all over the world. Every development in the urban area is related to GI. GI can be defined as green area build in the develop area such as forest, park, wetland or floodway. The role of GI is to improve life standard such as water filtration or flood control. Among the twenty models that have been compared to MSMA SME, ten models were selected to conduct a comprehensive review for this study. These are known to be widely accepted by water resource researchers. These ten tools are further classified into three major categories as models that address the stormwater management ability of GI in terms of quantity and quality, models that have the capability of conducting the

  6. HRE-Pond Cryogenic Barrier Technology Demonstration: Pre- and Post-Barrier Hydrologic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moline, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond is the site of a former impoundment for radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in east Tennessee. The pond received radioactive wastes from 1957 to 1962, and was subsequently drained, filled with soil, and covered with an asphalt cap. The site is bordered to the east and south by an unnamed stream that contains significant concentrations of radioactive contaminants, primarily 90 Sr. Because of the proximity of the stream to the HRE disposal site and the probable flow of groundwater from the site to the stream, it was hypothesized that the HRE Pond has been a source of contamination to the creek. The HRE-Pond was chosen as the site of a cryogenic barrier demonstration to evaluate this technology as a means for rapid, temporary isolation of contaminants in the type of subsurface environment that exists on the ORR. The cryogenic barrier is created by the circulation of liquid CO 2 through a system of thermoprobes installed in boreholes which are backfilled with sand. The probes cool the subsurface, creating a vertical ice wall by freezing adjacent groundwater, effectively surrounding the pond on four sides. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the hydrologic conditions within and around the pond prior to, during, and after the cryogenic barrier emplacement. The objectives were (1) to provide a hydrologic baseline for post-banner performance assessment, (2) to confirm that the pond is hydraulically connected to the surrounding sediments, (3) to determine the likely contaminant exit pathways from the pond, and (4) to measure changes in hydrologic conditions after barrier emplacement in order to assess the barrier performance. Because relatively little information about the subsurface hydrology and the actual configuration of the pond existed, data from multiple sources was required to reconstruct this complex system

  7. Development of Rating Curve Estimators for Suspended-Sediment Concentration and Transport in the C-51 Canal Based on Surrogate Technology, Palm Beach County, Florida, 2004-05

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lietz, A. C; Debiak, Elizabeth A

    2005-01-01

    .... The major cause of these sediment deposits most likely is due to stormwater heavily laden with fluvial sediment, discharging through the S-155 control structure on the West Palm Beach (C-51) Canal...

  8. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. PERFORMANCE OF CULTURED White-leg Shrimp IN RICA Probiotic Application METHOD in PONDS AERATED WITH SUPERCHARGE BLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Susianingsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several ways have been done to encounter shrimp disease affecting cultured shrimp in Indonesian ponds in the last two decades. This research was aimed to find out the effect of different application of probiotic RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3 method on survival rate and production of white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in ponds aerated with supercharge blower. RICA probiotics are bacteria probiotics produced by the Research and Development Institute for Coastal Aquaculture, originally isolated from seaweed and sea sediment. This experiment was carried out in completely randomized design using nine 250-m2 experimental ponds stocked with 15 shrimp fries/m2. There were three treatments namely: A=alternate use of three probiotics RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3; B=combination use of three probiotics RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3; and C=control (without probiotic, each treatment with three replications and cultured with supercharge blower. Variables observed in this study were survival rate and production of the shrimp calculated at the end of experiment, total vibrio count (TBV and total plate count of common bacteria (TPC of the pond waters and sediments monitored every two weeks. The results showed that application of probiotic RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3 applied either in alteration or in combination significantly increased survival rate (P0.05 of the white-leg shrimp. TBV/TPC ratio in the control pond waters after 10-weeks culture (over than 10% was relatively dangerous for the cultured white-leg shrimp. This shows that application of probiotic could prevent the growth of Vibrio spp in the cultured shrimp pond water.

  10. NATIONAL STORMWATER CALCULATOR USER'S GUIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Stormwater Calculator is a simple to use tool for computing small site hydrology for any location within the US. It estimates the amount of stormwater runoff generated from a site under different development and control scenarios over a long term period of historical rainfall. The analysis takes into account local soil conditions, slope, land cover and meteorology. Different types of low impact development (LID) practices (also known as green infrastructure) can be employed to help capture and retain rainfall on-site. Future climate change scenarios taken from internationally recognized climate change projections can also be considered. The calculator provides planning level estimates of capital and maintenance costs which will allow planners and managers to evaluate and compare effectiveness and costs of LID controls.The calculator’s primary focus is informing site developers and property owners on how well they can meet a desired stormwater retention target. It can be used to answer such questions as:• What is the largest daily rainfall amount that can be captured by a site in either its pre-development, current, or post-development condition?• To what degree will storms of different magnitudes be captured on site?• What mix of LID controls can be deployed to meet a given stormwater retention target?• How well will LID controls perform under future meteorological projections made by global climate change models?• What are the relativ

  11. Stormwater Priority Pollutants Versus Surface Water Quality Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater in urban areas comprises of a substantial part of the urban water cycle, dominating the flow in many small urban streams, and the pollution levels are sizeable. No stormwater quality criteria were found here and no European or national emission limit values exist. Stormwater pollutants...... however are present in levels exceeding most of the regulated surface water quality criteria and environmental quality standards. Therefore catchment characterisation is needed to chose suitable treatment prior to discharge into receiving surface waters, as the mixing may be insufficient in small streams....

  12. Monitoring of priority pollutants in dynamic stormwater discharges from urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) from 2000 has put focus on the chemical status of surface waters by the specified Environmental Quality Standard (EQSs) and the requirements for monitoring of surface water quality throughout Europe. When considering the water quality of urban stormwater...... runoff it is evident that surface waters receiving large amount of urban stormwater runoff will be at risk of failing to meet the EQSs. Therefore stormwater treatment is crucial. However, as stormwater quality varies orders of magnitude between sites, stormwater monitoring is important in order to design...... discharges. Sorption of pollutants to particulate matter and dissolved organic carbon is important for both the toxicity of the pollutants and for removal in stormwater treatment systems. Furthermore sorption is important for sampling using the most common types of passive samplers, which are based on uptake...

  13. Summary of urban stormwater quality in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2003-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Erik F.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Locke, Evan A.; Stevens, Michael R.; Romero, Orlando C.

    2015-01-01

    Urban stormwater in the Albuquerque metropolitan area was sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque, the Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the New Mexico Department of Transportation, and the University of New Mexico. Stormwater was sampled from a network of monitoring stations from 2003 to 2012 by following regulatory requirements for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System stormwater permit. During this period, stormwater was sampled in the Albuquerque metropolitan area at outfalls from nine drainage basins with residential, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and undeveloped land uses. Stormwater samples were analyzed for selected physical and chemical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, metals, organic compounds, and bacteria.

  14. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental...... medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios...... on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations...

  15. Bacterial reduction of selenium in coal mine tailings pond sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, T.; Arocena, J.M.; Thring, R.W.; Zhang, Y.Q. [University of North British Columbia, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Sediment from a storage facility for coal tailings solids was assessed for its capacity to reduce selenium (Se) by native bacterial community. One Se{sup 6+}-reducing bacterium Enterobacter hormaechei (Tar11) and four Se{sup 4+}-reducing bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (Tar1), Pseudomonasfluorescens (Tar3), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Tar6), and Enterobacter amnigenus (Tar8) were isolated from the sediment. Enterobacter horinaechei removed 96% of the added Se{sup 6+} (0.92 mg L{sup -1} from the effluents when Se6+ was determined after 5 d of incubation. Analysis of the red precipitates showed that Se{sup 6+} reduction resulted in the formation of spherical particles ({lt}1.0 {mu} m) of Se 0 as observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confirmed by EDAX. Selenium speciation was performed to examine the fate of the added Se{sup 6+} in the sediment with or without addition of Enterobacter hormaechei cells. More than 99% of the added Se{sup 6+} (about 2.5 mg L{sup -1}) was transformed in the nonsterilized sediment (without Enterobacter hormaechei cells) as well as in the sterilized (heat-killed) sediment (with Enterobacter hormaechei cells). The results of this study suggest that the lagoon sediments at the mine site harbor Se{sup 6+}- and Se{sup 4+} -reducing bacteria and may be important sinks for soluble Se (Se{sup 6+} and Se{sup 4+}). Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from metal-contaminated sediment may have potential application in removing Se from industrial effluents.

  16. Stream Responses to a Watershed-Scale Stormwater Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure can reduce stormwater runoff and mitigate many of the problems associated with impervious surfaces; however, the effectiveness of retrofit stormwater management for improving aquatic health is largely untested. In the suburban, 1.8 km2 Shepherd Creek catchmen...

  17. German experience in managing stormwater with green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper identifies and describes experience with ‘green’ stormwater management practices in Germany. It provides the context in which developments took place and extracts lessons learned to inform efforts of other countries in confronting urban stormwater challenges. Our findi...

  18. Toxic effects of zinc from trout farm sediments on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Tabche, L; Gutiérrez Cabrera, I; Gómez Oliván, L; Galar Martinez, M; Germán Faz, C

    2000-04-14

    Zinc (Zn) is a nutritionally essential metal, and deficiency results in severe health consequences to aquatic organisms. In this study toxicity data for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri produced by Zn in systems using three natural sediments (trout farms: El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero) are presented. Hemoglobin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and protein concentrations were measured in L. hoffmeisteri exposed to spiked sediments, as indicators of exposure. Physicochemical characteristics of water and sediments were also considered. Zn concentrations were measured in water and sediment. El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero pond sediments did not have similar physicochemical characteristics. Zn concentrations of water obtained from the rustic ponds were near 0.4575 mg/L; however, this metal was always found to be higher in the sediments (0.0271-0.9754 mg/kg). The bioassay with worms demonstrated that pond sediments from El Oyamel, El Potrero, and El Truchón produced toxicity since ATP and protein concentrations were low compared to controls (organisms without metal). All spiked sediments had a significant reduction effect on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations. This investigation clearly shows that sediments of El Truchón, El Oyamel, and El Potrero possess toxicity potential. These results suggest the usefulness of these bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of sediments polluted with heavy metals.

  19. Engineering hyporheic zones for the attenuation of urban pesticides and other stormwater trace organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, A. C.; Halpin, B. N.; Herzog, S.; Higgins, C.; McCray, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a natural bioreactor that can provide in-stream attenuation of various nonpoint source contaminants. Main contributions of nonpoint source pollution are coming from urban stormwater and agricultural runoff, which both adversely impact aquatic life. Stormwater pollutants of concern commonly include nutrients, metals, pathogens, and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs). Despite substantial water quality challenges, current stormwater management typically focuses on water quantity issues rather than pollutant removal. Furthermore, current HZ restoration best management practices do not explicitly control HZ residence times, and generally only induce localized effects. To increase hyporheic exchange and therefore improving water quality, we introduced engineered streambeds featuring modifications to subsurface hydraulic conductivity (K) and reactivity - termed Biohydrochemical Enhancements for Streamwater Treatment (BEST). BEST modifications comprise subsurface modules that employ 1) low-permeability sediments to drive hyporheic exchange and control subsurface residence times, and 2) permeable reactive geomedia to change reaction rates within the HZ. Here we present performance data collected in constructed stream experiments, comparing an all-sand control condition with a stream containing BEST modules and a mixture of 70/30 sand/woodchips (v/v). We evaluated the attenuation of a suite of TOrCs in the BEST versus the control system for two different streambed media: a coarse sand with K = 0.48 cm/s and a fine sand with K = 0.16 cm/s. The range of TOrCs investigated comprises urban pesticides and other stormwater relevant TOrCs. Benefits of applying BEST include increased exchange between streamwater and HZ water, leading to diverse redox conditions that are beneficial for aquatic organisms and will facilitate in-stream pollutant transformation. Future work will focus on tailoring the BEST design for specific pollutants, thereby controlling HZ

  20. TRADING STORMWATER ABATEMENT CREDITS IN CINCINNATI'S SHEPHERD CREEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problem of stormwater runoff management grows apace with continued urbanization, yet the management tools for this growning non-profit source problem have not fully kept pace. The rapid growth of stormwater utilities around the nation is an important step toward providing an...

  1. VDOT manual of practice for planning stormwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The final report is in the form of a manual of practice for the VDOT to use in planning its stormwater management strategies. The manual was proposed to aid in the selection and design of erosion control practices and stormwater control practices for...

  2. Green infrastructure retrofits on residential parcels: Ecohydrologic modeling for stormwater design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    To meet water quality goals stormwater utilities and not-for-profit watershed organizations in the U.S. are working with citizens to design and implement green infrastructure on residential land. Green infrastructure, as an alternative and complement to traditional (grey) stormwater infrastructure, has the potential to contribute to multiple ecosystem benefits including stormwater volume reduction, carbon sequestration, urban heat island mitigation, and to provide amenities to residents. However, in small (1-10-km2) medium-density urban watersheds with heterogeneous land cover it is unclear whether stormwater retrofits on residential parcels significantly contributes to reduce stormwater volume at the watershed scale. In this paper, we seek to improve understanding of how small-scale redistribution of water at the parcel scale as part of green infrastructure implementation affects urban water budgets and stormwater volume across spatial scales. As study sites we use two medium-density headwater watersheds in Baltimore, MD and Durham, NC. We develop ecohydrology modeling experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of redirecting residential rooftop runoff to un-altered pervious surfaces and to engineered rain gardens to reduce stormwater runoff. As baselines for these experiments, we performed field surveys of residential rooftop hydrologic connectivity to adjacent impervious surfaces, and found low rates of connectivity. Through simulations of pervasive adoption of downspout disconnection to un-altered pervious areas or to rain garden stormwater control measures (SCM) in these catchments, we find that most parcel-scale changes in stormwater fate are attenuated at larger spatial scales and that neither SCM alone is likely to provide significant changes in streamflow at the watershed scale.

  3. Hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater...

  4. Integrated modelling of Priority Pollutants in stormwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Ledin, Anna; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2012-01-01

    The increasing focus on urban diffuse sources of Priority Pollutants (PPs) has highlighted stormwater as an important contributor to contamination of natural water bodies. This study presents an example of an integrated model developed to be able to quantify PP loads discharged by stormwater...

  5. Stormwater Runoff Plumes in Southern California Detected with Satellite SAR and MODIS Imagery - Areas of Increased Contamination Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, R. C.; Holt, B.; Gierach, M.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal pollution poses both a major health and environmental hazard, not only for beachgoers and coastal communities, but for marine organisms as well. Stormwater runoff is the largest source of pollution in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB). The SCB is the final destination of four major urban watersheds and associated rivers, Ballona Creek, the Los Angeles River, the San Gabriel River, and the Santa Ana River, which act as channels for runoff and pollution during and after episodic rainstorms. Previous studies of SCB water quality have made use of both fine resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery and wide-swath medium resolution optical "ocean color" imagery from SeaWiFS and MODIS. In this study, we expand on previous SAR efforts, compiling a more extensive collection of multi-sensor SAR data, spanning from 1992 to 2014, analyzing the surface slick component of stormwater plumes. We demonstrate the use of SAR data in early detection of coastal stormwater plumes, relating plume extent to cumulative river discharge, and shoreline fecal bacteria loads. Intensity maps of the primary extent and direction of plumes were created, identifying coastal areas that may be subject to the greatest risk of environmental contamination. Additionally, we illustrate the differences in the detection of SAR surface plumes with the sediment-related discharge plumes derived from MODIS ocean color imagery. Finally, we provide a concept for satellite monitoring of stormwater plumes, combining both optical and radar sensors, to be used to guide the collection of in situ water quality data and enhance the assessment of related beach closures.

  6. Monitoring and Modelling of Salinity Behaviour in Drinking Water Ponds in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. A.; Williams, A.; Mathewson, E.; Rahman, A. K. M. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water in southern Bangladesh is provided by a variety of sources including constructed storage ponds, seasonal rainwater and, ubiquitously saline, shallow groundwater. The ponds, the communal reservoirs for harvested rainwater, also tend to be saline, some as high as 2 g/l. Drinking water salinity has several health impacts including high blood pressure associated major risk factor for several cardio-vascular diseases. Two representative drinking water ponds in Dacope Upazila of Khulna District in southwest Bangladesh were monitored over two years for rainfall, evaporation, pond and groundwater level, abstraction, and solute concentration, to better understand the controls on drinking water salinity. Water level monitoring at both ponds shows groundwater levels predominantly below the pond level throughout the year implying a downward gradient. The grain size analysis of the underlying sediments gives an estimated hydraulic conductivity of 3E-8 m/s allowing limited seepage loss. Water balance modelling indicates that the seepage has a relatively minor effect on the pond level and that the bulk of the losses come from the combination of evaporation and abstraction particularly in dry season when precipitation, the only inflow to the pond, is close to zero. Seasonal variation in salinity (electrical conductivities, EC, ranged between 1500 to 3000 μS/cm) has been observed, and are primarily due to dilution from rainfall and concentration from evaporation, except on one occasion when EC reached 16,000 μS/cm due to a breach in the pond levee. This event was analogous to the episodic inundation that occurs from tropical cyclone storm surges and appears to indicate that such events are important for explaining the widespread salinisation of surface water and shallow groundwater bodies in coastal areas. A variety of adaptations (either from practical protection measures) or novel alternative drinking sources (such as aquifer storage and recovery) can be applied

  7. Multiobjective optimization of low impact development stormwater controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Kyle; McPhee, Zach; Bolisetti, Tirupati

    2018-07-01

    Green infrastructure such as Low Impact Development (LID) controls are being employed to manage the urban stormwater and restore the predevelopment hydrological conditions besides improving the stormwater runoff water quality. Since runoff generation and infiltration processes are nonlinear, there is a need for identifying optimal combination of LID controls. A coupled optimization-simulation model was developed by linking the U.S. EPA Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) to the Borg Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm (Borg MOEA). The coupled model is capable of performing multiobjective optimization which uses SWMM simulations as a tool to evaluate potential solutions to the optimization problem. The optimization-simulation tool was used to evaluate low impact development (LID) stormwater controls. A SWMM model was developed, calibrated, and validated for a sewershed in Windsor, Ontario and LID stormwater controls were tested for three different return periods. LID implementation strategies were optimized using the optimization-simulation model for five different implementation scenarios for each of the three storm events with the objectives of minimizing peak flow in the stormsewers, reducing total runoff, and minimizing cost. For the sewershed in Windsor, Ontario, the peak run off and total volume of the runoff were found to reduce by 13% and 29%, respectively.

  8. Effects of landscape-based green infrastructure on stormwater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of impervious surfaces in urban and suburban catchments affects their hydrological behavior by decreasing infiltration, increasing peak hydrograph response following rainfall events, and ultimately increasing the total volume of water and mass of pollutants reaching streams. These changes have deleterious effects on downstream surface waters. Consequently, strategies to mitigate these impacts are now components of contemporary urban development and stormwater management. This study evaluates the effectiveness of landscape green infrastructure (GI) in reducing stormwater runoff volumes and controlling peak flows in four subdivision-scale suburban catchments (1.88 – 12.97 acres) in Montgomery County, MD, USA. Stormwater flow rates during runoff events were measured in five minute intervals at each catchment outlet. One catchment was built with GI vegetated swales on all parcels with the goal of intercepting, conveying, and infiltrating stormwater before it enters the sewer network. The remaining catchments were constructed with traditional gray infrastructure and “end-of-pipe” best management practices (BMPs) that treat stormwater before entering streams. This study compared characteristics of rainfall-runoff events at the green and gray infrastructure sites to understand their effects on suburban hydrology. The landscape GI strategy generally reduced rainfall-runoff ratios compared to gray infrastructure because of increased infiltration, ul

  9. Group NPDES stormwater permit application: The Conoco experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holler, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has reported that stormwater runoff is a major cause of pollution and use impairment to waters of the nation. Diffuse pollution sources (stormwater runoff) are increasingly important as controls for industrial process dischargers. On November 16, 1990 the Federal Clean Water Act National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) rules governing the discharge of stormwater were published (56 FR 40948). These rules potentially affect every type of business enterprise conducting work ''associated with industrial activity.'' Dischargers of stormwater associated with industrial activity ar required to either seek coverage under a federal or state general permit using notice of intent, apply for an individual permit, or apply for a permit through a two-part group application process. Conoco, Inc. Supply and Transportation (S and T) elected the latter alternative to attempt to comply with these new evolving complex, broad-ranging permitting requirements. This paper discusses specific details of S and T's strategy, BMP designs, data acquisition activities, monitoring results, as well as economic impacts on the corporation as a result of storm water permit requirements. S and T operates approximately 170 unique wholly and jointly owned petroleum product storage and transport facilities across the nation. Approximately one-third of these facilities were subject to stormwater permit application requirements

  10. Permeable pavement and stormwater management systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, H M; Akib, Shatirah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled stormwater runoff not only creates drainage problems and flash floods but also presents a considerable threat to water quality and the environment. These problems can, to a large extent, be reduced by a type of stormwater management approach employing permeable pavement systems (PPS) in urban, industrial and commercial areas, where frequent problems are caused by intense undrained stormwater. PPS could be an efficient solution for sustainable drainage systems, and control water security as well as renewable energy in certain cases. Considerable research has been conducted on the function of PPS and their improvement to ensure sustainable drainage systems and water quality. This paper presents a review of the use of permeable pavement for different purposes. The paper focuses on drainage systems and stormwater runoff quality from roads, driveways, rooftops and parking lots. PPS are very effective for stormwater management and water reuse. Moreover, geotextiles provide additional facilities to reduce the pollutants from infiltrate runoff into the ground, creating a suitable environment for the biodegradation process. Furthermore, recently, ground source heat pumps and PPS have been found to be an excellent combination for sustainable renewable energy. In addition, this study has identified several gaps in the present state of knowledge on PPS and indicates some research needs for future consideration.

  11. Sludge accumulation in shallow maturation ponds treating UASB reactor effluent: results after 11 years of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possmoser-Nascimento, Thiago Emanuel; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; von Sperling, Marcos; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Polishing ponds are natural systems used for the post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents. They are designed as maturation ponds and their main goal is the removal of pathogens and nitrogen and an additional removal of residual organic matter from the UASB reactor. This study aimed to evaluate organic matter and suspended solids removal as well as sludge accumulation in two shallow polishing ponds in series treating sanitary effluent from a UASB reactor with a population equivalent of 200 inhabitants in Brazil, operating since 2002. For this evaluation, long-term monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids and bathymetric surveys have been undertaken. The ponds showed an irregular distribution of total solids mass in the sludge layer of the two ponds, with mean accumulation values of 0.020 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) and 0.004 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) in Ponds 1 and 2, leading to around 40% and 8% of the liquid volume occupied by the sediments after 11 years of operation. The first pond showed better efficiency in relation to organic matter removal, although its contribution was limited, due to algal growth. No simple input-output mass balance of solids can be applied to the ponds due to algal growth in the liquid phase and sludge digestion in the sludge.

  12. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.com; Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.com; Sethy, N.K., E-mail: sethybarc@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, S.K., E-mail: sksbarc@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r = 0.86, p < 0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p < 0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. - Highlights: • Uranium mill tailings pond. • Jaduguda, India. • Fresh water plants. • Uranium uptake. • Relationship of uranium with stable elements.

  13. Best practices for quality management of stormwater pipe construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stormwater pipe systems are integral features of transportation construction projects. Pipe culverts : direct stormwater away from roadway structures and towards designated discharge areas. The improper : installation of a pipe culvert can result in ...

  14. Ground water input to coastal salt ponds of southern Rhode Island estimated using 226Ra as a tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M K; Moran, S B

    2001-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclide 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600 years) was used as a tracer to determine ground water input to Point Judith, Potter, Green Hill and Ninigret ponds in southern Rhode Island. Measurements of 226Ra activity were made in samples collected from salt ponds, pore waters, sediments, and local ground water wells during June-August, 1997. These results were combined with a simple box model to derive ground water input fluxes of 0.1-0.3 cm3 cm-2 d-1 (2-5 x 10(7) L d-1), which are comparable to previous estimates of ground water input to these ponds.

  15. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data release for the New Mexico portions of the Hobbs and Brownfield NTMS quadrangles, New Mexico/Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.G.; Nunes, H.P.

    1978-06-01

    U concentrations in waters approximate a lognormal distribution with a mean of 4.73 parts per billion (ppB) for the combined water samples from the western halves of both quadrangles. The highest U concentration found in a water sample is 139.7 ppb. About 93% of these samples were collected from 1008 wells. Of the remainder, 1 sample was collected from a spring and 75 samples were collected from combined surface water sources of artificial and natural ponds. The mean U content of the samples from surface water sources (7.63 ppB) is higher than that of the samples from wells (4.50 ppB). The water samples having the highest U content are from wells and ponds in the western, and especially the northwestern, portion of the Brownfield quadrangle. Most waters containing less than 20 ppB U were collected from areas in which the Dockum group underlies a thin veneer of surficial deposits, near the edge of the caprock, or from saline ponds. The U concentrations in sediments approximate a normal distribution with a mean of 2.18 ppM for the 914 sediment samples collected from the western halves of both quadrangles. The highest U value found in a sediment sample is 19.3 ppM. Sediments were collected from 154 dry streams, 522 dry natural ponds, 166 dry artificial ponds, and a total of 72 wet natural ponds, wet artificial ponds, and springs. The mean U content for sediments derived from the wet sources (2.77 ppM) is noticeably higher than that from dry sources (2.11 ppM).The highest U contents within the report area generally are associated with sediments collected from locations in which the Dockum group underlies a thin cover of surficial deposits. A cluster of seven sediments containing more than 3.0 ppM U is centered at 33 0 34'N, 103 0 53'W, where a U occurrence is reported at the Hoffacker test hole in the middle Dockum group

  16. A Hydrodynamic Study of Davis Pond, Near New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    District 2004). This project will make the Barataria estuary a more prolific producer of oysters, shrimp, crab , and fish, as well as a major habitat...yards 0.9144 meters ERDC/CHL TR-08-11 1 1 Introduction The Davis Pond freshwater diversion project is a salinity -control structure located in St...Mathematical model of estuarial sediment transport. Technical Report D-77-12. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station

  17. Modeling Nitrogen Decrease in Water Lettuce Ponds from Waste Stabilization Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Gitta Agnes; Sunarsih

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents about the dynamic modeling of the Water Lettuce ponds as a form of improvement from the Water Hyacinth ponds. The purpose of this paper is to predict nitrogen decrease and nitrogen transformation in Water Lettuce ponds integrated with Waste Stabilization Ponds. The model consists of 4 mass balances, namely Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), Particulate Organic Nitrogen (PON), ammonium (NH4+), Nitrate and Nitrite (NOx). The process of nitrogen transformation which considered in a Water Lettuce ponds, namely hydrolysis, mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, plant and bacterial uptake processes. Numerical simulations are performed by giving the values of parameters and the initial values of nitrogen compounds based on a review of previous studies. Numerical results show that the rate of change in the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the integration ponds of waste stabilization and water lettuce decreases and reaches stable at different times.

  18. Enhancing nitrogen removal in stormwater treatment facilities for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater from roadways is a point source of pollution. State DOTs must comply with Total Maximum : Daily Load (TMDL) regulations for nutrients such as nitrogen, which causes water quality impairment. Existing stormwater treatment technologies, such...

  19. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through stormwater basins designed for groundwater recharge in urban area: Assessment of retention efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Simon, Laurent; Maazouzi, Chafik; Foulquier, Arnaud; Delolme, Cécile; Marmonier, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has been developed in many countries to limit the risk of urban flooding and compensate for reduced groundwater recharge in urban areas. The environmental performances of MAR systems like infiltration basins depend on the efficiency of soil and vadose zone to retain stormwater-derived contaminants. However, these performances need to be finely evaluated for stormwater-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can affect groundwater quality. Therefore, this study examined the performance of MAR systems to process DOM during its transfer from infiltration basins to an urban aquifer. DOM characteristics (fluorescent spectroscopic properties, biodegradable and refractory fractions of dissolved organic carbon -DOC-, consumption by micro-organisms during incubation in slow filtration sediment columns) were measured in stormwater during its transfer through three infiltration basins during a stormwater event. DOC concentrations sharply decreased from surface to the aquifer for the three MAR sites. This pattern was largely due to the retention of biodegradable DOC which was more than 75% for the three MAR sites, whereas the retention of refractory DOC was more variable and globally less important (from 18% to 61% depending on MAR site). Slow filtration column experiments also showed that DOC retention during stormwater infiltration through soil and vadose zone was mainly due to aerobic microbial consumption of the biodegradable fraction of DOC. In parallel, measurements of DOM characteristics from groundwaters influenced or not by MAR demonstrated that stormwater infiltration increased DOC quantity without affecting its quality (% of biodegradable DOC and relative aromatic carbon content -estimated by SUVA254-). The present study demonstrated that processes occurring in soil and vadose zone of MAR sites were enough efficient to limit DOC fluxes to the aquifer. Nevertheless, the enrichments of DOC concentrations measured in groundwater below

  20. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond D Semlitsch

    Full Text Available We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  1. Accumulation and recovery capacity of heavy metals in sand mine ponds of the Otamiri River in Owerri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike Henry Ogbuagu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels, index of accumulation and recovery capacity of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn in sand mine ponds of the Otamiri River in Owerri, Nigeria during the wet season of 2012. Water (WC and sediment samples (SD were collected from six sampling points, with WC 1-WC 3 and SD 1-SD 3 located within a derelict mine pond and WC 4-WC 6 and SD 4-SD 6 located within an actively mined pond. The pH was determined in situ and levels of heavy metals measured with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The student’s t-test, index of geoaccumulation (Igeo, accumulation factor (AF and pond recovery capacity (PRC were computed for the ponds. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in mean levels of the heavy metals in sediments (sig. t=0.029 at P Zn (4.932> Cu (4.743 > Mn (4.326 > Pb (3.214 > Ni (2.483 > Cd (1.649, AF was Zn (1.513 > Cd (1.179 > Fe (1.082 > Ni (1.048 > Mn (1.042 > Cu (1.032 > Pb (0.987 and PRC was Zn (33.891 > Cd (15.165 > Fe (7.604 > Ni (4.608 > Mn (4.047 > Cu (3.052 > Pb (-1.373. Active mining led to extreme contamination of the ponds with Fe, strong to extreme contaminations with Cu, Zn and Mn, strong contamination with Pb, moderate to strong contamination with Ni and moderate contamination with Cd. However, Pb showed deficit recovery capacity and this could portend unfavourable ecological consequences on resident biota and raises public health concerns among resource dependants of the river. Strict enforcement of regulations on in-stream sand mining should be applied.

  2. Artful rainwater design creative ways to manage stormwater

    CERN Document Server

    Echols, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This beautifully illustrated, comprehensive guide explains how to design creative, yet practical, landscapes that treat on-site stormwater management as an opportunity to enhance site design. Stormwater management as art? Absolutely. Rain is a resource that should be valued and celebrated, not merely treated as an urban design problem—and yet, traditional stormwater treatment methods often range from ugly to forgettable. This book shows that it’s possible to effectively manage runoff while also creating inviting, attractive landscapes. It is a must-have resource for landscape architects, urban designers, civil engineers, and architects looking to create landscapes that celebrate rain for the life-giving resource it is-- and contribute to more sustainable, healthy, and even fun, built environments.

  3. TRADING ALLOWANCES FOR STORMWATER CONTROL: HYDROLOGY AND OPPORTUNITY COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess stormwater runoff is a serious problem in a large number of urban areas, causing flooding, water pollution, groundwater recharge deficits and ecological damage to urban streams. It has been posited that to mitigate the effects of excess stormwater runoff, policy makers cou...

  4. Green Infrastructure and Stormwater Utility Credit Design for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A current trend in funding urban stormwater programs relies on the issuance of stormwater utilities (i.e., fees) based on some measure of impervious surface (e.g., actual, estimated, average), and local programs vary greatly, dependent upon state law, municipal ordinances, and co...

  5. Functional nanostructured materials for stormwater runoff treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ko, Dongah

    Numerous heavy metal removal practices for stormwater runoff have been studied and applied; however, there is still room for improvement. Among these practices, adsorption has proven to be the most efficient way of removing heavy metals. Commonly used adsorbents have an innate sorption capacity...... in relation to high concentrations of heavy metal ions, but if they are to be used for stormwater runoff, high affinity with rapid sorption kinetics for low concentrations of heavy metals is necessary. Therefore, in this study, new types of functional nanostructured polymer sorbents for effective heavy metal...... removal from stormwater are suggested. First, comparison studies of several existing polymer sorbents were conducted, to find decisive functional groups for removing heavy metals from the solution. To enhance the sorption kinetics and affinity of polymer sorbents in the presence of competing ions, sulphur...

  6. Long-term Records of Trace Metal Elements in Core Sediments: Anthropogenic Impacts in The Eure River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardes, T.; Debret, M.; Copard, Y.; Patault, E.; Deloffre, J.; Marcotte, S.; Develle, A. L.; Sabatier, P.; Chaumillon, E.; Coulombier, T.; Revillon, S.; Nizou, J.; Laberdesque, Y.; Koltalo, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Martot Dam is located in the Eure River Watershed (Normandy, France), few hundred meters upstream the Eure-Seine Rivers confluence. In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the French Authorities planned to remove this dam in 2017. Nevertheless, impacts of the removal remain poorly studied. Classically, dam blocked sedimentary transfers downstream, but here, sediments are not blocked behind the dam but stored three hundred meters upstream in a hydraulic annex, called the Martot Pond. Furthermore, this pond is submitted to the tidal flow from the Seine Estuary despite the Martot Dam. The aim of the study is to evaluate the dam removal impacts on sedimentary transfers and re-suspension of contaminated sediments stored in the Martot Pond and the Eure River's channel. Concerning past transfers and sediments accumulation in the Eure River Watershed, sedimentary archives have been cored, before dam removal, at the Martot Pond and the Les Damps Pond (located 10km upstream the latter). Dating of sedimentary cores for both ponds indicates a sedimentation rate around 1 cm y-1. Trace metal elements quantification showed a wide metallic contamination with highest concentrations evidenced during the 1950-1960's (As: 13-22 mg kg-1; Cd: 40-55 mg kg-1; Cr: 170-210 mg kg-1; Cu: 400-490 mg kg-1; Hg: 2.3 mg kg-1; Mn: 1,280-2,200 mg kg-1; Ni: 64-75 mg kg-1; Zn: 905-990 mg kg-1) and the 1990-2000's (Cr: 95-215 mg kg-1; Ni: 100 mg kg-1; Pb: 670-855 mg kg-1). These variations of concentrations along cores can be associated with industrial past of the Eure River Watershed and sources of contamination can be identified. Thereby, Zn, Ni or Hg contamination could be associated with wastes of battery factory released in the Eure River during the economic recovery, while Pb contamination is linked to the activities of a cathode-ray tubes factory. Metals quantification in core materials highlighted anthropogenic impacts in the Eure River Watershed. These

  7. Stability of plutonium contaminated sediments in the Miami--Erie Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, B.M.; Carfagno, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the stability of plutonium-contaminated sediment in the Miami-Erie Canal. Correlations were sought to relate concentrations at air sampling stations to plutonium-238 concentrations in air and stack emissions, wind direction, particulate loading, rainfall, and construction activities. There appears to be some impact on airborne concentrations at air sampling stations 122 and 123 from the contaminated sediment in the canal and ponds area. For purposes of this evaluation, it was assumed that the plutonium-238 found in the air samples came from the contaminated sediment in the canal/ponds area. To complete the evaluation of the inhalation pathway, dose calculations were performed using actual airborne concentrations of plutonium-238 measured at sampler 123. The dose equivalent to an individual in that area was calculated for 1 yr and 70 yr. Dose calculations were also performed on potential uptake of contaminated vegetation from that area for 1 yr and 70 yr. This study indicates that, although the contaminated sediments in the canal and pond area appear to contribute to airborne plutonium-238, the observed maximum monthly concentration of plutonium-238 in air is a small fraction of the DOE Radioactivity Concentration Guide (RCG) and the nine-month average concentration of plutonium-238 in air observed thus far during 1977 is less than 1% of the RCG. Dose equivalents, conservatively calculated from these actual data, are well within existing DOE standards and proposed EPA guidance

  8. Performance of constructed evaporation ponds for disposal of smelter waste water: a case study at Portland Aluminum, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, S A; Allinson, G; Stagnitti, F; Coates, M; Hill, R J

    2001-06-01

    The construction of evaporative ponds and wetlands for the disposal of waste water high in ionic concentrations is a waste disposal strategy currently considered by many industries. However, the design, construction and management of these ponds and wetlands are not straightforward as complex chemical interactions result in both spatial and temporal changes in water quality. The effects of evaporation and drainage on the water quality in two constructed ponds, an adjacent man-made wetland and local groundwater at Portland Aluminium were investigated. The minimum volume of water entering the ponds during the study period was 0.96 +/- 0.16 ML per month. The predicted theoretical evaporative capacity of the two ponds was calculated to be 0.30 +/- 0.07 ML per month. More water enters the ponds than it is theoretically possible to evaporate under the ambient weather conditions at Portland, yet the ponds do not overflow, suggesting percolation through the pond lining. No spatial differences in solute concentrations (fluoride, sulphate, bicarbonate, carbonate, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium ions) were found within the waters of either pond, although temporal differences were apparent. The results support the conclusion that the ponds are not impermeable, and that much of the waste water entering the ponds is being lost through seepage. The impacts on local groundwater chemistry of this seepage are addressed. Significant correlations exist between solute presence within and between the ponds. wetland and groundwater. Fluoride and sulphate concentrations were significantly higher in pond waters throughout the duration of the experiment. Pond sediments revealed a high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the concentration of all monitored ions resulting from the chemical heterogeneity of the material making up the pond linings. Adsorption isotherms for fluoride indicate that the adsorption capacity of the pond linings remains high for this ion

  9. Thaw pond dynamics and carbon emissions in a Siberian lowland tundra landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huissteden, Ko; Heijmans, Monique; Dean, Josh; Meisel, Ove; Goovaerts, Arne; Parmentier, Frans-Jan; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Belelli Marchesini, Luca; Kononov, Alexander; Maximov, Trofim; Borges, Alberto; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Arctic climate change induces drastic changes in permafrost surface wetness. As a result of thawing ground ice bodies, ice wedge troughs and thaw ponds are formed. Alternatively, ongoing thaw may enhance drainage as a result of increased interconnectedness of thawing ice wedge troughs, as inferred from a model study (Liljedahl et al., 2016, Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2674). However, a recent review highlighted the limited predictability of consequences of thawing permafrost on hydrology (Walvoord and Kurylyk, 2016, Vadose Zone J., DOI:10.2136/vzj2016.01.0010). Overall, these changes in tundra wetness modify carbon cycling in the Arctic and in particular the emissions of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, providing a possibly positive feedback on climate change. Here we present the results of a combined remote sensing, geomorphological, vegetation and biogechemical study of thaw ponds in Arctic Siberian tundra, at Kytalyk research station near Chokurdakh, Indigirka lowlands. The station is located in an area dominated by Pleistocene ice-rich 'yedoma' sediments and drained thaw lake bottoms of Holocene age. The development of three types of ponds in the Kytalyk area (polygon centre ponds, ice wedge troughs and thaw ponds) has been traced with high resolution satellite and aerial imagery. The remote sensing data show net areal expansion of all types of ponds. Next to formation of new ponds, local vegetation change from dry vegetation types to wet, sedge-dominated vegetation is common. Thawing ice wedges and thaw ponds show an increase in area and number at most studied locations. In particular the area of polygon centre ponds increased strongly between 2010 and 2015, but this is highly sensitive to antecedent precipitation conditions. Despite a nearly 60% increase of the area of thawing ice wedge troughs, there is no evidence of decreasing water surfaces by increasing drainage through connected ice wedge troughs. The number of thaw ponds shows an equilibrium

  10. Using visible reflectance spectroscopy to reconstruct historical changes in chlorophyll a concentration in East Antarctic ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The visible reflectance spectroscopy (VRS and chlorophyll a concentration were determined in three sediment profiles collected from East Antarctica to investigate the potential application of VRS in reconstructing historical changes in Antarctic lake primary productivity. The results showed that the appearance of a trough at 650–700 nm is an important marker for chlorophyll a concentration and can therefore be used to distinguish the sedimentary organic matter source from guano and algae. The measured chlorophyll a content had significant positive correlations with the trough area between 650 and 700 nm, and no distinct trough was found in the sediments with organic matter completely derived from guano. Modelling results showed that the spectra spectrally inferred chlorophyll a content, and the measured data exhibit consistent trends with depth, showing that the dimensionless trough area can serve as an independent proxy for reconstructing historical fluctuations in the primary production of Antarctic ponds. The correlation of phosphorus (P with measured and inferred chlorophyll a contents in ornithogenic sediments near penguin colonies indicates that the change in primary productivity in the Antarctic ponds investigated was closely related to the amount of guano input from these birds.

  11. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably....... The second study concerns combined sewer overflows and the discharge from treatment plants for catchments in Denmark and the Netherlands. When looking at the total yearly discharge from the combined sewer and the treatment plant, it is shown that infiltration is more effective than detention. The third study...

  12. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse

  13. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, An [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Cooperative Research and Education Centre for Environmental Technology, Kyoto University–Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse.

  14. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  15. Finding of No Significant Impact and Finding of No Practicable Aleternative for the Environmental Assessment for the 21 Point Enclosed Firing Range at Joint-Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    would be established. An existing parking lot located at the Leroy’s Lane LandfillS (LF-05) site would be utilized for staff parking and overflow... rehabilitation (reconstruction) and upgrades for this ~ stormwater pond will result in a temporary change to this manmade surface water. The proposed...will be required, as the work associated with the stormwater pond rehabilitation would exceed 5,000 square feet. The proposed work will require an

  16. Promoting innovative stormwater solutions for coastal plain communities

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Sadie

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Center for Watershed Protection (CWP) surveyed seventy-three coastal plain communities to determine their current practices and need for watershed planning and low impact development (LID). The survey found that communities had varying watershed planning effectiveness and need better stormwater management, land use planning, and watershed management communication. While technical capacity is improving, stormwater programs are under staffed and innovative site designs ...

  17. Integral stormwater management master plan and design in an ecological community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wu; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Zheng; Li, Junqi; Shi, Man

    2014-09-01

    Urban stormwater runoff nearly discharges directly into bodies of water through gray infrastructure in China, such as sewers, impermeable ditches, and pump stations. As urban flooding, water shortage, and other environment problems become serious, integrated water environment management is becoming increasingly complex and challenging. At more than 200ha, the Oriental Sun City community is a large retirement community located in the eastern side of Beijing. During the beginning of its construction, the project faced a series of serious water environment crises such as eutrophication, flood risk, water shortage, and high maintenance costs. To address these issues, an integral stormwater management master plan was developed based on the concept of low impact development (LID). A large number of LID and green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) approaches were designed and applied in the community to replace traditional stormwater drainage systems completely. These approaches mainly included bioretention (which captured nearly 85th percentile volume of the annual runoff in the site, nearly 5.4×10(5)m(3) annually), swales (which functioned as a substitute for traditional stormwater pipes), waterscapes, and stormwater wetlands. Finally, a stormwater system plan was proposed by integrating with the gray water system, landscape planning, an architectural master plan, and related consultations that supported the entire construction period. After more than 10 years of planning, designing, construction, and operation, Oriental Sun City has become one of the earliest modern large-scale LID communities in China. Moreover, the project not only addressed the crisis efficiently and effectively, but also yielded economic and ecological benefits. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Environmental impacts of stormwater management and pollutant discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    in stormwater management systems. Often, an increase in global emission, e.g. through the construction of treatment facilities, will lead to reduced local impacts, and vice versa. By taking into account both local and global impacts, stormwater management systems can be optimized holistically to minimize......Stormwater management systems are necessary to protect people and assets from flooding and pollution, especially in densely built, sealed urban areas. The possible solutions range from underground pipes and basins, where rain water is often handled together with wastewater, to local and multi......-functional solutions, e.g. rain beds or retention lakes. Ideally, these solutions are not only economically, but also environmentally sustainable. Risk assessments are sometimes carried out, e.g. to determine the effect of discharges during extreme events, but they lack a holistic perspective: While pollutants...

  19. Radionuclides in bats using a contaminated pond on the Nevada National Security Site, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Ronald W.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Perched groundwater percolating through radionuclide contamination in the E Tunnel Complex on the Nevada National Security Site, formerly the Nevada Test Site, emerges and is stored in a series of ponds making it available to wildlife, including bats. Since many bat species using the ponds are considered sensitive or protected/regulated and little information is available on dose to bats from radioactive water sources, bats were sampled to determine if the dose they were receiving exceeded the United States Department of Energy dose limit of 1.0E-3 Gy/day. Radionuclide concentrations in water, sediment, and flying insects were also measured as input parameters to the dose rate model and to examine trophic level relationships. The RESRAD-Biota model was used to calculate dose rates to bats using different screening levels. Efficacy of RESRAD-Biota and suggested improvements are discussed. Dose to bats foraging and drinking at these ponds is well below the dose limit set to protect terrestrial biota populations. - Highlights: • Bats uptake radionuclides from a contaminated pond. • Tritium had highest concentrations but 137 Cs gave highest dose. • Tritium concentrations in bats are approximately one-twentieth of that in the pond. • Population level effects are not expected based on RESRAD-Biota dose estimates. • It may be more appropriate to model the bats as riparian animals in RESRAD-Biota

  20. Performance Probability Distributions for Sediment Control Best Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, L.; Beighley, R.; Walsh, K.

    2007-12-01

    Controlling soil erosion and sediment transport can be a significant challenge during the construction process due to the extent and conditions of bare, disturbed soils. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used as the framework for the design of sediment discharge prevention systems in stormwater pollution prevention plans which are typically required for construction sites. This research focuses on commonly-used BMP systems for perimeter control of sediment export: silt fences and fiber rolls. Although these systems are widely used, the physical and engineering parameters describing their performance are not well understood. Performance expectations are based on manufacturer results, but due to the dynamic conditions that exist on a construction site performance expectations are not always achievable in the field. Based on experimental results product performance is shown to be highly variable. Experiments using the same installation procedures show inconsistent sediment removal performances ranging from (>)85 percent to zero. The goal of this research is to improve the determination of off-site sediment yield based on probabilistic performance results of perimeter control BMPs. BMPs are evaluated in the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL) in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University. SERL experiments are performed on a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with a soil depth of 0.5 meters and a slope of 33 percent. The simulated storm event consists of 17 mm/hr for 20 minutes followed by 51 mm/hr for 30 minutes. The storm event is based on an ASTM design storm intended to simulate BMP failures. BMP performance is assessed based on experiments where BMPs are installed per manufacture specifications, less than optimal installations, and no treatment conditions. Preliminary results from 30 experiments are presented and used to develop probability distributions for BMP sediment removal efficiencies. The results are then combined with

  1. Identification and induction of human, social, and cultural capitals through an experimental approach to stormwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decentralized stormwater management is based on the dispersal of stormwater management practices (SWMP) throughout a watershed to manage stormwater runoff volume and potentially restore natural hydrologic processes. This approach to stormwater management is increasingly popular b...

  2. The Effect of Sediment Quality and Stocking Density on Survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sediment quality and stocking density on the survival and growth of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra reared in nursery ponds and in pens was studied at Aqua-Lab Farm in Toliara, south west Madagascar. Three types of sediment (micro-atoll, mangrove and seagrass bed) were tested for their food quality ...

  3. Development and Design of Cost-Effective, Real-Time Implementable Sediment and Contaminant Release Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampson, Steve [Univ of KY, Center for Applied Energy Research, Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment

    2007-08-01

    Alternative design options for integrated storm water and sediment control systems were developed and evaluated for Outfalls 008, 011 and 015 of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The remedial options were required to be cost effective and implementable in a relatively short timeframe. Additionally, construction activities were to minimize earth disturbance, especially with respect to excavation. The current database for storm water and effluent sediment oncentration was assessed for the three outfalls. It was concluded that there was a significant lack of data and recommendations for monitoring equipment were provided to initiate a comprehensive surface water and sediment data acquisition system. Modeling was completed for current conditions. Peak flow, runoff volume, peak sediment concentration and storm sediment load were modeled for storm events, ranging from 0.5 inches (12.7mm) to 3.0 inches (6.2mm). Predicted peak flows ranged from 2.5 cfs (0.071 m3/s) for Outfall 011 and a 0.5 inches (12.7mm) storm to 210 cfs (5.95 m3/s) for Outfall 008 and a 3.0 inches (76.2mm) storm. Additionally, the 100-yr 24-hr NRCS Type II storm was modeled. Storm sediment loads, for the corresponding outfalls and storm events, ranged from 0.1 to 9.0 tons (8.18 tonnes). Retention ponds were designed and evaluated for each of the three outfalls. The ponds had a dual function; 1) contain the storm runoff volume for smaller storm events and 2) passively treat and discharge runoff that was in excess of the pond’s storage capacity. Stored runoff was transferred to alternative secondary treatment systems. The expected performance of these treatment systems was evaluated. The performance of the outfall ponds was evaluated for storm events ranging from 0.5 inches (12.7mm) to 4.0 inches (101.6mm). Outfall 011 has a watershed of 33.3 acres. Pond 011 (Outfall 011) has the largest storage capacity of the three outfalls, and therefore the highest potential for effective treatment. The predicted

  4. Environmental impact of aquaculture-sedimentation and nutrient loadings from shrimp culture of the southeast coastal region of the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biplob; Khan, Yusuf Sharif Ahmed; Das, Pranab

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient loadings were measured for surface seawater and bottom sediments of semi-intensive and improved extensive shrimp culture pond, adjacent estuary, and fallow land in the south-east coastal region of Bangladesh during August, 2000-January, 2001 to evaluate the impact of shrimp culture. The mean levels of nutrients found in the pond surface water were 108.780 mg/L for CaCO3, 0.526 mg/L for NH4+ -N, 3.075 wt% for organic carbon, 7.00 mg/L for PO4-P, 5.57 mg/L for NO3-N, and 7.33 mg/L for chlorophyll-a. The maximum mean value of H2S (0.232 mg/L) was found in estuarine water. Nutrients loading were found to be decreased with distance from the shrimp farm discharge unit in estuarine water. The mean level of organic matter, total nitrogen, and organic carbon were found in higher concentrations in sediments of cultured pond compared to bottom soil of adjacent fallow land at the same elevation. Extractable Ca values were found in higher concentration (550.33 ppt) in adjacent fallow land, as the shrimps for molting in shrimp ponds use extractable Ca. The relation between seawater H2S value and sediment pH (r = - 0.94); sediment organic carbon and sediment pH values (r = -0.76), sediment total nitrogen and sediment pH (r = -0.74) were found to be highly negatively correlated. Whereas the relation between seawater H2S value and sediment total nitrogen (r = 0.92), water NH4+ -N and sediment pH (r = 0.66) were found to be positively correlated. The results revealed that load of nutrients at eutrophic level in estuarine water, and decrease of soil pH; leading to acid sulphate soil formation indicates a negative impact of shrimp culture.

  5. A study on distribution of natural radionuclide polonium-210 in a pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the distribution of 210 Po in Mutharasanallur pond ecosystem. It has been demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the ecosystem. The results of the study show a dissolved 210 Po concentration in pond water of 1.4mBql -1 . The sediment sample recorded a 210 Po activity of 59.9 Bqkg -1 . The aquatic organism showed differential accumulation of the radionuclide with enhanced bioaccumulation in soft tissues and muscle. The 210 Po activity in the biota fell within the range of 1.2-53.3 Bqkg -1 (wet weight). The bivalve mussel, Lamellidens marginalis was identified to accumulate higher concentration of 210 Po in soft tissues, suggesting that these organisms could serve as a bio-monitor of 210 Po radionuclide in a freshwater system. The concentration factors of 210 Po for the biotic components ranged from ∼ 10 2 - ∼ 10 4 . Analyses of the results indicate that prawn and fish represent an important source of supply of 210 Po to humans via dietary intake. Results of 210 Po activity in the abiotic and biotic components of the pond ecosystem were higher when compared with those of Cauvery river system, the primary water source of the pond. (author)

  6. Anthropogenic infilling of a Bermudian sinkhole and its impact on sedimentation and benthic foraminifera in the adjacent anchialine cave environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn N. Cresswell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-20th century, an inland brackish pond from Bermuda, known as Eve’s Pond, was filled with marine sediment from an adjacent coastal lagoon. At this time, an eyewitness reported “…sediment billowing out of the Green Bay Cave for days…”, which is a marine-dominated anchialine cave located proximal to the former location of Eve’s Pond (~200 m. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of this infilling event on cave sedimentation and benthic meiofaunal communities, as proxied by the unicellular protists foraminifera that remain preserved in the sediment record. Eight sediment cores were collected from an underwater passage in Green Bay Cave in a transect towards the location where Eve’s Pond was surveyed in 1901 CE. The sediment cores were analyzed for visual and density changes (photography, X-radiography, textural variability, benthic foraminifera fauna and diversity, and radiocarbon dating. The recovered sediment cores mostly sampled a late Holocene carbonate mud facies that had been described during previous research in the cave, with benthic foraminiferal assemblages post-dating the onset of seawater circulating between the saline groundwater flooding the cave and the adjacent Harrington Sound ~1,900 years ago. However, two cores located further into the cave (cores 13 and 17 contain a carbonate sand layer with lagoon foraminifera that is anomalous with respect to the Holocene depositional history of the cave and is most likely related to the mid-20th century infilling of Eve’s Pond. Examination of these two cores showed that after the infilling event, the community of benthic foraminifera rapidly reverted to pre-impact assemblages with foraminiferal stygophiles (e.g., Spirophthalmidium emaciatum, Sigmoilina tenuis, which were not displaced by new colonizers introduced into the cave by the dredge spoils. We caution that the results cannot be extrapolated to the pelagic crustacean community, but the

  7. Principles for urban stormwater management to protect stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher J.; Booth, Derek B.; Burns, Matthew J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Hale, Rebecca L.; Hoang, Lan N.; Livingston, Grant; Rippy, Megan A.; Roy, Allison; Scoggins, Mateo; Wallace, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Urban stormwater runoff is a critical source of degradation to stream ecosystems globally. Despite broad appreciation by stream ecologists of negative effects of stormwater runoff, stormwater management objectives still typically center on flood and pollution mitigation without an explicit focus on altered hydrology. Resulting management approaches are unlikely to protect the ecological structure and function of streams adequately. We present critical elements of stormwater management necessary for protecting stream ecosystems through 5 principles intended to be broadly applicable to all urban landscapes that drain to a receiving stream: 1) the ecosystems to be protected and a target ecological state should be explicitly identified; 2) the postdevelopment balance of evapotranspiration, stream flow, and infiltration should mimic the predevelopment balance, which typically requires keeping significant runoff volume from reaching the stream; 3) stormwater control measures (SCMs) should deliver flow regimes that mimic the predevelopment regime in quality and quantity; 4) SCMs should have capacity to store rain events for all storms that would not have produced widespread surface runoff in a predevelopment state, thereby avoiding increased frequency of disturbance to biota; and 5) SCMs should be applied to all impervious surfaces in the catchment of the target stream. These principles present a range of technical and social challenges. Existing infrastructural, institutional, or governance contexts often prevent application of the principles to the degree necessary to achieve effective protection or restoration, but significant potential exists for multiple co-benefits from SCM technologies (e.g., water supply and climate-change adaptation) that may remove barriers to implementation. Our set of ideal principles for stream protection is intended as a guide for innovators who seek to develop new approaches to stormwater management rather than accept seemingly

  8. Studies on the microbial sulphur cycle in acid ponds in the Niederlausitz mining region in Brandenburg; Untersuchungen zum mikrobiellen Schwefelkreislauf in sauren Tagebau-Restseen der Niederlausitz (Brandenburg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J

    2001-07-01

    The water quality of the acid ponds in the Niederlausitz brown coal mining region is characterised by pH values below 3 and high concentrations of dissolved iron (up to 10 mM) and sulphate (up to 30 mM). The development of these ponds is determined by the equilibrium that arises between acidifying and alkalinising processes. Acidity develops through weathering and oxidation of iron sulphides in the mining refuse, whereas alkalinity arises through the reduction of iron (III) and sulphate in the pond sediments, a process associated with the oxidation of organic matter. The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation on the neutralising potential of the sediments in acid ponds and to characterise and identify the microorganisms involved in these processes. Comparative explorations were performed in two acid waters, namely ponds 111 and 107, and in a neutral water, namely pond B, in a semi-natural area of the Niederlausitz region. [German] Die Wasserqualitaet der sauren Bergbau-Restseen im Braunkohlerevier der Niederlausitz ist durch pH-Werte unter pH 3 und hohe Konzentrationen an geloestem Eisen (bis zu 10 mM) und Sulfat (bis zu 30 mM) gekennzeichnet. Die Entwicklung der Restseen wird durch das Gleichgewicht von aziditaets- und alkalinitaetsbildenden Prozessen bestimmt. Aziditaet entsteht bei der Verwitterung bzw. der Oxidation der Eisensulfide im Kippmassiv, waehrend Alkalinitaet bei der an die Oxidation organischer Substanz gekoppelte Reduktion von Eisen(III) und Sulfat in den Sedimenten der Seen gebildet wird. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Einfluss der Sulfratreduktion und der Schwefeloxidation auf das Neutralisierungspotenzial der Sedimente der sauren Restseen untersucht sowie die an diesen Prozessen beteiligten Mikroorganismen charakterisiert und identifiziert. Vergleichende Untersuchungen wurden in zwei sauren, Restsee 111 und 107, und in einem neutralen Gewaesser, Restsee B, im naturnahen Bereich

  9. Urban Stormwater Governance: The Need for a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Chevalier, Lizette R

    2016-05-01

    Traditional urban stormwater management involves rapid removal of stormwater through centralized conveyance systems of curb-gutter-pipe networks. This results in many adverse impacts on the environment including hydrological disruption, groundwater depletion, downstream flooding, receiving water quality degradation, channel erosion, and stream ecosystem damage. In order to mitigate these adverse impacts, urban stormwater managers are increasingly using green infrastructure that promote on-site infiltration, restore hydrological functions of the landscape, and reduce surface runoff. Existing stormwater governance, however, is centralized and structured to support the conventional systems. This governance approach is not suited to the emerging distributed management approach, which involves multiple stakeholders including parcel owners, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. This incongruence between technology and governance calls for a paradigm shift in the governance from centralized and technocratic to distributed and participatory governance. This paper evaluates how five US cities have been adjusting their governance to address the discord. Finally, the paper proposes an alternative governance model, which provides a mechanism to involve stakeholders and implement distributed green infrastructure under an integrative framework.

  10. Charging for stormwater in South Africa | Fisher-Jeffes | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Municipalities across South Africa charge their citizens for potable water and sewerage. Stormwater management, however, is generally funded through municipal rates. Competition with other pressing needs frequently results in the stormwater departments being significantly under-funded – at times only receiving a tenth ...

  11. Trees and Streets as Drivers of Urban Stormwater Nutrient Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Benjamin D; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E

    2017-09-05

    Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, U.S.A., and at the scale of individual streets within one residential watershed. Stormwater nutrient concentrations were highly variable across watersheds and strongly related to tree canopy over streets, especially for phosphorus. Stormwater nutrient loads were primarily related to road density, the dominant control over runoff volume. Street canopy exerted opposing effects on loading, where elevated nutrient concentrations from trees near roads outweighed the weak influence of trees on runoff reduction. These results demonstrate that vegetation near streets contributes substantially to stormwater nutrient pollution, and therefore to eutrophication of urban surface waters. Urban landscape design and management that account for trees as nutrient pollution sources could improve water quality outcomes, while allowing cities to enjoy the myriad benefits of urban forests.

  12. uG-LilyPond - Floating Plant Pond for Microgravity, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed μG-LilyPond is an autonomous environmentally controlled floating plant cultivation system for use in microgravity. The μG-LilyPond concept expands the...

  13. Assessment of stormwater management options in urban contexts using Multiple Attribute Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gogate, Nivedita G.; Kalbar, Pradip; Raval, Pratap M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting the most sustainable stormwater management alternative in developing countries in a dense urban context. Firstly, suitable Low Impact Development (LID) stormwater management measures for dense urban areas in developing countries were identified based...... sustainable stormwater management options in densely populated areas of developing countries....... on critical review of literature. Alternatives have been formulated as varying percentages (degree of adoption) of these suitable measures to manage the stormwater sustainably. Further, a novel decision-making framework is developed which generates the hierarchy for selection of the most sustainable...

  14. Influence of governance structure on green stormwater infrastructure investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kristina G.; Grimm, Nancy B.; York, Abigail M.

    2018-01-01

    Communities are faced with the challenge of meeting regulatory requirements mandating reductions in water pollution from stormwater and combined sewer overflows (CSO). Green stormwater infrastructure and gray stormwater infrastructure are two types of water management strategies communities can use to address water pollution. In this study, we used long-term control plans from 25 U.S. cities to synthesize: the types of gray and green infrastructure being used by communities to address combined sewer overflows; the types of goals set; biophysical characteristics of each city; and factors associated with the governance of stormwater management. These city characteristics were then used to identify common characteristics of “green leader” cities—those that dedicated >20% of the control plan budget in green infrastructure. Five “green leader” cities were identified: Milwaukee, WI, Philadelphia, PA, Syracuse, NY, New York City, NY, and Buffalo, NY. These five cities had explicit green infrastructure goals targeting the volume of stormwater or percentage of impervious cover managed by green infrastructure. Results suggested that the management scale and complexity of the management system are less important factors than the ability to harness a “policy window” to integrate green infrastructure into control plans. Two case studies—Philadelphia, PA, and Milwaukee, WI—indicated that green leader cities have a long history of building momentum for green infrastructure through a series of phases from experimentation, demonstration, and finally—in the case of Philadelphia—a full transition in the approach used to manage CSOs.

  15. Borehole data package for the 216-S-10 pond and ditch well 299-W26-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, D.G.; Williams, B.A.; Cearlock, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    One new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) groundwater monitoring well was installed at the 216-S-10 pond and ditch during November and December 1999 in fulfillment of Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology 1996) milestone M-24-42. The well is 299-W26-13 and is located at the northeast comer to the 216-S-10 pond, southwest of 200 West Area. The well is a new downgradient well in the monitoring network. A figure shows the locations of all wells in the 216-S-10 pond and ditch monitoring network. The new well was constructed to the specifications and requirements described in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-160 and WAC 173-303, the groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-S-10 pond and ditch (Airhart et al. 1990), and the description of work for well drilling and installation. During drilling and construction of well 299-W26-13, sampling and analysis activities were done to support remedial action, closure decisions at treatment, storage and disposal facilities, and to confirm preliminary site conceptual models developed in the 200-CS-1 Work Plan (DOE/RL 1999). This document compiles information on the drilling and construction, well development, pump installation, and sediment and groundwater testing applicable to well 299-W26-13. Appendix A contains the Well Summary Sheet (as-built diagram), the Well Construction Summary Report, and the geologist's log. Appendix B contains results of field and laboratory determinations of physical and chemical properties of sediment samples. Appendix C contains borehole geophysical logs. Additional documentation concerning well construction is on file with Bechtel Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington

  16. [Research on stormwater runoff quality of mountain city by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Shan, Bao-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Guo, Shu-Gang; Gao, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from 10 source areas in Mountain City, Chongqing, during five rain events in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of runoff quality and influencing factors. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance of sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff of Mountain City presented a strong first flush for almost all events and constituents. The runoff quality indices were also influenced by the rainfall intensity. The concentration of TSS, COD, TN and TP decreased as the rainfall intensity increased. The concentrations of COD and TP in stormwater runoff were highly correlated with TSS concentrations. Suspended solid matter were not only the main pollutant of stormwater runoff but also served as the vehicle for transport of organic matter and phosphorus. Organic matter and phosphorus in stormwatrer runoff were mainly bound to particles, whereas nitrogen was predominantly dissolved, with ammonia and nitrate. A significant difference of stormwater runoff quality was observed among the ten monitored source areas. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the commercial area and the first trunk road, followed by the minor road, residential area, parking lot and roof. Urban surface function, traffic volume, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. Commercial area, the first trunk road and residential area with high population density are the critical sources areas of urban stormwater runoff pollution.

  17. Lanthanide behavior in hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico - an environment with halophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumiline, K.; López-Cortés, A.; Grajeda-Muñoz, M.; Shumilin, E.; Sapozhnikov, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lanthanides are known, in some cases, to be sensitive to changes in water column or sediment chemistry, a fact that allows them to be used as environmental fingerprints. Nevertheless, the behavior of these elements in hypersaline environments is insufficiently understood, especially in those colonized by bacteria, archaea and eukarya halophiles. Extreme environments like the mentioned exist in the artificially-controlled ponds of the 'Exportadora de Sal' salt-producing enterprise located in Guerrero Negro (Baja California, Mexico). Sediment cores from various ponds were collected, subsampled and measured by ICP-MS and INAA. This allowed differencing the behavior of lanthanides and trace elements under a water column salinity gradient along the evaporation sequence of ponds. Sediment profiles (30 mm long), obtained in Pond 5, dominated by Ca and Mg precipitation and at the same time rich in organic matter due to bacterial mat presence, showed highs and lows of the shale-normalized patterns along different in-core depths. Two groups of elements could be distinguished with similar trends: set A (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and set B (Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu). The first 'group A' had two prominent peaks at 15 mm and around 22 mm, whereas the 'group B' showed only slight increase at 15 mm and none at 22 mm. Microscopic analyses of prokaryotic cells of a stratified mat in Pond 5 (collected in 2004) showed filamentous bacteria and cyanobacteria with a cell abundance and morphotype richness maxima of prokaryotic cells in a chemocline from 3 mm to 7 mm depth which co-exists nine morphotypes of aerobic and anaerobic prokaryotes Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Leptolyngbya, Cyanothece, Geitlerinema, Spirulina, Chloroflexus, Beggiatoa, Chromatium and Thioploca. Below the 7 mm depth, oxygenic photosynthesis depletes and sulfur reducing compounds increase. The highs of the shale-normalized lanthanide contents of the 'group A' (at 15 mm depth) seem to correlate with the

  18. Decision-Support Tools and Databases to Inform Regional Stormwater Utility Development in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of stormwater utilities requires information on existing stormwater infrastructure and impervious cover as well as costs and benefits of stormwater management options. US EPA has developed a suite of databases and tools that can inform decision-making by regional sto...

  19. Confirmation of putative stormwater impact on water quality at a Florida beach by microbial source tracking methods and structure of indicator organism populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, M J; Harwood, V J; Kurz, R C; McQuaig, S M; Lukasik, J; Scott, T M

    2007-08-01

    The effect of a stormwater conveyance system on indicator bacteria levels at a Florida beach was assessed using microbial source tracking methods, and by investigating indicator bacteria population structure in water and sediments. During a rain event, regulatory standards for both fecal coliforms and Enterococcus spp. were exceeded, contrasting with significantly lower levels under dry conditions. Indicator bacteria levels were high in sediments under all conditions. The involvement of human sewage in the contamination was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the esp gene of Enterococcus faecium and for the conserved T antigen of human polyomaviruses, all of which were negative. BOX-PCR subtyping of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus showed higher population diversity during the rain event; and higher population similarity during dry conditions, suggesting that without fresh inputs, only a subset of the population survives the selective pressure of the secondary habitat. These data indicate that high indicator bacteria levels were attributable to a stormwater system that acted as a reservoir and conduit, flushing high levels of indicator bacteria to the beach during a rain event. Such environmental reservoirs of indicator bacteria further complicate the already questionable relationship between indicator organisms and human pathogens, and call for a better understanding of the ecology, fate and persistence of indicator bacteria.

  20. Coupling distributed stormwater collection and managed aquifer recharge: Field application and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganskas, S; Fisher, A T

    2017-09-15

    Groundwater is increasingly important for satisfying California's growing fresh water demand. Strategies like managed aquifer recharge (MAR) can improve groundwater supplies, mitigating the negative consequences of persistent groundwater overdraft. Distributed stormwater collection (DSC)-MAR projects collect and infiltrate excess hillslope runoff before it reaches a stream, focusing on 40-400 ha drainage areas (100-1000 ac). We present results from six years of DSC-MAR operation-including high resolution analyses of precipitation, runoff generation, infiltration, and sediment transport-and discuss their implications for regional resource management. This project generated significant water supply benefit over six years, including an extended regional drought, collecting and infiltrating 5.3 × 10 5  m 3 (426 ac-ft). Runoff generation was highly sensitive to sub-daily storm frequency, duration, and intensity, and a single intense storm often accounted for a large fraction of annual runoff. Observed infiltration rates varied widely in space and time. The basin-average infiltration rate during storms was 1-3 m/d, with point-specific rates up to 8 m/d. Despite efforts to limit sediment load, 8.2 × 10 5  kg of fine-grained sediment accumulated in the infiltration basin over three years, likely reducing soil infiltration capacity. Periodic removal of accumulated material, better source control, and/or improved sediment detention could mitigate this effect in the future. Regional soil analyses can maximize DSC-MAR benefits by identifying high-infiltration capacity features and characterizing upland sediment sources. A regional network of DSC-MAR projects could increase groundwater supplies while contributing to improved groundwater quality, flood mitigation, and stakeholder engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies and Analysis of the Effectiveness of Stormwater Runoff Purification Equipment in Vilnius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija Jaruševičiūtė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to protect the natural environment from pollution, pollutant reduction in the stormwater runoff of urban areas is a particularly relevant factor. Uneven surface water flow and changes in pollutant concentration complicate conventional matching techniques and processes as well as prolong the duration of time which requires a comprehensive study in this area. Therefore, experiments on inflow stormwater turbidity and impurity with suspended solids and petroleum products were carried out according to the prepared sample collecting methodology. The study evaluated the effectiveness of cleaning a stormwater treatment plant along the settlement chamber in the chosen points. The settling time of impurities found in stormwater was analyzed under the presence of ideal conditions in the laboratory. The conducted experiments established dependence between suspended solids and turbidity. Stormwater pollution by SS was reduced only to 21–35% after heavy rain or a snow melting period in treatment plants. Keywords: storm water runoff, cleaning stormwater treatment plant, pollutants, turbidity, suspended solids, petrol products.DOI: 10.3846/mla.2010.087

  2. Avian response to early tidal salt marsh restoration at former commercial salt evaporation ponds in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athearn, Nicole D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Shinn, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of former commercial salt evaporation ponds in the San Francisco Bay estuary is intended to reverse a severe decline (>79%) in tidal salt marshes. San Francisco Bay is a critical migratory stopover site and wintering area for shorebirds and waterfowl, and salt ponds are important high tide roosting and foraging areas. Conservation of past bird abundance is a stated goal of area restoration projects, and early adaptive management will be critical for achieving this objective. However, initial avian response at sites restored to tidal flow may not be indicative of long-term results. For example, winter shorebirds at a 529 ha pond breached in 2002 showed a marked increase in shorebird abundance following breaching. Shorebirds comprised 1% of area totals during 1999-2002 and increased to 46% during 2003-2008. These changes accompanied increased tidal range and sedimentation, but minimal vegetation establishment. Conversely, a fully vegetated, restored 216 ha pond in the same system consistently supported less than 2% of all waterbirds in the region. Early restoration may temporarily increase habitat, but managed ponds will be needed for long-term waterbird abundance within a restored pond-marsh system.

  3. Nonstructural urban stormwater quality measures: building a knowledge base to improve their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, André C; Fletcher, Tim D

    2007-05-01

    This article summarizes a research project that investigated the use, performance, cost, and evaluation of nonstructural measures to improve urban stormwater quality. A survey of urban stormwater managers from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States revealed a widespread trend of increasing use of nonstructural measures among leading stormwater management agencies, with at least 76% of 41 types of nonstructural measures being found to be increasing in use. Data gathered from the survey, an international literature review, and a multicriteria analysis highlighted four nonstructural measures of greatest potential value: mandatory town planning controls that promote the adoption of low-impact development principles and techniques; development of strategic urban stormwater management plans for a city, shire, or catchment; stormwater management measures and programs for construction/building sites; and stormwater management activities related to municipal maintenance operations such as maintenance of the stormwater drainage network and manual litter collections. Knowledge gained on the use and performance of nonstructural measures from the survey, literature review, and three trial evaluation projects was used to develop tailored monitoring and evaluation guidelines for these types of measure. These guidelines incorporate a new evaluation framework based on seven alternative styles of evaluation that range from simply monitoring whether a nonstructural measure has been fully implemented to monitoring its impact on waterway health. This research helps to build the stormwater management industry's knowledge base concerning nonstructural measures and provides a practical tool to address common impediments associated with monitoring and evaluating the performance and cost of these measures.

  4. Sediment processes modelling below hydraulic mining: towards environmental impact mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalov, Sergey R.

    2010-05-01

    Placer mining sites are located in the river valleys so the rivers are influenced by mining operations. Frequently the existing mining sites are characterized by low contribution to the environmental technologies. Therefore hydraulic mining alters stream hydrology and sediment processes and increases water turbidity. The most serious environmental sequences of the sediment yield increase occur in the rivers populated by salmon fish community because salmon species prefer clean water with low turbidity. For instance, the placer mining in Kamchatka peninsula (Far East of Russia) which is regarded to be the last global gene pool of wild salmon Oncorhynchus threatens the rivers ecosystems. System of man-made impact mitigation could be done through the exact recognition of the human role in hydrological processes and sediment transport especially. Sediment budget of rivers below mining sites is transformed according to the appearance of the man-made non-point and point sediment sources. Non-point source pollution occurs due to soil erosion on the exposed hillsides and erosion in the channel diversions. Slope wash on the hillsides is absent during summer days without rainfalls and is many times increased during rainfalls and snow melting. The nearness of the sources of material and the rivers leads to the small time of suspended load increase after rainfalls. The average time of material intake from exposed hillsides to the rivers is less than 1 hour. The main reason of the incision in the channel diversion is river-channel straightening. The increase of channel slopes and transport capacity leads to the intensive incision of flow. Point source pollution is performed by effluents both from mining site (mainly brief effluents) and from settling ponds (permanent effluents), groundwater seepage from tailing pits or from quarries. High rate of groundwater runoff is the main reason of the technological ponds overfilling. Intensive filtration from channel to ponds because of

  5. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA, and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C, LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system.

  6. Urban Stormwater Quality: Linking Pesticide Variability To Our Sustainable Water Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippy, M.; Deletic, A.; Gernjak, W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and global population growth demand creative, multidisciplinary, and multi-benefit approaches for sustaining adequate fresh water resources and protecting ecosystem health. Currently, a driving factor of aquatic ecosystem degradation (stormwater) is also one of the largest untapped urban freshwater resources. This suggests that ecosystem protection and potable water security might both be achieved via treating and capturing stormwater for human use (e.g., potable substitution). The viability of such a scheme, however, depends on 1) initial stormwater quality (e.g., the contaminants present and their associated human/environmental health risks), 2) the spatial and temporal variability of contaminants in stormwater, and 3) the capacity of existing technologies to treat those contaminants to fit for purpose standards. Here we present results from a four year study of urban stormwater conducted across ten catchments and four states in Australia that addresses these three issues relative to stormwater pesticides. In total, 19 pesticides were detected across all sites and times. In general, pesticide concentrations were lower than has been reported in other countries, including the United States, Canada and Europe. This is reflected in few exceedences of public health (< 1%) and aquatic ecosystem standards (0% for invertebrates and fish, < 1% for algae and plants). Interestingly, pesticide patterns were found to be stable across seasons, and years, but varied across catchments. These catchment-specific fingerprints may reflect preferential commercial product use, as they map closely to co-occurrence patterns in registered Australian products. Importantly, the presence of catchment-specific pesticide variability has clear management implications; namely, urban stormwater must be managed at the catchment level and target local contaminant suites in order to best achieve desired human use and environmental protection standards.

  7. Impediments to integrated urban stormwater management: the need for institutional reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebekah R

    2005-09-01

    It is now well established that the traditional practice of urban stormwater management contributes to the degradation of receiving waterways, and this practice was more recently critiqued for facilitating the wastage of a valuable water resource. However, despite significant advances in alternative "integrated urban stormwater management" techniques and processes over the last 20 years, wide-scale implementation has been limited. This problem is indicative of broader institutional impediments that are beyond current concerns of strengthening technological and planning process expertise. Presented here is an analysis of the institutionalization of urban stormwater management across Sydney with the objective of scoping institutional impediments to more sustainable management approaches. The analysis reveals that the inertia with the public administration of urban stormwater inherently privileges and perpetuates traditional stormwater management practices at implementation. This inertia is characterized by historically entrained forms of technocratic institutional power and expertise, values and leadership, and structure and jurisdiction posing significant impediments to change and the realization of integrated urban stormwater management. These insights strongly point to the need for institutional change specifically directed at fostering horizontal integration of the various functions of the existing administrative regime. This would need to be underpinned with capacity-building interventions targeted at enabling a learning culture that values integration and participatory decision making. These insights also provide guideposts for assessing the institutional and capacity development needs for improving urban water management practices in other contexts.

  8. Urban stormwater source control policies: why and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Petrucci

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater source control is becoming a common strategy for urban stormwater management in many countries. It relies on regulations or other policy instruments compelling or inciting implementation, for each new urban development, of small-scale facilities to locally store and manage stormwater. Local authorities that pioneered source control since the 1980s have already observed that small-scale facilities systematically implemented over a catchment are able to influence its hydrological behaviour. This capability is the main strength of source control, as it allows compensation for the negative effects of urbanization. Yet, it also represents its main risk: if initial decision-making is not sufficiently accurate, source control can produce long-term negative effects. Because of its current spreading, source control will acquire an increasing role as a driver of hydrological changes in urban catchments, and the directions of these changes depend on current policy-making practices. This paper presents an analysis and a critical discussion of the main objectives that policy-makers attribute to stormwater source control. The investigation is based on a sample of French case studies, completed by a literature review for international comparison. It identifies four main objectives, some typical of urban stormwater management and some more innovative: flood reduction, receiving waters protection, sustainable development, costs reduction. The discussion focuses on how current policy-making practices are able to translate these objectives in concrete policy instruments, and on which knowledge and tools could improve this process. It is shown that for some objectives, basic knowledge is available, but the creation of policy instruments which are effective at the catchment scale and adapted to local conditions is still problematic. For other objectives, substantial lacks of knowledge exist, casting doubts on long-term effectiveness of current policy

  9. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA

  10. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  11. Preserving Medieval Farm Mounds in a Large Stormwater Retention Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorenhout, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands has denoted large areas as stormwater retention areas. These areas function as temporary storage locations for stormwater when rivers cannot cope with the amount of water. A large area, the Onlanden — 2,500 hectares — was developed as such a storage area between 2008 and 2013. This

  12. Influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics on urban stormwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Guan, Yuntao; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-02-01

    The accuracy and reliability of urban stormwater quality modelling outcomes are important for stormwater management decision making. The commonly adopted approach where only a limited number of factors are used to predict urban stormwater quality may not adequately represent the complexity of the quality response to a rainfall event or site-to-site differences to support efficient treatment design. This paper discusses an investigation into the influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics on urban stormwater quality in order to investigate the potential areas for errors in current stormwater quality modelling practices. It was found that the influence of rainfall characteristics on pollutant wash-off is step-wise based on specific thresholds. This means that a modelling approach where the wash-off process is predicted as a continuous function of rainfall intensity and duration is not appropriate. Additionally, other than conventional catchment characteristics, namely, land use and impervious surface fraction, other catchment characteristics such as impervious area layout, urban form and site specific characteristics have an important influence on both, pollutant build-up and wash-off processes. Finally, the use of solids as a surrogate to estimate other pollutant species was found to be inappropriate. Individually considering build-up and wash-off processes for each pollutant species should be the preferred option. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Community Solutions for Stormwater Management: A Guide for Voluntary Long-Term Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft guide describes how to develop a comprehensive long-term community stormwater plan that integrates stormwater management with communities’ broader plans for economic development, infrastructure investment and environmental compliance.

  14. Effects of coastal marsh conversion to shrimp aquaculture ponds on CH4 and N2O emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Bastviken, D.; Lai, D. Y. F.; Jin, B. S.; Mou, X. J.; Tong, C.; Yao, Y. C.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we compared the CH4 and N2O fluxes from a tidal brackish Cyperus malaccensis marsh ecosystem and nearby shrimp ponds, converted from C. malaccensis marsh in the last 3-4 years, in the Min River estuary of southeast China over the aquaculture period of the year. Significant differences in CH4 and N2O fluxes were observed in space (between brackish marsh and shrimp ponds) and in time (between sampling occasions that were distributed over the aquaculture period). CH4 fluxes from the shrimp ponds were on an average 10-fold higher than from the brackish marsh. N2O emissions, on the other hand, were lower from the shrimp pond (25% of the emissions from the brackish marsh). Accessory data indicates that these patterns were primarily linked to water level variability and temperature (all fluxes), sediment porewater sulfate concentrations (CH4 flux) and total nitrogen concentrations (N2O flux). Our research demonstrates that the coastal marsh ecosystem converted to aquaculture ponds considerably alter emissions of CH4 and N2O and provides input to the global discussion on how to account for emissions from various types of flooded land in greenhouse gas inventories.

  15. Scientific Framework for Stormwater Monitoring by the Washington State Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, R.W.; Kelly, V.J.; Wagner, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation municipal stormwater monitoring program, in operation for about 8 years, never has received an external, objective assessment. In addition, the Washington State Department of Transportation would like to identify the standard operating procedures and quality assurance protocols that must be adopted so that their monitoring program will meet the requirements of the new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System municipal stormwater permit. As a result, in March 2009, the Washington State Department of Transportation asked the U.S. Geological Survey to assess their pre-2009 municipal stormwater monitoring program. This report presents guidelines developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation to meet new permit requirements and regional/national stormwater monitoring standards to ensure that adequate processes and procedures are identified to collect high-quality, scientifically defensible municipal stormwater monitoring data. These include: (1) development of coherent vision and cooperation among all elements of the program; (2) a comprehensive approach for site selection; (3) an effective quality assurance program for field, laboratory, and data management; and (4) an adequate database and data management system.

  16. {sup 210}Pb geochronology and chemical characterization of sediment cores from lakes of the Parana river alluvial plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, L.F.L.; Damatto, S.R.; Scapin, M.A. [IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil); Remor, M.B.; Sampaio, S.C. [UNIOESTE - Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The flood plain of the upper Parana River is located among the lakes formed by the Brazilian hydroelectric plants being the last part of the Parana river, in Brazil, where there is an ecosystem with interaction river-flood plain. This flood plain has considerable habitat variability, with great diversity of terrestrial and aquatic species, and the floods are the main factor that regulates the operation of this ecosystem. The seasonality of the flood pulses is mainly influenced by the El Nino phenomenon, which increases precipitation in the drainage basin of the flood plain of the upper Parana River. Because of its unique characteristics this ecosystem is the subject of intense study since 1980, mainly from the ecological point of view. Therefore, two sediment cores were collected in the ponds formed by the floods, Patos pond and Garcas pond, in order to characterize the sediment chemically and evaluate a possible historic contamination. The trace element concentrations As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}) and the major elements Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K, Ca, Mg, P, V, Mn, and Na (%) were determined in the sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, using instrumental neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and gross beta counting, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Ce, Cr, Cs, La, Nd, Sc, Sm and Th are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust for both ponds. The sedimentation rates obtained for Garca pond, 0.77 cm.y{sup -1}, and Patos pond, 0.62 cm.y{sup -1} are in agreement with studies performed in sedimentary environments similar to the present work, such as Brazilian wetland Pantanal. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  17. Perched Lava Pond Complex on South Rift of Axial Volcano Revealed in AUV Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    -like structures and jumbled sheet flows on the floors suggest the eruption was on-going when the ponds emptied. 14C-dating of foraminifera from basal sediments on the pond floors gives a minimum age for the ponds of ~1500 years, which is older than any of the surface flows in Axial's summit caldera. Limu o Pele was abundant. Glass contents of the recovered lavas are 7.6 to 8.0 wt% MgO with few exceptions, and other than being plagioclase-phyric, the chemistry is similar to the majority of lavas at the summit. Lava samples from the floors of several ponds have a few tenths of a weight percent lower MgO than the nearby levees, suggesting the pond's molten interior or resupplied lavas had some time to cool. The varying levee rim heights and abundance of ponds in the vicinity suggest this type of activity occurred many times in this area, but it is an unusual eruption style for mid-ocean ridges. Another lava pond complex with even higher levees occurs on the north rift of Axial Volcano. Formation of these ponds requires long-lived, steady, moderate-eruption-rate lava effusion on nearly horizontal seafloor and may occur only on deep distal rift zones of central volcanoes.

  18. Impact of Roadway Stormwater Runoff on Microbial Contamination in the Receiving Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Kristen N; Chen, Si; Steinman, Andrew J; He, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    Stormwater runoff from roadways has increasingly become a regulatory concern for water pollution control. Recent work has suggested roadway stormwater runoff as a potential source of microbial pollutants. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of roadway runoff on the microbiological quality of receiving streams. Microbiological quality of roadway stormwater runoff and the receiving stream was monitored during storm events with both cultivation-dependent fecal bacteria enumeration and cultivation-independent high-throughput sequencing techniques. Enumeration of total coliforms as a measure of fecal microbial pollution found consistently lower total coliform counts in roadway runoff than those in the stream water, suggesting that roadway runoff was not a major contributor of microbial pollutants to the receiving stream. Further characterization of the microbial community in the stormwater samples by 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed significant differences in the microbial composition of stormwater runoff from the roadways and the receiving stream. The differences in microbial composition between the roadway runoff and stream water demonstrate that roadway runoff did not appear to have a major influence on the stream in terms of microbiological quality. Thus, results from both fecal bacteria enumeration and high-throughput amplicon sequencing techniques were consistent that roadway stormwater runoff was not the primary contributor of microbial loading to the stream. Further studies of additional watersheds with distinct characteristics are needed to validate these findings. Understanding gained in this study could support the development of more effective strategies for stormwater management in sensitive watersheds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Risks to Ecological Receptors Posed by Contaminants of Potential Concern in the Lower Three Runs Cooling Ponds and Canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Blas, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-21

    The upper portion of Lower Three Runs includes several ponds, reservoirs, and canals that were formerly used as a cooling system for nuclear production reactors. This area was divided into nine exposure areas (EAs) for the assessment of environmental contamination resulting from past reactor operations and other industrial processes. A tiered screening process identified several contaminants of potential concern including aluminum, cyanide, lead, manganese, mercury, DDD, DDE, and DDT. Risks posed by these contaminants to ecological receptors (river otter, belted kingfisher, raccoon, and blue heron) were assessed using contaminant exposure models that estimated contaminant intake resulting from ingestion of food, water, and sediment/ soil and compared these intakes with toxicity reference values (TRVs). The contaminant exposure models showed that the TRVs were not exceeded in the otter model, exceeded by aluminum in EA 7 (Pond 2 and associated canals) in the raccoon model, and exceeded by mercury in EAs 2, 3 (Pond B), 6 (Par Pond), and 8 (Ponds 4 and 5 and Canal to Pond C) in both the kingfisher and blue heron models. Hazard quotients (total exposure dose divided by the TRV) were 2.8 for aluminum and 1.7- 3.6 for mercury. The primary route of exposure for aluminum was the ingestion of soil, and the primary route of exposure for mercury was the ingestion of mercury contaminated fish. Elevated levels of mercury in fish were at least partly the result of the aerial deposition of mercury onto Lower Three Runs and its watershed. The atmospheric deposition of mercury creates pervasive contamination in fish throughout the Savannah River basin. Another possible source of mercury was the discharge of mercury contaminated Savannah River water into the Lower Three Runs cooling ponds and canals during previous years of reactor operation. This contamination originated from industries located upstream of the SRS. The aluminum exceedance for the raccoon was likely the result of

  20. Manganese and iron as oxygen carriers to anoxie estuarine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayner, F. M. M.; Matvienko, B.

    2003-05-01

    We studied the concentration of a series of transition metals including Mn and Fe in an estuarine fishpond. The pond is situated at latitude 8°10'S and longitude 34°55'W, in the Capibaribe River estuary, within the Recife city boundaries, which is located in Pernambuco, a state of the Brazilian Northeast Pond area is 1.5 ha and it bas a 0.5 m depth. It is separated from the river by dikes. Water temperature at 28° C is stable throughout the year. Light breezes keep the water aerated, but intense ongoing decomposition makes the sediment anoxie. The area, originally of mangrove type, has been changed by antropic action on its fauna and vegetation. The study focuses on changes in behaviour of heavy metals. Samples of bottom sediments wore collected by Eckman dredge sediment sampler and total metal concentration was determined by the lithium borate fusion method. Water, recent sediment, and consolidated sediment were examined in this fishpond where Mn and Fe are brought in periodically by water and then gradually go into the sediment at respective rates of 10.52 and 1332 mg m^{-2}a^{-1}. Strong bioturbation re-suspends sediment while simultaneously re-dissolution of these ions is going on fhrough reduction in the anoxie sédiment. As soluble species these ions migrate from sediment to water and are there continually oxidized by dissolved oxygen, becoming insoluble. With their precipitation, chemically bound oxygen is carried down to the sediment, constituting a parallel channel of transport in addition to migration into the sediment bydiffusion of the oxygen dissolved in the water. The estimated flow rates are 3.25 and 76 mg O2 m^{-2}a^{-1} due to Mn and Fe respectively. The rates were established using natural silicon as a tracer.

  1. Evaluating stormwater micropollutant control strategies by the application of an integrated model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    and enhancement of existing treatment) for reducing heavy metals (copper, zinc) and organic MP (fluoranthene). The runoff quality model showed high uncertainty, with prediction bounds strongly affected by the exceptionally high measured concentrations. The model quantified the greater benefits of the source......The estimation of micropollutant (MP) fluxes in stormwater systems is a fundamental task to enable the elaboration of strategies to reduce stormwater MP discharge to natural waters. Dynamic models can represent important tools which can integrate the limited data provided by monitoring campaigns....... This study presents an application of an integrated dynamic model to estimate MP fluxes in stormwater systems in combination with stormwater quality measurements. MP sources were identified by using GIS land usage data. Runoff quality was simulated by using a conceptual accumulation/washoff model...

  2. Velocity dependent passive sampling for monitoring of micropollutants in dynamic stormwater discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Vezzaro, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Micropollutant monitoring in stormwater discharges is challenging because of the diversity of sources and thus large number of pollutants found in stormwater. This is further complicated by the dynamics in runoff flows and the large number of discharge points. Most passive samplers are non......-ideal for sampling such systems because they sample in a time-integrative manner. This paper reports test of a flow-through passive sampler, deployed in stormwater runoff at the outlet of a residential-industrial catchment. Momentum from the water velocity during runoff events created flow through the sampler...... resulting in velocity dependent sampling. This approach enables the integrative sampling of stormwater runoff during periods of weeks to months while weighting actual runoff events higher than no flow periods. Results were comparable to results from volume-proportional samples and results obtained from...

  3. Geophysical characterization of contaminated muddy sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, I. R.; English, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    A non-intrusive, seismic subbottom profile survey of pond sediments was conducted on a former U.S.Naval Facility at Argentia, Newfoundland, to characterize the nature and extent of contamination. An IKB Seistec boomer was used in conjunction with C-CORE's HI-DAPT digital data acquisition and processing system and differential GPS system. The survey was successful in locating regions of soft muddy sediments and in determining the thickness of these deposits. Subsurface buried objects, which are potential sources of pollution, were also identified. Intrusive profiling of the sediment was done with a new tool, the Soil Stiffness Probe, which combines two geophysical measurement systems to determine bulk density and shear stiffness. The muddy sediments were found to be highly 'fluidized', indicating that they could be easily removed with a suction dredge. 4 refs., 5 figs

  4. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  5. Numerical Modelling of Suspended Transport and Deposition of Highway Deposited Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Bach, Christine

    Good data for calibration and validation of numerical models are of high importance. In the natural environment data can be hard to archive and the stochastic nature have governing influence on the data archived. Hence for modelling of suspended transport and deposition of particles, originating ...... from the highway surfaces, in highway detention ponds, four experiments are carried out. To simplify the complexity of a real pond and for easy control and measurement the sediment transports where carried out in two rectangular channels....

  6. Stormwater Infrastructure Effects on Urban Nitrogen Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Turnbull, L.; Earl, S.; Moratto, S.; Shorts, D.; Grimm, N. B.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of urbanization on downstream ecosystems, particularly due to changes in nutrient inputs and altered hydrology are well studied. Less is known, however, about nutrient transport and processing within urban watersheds. Previous research has focused on the roles of land cover and land use but drainage system design and configuration also are apt to play a significant role in controlling the transport of water and nutrients downstream. Furthermore, variability in drainage systems within and between cities may lead to differences in the effects of urbanization on downstream ecosystems over time and space. We established a nested stormwater sampling network with 10 watersheds ranging in size from 5 to 22,000 ha in the Indian Bend Wash watershed in Scottsdale, AZ. Small (density residential) but were drained by a variety of stormwater infrastructure including surface runoff, pipes, natural or engineered washes, and retention basins. We quantified discharge and precipitation at the outflow of each subwatershed and collected stormwater and rainfall samples for analyses of dissolved nitrogen species and δ15N, δ18O and Δ17O isotopes of nitrate (NO3) over two years. We also measured potential denitrification rates in washes and retention basins within our sites, and collected soil and pavement samples to describe pools of N within our watersheds. We used these data in combination with literature data on soil N transformations to construct N budgets for each watershed for a single event and at annual scales. We found that stormwater infrastructure type strongly affects N retention. Watersheds with surface or pipe drainage were sources of N downstream, whereas watersheds drained by washes or retention basins retained 70-99% of N inputs in rainfall. Event scale N retention was strongly correlated with hydrologic connectivity, as measured by runoff coefficients. Differences in δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O isotopes of NO3 suggested that watersheds with decreased

  7. Stormwater management the American way: why no policy transfer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Dolowitz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From the 1940s until the 1980s the federal government gradually extended its authority over the structure of the American stormwater management system. The goal was to improve the water quality of the nation’s waterways by regulating the pollution loads entering the system, primarily through the use of gray infrastructure. However during the1980s the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA began to explore new approaches toward the regulation of stormwater pollution. Instead of focusing only on gray mechanisms, the EPA began developing and promoting the use of low impact development (LID techniques as an element municipal governments could use to achieve their total maxim daily load of pollutants allowable under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit system. In light of the incentive offered by the EPA for the use of LID in the management of stormwater, it should be expected to provide a perfect area to observe policy transfer between federal, state and local governments; but it does not. This article will establish why the EPA began promoting a green approach to stormwater management and why this has not led to a widespread transfer of best management practices in the ways the literatures associated with federalism and policy transfer would suggest.

  8. Platinum uptake by the freshwater isopod Asellus Aquaticus in urban rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, S.; Morrison, G.M. [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-09-01

    Platinum has been increasing in the environment as a result of emissions from catalytic converters. The platinum emitted is principally located in the vicinity of roads but might be transported to urban rivers through highway and urban run-off water. Platinum concentrations in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus were measured for two urban rivers and a stormwater detention pond. Concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 12.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} for direct analysis and from 0.16 to 4.5 {mu}g g{sup -1} after depuration. Analyses of water, pore water and sediments indicate that platinum in urban rivers is mostly found in the sediments and these provide the major contribution of platinum to Asellus aquaticus. Exposure experiments showed the importance of platinum speciation for uptake.

  9. Comparison between field data and ultimate heat-sink cooling-pond and spray-pond models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.

    1982-09-01

    Two previously published reports, NUREG-0693 and NUREG-0733, presented models and methods by which ultimate heat sink cooling ponds and spray ponds used for safety-related water supplies in nuclear power plants could be analyzed for design-basis conditions of heat load and meteorology. These models were only partially verified with field data. The present report compares the NRC models to data collected for NRC by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories on the performance of small geothermally heated ponds and spray ponds. These comparisons generally support the conclusion that the NRC models are useful tools in predicting ultimate heat sink performance

  10. Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    , geomorphology, and biology during development while implementing advanced sediment and erosion control BMPs are discussed. Also, effects of centralized versus distributed stormwater BMPs and land cover on stream water quantity and quality following suburban development are presented. This includes stream response to precipitation events, baseflow and stormflow export of water, and water chemistry data. Results from this work have informed land use planning at the local level and are being incorporated through adaptive management to maintain the high-quality stream resources in the CSPA. More generally, results from this work could inform urban development stakeholders on effective strategies to curtail urban stream syndrome.

  11. Pond-aquifer flow and water availability in the vicinity of two coastal area seepage ponds, Glynn and Bulloch Counties, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Rumman, Malek Abu

    2005-01-01

    Pond-aquifer flow and water availability at excavated seepage pond sites in Glynn County and in southern Bulloch County, Georgia, were evaluated to determine their potential as sources of water supply for irrigation. Excavated seepage ponds derive water primarily from ground water seeping into the pond, in a manner similar to a dug well completed in a surficial aquifer. The availability of water from seepage ponds is controlled by the permeability of surficial deposits, the amount of precipitation recharging the ground-water system, and the volume of water stored in the pond. The viability of seepage ponds as supplies for irrigation is limited by low seepage rates and high dependence on climatic conditions. Ponds will not refill unless there is adequate precipitation to recharge the surficial aquifer, which subsequently drains (seeps) into the pond. Ground-water seepage was estimated using a water-budget approach that utilized on-site climatic and hydrologic measurements, computing pond-volume changes during pond pumping tests, and by digital simulation using steady-state and transient ground-water flow models. From August 1999 to May 2000, the Glynn County pond was mostly losing water (as indicated by negative net seepage); whereas from October 2000 to June 2001, the Bulloch County pond was mostly gaining water. At both sites, most ground-water seepage entered the pond following major rainfall events that provided recharge to the surficial aquifer. Net ground-water seepage, estimated using water-budget analysis and simulation, ranged from -11.5 to 15 gallons per minute (gal/min) at the Glynn County pond site and from -55 to 31 gal/min at the Bulloch County pond site. Simulated values during pumping tests indicate that groundwater seepage to both ponds increases with decreased pond stage. At the Glynn County pond, simulated net ground-water seepage varied between 7.8 gal/min at the beginning of the test (high pond stage and low hydraulic gradient) and 103 gal

  12. Lake or Pond WBID

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT DEC (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) manages an inventory of lake and pond information. The "Lakes and Ponds Inventory" stores the Water...

  13. Stormwater management: adaptation and planning under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailhot, A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Extreme rainfall events are expected to increase in intensity and frequency in a future climate. Such a change will have an impact on the level of service provided by stormwater infrastructures since the current capacity is based on statistical analyses of past events, assuming that past conditions are representative of future climate conditions. Therefore, an increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events will result in increasing runoff volumes and peak discharges that will more frequently exceed the capacity of current systems. For that reason, it is important to look for adaptation measures and to review design criteria in order to maintain an acceptable level of service in the long term. One important challenge related to stormwater management and climate change (CC) is related to the time scale of both the expected lifespan of some system components (that can last up to 100 years) and the horizon of the actual CC projection (50 to 100 years). Pipes currently replaced or installed may consequently experience very different climatic conditions during their lifetime and a general degradation of the level of service may be expected according to the actual CC projections. Among others, this means that the design criteria currently used must be reviewed. This paper intends to review and describe the main issues related to adaptation and planning of stormwater management infrastructures under climate change. More precisely, the following topics will be presented and discussed: 1) what are the available projections for intense rainfall events and what are the main uncertainties related to these projections? (how reliable are they?); 2) what will be the impacts of CC on stormwater management according to available projections? 3) how do we revise design criteria in a changing climate and define the level of service in a context where the return period concept is no longer valid? 4) what kind of adaptation measures can be put forward

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. Changes in tundra pond limnology: re-sampling Alaskan ponds after 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Vanessa L; Butler, Malcolm G; McEwen, Daniel C; Hobbie, John E

    2011-09-01

    The arctic tundra ponds at the International Biological Program (IBP) site in Barrow, AK, were studied extensively in the 1970s; however, very little aquatic research has been conducted there for over three decades. Due to the rapid climate changes already occurring in northern Alaska, identifying any changes in the ponds' structure and function over the past 30-40 years can help identify any potential climate-related impacts. Current research on the IBP ponds has revealed significant changes in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of these ponds over time. These changes include increased water temperatures, increased water column nutrient concentrations, the presence of at least one new chironomid species, and increased macrophyte cover. However, we have also observed significant annual variation in many measured variables and caution that this variation must be taken into account when attempting to make statements about longer-term change. The Barrow IBP tundra ponds represent one of the very few locations in the Arctic where long-term data are available on freshwater ecosystem structure and function. Continued monitoring and protection of these invaluable sites is required to help understand the implications of climate change on freshwater ecosystems in the Arctic.

  16. The distribution and adsorption behavior of aliphatic amines in marine and lacustrine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-chen; Lee, Cindy

    1990-10-01

    The methylated amines—monomethyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl amine (MMA, DMA, TMA)—are commonly found in aquatic environments, apparently as a result of decomposition processes. Adsorption of these amines to clay minerals and organic matter significantly influences their distribution in sediments. Laboratory measurements using 14C-radiolabelled amines and application of a linear partitioning model resulted in calculated adsorption coefficients of 2.4-4.7 (MMA), 3.3 (DMA), and 3.3-4.1 (TMA). Further studies showed that adsorption of amines is influenced by salinity of the porewaters, and clay mineral and organic matter content of the sediment solid phase. Concentrations of monomethyl- and dimethyl amine were measured in the porewaters and the solid phase of sediment samples collected from Flax Pond and Lake Ronkonkoma (NY), Long Island Sound, and the coastal Peru upwelling area. These two amines were present in all sediments investigated. A clear seasonal increase in the solid-phase concentration of MMA and DMA in Flax Pond sediments was likely related to the annual senescence of salt marsh grasses, either directly as a source of these compounds or indirectly by providing additional exchange capacity to the sediments. The distribution of amines in the solid and dissolved phases observed in all sediments investigated suggests that the distribution of these compounds results from a balance among production, decomposition, and adsorption processes.

  17. Elemental Concentrations in Urban Green Stormwater Infrastructure Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; Sharma, Raghav; Plante, Alain F; Yang, Yunwen; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is designed to capture stormwater for infiltration, detention, evapotranspiration, or reuse. Soils play a key role in stormwater interception at these facilities. It is important to assess whether contamination is occurring in GSI soils because urban stormwater drainage areas often accumulate elements of concern. Soil contamination could affect hydrologic and ecosystem functions. Maintenance workers and the public may also be exposed to GSI soils. We investigated soil elemental concentrations, categorized as macro- and micronutrients, heavy metals, and other elements, at 59 GSI sites in the city of Philadelphia. Non-GSI soil samples 3 to 5 m upland of GSI sites were used for comparison. We evaluated differences in elemental composition in GSI and non-GSI soils; the comparisons were corrected for the age of GSI facility, underlying soil type, street drainage, and surrounding land use. Concentrations of Ca and I were greater than background levels at GSI sites. Although GSI facilities appear to accumulate Ca and I, these elements do not pose a significant human health risk. Elements of concern to human health, including Cd, Hg, and Pb, were either no different or were lower in GSI soils compared with non-GSI soils. However, mean values found across GSI sites were up to four times greater than soil cleanup objectives for residential use. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Some perspectives for environmental risk assessment of urban stormwater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Baun, Anders; Ledin, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of new technologies for disposing stormwater locally, e.g. via infiltration into the ground, implies that the 'traditional' list of key-substances is not exhaustive and consequently, consultants and authorities have difficulties deciding whether to approve new technologies for stormw...... and groundwater, in an integral and transparent manner. This paper reviews some concepts used within risk assessment of chemical substances and seeks to plot a course for further developments related to risk assessments of stormwater contaminants....... for stormwater disposal. The risk for contamination of surface waters also needs to be assessed, even though this contamination is silently accepted by society. A proper risk assessment needs to consider contamination of all environmental compartments within the urban environment, i.e. surface water, soil...

  19. Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWoert, Nicholaus D; Rowe, D Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A; Rugh, Clayton L; Fernandez, R Thomas; Xiao, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas generate considerably more stormwater runoff than natural areas of the same size due to a greater percentage of impervious surfaces that impede water infiltration. Roof surfaces account for a large portion of this impervious cover. Establishing vegetation on rooftops, known as green roofs, is one method of recovering lost green space that can aid in mitigating stormwater runoff. Two studies were performed using several roof platforms to quantify the effects of various treatments on stormwater retention. The first study used three different roof surface treatments to quantify differences in stormwater retention of a standard commercial roof with gravel ballast, an extensive green roof system without vegetation, and a typical extensive green roof with vegetation. Overall, mean percent rainfall retention ranged from 48.7% (gravel) to 82.8% (vegetated). The second study tested the influence of roof slope (2 and 6.5%) and green roof media depth (2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 cm) on stormwater retention. For all combined rain events, platforms at 2% slope with a 4-cm media depth had the greatest mean retention, 87%, although the difference from the other treatments was minimal. The combination of reduced slope and deeper media clearly reduced the total quantity of runoff. For both studies, vegetated green roof systems not only reduced the amount of stormwater runoff, they also extended its duration over a period of time beyond the actual rain event.

  20. Ecological conditions of ponds situated on blast furnace slag deposits located in South Gare Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), Teesside, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, E; Davies, S; Perkins, B; Lamb, H; Hermanson, M; Soares, A; Stephenson, T

    2015-06-01

    Slag, a by-product from the iron and steel industry, has a range of applications within construction and is used in wastewater treatment. Historically considered a waste material, little consideration was given to the environmental impacts of its disposal. South Gare (a Site of Special Scientific Interest) located at the mouth of the Tees estuary, UK, formed on slag deposits used to create a sea wall and make the land behind permanent. Over time, ponds formed in depressions with the water chemistry, being significantly impacted by the slag deposits. Calcium levels reached 504 mg/L, nitrate 49.0 mg/L and sulphate 1,698 mg/L. These levels were also reflected in the composition of the sediment. pH (5.10-9.90) and electrical conductivity (2,710-3,598 µS/cm) were variable but often notably high. Pb, Cu and Cd were not present within the water, whilst Zn ranged from 0.027 to 0.37 mg/L. Heavy metal levels were higher in surface sediments. Zinc was most dominant (174.3-1,310.2 mg/L) followed by Pb (9.9-431 mg/L), Cu (8.4-41.8 mg/L) and Cd (0.4-1.1 mg/L). A sediment core provided a historical overview of the ponds. The ponds were unfavourable for aquatic biodiversity and unsuitable for drinking water abstraction.

  1. Pond and Irrigation Model (PIM): a tool for simultaneously evaluating pond water availability and crop irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Gary Feng; Theodor D. Leininger; John Read; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural ponds are an important alternative source of water for crop irrigation to conserve surface and ground water resources. In recent years more such ponds have been constructed in Mississippi and around the world. There is currently, however, a lack of a tool to simultaneously estimate crop irrigation demand and pond water availability. In this study, a Pond-...

  2. 2101-M pond closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment

  3. Hydrogeochemical assessment of mine-impacted water and sediment of iron ore mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Atirah Affandi, Fatin; Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Aqilah Sulong, Nur; Madzin, Zafira

    2018-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the hydrogeochemical behaviour of mine-impacted water and sediment of a former iron ore mining area. Sampling of mine water and sediment were carried out at selected locations within the mine including the former mining ponds, mine tailings and the nearby stream. The water samples were analysed for their hydrochemical facies, major and trace elements including heavy metals. The water in the mining ponds and the mine tailings was characterised as highly acidic (pH 2.54-3.07), but has near-neutral pH in the nearby stream. Results indicated that Fe and Mn in water have exceeded the recommended guidelines values and was also supported by the results of geochemical modelling. The results also indicated that sediments in the mining area were contaminated with Cd and As as shown by the potential ecological risk index values. The total risk index of heavy metals in the sediment were ranked in the order of Cd>As>Pb>Cu>Zn>Cr. Overall, the extent of potential ecological risks of the mining area were categorised as having low to moderate ecological risk.

  4. Assessing biological and chemical signatures related to nutrient removal by floating islands in stormwater mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Islam, Kamrul; Marimon, Zachary; Wanielista, Martin P

    2012-07-01

    Aquatic floating plants on BioHaven mats were tested for their potential use as a Best Management Practice to be incorporated within existing stormwater detention ponds. Plants were analyzed for their capability to remove nutrient-pollution in parallel with the study of ecological dynamics. Experiments were carried out in cylindrical mesocosms of 5 m diameter and 1.2 m height, above-ground pools with a water volume of 14 m(3). The design parameters tested were for 5% and 10% vegetated floating island coverage of the mesocosm, both with and without shoreline plants called littoral zone. This littoral shelf was 0.5 m thick, graded at a downward slope of 1:5 toward the center using loamy soil with low organic matter content, excavated from below turf grass. Endemic plant species were chosen for the experimental location in central Florida based on a wetland identification manual by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to ensure the study was not compromised by unique climate requirements of the plants. Nutrient and aquatic chemical conditions such as pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll a were monitored to understand their relationships to the general wetland ecosystem. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis identified the microbial activity near the rhizospheric zone. Logistical placement considerations were made using spatial sampling across the horizontal plane of the mesocosms, beneath and around the root zone, to determine if nutrients tend to aggregate around the floating island. This study concluded that the application of floating islands as a stormwater technology can remove nutrients through plant uptake and biological activity. The most cost-effective size in the outdoor mesocosms was 5% surface area coverage of the mat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J.; Turcotte, D.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  6. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  7. Laboratory investigations of stormwater remediation via slag: Effects of metals on phosphorus removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Nnaemeka C.; McMartin, Dena W.

    2011-01-01

    The use of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag for the removal of phosphorus (P) from various simulated stormwater blends was investigated in the laboratory. The form of P measured was the inorganic orthophosphate (PO 4 -P). The stormwater solutions used in this preliminary study were synthesized as blends of P and typical concentrations of some of the most common and abundant metals in stormwater (e.g. cadmium, copper, lead and zinc), and contacted with EAF slag to determine P removal efficiency and sorptive competition. Results showed that the presence of cadmium, lead and zinc had minimal effect on the removal process; copper was a significant inhibitor of P uptake by the EAF slag media. P removal was greatest in the metal-free and multi-metal stormwater solutions.

  8. Predicting nonpoint stormwater runoff quality from land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of urban development on natural ecosystem processes has become an increasingly complex task for planners, environmental scientists, and engineers. As the built environment continues to grow, unregulated nonpoint pollutants from increased human activity and large-scale development severely stress urban streams and lakes resulting in their currently impaired or degraded state. In response, integrated water quality management programs have been adopted to address these unregulated nonpoint pollutants by utilizing best management practices (BMPs) that treat runoff as close to the source as possible. Knowing where to install effective BMPs is no trivial task, considering budget constraints and the spatially extensive nature of nonpoint stormwater runoff. Accordingly, this paper presents an initial, straightforward and cost-effective methodology to identify critical nonpoint pollutant source watersheds through correlation of water quality with land use. Through an illustrative application to metropolitan Denver, Colorado, it is shown how this method can be used to aid stormwater professionals to evaluate and specify retrofit locations in need of water quality treatment features reduce, capture and treat stormwater runoff prior to entering receiving waters. PMID:29742172

  9. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  10. TRADING ALLOWANCES FOR STORMWATER CONTROL: ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINUOUS HYDROLOGY AND OPPORTUNITY COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess stormwater runoff is a serious problem in a large number of urban areas, causing flooding, water pollution, groundwater recharge deficits and ecological damage to urban streams. It has been posited that to mitigate the effects of excess stormwater runoff, policy makers cou...

  11. The impacts of indoor Amang processing to the quality of water and locally sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Redzuwan Yahaya; Ismail Bahari; Wong, Siew Kim

    2007-01-01

    The impact of amang industry to the environment and community health has long been studied since the industry uses a large amount of water as well the accumulation of TENORM. A study was carried out to measure the water quality as well as the contents of radioactive substances and selected heavy metals in the water and sediments in the vicinity of an amang processing plant in Kampar, Perak, which is using a close water system. The sampling locations selected are; the natural pond, closed to the plant which supply the water for the processing (L1), a recycling concrete pond outside the plant (L2) and an affluent discharge point inside the plant (L3). The techniques of analysis used included in-situ measurement and laboratory analysis of water quality, direct counting of radioactivity ( 238 U and 232 Th) and chemical extraction for atomic absorption spectroscopy of heavy metals (zinc, lead, copper). Chemical extraction was carried out using potassium nitrate, sodium hydroxide, disodium ethylene-diamine tetra-acetic acid (Na 2 EDTA) and concentrated nitric acid solutions. the results show that the water quality indices for the natural pond are much better than at the effluent discharge point or the recycling concrete pond. The average 238 U and 232 Th concentrations were the highest in sediment samples at L3 (1110.5 ± 7.3 Bq/ Kg and 1966.6 ± 4.7 Bq/ kg respectively). For the water samples, the radioactivity was highest in the water sample collected at concrete pond (L2), which is 35.42 ± 1.63 Bq/ L ( 238 U) and 36.16 ± 1.02 Bq/ L ( 232 Th). The average value of extracted Pb (194.13 μg/ g) and Cu (9.71 μg/ g) was highest in the sediment from L3, while for Zn in sediment taken from L1 (38.78 μg/ g). In general, the water quality indices of L1 are better than L2 and L3. The closed water recycling system currently practiced by the amang processing plant has successfully contained the contamination to the environment caused by amang processing activities. (author)

  12. Management of stormwater facility maintenance residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Current research on stormwater maintenance residuals has revealed that the source and nature of these materials is extremely variable, that regulation can be ambiguous, and handling can be costly and difficult. From a regulatory perspective, data ind...

  13. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater in Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herngren, Lars; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Mostert, Maria M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wash-off in urban stormwater in Gold Coast, Australia. Runoff samples collected from residential, industrial and commercial sites were separated into a dissolved fraction ( 150 μm). Patterns in the distribution of PAHs in the fractions were investigated using Principal Component Analysis. Regardless of the land use and particle size fraction characteristics, the presence of organic carbon plays a dominant role in the distribution of PAHs. The PAHs concentrations were also found to decrease with rainfall duration. Generally, the 1- and 2-year average recurrence interval rainfall events were associated with the majority of the PAHs and the wash-off was a source limiting process. In the context of stormwater quality mitigation, targeting the initial part of the rainfall event is the most effective treatment strategy. The implications of the study results for urban stormwater quality management are also discussed. - The presence of organic carbon on impervious surfaces and rainfall duration plays a dominant role in the distribution of PAHs in urban stormwater.

  14. Evaluation and Preliminary Design of a Stormwater Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) System at the Wadi Khulays Dunefield in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver M.

    2013-04-01

    An important source of freshwater in arid lands is found in groundwater aquifers that are recharged after storm events. However, most of the precipitation is lost due to evaporation and only small fractions actually recharge the aquifers. The construction of dams along wadi channels enables the retention of stormwater, however the reservoirs are still subject to huge evaporative losses and contamination. In this study, the hydraulic properties of a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia are evaluated in order to determine the feasibility of designing a stormwater storage aquifer storage and recovery facility using the dune sands as a natural medium and design recommendations are addressed. The accurate estimation of hydraulic conductivity of unlithified sediments such as dune sands has become very important in the design of natural filtration projects, including aquifer recharge and recovery systems. Therefore, a comparison and selection of methods for the determination of the hydraulic conductivity from grain size distribution found in the literature was done. An improvement to these equations based on measurements on dune samples was obtained.

  15. Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisburd, R.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put? Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic? How do rates of organic production vary temporally? Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates? Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of 14 C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two

  16. Laboratory investigations of stormwater remediation via slag: Effects of metals on phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okochi, Nnaemeka C. [Environmental Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); McMartin, Dena W., E-mail: dena.mcmartin@uregina.ca [Environmental Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    The use of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag for the removal of phosphorus (P) from various simulated stormwater blends was investigated in the laboratory. The form of P measured was the inorganic orthophosphate (PO{sub 4}-P). The stormwater solutions used in this preliminary study were synthesized as blends of P and typical concentrations of some of the most common and abundant metals in stormwater (e.g. cadmium, copper, lead and zinc), and contacted with EAF slag to determine P removal efficiency and sorptive competition. Results showed that the presence of cadmium, lead and zinc had minimal effect on the removal process; copper was a significant inhibitor of P uptake by the EAF slag media. P removal was greatest in the metal-free and multi-metal stormwater solutions.

  17. Influence of Beaver-Induced Complexity on Storage of Organic Carbon and Sediment in Colorado Mountain Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel, D.; Wohl, E.

    2016-12-01

    Beaver meadows (complexes of multiple different aged beaver dams and ponds) influence the storage of water, sediment, and nutrients. Although beaver meadows compose only a small fraction of catchment area, they provide a potentially large role in retaining these fluxes in mountain watersheds. Multiple dams and ponds in beaver meadows increase overbank flows leading to an anastomosing stream channel planform, and deposition of fine sediment along with particulate organic carbon. An earlier study estimated a range of cumulative carbon stored in 27 beaver meadows east of the continental divide in Rocky Mountain National Park. Storage ranged from 735,800 to 2.8 x 106 Mg carbon, with the high value estimating storage if all the meadows had active beaver (historic conditions pre-European settlement) and the lower value estimating current conditions where many of the meadows are abandoned. We combined geomorphic surveys, soil depth probing by rebar, and soil cores analyzed for carbon content to investigate the influence of beaver activity, meadow size, and meadow placement within the drainage on catchment-scale fluxes of fine sediment and organic carbon. We found carbon storage in floodplain soils to be highly variable across both active and abandoned meadows; however, active beaver meadows store more carbon on average than abandoned meadows. In addition, active meadows with high levels of beaver activity (multiple colonies) stored greater volumes of fine sediment behind dams and in ponds. These results have implications for the restoration potential of abandoned beaver meadows in mountain environments to store greater volumes of sediment and more organic carbon if beaver are successfully reintroduced.

  18. Stormwater Design Return Period Standards for U.S. Transportation Infrastructure: How Are States Approaching Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, C.; Lopez, T.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of precipitation in many regions, which is relevant for stormwater engineering designs and resilience in the transportation sector. Existing and future stormwater infrastructure is generally designed for historical and stationary hydrologic conditions. For example, the design return period is based on statistical analysis of past precipitation events, often over a 50-year historical timeline. The design return period translates into how much peak precipitation volume a system is designed for in a state, and provides information about the performance of a drainage structure. The higher the design period used by an engineer for a given stormwater system, the more peak stormwater volume the system can convey. Therefore, design return periods can be associated with a design's near-term and long-term resilience. However, there is a tradeoff between the choice of design return period, the total infrastructure capital cost, and the resilience of a system to heavy precipitation events. This study analyzes current stormwater infrastructure design guidelines for state departments of transportation in the contiguous United States, in order to understand how stormwater design return periods vary across states and provide insight into the resilience of current stormwater systems design. The study found that the design return period varies considerably across the United States by roadway functional class and drainage classification, as well as within climate regions. Understanding this variation will help states identify possible vulnerabilities, highlight deficiencies across states and infrastructure types, and help in updating design return periods to increase the climate resilience of stormwater infrastructure.

  19. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.

    2013-01-01

    mm in 2 h) and extreme (100 mm in 3 h) rain events. The objectives were to understand the behaviour of the anionic and toxic Cr(VI) in soil at neutral pH and to asses treatment efficiency towards Cr(VI). During normal rain events Cr(VI) was largely retained (more than 50, even though pH was neutral......The ability of stormwater infiltration systems to retain Cr(VI) was tested by applying a synthetic stormwater runoff solution with a neutral pH and high Cr(VI) concentrations to four intact soil columns excavated from two roadside infiltration swales in Germany. Inlet flow rates mimicked normal (10......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff...

  20. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  1. Integrating Hydrology, Ecology, and Biogeochemistry in Stormwater Management: the Vermont Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    Although Vermont has had a stormwater management program since the 1970's, support for the program languished during a period intense suburban development in several counties in the state, most notably Chittenden County next to Lake Champlain. Beginning in 2000, the state renewed efforts to address concerns that stormwater runoff from suburban developments had significantly degraded streams in the area and threatened the health of the Lake. The state employs an extensive, EPA-approved biomonitoring program (based on macroinvertebrates and fish) to assess the health of streams. However, it is difficult to translate these data into targets for stormwater management or to predict how and especially when they will change as a result of future management practices. The challenge of managing stormwater in this area is further compounded by a complete lack of historical hydrologic monitoring data. Ultimately a stakeholder-driven process developed that has lead to an innovative partnership among state agencies, resource managers, NGO's, the US-EPA and scientists. Through this partnership a unique consensus evolved that management for hydrologic targets by themselves would address most of the stakeholders' concerns. The new regulations that are emerging are based on two components. The first component relies on flow-duration curves (FDC's) derived from a simple, widely-used stormwater model (P-8) for which adequate input data are available. The model was calibrated for streams in other areas for which long-term hydrologic data were available and then used to generate `synthetic' FDC's for the stormwater impaired and a suite of `attainment' (developing, but currently un-impaired) watersheds in Vermont. Statistical (cluster) analyses of synthetic FDC's provide watershed-wide targets for hydrologic reduction. Sub-watershed mapping linked to further multivariate analysis of the flow data identify specific locations to implement best management practices (BMP's) that will

  2. Adapting the social-ecological system framework for urban stormwater management: the case of green infrastructure adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carli D. Flynn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater management has long been a critical societal and environmental challenge for communities. An increasing number of municipalities are turning to novel approaches such as green infrastructure to develop more sustainable stormwater management systems. However, there is a need to better understand the technological decision-making processes that lead to specific outcomes within urban stormwater governance systems. We used the social-ecological system (SES framework to build a classification system for identifying significant variables that influence urban stormwater governance decisions related to green infrastructure adoption. To adapt the framework, we relied on findings from observations at national stormwater meetings in combination with a systematic literature review on influential factors related to green infrastructure adoption. We discuss our revisions to the framework that helped us understand the decision by municipal governments to adopt green infrastructure. Remaining research needs and challenges are discussed regarding the development of an urban stormwater SES framework as a classification tool for knowledge accumulation and synthesis.

  3. Micropollutants in stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflow in the Copenhagen area, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Jensen, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater runoff contains a broad range of micropollutants. In Europe a number of these substances are regulated through the Water Framework Directive, which establishes Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for surface waters. Knowledge about discharge of these substances through stormwater...... runoff and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) is essential to ensure compliance with the EQSs. Results from a screening campaign including more than 50 substances at four stormwater discharge locations and one CSO in Copenhagen are reported here. Heavy metal concentrations were detected at levels similar...

  4. Occurrence, bioaccumulation and potential sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in typical freshwater cultured fish ponds of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baozhong; Ni Honggang; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the potential input sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to fish farming environments in South China, samples of seven various environmental matrices were collected from October 2006-September 2007. Tri- to deca-BDEs were detected in all samples analyzed, with mean concentrations (±standard deviations) at 5.7 ± 3.6 ng/L in pond water, 15 ± 11 ng/g dry wt. in pond sediment, 12 ± 3.8 ng/g dry wt. in bank soil, 21 ± 20 ng/g lipid wt. in fish, and 93 ± 62 ng/g lipid wt. in fish feeds. In addition, BDE-209 was the major constituent in all samples except fish and BDE-47 was predominant in fish samples. Relatively high abundances of BDE-49 were detected in all the samples compared to those in the penta-BDE technical products. Several bioaccumulation factors were evaluated. Finally, statistical analyses suggested that fish feed, as well as pond water at a lesser degree, may have been the major source of PBDEs in freshwater farmed fish. - Occurrence and sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in typical freshwater cultured fish ponds of the Pearl River Delta, South China are examined.

  5. Stormwater pollution treatment BMP discharge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Structural best management practices (BMPs) are used to capture and treat stormwater runoff. Most structural BMPs provide treatment by filtering : runoff through a filter media or collecting it in a detention basin and slowly discharging it over an e...

  6. Effect of fish on water quality and nutrients cycle from an outdoor pond experiment; Sakana no suishitsu, busshitsu junkan ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, T.; Matsushige, K.; Aizaki, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Park, J.; Goma, R. [Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan); Kong, D. [Korea National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-11-10

    The influences of fish (goldfish) on water quality and nutrients cycle (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) were investigated during 39 days in the summer of 1993, using six outdoor experimental ponds (36 m{sup 3}) with the same water residence times and nutrient inputs. Blue-been algae dominated the ponds with fish. Compared with ponds without fish, the ponds with high densities of fish had standing stocks of zooplankton and macrozoobenthos nearly one order of magnitude lower, about twice the concentrations of chlorophyll a and twice the rate of primary production. Settling rates of particulate substances in the high density ponds were nearly half those observed in ponds with no fish. The processes of sedimentation and exchange with air played important roles in the nutrient budgets as well as the in- and outflows and the changes in nutrient standing stocks. The high concentrations of chlorophyll a in the fish ponds were attributed in part to the lower zooplankton grazing pressure and in part to the higher nutrient concentrations due to lower settling rates and rapid nutrient recycling between biomass and dissolved components. 28 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering ampersand Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized

  8. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  9. Treatability Aspects of Urban Stormwater Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleven years into the 21st century, pollution from diffuse sources (pollution from contaminants picked up and carried into surface waters by stormwater runoff) remains the nation's largest source of water quality problems. Scientists and engineers still seek solutions that will ...

  10. Use of modified pine bark for removal of pesticides from stormwater runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2003-01-01

    Pesticide entrainment in stormwater runoff can contribute to non-point source pollution of surface waters. Granular activated carbon has been successfully used for removing pesticides from wastewater. However, implementation of granular activated carbon sorption media in stormwater filtration systems comes with high initial capital investment and operating costs....

  11. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters.

  12. Laboratory investigations of stormwater remediation via slag: Effects of metals on phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Nnaemeka C; McMartin, Dena W

    2011-03-15

    The use of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag for the removal of phosphorus (P) from various simulated stormwater blends was investigated in the laboratory. The form of P measured was the inorganic orthophosphate (PO(4)-P). The stormwater solutions used in this preliminary study were synthesized as blends of P and typical concentrations of some of the most common and abundant metals in stormwater (e.g. cadmium, copper, lead and zinc), and contacted with EAF slag to determine P removal efficiency and sorptive competition. Results showed that the presence of cadmium, lead and zinc had minimal effect on the removal process; copper was a significant inhibitor of P uptake by the EAF slag media. P removal was greatest in the metal-free and multi-metal stormwater solutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Nian; Zhu, Panfeng; Liu, An

    2017-01-01

    Urban road stormwater is an alternative water resource to mitigate water shortage issues in the worldwide. Heavy metals deposited (build-up) on urban road surface can enter road stormwater runoff, undermining stormwater reuse safety. As heavy metal build-up loads perform high variabilities in terms of spatial distribution and is strongly influenced by surrounding land uses, it is essential to develop an approach to identify hot-spots where stormwater runoff could include high heavy metal concentrations and hence cannot be reused if it is not properly treated. This study developed a robust modelling approach to estimating heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads using land use fractions (representing percentages of land uses within a given area) by an artificial neural network (ANN) model technique. Based on the modelling results, a series of heavy metal load spatial distribution maps and a comprehensive ecological risk map were generated. These maps provided a visualization platform to identify priority areas where the stormwater can be safely reused. Additionally, these maps can be utilized as an urban land use planning tool in the context of effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. - Highlights: • A model was developed to simulate heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads. • This model is based on artificial neural networks. • Land use fractions was used to model build-up loads on different particle sizes. • The maps of heavy metal spatial distribution and ecological risk were generated. • This model can be used for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. - Development of a robust modelling approach to mapping heavy metals build-up and their ecological risks for stormwater reuse safety.

  14. Beaver ponds increase methylmercury concentrations in Canadian shield streams along vegetation and pond-age gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Virginie; Amyot, Marc; Carignan, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Beaver impoundments flood forested areas and may be important production sites for methylmercury (MeHg) because of the resulting enhanced microbial activity and oxygen depletion. The influence of 17 beaver impoundments on streamwater chemistry (total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients, cations, and anions)] was investigated by sampling sites located along vegetation and pond-age gradients in southwestern Quebec (Canada). Recently inundated beaver ponds (beaver ponds as suggested by depletions of dissolved oxygen, sulfate and nitrite-nitrate concentrations, and increases in nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) in outlets compared to inlets. Acidic waters at coniferous sites may have stimulated more MeHg production than in mixed woodland regions. Lower methylation efficiencies in older ponds (> 20 years old) may be due to the degradation of less labile organic matter as ponds age. Beavers actively alter watersheds by building impoundments, and our findings indicate that this landscape disturbance may be a significant source of MeHg to downstream water bodies.

  15. Modelling heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nian; Zhu, Panfeng; Liu, An

    2017-12-01

    Urban road stormwater is an alternative water resource to mitigate water shortage issues in the worldwide. Heavy metals deposited (build-up) on urban road surface can enter road stormwater runoff, undermining stormwater reuse safety. As heavy metal build-up loads perform high variabilities in terms of spatial distribution and is strongly influenced by surrounding land uses, it is essential to develop an approach to identify hot-spots where stormwater runoff could include high heavy metal concentrations and hence cannot be reused if it is not properly treated. This study developed a robust modelling approach to estimating heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads using land use fractions (representing percentages of land uses within a given area) by an artificial neural network (ANN) model technique. Based on the modelling results, a series of heavy metal load spatial distribution maps and a comprehensive ecological risk map were generated. These maps provided a visualization platform to identify priority areas where the stormwater can be safely reused. Additionally, these maps can be utilized as an urban land use planning tool in the context of effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  17. Frozen ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, M; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. Walter

    2015-01-01

    to a warming climate are complex and only poorly understood. Small waterbodies have been attracting an increasing amount of attention since recent studies demonstrated that ponds can make a significant contribution to the CO2 and CH4emissions of tundra ecosystems. Waterbodies also have a marked effect...... on the thermal state of the surrounding permafrost; during the freezing period they prolong the period of time during which thawed soil material is available for microbial decomposition.  This study presents net CH4 production rates during the freezing period from ponds within a typical lowland tundra landscape...

  18. Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, J Letitia; Davis, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    The SBSPRP is an extensive tidal wetland restoration project that is underway at the margin of South San Francisco Bay, California. The Project, which aims to restore former salt ponds to tidal marsh and manage other ponds for water bird support, is taking place in the context of a highly urbanized watershed and an Estuary already impacted by chemical contaminants. There is an intimate relationship between water quality in the watershed, the Bay, and the transitional wetland areas where the Project is located. The Project seeks to restore habitat for endangered and endemic species and to provide recreational opportunities for people. Therefore, water quality and bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and wildlife is an important concern for the success of the Project. Mercury, PCBs, and PBDEs are the persistent contaminants of greatest concern in the region. All of these contaminants are present at elevated concentrations both in the abiotic environment and in wildlife. Dioxins, pyrethroids, PAHs, and selenium are also problematic. Organochlorine insecticides have historically impacted the Bay, and they remain above thresholds for concern in a small proportion of samples. Emerging contaminants, such as PFCs and non-PBDE flame retardants, are also an important water quality issue. Beyond chemical pollutants, other concerns for water quality in South San Francisco Bay exist, and include biological constituents, especially invasive species, and chemical attributes, such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. Future changes, both from within the Project and from the Bay and watershed, are likely to influence water quality in the region. Project actions to restore wetlands could worsen, improve, or not affect the already impaired water quality in South Bay. Accelerated erosion of buried sediment as a consequence of Project restoration actions is a potentially serious regional threat to South Bay water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the planned restoration of salt ponds

  19. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater in Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herngren, Lars; Goonetilleke, Ashantha [School of Urban Development, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane QLD 4001 (Australia); Ayoko, Godwin A., E-mail: g.ayoko@qut.edu.a [Chemistry Discipline, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane QLD 4001 (Australia); Mostert, Maria M.M. [Chemistry Discipline, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2010-09-15

    This paper reports the distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wash-off in urban stormwater in Gold Coast, Australia. Runoff samples collected from residential, industrial and commercial sites were separated into a dissolved fraction (<0.45 {mu}m), and three particulate fractions (0.45-75 {mu}m, 75-150 {mu}m and >150 {mu}m). Patterns in the distribution of PAHs in the fractions were investigated using Principal Component Analysis. Regardless of the land use and particle size fraction characteristics, the presence of organic carbon plays a dominant role in the distribution of PAHs. The PAHs concentrations were also found to decrease with rainfall duration. Generally, the 1- and 2-year average recurrence interval rainfall events were associated with the majority of the PAHs and the wash-off was a source limiting process. In the context of stormwater quality mitigation, targeting the initial part of the rainfall event is the most effective treatment strategy. The implications of the study results for urban stormwater quality management are also discussed. - The presence of organic carbon on impervious surfaces and rainfall duration plays a dominant role in the distribution of PAHs in urban stormwater.

  20. Performance of a pilot showcase of different wetland systems in an urban setting in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, B S; He, Q H; Sim, C H

    2015-01-01

    The Alexandra Wetlands, part of PUB's Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Programme, showcase a surface flow wetland, an aquatic pond and a sub-surface flow wetland on a 200 m deck built over an urban drainage canal. Water from the canal is pumped to a sedimentation basin, before flowing in parallel to the three wetlands. Water quality monitoring was carried out monthly from April 2011 to December 2012. The order of removal efficiency is sub-surface flow (81.3%) >aquatic pond (58.5%) >surface flow (50.7%) for total suspended solids (TSS); sub-surface (44.9%) >surface flow (31.9%) >aquatic pond (22.0%) for total nitrogen (TN); and surface flow (56.7%) >aquatic pond (39.8%) >sub-surface flow (5.4%) for total phosphorus (TP). All three wetlands achieved the Singapore stormwater treatment objectives (STO) for TP removal, but only the sub-surface flow wetland met the STO for TSS, and none met the STO for TN. Challenges in achieving satisfactory performance include inconsistent feed water quality, undesirable behaviour such as fishing, release of pets and feeding of animals in the wetlands, and canal dredging during part of the monitoring period. As a pilot showcase, the Alexandra Wetlands provide useful lessons for implementing multi-objective wetlands in an urban setting.

  1. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, puranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, puranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (puranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using game theory to analyze green stormwater infrastructure implementation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, R. K.; Garg, J.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While green stormwater infrastructure is a useful approach in addressing multiple challenges facing the urban environment, little consensus exists on how to best incentivize its adoption by private landowners. Game theory, a field of study designed to model conflict and cooperation between two or more agents, is well-suited to address this policy question. We used a cooperative game theory framework to analyze the impacts of three different policy approaches frequently used to incentivize the uptake of green infrastructure by private landowners: municipal regulation, direct grants, and stormwater fees. The results indicate that municipal regulation leads to the greatest environmental benefits; however, the choice of "best" regulatory approach is dependent on a variety of different factors including political and financial considerations. Policy impacts are also highly dependent on agents' spatial positions within the stormwater network. This finding leads to important questions of social equity and environmental justice.

  3. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China.

  4. A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: Implications for habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  6. Sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Ammitsøe, Christian

    We quantify ecotoxicity impacts caused by different solutions to manage stormwater using life cycle assessment. As a novelty, we include emissions of a wide range of pollutants present in runoff. These emissions turn out to be of great importance, especially in decentralized, above surface systems....

  7. Perspectives on the use of green infrastructure for stormwater management in Cleveland and Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Melissa; Koburger, Althea; Dolowitz, David P; Medearis, Dale; Nickel, Darla; Shuster, William

    2013-06-01

    Green infrastructure is a general term referring to the management of landscapes in ways that generate human and ecosystem benefits. Many municipalities have begun to utilize green infrastructure in efforts to meet stormwater management goals. This study examines challenges to integrating gray and green infrastructure for stormwater management, informed by interviews with practitioners in Cleveland, OH and Milwaukee WI. Green infrastructure in these cities is utilized under conditions of extreme fiscal austerity and its use presents opportunities to connect stormwater management with urban revitalization and economic recovery while planning for the effects of negative- or zero-population growth. In this context, specific challenges in capturing the multiple benefits of green infrastructure exist because the projects required to meet federally mandated stormwater management targets and the needs of urban redevelopment frequently differ in scale and location.

  8. An Open-Source Auto-Calibration Routine Supporting the Stormwater Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernan, E. D.; Hodges, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    The stormwater management model (SWMM) is a clustered model that relies on subcatchment-averaged parameter assignments to correctly capture catchment stormwater runoff behavior. Model calibration is considered a critical step for SWMM performance, an arduous task that most stormwater management designers undertake manually. This research presents an open-source, automated calibration routine that increases the efficiency and accuracy of the model calibration process. The routine makes use of a preliminary sensitivity analysis to reduce the dimensions of the parameter space, at which point a multi-objective function, genetic algorithm (modified Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II) determines the Pareto front for the objective functions within the parameter space. The solutions on this Pareto front represent the optimized parameter value sets for the catchment behavior that could not have been reasonably obtained through manual calibration.

  9. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Riemath, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples

  10. Sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems and the importance of pollutants in runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Ammitsøe, Christian

    substance groups present in runoff, metals cause the highest impacts. To integrate this method into holistic sustainability assessment, we assess the complete life cycle of a complex stormwater management. We show that runoff discharges have a high relative importance: The impacts exceed the combined......We develop a method to systematically include impacts caused by runoff discharge into the sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems. By defining priority pollutants and calculating mean concentrations, an average ecotoxicity impact per litre of runoff is calculated. Of all assessed...... impacts of implementation, maintenance and decommissioning of the stormwater management system....

  11. Mobility and bioavailability of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn in surface runoff sediments in the urban catchment area of Guwahati, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Upama; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.

    2018-03-01

    The sediments in stormwater runoff are recognised as the major sink of the heavy metals and affect the soil quality in the catchment. The runoff sediments are also important in the management of contaminant transport to receiving water bodies. In the present work, stormwater during several major rain events was collected from nine principal locations of Guwahati, India. The solid phase was separated from the liquid phase and was investigated for the total contents of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn as well as their distribution among the prominent chemical phases. Sequential extraction procedure was used for the chemical fractionation of the metals that contains five steps. The total metal concentration showed the trend, Cd < Co < Cu < Cr < Zn < Mn. The relative distribution of the metals showed that Cd was available mostly in the exchangeable and the carbonate bound fractions, which were the most mobile and high-risk fractions. Co with medium mobility was also found to be in the high-risk category. On the other hand, the mobilities of Cu and Zn were relatively low and these were, therefore, the least bioavailable metals in the runoff sediments falling in medium-risk category.

  12. Identification and Induction of Human, Social, and Cultural Capitals through an Experimental Approach to Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale W. Thurston

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized stormwater management is based on the dispersal of stormwater management practices (SWMP throughout a watershed to manage stormwater runoff volume and potentially restore natural hydrologic processes. This approach to stormwater management is increasingly popular but faces constraints related to land access and citizen engagement. We tested a novel method of environmental management through citizen-based stormwater management on suburban private land. After a nominal induction of human capital through an education campaign, two successive (2007, 2008 reverse auctions engaged residents to voluntarily bid on installation of SWMPs on their property. Cumulatively, 81 rain gardens and 165 rain barrels were installed on approximately one-third of the 350 eligible residential properties in the watershed, resulting in an estimated 360 m3 increase in stormwater detention capacity. One surprising result was the abundance of zero dollar bids, indicating even a limited-effort human capital campaign was sufficient to enroll many participants. In addition, we used statistical methods to illustrate the significant role of social capital in forming clusters of adjacent properties that participated in bidding. This indicated that as participants shared their experiences, neighbors may have become more willing to trust the program and enroll. Significant agglomerations of participating properties may indicate a shift in neighborhood culture regarding stormwater management with positive implications for watershed health through the sustained induction of alternate capitals.

  13. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  14. Analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds in urban stormwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, Antoine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    A method for benzalkonium analysis has been developed to measure benzalkonium concentration in dissolved and particulate fractions from urban runoff samples. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The dissolved matrix was extracted by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), with cationic exchange and the particles by microwave extraction with acidified methanol. Recovery percentages were closed to 100% for benzalkonium C12 and C14. The protocol was applied to roof runoff samples collected after a roof demossing treatment, and to separative stormwater samples from a 200 ha catchment. The results illustrate an important contamination of the roof runoff, with a maximum concentration close to 27 mg/L during the first rain. The benzalkonium concentration (sum of C12 and C14) stayed high (up to 1 mg/L) even 5 months after the treatment. Benzalkonium concentration measured in stormwaters was low (0.2 μg/L) but with contaminated suspended solids (up to 80 μg/g). - Highlights: ► In France roofs can be treated against moss growth with benzalkonium. ► First LC-MS/MS protocol developed to analyze benzalkonium in urban runoff. ► Dissolved fraction is extracted by cationic exchange, particles with soxwave. ► Roof treatment create a huge contamination of the runoff (>30 mg/L). ► First results showing benzalkonium presence in stormwater. - A protocol for benzalkonium analysis has been developed and adapted to urban runoff, then applied to roof runoff after de-mossing treatment, which represents an important source of benzalkonium in stormwaters.

  15. Thermal performance experiments on ultimate heat sinks, spray ponds, and cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.

    1976-12-01

    A program of measurement on a Battelle-Northwest (BNW) spray pond has been completed to prove an integrated instrumentation system for application in future field experiments. The measurement programs in the field will produce data of relevance to the design and understanding of performance for ultimate heat sinks as components of emergency core cooling systems. In the absence of active emergency cooling systems, the data will be obtained on analog systems--prime candidates among these are the naturally-occurring hot ponds at Yellowstone National Park and man-made hot cooling ponds at Savannah River National Laboratory as well as spray ponds at various industrial facilities. The proof experiment has provided data that not only illustrate the effectiveness of the instrumentation system but also display interesting site-specific heat transfer processes. The data to be obtained in the field will also be site specific but must be of generic applicability in modeling for design and performance purposes. The integrated instrumentation system will evolve, through modest modifications and substantial supplementation, to provide the requisite data for the more demanding situation of work in and about hot water

  16. A game theory analysis of green infrastructure stormwater management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Reshmina; Garg, Jugal; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-09-01

    Green stormwater infrastructure has been demonstrated as an innovative water resources management approach that addresses multiple challenges facing urban environments. However, there is little consensus on what policy strategies can be used to best incentivize green infrastructure adoption by private landowners. Game theory, an analysis framework that has historically been under-utilized within the context of stormwater management, is uniquely suited to address this policy question. We used a cooperative game theory framework to investigate the potential impacts of different policy strategies used to incentivize green infrastructure installation. The results indicate that municipal regulation leads to the greatest reduction in pollutant loading. However, the choice of the "best" regulatory approach will depend on a variety of different factors including politics and financial considerations. Large, downstream agents have a disproportionate share of bargaining power. Results also reveal that policy impacts are highly dependent on agents' spatial position within the stormwater network, leading to important questions of social equity and environmental justice.

  17. Raingarden Soil Bacteria Community Response to Lab Simulated Salt-Enriched Artificial Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreny, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Cold climate cities with green infrastructure depend on soil bacteria to remove nutrients from road salt-enriched stormwater. Our research examined how bacterial communities in laboratory columns containing bioretention media responded to varying concentrations of salt exposure from artificial stormwater and the effect of bacteria and salt on column effluent concentrations. We used a factorial design with two bacteria treatments (sterile, nonsterile) and three salt concentrations (935, 315, and 80 ppm), including a deionized water control. Columns were repeatedly saturated with stormwater or deionized and then drained throughout 5 wk, with the last week of effluent analyzed for water chemistry. To examine bacterial communities, we extracted DNA from column bioretention media at time 0 and at week 5 and used molecular profiling techniques to examine bacterial community changes. We found that bacterial community taxa changed between time 0 and week 5 and that there was significant separation between taxa among salt treatments. Bacteria evenness was significantly affected by stormwater treatment, but there were no differences in bacterial richness or diversity. Soil bacteria and salt treatments had a significant effect on the effluent concentration of NO3, PO4, Cu, Pb, and Zn based on ANOVA tests. The presence of bacteria reduced effluent NO3 and Zn concentrations by as much as 150 and 25%, respectively, while having a mixed effect on effluent PO4 concentrations. Our results demonstrate how stormwater can affect bacterial communities and how the presence of soil bacteria improves pollutant removal by green infrastructure.

  18. Effect of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) on recovered stormwater quality variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, D W; Peeters, L; Vanderzalm, J; Barry, K; Gonzalez, D

    2017-06-15

    Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is increasingly being considered as a means of reusing urban stormwater to supplement available urban water resources. Storage of stormwater in an aquifer has been shown to affect water quality but it has also been claimed that storage will also decrease the stormwater quality variability making for improved predictability and management. This study is the first to document the changes in stormwater quality variability as a result of subsurface storage at four full scale ASR sites using advanced statistical techniques. New methods to examine water quality are required as data is often highly left censored and so traditional measures of variability such as the coefficient of variation are inappropriate. It was observed that for some water quality parameters (most notably E. coli) there was a marked improvement of water quality and a significant decrease in variability at all sites. This means that aquifer storage prior to engineered treatment systems may be advantageous in terms of system design to avoid over engineering. For other parameters such as metal(loids)s and nutrients the trend was less clear due to the numerous processes occurring during storage leading to an increase in variability, especially for geogenic metals and metalloids such as iron and arsenic. Depending upon the specific water quality parameters and end use, use of ASR may not have a dampening effect on stormwater quality variability. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioremediation studies of tailing ponds of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakar, G.; Muralidhar Rao, C.; Swaminathan, Siva Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken for three years to evaluate the potential of native plant species for the phytoremediation of tailing ponds of Uranium mines, Jaduguda, Jharkhand. Five sampling stations: three at Jaduguda (TP1, TP2, and TP3), one at Turamdih (TTP) and one at Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) were selected. pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), 12 metals (- AI, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Pb) and 3 radionuclides - Co, Sr and U) were analysed. From the analysis of sediment/soil/water/effluent of tailing ponds, 4 elements - U, Mn, AI and Fe were found to be significantly in higher concentrations in water, and 8-elements (U, Mn, V, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn) were found to be in higher concentrations in soils. U and Mn were found to be the predominant contaminants. 26 plant species were screened for their ability to accumulate and remediate the contaminated soils of which only four plant species - one fern (Pteris vittata - P. vittata), one terrestrial (Saccharum spontaneum - S. spontaneum ) and two aquatic species (Typha latifolia - T. latifolia, Cyperus compressus - C. compressus) were shortlisted for phytoremediation studies in laboratory condition and transfer factors were calculated. The results of the study under controlled conditions indicate that P. vittata, S. spontaneum, T. latifolia and C. compressus were found to be the candidate species for phytoremediation of Uranium mine tailings. (author)

  20. A methodology for ranking and hazard identification of xenobiotic organic compounds in urban stormwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a novel methodology (RICH, Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards) for ranking and identification of xenobiotic organic compounds of environmental concern in stormwater discharged to surface water. The RICHmethod is illustrated as a funnel fitted with different filters...... in hazard/risk assessments, a justified list of stormwater priority pollutants which must be included in hazard/risk assessments, and a list of compounds which may be present in discharged stormwater, but cannot be evaluated due to lack of data. The procedure was applied to 233 xenobiotic organic chemicals...... with xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) found in urban stormwater, but it may be transferred to other environmental compartments and problems. Thus, the RICH procedure can be used as a stand-alone tool for selection of potential priority pollutants or it can be integrated in larger priority setting frameworks....

  1. Valuing environmental services provided by local stormwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Daniel A.; Gangadharan, Lata; Lassiter, Allison; Leroux, Anke; Raschky, Paul A.

    2017-06-01

    The management of stormwater runoff via distributed green infrastructures delivers a number of environmental services that go beyond the reduction of flood risk, which has been the focus of conventional stormwater systems. Not all of these services may be equally valued by the public, however. This paper estimates households' willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in water security, stream health, recreational and amenity values, as well as reduction in flood risk and urban heat island effect. We use data from nearly 1000 personal interviews with residential homeowners in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Our results suggest that the WTP for the highest levels of all environmental services is A799 per household per year. WTP is mainly driven by residents valuing improvements in local stream health, exemptions in water restrictions, the prevention of flash flooding, and decreased peak urban temperatures respectively at A297, A244, A104 and A$65 per year. We further conduct a benefit transfer analysis and find that the WTP and compensating surplus are not significantly different between the study areas. Our findings provide additional support that stormwater management via green infrastructures have large nonmarket benefits and that, under certain conditions, benefit values can be transferred to different locations.