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Sample records for storing tissue samples

  1. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  2. Stability of carboxyhemoglobin in stored and mailed blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2008-02-01

    Elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels are used to confirm a clinical diagnosis of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and, in some instances, assess severity of poisoning. However, many hospital laboratories cannot measure COHb because they do not have CO-oximeters. In such instances, blood samples are often sent to outside laboratories or with a transported patient for measurement at the receiving hospital. This study was conducted to assess the stability of COHb in stored and mailed blood samples anticoagulated with heparin. Adult human blood was drawn into standard sample tubes anticoagulated with sodium heparin. Carbon monoxide gas was infused to raise the COHb level to 25% to 35%. Samples were then refrigerated or stored at room temperature, and serial COHb determinations were performed for 28 days. Additional samples were measured after being mailed locally or across the United States and back. No significant changes in COHb levels were seen in samples stored either in refrigeration or at room temperature over a period of 28 days or in samples shipped without refrigeration locally or across the United States. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in whole blood samples anticoagulated with heparin are stable with or without refrigeration for up to 4 weeks. If COHb measurement capability is not available, such samples may be shipped or transported with patients with confidence that the COHb level will be stable when measured at a later time.

  3. Equipment and techniques for remote sampling of stored radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Several tools have been developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remotely sample stored radioactive waste. These sampling tools have been developed to determine the chemical characteristics of the waste prior to processing. The processing of waste material varies according to the chemical characteristics of the waste, which change due to additions, settling, mixing, and chemical reactions during storage. Once the waste has been sampled to identify its characteristics, the chemical composition of the waste can then be altered if needed to prepare for processing. Various types of waste material in several types of containment must be sampled at SRS. Stored waste materials consist of liquids, floating organics, sludge, salt and solids. Waste is stored in four basic types of tanks with different means of access and interior obstructions. The waste tanks can only be accessed by small openings: access ports, risers and downcomers. Requirements for sampling depend on the type of tank being accessed, the waste within the tank, and the particular location in the tank desired for taking the sample. Sampling devices have been developed to sample all of the waste material forms found in the SRS tank farms. The fluid type samplers are capable of sampling surface liquid, subsurface liquid at varying depth, surface sludge, subsurface sludge, and floating organics. The solid type samplers are capable of sampling salt, sampling a solid layer on the bottom of the tank, and capturing a small solid mass on the tank bottom. The sampling devices are all designed to access the tanks through small access ports. The samplers are reusable and are designed to allow quick transfer of the samples to shielded packaging for transport, reducing the amount of radiation exposure to sampling personnel. The samplers weigh less than 100 lb. and are designed in sections to allow easy disassembly for storage and transport by personnel. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Sampling of charged liquid radwaste stored in large tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchemitcheff, E.; Domage, M.; Bernard-Bruls, X.

    1995-01-01

    The final safe disposal of radwaste, in France and elsewhere, entails, for liquid effluents, their conversion to a stable solid form, hence implying their conditioning. The production of conditioned waste with the requisite quality, traceability of the characteristics of the packages produced, and safe operation of the conditioning processes, implies at least the accurate knowledge of the chemical and radiochemical properties of the effluents concerned. The problem in sampling the normally charged effluents is aggravated for effluents that have been stored for several years in very large tanks, without stirring and retrieval systems. In 1992, SGN was asked by Cogema to study the retrieval and conditioning of LL/ML chemical sludge and spent ion-exchange resins produced in the operation of the UP2 400 plant at La Hague, and stored temporarily in rectangular silos and tanks. The sampling aspect was crucial for validating the inventories, identifying the problems liable to arise in the aging of the effluents, dimensioning the retrieval systems and checking the transferability and compatibility with the downstream conditioning process. Two innovative self-contained systems were developed and built for sampling operations, positioned above the tanks concerned. Both systems have been operated in active conditions and have proved totally satisfactory for taking representative samples. Today SGN can propose industrially proven overall solutions, adaptable to the various constraints of many spent fuel cycle operators

  5. Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following the introduction of Condensators, resistors and potentiometers from the Farnell electronic-catalogue into CERN Stores' catalogue, following products are now available: PRODUCT FAMILY GROUP SCEM Oscillators and quartz crystals 07.94.10 / 07.94.12 Diodes 08.51.14 / 08.51.54 Thyristors 08.51.60 / 08.51.66 Opto-electronics 08.52 Transistors 08.53 Integrated circuits 08.54 / 08.55 These articles can be procured in the same way as any other stores item, by completing a Material Request. N.B. Individual Farnell order codes can be used as keywords to facilitate searches in the CERN Stores Catalogue.

  6. The Effect of Storage Longtime on Cyanide Production in Postmortem Stored Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeid Gholamzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Acute cyanide poisoning happens intentionally as suicide attempt or in accidental use. Interpretation of cyanide analysis results in postmortem samples is important in forensic medicine. Material & Methods: In this case-control study, the liver and the lung of 100 autopsy cases were collected during six months in Shiraz Forensic Medicine Department. Samples were divided into three parts and were examined as follow: one part of the liver and the lung was analyzed qualitatively to detect cyanide with Prussian blue test at first day of admission, the second and the third parts of the samples were stored at 0-4°C for one and two months, respectively. Then, liver and lung samples were analyzed to measure the amount of cyanide. Results: Cyanide was detected in only six cases in all three parts of the liver samples. Screening results for cyanide were negative for the remaining 94 liver samples. Conclusion: Endogenous cyanide production was not detected in liver and lung samples in this study. Therefore, cyanide detection was not affected by the time of the storage of the samples. The cyanide level changes in mentioned tissues were not significant. More importantly, our results would be more advantageous if we studied quantitatively on more samples to pave the way for future studies.

  7. Sampling stored product insect pests: a comparison of four statistical sampling models for probability of pest detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistically robust sampling strategies form an integral component of grain storage and handling activities throughout the world. Developing sampling strategies to target biological pests such as insects in stored grain is inherently difficult due to species biology and behavioral characteristics. ...

  8. The use of a DNA stabilizer in human dental tissues stored under different temperature conditions and time intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    TERADA, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias; da SILVA, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; GALO, Rodrigo; de AZEVEDO, Aline; GERLACH, Raquel Fernanda; da SILVA, Ricardo Henrique Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the use of a reagent to stabilize the DNA extracted from human dental tissues stored under different temperature conditions and time intervals. Material and Methods A total of 161 teeth were divided into two distinct groups: intact teeth and isolated dental pulp tissue. The samples were stored with or without the product at different time intervals and temperature. After storage, DNA extraction and genomic DNA quantification were performed using real-time PCR; the fragments of the 32 samples that represented each possible condition were analyzed to find the four pre-selected markers in STR analysis. Results The results of the quantification showed values ranging from 0.01 to 10,246.88 ng/μL of DNA. The statistical difference in the quantity of DNA was observed when the factors related to the time and temperature of storage were analyzed. In relation to the use of the specific reagent, its use was relevant in the group of intact teeth when they were at room temperature for 30 and 180 days. The analysis of the fragments in the 32 selected samples was possible irrespective of the amount of DNA, confirming that the STR analysis using an automated method yields good results. Conclusions The use of a specific reagent showed a significant difference in stabilizing DNA in samples of intact human teeth stored at room temperature for 30 and 180 days, while the results showed no justification for using the product under the other conditions tested. PMID:25141206

  9. Tissue Sampling Guides for Porcine Biomedical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albl, Barbara; Haesner, Serena; Braun-Reichhart, Christina; Streckel, Elisabeth; Renner, Simone; Seeliger, Frank; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Rüdiger; Blutke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    This article provides guidelines for organ and tissue sampling adapted to porcine animal models in translational medical research. Detailed protocols for the determination of sampling locations and numbers as well as recommendations on the orientation, size, and trimming direction of samples from ∼50 different porcine organs and tissues are provided in the Supplementary Material. The proposed sampling protocols include the generation of samples suitable for subsequent qualitative and quantitative analyses, including cryohistology, paraffin, and plastic histology; immunohistochemistry;in situhybridization; electron microscopy; and quantitative stereology as well as molecular analyses of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes. With regard to the planned extent of sampling efforts, time, and personnel expenses, and dependent upon the scheduled analyses, different protocols are provided. These protocols are adjusted for (I) routine screenings, as used in general toxicity studies or in analyses of gene expression patterns or histopathological organ alterations, (II) advanced analyses of single organs/tissues, and (III) large-scale sampling procedures to be applied in biobank projects. Providing a robust reference for studies of porcine models, the described protocols will ensure the efficiency of sampling, the systematic recovery of high-quality samples representing the entire organ or tissue as well as the intra-/interstudy comparability and reproducibility of results. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M [Physics Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm{sup 3} blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  11. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M

    2010-01-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm 3 blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  12. How to store plant tissues in the absence of liquid nitrogen? Ethanol preserves the RNA integrity of Cannabis sativa stem tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauralie Mangeot-Peter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of intact RNA is a limiting step when gene expression profiling is performed using field-collected plant material. The use of liquid nitrogen ensures the optimal preservation of RNA, however it is not always practical, especially if the plant material has to be sampled in remote locations. Ethanol is known to preserve DNA in plant tissues even after a long storage period and here its suitability to preserve the RNA of textile hemp cortical tissues was tested. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is an economically important fibre crop because it supplies cellulosic bast fibres used in different industrial sectors. In this study we demonstrate the suitability of ethanol for RNA preservation by analyzing tissues stored at 4 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. We show that in all the cases the extracted RNA is intact. We finally analyze hemp stem tissues stored in ethanol for 1 month and demonstrate the preservation of the tissue structure, particularly of bast fibres.

  13. Platelet-rich fibrin prepared from stored whole-blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Kazushige; Suzuki, Masashi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Kitamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Taiji; Kawabata, Hideo; Nakamura, Masayuki; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Okudera, Hajime; Uematsu, Kohya; Nakata, Koh; Tanaka, Takaaki; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2017-12-01

    In regenerative therapy, self-clotted platelet concentrates, such as platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), are generally prepared on-site and are immediately used for treatment. If blood samples or prepared clots can be preserved for several days, their clinical applicability will expand. Here, we prepared PRF from stored whole-blood samples and examined their characteristics. Blood samples were collected from non-smoking, healthy male donors (aged 27-67 years, N = 6), and PRF clots were prepared immediately or after storage for 1-2 days. Fibrin fiber was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Bioactivity was evaluated by means of a bioassay system involving human periosteal cells, whereas PDGF-BB concentrations were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Addition of optimal amounts of a 10% CaCl 2 solution restored the coagulative ability of whole-blood samples that contained an anticoagulant (acid citrate dextrose) and were stored for up to 2 days at ambient temperature. In PRF clots prepared from the stored whole-blood samples, the thickness and cross-links of fibrin fibers were almost identical to those of freshly prepared PRF clots. PDGF-BB concentrations in the PRF extract were significantly lower in stored whole-blood samples than in fresh samples; however, both extracts had similar stimulatory effects on periosteal-cell proliferation. Quality of PRF clots prepared from stored whole-blood samples is not reduced significantly and can be ensured for use in regenerative therapy. Therefore, the proposed method enables a more flexible treatment schedule and choice of a more suitable platelet concentrate immediately before treatment, not after blood collection.

  14. Retention and variability of hydrogen (H2) samples stored in plastic syringes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The utility of two brands of 20 ml plastic syringes for storage of hydrogen (H2) samples as obtained in H2 breath tests were studied. Plastipak syringes were found to be significantly better with regard to the stability of the H2 concentration and the variability between the H2 samples. Storage...... of the H2 samples in Plastipak syringes at 5 degrees C significantly improved the H2 retention, whereas refrigeration of H2 samples stored in Once syringes did not reduce H2 loss. Storage of H2 samples in refrigerated plastic syringes is efficient and reliable for several days if syringes with minimal...... sample variation are used....

  15. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue stores across lipodystrophy types shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Attar, Salam A; Pollex, Rebecca L; Robinson, John F; Miskie, Brooke A; Walcarius, Rhonda; Little, Cynthia Harper; Rutt, Brian K; Hegele, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Lipodystrophies are characterized by redistributed subcutaneous fat stores. We previously quantified subcutaneous fat by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the legs of two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy subtypes 2 and 3 (FPLD2 and FPLD3, respectively). We now extend the MRI analysis across the whole body of patients with different forms of lipodystrophy. We studied five subcutaneous fat stores (supraclavicular, abdominal, gluteal, thigh and calf) and the abdominal visceral fat stores in 10, 2, 1, 1 and 2 female subjects with, respectively, FPLD2, FPLD3, HIV-related partial lipodystrophy (HIVPL), acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL), congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) and in six normal control subjects. Compared with normal controls, FPLD2 subjects had significantly increased supraclavicular fat, with decreased abdominal, gluteal, thigh and calf subcutaneous fat. FPLD3 subjects had increased supraclavicular and abdominal subcutaneous fat, with less severe reductions in gluteal, thigh and calf fat compared to FPLD2 subjects. The repartitioning of fat in the HIVPL subject closely resembled that of FPLD3 subjects. APL and CGL subjects had reduced upper body, gluteal and thigh subcutaneous fat; the APL subject had increased, while CGL subjects had decreased subcutaneous calf fat. Visceral fat was markedly increased in FPLD2 and APL subjects. Semi-automated MRI-based adipose tissue quantification indicates differences between various lipodystrophy types in these studied clinical cases and is a potentially useful tool for extended quantitative phenomic analysis of genetic metabolic disorders. Further studies with a larger sample size are essential for confirming these preliminary findings

  17. Stability of drugs of abuse in urine samples stored at -20 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, S; Bogema, S; Schwartz, R W; Lappas, N T

    1994-01-01

    Isolated studies of the stability of individual drugs of abuse have been reported. However, few have evaluated stability in frozen urine samples stored for 12 months. We have determined the stability of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-COOH-THC), amphetamine, methamphetamine, morphine, codeine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and phencyclidine in 236 physiological urine samples. Following the initial quantitative analysis, the samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 12 months and then reanalyzed. All drug concentrations were determined by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods with cutoff concentrations of 5 ng/mL for 9-COOH-THC and phencyclidine and 100 ng/mL for each of the other drugs. The average change in the concentrations of these drugs following this long-term storage was not extensive except for an average change of -37% in cocaine concentrations.

  18. Stability and reliability of glycated haemoglobin measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Vijayachandrika; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Deepa, Mohan; Jayashri, Ramamoorthy; Anbalagan, Viknesh Prabu; Akila, Bridgitte; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    To validate the stability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C for up to one month. The study group comprised 142 type 2 diabetic subjects visiting a tertiary centre for diabetes at Chennai city in south India. The HbA1c assay was done on a fasting blood sample using the Bio-Rad Variant machine on Day 0 (day of blood sample collection). Several aliquots were stored at -20°C and the assay was repeated on the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after the sample collection. Bland-Altman plots were constructed and variation in the HbA1c levels on the different days was compared with the day 0 level. The median differences between HbA1c levels measured on Day 0 and the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after blood collection were 0.0%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5% respectively. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that the differences between the day '0' and the different time points tend to get larger with time, but these were not clinically significant. HbA1c levels are relatively stable up to 2weeks, if blood samples are stored at -20°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis from stored DNA Samples: A multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo; A Brandao; M C Cergole Novella; A G C. Bombonatte; B Imperiale; N Rakotosamimanana; N Morcillo; V Rasolofo; J C Palomino; A Martin

    2018-01-01

    Background: In low-income countries, rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is often restricted by the difficulties of transporting and storing sputum samples from remote health centers to the reference laboratories where molecular tests are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of four transport and storage systems for molecular detection of rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. Methods: This was a multicenter study. Molecular detection of ...

  20. Long-term survival of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in stored environmental samples from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón, Patricia; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Both Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii have been isolated from a variety of environmental sources in Colombia. To determine the viability of C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates in stored soil samples, filtrates and bird droppings from which these yeasts were previously recovered. A total of 964 samples collected between 2003 and 2009, and kept at room temperature were processed. From them, 653 samples were from trees decaying wood, 274 from soil filtrates and 37 from bird droppings. When C. neoformans or C. gattii were recovered, the molecular type of each isolate was established by PCR fingerprinting using the single primer (GTG)5. Among the processed samples, 161 isolates were recovered. From those, 81 (50.3%) corresponded to C. gattii recovered from decaying wood of Eucalyptus spp., Corymbia ficifolia, Terminalia catappa and Ficus spp. trees, and 80 (49.7%) corresponded to C. neoformans recovered from Ficus spp. and eucalyptus trees, as well as from bird droppings. The most prevalent molecular type among the C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates was VGII and VNI, respectively. The re-isolation of C. neoformans/C. gattii from 10-year stored samples suggests that these yeasts are able to keep viable in naturally colonized samples. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. INFLUENCE OF STORING AND TEMPERATURE ON RHEOLOGIC AND THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WHISKY SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hlavac

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and storing time can be included between the most significant parameters that influence physical properties of food. This article deals with selected rheologic and thermophysical properties of alcohol drink whisky. Our research was oriented on measuring of rheologic and thermophysical characteristics of whisky. There were measured two types of whisky Grant s and Jim Beam from two different producers, both samples had 40 percent of alcohol content. During the experiments were analyzed rheologic parameters as dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity and fluidity and thermophysical parameters as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volume specific heat. Selected parameters were measured in temperature range 5 to 27 C. Measurements were done on whisky samples in different days during the storage. Measuring of dynamic viscosity was performed by digital rotational viscometer Anton Paar. Principle of measuring is based on dependency of sample resistance against the probe rotation. Density of whisky samples was determined by pycnometric method. Average density at given temperature along with dynamic viscosity value was used at calculation of kinematic viscosity and fluidity was also determined. Measuring of thermophysical parameters was performed by instrument Isomet 2104 Measurement by Isomet is based on analysis of the temperature response of the measured sample to heat flow impulses. Relations of rheologic and thermophysical parameters to the temperature were made and influence of storing time was discussed. From obtained results is clear that dynamic and kinematic viscosity is decreasing exponentially with temperature and fluidity has increasing exponential progress. We found out that both whisky samples had at the beginning and after one week of storage very similar values of rheologic parameters. Very small difference in rheologic parameters of whisky samples was found after two weeks of storing. Values of dynamic and kinematic

  2. Concentration of mercury in wheat samples stored with mercury tablets as preservative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    Tablets consisting of mercury in the form of a dull grey powder made by triturating mercury with chalk and sugar are used in Indian household for storing food-grains. The contamination of wheat samples by mercury, when stored with mercury tablets for period of upto four years has been assessed by using non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The details of the analytical procedure used have also been briefly described. The concentration of mercury in wheat increases with storage period. Loss of weight of mercury tablet is proportional to the storage period to a first approximation. In the present experiment, the average weight loss at the and end of first year was 0.009716 g corresponding to 6 ppm in wheat. (T.G.)

  3. Concentration of mercury in wheat samples stored with mercury tablets as preservative. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalit, B Y; Ramachandran, T V [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Air Monitoring Section

    1977-01-01

    Tablets consisting of mercury in the form of a dull grey powder made by triturating mercury with chalk and sugar are used in Indian household for storing food-grains. The contamination of wheat samples by mercury, when stored with mercury tablets for period of upto four years has been assessed by using non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The details of the analytical procedure used have also been briefly described. The concentration of mercury in wheat increases with storage period. Loss of weight of mercury tablet is proportional to the storage period to a first approximation. In the present experiment, the average weight loss at the and end of first year was 0.009716 g corresponding to 6 ppm in wheat.

  4. High 5-hydroxymethylfurfural concentrations are found in Malaysian honey samples stored for more than one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M I; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2010-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content is an indicator of the purity of honey. High concentrations of HMF in honey indicate overheating, poor storage conditions and old honey. This study investigated the HMF content of nine Malaysian honey samples, as well as the correlation of HMF formation with physicochemical properties of honey. Based on the recommendation by the International Honey Commission, three methods for the determination of HMF were used: (1) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) White spectrophotometry and (3) Winkler spectrophotometry methods. HPLC and White spectrophotometric results yielded almost similar values, whereas the Winkler method showed higher readings. The physicochemical properties of honey (pH, free acids, lactones and total acids) showed significant correlation with HMF content and may provide parameters that could be used to make quick assessments of honey quality. The HMF content of fresh Malaysian honey samples stored for 3-6 months (at 2.80-24.87 mg/kg) was within the internationally recommended value (80 mg/kg for tropical honeys), while honey samples stored for longer periods (12-24 months) contained much higher HMF concentrations (128.19-1131.76 mg/kg). Therefore, it is recommended that honey should generally be consumed within one year, regardless of the type. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of stress on catecholamine stores in central and peripheral tissues of long-term socially isolated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronjak, S; Gavrilovic, L

    2006-06-01

    Both the peripheral sympatho-adrenomedullary and central catecholaminergic systems are activated by various psycho-social and physical stressors. Catecholamine stores in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, adrenal glands, and heart auricles of long-term socially isolated (21 days) and control 3-month-old male Wistar rats, as well as their response to immobilization of all 4 limbs and head fixed for 2 h and cold stress (4 degrees C, 2 h), were studied. A simultaneous single isotope radioenzymatic assay based on the conversion of catecholamines to the corresponding O-methylated derivatives by catechol-O-methyl-transferase in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-(3H-methyl)-methionine was used. The O-methylated derivatives were oxidized to 3H-vanilline and the radioactivity measured. Social isolation produced depletion of hypothalamic norepinephrine (about 18%) and hippocampal dopamine (about 20%) stores and no changes in peripheral tissues. Immobilization decreased catecholamine stores (approximately 39%) in central and peripheral tissues of control animals. However, in socially isolated rats, these reductions were observed only in the hippocampus and peripheral tissues. Cold did not affect hypothalamic catecholamine stores but reduced hippocampal dopamine (about 20%) as well as norepinephrine stores in peripheral tissues both in control and socially isolated rats, while epinephrine levels were unchanged. Thus, immobilization was more efficient in reducing catecholamine stores in control and chronically isolated rats compared to cold stress. The differences in rearing conditions appear to influence the response of adult animals to additional stress. In addition, the influence of previous exposure to a stressor on catecholaminergic activity in the brainstem depends on both the particular catecholaminergic area studied and the properties of additional acute stress. Therefore, the sensitivity of the catecholaminergic system to habituation appears to be tissue-specific.

  6. Effects of stress on catecholamine stores in central and peripheral tissues of long-term socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronjak S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the peripheral sympatho-adrenomedullary and central catecholaminergic systems are activated by various psycho-social and physical stressors. Catecholamine stores in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, adrenal glands, and heart auricles of long-term socially isolated (21 days and control 3-month-old male Wistar rats, as well as their response to immobilization of all 4 limbs and head fixed for 2 h and cold stress (4ºC, 2 h, were studied. A simultaneous single isotope radioenzymatic assay based on the conversion of catecholamines to the corresponding O-methylated derivatives by catechol-O-methyl-transferase in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-(³H-methyl-methionine was used. The O-methylated derivatives were oxidized to ³H-vanilline and the radioactivity measured. Social isolation produced depletion of hypothalamic norepinephrine (about 18% and hippocampal dopamine (about 20% stores and no changes in peripheral tissues. Immobilization decreased catecholamine stores (approximately 39% in central and peripheral tissues of control animals. However, in socially isolated rats, these reductions were observed only in the hippocampus and peripheral tissues. Cold did not affect hypothalamic catecholamine stores but reduced hippocampal dopamine (about 20% as well as norepinephrine stores in peripheral tissues both in control and socially isolated rats, while epinephrine levels were unchanged. Thus, immobilization was more efficient in reducing catecholamine stores in control and chronically isolated rats compared to cold stress. The differences in rearing conditions appear to influence the response of adult animals to additional stress. In addition, the influence of previous exposure to a stressor on catecholaminergic activity in the brainstem depends on both the particular catecholaminergic area studied and the properties of additional acute stress. Therefore, the sensitivity of the catecholaminergic system to habituation appears to be tissue-specific.

  7. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days.

  8. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems.

  9. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, A; Kuznetsov, D; Kolesnikov, E; Chuprunov, K; Kondakov, S; Osipov, A; Samsonova, J

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems. (paper)

  10. Storing and accessing radioactivity data in environmental samples: the resources of GEORAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tadeu A. de A.; Gonzalez, Sergio de A.; Reis, Rocio G. dos; Vasconcellos, Luiza M. de H. e; Lauria, Dejanira de C., E-mail: tedsilva@ird.gov.br, E-mail: gonzalez@ird.gov.br, E-mail: rocio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: luiza@ird.gov.br, E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br [Isntituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A georeferenced information system of radioactivity in environmental samples, named GEORAD, was created with the goal of aggregating, storing and promoting the preservation of the data produced by Brazilian researches, and sharing with the research community a database on radioactivity in Brazil. The system provides information on concentrations of the natural series, cosmogenic and fall out radionuclides in samples of soil, water and food, among others, along with the geographical location of the samples. By this way, the location of the sample can be visualized on Brazilian map. A spreadsheet containing all the data and information about the sample can be also obtained. As a result, the database system can enable the available data to be exploited to the maximum potential for further research and allows new research on existing information. The system also provides reference information on where the data information were obtained, that enables data citation and linking data with publications to increase visibility and accessibility of data and the research itself. The GEORAD system has been continuously fed and updated, containing, currently, data from more than 2,000 samples. This paper presents the latest system updates and discusses its resources. (author)

  11. Storing and accessing radioactivity data in environmental samples: the resources of GEORAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tadeu A. de A.; Gonzalez, Sergio de A.; Reis, Rocio G. dos; Vasconcellos, Luiza M. de H. e; Lauria, Dejanira de C.

    2013-01-01

    A georeferenced information system of radioactivity in environmental samples, named GEORAD, was created with the goal of aggregating, storing and promoting the preservation of the data produced by Brazilian researches, and sharing with the research community a database on radioactivity in Brazil. The system provides information on concentrations of the natural series, cosmogenic and fall out radionuclides in samples of soil, water and food, among others, along with the geographical location of the samples. By this way, the location of the sample can be visualized on Brazilian map. A spreadsheet containing all the data and information about the sample can be also obtained. As a result, the database system can enable the available data to be exploited to the maximum potential for further research and allows new research on existing information. The system also provides reference information on where the data information were obtained, that enables data citation and linking data with publications to increase visibility and accessibility of data and the research itself. The GEORAD system has been continuously fed and updated, containing, currently, data from more than 2,000 samples. This paper presents the latest system updates and discusses its resources. (author)

  12. New Equipment and Techniques for Remote Sampling of Stored Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste is stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS), part of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This radioactive waste is stored in buried tanks and management of the waste requires several processes, including material addition, heating, cooling, mixing, and transfer from tank to tank. During waste processing, it is necessary to know the chemical components and their characteristics to determine the steps necessary to maintain the waste form or to manipulate the waste into the form desired. Waste characterization begins by obtaining a sample for analysis. High level radioactive waste sampling is routinely done with simple, standard samplers such as a dip sample. Other sampling is non-routine or specialized, with unique, special requirements, such as sampling remote areas that are difficult to reach. Other specialized sampling includes sampling materials with unknown characteristics or material that must be gathered to obtain an adequate sample or materials that must be broken up to sample or forcibly separated from the tank. The samplers described in this paper are specialized samplers. These samplers include the Dip Filter Sampler, Soft Core Sampler, Hard Core Sampler, Circle Scrape Sampler, Small Scrape Sampler, Suction and Strain Sampler, and Vial Snapper Sampler. The Dip Filter Sampler is used to sample floating particulate matter or floating organic matter. The Soft Core Sampler and Hard Core Sampler are used to obtain samples of solids from the tank floor. The Soft Core Sampler is used on soft solids such as sludge and saltcake and the Hard Core Sampler on hardened solid deposits. The Circle Scrape Sampler is used to obtain solid samples through a small entry riser and out from under the riser. The Small Scrape Sampler enters a small entry riser and is used to scrape a sample from the tank wall. The Suction and Strain Sampler is used to gather a remote submerged sample or filter a solid sample from supernate. The Vial Snapper Grab Sampler is

  13. Research on stored biological samples: views of African American and White American cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Rebecca D; Billot, Laurent; Wendler, David

    2006-04-01

    Proposals on consent for research with biological samples should be informed by empirical studies of individuals' views. Studies to date queried mostly white research subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the views of two groups of patients: cancer patients at a university clinic (Winship Cancer Institute at Emory Healthcare) and cancer patients at an inner city county hospital (Grady) who were given the option of tissue banking. Overall, 315/452 (70%) patients completed the survey. The Grady cohort was 86% African American; the Winship cohort was 82% White. The vast majority (95%) of individuals in both cohorts agreed to provide a biological sample for future research. Both cohorts were willing for their samples to be used to study cancer and other diseases, including Alzheimer disease. Few participants preferred to control the disease to be studied (10%) or wished to be contacted again for consent for each future research project (11%). In our sample, almost all clinical patients, regardless of site of care, ethnicity or socioeconomic status, were willing to provide a biological sample for research purposes and allow investigators to determine the research to be done without contacting the patients again. These findings support the recommendation to offer individuals a simplified consent with a one-time binary choice whether to provide biological samples for future research. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis from stored DNA Samples: A multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In low-income countries, rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB drug resistance is often restricted by the difficulties of transporting and storing sputum samples from remote health centers to the reference laboratories where molecular tests are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of four transport and storage systems for molecular detection of rifampicin (RIF and isoniazid (INH resistance. Methods: This was a multicenter study. Molecular detection of RIF and INH resistance was performed directly from smear-positive TB sputa spotted on a slide, FTA card, GenoCard, and ethanol using the Genotype MTBDRplus assay. The performance of the DNA extraction method from each storage support to detect drug resistance was assessed by calculating their sensitivity and specificity compared to the phenotypic method. Results: From all sites, the overall sensitivity and specificity for RIF-resistance detection was 88% and 85%, respectively, for slides, 86% and 92%, respectively, for GenoCard, 87% and 89%, respectively, for FTA card, and 88% and 92%, respectively, for ethanol. For INH-resistance detection, the overall sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 90%, respectively, for slides, 85% and 96%, respectively, for GenoCard, 86% and 92%, respectively, for FTA card, and 86% and 94%, respectively, for ethanol. Conclusion: Smear slides and filter cards showed to be very useful tools to facilitate DNA extraction from sputum samples with the potential to accelerate the detection of drug resistance in remote areas.

  15. Detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis from stored DNA Samples: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabodoarivelo, Marie Sylvianne; Brandao, A; Cergole Novella, M C; C Bombonatte, A G; Imperiale, B; Rakotosamimanana, N; Morcillo, N; Rasolofo, V; Palomino, J C; Martin, A

    2018-01-01

    In low-income countries, rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is often restricted by the difficulties of transporting and storing sputum samples from remote health centers to the reference laboratories where molecular tests are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of four transport and storage systems for molecular detection of rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. This was a multicenter study. Molecular detection of RIF and INH resistance was performed directly from smear-positive TB sputa spotted on a slide, FTA card, GenoCard, and ethanol using the Genotype MTBDRplus assay. The performance of the DNA extraction method from each storage support to detect drug resistance was assessed by calculating their sensitivity and specificity compared to the phenotypic method. From all sites, the overall sensitivity and specificity for RIF-resistance detection was 88% and 85%, respectively, for slides, 86% and 92%, respectively, for GenoCard, 87% and 89%, respectively, for FTA card, and 88% and 92%, respectively, for ethanol. For INH-resistance detection, the overall sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 90%, respectively, for slides, 85% and 96%, respectively, for GenoCard, 86% and 92%, respectively, for FTA card, and 86% and 94%, respectively, for ethanol. Smear slides and filter cards showed to be very useful tools to facilitate DNA extraction from sputum samples with the potential to accelerate the detection of drug resistance in remote areas.

  16. Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Kastaniegaard, Kenneth; Padurariu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Large biobanks exist worldwide containing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and samples stored in RNAlater. However, the impact of tissue preservation on the result of a quantative proteome analysis remains poorly described.Human colon mucosal biopsies were extracted from the sigmoideum...

  17. Whole blood samples for adrenocorticotrophic hormone measurement can be stored at room temperature for 4 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Madsen, Rikke Fogt; Møller, Line Rosengreen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA-blood sa......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA......-blood samples from 30 patients were collected, aliquoted and stored on ice or at room temperature for 0, 2, 4, 24, or 48 h before centrifugation, and the plasma was stored frozen until analysis. All samples were analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on cobas 6000 e601. The change...

  18. High-throughput simultaneous analysis of RNA, protein, and lipid biomarkers in heterogeneous tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Vladimír; Smith, Ryan C; Xue, Jiyan; Kurtz, Marc M; Liu, Rong; Legrand, Cheryl; He, Xuanmin; Yu, Xiang; Wong, Peggy; Hinchcliffe, John S; Tanen, Michael R; Lazar, Gloria; Zieba, Renata; Ichetovkin, Marina; Chen, Zhu; O'Neill, Edward A; Tanaka, Wesley K; Marton, Matthew J; Liao, Jason; Morris, Mark; Hailman, Eric; Tokiwa, George Y; Plump, Andrew S

    2011-11-01

    With expanding biomarker discovery efforts and increasing costs of drug development, it is critical to maximize the value of mass-limited clinical samples. The main limitation of available methods is the inability to isolate and analyze, from a single sample, molecules requiring incompatible extraction methods. Thus, we developed a novel semiautomated method for tissue processing and tissue milling and division (TMAD). We used a SilverHawk atherectomy catheter to collect atherosclerotic plaques from patients requiring peripheral atherectomy. Tissue preservation by flash freezing was compared with immersion in RNAlater®, and tissue grinding by traditional mortar and pestle was compared with TMAD. Comparators were protein, RNA, and lipid yield and quality. Reproducibility of analyte yield from aliquots of the same tissue sample processed by TMAD was also measured. The quantity and quality of biomarkers extracted from tissue prepared by TMAD was at least as good as that extracted from tissue stored and prepared by traditional means. TMAD enabled parallel analysis of gene expression (quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, microarray), protein composition (ELISA), and lipid content (biochemical assay) from as little as 20 mg of tissue. The mean correlation was r = 0.97 in molecular composition (RNA, protein, or lipid) between aliquots of individual samples generated by TMAD. We also demonstrated that it is feasible to use TMAD in a large-scale clinical study setting. The TMAD methodology described here enables semiautomated, high-throughput sampling of small amounts of heterogeneous tissue specimens by multiple analytical techniques with generally improved quality of recovered biomolecules.

  19. Technical note: Alternatives to reduce adipose tissue sampling bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G D; Wang, Y; Fadel, J G

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which nutritional and pharmaceutical factors can manipulate adipose tissue growth and development in production animals has direct and indirect effects in the profitability of an enterprise. Adipocyte cellularity (number and size) is a key biological response that is commonly measured in animal science research. The variability and sampling of adipocyte cellularity within a muscle has been addressed in previous studies, but no attempt to critically investigate these issues has been proposed in the literature. The present study evaluated 2 sampling techniques (random and systematic) in an attempt to minimize sampling bias and to determine the minimum number of samples from 1 to 15 needed to represent the overall adipose tissue in the muscle. Both sampling procedures were applied on adipose tissue samples dissected from 30 longissimus muscles from cattle finished either on grass or grain. Briefly, adipose tissue samples were fixed with osmium tetroxide, and size and number of adipocytes were determined by a Coulter Counter. These results were then fit in a finite mixture model to obtain distribution parameters of each sample. To evaluate the benefits of increasing number of samples and the advantage of the new sampling technique, the concept of acceptance ratio was used; simply stated, the higher the acceptance ratio, the better the representation of the overall population. As expected, a great improvement on the estimation of the overall adipocyte cellularity parameters was observed using both sampling techniques when sample size number increased from 1 to 15 samples, considering both techniques' acceptance ratio increased from approximately 3 to 25%. When comparing sampling techniques, the systematic procedure slightly improved parameters estimation. The results suggest that more detailed research using other sampling techniques may provide better estimates for minimum sampling.

  20. Preservation and rapid purification of DNA from decomposing human tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Amy; Rahman, Elizabeth; Canela, Cassandra; Gangitano, David; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree

    2016-11-01

    One of the key features to be considered in a mass disaster is victim identification. However, the recovery and identification of human remains are sometimes complicated by harsh environmental conditions, limited facilities, loss of electricity and lack of refrigeration. If human remains cannot be collected, stored, or identified immediately, bodies decompose and DNA degrades making genotyping more difficult and ultimately decreasing DNA profiling success. In order to prevent further DNA damage and degradation after collection, tissue preservatives may be used. The goal of this study was to evaluate three customized (modified TENT, DESS, LST) and two commercial DNA preservatives (RNAlater and DNAgard ® ) on fresh and decomposed human skin and muscle samples stored in hot (35°C) and humid (60-70% relative humidity) conditions for up to three months. Skin and muscle samples were harvested from the thigh of three human cadavers placed outdoors for up to two weeks. In addition, the possibility of purifying DNA directly from the preservative solutions ("free DNA") was investigated in order to eliminate lengthy tissue digestion processes and increase throughput. The efficiency of each preservative was evaluated based on the quantity of DNA recovered from both the "free DNA" in solution and the tissue sample itself in conjunction with the quality and completeness of downstream STR profiles. As expected, DNA quantity and STR success decreased with time of decomposition. However, a marked decrease in DNA quantity and STR quality was observed in all samples after the bodies entered the bloat stage (approximately six days of decomposition in this study). Similar amounts of DNA were retrieved from skin and muscle samples over time, but slightly more complete STR profiles were obtained from muscle tissue. Although higher amounts of DNA were recovered from tissue samples than from the surrounding preservative, the average number of reportable alleles from the "free DNA" was

  1. Analysis of chemical components from plant tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Information is given on the type and concentration of sterols, free fatty acids, and total fatty acids in plant tissue samples. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combination. In each case the mass spectral data was accumulated as a computer printout and plot. Typical gas chromatograms are included as well as tables describing test results.

  2. Techniques for the detection of pathogenic Cryptococcus species in wood decay substrata and the evaluation of viability in stored samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Alvarez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated several techniques for the detection of the yeast form of Cryptococcus in decaying wood and measured the viability of these fungi in environmental samples stored in the laboratory. Samples were collected from a tree known to be positive for Cryptococcus and were each inoculated on 10 Niger seed agar (NSA plates. The conventional technique (CT yielded a greater number of positive samples and indicated a higher fungal density [in colony forming units per gram of wood (CFU.g-1] compared to the humid swab technique (ST. However, the difference in positive and false negative results between the CT-ST was not significant. The threshold of detection for the CT was 0.05.10³ CFU.g-1, while the threshold for the ST was greater than 0.1.10³ CFU-1. No colonies were recovered using the dry swab technique. We also determined the viability of Cryptococcus in wood samples stored for 45 days at 25ºC using the CT and ST and found that samples not only continued to yield a positive response, but also exhibited an increase in CFU.g-1, suggesting that Cryptococcus is able to grow in stored environmental samples. The ST.1, in which samples collected with swabs were immediately plated on NSA medium, was more efficient and less laborious than either the CT or ST and required approximately 10 min to perform; however, additional studies are needed to validate this technique.

  3. In-air micro-pixe analysis of tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, A.; Ishii, K.; Komori, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Micro-PIXE is capable of providing spatial distributions of elements in the micro-meter scale and its application to biology is useful to elucidate the cellular metabolism. Since, in this method, a sample target is usually irradiated with proton or α-particle beams in vacuum, beam heating results in evaporation of volatile elements an shrinking of the sample. In order to avoid these side effects, we previously developed a technique of in-air micro-PIXE analysis for samples of cultured cells. In addition to these, analysis of exposed tissue samples from living subjects is highly desirable in biological and medical research. Here, we describe a technique of in-air micro-PIXE analysis of such tissue samples. The target samples of exposed tissue slices from a Donryu rat, in which a tumor had been transplanted, were analyzed with proton micro-beams of 2.6 MeV. We report that the shape of cells and the distribution of volatile elements in the tissue sample remain uncharged when using a target preparation based on a freeze-drying method. (author)

  4. Preparation of tissue samples for X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwiej, Joanna; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena; Lankosz, Marek; Wojcik, Slawomir; Falkenberg, Gerald; Stegowski, Zdzislaw; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2005-01-01

    As is well-known, trace elements, especially metals, play an important role in the pathogenesis of many disorders. The topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of pathologically changed tissues may shed some new light on processes leading to the degeneration of cells in the case of selected diseases. An ideal and powerful tool for such purpose is the Synchrotron Microbeam X-ray Fluorescence technique. It enables the carrying out of investigations of the elemental composition of tissues even at the single cell level. The tissue samples for histopathological investigations are routinely fixed and embedded in paraffin. The authors try to verify the usefulness of such prepared tissue sections for elemental analysis with the use of X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Studies were performed on rat brain samples. Changes in elemental composition caused by fixation in formalin or paraformaldehyde and embedding in paraffin were examined. Measurements were carried out at the bending magnet beamline L of the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB in Hamburg. The decrease in mass per unit area of K, Br and the increase in P, S, Fe, Cu and Zn in the tissue were observed as a result of the fixation. For the samples embedded in paraffin, a lower level of most elements was observed. Additionally, for these samples, changes in the composition of some elements were not uniform for different analyzed areas of rat brain

  5. Preparation of tissue samples for X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwiej, Joanna [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: jchwiej@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Lankosz, Marek [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Wojcik, Slawomir [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Falkenberg, Gerald [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestr. 85, Hamburg (Germany); Stegowski, Zdzislaw [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Setkowicz, Zuzanna [Department of Neuroanatomy, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-12-15

    As is well-known, trace elements, especially metals, play an important role in the pathogenesis of many disorders. The topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of pathologically changed tissues may shed some new light on processes leading to the degeneration of cells in the case of selected diseases. An ideal and powerful tool for such purpose is the Synchrotron Microbeam X-ray Fluorescence technique. It enables the carrying out of investigations of the elemental composition of tissues even at the single cell level. The tissue samples for histopathological investigations are routinely fixed and embedded in paraffin. The authors try to verify the usefulness of such prepared tissue sections for elemental analysis with the use of X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Studies were performed on rat brain samples. Changes in elemental composition caused by fixation in formalin or paraformaldehyde and embedding in paraffin were examined. Measurements were carried out at the bending magnet beamline L of the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB in Hamburg. The decrease in mass per unit area of K, Br and the increase in P, S, Fe, Cu and Zn in the tissue were observed as a result of the fixation. For the samples embedded in paraffin, a lower level of most elements was observed. Additionally, for these samples, changes in the composition of some elements were not uniform for different analyzed areas of rat brain.

  6. Typeability of PowerPlex Y (Promega) profiles in selected tissue samples incubated in various environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Pepiński, Witold; Janica, Jacek Robert; Janica, Jerzy; Skawrońska, Małgorzata; Koc-Zórawska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    In cases of decomposed bodies, Y chromosomal STR markers may be useful in identification of a male relative. The authors assessed typeability of PowerPlex Y (Promega) loci in post mortem tissue material stored in various environments. Kidney, spleen and pancreas specimens were collected during autopsies of five persons aged 20-30 years, whose time of death was determined within the limit of 14 hours. Tissue material was incubated at 21 degrees C and 4 degrees C in various environmental conditions. DNA was extracted by the organic method from tissue samples collected in 7-day intervals and subsequently typed using the PowerPlexY-STR kit and ABI 310. A fast decrease in the typeability rate was seen in specimens incubated in peat soil and in sand. Kidney tissue samples were typeable in all PowerPlexY-STR loci within 63 days of incubation at 4 degrees C. Faster DNA degradation was recorded in spleen and pancreas specimens. In samples with negative genotyping results, no DNA was found by fluorometric quantitation. Decomposed soft tissues are a potential material for DNA typing.

  7. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeković Tomislav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.

  8. USAXS and SAXS from cancer-bearing breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.; Suhonen, H.; Keyrilaeinen, J.; Bravin, A.; Fiedler, S.; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, M.-L.; Leidenius, M.; Smitten, K. von; Suortti, P.

    2008-01-01

    USAXS and SAXS patterns from cancer-bearing human breast tissue samples were recorded at beamline ID02 of the ESRF using a Bonse-Hart camera and a pinhole camera. The samples were classified as being ductal carcinoma, grade II, and ductal carcinoma in situ, partly invasive. The samples included areas of healthy collagen, invaded collagen, necrotic ducts with calcifications, and adipose tissue. The scattering patterns were analyzed in different ways to separate the scattering contribution and the direct beam from the observed rocking curve (RC) of the analyzer. It was found that USAXS from all tissues was weak, and the effects on the analyzer RC were observed only in the low-intensity tails of the patterns. The intrinsic RC was convolved with different model functions for the impulse response of the sample, and the best fit with experiment was obtained by the Pearson VII function. Significantly different distributions for the Pearson exponent m were obtained in benign and malignant regions of the samples. For a comparison with analyzer-based imaging (ABI) or diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) a 'long-slit' integration of the patterns was performed, and this emphasized the scattering contribution in the tails of the rocking curve

  9. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  10. Sampling Strategies and Processing of Biobank Tissue Samples from Porcine Biomedical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutke, Andreas; Wanke, Rüdiger

    2018-03-06

    In translational medical research, porcine models have steadily become more popular. Considering the high value of individual animals, particularly of genetically modified pig models, and the often-limited number of available animals of these models, establishment of (biobank) collections of adequately processed tissue samples suited for a broad spectrum of subsequent analyses methods, including analyses not specified at the time point of sampling, represent meaningful approaches to take full advantage of the translational value of the model. With respect to the peculiarities of porcine anatomy, comprehensive guidelines have recently been established for standardized generation of representative, high-quality samples from different porcine organs and tissues. These guidelines are essential prerequisites for the reproducibility of results and their comparability between different studies and investigators. The recording of basic data, such as organ weights and volumes, the determination of the sampling locations and of the numbers of tissue samples to be generated, as well as their orientation, size, processing and trimming directions, are relevant factors determining the generalizability and usability of the specimen for molecular, qualitative, and quantitative morphological analyses. Here, an illustrative, practical, step-by-step demonstration of the most important techniques for generation of representative, multi-purpose biobank specimen from porcine tissues is presented. The methods described here include determination of organ/tissue volumes and densities, the application of a volume-weighted systematic random sampling procedure for parenchymal organs by point-counting, determination of the extent of tissue shrinkage related to histological embedding of samples, and generation of randomly oriented samples for quantitative stereological analyses, such as isotropic uniform random (IUR) sections generated by the "Orientator" and "Isector" methods, and vertical

  11. Collecting and Storing Blood and Brain Tumor Tissue Samples From Children With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  12. Reproducibility of Serum Potassium Values in Serum From Blood Samples Stored for Increasing Times Prior to Centrifugation and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Aaron; Lu, Chuanyong; Sun, Yi; Garcia, Rafael; Rets, Anton; Alexis, Herol; Saad, Heba; Eid, Ikram; Harris, Loretta; Marshall, Barbara; Tafani, Edlira; Pincus, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this work was to determine if immediate versus postponed centrifugation of samples affects the levels of serum potassium. Twenty participants donated normal venous blood that was collected in four serum separator tubes per donor, each of which was analyzed at 0, 1, 2, or 4 hr on the Siemens Advia 1800 autoanalyzer. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for potassium levels ranged from 0% to 7.6% with a mean of 3 ± 2%. ANOVA testing of the means for all 20 samples showed a P-value of 0.72 (>0.05) indicating that there was no statistically significant difference between the means of the samples at the four time points. Sixteen samples were found to have CVs that were ≤5%. Two samples showed increases of potassium from the reference range to levels higher than the upper reference limit, one of which had a 4-hr value that was within the reference or normal range (3.5-5 mEq/l). Overall, most samples were found to have reproducible levels of serum potassium. Serum potassium levels from stored whole blood collected in serum separator tubes are, for the most part, stable at room temperature for at least 4 hr prior to analysis. However, some samples can exhibit significant fluctuations of values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Localized pulmonary crystal-storing histiocytosis complicating pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting with multiple mass lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokuho, Nariaki; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Kunugi, Shinobu; Onda, Naomi; Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Terasaki, Mika; Hino, Mitsunori; Gemma, Akihiko; Hatori, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Akira

    2017-07-01

    Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) is an uncommon finding in lymphoplasmacytic disorders that presents histiocytes with abnormal intralysosomal accumulations of immunoglobulin light chains as crystals of unknown etiology. A 38-year-old woman with antiphospholipid syndrome had a surgical lung biopsy because of multiple lung mass lesions. In a right middle lobe lesion, lymphoplasmacytic cells had a monocytoid appearance, destructive lymphoepithelial lesions, and positive immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements. A right upper lobe lesion manifested proliferating rounded histiocytes with abundant, deeply eosinophilic cytoplasm and negative IGH gene rearrangements. Electron microscopy and mass spectrometry revealed a case of pulmonary CSH: abnormal proliferation of the immunoglobulin κ chain of a variable region that may be crystallized within plasma cells and histiocytes. We report a rare case of localized pulmonary CSH complicating pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with multiple mass lesions. We demonstrate advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of CSH by various analyses of these lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex identification of polar bears from blood and tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Garner, G.W.; Cronin, M.A.; Patton, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be adversely affected by hunting and other human perturbations because of low population densities and low reproduction rates. The sustainable take of adult females may be as low as 1.5% of the population. Females and accompanying young are most vulnerable to hunting, and hunters have not consistently reported the sex composition of the harvest, therefore a method to confirm the sexes of polar bears harvested in Alaska is needed. Evidence of the sex of harvested animals is often not available, but blood or other tissue samples often are. We extracted DNA from tissue and blood samples, and amplified segments of zinc finger (ZFX and ZFY) genes from both X and Y chromosomes with the polymerase chain reaction. Digestion of amplified portions of the X chromosome with the restriction enzyme HaeIII resulted in subdivision of the original amplified segment into four smaller fragments. Digestion with HaeIII did not subdivide the original segment amplified from the Y chromosome. The differing fragment sizes produced patterns in gel electrophoresis that distinguished samples from male and female bears 100% of the time. This technique is applicable to the investigation of many wildlife management and research questions.

  15. Oxidant-antioxidant status in tissue samples of oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Chandan Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including oral cancer. Majority of oral cancer are preceded by a well-recognized group of pre-malignant lesions. However, only a small fraction of those lesions, undergo malignant transformation. Hence, there is a great need to identify biological markers, which will assist in identifying lesion carrying high-risk. This study aims to evaluate and compare the status of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in tissue samples of patients with various clinicopathological stages of oral pre-malignancy. Materials and Methods: A case control study consisting of 20 new histopathologically proven leukoplakia patients and equal number of age, sex, and habit matched healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Their tissue samples were subjected to evaluation of lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The statistical comparisons were performed by independent Student′s unpaired t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Pearson′s correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed. P- value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001 SOD and CAT (P < 0.001 was observed in the tissue of leukoplakia patients as compared to the healthy controls. On the other hand, GSH and GPx were significantly increased in tumor samples. Conclusion: Reduced lipid peroxidation and increased activity of GSH and GPx provides the suitable environment for the tumor growth and malignant transformation in the later

  16. Theory of sampling and its application in tissue based diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Gian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A general theory of sampling and its application in tissue based diagnosis is presented. Sampling is defined as extraction of information from certain limited spaces and its transformation into a statement or measure that is valid for the entire (reference space. The procedure should be reproducible in time and space, i.e. give the same results when applied under similar circumstances. Sampling includes two different aspects, the procedure of sample selection and the efficiency of its performance. The practical performance of sample selection focuses on search for localization of specific compartments within the basic space, and search for presence of specific compartments. Methods When a sampling procedure is applied in diagnostic processes two different procedures can be distinguished: I the evaluation of a diagnostic significance of a certain object, which is the probability that the object can be grouped into a certain diagnosis, and II the probability to detect these basic units. Sampling can be performed without or with external knowledge, such as size of searched objects, neighbourhood conditions, spatial distribution of objects, etc. If the sample size is much larger than the object size, the application of a translation invariant transformation results in Kriege's formula, which is widely used in search for ores. Usually, sampling is performed in a series of area (space selections of identical size. The size can be defined in relation to the reference space or according to interspatial relationship. The first method is called random sampling, the second stratified sampling. Results Random sampling does not require knowledge about the reference space, and is used to estimate the number and size of objects. Estimated features include area (volume fraction, numerical, boundary and surface densities. Stratified sampling requires the knowledge of objects (and their features and evaluates spatial features in relation to

  17. Multi-decadal survival of an Antarctic nematode, Plectus murrayi, in a -20°C stored moss sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoshima, H; Kito, K; Aizu, T; Shin-i, T; Kanda, H; Kobayashi, S; Toyoda, A; Fujiyama, A; Kohara, Y; Convey, P; Niki, H

    2012-01-01

    It is not clear for how long Antarctic soil nematodes might tolerate freezing. Samples of the Antarctic moss, Bryum argenteum, were collected on 1 October 1983 at Langhovde, Soya coast, eastern Antarctica and were stored at -20°C. After 25.5 years of storage, living nematodes were recovered from the samples and were identified as Plectus murrayi by morphological examination and nucleotide sequencing of ribosomal RNA loci. The nematodes can grow and reproduce in a water agar plate with bacteria (mainly Pseudomonas sp.) cultured from the moss extract. They showed freezing tolerance at -20°C and -80°C and their survival rate after exposure to -20°C, but not -80°C, was increased if they were initially frozen slowly at a high sub-zero temperature. They also showed some ability to tolerate desiccation stress.

  18. Existing and emerging technologies for measuring stable isotope labelled retinol in biological samples: isotope dilution analysis of body retinol stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the recent improvements in instrumentation used for stable isotope tracer measurements in the context of measuring retinol stores, in vivo. Tracer costs, together with concerns that larger tracer doses may perturb the parameter under study, demand that ever more sensitive mass spectrometric techniques are developed. GCMS is the most widely used technique. It has high sensitivity in terms of sample amount and uses high resolution GC, yet its ability to detect low isotope ratios is limited by background noise. LCMSMS may become more accessible for tracer studies. Its ability to measure low level stable isotope tracers may prove superior to GCMS, but it is isotope ratio MS (IRMS) that has been designed specifically for low level stable isotope analysis through accurate analysis of tracer:tracee ratios (the tracee being the unlabelled species). Compound-specific isotope analysis, where GC is interfaced to IRMS, is gaining popularity. Here, individual 13C-labelled compounds are separated by GC, combusted to CO2 and transferred on-line for ratiometric analysis by IRMS at the ppm level. However, commercially-available 13C-labelled retinol tracers are 2 - 4 times more expensive than deuterated tracers. For 2H-labelled compounds, GC-pyrolysis-IRMS has now become more generally available as an operating mode on the same IRMS instrument. Here, individual compounds are separated by GC and pyrolysed to H2 at high temperature for analysis by IRMS. It is predicted that GC-pyrolysis-IRMS will facilitate low level tracer procedures to measure body retinol stores, as has been accomplished in the case of fatty acids and amino acids. Sample size requirements for GC-P-IRMS may exceed those of GCMS, but this paper discusses sample preparation procedures and predicts improvements, particularly in the efficiency of sample introduction.

  19. Effect of soil and water environment on typeability of PowerPlex Y (Promega) in selected tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Pepinski, Witold; Janica, Jacek Robert; Skawronska, Malgorzata; Janica, Jerzy; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Stolyszewski, Ireneusz

    2007-01-01

    In cases of decomposed bodies Y chromosomal STR markers may be useful in identification of a male relative. The authors assessed typeability PowerPlex Y (Promega) loci in tissue material stored in water and soil environment. Tissue material was collected during autopsies of five persons aged 20-30 years with time of death determined within the limit of 14 hours. Heart muscle, liver and lung specimens were stored in pond water, sea water, sand and peat soil. DNA was extracted by organic method from tissue samples collected in 7-day intervals. Liver specimens were typeable in all PowerPlex Y loci within 100 days of storage in pond water with gradual decline at DYS392 in sea water. Heart muscle specimens stored in pond water exhibited allelic loss at DYS19, DYS385, DYS389II and DYS392, while all loci were typeable in sea water stored samples. For lung specimens allelic loss was noted throughout the profile. Storage of liver specimens in peat soil for more than 14 days resulted in allelic drop-out, and after 21 days no profiles were typeable. Heart muscle specimens were typeable in all PowerPlex Y systems after 35-day storage in sand, while allelic drop-out and subsequent lack of profiles were noted after 14 and 35 days respectively. Lung specimens stored in garden soil exhibited allelic drop-out and subsequent lack of profiles after 7 and 21 days, respectively. All PowerPlex Y loci were typeable in the latter material in sand up to day 35 with gradual decline of longer amplicons (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389II and DYS392).

  20. Effect of soil and water environment on typeability of PowerPlex Y (Promega in selected tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Koc-Zorawska

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In cases of decomposed bodies Y chromosomal STR markers may be useful in identification of a male relative. The authors assessed typeability PowerPlex Y (Promega loci in tissue material stored in water and soil environment. Tissue material was collected during autopsies of five persons aged 20-30 years with time of death determined within the limit of 14 hours. Heart muscle, liver and lung specimens were stored in pond water, sea water, sand and peat soil. DNA was extracted by organic method from tissue samples collected in 7-day intervals. Liver specimens were typeable in all PowerPlex Y loci within 100 days of storage in pond water with gradual decline at DYS392 in sea water. Heart muscle specimens stored in pond water exhibited allelic loss at DYS19, DYS385, DYS389II and DYS392, while all loci were typeable in sea water stored samples. For lung specimens allelic loss was noted throughout the profile. Storage of liver specimens in peat soil for more than 14 days resulted in allelic drop-out, and after 21 days no profiles were typeable. Heart muscle specimens were typeable in all PowerPlex Y systems after 35-day storage in sand, while allelic drop-out and subsequent lack of profiles were noted after 14 and 35 days respectively. Lung specimens stored in garden soil exhibited allelic drop-out and subsequent lack of profiles after 7 and 21 days, respectively. All PowerPlex Y loci were typeable in the latter material in sand up to day 35 with gradual decline of longer amplicons (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389II and DYS392.

  1. Radionuclides in animal tissue samples from various regions of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatzber, F.

    1981-06-01

    An investigation of the concentration of radioactive substances in animal species from various regions of Austria has been carried out. For bone and liver of deer, radionuclide concentrations typical for central Europe were found. The content of 90 Sr were higher in gasteropod shells than in deer bone. Similar concentrations of 90 Sr were found in isopods as in snail shells related to fresh weight, but related to Ca content the values in isopods were higher than in all other animals. Based on these results, a study of snail shells and of isopods as bioindicators for 90 Sr content in environmental control is indicated. In tissue samples of the same species, but from different regions of Austria, the fallout radionuclide concentrations were found to be related to altitude ( 90 Sr) and to the amount of precipitation ( 137 Cs). These correlation differences could point to a different deposition behaviours of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, the former being deposited mainly with solid precipitation. This seems plausible since aerosols carried over continental distances show a high sulfate content and alkaline earth metal sulfates are less soluble than alkali sulfates. Examination of absolute concentration values related to fresh tissue weight show high fallout radionuclide concentrations, as compared to natural radionuclide concentration, especially in hard tissues. These fallout levels constitute a significant radioactive load on the biosphere. Due to the long physical half-life of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, this situation will remain virtually unchanged during the next decades, even if no further nuclear weapons tests are carried out. (G.G.)

  2. Sample preparation procedure for PIXE elemental analysis on soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubica, B.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Lekka, M.

    1997-01-01

    Trace element analysis is one of the most important field in analytical chemistry. There are several instrumental techniques which are applied for determinations of microscopic elemental content. The PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique is one of the nuclear techniques that is commonly applied for such purpose due to its multielemental analysis possibilities. The aim of this study was to establish the optimal conditions for target preparation procedure. In this paper two different approaches to the topic are presented and widely discussed. The first approach was the traditional pellet technique and the second one was mineralization procedure. For the analysis soft tissue such as liver was used. Some results are also presented on water samples. (author)

  3. Measurement of phthalates in small samples of mammalian tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acott, P.D.; Murphy, M.G.; Ogborn, M.R.; Crocker, J.F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is a phthalic acid ester that is used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products, many of which have widespread medical application. DEHP has been shown to be leached from products used for storage and delivery of blood transfusions during procedures such as plasmaphoresis, hemodialysis and open heart surgery. Results of studies in this laboratory have suggested that there is an association between the absorption and deposition of DEHP (and/or related chemicals) in the kidney and the acquired renal cystic disease (ACD) frequently seen in patients who have undergone prolonged dialysis treatment. In order to determine the relationship between the two, it has been necessary to establish a method for extracting and accurately quantitating minute amounts of these chemicals in small tissue samples. The authors have now established such a method using kidneys from normal rats and from a rat model for ACD

  4. Comparison of blood RNA isolation methods from samples stabilized in Tempus tubes and stored at a large human biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarem, Jeanette; Brunborg, Gunnar; Aas, Kaja K; Harbak, Kari; Taipale, Miia M; Magnus, Per; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Duale, Nur

    2016-09-01

    More than 50,000 adult and cord blood samples were collected in Tempus tubes and stored at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Biobank for future use. In this study, we systematically evaluated and compared five blood-RNA isolation protocols: three blood-RNA isolation protocols optimized for simultaneous isolation of all blood-RNA species (MagMAX RNA Isolation Kit, both manual and semi-automated protocols; and Norgen Preserved Blood RNA kit I); and two protocols optimized for large RNAs only (Tempus Spin RNA, and Tempus 6-port isolation kit). We estimated the following parameters: RNA quality, RNA yield, processing time, cost per sample, and RNA transcript stability of six selected mRNAs and 13 miRNAs using real-time qPCR. Whole blood samples from adults (n = 59 tubes) and umbilical cord blood (n = 18 tubes) samples collected in Tempus tubes were analyzed. High-quality blood-RNAs with average RIN-values above seven were extracted using all five RNA isolation protocols. The transcript levels of the six selected genes showed minimal variation between the five protocols. Unexplained differences within the transcript levels of the 13 miRNA were observed; however, the 13 miRNAs had similar expression direction and they were within the same order of magnitude. Some differences in the RNA processing time and cost were noted. Sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA were obtained using all five protocols, and the Tempus blood RNA system therefore seems not to be dependent on one specific RNA isolation method.

  5. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (pblood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of

  6. Versatile electrochemial sensor for tissue culturing and sample handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Kwasny, Dorota; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa

    2014-01-01

    Culturing of organtypic brain tissues is a routine procedure in neural research. The visual inspection of the medium is the only way of determining the state of the tissue. At the end of culturing, post-processing techniques such as HPLC can be used to measure the concentration of the secreted...

  7. The Japanese Society of Pathology Guidelines on the handling of pathological tissue samples for genomic research: Standard operating procedures based on empirical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yae; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Yohei; Tsuruyama, Tatsuhiro; Taguchi, Kenichi; Katoh, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoyo; Gotoh, Masahiro; Kuramoto, Junko; Arai, Eri; Ojima, Hidenori; Shibuya, Ayako; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Akahane, Toshiaki; Kasajima, Rika; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Inazawa, Johji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Fukayama, Masashi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2018-02-01

    Genome research using appropriately collected pathological tissue samples is expected to yield breakthroughs in the development of biomarkers and identification of therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancers. In this connection, the Japanese Society of Pathology (JSP) has developed "The JSP Guidelines on the Handling of Pathological Tissue Samples for Genomic Research" based on an abundance of data from empirical analyses of tissue samples collected and stored under various conditions. Tissue samples should be collected from appropriate sites within surgically resected specimens, without disturbing the features on which pathological diagnosis is based, while avoiding bleeding or necrotic foci. They should be collected as soon as possible after resection: at the latest within about 3 h of storage at 4°C. Preferably, snap-frozen samples should be stored in liquid nitrogen (about -180°C) until use. When intending to use genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, 10% neutral buffered formalin should be used. Insufficient fixation and overfixation must both be avoided. We hope that pathologists, clinicians, clinical laboratory technicians and biobank operators will come to master the handling of pathological tissue samples based on the standard operating procedures in these Guidelines to yield results that will assist in the realization of genomic medicine. © 2018 The Authors. Pathology International published by Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Detection of EGFR and KRAS mutations in fine-needle aspirates stored on Whatman FTA cards: is this the tool for biobanking cytological samples in the molecular era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Santos, Gilda; Liu, Ni; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Chin, Kayu; Geddie, William R

    2010-12-25

    The aims of this study were to compare the quality of DNA recovered from fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) stored on Whatman FTA cards with that retrieved from corresponding cell blocks and to determine whether the DNA extracted from the cards is suitable for multiple mutation analyses. FNAs collected from 18 resected lung tumors and cell suspensions from 4 lung cancer cell lines were placed on FTA Indicating Micro Cards and further processed to produce paired formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cell blocks. Fragment analysis was used for the detection of EGFR exon 19 deletion, and direct sequencing for detection of EGFR exon 21 L858R mutation and exon 2 deletion of KRAS. Corresponding FFPE tissue sections from 2 resection specimens were also tested. Analyses were successful with all FNAs and lung cancer-derived cell lines collected on cards. Polymerase chain reaction failed in 2 cell blocks. For FNAs collected on cards, 5 cases showed EGFR and 3 showed KRAS mutations. Eleven cases were wild type. With cell blocks, 4 cases were found to harbor KRAS and 4 harbored EGFR mutations. All lung cancer-derived cell lines tested positive for their respective mutations, and there was complete agreement between card and cell block FNA samples for EGFR exon 21. For EGFR exon 19, 1 of 18 cases showed discordant results between the card and cell block, and for KRAS 1 of 17. The two resection specimens tested gave concordant results with the FTA card. Storage of cytologic material on FTA cards can maximize and simplify sample procurement for multiple mutational analyses with results similar to those from cell blocks.

  9. RAPID PROCESSING OF ARCHIVAL TISSUE SAMPLES FOR PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS USING PRESSURE-CYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuth N. Puttamallesh1,2

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advent of mass spectrometry based proteomics has revolutionized our ability to study proteins from biological specimen in a high-throughput manner. Unlike cell line based studies, biomedical research involving tissue specimen is often challenging due to limited sample availability. In addition, investigation of clinically relevant research questions often requires enormous amount of time for sample collection prospectively. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE archived tissue samples are a rich source of tissue specimen for biomedical research. However, there are several challenges associated with analysing FFPE samples. Protein cross-linking and degradation of proteins particularly affects proteomic analysis. We demonstrate that barocycler that uses pressure-cycling technology enables efficient protein extraction and processing of small amounts of FFPE tissue samples for proteomic analysis. We identified 3,525 proteins from six 10µm esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC tissue sections. Barocycler allows efficient protein extraction and proteolytic digestion of proteins from FFPE tissue sections at par with conventional methods.

  10. GeLC-MS: A Sample Preparation Method for Proteomics Analysis of Minimal Amount of Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makridakis, Manousos; Vlahou, Antonia

    2017-10-10

    Application of various proteomics methodologies have been implemented for the global and targeted proteome analysis of many different types of biological samples such as tissue, urine, plasma, serum, blood, and cell lines. Among the aforementioned biological samples, tissue has an exceptional role into clinical research and practice. Disease initiation and progression is usually located at the tissue level of different organs, making the analysis of this material very important for the understanding of the disease pathophysiology. Despite the significant advances in the mass spectrometry instrumentation, tissue proteomics still faces several challenges mainly due to increased sample complexity and heterogeneity. However, the most prominent challenge is attributed to the invasive procedure of tissue sampling which restricts the availability of fresh frozen tissue to minimal amounts and limited number of samples. Application of GeLC-MS sample preparation protocol for tissue proteomics analysis can greatly facilitate making up for these difficulties. In this chapter, a step by step guide for the proteomics analysis of minute amounts of tissue samples using the GeLC-MS sample preparation protocol, as applied by our group in the analysis of multiple different types of tissues (vessels, kidney, bladder, prostate, heart) is provided.

  11. Final LDRD report : development of sample preparation methods for ChIPMA-based imaging mass spectrometry of tissue samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this short-term LDRD project was to acquire the tools needed to use our chemical imaging precision mass analyzer (ChIPMA) instrument to analyze tissue samples. This effort was an outgrowth of discussions with oncologists on the need to find the cellular origin of signals in mass spectra of serum samples, which provide biomarkers for ovarian cancer. The ultimate goal would be to collect chemical images of biopsy samples allowing the chemical images of diseased and nondiseased sections of a sample to be compared. The equipment needed to prepare tissue samples have been acquired and built. This equipment includes an cyro-ultramicrotome for preparing thin sections of samples and a coating unit. The coating unit uses an electrospray system to deposit small droplets of a UV-photo absorbing compound on the surface of the tissue samples. Both units are operational. The tissue sample must be coated with the organic compound to enable matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and matrix enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) measurements with the ChIPMA instrument Initial plans to test the sample preparation using human tissue samples required development of administrative procedures beyond the scope of this LDRD. Hence, it was decided to make two types of measurements: (1) Testing the spatial resolution of ME-SIMS by preparing a substrate coated with a mixture of an organic matrix and a bio standard and etching a defined pattern in the coating using a liquid metal ion beam, and (2) preparing and imaging C. elegans worms. Difficulties arose in sectioning the C. elegans for analysis and funds and time to overcome these difficulties were not available in this project. The facilities are now available for preparing biological samples for analysis with the ChIPMA instrument. Some further investment of time and resources in sample preparation should make this a useful tool for chemical imaging applications.

  12. Support vector machine classification and validation of cancer tissue samples using microarray expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, T S; Cristianini, N; Duffy, N; Bednarski, D W; Schummer, M; Haussler, D

    2000-10-01

    DNA microarray experiments generating thousands of gene expression measurements, are being used to gather information from tissue and cell samples regarding gene expression differences that will be useful in diagnosing disease. We have developed a new method to analyse this kind of data using support vector machines (SVMs). This analysis consists of both classification of the tissue samples, and an exploration of the data for mis-labeled or questionable tissue results. We demonstrate the method in detail on samples consisting of ovarian cancer tissues, normal ovarian tissues, and other normal tissues. The dataset consists of expression experiment results for 97,802 cDNAs for each tissue. As a result of computational analysis, a tissue sample is discovered and confirmed to be wrongly labeled. Upon correction of this mistake and the removal of an outlier, perfect classification of tissues is achieved, but not with high confidence. We identify and analyse a subset of genes from the ovarian dataset whose expression is highly differentiated between the types of tissues. To show robustness of the SVM method, two previously published datasets from other types of tissues or cells are analysed. The results are comparable to those previously obtained. We show that other machine learning methods also perform comparably to the SVM on many of those datasets. The SVM software is available at http://www.cs. columbia.edu/ approximately bgrundy/svm.

  13. 6. Label-free selective plane illumination microscopy of tissue samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muteb Alharbi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Overall this method meets the demands of the current needs for 3D imaging tissue samples in a label-free manner. Label-free Selective Plane Microscopy directly provides excellent information about the structure of the tissue samples. This work has highlighted the superiority of Label-free Selective Plane Microscopy to current approaches to label-free 3D imaging of tissue.

  14. Termo de consentimento e análise de material biológico armazenado Consent procedures and research on stored biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Guedes Duque

    2010-01-01

    consent from patients participating in clinical studies, which is reinforced by the Research Ethics Committee (REC. METHODS: After attempting phone contact, two copies and a synopsis of the CF were posted to each patient, with a stampedreturn envelope. RESULTS: 160 patients were included in the study. The attempt of phone contact was successful with 60 of them (37.5%. The consent form was mailed to 155 patients: 115 posted it back (74% Three patients had already passed away, 111 accepted and one refused to participate. The median time between posting and receiving the CF back was 10 days (interval: 2-89. The REC waived the requirement of CF for those who died and for the ones who did not reply. The final cost for sending the CF was R$1,004.40. CONCLUSION: Obtaining consent by postal and phone communication for retrospective genetic research with stored tissue samples is feasible. Most responded to contact and consented to participate, but there were costs and risks that cannot be neglected.

  15. FTA Cards for Preservation of Nucleic Acids for Molecular Assays: A Review on the Use of Cytologic/Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Santos, Gilda

    2018-03-01

    - Traditional methods for storing histologic and cytologic specimens for future use in molecular assays have consisted of either snap-freezing with cryopreservation or formalin-fixing, paraffin-embedding the samples. Although snap-freezing with cryopreservation is recommended for better preservation of nucleic acids, the infrastructure and space required for archiving impose challenges for high-volume pathology laboratories. Cost-effective, long-term storage at room temperature; relatively easy shipment; and standardized handling can be achieved with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, but formalin fixation induces fragmentation and chemical modification of nucleic acids. Advances in next-generation sequencing platforms, coupled with an increase in diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers have created a demand for high-quality nucleic acids. To address issues of the quality of nucleic acid and logistics in sample acquisition, alternatives for specimen preservation and long-term storage have been described and include novel universal tissue fixatives, stabilizers, and technologies. - To collect, retrieve, and review information from studies describing the use of nucleic acids recovered from cytologic/tissue specimens stored on Flinders Technology Associates (FTA, GE Whatman, Maidstone, Kent, United Kingdom) cards for downstream molecular applications. - An electronic literature search in the PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, Maryland) database allowed the selection of manuscripts addressing the use of FTA cards for storage of cytologic samples for molecular analysis. Only articles published in English were retrieved. - The use of FTA cards is a versatile method for fostering multicenter, international collaborations and clinical trials that require centralized testing, long-distance shipment, and high-quality nucleic acids for molecular techniques. Studies with controlled temperature are required to test the

  16. Detection of African swine fever virus DNA in blood samples stored on FTA cards from asymptomatic pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, U C; Johansen, M V; Ngowi, H A; Rasmussen, T B; Nielsen, J; Uttenthal, Å

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether blood samples collected onto FTA(®) cards could be used in combination with real-time PCR for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in samples from resource-poor settings under the assumption that asymptomatically (sub-clinically) infected pigs may be present. Blood samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs from Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The blood samples were stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed by real-time PCR assays in duplicate; three pigs had high levels of viral DNA (Ct values of 27-29), and three pigs had a low level of viral DNA (Ct 36-45). Four pigs were positive in one of the duplicate samples only, but clear products of the expected size were obtained when the reactions were analysed by gel electrophoresis. For comparison, blood samples from pigs experimentally infected with either a pathogenic (OURT T88/1) or a non-pathogenic (OURT T88/3) isolate of ASFV were collected, stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed in the same way. The blood from pigs infected with the OURT T88/1 isolate showed high levels of viral DNA (Ct 22-33), whereas infection with non-pathogenic OURT T88/3 isolate resulted in only low levels of viral DNA (Ct 39) in samples collected at 10-14 days after inoculation. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Elemental distribution and sample integrity comparison of freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated biological tissue samples with nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavpetič, P., E-mail: primoz.vavpetic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikuš, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeromel, L. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potočnik, N. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pongrac, P. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Plant Physiology, University of Bayreuth, Universitätstr. 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Drobne, D.; Pipan Tkalec, Ž.; Novak, S.; Kos, M.; Koren, Š.; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of biological samples in frozen-hydrated state with micro-PIXE technique at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe has matured to a point that enables us to measure and examine frozen tissue samples routinely as a standard research method. Cryotome-cut slice of frozen-hydrated biological sample is mounted between two thin foils and positioned on the sample holder. The temperature of the cold stage in the measuring chamber is kept below 130 K throughout the insertion of the samples and the proton beam exposure. Matrix composition of frozen-hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Sample deterioration during proton beam exposure is monitored during the experiment, as both Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) in on–off axis geometry are recorded together with the events in two PIXE detectors and backscattered ions from the chopper in a single list-mode file. The aim of this experiment was to determine differences and similarities between two kinds of biological sample preparation techniques for micro-PIXE analysis, namely freeze-drying and frozen-hydrated sample preparation in order to evaluate the improvements in the elemental localisation of the latter technique if any. In the presented work, a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping at JSI was used with five detection systems operating in parallel, with proton beam cross section of 1.0 × 1.0 μm{sup 2} and a beam current of 100 pA. The comparison of the resulting elemental distributions measured at the biological tissue prepared in the frozen-hydrated and in the freeze-dried state revealed differences in elemental distribution of particular elements at the cellular level due to the morphology alteration in particular tissue compartments induced either by water removal in the lyophilisation process or by unsatisfactory preparation of samples for cutting and mounting during the shock-freezing phase of sample preparation.

  18. A probable risk factor of female breast cancer: study on benign and malignant breast tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sohaila; Husnain, Syed M

    2014-01-01

    The study reports enhanced Fe, Cu, and Zn contents in breast tissues, a probable risk factor of breast cancer in females. Forty-one formalin-fixed breast tissues were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Twenty malignant, six adjacent to malignant and 15 benign tissues samples were investigated. The malignant tissues samples were of grade 11 and type invasive ductal carcinoma. The quantitative comparison between the elemental levels measured in the two types of specimen (benign and malignant) tissues (removed after surgery) suggests significant elevation of these metals (Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the malignant tissue. The specimens were collected just after mastectomy of women aged 19 to 59 years from the hospitals of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Most of the patients belong to urban areas of Pakistan. Findings of study depict that these elements have a promising role in the initiation and development of carcinoma as consistent pattern of elevation for Fe, Cu, and Zn was observed. The results showed the excessive accumulation of Fe (229 ± 121 mg/L) in malignant breast tissue samples of patients (p factor of breast cancer. In order to validate our method of analysis, certified reference material muscle tissue lyophilized (IAEA) MA-M-2/TM was analyzed for metal studied. Determined concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Asymmetric concentration distribution for Fe, Cu, and Zn was observed in both malignant and benign tissue samples.

  19. Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Henneberg, Maciej; Wachsberger, Christian; Maiden, Nicholas; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-11-01

    Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile. Longer conditioning times for heart and liver resulted in a slight loss of velocity/energy of the projectile, but the reverse effect occurred for the kidney. Possible reasons for these trends include autolytic changes causing softening (heart and liver) and dehydration causing an increase in density (kidney). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Comparison of diagnostic efficacy between CLE, tissue sampling, and CLE combined with tissue sampling for undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya-Dong; Qu, Ya-Wei; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The accurate diagnosis of undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures remains challenging. Current ERCP-guided tissue sampling methods are of low sensitivity. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a new procedure and allows real optical biopsies that may improve the diagnosis of undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the diagnostic yield of CLE, tissue sampling, and CLE combined with tissue sampling for undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures. Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library database were reviewed for relevant studies. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects meta-analysis model. The summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curve was constructed, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated. Twelve studies involving 591 patients were enrolled in our analysis. The overall sensitivity and the specificity estimate of CLE for discriminating benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary strictures were 87% (95%CI, 83-91%) and 76% (95%CI, 70-81%), respectively. The AUC to assess the diagnostic efficacy was 0.8705. For tissue sampling, the overall sensitivity and the specificity estimate were 64% (95%CI, 57-70%) and 94% (95%CI, 90-97%), respectively. The AUC to assess the diagnostic efficacy was 0.8040. A combination of both methods increased the sensitivity (93%; 95%CI, 88-96%) with a specificity of 82% (95%CI, 74-89%). The AUC to assess the diagnostic efficacy was 0.9377. There was no publication bias by Deeks' Funnel Plot with p = .936. Compared with tissue sampling, CLE may increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant pancreaticobiliary strictures. A combination of both can effectively diagnose malignant pancreaticobiliary strictures.

  1. Detection of African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Blood Samples Stored on FTA Cards from Asymptomatic Pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, U. C.; Johansen, M. V.; Ngowi, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether blood samples collected onto FTA® cards could be used in combination with real-time PCR for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in samples from resource-poor settings under the assumption that asymptomatically (sub-clinically) infected...... pigs may be present. Blood samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs from Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The blood samples were stored on FTA® cards and analysed by real-time PCR assays in duplicate; three pigs had high levels of viral DNA (Ct values of 27-29), and three pigs had a low level....../1) or a non-pathogenic (OURT T88/3) isolate of ASFV were collected, stored on FTA® cards and analysed in the same way. The blood from pigs infected with the OURT T88/1 isolate showed high levels of viral DNA (Ct 22-33), whereas infection with non-pathogenic OURT T88/3 isolate resulted in only low levels...

  2. Determination of Magnesium in Needle Biopsy Samples of Muscle Tissue by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Sjoeberg, H E

    1964-07-15

    Magnesium has been determined by means of neutron-activation analysis in needle biopsy samples of the order of magnitude 1 mg dry weight. The procedure applied was to extract the Mg-27 activity from irradiated muscle tissue with concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by a fast hydroxide precipitation and gamma-spectrometric measurements. The Mg activity was recovered in the muscle tissue samples to (97 {+-} 2) per cent. The sensitivity for the magnesium determination is estimated as 0.3 {mu}g.

  3. Culture methods of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples in Australian bacteriology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are cultured by bacteriology laboratories to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi. In Australia, this testing is performed by 6 TGA-licensed clinical bacteriology laboratories with samples received from 10 tissue banks. Culture methods of swab and tissue samples employ a combination of solid agar and/or broth media to enhance micro-organism growth and maximise recovery. All six Australian laboratories receive Amies transport swabs and, except for one laboratory, a corresponding biopsy sample for testing. Three of the 6 laboratories culture at least one allograft sample directly onto solid agar. Only one laboratory did not use a broth culture for any sample received. An international literature review found that a similar combination of musculoskeletal tissue samples were cultured onto solid agar and/or broth media. Although variations of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples, culture media and methods are used in Australian and international bacteriology laboratories, validation studies and method evaluations have challenged and supported their use in recovering fungi and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  4. Biobanking of fresh frozen tissue from clinical surgical specimens: transport logistics, sample selection, and histologic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Access to high-quality fresh frozen tissue is critical for translational cancer research and molecular -diagnostics. Here we describe a workflow for the collection of frozen solid tissue samples derived from fresh human patient specimens after surgery. The routines have been in operation at Uppsala University Hospital since 2001. We have integrated cryosection and histopathologic examination of each biobank sample into the biobank manual. In this way, even small, macroscopically ill-defined lesions can be -procured without a diagnostic hazard due to the removal of uncharacterized tissue from a clinical -specimen. Also, knowledge of the histomorphology of the frozen tissue sample - tumor cell content, stromal components, and presence of necrosis - is pivotal before entering a biobank case into costly molecular profiling studies.

  5. Long-term stability of morphine, codeine, and 6-acetylmorphine in real-life whole blood samples, stored at -20°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Fjeld, Bente; Burns, Margrete Larsen; Strand, Dag Helge; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-06-01

    Stability of drugs during storage is important in forensic toxicology. For the analytes detected after intake of heroin (6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), morphine and codeine), long-time stability in real life whole blood samples are studied in only a small number of cases. Whole blood post mortem (n=37) and whole blood samples from living persons (n=22) containing morphine and codeine as well as 6-AM in blood or urine were selected. All cases represented intake of heroin. All samples contained fluoride and were initially analysed and stored in normal conditions (-20°C) for 4-9 years. All samples were then reanalysed using the same analytical methods and the results were compared. For samples from living persons, the median change in concentration was -3.7% for morphine and -5.3% for codeine. For post mortem samples, the median change in concentration was -12% for morphine and -11% for codeine. Both for samples from living persons and post mortem samples, the decrease in the concentrations from the original analysis to reanalysis were statistically significant for morphine and codeine. Regarding 6-AM, all living samples were negative at reanalysis. For post mortem samples, four cases still tested positive for 6-AM at reanalysis with a median change in the concentrations of -81%. There was no significant change in the morphine to codeine concentration ratios neither for living nor post mortem samples. This study showed that in real life whole blood samples, the concentrations of morphine and codeine are relatively stable during long-term storage at -20°C. 6-AM on the other hand, shows a considerable decrease in concentrations that is important to consider when interpreting results from reanalyses of forensic cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stability of BDNF in Human Samples Stored Up to 6 Months and Correlations of Serum and EDTA-Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maryna; Schlögl, Haiko; Sacher, Julia; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kaiser, Jochen; Stumvoll, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2017-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neural growth factor, has gained growing interest in neuroscience, but many influencing physiological and analytical aspects still remain unclear. In this study we assessed the impact of storage time at room temperature, repeated freeze/thaw cycles, and storage at -80 °C up to 6 months on serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma BDNF. Furthermore, we assessed correlations of serum and plasma BDNF concentrations in two independent sets of samples. Coefficients of variations (CVs) for serum BDNF concentrations were significantly lower than CVs of plasma concentrations ( n = 245, p = 0.006). Mean serum and plasma concentrations at all analyzed time points remained within the acceptable change limit of the inter-assay precision as declared by the manufacturer. Serum and plasma BDNF concentrations correlated positively in both sets of samples and at all analyzed time points of the stability assessment ( r = 0.455 to r s = 0.596; p plasma up to 6 months. Due to a higher reliability, we suggest favoring serum over EDTA-plasma for future experiments assessing peripheral BDNF concentrations.

  7. Mantle biopsy: a technique for nondestructive tissue-sampling of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Berg; Wendell R. Haag; Sheldon I. Guttman; James B. Sickel

    1995-01-01

    Mantle biopsy is a means of obtaining tissue samples for genetic, physiological, and contaminant studies of bivalves; but the effects of this biopsy on survival have not been determined. We describe a simple technique for obtaining such samples from unionacean bivalves and how we compared survival among biopsied and control organisms in field experiments. Survival was...

  8. Systematic bias in genomic classification due to contaminating non-neoplastic tissue in breast tumor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Fathi; Hu, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Parker, Joel S; Gulley, Margaret L; Amos, Keith D; Troester, Melissa A

    2011-06-30

    Genomic tests are available to predict breast cancer recurrence and to guide clinical decision making. These predictors provide recurrence risk scores along with a measure of uncertainty, usually a confidence interval. The confidence interval conveys random error and not systematic bias. Standard tumor sampling methods make this problematic, as it is common to have a substantial proportion (typically 30-50%) of a tumor sample comprised of histologically benign tissue. This "normal" tissue could represent a source of non-random error or systematic bias in genomic classification. To assess the performance characteristics of genomic classification to systematic error from normal contamination, we collected 55 tumor samples and paired tumor-adjacent normal tissue. Using genomic signatures from the tumor and paired normal, we evaluated how increasing normal contamination altered recurrence risk scores for various genomic predictors. Simulations of normal tissue contamination caused misclassification of tumors in all predictors evaluated, but different breast cancer predictors showed different types of vulnerability to normal tissue bias. While two predictors had unpredictable direction of bias (either higher or lower risk of relapse resulted from normal contamination), one signature showed predictable direction of normal tissue effects. Due to this predictable direction of effect, this signature (the PAM50) was adjusted for normal tissue contamination and these corrections improved sensitivity and negative predictive value. For all three assays quality control standards and/or appropriate bias adjustment strategies can be used to improve assay reliability. Normal tissue sampled concurrently with tumor is an important source of bias in breast genomic predictors. All genomic predictors show some sensitivity to normal tissue contamination and ideal strategies for mitigating this bias vary depending upon the particular genes and computational methods used in the predictor.

  9. Online recovery of radiocesium from soil, tissue paper and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of recovery of radio-cesium from soil, tissue papers, and plant samples has been evaluated by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) route employing calix(4)arene-mono(crown-6) (CC) dissolved in acetonitrile. These studies showed that quantitative recovery of 137 Cs from soil samples was difficult under the conditions of these studies. However, experiments performed on tissue papers (cellulose matrix) showed quantitative recovery of 137 Cs. On the other hand, 137 Cs recovery from plant samples varied between ∼50 % (for stems) and ∼67.2 % (for leaves) employing 1x10 -3 M CC + 4 M HNO 3 dissolved in acetonitrile. (author)

  10. Depletion of H2S during obesity enhances store-operated Ca2+ entry in adipose tissue macrophages to increase cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Gopal V; Huang, Huiya; Sun, Hongbin; Candela, Joseph; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Beaman, Kenneth D; Yamashita, Megumi; Prakriya, Murali; White, Carl

    2015-12-15

    The increased production of proinflammatory cytokines by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) contributes to chronic, low-level inflammation during obesity. We found that obesity in mice reduced the bioavailability of the gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Steady-state, intracellular concentrations of H2S were lower in ATMs isolated from mice with diet-induced obesity than in ATMs from lean mice. In addition, the intracellular concentration of H2S in the macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was reduced during an acute inflammatory response evoked by the microbial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Reduced intracellular concentrations of H2S led to increased Ca(2+) influx through the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) pathway, which was prevented by the exogenous H2S donor GYY4137. Furthermore, GYY4137 inhibited the Orai3 channel, a key component of the SOCE machinery. The enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines by RAW264.7 cells and ATMs from obese mice was reduced by exogenous H2S or by inhibition of SOCE. Together, these data suggest that the depletion of macrophage H2S that occurs during acute (LPS-induced) or chronic (obesity) inflammation increases SOCE through disinhibition of Orai3 and promotes the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Plant Tissues: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yonghui; Li, Bin; Malitsky, Sergey; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kaftan, Filip; Svatoš, Aleš; Franceschi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a mass spectrometry based molecular ion imaging technique. It provides the means for ascertaining the spatial distribution of a large variety of analytes directly on tissue sample surfaces without any labeling or staining agents. These advantages make it an attractive molecular histology tool in medical, pharmaceutical, and biological research. Likewise, MSI has started gaining popularity in plant sciences; yet, information regarding sample preparation methods for plant tissues is still limited. Sample preparation is a crucial step that is directly associated with the quality and authenticity of the imaging results, it therefore demands in-depth studies based on the characteristics of plant samples. In this review, a sample preparation pipeline is discussed in detail and illustrated through selected practical examples. In particular, special concerns regarding sample preparation for plant imaging are critically evaluated. Finally, the applications of MSI techniques in plants are reviewed according to different classes of plant metabolites.

  12. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Plant Tissues: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yonghui; Li, Bin; Malitsky, Sergey; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kaftan, Filip; Svatoš, Aleš; Franceschi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a mass spectrometry based molecular ion imaging technique. It provides the means for ascertaining the spatial distribution of a large variety of analytes directly on tissue sample surfaces without any labeling or staining agents. These advantages make it an attractive molecular histology tool in medical, pharmaceutical, and biological research. Likewise, MSI has started gaining popularity in plant sciences; yet, information regarding sample preparation methods for plant tissues is still limited. Sample preparation is a crucial step that is directly associated with the quality and authenticity of the imaging results, it therefore demands in-depth studies based on the characteristics of plant samples. In this review, a sample preparation pipeline is discussed in detail and illustrated through selected practical examples. In particular, special concerns regarding sample preparation for plant imaging are critically evaluated. Finally, the applications of MSI techniques in plants are reviewed according to different classes of plant metabolites. PMID:26904042

  13. Ultrasonic-energy enhance the ionic liquid-based dual microextraction to preconcentrate the lead in ground and stored rain water samples as compared to conventional shaking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamani, Sooraj; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I

    2018-01-01

    An efficient preconcentration technique based on ultrasonic-assisted ionic liquid-based dual microextraction (UA-ILDµE) method has been developed to preconcentrate the lead (Pb +2 ) in ground and stored rain water. In the current proposed method, Pb +2 was complexed with a chelating agent (dithizone), whereas an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) was used for extraction purpose. The ultrasonic irradiation and electrical shaking system were applied to enhance the dispersion and extraction of Pb +2 complex in aqueous samples. For second phase, dual microextraction (DµE phase), the enriched Pb +2 complex in ionic liquid, extracted back into the acidic aqueous solution and finally determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Some major analytical parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency of developed method, such as pH, concentration of ligand, volume of ionic liquid and samples, time of shaking in thermostatic electrical shaker and ultrasonic bath, effect of back extracting HNO 3 volume, matrix effect, centrifugation time and rate were optimized. At the sample volume of 25mL, the calculated preconcentration factor was 62.2. The limit of detection of proposed procedure for Pb +2 ions was found to be 0.54μgL -1 . The validation of developed method was performed by the analysis of certified sample of water SRM 1643e and standard addition method in a real water sample. The extraction recovery of Pb +2 was enhanced≥2% with shaking time of 80s in ultrasonic bath as compared to used thermostatic electrical shaker, where for optimum recovery up to 10min was required. The developed procedure was successfully used for the enrichment of Pb +2 in ground and stored rain water (surface water) samples of an endemic region of Pakistan. The resulted data indicated that the ground water samples were highly contaminated with Pb +2 , while some of the surface water samples were also have higher values of Pb +2 than permissible limit of

  14. Rapid column extraction method for actinides and strontium in fish and other animal tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell III, S.L.; Faison, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of actinides and radiostrontium in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes and strontium with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid separation method has been developed that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin R , TRU Resin R and DGA Resin R cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alphaspectrometry. Strontium is collected on Sr Resin R from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and 89/90 Sr are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. Vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates is used to minimize sample preparation time. (author)

  15. Detection of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from fish tissue and water samples by PCR amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Madsen, Lone; Bruun, Morten Sichlau

    2000-01-01

    investigation, the possible detection of Fl. psychrophilum from fish tissue and water samples was examined using nested PCR with DNA probes against a sequence of the 16S rRNA genes. The DNA was extracted using Chelex(R) 100 chelating resin. The primers, which were tested against strains isolated from diseased...... fish, healthy fish, fish farm environments and reference strains, proved to be specific for Fl. psychrophilum. The obtained detection limit of Fl. psychrophilum seeded into rainbow trout brain tissue was 0.4 cfu in the PCR tube, corresponding to 17 cfu mg(-1) brain tissue. The PCR-assay proved...... to be more sensitive than agar cultivation of tissue samples from the brain of rainbow trout injected with Fl. psychrophilum. In non-sterile fresh water seeded with Fl. psychrophilum the detection limit of the PCR- assay was 1.7 cfu in the PCR tube, corresponding to 110 cfu ml(-1) water. The PCR...

  16. Effect of soil and water environment on typeability of PowerPlex Y (Promega) in selected tissue samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Koc-Zorawska; Jerzy Janica; Malgorzata Skawronska; Jacek Robert Janica; Witold Pepinski; Anna Niemcunowicz-Janica; Ireneusz Stolyszewski

    2008-01-01

    In cases of decomposed bodies Y chromosomal STR markers may be useful in identification of a male relative. The authors assessed typeability PowerPlex Y (Promega) loci in tissue material stored in water and soil environment. Tissue material was collected during autopsies of five persons aged 20-30 years with time of death determined within the limit of 14 hours. Heart muscle, liver and lung specimens were stored in pond water, sea water, sand and peat soil. DNA was extracted by organic method...

  17. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hagan, Joseph J; Samani, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C 11 showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C 02 of the Yeoh model, and C 11 and C 20 of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  18. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hagan, Joseph J; Samani, Abbas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)], E-mail: asamani@uwo.ca

    2009-04-21

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C{sub 11} showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C{sub 02} of the Yeoh model, and C{sub 11} and C{sub 20} of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  19. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Joseph J.; Samani, Abbas

    2009-04-01

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C11 showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C02 of the Yeoh model, and C11 and C20 of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  20. Sample Preparation of Corn Seed Tissue to Prevent Analyte Relocations for Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Hye; Kim, Jeongkwon; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Tae Geol; Yoon, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Corn seed tissue sections were prepared by the tape support method using an adhesive tape, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was performed. The effect of heat generated during sample preparation was investigated by time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging of corn seed tissue prepared by the tape support and the thaw-mounted methods. Unlike thaw-mounted sample preparation, the tape support method does not cause imaging distortion because of the absence of heat, which can cause migration of the analytes on the sample. By applying the tape-support method, the corn seed tissue was prepared without structural damage and MSI with accurate spatial information of analytes was successfully performed. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. Sample Preparation of Corn Seed Tissue to Prevent Analyte Relocations for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Hye; Kim, Jeongkwon; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Tae Geol; Yoon, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Corn seed tissue sections were prepared by the tape support method using an adhesive tape, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was performed. The effect of heat generated during sample preparation was investigated by time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging of corn seed tissue prepared by the tape support and the thaw-mounted methods. Unlike thaw-mounted sample preparation, the tape support method does not cause imaging distortion because of the absence of heat, which can cause migration of the analytes on the sample. By applying the tape-support method, the corn seed tissue was prepared without structural damage and MSI with accurate spatial information of analytes was successfully performed.

  2. Is it acceptable to use coagulation plasma samples stored at room temperature and 4°C for 24 hours for additional prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin, and D-dimer testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimac, V; Coen Herak, D

    2017-10-01

    Coagulation laboratories are faced on daily basis with requests for additional testing in already analyzed fresh plasma samples. This prompted us to examine whether plasma samples stored at room temperature (RT), and 4°C for 24 hours can be accepted for additional prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin (AT), and D-dimer testing. We measured PT, aPTT, Fbg in 50 and AT in 30 plasma samples with normal and pathological values, within 4 hours of blood collection (baseline results) and after 24-hours storage at RT (primary tubes), and 4°C (aliquots). D-dimer stability was investigated in 20 samples stored in primary tubes at 4°C. No statistically significant difference between baseline results and results in samples stored at RT and 4°C was observed for PT (P=.938), aPTT (P=.186), Fbg (P=.962), AT (P=.713), and D-dimers (P=.169). The highest median percentage changes were found for aPTT, being more pronounced for samples stored at 4°C (13.0%) than at RT (8.7%). Plasma samples stored both at RT and 4°C for 24 hours are acceptable for additional PT, Fbg, and AT testing. Plasma samples stored 24 hours in primary tubes at 4°C are suitable for D-dimer testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Trace element contamination in feather and tissue samples from Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoni, Nicole A.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Foley, Janet E.; Hazlehurst, Jenny; Purdin, Güthrum; Aston, Linda; Hargrave, Sabine; Jelks, Karen; Tell, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Trace element contamination (17 elements; Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) of live (feather samples only) and deceased (feather and tissue samples) Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; 17 elements) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Hg only). Mean plus one standard deviation (SD) was considered the benchmark, and concentrations above the mean + 1 SD were considered elevated above normal. Contour feathers were sampled from live birds of varying age, sex, and California locations. In order to reduce thermal impacts, minimal feathers were taken from live birds, therefore a novel method was developed for preparation of low mass feather samples for ICP-MS analysis. The study found that the novel feather preparation method enabled small mass feather samples to be analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS. For feather samples from live birds, all trace elements, with the exception of beryllium, had concentrations above the mean + 1 SD. Important risk factors for elevated trace element concentrations in feathers of live birds were age for iron, zinc, and arsenic, and location for iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium. For samples from deceased birds, ICP-MS results from body and tail feathers were correlated for Fe, Zn, and Pb, and feather concentrations were correlated with renal (Fe, Zn, Pb) or hepatic (Hg) tissue concentrations. Results for AA spectrophotometry analyzed samples from deceased birds further supported the ICP-MS findings where a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in feather and tissue (pectoral muscle) samples was found. These study results support that sampling feathers from live free-ranging hummingbirds might be a useful, non-lethal sampling method for evaluating trace element exposure and provides a sampling alternative since their small body size limits traditional sampling of blood and tissues. The

  4. X-ray scattering for the characterization of lyophilized breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Mohamed, Fayrouz S.; Khater, Ibrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of characterizing breast cancer by measuring the X-ray scattering profiles of lyophilized excised breast tissue samples. Since X-ray scattering from water-rich tissue is dominated by scattering from water, the removal of water by lyophilization would enhance the characterization process. In the present study, X-ray scattering profiles of 22 normal, 22 malignant and 10 benign breast tissue samples are measured. The cut-offs of scatter diagrams, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of three characterization parameters (full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the peak at 1.1 nm −1 , area under curve (AUC), and ratio of 1st to 2nd scattering peak intensities (I 1 /I 2 %)) are calculated and compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. Results show increased sensitivity (up to 100%) of the present data on lyophilized breast tissue samples compared to previously reported data for non-lyophilized samples while the specificity (up to 95.4%), diagnostic accuracy (up to 95.4%) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values (up to 0.9979) for both sets of data are comparable. The present study shows significant differences between normal samples and each of malignant and benign samples. Only subtle differences exist between malignant and benign lyophilized breast tissue samples where FWHM=0.7±0.1 and 0.8±0.3, AUC=1.3±0.2 and 1.4±0.2 and I 1 /I 2 %=44.9±11.0 and 52.4±7.6 for malignant and benign samples respectively. - Highlights: • X-ray scattering profiles of breast tissue samples are acquired. • Three X-ray profile characterization parameters are calculated. • The cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy are calculated. • They are compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. • Results show increased sensitivity in case of lyophilized samples

  5. A Comparison of RNA-Seq Results from Paired Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded and Fresh-Frozen Glioblastoma Tissue Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Esteve-Codina

    Full Text Available The molecular classification of glioblastoma (GBM based on gene expression might better explain outcome and response to treatment than clinical factors. Whole transcriptome sequencing using next-generation sequencing platforms is rapidly becoming accepted as a tool for measuring gene expression for both research and clinical use. Fresh frozen (FF tissue specimens of GBM are difficult to obtain since tumor tissue obtained at surgery is often scarce and necrotic and diagnosis is prioritized over freezing. After diagnosis, leftover tissue is usually stored as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. However, RNA from FFPE tissues is usually degraded, which could hamper gene expression analysis. We compared RNA-Seq data obtained from matched pairs of FF and FFPE GBM specimens. Only three FFPE out of eleven FFPE-FF matched samples yielded informative results. Several quality-control measurements showed that RNA from FFPE samples was highly degraded but maintained transcriptomic similarities to RNA from FF samples. Certain issues regarding mutation analysis and subtype prediction were detected. Nevertheless, our results suggest that RNA-Seq of FFPE GBM specimens provides reliable gene expression data that can be used in molecular studies of GBM if the RNA is sufficiently preserved.

  6. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tubes compared with nonpreservative urine samples stored at 4°C and room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Stephen W; Schwartz, Matthew; Dam, Lisa; Riedel, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    The stability of urine specimens submitted for culture remains a challenge for many laboratories because of delays in specimen transport. We evaluated the usefulness of BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube in ensuring specimen stability. Clinical urine specimens collected in sterile collection cups (n = 110) were plated onto sheep blood and MacConkey agar following standard laboratory procedures guidelines. Thereafter, specimens were divided into 3 storage conditions: nonpreservative, refrigerated; nonpreservative, room temperature (RT); BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube, RT. For each sample type, additional cultures were set up at 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours. Initially, 18 specimens had no growth, 32 showed mixed skin flora, and 60 yielded at least 1 uropathogen. Increased colony counts of uropathogens were observed for nonpreserved urine samples stored at RT; these changes were statistically significant. Minor differences between refrigerated urine samples and BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube samples were seen but were not statistically significant. The use of preservative-containing collection tubes is desirable to ensure specimen stability when prompt processing or refrigeration is not feasible.

  7. Automated MALDI Matrix Coating System for Multiple Tissue Samples for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounfield, William P.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  8. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  9. DNA damage in preserved specimens and tissue samples: a molecular assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraction of genetic information from preserved tissue samples or museum specimens is a fundamental component of many fields of research, including the Barcode of Life initiative, forensic investigations, biological studies using scat sample analysis, and cancer research utilizing formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Efforts to obtain genetic information from these sources are often hampered by an inability to amplify the desired DNA as a consequence of DNA damage. Previous studies have described techniques for improved DNA extraction from such samples or focused on the effect of damaging agents – such as light, oxygen or formaldehyde – on free nucleotides. We present ongoing work to characterize lesions in DNA samples extracted from preserved specimens. The extracted DNA is digested to single nucleosides with a combination of DNase I, Snake Venom Phosphodiesterase, and Antarctic Phosphatase and then analyzed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. We present data for moth specimens that were preserved dried and pinned with no additional preservative and for frog tissue samples that were preserved in either ethanol, or formaldehyde, or fixed in formaldehyde and then preserved in ethanol. These preservation methods represent the most common methods of preserving animal specimens in museum collections. We observe changes in the nucleoside content of these samples over time, especially a loss of deoxyguanosine. We characterize the fragmentation state of the DNA and aim to identify abundant nucleoside lesions. Finally, simple models are introduced to describe the DNA fragmentation based on nicks and double-strand breaks.

  10. Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs, tissue and feed samples in the State of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomirah, H.; Al-Mazeedi, H.; Al-Zenki, S.; Al-Faili, B.; Al-Foudary, M.; Abuzid, A.; Al-Sayed, I.; Sidhu, J.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 238 locally produced and imported eggs, tissue (meat, poultry and aquacultured fish) and feed and feedstuffs samples were collected at different seasonal periods from different farms and retail outlets in Kuwait and screened for presence of beta-lactams, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, streptomycin, macrolides and chloramphenicol (799 tests) using Charm II system. The results indicated that all of the 222 tests performed on table egg samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues indicating adherence to the guidelines for microbial use and withdrawal. Similarly, all of the 268 tests performed on tissue samples were negative for the analyzed antimicrobial residues except for chloramphenicol. These chloramphenicol positive samples, all of the 66 tests performed were negative for beta-lactams residues. Out of the 79 feed and feedstuff samples analyzed for teracyclines residues, broiler diet and concentrate samples (5%) were above the tetracyclines MRL (100 ppb.). On the other hands, results have revealed a widespread of sulfonamide residues and to a less extent chloramphenicol in tested feed and feedstuff samples. The Charm II system was reliable for rapid screening of antimicrobial residues. In general, results obtained in our study necessitate more effective and well planned national antimicrobial residues surveillance programs focusing particularly on samples imported from highly risk sources. (author)

  11. A method for the determination of potassium concentration in organic tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.C.A.

    1976-12-01

    An original method has been developed to detect small variations of potassium in several samples of organic tissue. These variations are relative to elements that are biologically representative, such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. The samples are irradiated with a beam of protons from a Van de Graaff accelerator (4MV). Vacancies are created in the K-shell of potassium, and x-rays are emitted when these vacancies are filled with outer electrons. These X-rays and the protons elastically scattered by the nuclei of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are detected and their energy spectra are analysed by computer programs especially elaborated for this purpose. A technique for routine preparation of samples in the laboratory was developed including the production of aluminum support layers, and the preparation of organic tissue samples with a low temperature microtome. The unique features of this method are that it does not destroy the tissue, permitting further analysis with the microscope, and the normalization of the amount of potassium using other elements (C,O,N) instead of the total mass of the sample. (Author) [pt

  12. A single lysis solution for the analysis of tissue samples by different proteomic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, P.; Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.

    2008-01-01

    -based proteomics (reverse-phase lysate arrays or direct antibody arrays), allowing the direct comparison of qualitative and quantitative data yielded by these technologies when applied to the same samples. The usefulness of the CLB1 solution for gel-based proteomics was further established by 2D PAGE analysis...... dissease, is driving scientists to increasingly use clinically relevant samples for biomarker and target discovery. Tissues are heterogeneous and as a result optimization of sample preparation is critical for generating accurate, representative, and highly reproducible quantitative data. Although a large...... number of protocols for preparation of tissue lysates has been published, so far no single recipe is able to provide a "one-size fits all" solubilization procedure that can be used to analyse the same lysate using different proteomics technologies. Here we present evidence showing that cell lysis buffer...

  13. Radioisotopic method for the measurement of lipolysis in small samples of human adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J.; Berry, E.M.; Gruen, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To facilitate the study of adrenoreceptor response in small needle biopsy samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue, we developed a dual radioisotopic technique for measuring lipolysis rate. Aliquots (20-75 mg) of adipose tissue fragments were incubated in a buffered albumin medium containing [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 14 C]glucose, each of high specific activity. In neutral glycerides synthesized in this system, [ 14 C]glucose is incorporated exclusively into the glyceride-glycerol moiety and 3 H appears solely in the esterified fatty acid. Alpha-2 and beta-1 adrenoreceptor activation of tissue incubated in this system does not alter rates of 14 C-labeled glyceride accumulation, but does produce a respective increase or decrease in the specific activity of fatty acids esterified into newly synthesized glycerides. This alteration in esterified fatty acid specific activity is reflected in the ratio of 14 C: 3 H in newly synthesized triglycerides extracted from the incubated adipose tissue. There is a high correlation (r . 0.90) between the 14 C: 3 H ratio in triglycerides and the rate of lipolysis as reflected in glycerol release into the incubation medium. The degree of adrenoreceptor activation by various concentrations of lipolytic and anti-lipolytic substances can be assessed by comparing this ratio in stimulated tissue to that characterizing unstimulated tissue or the incubation medium. This technique permits the study of very small, unweighed tissue biopsy fragments, the only limitation on sensitivity being the specific activity of the medium glucose and palmitate. It is, therefore, useful for serial examinations of adipose tissue adrenoreceptor dose-response characteristics under a variety of clinical circumstances

  14. Determination of proguanil and metabolites in small sample volumes of whole blood stored on filter paper by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, J A; Taylor, R B; Moody, R R

    1995-12-01

    A method is reported for the determination of proguanil and its two metabolites cycloguanil and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide in whole blood and plasma samples obtained by thumbprick and stored dry on filter paper. The sample preparation involves liquid extraction from the filter paper and subsequent solid-phase extraction using C8 Bond-Elut cartridges. Separation and quantification is by a previously reported ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatographic system with ODS Hypersil as stationary phase and an 50:50 acetonitrile-pH 2 phosphate buffer mobile phase containing 200 mM sodium dodecylsulphate as ion-pairing agent. The analytical characteristics of the method are reported. Representative concentrations are shown as a function of time from a human subject after ingestion of a single 200-mg dose of proguanil hydrochloride. Typical ranges of concentration detected by the proposed method in human subjects were proguanil 12-900 ng/ml, cycloguanil 16-44 ng/ml and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide 1.5-10 ng/ml in whole blood.

  15. Impact Of Tissue Sampling On Accuracy Of Ki67 Immunohistochemistry Evaluation In Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Besusparis

    2016-06-01

    The sampling requirements were dependent on the heterogeneity of the biomarker expression. To achieve a coefficient error of 10%, 5-6 cores were needed for homogeneous cases, while 11-12 cores for heterogeneous cases. In mixed tumor population, 8 TMA cores were required. Similarly, to achieve the same accuracy, approximately 4,000 nuclei must be counted when the intra-tumor heterogeneity is mixed/unknown. Tumors at the lower scale of proliferative activity would require larger sampling (10-12 TMA cores, or 5,000 nuclei to achieve the same error measurement results as for highly proliferative tumors. Our data show that optimal tissue sampling for IHC biomarker evaluation is dependent on the heterogeneity of the tissue under study and needs to be determined on a per-use basis. We propose a method that can be applied to determine the TMA sampling strategy for specific biomarkers, tissues and study targets. In addition, our findings highlight the importance of high-capacity computer-based IHC measurement techniques to improve accuracy of the testing.

  16. Screening of Viral Pathogens from Pediatric Ileal Tissue Samples after Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hewitson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV. Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA, was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was conducted. The LLMDA technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations.

  17. Pattern of somatostatin receptors expression in normal and bladder cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavitakis, Markos; Msaouel, Pavlos; Michalopoulos, Vassilis; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Known risks factors for bladder cancer progression and recurrence are limited regarding their prognostic ability. Therefore identification of molecular determinants of disease progression could provide with more specific prognostic information and could be translated into new approaches for biomarker development. In the present study we evaluated, the expression patterns of somatostatin receptors 1-5 (SSTRs) in normal and tumor bladder tissues. The expression of SSTR1-5 was characterized in 45 normal and bladder cancer tissue samples using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SSTR1 was expressed in 24 samples, SSTR2 in 15, SSTR3 in 23, SSTR4 in 16 and SSTR5 in all but one sample. Bladder cancer tissue samples expressed lower levels of SSTR3. Co-expression of SSTRs was associated with superficial disease. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that there is expression of SSTR in normal and bladder cancer urothelium. Further studies are required to evaluate the prognostic and therapeutic significance of these findings. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Second harmonic sound field after insertion of a biological tissue sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Gong, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Bo

    2002-01-01

    Second harmonic sound field after inserting a biological tissue sample is investigated by theory and experiment. The sample is inserted perpendicular to the sound axis, whose acoustical properties are different from those of surrounding medium (distilled water). By using the superposition of Gaussian beams and the KZK equation in quasilinear and parabolic approximations, the second harmonic field after insertion of the sample can be derived analytically and expressed as a linear combination of self- and cross-interaction of the Gaussian beams. Egg white, egg yolk, porcine liver, and porcine fat are used as the samples and inserted in the sound field radiated from a 2 MHz uniformly excited focusing source. Axial normalized sound pressure curves of the second harmonic wave before and after inserting the sample are measured and compared with the theoretical results calculated with 10 items of Gaussian beam functions.

  19. High-resolution, 2- and 3-dimensional imaging of uncut, unembedded tissue biopsy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Richard; Vesuna, Sam; Levene, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Despite continuing advances in tissue processing automation, traditional embedding, cutting, and staining methods limit our ability for rapid, comprehensive visual examination. These limitations are particularly relevant to biopsies for which immediate therapeutic decisions are most necessary, faster feedback to the patient is desired, and preservation of tissue for ancillary studies is most important. The recent development of improved tissue clearing techniques has made it possible to consider use of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) tools in clinical settings, which could address difficulties of established methods. To demonstrate the potential of MPM of cleared tissue for the evaluation of unembedded and uncut pathology samples. Human prostate, liver, breast, and kidney specimens were fixed and dehydrated by using traditional histologic techniques, with or without incorporation of nucleic acid fluorescent stains into dehydration steps. A benzyl alcohol/benzyl benzoate clearing protocol was substituted for xylene. Multiphoton microscopy was performed on a home-built system. Excellent morphologic detail was achievable with MPM at depths greater than 500 μm. Pseudocoloring produced images analogous to hematoxylin-eosin-stained images. Concurrent second-harmonic generation detection allowed mapping of collagen. Subsequent traditional section staining with hematoxylin-eosin did not reveal any detrimental morphologic effects. Sample immunostains on renal tissue showed preservation of normal reactivity. Complete reconstructions of 1-mm cubic samples elucidated 3-dimensional architectural organization. Multiphoton microscopy on cleared, unembedded, uncut biopsy specimens shows potential as a practical clinical tool with significant advantages over traditional histology while maintaining compatibility with gold standard techniques. Further investigation to address remaining implementation barriers is warranted.

  20. Simultaneous sampling of tissue oxygenation and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, William H; Song, Bjorn K; Pittman, Roland N; Golub, Aleksander S

    2016-05-01

    Under physiologic conditions, microvascular oxygen delivery appears to be well matched to oxygen consumption in respiring tissues. We present a technique to measure interstitial oxygen tension (PISFO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) under steady-state conditions, as well as during the transitions from rest to activity and back. Phosphorescence Quenching Microscopy (PQM) was employed with pneumatic compression cycling to achieve 1 to 10 Hz sampling rates of interstitial PO2 and simultaneous recurrent sampling of VO2 (3/min) in the exteriorized rat spinotrapezius muscle. The compression pressure was optimized to 120-130 mmHg without adverse effect on the tissue preparation. A cycle of 5s compression followed by 15s recovery yielded a resting VO2 of 0.98 ± 0.03 ml O2/100 cm(3)min while preserving microvascular oxygen delivery. The measurement system was then used to assess VO2 dependence on PISFO2 at rest and further tested under conditions of isometric muscle contraction to demonstrate a robust ability to monitor the on-kinetics of tissue respiration and the compensatory changes in PISFO2 during contraction and recovery. The temporal and spatial resolution of this approach is well suited to studies seeking to characterize microvascular oxygen supply and demand in thin tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sampling methodology and characterization of resins, stored in large tanks; Metodologia de muestreo y caracterizacion de resinas almacenadas en tanques de grandes dimensiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Sanchez Fernandez, L.; Fenoy Cruz, A.; Sanchez Fernandez, R.

    2013-07-01

    Ion exchange resins, which are have been stored in various tanks of installation, have been generated during the operation of the Nuclear Power Plant of Kozloduy (Bulgaria). Before putting them in containers, the resins should be characterized physically, chemically and radiologically to ensure they comply with the relevant criteria. The particularity of this project is that the resins are stored in large tanks. (Author)

  2. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hung, Alice L; Blazer, Vicki S; Halpern, Marnie E

    2014-04-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  3. MicroRNA Expression in Laser Micro-dissected Breast Cancer Tissue Samples - a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclaman, Edward; Narita, Diana; Anghel, Andrei; Cireap, Natalia; Ilina, Razvan; Sirbu, Ioan Ovidiu; Marian, Catalin

    2017-10-28

    Breast cancer continues to represent a significant public health burden despite outstanding research advances regarding the molecular mechanisms of cancer biology, biomarkers for diagnostics and prognostic and therapeutic management of this disease. The studies of micro RNAs in breast cancer have underlined their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets; however most of these studies are still done on largely heterogeneous whole breast tissue samples. In this pilot study we have investigated the expression of four micro RNAs (miR-21, 145, 155, 92) known to be involved in breast cancer, in homogenous cell populations collected by laser capture microdissection from breast tissue section slides. Micro RNA expression was assessed by real time PCR, and associations with clinical and pathological characteristics were also explored. Our results have confirmed previous associations of miR-21 expression with poor prognosis characteristics of breast cancers such as high stage, large and highly proliferative tumors. No statistically significant associations were found with the other micro RNAs investigated, possibly due to the small sample size of our study. Our results also suggest that miR-484 could be a suitable endogenous control for data normalization in breast tissues, these results needing further confirmation by future studies. In summary, our pilot study showed the feasibility of detecting micro RNAs expression in homogenous laser captured microdissected invasive breast cancer samples, and confirmed some of the previously reported associations with poor prognostic characteristics of breast tumors.

  4. Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in avian species: Utilization of stored samples in the Environmental Specimen Bank of Ehime University (es-Bank)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Higaki, Yumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    The present study determined concentrations and patterns of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in specimens of open sea, and Japanese coastal and inland avian species, which have been stored in the Environmental Specimen Bank of Ehime University (es-Bank), to examine the spatial trends. PBDEs and PCBs were detected in all the muscle samples analyzed, suggesting that PBDE pollution has spread even to the remote open sea areas, as in the case of PCBs. Japanese coastal and inland birds accumulated higher concentrations of PBDEs than open sea birds. In addition, higher PBDE/PCB concentration ratios were observed in Japanese coastal and inland birds than in open sea birds, indicating the input of PBDEs into the Japanese terrestrial environment. Compositions of PBDEs varied among avian species with a predominance of BDE47 or BDE153. This could be due to differences in their habitat, food habit and/or biotransformation capacity of PBDEs. - Open sea birds have been exposed to PBDEs, but the accumulation levels were lower than those in Japanese coastal and inland birds

  5. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japanese autopsy tissue and body fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Tetsuya; Fujimine, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Shaw; Nakano, Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants are components of many plastics and are used in products such as cars, textiles, televisions, and personal computers. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants has increased exponentially during the last three decades. Our objective was to measure the body burden and distribution of PBDEs and to determine the concentrations of the predominant PBDE congeners in samples of liver, bile, adipose tissue, and blood obtained from Japanese autopsy cases. Tissues and body fluids obtained from 20 autopsy cases were analyzed. The levels of 25 PBDE congeners, ranging from tri- to hexa-BDEs, were assessed. The geometric means of the sum of the concentrations of PBDE congeners having detection frequencies >50 % (ΣPBDE) in the blood, liver, bile, and adipose tissue were 2.4, 2.6, 1.4, and 4.3 ng/g lipid, respectively. The most abundant congeners were BDE-47 and BDE-153, followed by BDE-100, BDE-99, and BDE-28+33. These concentrations of PBDE congeners were similar to other reports of human exposure in Japan but were notably lower than concentrations than those reported in the USA. Significant positive correlations were observed between the concentrations of predominant congeners and ΣPBDE among the samples analyzed. The ΣPBDE concentration was highest in the adipose tissue, but PBDEs were distributed widely among the tissues and body fluids analyzed. The PBDE levels observed in the present study are similar to those reported in previous studies in Japan and significantly lower than those reported in the USA.

  6. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Taylor, Nigel J; Yadav, Jitender; Aly, Haytham; Legg, James P; Aveling, Terry; Thompson, Graham; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-01-01

    Background Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. Results DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA® Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Conclusion Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants. PMID:15904535

  7. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Taylor, Nigel J; Yadav, Jitender; Aly, Haytham; Legg, James P; Aveling, Terry; Thompson, Graham; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-05-18

    Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants.

  8. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveling Terry

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. Results DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA® Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Conclusion Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants.

  9. The importance of store windows in creating store identity and store attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renko Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While choosing the store, customer first notices the store window and it plays an important role in retailing strategy. Store's window is what customers see first in meeting with the store. Store window design can lead customer to enter the store, and can give a lot of information about store brands and products. Besides the analysis of the way how specific elements of the window design affect customers and their perception, the explanation of their attraction and rejection to customers is given. If we consider the importance of the topics, we can point out the lack of literature about store windows as the communication tool which allow store to communicate with its customers and to create its retailing strategy as well. There is the scientific contribution of this paper. The paper gives theoretical comprehensions completed with the results of the study about the importance of store windows for retailers as well as for customers. Therefore, for the purpose of this paper, a two-phase research study, including a qualitative and a quantitative approach, was used: 1 the qualitative study among retailers which indicated the most important elements of store windows, the level of financial sources invested in the window design, the basis for the decisions about store window design, etc.; 2 the quantitative study on the sample of consumers conducted with on-line questionnaire. Findings suggest that store window attractiveness is the main motif for store visits. The results of the research confirm that by means of store window and its elements (with special emphasis on price and pricing actions retail store sends messages to its consumers.

  10. Evaluation of sample preparation methods and optimization of nickel determination in vegetable tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernando dos Santos Salazar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nickel, although essential to plants, may be toxic to plants and animals. It is mainly assimilated by food ingestion. However, information about the average levels of elements (including Ni in edible vegetables from different regions is still scarce in Brazil. The objectives of this study were to: (a evaluate and optimize a method for preparation of vegetable tissue samples for Ni determination; (b optimize the analytical procedures for determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS and by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption (ETAAS in vegetable samples and (c determine the Ni concentration in vegetables consumed in the cities of Lorena and Taubaté in the Vale do Paraíba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. By means of the analytical technique for determination by ETAAS or FAAS, the results were validated by the test of analyte addition and recovery. The most viable method tested for quantification of this element was HClO4-HNO3 wet digestion. All samples but carrot tissue collected in Lorena contained Ni levels above the permitted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The most disturbing results, requiring more detailed studies, were the Ni concentrations measured in carrot samples from Taubaté, where levels were five times higher than permitted by Brazilian regulations.

  11. Threshold-dependent sample sizes for selenium assessment with stream fish tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource managers are developing assessments of selenium (Se) contamination in freshwater ecosystems based on fish tissue concentrations. We evaluated the effects of sample size (i.e., number of fish per site) on the probability of correctly detecting mean whole-body Se values above a range of potential management thresholds. We modeled Se concentrations as gamma distributions with shape and scale parameters fitting an empirical mean-to-variance relationship in data from southwestern West Virginia, USA (63 collections, 382 individuals). We used parametric bootstrapping techniques to calculate statistical power as the probability of detecting true mean concentrations up to 3 mg Se/kg above management thresholds ranging from 4 to 8 mg Se/kg. Sample sizes required to achieve 80% power varied as a function of management thresholds and Type I error tolerance (α). Higher thresholds required more samples than lower thresholds because populations were more heterogeneous at higher mean Se levels. For instance, to assess a management threshold of 4 mg Se/kg, a sample of eight fish could detect an increase of approximately 1 mg Se/kg with 80% power (given α = 0.05), but this sample size would be unable to detect such an increase from a management threshold of 8 mg Se/kg with more than a coin-flip probability. Increasing α decreased sample size requirements to detect above-threshold mean Se concentrations with 80% power. For instance, at an α-level of 0.05, an 8-fish sample could detect an increase of approximately 2 units above a threshold of 8 mg Se/kg with 80% power, but when α was relaxed to 0.2, this sample size was more sensitive to increasing mean Se concentrations, allowing detection of an increase of approximately 1.2 units with equivalent power. Combining individuals into 2- and 4-fish composite samples for laboratory analysis did not decrease power because the reduced number of laboratory samples was compensated for by increased

  12. Determination of 35S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

    1981-01-01

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to [ 35 S]methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of 35 S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of [ 35 S]methionine. The use of [ 35 S]methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of 35 S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed

  13. Determination of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

    1981-11-15

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to (/sup 35/S)methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of (/sup 35/S)methionine. The use of (/sup 35/S)methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of /sup 35/S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed.

  14. Risk for molecular contamination of tissue samples evaluated for targeted anti-cancer therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Asor

    Full Text Available With the increasing usage of sensitive PCR technology for pharmacogenetics, cross contamination becomes a significant concern. Researchers employed techniques which basically include replacing laboratory equipment after each sample preparation; however, there are no recommended guidelines. In the present work we wanted to evaluate the risk of cross contamination during tissue processing using the routine precaution measures. Twenty-one surgical samples of lung adenocarcinoma were used, of which 7 contained EGFR exon 19 mutation, 7 contained EGFR exon 21 mutation (p.L858R and 7 were EGFR wild-type. The samples were ordered by alternating the mutation group to maximize the potential for cross contamination and underwent tissue sectioning and de-paraffinization. The entire process was performed using the same tools. Following DNA extraction all samples underwent PCR amplification and were scrutinized for small fractions of EGFR mutation using deep sequencing with the Ion torrent PGM technology. Twenty samples yielded results. The fraction of mutated copies was 41 ± 23% (range 11-66 for the cases with known exon 19 mutation and 48±24% (range 0-65 for the cases with known exon 21 mutations. No in-frame exon 19 deletion mutations were identified in the wild-type (WT and exon 21 groups. The fraction of EGFR exon 21 (codon 858 mutations was 0.018±0.014% (range 0-0.05% in the WT and exon 19 groups, which was not statistically different than the background sequencing artifact noise for the same base-pair alteration (p = 0.21. Our results suggest that standard precautions are sufficient for molecular pathology diagnosis of surgical samples and are not associated with increased risk of cross contamination.

  15. Evaluation of Chromosomal Disorders in Tissue and Blood Samples in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parvaneroo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Many studies have indicated that genetic disturbances are common findings in patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. Identification of these changes can be helpful in diagnostic procedures of these tumors.Purpose: The aim of this study was to appraise the chromosomal disorders in blood and tissue patients with OSCC.Methods and Materials: In this descriptive study, the study group consisted of all OSCC patients who were referred to the Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Shariati Hospital, and Amir Aalam Hospital fromSeptember 2000 to November 2002. In order to study chromosomal disorders in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, 5 mL of blood was obtained from each patient In patients with the large lesion, a piece of involved tissue were obtained and cultured for 24 hours.This led to 29 blood samples and 16 tissue specimens and any relation between OSCC and age, sex, smoking and alcohol use were evaluated.Results: In this study, OSCC was more common in males than in females (3 to 5. 31% of our patients were smokers, and one had a history of alcoholic consumption. There was an increase in incidence of OSCC with age. In this study, all patients had numerical(aneuploidy, polyploidy and structural chromosomal disorders (double minute, fragment,breakage and dicentric. There was significant difference between blood and tissue chromosomal disorders (aneuploidy, polyploidy,breakage in OSCC patients.Conclusion: It can be concluded that chromosomes in patients with OSCC might show some genetic aberration and evaluation of involved tissue might be better way for determining this disorders.

  16. A workflow to preserve genome-quality tissue samples from plants in botanical gardens and arboreta1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostel, Morgan R.; Kelloff, Carol; Wallick, Kyle; Funk, Vicki A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Internationally, gardens hold diverse living collections that can be preserved for genomic research. Workflows have been developed for genomic tissue sampling in other taxa (e.g., vertebrates), but are inadequate for plants. We outline a workflow for tissue sampling intended for two audiences: botanists interested in genomics research and garden staff who plan to voucher living collections. Methods and Results: Standard herbarium methods are used to collect vouchers, label information and images are entered into a publicly accessible database, and leaf tissue is preserved in silica and liquid nitrogen. A five-step approach for genomic tissue sampling is presented for sampling from living collections according to current best practices. Conclusions: Collecting genome-quality samples from gardens is an economical and rapid way to make available for scientific research tissue from the diversity of plants on Earth. The Global Genome Initiative will facilitate and lead this endeavor through international partnerships. PMID:27672517

  17. Liquid scintillation alpha counting and spectrometry and its application to bone and tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Weiss, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Three methods for determination of alpha-emitting nuclides using liquid scintillation counting are compared, and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Data showing the application of each method to the measurement of plutonium concentration in tissue and bone samples are presented. Counting with a commercial beta-liquid scintillation counter and an aqueous-phase-accepting scintillator is shown to be accurate only in cases where the alpha activity is high (several hundred counts/min or more), only gross alpha counting is desired, and beta-gamma emitters are known to be absent from the sample or present at low levels compared with the alpha activity. Counting with the same equipment and an aqueous immiscible scintillator containing an extractant for the nuclide of interest (extractive scintillator) is shown to allow better control of alpha peak shift due to quenching, a significant reduction of beta-gamma interference, and, usually, a low background. The desirability of using a multichannel pulse-height analyzer in the above two counting methods is stressed. The use of equipment and procedures designed for alpha liquid scintillation counting is shown to allow alpha spectrometry with an energy resolution capability of 200 to 300 keV full-peak-width-at-half-peak-height and a background of 0.3 to 1.0 counts/min, or as low as 0.01 counts/min if pulse-shape discrimination methods are used. Methods for preparing animal bone and tissue samples for assay are described

  18. Identification of multiple mRNA and DNA sequences from small tissue samples isolated by laser-assisted microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsen, M R; Dijkman, H B; de Vries, E; Figdor, C G; Ruiter, D J; Adema, G J; van Muijen, G N

    1998-10-01

    Molecular analysis of small tissue samples has become increasingly important in biomedical studies. Using a laser dissection microscope and modified nucleic acid isolation protocols, we demonstrate that multiple mRNA as well as DNA sequences can be identified from a single-cell sample. In addition, we show that the specificity of procurement of tissue samples is not compromised by smear contamination resulting from scraping of the microtome knife during sectioning of lesions. The procedures described herein thus allow for efficient RT-PCR or PCR analysis of multiple nucleic acid sequences from small tissue samples obtained by laser-assisted microdissection.

  19. Measurement of tissue free water tritium in biological samples by liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei; Zheng Xiaomin

    1993-01-01

    The authors introduced a method of extracting tissue free water tritium (TFWT) by the azeotropic distribution with toluene and of measuring the activity of the TFWT in biological samples by liquid scintillation counter. The TFWT recovery ratio of pine needles (fresh), green vegetables, radish, rice, pork (muscle) and milk is 0.90, 0.95, 0.96, 0.90, 0.52 and 0.85, and TFWT activity is 1.8, 3.2, 1.8, 2.7, 3.3 and 4.0 Bq/L-H 2 O, respectively

  20. The presence of enterovirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus B19 in myocardial tissue samples from autopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Hansen, Jakob; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    of adenovirus, enterovirus, and parvovirus B19 (PVB) in myocardial autopsy samples from myocarditis related deaths and in non-inflamed control hearts in an effort to clarify their significance as the causes of myocarditis in a forensic material. METHODS: We collected all autopsy cases diagnosed with myocarditis...... from 1992 to 2010. Eighty-four suicidal deaths with morphologically normal hearts served as controls. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the viral genomes (adenovirus, enterovirus, and PVB) in myocardial tissue specimens. The distinction between acute and persistent PVB infection...... was made by the serological determination of PVB-specific immunoglobulins M and G. RESULTS: PVB was detected in 33 of 112 (29 %) myocarditis cases and 37 of 84 (44 %) control cases. All of the samples were negative for the presence of adenovirus and enterovirus. Serological evidence of an acute PVB...

  1. DNA-methylation profiling of fetal tissues reveals marked epigenetic differences between chorionic and amniotic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Eckmann-Scholz

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are supposed to play a key role in fetal development. Here we have investigated fetal DNA-methylation levels of 27,578 CpG loci in 47 chorionic villi (CVS and 16 amniotic cell (AC samples. Methylation levels differed significantly between karyotypically normal AC and CVS for 2,014 genes. AC showed more extreme DNA-methylation levels of these genes than CVS and the differentially methylated genes are significantly enriched for processes characteristic for the different cell types sampled. Furthermore, we identified 404 genes differentially methylated in CVS with trisomy 21. These genes were significantly enriched for high CG dinucleotid (CpG content and developmental processes associated with Down syndrome. Our study points to major tissue-specific differences of fetal DNA-methylation and gives rise to the hypothesis that part of the Down syndrome phenotype is epigenetically programmed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  2. Correlates of professional burnout in a sample of employees of cell and tissue banks in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Artur; Rozenek, Hanna; Banasiewicz, Jolanta; Wójtowicz, Stanisław; Błoński, Artur; Owczarek, Krzysztof

    2018-02-03

    Job Demands-Resources model proposes that the development of burnout follows excessive job demands and lack of job resources. Job demands are predictive of feeling of exhaustion, and lack of job resources-disengagement from work. This pilot study investigated professional burnout and its correlates in employees of Polish cell and tissue banks, many of whom were involved in procurement and processing of tissues from deceased donors, as it was hypothesized that job burnout in this population might influence the effectiveness of cell and tissue transplantation network in our country. This study utilized the Polish version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI), which measures the two dimensions of burnout (exhaustion and disengagement), and the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC), a Polish instrument used for monitoring psychosocial stress at work. The study sample consisted of 31 participants. Their average time of working in a cell and tissue bank was 13.20 years. Majority of the PWC scales and subscales scores fell in the Average range, and the OLBI results for the Disengagement and the Exhaustion scales were in the Average range. A number of correlations between the Exhaustion or Disengagement and the PWC scales and subscales were detected, majority of which fell in the Moderate range. In spite of the limited number of participants, the results of this pilot study are consistent with the burnout literature reports. Among the detected correlates of professional burnout, it is job-related support which seems to be the most important factor which may influence the efficacy of transplantation network in Poland.

  3. Biomarker discovery in heterogeneous tissue samples -taking the in-silico deconfounding approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parida Shreemanta K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For heterogeneous tissues, such as blood, measurements of gene expression are confounded by relative proportions of cell types involved. Conclusions have to rely on estimation of gene expression signals for homogeneous cell populations, e.g. by applying micro-dissection, fluorescence activated cell sorting, or in-silico deconfounding. We studied feasibility and validity of a non-negative matrix decomposition algorithm using experimental gene expression data for blood and sorted cells from the same donor samples. Our objective was to optimize the algorithm regarding detection of differentially expressed genes and to enable its use for classification in the difficult scenario of reversely regulated genes. This would be of importance for the identification of candidate biomarkers in heterogeneous tissues. Results Experimental data and simulation studies involving noise parameters estimated from these data revealed that for valid detection of differential gene expression, quantile normalization and use of non-log data are optimal. We demonstrate the feasibility of predicting proportions of constituting cell types from gene expression data of single samples, as a prerequisite for a deconfounding-based classification approach. Classification cross-validation errors with and without using deconfounding results are reported as well as sample-size dependencies. Implementation of the algorithm, simulation and analysis scripts are available. Conclusions The deconfounding algorithm without decorrelation using quantile normalization on non-log data is proposed for biomarkers that are difficult to detect, and for cases where confounding by varying proportions of cell types is the suspected reason. In this case, a deconfounding ranking approach can be used as a powerful alternative to, or complement of, other statistical learning approaches to define candidate biomarkers for molecular diagnosis and prediction in biomedicine, in

  4. Extraction of methylmercury from tissue and plant samples by acid leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintelmann, Holger; Nguyen, Hong T. [Trent University, Chemistry Department, Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient extraction method based on acidic leaching has been developed for measurement of methylmercury (MeHg) in benthic organisms and plant material. Methylmercury was measured by speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), using gas chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Reagent concentration and digestion temperature were optimized for several alkaline and acidic extractants. Recovery was evaluated by addition of MeHg enriched with CH{sub 3}{sup 201}Hg{sup +}. Certified reference materials (CRM) were used to evaluate the efficiency of the procedure. The final digestion method used 5 mL of 4 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} at 55 C to leach MeHg from tissue and plant material. The digest was further processed by aqueous phase ethylation, without interference with the ethylation step, resulting in 96{+-}7% recovery of CH{sub 3}{sup 201}Hg{sup +} from oyster tissue and 93{+-}7% from pine needles. Methylmercury was stable in this solution for at least 1 week and measured concentrations of MeHg in CRM were statistically not different from certified values. The method was applied to real samples of benthic invertebrates and inter-laboratory comparisons were conducted using lyophilized zooplankton, chironomidae, and notonectidae samples. (orig.)

  5. Determination of chromium, cobalt and nickel in tissue samples by radiochemical activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisell, A.; Lakomaa, E.L.

    1983-03-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis method for the determination of chromium, cobalt and nickel in tissue samples. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis method for the determination of chromium, cobalt and nickel has been developed. The destruction device used consisted of a combined wet-ashing-distillation and ion-exchange system. Six samples could be treated at the same time. The samples were wet-ashed with H*L2SO*L4-H*L2O*L2 mixture. Volatile elements were distilled as bromide compounds with HBr*H-. The distillation residue in 8M HCl was passed through hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) in order to remove disturbing *H2*H4Na-activity and through a Dowex 2 x 8 column so as to retain *H6*H0Co (formed from *H5*H8Ni). Chromium was elutriated from the column and precipitated as Cr(OH)*L3 for the removal of disturbing *H3*H2P-activity. The standards and samples were treated in a similar manner each so that the yield determination is not necessarily needed. The yields by tracer experiments were (43 +- 5) % for Cr, (93 +- 4) % for Co and (88 +- 14) % for Ni. The precision and accuracy of the method were studied by using reference materials of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  6. Development of a real-time PCR to detect Demodex canis DNA in different tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Bardagí, Mar; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís

    2011-02-01

    The present study reports the development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Demodex canis DNA on different tissue samples. The technique amplifies a 166 bp of D. canis chitin synthase gene (AB 080667) and it has been successfully tested on hairs extracted with their roots and on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded skin biopsies. The real-time PCR amplified on the hairs of all 14 dogs with a firm diagnosis of demodicosis and consistently failed to amplify on negative controls. Eleven of 12 skin biopsies with a morphologic diagnosis of canine demodicosis were also positive. Sampling hairs on two skin points (lateral face and interdigital skin), D. canis DNA was detected on nine of 51 healthy dogs (17.6%) a much higher percentage than previously reported with microscopic studies. Furthermore, it is foreseen that if the number of samples were increased, the percentage of positive dogs would probably also grow. Moreover, in four of the six dogs with demodicosis, the samples taken from non-lesioned skin were positive. This finding, if confirmed in further studies, suggests that demodicosis is a generalized phenomenon in canine skin, due to proliferation of local mite populations, even though macroscopic lesions only appear in certain areas. The real-time PCR technique to detect D. canis DNA described in this work is a useful tool to advance our understanding of canine demodicosis.

  7. Endoductal tissue sampling of biliary strictures through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopan creatography (ERCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, V; Antonelli, G; Vincenti, M; Gatteschi, B

    1997-01-01

    Pathological proof of malignant in biliary strictures is useful in the preoperative setting as it helps define therapeutic planning and prognosis, and reduces the length of the subsequent surgical intervention. However, it is difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of histological and cytological examination of endobiliary samples obtained during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Endobiliary forceps biopsy and brush cytology were performed during ERCP examination in 52 consecutive patients, 36 with malignant and 16 with benign strictures. Histology and cytology turned out to have the same sensitivity (53%). The gain in sensitivity achieved by combining the two techniques was limited, reaching a value of 61%. The specificity, however, was 100% for both methods. Most of the few complications observed were due to sphincterotomy and subsided spontaneously or with medical treatment. However, one patient experienced a serous complication and chose to be treated by surgical intervention. The complication was caused by forceps biopsy. This study shows that 1) sampling of biliary strictures during ERCP is the primary approach to tissue diagnosis; 2) brush cytology alone is sufficient in clinical practice; 3) forceps biopsy must always be used to sample intra-ampullary strictures but should be considered as a secondary step to sample strictures located more proximally, in the bile ducta, if previous cytology was negative.

  8. Binding of (/sup 3/H) progesterone to normal and neoplastic tissue samples from tumour bearing breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollow, K; Sinnecker, R; Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M; Boquoi, E; Pollow, B [Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Biochemie, Frauenklinik Charlottenburg der Freien Universitat, Berlin (G.F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    Macromolecular components of normal human mammary cytosol (obtained from 'non-malignant tissue samples' from cancer bearing breasts) which bind (/sup 3/H)progesterone in vitro were characterized by sucrose gradient centrifugation, gel filtration on Agarose, ion exchange chromatography, isoelectric focusing, competition studies and kinetic parameters. The size of the cytoplasmic binding components vary with the concentration of KCl. In the absence of KCl, the major components are characterized by sedimentation coefficients of about 4 S and 8 S. In solutions containing 0.3M KCl, the cytoplasmic components sediment at 4 S in sucrose gradient. The corticosteroid-binding component of normal human mammary cytosol both sediment at about the same rate in the presence of 0.3M KCl and chromatograph as a single component on Agarose. The isoelectric point of the progesterone-binding component of normal human mammary cytosol was located around pH 5.0. The progesterone-binding component was more thermo-labile than serum CBG. CBG was inactivated at temperatures above 45 deg C but temperature above 20 deg C destroyed specific progesterone receptor binding. Progesterone receptor concentrations in normal mammary cytosol of premenopausal women depended on the menstrual cycle. The binding of progesterone was highest around the time of ovulation. In breast tumor tissue samples the progesterone receptor concentration was lower than in the normal mammary cytosol (obtained in each case from the same tumor-bearing breast). In 5 out of 37 breast tumor samples progesterone binding activity could not be detected.

  9. Multimodal Raman-fluorescence spectroscopy of formalin fixed samples is able to discriminate brain tumors from dysplastic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years, there has been a considerable surge in the application of spectroscopy for disease diagnosis. Raman and fluorescence spectra provide characteristic spectral profile related to biochemical and morphological changes when tissues progress from normal state towards malignancy. Spectroscopic techniques offer the advantage of being minimally invasive compared to traditional histopathology, real time and quantitative. In biomedical optical diagnostics, freshly excised specimens are preferred for making ex-vivo spectroscopic measurements. With regard to fresh tissues, if the lab is located far away from the clinic it could pose a problem as spectral measurements have to be performed immediately after dissection. Tissue samples are usually placed in a fixative agent such as 4% formaldehyde to preserve the samples before processing them for routine histopathological studies. Fixation prevents the tissues from decomposition by arresting autolysis. In the present study, we intend to investigate the possibility of using formalin fixed samples for discrimination of brain tumours from dysplastic tissue using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Formalin fixed samples were washed with phosphate buffered saline for about 5 minutes in order to remove the effects of formalin during spectroscopic measurements. In case of fluorescence spectroscopy, changes in spectral profile have been observed in the region between 550-670 nm between dysplastic and tumor samples. For Raman measurements, we found significant differences in the spectral profiles between dysplasia and tumor. In conclusion, formalin fixed samples can be potentially used for the spectroscopic discrimination of tumor against dysplastic tissue in brain samples.

  10. Leptine: an hormone secreted by adipose tissue. First study in Uruguayan population sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisabarro, Raul; Irrazabal, Ernesto; Recalde, Alicia; Barrios, Enrique; Arocena, Beatriz; Garcia Loriente, Jose Maria; Lorenzo Bonifazio, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The recent discovery of leptine, an hormone secreted by adipose tissue which modulates the energetic expenditure has signified a gigantic advance in studying obesity facts. In spite of a recent description of absence of leptine in humans, the obesity human model answers to leptine resistance. In this paper, we revise the actual concepts and show leptine values of a sample of 101 middle aged uruguayans, male and female, of normal weight and over weighted (table 1), correlated with corporal mass index (CMI) as an indirect measure of total body fat and waist diameter as an indirect measure of visceral fat, and hips (periferical fat). Bioimpedance studies were carried out to get the corporal composition. Results: good correlation between corporal fat and leptine, but fat distribution was not found representative. All in all, this data set confirms the correlation between leptine and total body fat mass

  11. Experimental investigations into sample preparation of Alzheimer tissue specimens for nuclear microprobe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, T [CEC-JRC, Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Tapper, U A.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Lund Inst. of Science and Tech. (Sweden); Sturesson, K; Brun, A [Div. of Neuropathology, Dept. of Pathology, Lund University Hospital (Sweden)

    1991-03-01

    Nuclear microprobe analysis was applied to the study of elemental distribution in brains sections of patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Stained and nonstained cryosections were studied. The work carried out shows that serious elemental losses follow the sample staining procedure. Major losses occurred in a simple rinse of the tissue section, probably reducing most of the in-vivo gradients, which show that generally very little information can be gained from stained sections. However, in many cases stained sections are compulsory because of the requirement to recognize the area which is to be studied. All the elemental maps obtained for the neurofibrillary deposits indicate a localized concentration for Si and probably also Al, associated with the senile plaque core. Neither of these elements were found in the staining solutions used. The validity of the results is discussed as well as the possible link of Al and/or Si in the development of Alzheimer's desease. (orig.).

  12. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samani, Abbas; Zubovits, Judit; Plewes, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed

  13. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samani, Abbas [Department of Medical Biophysics/Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, Medical Sciences Building, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Zubovits, Judit [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Plewes, Donald [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-03-21

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.

  14. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Abbas; Zubovits, Judit; Plewes, Donald

    2007-03-01

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.

  15. A probe-based quantitative PCR assay for detecting Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in fish tissue and environmental DNA water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Patrick; Sepulveda, Adam; Martin, Renee; Hopper, Lacey

    2017-01-01

    A probe-based quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to detect Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which causes proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish, in kidney tissue and environmental DNA (eDNA) water samples. The limits of detection and quantification were 7 and 100 DNA copies for calibration standards and T. bryosalmonae was reliably detected down to 100 copies in tissue and eDNA samples. The assay presented here is a highly sensitive and quantitative tool for detecting T. bryosalmonae with potential applications for tissue diagnostics and environmental detection.

  16. A random sampling approach for robust estimation of tissue-to-plasma ratio from extremely sparse data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-May; Ette, Ene I

    2005-09-02

    his study was performed to develop a new nonparametric approach for the estimation of robust tissue-to-plasma ratio from extremely sparsely sampled paired data (ie, one sample each from plasma and tissue per subject). Tissue-to-plasma ratio was estimated from paired/unpaired experimental data using independent time points approach, area under the curve (AUC) values calculated with the naïve data averaging approach, and AUC values calculated using sampling based approaches (eg, the pseudoprofile-based bootstrap [PpbB] approach and the random sampling approach [our proposed approach]). The random sampling approach involves the use of a 2-phase algorithm. The convergence of the sampling/resampling approaches was investigated, as well as the robustness of the estimates produced by different approaches. To evaluate the latter, new data sets were generated by introducing outlier(s) into the real data set. One to 2 concentration values were inflated by 10% to 40% from their original values to produce the outliers. Tissue-to-plasma ratios computed using the independent time points approach varied between 0 and 50 across time points. The ratio obtained from AUC values acquired using the naive data averaging approach was not associated with any measure of uncertainty or variability. Calculating the ratio without regard to pairing yielded poorer estimates. The random sampling and pseudoprofile-based bootstrap approaches yielded tissue-to-plasma ratios with uncertainty and variability. However, the random sampling approach, because of the 2-phase nature of its algorithm, yielded more robust estimates and required fewer replications. Therefore, a 2-phase random sampling approach is proposed for the robust estimation of tissue-to-plasma ratio from extremely sparsely sampled data.

  17. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  18. Quality control in diagnostic molecular pathology in the Netherlands; proficiency testing for patient identification in tissue samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, F. B. J. M.; Tilanus, M. G. J.; Ligtenberg, M. J. L.; Nederlof, P. M.; Dinjens, W. N. M.; Meulemans, E.; van den Brule, A. J. C.; van Noesel, C. J. M.; de Leeuw, W. J. F.; Schuuring, E.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To describe the evolution of proficiency testing for molecular diagnostic pathology with respect to determining unambiguously the patient identity of tissue samples by microsatellite analysis. Method: Four rounds of quality control exchanges of samples from different patients were sent with

  19. Methadone Recycling Sustains Drug Reservoir in Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Oscar A; Fudin, Jeffrey; Daly, Annemarie; Schiesser, William E; Boston, Raymond C

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesize that there is a tissue store of methadone content in humans that is not directly accessible, but is quantifiable. Further, we hypothesize the mechanism by which methadone content is sustained in tissue stores involves methadone uptake, storage, and release from tissue depots in the body (recycling). Accordingly, we hypothesize that such tissue stores, in part, determine plasma methadone levels. We studied a random sample of six opioid-naïve healthy subjects. We performed a clinical trial simulation in silico using pharmacokinetic modeling. We found a large tissue store of methadone content whose size was much larger than methadone's size in plasma in response to a single oral dose of methadone 10 mg. The tissue store measured 13-17 mg. This finding could only be explained by the contemporaneous storage of methadone in tissue with dose recycling. We found that methadone recycles 2-5 times through an inaccessible extravascular compartment (IAC), from an accessible plasma-containing compartment (AC), before exiting irreversibly. We estimate the rate of accumulation (or storage) of methadone in tissue was 0.029-7.29 mg/h. We predict 39 ± 13% to 83 ± 6% of methadone's tissue stores "spillover" into the circulation. Our results indicate that there exists a large quantifiable tissue store of methadone in humans. Our results support the notion that methadone in humans undergoes tissue uptake, storage, release into the circulation, reuptake from the circulation, and re-release into the circulation, and that spillover of methadone from tissue stores, in part, maintain plasma methadone levels in humans.

  20. TO STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2001-01-01

    Stores users are informed that the Stores (Central, Emergency window, Raw materials, Chemical products and Prévessin Self service stores) will be closed on Friday, 7 December owing to migration of the Stores computers to Windows 2000. Thank you for your understanding.

  1. Gene expression profiling of human breast tissue samples using SAGE-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua Jeremy; Meyer, Clifford A; Choudhury, Sibgat; Shipitsin, Michail; Maruyama, Reo; Bessarabova, Marina; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Sukumar, Saraswati; Schwartzman, Armin; Liu, Jun S; Polyak, Kornelia; Liu, X Shirley

    2010-12-01

    We present a powerful application of ultra high-throughput sequencing, SAGE-Seq, for the accurate quantification of normal and neoplastic mammary epithelial cell transcriptomes. We develop data analysis pipelines that allow the mapping of sense and antisense strands of mitochondrial and RefSeq genes, the normalization between libraries, and the identification of differentially expressed genes. We find that the diversity of cancer transcriptomes is significantly higher than that of normal cells. Our analysis indicates that transcript discovery plateaus at 10 million reads/sample, and suggests a minimum desired sequencing depth around five million reads. Comparison of SAGE-Seq and traditional SAGE on normal and cancerous breast tissues reveals higher sensitivity of SAGE-Seq to detect less-abundant genes, including those encoding for known breast cancer-related transcription factors and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). SAGE-Seq is able to identify genes and pathways abnormally activated in breast cancer that traditional SAGE failed to call. SAGE-Seq is a powerful method for the identification of biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human disease.

  2. Molecular diagnosis of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis from fresh tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Kamran; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash Mandya; Das, Ashim; Panda, Naresh; Honnavar, Prasanna; Kaur, Harsimran; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate a PCR-based technique for the diagnosis of mucormycosis and the identification of fungi from fresh tissue specimens in patients with rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis (ROCM). Fifty cases of ROCM were included in the study. Conventional identification was performed using microscopy and culture. Molecular diagnosis was performed by amplifying the ribosomal DNA using pan-fungal ITS primers and semi-nested Mucorales-specific primers of the 18S region. The amplified products were sequenced to identify the agents. The utility of PCR-RFLP of the 18S region of rDNA was evaluated to identify the Mucorales. The ROCM cases were diagnosed by the demonstration of aseptate ribbon-like hyphae in biopsy specimens collected from the patients. Isolation was possible in 24 (48 %) samples. The ITS2 PCR confirmed mucormycosis in 27 cases (54 %; CI 59.4-68.2). By comparison, Mucorales-specific PCR was able to amplify DNA and the sequence enabled the identification of Mucorales speciesin all the patients. PCR-RFLP of the 18S region of rDNA could only identify the agent to genus level. The molecular technique was able to identify Mucorales species in 26 (42 %) cases that were negative by culture. Mucorales-specific semi-nested PCR targeting the 18S region is a better technique than ITS2 PCR for diagnosis. PCR-RFLP of the 18S region helps in identification to genus level.

  3. Grinding and polishing instead of sectioning for the tissue samples with a graft: Implications for light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamadiyarov, Rinat A; Sevostyanova, Victoria V; Shishkova, Daria K; Nokhrin, Andrey V; Sidorova, Olga D; Kutikhin, Anton G

    2016-06-01

    A broad use of the graft replacement requires a detailed investigation of the host-graft interaction, including both histological examination and electron microscopy. A high quality sectioning of the host tissue with a graft seems to be complicated; in addition, it is difficult to examine the same tissue area by both of the mentioned microscopy techniques. To solve these problems, we developed a new technique of epoxy resin embedding with the further grinding, polishing, and staining. Graft-containing tissues prepared by grinding and polishing preserved their structure; however, sectioning frequently required the explantation of the graft and led to tissue disintegration. Moreover, stained samples prepared by grinding and polishing may then be assessed by both light microscopy and backscattered scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, grinding and polishing outperform sectioning when applied to the tissues with a graft. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Micro-PIXE on thin plant tissue samples in frozen hydrated state: A novel addition to JSI nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavpetič, P.; Pelicon, P.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Grlj, N.; Pongrac, P.; Jeromel, L.; Ogrinc, N.; Regvar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently we completed a construction of a cryostat at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe enabling us to analyze various types of biological samples in frozen hydrated state using micro-PIXE/STIM/RBS. Sample load-lock system was added to our existing setup to enable us to quickly insert a sample holder with frozen hydrated tissue samples onto a cold goniometer head cooled with liquid nitrogen inside the measuring chamber. Cryotome-cut slices of frozen hydrated plant samples were mounted between two thin silicon nitride foils and then attached to the sample holder. Sufficient thermal contact between silicon nitride foils and sample holder must be achieved, as well as between the sample holder and the cold goniometer head inside the measuring chamber to prevent melting of the samples. Matrix composition of frozen hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Thinning of the sample as well as water evaporation during high vacuum and proton beam exposure was inspected by the measurements with RBS and STIM method simultaneously with micro-PIXE. For first measuring attempts a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping was used with proton beam cross section of 1.2 × 1.2 μm 2 and a beam current of 100 pA. The temperature of the cold goniometer head was kept below 130 K throughout the entire proton beam exposure. First measurements of thin plant tissue samples in frozen hydrated state show minute sample degradation during the 10 h period of micro-PIXE measurements

  5. A comparison of sample preparation strategies for biological tissues and subsequent trace element analysis using LA-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonta, Maximilian; Török, Szilvia; Hegedus, Balazs; Döme, Balazs; Limbeck, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is one of the most commonly applied methods for lateral trace element distribution analysis in medical studies. Many improvements of the technique regarding quantification and achievable lateral resolution have been achieved in the last years. Nevertheless, sample preparation is also of major importance and the optimal sample preparation strategy still has not been defined. While conventional histology knows a number of sample pre-treatment strategies, little is known about the effect of these approaches on the lateral distributions of elements and/or their quantities in tissues. The technique of formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) has emerged as the gold standard in tissue preparation. However, the potential use for elemental distribution studies is questionable due to a large number of sample preparation steps. In this work, LA-ICP-MS was used to examine the applicability of the FFPE sample preparation approach for elemental distribution studies. Qualitative elemental distributions as well as quantitative concentrations in cryo-cut tissues as well as FFPE samples were compared. Results showed that some metals (especially Na and K) are severely affected by the FFPE process, whereas others (e.g., Mn, Ni) are less influenced. Based on these results, a general recommendation can be given: FFPE samples are completely unsuitable for the analysis of alkaline metals. When analyzing transition metals, FFPE samples can give comparable results to snap-frozen tissues. Graphical abstract Sample preparation strategies for biological tissues are compared with regard to the elemental distributions and average trace element concentrations.

  6. Equilibrium Passive Sampling of POP in Lipid-Rich and Lean Fish Tissue: Quality Control Using Performance Reference Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusina, Tatsiana P; Carlsson, Pernilla; Vrana, Branislav; Smedes, Foppe

    2017-10-03

    Passive sampling is widely used to measure levels of contaminants in various environmental matrices, including fish tissue. Equilibrium passive sampling (EPS) of persistent organic pollutants (POP) in fish tissue has been hitherto limited to application in lipid-rich tissue. We tested several exposure methods to extend EPS applicability to lean tissue. Thin-film polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were exposed statically to intact fillet and fish homogenate and dynamically by rolling with cut fillet cubes. The release of performance reference compounds (PRC) dosed to passive samplers prior to exposure was used to monitor the exchange process. The sampler-tissue exchange was isotropic, and PRC were shown to be good indicators of sampler-tissue equilibration status. The dynamic exposures demonstrated equilibrium attainment in less than 2 days for all three tested fish species, including lean fish containing 1% lipid. Lipid-based concentrations derived from EPS were in good agreement with lipid-normalized concentrations obtained using conventional solvent extraction. The developed in-tissue EPS method is robust and has potential for application in chemical monitoring of biota and bioaccumulation studies.

  7. Measurement of microparticle tissue factor activity in clinical samples: A summary of two tissue factor-dependent FXa generation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, Yohei; Alexander, Wyeth; Kasthuri, Raj; Voorhees, Peter; Mobarrez, Fariborz; Taylor, Angela; McNamara, Coleen; Wallen, Hakan; Witkowski, Marco; Key, Nigel S; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Detection of a prothrombotic state using biomarkers would be of great benefit to identify patients at risk of thrombosis that would benefit from thromboprophylaxis. Tissue factor (TF) is a highly procoagulant protein that under normal conditions is not present in the blood. However, increased levels of TF in the blood in the form of microparticles (MPs) (also called extracellular vesicles) are observed under various pathological conditions. In this review, we will discuss studies that have measured MP-TF activity in a variety of diseases using two similar FXa generation assay. One of the most robust signals for MP-TF activity (16-26 fold higher than healthy controls) is observed in pancreatic cancer patients with venous thromboembolism. In this case, the TF+ MPs appear to be derived from the cancer cells. Surprisingly, cirrhosis and acute liver injury are associated with 17-fold and 38-fold increases in MP-TF activity, respectively. Based on mouse models, we speculate that the TF+ MPs are derived from hepatocytes. More modest increases are observed in patients with urinary tract infections (6-fold) and in a human endotoxemia model (9-fold) where monocytes are the likely source of the TF+ MPs. Finally, there is no increase in MP-TF activity in the majority of cardiovascular disease patients. These studies indicate that MP-TF activity may be a useful biomarker to identify patients with particular diseases that have an increased risk of thrombosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An unsupervised MVA method to compare specific regions in human breast tumor tissue samples using ToF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestein, Blake M; Morrish, Fionnuala; Graham, Daniel J; Guenthoer, Jamie; Hockenbery, David; Porter, Peggy L; Gamble, Lara J

    2016-03-21

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to investigate two sets of pre- and post-chemotherapy human breast tumor tissue sections to characterize lipids associated with tumor metabolic flexibility and response to treatment. The micron spatial resolution imaging capability of ToF-SIMS provides a powerful approach to attain spatially-resolved molecular and cellular data from cancerous tissues not available with conventional imaging techniques. Three ca. 1 mm(2) areas per tissue section were analyzed by stitching together 200 μm × 200 μm raster area scans. A method to isolate and analyze specific tissue regions of interest by utilizing PCA of ToF-SIMS images is presented, which allowed separation of cellularized areas from stromal areas. These PCA-generated regions of interest were then used as masks to reconstruct representative spectra from specifically stromal or cellular regions. The advantage of this unsupervised selection method is a reduction in scatter in the spectral PCA results when compared to analyzing all tissue areas or analyzing areas highlighted by a pathologist. Utilizing this method, stromal and cellular regions of breast tissue biopsies taken pre- versus post-chemotherapy demonstrate chemical separation using negatively-charged ion species. In this sample set, the cellular regions were predominantly all cancer cells. Fatty acids (i.e. palmitic, oleic, and stearic), monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and vitamin E profiles were distinctively different between the pre- and post-therapy tissues. These results validate a new unsupervised method to isolate and interpret biochemically distinct regions in cancer tissues using imaging ToF-SIMS data. In addition, the method developed here can provide a framework to compare a variety of tissue samples using imaging ToF-SIMS, especially where there is section-to-section variability that makes it difficult to use a serial hematoxylin

  9. Comparison of ESR1 Mutations in Tumor Tissue and Matched Plasma Samples from Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Takeshita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ESR1 mutation in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA is emerging as a noninvasive biomarker of acquired resistance to endocrine therapy, but there is a paucity of data comparing the status of ESR1 gene in cfDNA with that in its corresponding tumor tissue. The objective of this study is to validate the degree of concordance of ESR1 mutations between plasma and tumor tissue. METHODS: ESR1 ligand-binding domain mutations Y537S, Y537N, Y537C, and D538G were analyzed using droplet digital PCR in 35 patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC (35 tumor tissue samples and 67 plasma samples. RESULTS: Of the 35 paired samples, 26 (74.3% were concordant: one patient had detectable ESR1 mutations both plasma (ESR1 Y537S/Y537N and tumor tissue (ESR1 Y537S/Y537C, and 25 had WT ESR1 alleles in both. Nine (25.7% had discordance between the plasma and tissue results: five had mutations detected only in their tumor tissue (two Y537S, one Y537C, one D538G, and one Y537S/Y537N/D538G, and four had mutations detected only in their plasma (one Y537S, one Y537N, and two Y537S/Y537N/D538G. Furthermore, longitudinal plasma samples from 19 patients were used to assess changes in the presence of ESR1 mutations during treatment. Eleven patients had cfDNA ESR1 mutations over the course of treatment. A total of eight of 11 patients with MBC with cfDNA ESR1 mutations (72.7% had the polyclonal mutations. CONCLUSION: We have shown the independent distribution of ESR1 mutations between plasma and tumor tissue in 35 patients with MBC.

  10. Selection of reference genes for tissue/organ samples on day 3 fifth-instar larvae in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Genhong; Chen, Yanfei; Zhang, Xiaoying; Bai, Bingchuan; Yan, Hao; Qin, Daoyuan; Xia, Qingyou

    2018-06-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the world's most economically important insect. Surveying variations in gene expression among multiple tissue/organ samples will provide clues for gene function assignments and will be helpful for identifying genes related to economic traits or specific cellular processes. To ensure their accuracy, commonly used gene expression quantification methods require a set of stable reference genes for data normalization. In this study, 24 candidate reference genes were assessed in 10 tissue/organ samples of day 3 fifth-instar B. mori larvae using geNorm and NormFinder. The results revealed that, using the combination of the expression of BGIBMGA003186 and BGIBMGA008209 was the optimum choice for normalizing the expression data of the B. mori tissue/organ samples. The most stable gene, BGIBMGA003186, is recommended if just one reference gene is used. Moreover, the commonly used reference gene encoding cytoplasmic actin was the least appropriate reference gene of the samples investigated. The reliability of the selected reference genes was further confirmed by evaluating the expression profiles of two cathepsin genes. Our results may be useful for future studies involving the quantification of relative gene expression levels of different tissue/organ samples in B. mori. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and ex-vivo carotid artery samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Marjan; Luk, Timothy W.H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Siegler, Peter; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kolios, Michael C.; Yang, Victor X.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) in an inhomogeneous phantom and carotid artery samples based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs duration, applying acoustic radiation force (ARF) to inhomogeneous phantoms and carotid artery samples, synchronized with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) imaging system. The phantoms were composed of gelatin and titanium dioxide whereas the carotid artery samples were embedded in gel. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, detected the microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms and samples of different stiffness. We present the technique for calculating tissue mechanical properties by propagating shear waves in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and carotid artery samples using the ARF of an ultrasound transducer, and measuring the shear wave speed and its associated properties in the different layers with OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo studies of mechanical property measurements of biological tissues such as vascular tissues, where normal and pathological structures may exhibit significant contrast in the shear modulus. PMID:24688822

  12. Clinical evaluation of a Mucorales-specific real-time PCR assay in tissue and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Jan; Lackner, Michaela; Ensinger, Christian; Risslegger, Brigitte; Morton, Charles Oliver; Nachbaur, David; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Einsele, Hermann; Heinz, Werner J; Loeffler, Juergen

    2016-12-01

    Molecular diagnostic assays can accelerate the diagnosis of fungal infections and subsequently improve patient outcomes. In particular, the detection of infections due to Mucorales is still challenging for laboratories and physicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate a probe-based Mucorales-specific real-time PCR assay (Muc18S) using tissue and serum samples from patients suffering from invasive mucormycosis (IMM). This assay can detect a broad range of clinically relevant Mucorales species and can be used to complement existing diagnostic tests or to screen high-risk patients. An advantage of the Muc18S assay is that it exclusively detects Mucorales species allowing the diagnosis of Mucorales DNA without sequencing within a few hours. In paraffin-embedded tissue samples this PCR-based method allowed rapid identification of Mucorales in comparison with standard methods and showed 91 % sensitivity in the IMM tissue samples. We also evaluated serum samples, an easily accessible material, from patients at risk from IMM. Mucorales DNA was detected in all patients with probable/proven IMM (100 %) and in 29 % of the possible cases. Detection of IMM in serum could enable an earlier diagnosis (up to 21 days) than current methods including tissue samples, which were gained mainly post-mortem. A screening strategy for high-risk patients, which would enable targeted treatment to improve patient outcomes, is therefore possible.

  13. Sample processing, protocol, and statistical analysis of the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) of protein, cell, and tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Goncalo; Soininen, Antti; Sillat, Tarvo; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Kaivosoja, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is increasingly being used in analysis of biological samples. For example, it has been applied to distinguish healthy and osteoarthritic human cartilage. This chapter discusses ToF-SIMS principle and instrumentation including the three modes of analysis in ToF-SIMS. ToF-SIMS sets certain requirements for the samples to be analyzed; for example, the samples have to be vacuum compatible. Accordingly, sample processing steps for different biological samples, i.e., proteins, cells, frozen and paraffin-embedded tissues and extracellular matrix for the ToF-SIMS are presented. Multivariate analysis of the ToF-SIMS data and the necessary data preprocessing steps (peak selection, data normalization, mean-centering, and scaling and transformation) are discussed in this chapter.

  14. Development and application of specific cytokine assays in tissue samples from a bottlenose dolphin with hyperinsulinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Postmortem hepatic and splenic tissue from a 46-year old geriatric male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with insulin resistance (chronic hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia) , chronic = inflamma...

  15. Towards the Development of Proteomics Workflows for the Analysis of Samples Derived from Refractory Plant Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Thannhauser, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Carrying out proteomic analyses in plant tissues involves dealing with a number of specialized challenges that can make protein extraction and quantification significantly more difficult than in other organisms. In addition to having relatively low protein concentrations, plant tissues are often rich in proteases, protease inhibitors and other materials that impede protein analysis. These compounds include lipids, tannins, polysaccharides, and a large variety of secondary metabolites. The ext...

  16. Biomedical analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples: The Holy Grail for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczo, Boglarka; Guttman, Andras

    2018-06-05

    More than a century ago in 1893, a revolutionary idea about fixing biological tissue specimens was introduced by Ferdinand Blum, a German physician. Since then, a plethora of fixation methods have been investigated and used. Formalin fixation with paraffin embedment became the most widely used types of fixation and preservation method, due to its proper architectural conservation of tissue structures and cellular shape. The huge collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sample archives worldwide holds a large amount of unearthed information about diseases that could be the Holy Grail in contemporary biomarker research utilizing analytical omics based molecular diagnostics. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the omics options for FFPE tissue sample analysis in the molecular diagnostics field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Sugar and acid interconversion in tomato fruits based on biopsy sampling of locule gel and pericarp tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Woltering, E.J.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with quantifying sugar and acids levels important for the perceived taste of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum). Sugar and acids levels were measured repeatedly on the same tomato using tissue samples obtained with a biopsy needle in combination with HPLC protocols. Biopsies of

  18. A vocabulary for the identification and delineation of teratoma tissue components in hematoxylin and eosin-stained samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthy Bhagavatula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodology for the design of features mimicking the visual cues used by pathologists when identifying tissues in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E-stained samples. Background: H&E staining is the gold standard in clinical histology; it is cheap and universally used, producing a vast number of histopathological samples. While pathologists accurately and consistently identify tissues and their pathologies, it is a time-consuming and expensive task, establishing the need for automated algorithms for improved throughput and robustness. Methods: We use an iterative feedback process to design a histopathology vocabulary (HV, a concise set of features that mimic the visual cues used by pathologists, e.g. "cytoplasm color" or "nucleus density." These features are based in histology and understood by both pathologists and engineers. We compare our HV to several generic texture-feature sets in a pixel-level classification algorithm. Results: Results on delineating and identifying tissues in teratoma tumor samples validate our expert knowledge-based approach. Conclusions: The HV can be an effective tool for identifying and delineating teratoma components from images of H&E-stained tissue samples.

  19. NACS Store Planning Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed by the NACS Store Planning/Renovation Committees in this updated version of the college store renovation manual include: short- and long-range planning, financial considerations, professional planning assistance, the store's image and business character, location considerations, building requirements, space requirements, fixtures,…

  20. Measurement of characteristic prompt gamma rays emitted from oxygen and carbon in tissue-equivalent samples during proton beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polf, Jerimy C; Panthi, Rajesh; Mackin, Dennis S; McCleskey, Matt; Saastamoinen, Antti; Roeder, Brian T; Beddar, Sam

    2013-09-07

    The purpose of this work was to characterize how prompt gamma (PG) emission from tissue changes as a function of carbon and oxygen concentration, and to assess the feasibility of determining elemental concentration in tissues irradiated with proton beams. For this study, four tissue-equivalent water-sucrose samples with differing densities and concentrations of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen were irradiated with a 48 MeV proton pencil beam. The PG spectrum emitted from each sample was measured using a high-purity germanium detector, and the absolute detection efficiency of the detector, average beam current, and delivered dose distribution were also measured. Changes to the total PG emission from (12)C (4.44 MeV) and (16)O (6.13 MeV) per incident proton and per Gray of absorbed dose were characterized as a function of carbon and oxygen concentration in the sample. The intensity of the 4.44 MeV PG emission per incident proton was found to be nearly constant for all samples regardless of their carbon concentration. However, we found that the 6.13 MeV PG emission increased linearly with the total amount (in grams) of oxygen irradiated in the sample. From the measured PG data, we determined that 1.64 × 10(7) oxygen PGs were emitted per gram of oxygen irradiated per Gray of absorbed dose delivered with a 48 MeV proton beam. These results indicate that the 6.13 MeV PG emission from (16)O is proportional to the concentration of oxygen in tissue irradiated with proton beams, showing that it is possible to determine the concentration of oxygen within tissues irradiated with proton beams by measuring (16)O PG emission.

  1. Probing focal cortical dysplasia in formalin fixed samples using tissue optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Conti, Valerio; Guerrini, Renzo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2016-03-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of most common causes of intractable epilepsy in pediatric population and these are often insensitive to anti-epileptic drugs. FCD is characterized by a disarray in localized regions of the cerebral cortex and abnormal neurons which results them to misfire with incorrect signals. Resective neurosurgery to remove or disconnect the affected parts from the rest of the brain seems to be a viable option to treat FCD. Before neurosurgery the subject could undergo imaging studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. On the downside FCD could be elusive in MRI images and may be practically invisible in CT scans. Furthermore, unnecessary removal of normal tissues is to be taken into consideration as this could lead to neurological defects. In this context, optical spectroscopy have been widely investigated as an alternative technique for the detection of abnormal tissues in different organ sites. Disease progression is accompanied by a number of architectural, biochemical and morphological changes. These variations are reflected in the spectral intensity and line shape. Here, in this proof of concept study we propose to investigate the application of tissue optical spectroscopy based on fluorescence excitation at two wavelength 378 and 445 nm coupled along with Raman spectroscopy for the detection of FCD on formalin fixed tissue specimens from pediatric subjects. For fluorescence at both the excitation wavelengths FCD showed a decreased intensity at longer wavelength when compared to normal tissues. Also, differences exist in the Raman spectral profiles of normal and FCD.

  2. Real time monitoring of pulsatile change in hemoglobin concentrations of cerebral tissue by a portable tissue oximeter with a 10-Hz sampling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Toshikazu; Chihara, Eiichi; Tanabe, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    1998-01-01

    A portable CW tissue oximeter of a 10-Hz sampling rate was developed for examination of pulsatile components of the output signals as a mean of checking the signal reliability during long-term monitoring. Feasible studies were performed on a healthy subject. Changes in Hb and HbO2 signals of cerebral tissue were continuously measured by placing a photoprobe on the forehead during 6-hour sleep. Pulsatile changes in Hb and HbO2 were steadily observed over a whole period of the recording. The phase relation of pulsation in Hb and HbO2 was almost inverse. Not only information for reliable monitoring but also physiological parameters with respect to cerebral circulation and metabolism could be obtained by measuring the pulsatile components.

  3. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for multielement analysis in small sample amounts of thyroid tissue from Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Bazhanova, N.N.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, thyroid pathologies occurred among children in some regions of belarus. Besides the irradiation of children's thyroids by radioactive iodine and caesium nuclides, toxic elements from fallout are a direct risk to health. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole-based mass spectrometry (Icp-Ms) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA) were used for multielement determination in small amounts (I-10 mg) of human thyroid tissue samples. The accuracy of the applied analytical technique for small biological sample amounts was checked using NIST standard reference material oyster tissue (SRM 1566 b). Almost all essential elements as well as a number of toxic elements such as Cd, Pb, Hg, U etc. Were determined in a multitude of human thyroid tissues by quadrupole-based Icp-Ms using micro nebulization. In general, the thyroid tissue affected by pathology is characterized by higher calcium content. Some other elements, among them Sr, Zn, Fe, Mn, V, As, Cr, Ni, Pb, U, Ba, Sb, were also Accumulated in such tissue. The results obtained will be used as initial material for further specific studies of the role of particular elements in thyroid pathology development

  4. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Éric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning S.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We rep...

  5. 3D non-affine finite strains measured in isolated bovine annulus fibrosus tissue samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Talen-Jongeneelen, C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the mechanics of disc tissue calls for measurement of strains in physiological conditions. Because the intervertebral disc is gripped between two vertebrae, the swelling is constrained in vivo, resulting in a intradiscal pressure of 0.1–0.2 MPa in supine position. The excision of

  6. Evaluation of HER2/neu oncoprotein in serum & tissue samples of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that elevated serum HER2 level was associated with a clinicopathological aggressive phenotype of breast carcinoma and was related to tissue HER2 overexpression. Therefore, serum HER2 may be useful for monitoring the course of the disease and response to treatment.

  7. Identification of immune cell infiltration in hematoxylin-eosin stained breast cancer samples: texture-based classification of tissue morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkki, Riku; Linder, Nina; Kovanen, Panu E.; Pellinen, Teijo; Lundin, Johan

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer capture clinically important information. Despite the heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, it has been shown that the degree of infiltration assessed by visual evaluation of hematoxylin-eosin (H and E) stained samples has prognostic and possibly predictive value. However, quantification of the infiltration in H and E-stained tissue samples is currently dependent on visual scoring by an expert. Computer vision enables automated characterization of the components of the tumor microenvironment, and texture-based methods have successfully been used to discriminate between different tissue morphologies and cell phenotypes. In this study, we evaluate whether local binary pattern texture features with superpixel segmentation and classification with support vector machine can be utilized to identify immune cell infiltration in H and E-stained breast cancer samples. Guided with the pan-leukocyte CD45 marker, we annotated training and test sets from 20 primary breast cancer samples. In the training set of arbitrary sized image regions (n=1,116) a 3-fold cross-validation resulted in 98% accuracy and an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.98 to discriminate between immune cell -rich and - poor areas. In the test set (n=204), we achieved an accuracy of 96% and AUC of 0.99 to label cropped tissue regions correctly into immune cell -rich and -poor categories. The obtained results demonstrate strong discrimination between immune cell -rich and -poor tissue morphologies. The proposed method can provide a quantitative measurement of the degree of immune cell infiltration and applied to digitally scanned H and E-stained breast cancer samples for diagnostic purposes.

  8. Bisulfite-Based DNA Methylation Analysis from Recent and Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin Embedded Colorectal Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Wichmann, Barnabás; Bodor, András; Patai, Árpád V; Schöller, Andrea; Krenács, Tibor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to test the applicability of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for gene specific DNA methylation analysis after using two commercially available DNA isolation kits. Genomic DNA was isolated from 5 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 5 normal adjacent tissues from "recent", collected within 6 months, and "archived", collected more than 5 years ago, FFPE tissues using either High Pure FFPET DNA Isolation kit or QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit. DNA methylation analysis of MAL, SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes, known to be hypermethylated in CRC, was performed using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and sequencing. QIAamp (Q) method resulted in slightly higher recovery in archived (HP: 1.22 ± 3.18 μg DNA; Q: 3.00 ± 4.04 μg DNA) and significantly (p < 0.05) higher recovery in recent samples compared to High Pure method (HP) (HP: 4.10 ± 2.91 μg DNA; Q: 11.51 ± 7.50 μg DNA). Both OD260/280 and OD260/230 ratios were lower, but still high in the High Pure isolated archived and recent samples compared to those isolated with QIAamp. Identical DNA methylation patterns were detected for all 3 genes tested by MS-HRM with both isolation kits in the recent group. However, despite of higher DNA recovery in QIAamp slightly more reproducible methylation results were obtained from High Pure isolated archived samples. Sequencing confirmed DNA hypermethylation in CRCs. In conclusion, reproducible DNA methylation patterns were obtained from recent samples using both isolation kits. However, long term storage may affect the reliability of the results leading to moderate differences between the efficiency of isolation kits.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of 30 Trace Elements in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissue Samples with Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K; Brune, D; Wester, P O

    1963-10-15

    The following trace elements were quantitatively determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in T samples of non-cancerous and 5 samples of cancerous human tissue: P, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, La, Au, and Hg. In some of the samples the following elements were qualitatively determined: Ti+Sc, Ga, Sr, In, Ba, Ce, Hf, Os, Pt, and U. Most of the trace elements were found to be present in much higher concentrations in the non-cancerous than in the corresponding cancerous liver samples. In a typical run one sample each of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue was irradiated together with standards of the elements to be determined in a thermal flux of 2.10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}/sec. for 24 hours. The radioactive trace elements were separated into 16, and in some cases 18, groups by means of a chemical group separation method. Subsequently, the gamma spectrometric measurements were performed. Two persons can manage the chemical separations and measure the different activities from a run in 1,5 days. A new method of comparing unknown samples with standards was developed.

  10. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, Helene, E-mail: helene.rahn@gmail.com [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [ENT-Department, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftungsprofessur), University Hospital Erlangen, Waldstraße 1, Erlangen 91054 (Germany); Trahms, Lutz [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, Berlin 10587 (Germany); Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration. - Highlights: • Local cancer treatments are promising in reducing negative side effects occurring during conventional chemotherapy. • The nanoparticles play an important role in delivering drugs to the designated area during local cancer treatments as magnetic drug targeting. • We study the nanoparticles distribution in tumor tissue after magnetic drug targeting with X-ray computed tomography. • We achieved a 3-dimensional quantification of the nanoparticles content in tumor tissue out of digital tomographic data.

  11. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of tissue samples for oral pathology follow-up monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, I.; Camerlingo, C.; Zenone, F.; Perna, G.; Capozzi, V.; Cirillo, N.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.

    2010-04-01

    An "in vitro" study of Raman spectra from oral human tissues is reported in order to the develop a diagnostic method suitable for "in vivo" oral pathology follow-up. The investigated pathology is Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) for which new techniques for guiding and monitoring therapy would be particularly useful. Raman spectra were obtained in the wavenumber regions from 1000 to 1800 cm-1 and 2700 to 3200 cm-1 from tissues from patients at different stages of pathology (active PV, under therapy and in PV remission stage) as confirmed by histopathological and immunofluorescence analysis. Differences in the spectra depending on tissue illness stage arise in 1150-1250 cm-1 (amide III) and 1420-1450 cm-1 (CH3 deformation) regions and around 1650 cm-1 (amide I) and 2930 cm-1 (CH3 symmetric stretch). A wavelet deconvolution procedure was applied to the spectra for better discriminating among the three different stages of illness and a linear regression analysis was used to fully exploit the content of information of Raman spectra.

  12. Epo receptors are not detectable in primary human tumor tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Elliott

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (Epo is a cytokine that binds and activates an Epo receptor (EpoR expressed on the surface of erythroid progenitor cells to promote erythropoiesis. While early studies suggested EpoR transcripts were expressed exclusively in the erythroid compartment, low-level EpoR transcripts were detected in nonhematopoietic tissues and tumor cell lines using sensitive RT-PCR methods. However due to the widespread use of nonspecific anti-EpoR antibodies there are conflicting data on EpoR protein expression. In tumor cell lines and normal human tissues examined with a specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody to human EpoR (A82, little/no EpoR protein was detected and it was not functional. In contrast, EpoR protein was reportedly detectable in a breast tumor cell line (MCF-7 and breast cancer tissues with an anti-EpoR polyclonal antibody (M-20, and functional responses to rHuEpo were reported with MCF-7 cells. In another study, a functional response was reported with the lung tumor cell line (NCI-H838 at physiological levels of rHuEpo. However, the specificity of M-20 is in question and the absence of appropriate negative controls raise questions about possible false-positive effects. Here we show that with A82, no EpoR protein was detectable in normal human and matching cancer tissues from breast, lung, colon, ovary and skin with little/no EpoR in MCF-7 and most other breast and lung tumor cell lines. We show further that M-20 provides false positive staining with tissues and it binds to a non-EpoR protein that migrates at the same size as EpoR with MCF-7 lysates. EpoR protein was detectable with NCI-H838 cells, but no rHuEpo-induced phosphorylation of AKT, STAT3, pS6RP or STAT5 was observed suggesting the EpoR was not functional. Taken together these results raise questions about the hypothesis that most tumors express high levels of functional EpoR protein.

  13. Information for Stores Users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2004-01-01

    As the FARNELL Catalogue CAPACITORS, RESISTORS and POTENTIOMETERS have now been integrated into the CERN Stores Catalogue (SCEM Groups 10 and 11) they can now be obtained via an EDH 'Material Request' like any other Stores item. N.B. The Farnell 'Order code' is one of the key-words that make it easier to find items in the Stores Catalogue. Logistics Group FI Department

  14. Distributed energy store railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when the limiting case of a distributed energy store railgun is analyzed, i.e., the case where the space between adjacent energy stores become indefinitely small, three important results are obtained. First, the shape of the current pulse delivered by each store is sinusoidal and an exponential tail. Second, the rail-to-rail voltage behind the rear-most active store approaches zero. Third, it is not possible to choose parameters in such a way that capacitor crowbars can be eliminated

  15. Clinical use of fungal PCR from deep tissue samples in the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Houhala, M; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Antikainen, J; Valve, J; Kirveskari, J; Anttila, V-J

    2018-03-01

    To assess the clinical use of panfungal PCR for diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). We focused on the deep tissue samples. We first described the design of panfungal PCR, which is in clinical use at Helsinki University Hospital. Next we retrospectively evaluated the results of 307 fungal PCR tests performed from 2013 to 2015. Samples were taken from normally sterile tissues and fluids. The patient population was nonselected. We classified the likelihood of IFD according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG), comparing the fungal PCR results to the likelihood of IFD along with culture and microscopy results. There were 48 positive (16%) and 259 negative (84%) PCR results. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR for diagnosing IFDs were 60.5% and 91.7%, respectively, while the negative predictive value and positive predictive value were 93.4% and 54.2%, respectively. The concordance between the PCR and the culture results was 86% and 87% between PCR and microscopy, respectively. Of the 48 patients with positive PCR results, 23 had a proven or probable IFD. Fungal PCR can be useful for diagnosing IFDs in deep tissue samples. It is beneficial to combine fungal PCR with culture and microscopy. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteoglycan and proteome profiling of central human pulmonary fibrotic tissue utilizing miniaturized sample preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Johan; Larsen, Kristoffer; Hansson, Lennart

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional electrophoresis was interfaced to miniaturized sample preparation techniques using microcapillary extraction. Four protein groups were identified; cytoskeletal, adhesion, scavenger and metabolic proteins. These patient's proteomes showed a high degree of heterogeneity between patients but larger homogeneity...

  17. Predicting Commissary Store Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    stores or if it is possible to predict that success. Multiple studies of private commercial grocery consumer preferences , habits and demographics have...appropriate number of competitors due to the nature of international cultures and consumer preferences . 2. Missing Data Four of the remaining stores

  18. Storing up trouble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1992-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear have applied for permission to build a temporary ground-level dry store for spent fuel at Torness. However, Nirex's failure to find a suitable site for a long-term repository could mean that the Torness store will be less temporary than planned. (author)

  19. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group - FI Department

    2005-01-01

    The Farnell catalogue can now be accessed from the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue. Users can order Farnell equipment as well as standard Stores equipment at the same time using a single document, the EDH Materials Request form. The Materials Request form offers users items from both the internal 'Stores' catalogue and the external 'Farnell' catalogue, all of which may be ordered on the same form. The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Farnell equipment to Farnell. The delivery time is 48 hours in both cases. Requests for materials are routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  20. High-fidelity meshes from tissue samples for diffusion MRI simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Eleftheria; Hall, Matt G; Zhang, Hui; Siow, Bernard; Lythgoe, Mark F; Alexander, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for constructing detailed geometric models of tissue microstructure for synthesizing realistic diffusion MRI data. We construct three-dimensional mesh models from confocal microscopy image stacks using the marching cubes algorithm. Random-walk simulations within the resulting meshes provide synthetic diffusion MRI measurements. Experiments optimise simulation parameters and complexity of the meshes to achieve accuracy and reproducibility while minimizing computation time. Finally we assess the quality of the synthesized data from the mesh models by comparison with scanner data as well as synthetic data from simple geometric models and simplified meshes that vary only in two dimensions. The results support the extra complexity of the three-dimensional mesh compared to simpler models although sensitivity to the mesh resolution is quite robust.

  1. A comparative examination of sample treatment procedures for ICAP-AES analysis of biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, J. L. M.; Maessen, F. J. M. J.

    The objective of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of existing sample preparation procedures for ICAP-AES analysis of biological material. Performance characteristics were established of current digestion procedures comprising extraction, solubilization, pressure digestion, and wet and dry ashing methods. Apart from accuracy and precision, a number of criteria of special interest for the analytical practice was applied. As a test sample served SRM bovine liver. In this material six elements were simultaneously determined. Results showed that every procedure has its defects and advantages. Hence, unambiguous recommendation of standard digestion procedures can be made only when taking into account the specific analytical problem.

  2. Whole-genome gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig April

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a gene expression assay (Whole-Genome DASL, capable of generating whole-genome gene expression profiles from degraded samples such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE specimens.We demonstrated a similar level of sensitivity in gene detection between matched fresh-frozen (FF and FFPE samples, with the number and overlap of probes detected in the FFPE samples being approximately 88% and 95% of that in the corresponding FF samples, respectively; 74% of the differentially expressed probes overlapped between the FF and FFPE pairs. The WG-DASL assay is also able to detect 1.3-1.5 and 1.5-2 -fold changes in intact and FFPE samples, respectively. The dynamic range for the assay is approximately 3 logs. Comparing the WG-DASL assay with an in vitro transcription-based labeling method yielded fold-change correlations of R(2 approximately 0.83, while fold-change comparisons with quantitative RT-PCR assays yielded R(2 approximately 0.86 and R(2 approximately 0.55 for intact and FFPE samples, respectively. Additionally, the WG-DASL assay yielded high self-correlations (R(2>0.98 with low intact RNA inputs ranging from 1 ng to 100 ng; reproducible expression profiles were also obtained with 250 pg total RNA (R(2 approximately 0.92, with approximately 71% of the probes detected in 100 ng total RNA also detected at the 250 pg level. When FFPE samples were assayed, 1 ng total RNA yielded self-correlations of R(2 approximately 0.80, while still maintaining a correlation of R(2 approximately 0.75 with standard FFPE inputs (200 ng.Taken together, these results show that WG-DASL assay provides a reliable platform for genome-wide expression profiling in archived materials. It also possesses utility within clinical settings where only limited quantities of samples may be available (e.g. microdissected material or when minimally invasive procedures are performed (e.g. biopsied specimens.

  3. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins: Focus on sample preparation and derivatization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J; Grune, Tilman

    2015-08-01

    Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evidence of presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovine tissue samples by multiplex PCR: possible relevance to reverse zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, M; Chakravarti, S; Sharma, V; Sanjeeth, B S; Churamani, C P; Kanwar, N S

    2014-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, remains one of the most important zoonotic health concerns worldwide. The transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from humans to animals also occurs especially in countries where there is close interaction of humans with the animals. In the present study, thirty bovine lung tissue autopsy samples from an organized dairy farm located in North India were screened for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by smear microscopy, histopathological findings and PCR. Differential diagnosis of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis was made based on the deletion of mce-3 operon in M. bovis. The present study found eight of these samples positive for M. tuberculosis by multiplex PCR. Sequencing was performed on two PCR-positive representative samples and on annotation, and BLAST analysis confirmed the presence of gene fragment specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The presence of M. tuberculosis in all the positive samples raises the possibility of human-to-cattle transmission and possible adaptation of this organism in bovine tissues. This study accentuates the importance of screening and differential diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in humans and livestock for adopting effective TB control and eradication programmes. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Clinical procedure for colon carcinoma tissue sampling directly affects the cancer marker-capacity of VEGF family members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringels, Sarah; Van Damme, Nancy; De Craene, Bram; Pattyn, Piet; Ceelen, Wim; Peeters, Marc; Grooten, Johan

    2012-01-01

    mRNA levels of members of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor family (VEGF-A, -B, -C, -D, Placental Growth Factor/PlGF) have been investigated as tissue-based markers of colon cancer. These studies, which used specimens obtained by surgical resection or colonoscopic biopsy, yielded contradictory results. We studied the effect of the sampling method on the marker accuracy of VEGF family members. Comparative RT-qPCR analysis was performed on healthy colon and colon carcinoma samples obtained by biopsy (n = 38) or resection (n = 39) to measure mRNA expression levels of individual VEGF family members. mRNA levels of genes encoding the eicosanoid enzymes cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and of genes encoding the hypoxia markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) were included as markers for cellular stress and hypoxia. Expression levels of COX2, 5-LOX, GLUT-1 and CAIX revealed the occurrence in healthy colon resection samples of hypoxic cellular stress and a concurrent increment of basal expression levels of VEGF family members. This increment abolished differential expression of VEGF-B and VEGF-C in matched carcinoma resection samples and created a surgery-induced underexpression of VEGF-D. VEGF-A and PlGF showed strong overexpression in carcinoma samples regardless of the sampling method. Sampling-induced hypoxia in resection samples but not in biopsy samples affects the marker-reliability of VEGF family members. Therefore, biopsy samples provide a more accurate report on VEGF family mRNA levels. Furthermore, this limited expression analysis proposes VEGF-A and PlGF as reliable, sampling procedure insensitive mRNA-markers for molecular diagnosis of colon cancer

  6. Building Store Satisfaction Centred on Customer Retention in Clothing Retailing: Store Design and Ease of Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s research model suggests that store design and ease of shopping are associated with customer retention through a mediated pathway in which store design and ease of shopping influence perceived store satisfaction, which in turn, influences customer retention. This survey was administered to two separate clothing stores offered to either females or males (in total, 533 participants. Using structural equation modelling methodology, data was analysed to explain the interrelations among the variables in the model. The results of an empirical study of a sample of store shoppers revealed that store design and ease of shopping influence customer retention in an indirect way through customer perception of satisfaction with the store. In building store satisfaction that is centred on customer retention, store design and shopping ease differ in their relative influences. This difference is high for females, but for men as low as to be considered negligible in males. As a result, improving customers’ perceptions of store design and ease of shopping is a way to ensure store satisfaction support customer retention. The results of the study provide a new insight into the relationships by suggesting indirect effects of shopping ease and store design on consumer retention by their impacts on store satisfaction, rather than direct effects.

  7. Building Store Satisfaction Centred on Customer Retention in Clothing Retailing: Store Design and Ease of Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Turhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s research model suggests that store design and ease of shopping are associated with customer retention through a mediated pathway in which store design and ease of shopping influence perceived store satisfaction, which in turn, influences customer retention. This survey was administered to two separate clothing stores offered to either females or males (in total, 533 participants. Using structural equation modelling methodology, data was analysed to explain the interrelations among the variables in the model. The results of an empirical study of a sample of store shoppers revealed that store design and ease of shopping influence customer retention in an indirect way through customer perception of satisfaction with the store. In building store satisfaction that is centred on customer retention, store design and shopping ease differ in their relative influences. This difference is high for females, but for men as low as to be considered negligible in males. As a result, improving customers’ perceptions of store design and ease of shopping is a way to ensure store satisfaction support customer retention. The results of the study provide a new insight into the relationships by suggesting indirect effects of shopping ease and store design on consumer retention by their impacts on store satisfaction, rather than direct effects.

  8. Determination of five nitroimidazole residues in artificial porcine muscle tissue samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingyun; Su, Yan; Liao, Xiulin; Yang, Na; Yang, Xiupei; Choi, Martin M F

    2012-01-15

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of five nitroimidazoles including benzoylmetronidazole, dimetridazole, metronidazole, ronidazole, and secnidazole in porcine muscles. Nitroimidazoles in samples were extracted by ethyl acetate with subsequent clean-up by a strong cation exchange solid phase extraction column. The clean extracts were subjected to CE separation with optimal experimental conditions: pH 3.0 running buffer containing 25mM sodium phosphate and 0.10mM tetrabutylammonium bromide, 5s hydrodynamic injection at 0.5psi and 28kV separation voltage. The nitroimidazoles could be monitored and detected at 320nm within 18min. The limits of detection were below 1.0μg/kg and limits of quantification were lower than 3.2μg/kg for all nitroimidazoles in the muscle samples. The recoveries and relative standard deviations were 85.4-96.0, 83.5-92.5, 1.3-3.9, and 1.1-4.2%, respectively for the intra-day and inter-day analyses. The proposed CE method has been successfully applied to determine nitroimidazoles in artificial porcine muscle samples with good accuracy and recovery, demonstrating that it has potential for detection and quantification of multi-nitroimidazole residue in real muscle samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes towards biomedical use of tissue sample collections, consent, and biobanks among Finns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Sihvo, Sinikka; Snell, Karolna

    2010-01-01

    To ascertain the attitudes towards the use of existing diagnostic and research samples, the setting up of a national biobank, and different types of informed consent among Finns. Method: A population survey of 2,400 randomly selected Finns aged 24-65 was conducted at the beginning of 2007....

  10. Recommendations for Pathologic Evaluation of Reduction Mammoplasty Specimens: A Prospective Study With Systematic Tissue Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaye, Abiy B; Goodwin, Andrew J; MacLennan, Susan E; Naud, Shelly; Weaver, Donald L

    2017-11-01

    - Breast reduction mammaplasty (RMP) for symptomatic macromastia or correction of asymmetry is performed in more than 100 000 patients per year in the United States. The reported incidence of significant pathologic findings (SPF), that is, carcinoma and atypical hyperplasia, ranges from 0.06% to 12.8%. No standard pathology assessment for RMP exists. - To propose standard sampling for microscopic evaluation in RMP specimens, to evaluate the incidence of occult carcinoma and atypical hyperplasia, and to identify clinical risk factors for SPF in patients undergoing RMP. - All RMP specimens from 2006 to 2013 at a single institution were prospectively examined. After baseline gross and microscopic evaluations, each specimen was subjected to systematic additional sampling. The incidence of SPF was tabulated, and variables such as age, specimen weight, previous history of SPF, and results of preoperative mammogram were examined. Clinical follow-up review was also subsequently undertaken. - A total of 595 patients were evaluated. Significant pathologic findings were present in 9.8% (58 of 595) of patients. No cancer was identified in patients younger than 40 years; the rates of carcinoma were 2.4% (14 of 595) in all patients, 3.6% (14 of 392) in patients aged 40 years or older, and 4.3% (10 of 233) in patients aged 50 years or older. No carcinoma or atypical hyperplasia was identified on preoperative mammogram. Increased sampling was associated with a significantly greater frequency of SPF only in patients aged 40 years or older. - In patients younger than 35 years, gross-only evaluation is sufficient. However, increased sampling may be necessary in patients older than 40 years.

  11. Nutrition environments in corner stores in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Erica; Mallya, Giridhar; Brensinger, Colleen; Tierney, Ann; Glanz, Karen

    2013-02-01

    To examine the availability, quality, and price of key types of healthy and less-healthy foods found in corner stores in low-income urban neighborhoods and the associations between store characteristics and store food environments. A sample of 246 corner stores was selected from all corner stores participating in the Philadelphia Healthy Corner Store Initiative (HCSI). The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores (NEMS-CS) was used to assess the availability, quality, and price of foods and beverages in 11 common categories between February and May, 2011. NEMS-CS measures were completed in 233 stores, 94.7% of the 246 stores approached. The healthier options were significantly less available in all food categories and often more expensive. Baked goods, bread, chips and cereals were sold at nearly all stores, with significantly fewer offering low-fat baked goods (5.7%, pbread (56.2%, pfood environment and dietary choices among low-income urban populations. Availability of certain healthier foods could be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  13. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  14. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radiospares Catalogue is now accessible from the Material Request page on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores Catalogue. This means that users can order Radiospares equipment by completing an EDH Materials Request form. N.B.: The system will automatically forward orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Radiospares equipment to Radiospares. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  15. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    1999-01-01

    You can now make Material Request from CERN Stores over the WEB :CERN Home/Administrative Tools/EDH/Material Requestor https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAGVia the Stores Catalogue : CERN Home/Administrative Tools/Stores Catalogueor http://edhcat.cern.ch/In both cases, you need to enter your EDH login and password.For more details, you can consult the Quick Reference Guide on :http://edh.cern.ch/doc/quickrefguides.htmlor obtain a printed version from AIS Support at tel: 79933or e-mail to: ais.support@cern.chSPL DivisionLogistics Group

  16. Micro-scaled high-throughput digestion of plant tissue samples for multi-elemental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husted Søren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrometry depends on a complete digestion of solid samples. However, fast and thorough sample digestion is a challenging analytical task which constitutes a bottleneck in modern multi-elemental analysis. Additional obstacles may be that sample quantities are limited and elemental concentrations low. In such cases, digestion in small volumes with minimum dilution and contamination is required in order to obtain high accuracy data. Results We have developed a micro-scaled microwave digestion procedure and optimized it for accurate elemental profiling of plant materials (1-20 mg dry weight. A commercially available 64-position rotor with 5 ml disposable glass vials, originally designed for microwave-based parallel organic synthesis, was used as a platform for the digestion. The novel micro-scaled method was successfully validated by the use of various certified reference materials (CRM with matrices rich in starch, lipid or protein. When the micro-scaled digestion procedure was applied on single rice grains or small batches of Arabidopsis seeds (1 mg, corresponding to approximately 50 seeds, the obtained elemental profiles closely matched those obtained by conventional analysis using digestion in large volume vessels. Accumulated elemental contents derived from separate analyses of rice grain fractions (aleurone, embryo and endosperm closely matched the total content obtained by analysis of the whole rice grain. Conclusion A high-throughput micro-scaled method has been developed which enables digestion of small quantities of plant samples for subsequent elemental profiling by ICP-spectrometry. The method constitutes a valuable tool for screening of mutants and transformants. In addition, the method facilitates studies of the distribution of essential trace elements between and within plant organs which is relevant for, e.g., breeding programmes aiming at

  17. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Bossard catalogue is now accessible alongside the CERN Stores catalogue from the Material Request form on EDH. Users will thus be able to order Bossard equipment using the EDH Materials Request form. As a reminder, the system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Bossard equipment to Bossard. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Some items will remain available from the emergency desk in the event of urgent requests. These items will be visible in the Stores catalogue even if they cannot be purchased via the EDH material request form. Logistics Group FI Department

  18. Advancements in mass spectrometry for biological samples: Protein chemical cross-linking and metabolite analysis of plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Adam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work on advancements and applications of methodology for the analysis of biological samples using mass spectrometry. Included in this work are improvements to chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) for the study of protein structures and mass spectrometry imaging and quantitative analysis to study plant metabolites. Applications include using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to further explore metabolic heterogeneity in plant tissues and chemical interactions at the interface between plants and pests. Additional work was focused on developing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods to investigate metabolites associated with plant-pest interactions.

  19. Provenance Store Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  20. A new classification method for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry data acquired on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskamp, Tobias; Lachmund, Delf; Oetjen, Janina; Cordero Hernandez, Yovany; Trede, Dennis; Maass, Peter; Casadonte, Rita; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Warth, Arne; Dienemann, Hendrik; Weichert, Wilko; Kriegsmann, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) shows a high potential for applications in histopathological diagnosis, and in particular for supporting tumor typing and subtyping. The development of such applications requires the extraction of spectral fingerprints that are relevant for the given tissue and the identification of biomarkers associated with these spectral patterns. We propose a novel data analysis method based on the extraction of characteristic spectral patterns (CSPs) that allow automated generation of classification models for spectral data. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from N=445 patients assembled on 12 tissue microarrays were analyzed. The method was applied to discriminate primary lung and pancreatic cancer, as well as adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. A classification accuracy of 100% and 82.8%, resp., could be achieved on core level, assessed by cross-validation. The method outperformed the more conventional classification method based on the extraction of individual m/z values in the first application, while achieving a comparable accuracy in the second. LC-MS/MS peptide identification demonstrated that the spectral features present in selected CSPs correspond to peptides relevant for the respective classification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Nord interim store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leushacke, D.F.; Rittscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    In line with the decision taken in 1990 to shut down and decommission the Greifswald and Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Stations, the waste management concept of the Energiewerke Nord is based on direct and complete decommissioning of the six shut down reactor units within the next fifteen years. One key element of this concept is the construction and use of the Zwischenlager Nord (Nord Interim Store, ZLN) for holding the existing nuclear fuels and for interim and decay storage of the radioactive materials arising in decommissioning and demolition. The owner and operator of the store is Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and treatment station and buffer store for the flows of residues arising. As a radioactive waste management station, it accommodates nuclear fuels, radioactive waste or residues which are not treated any further. It is used as a buffer store to allow the materials accumulating in disassembly to be stored temporarily before or after treatment in order to ensure continuous loading of the treatment plants. When operated as a processing station, the ZLN is able to handle nearly all types of radioactive waste and residues arising, except for nuclear fuels. These installations allow the treatment of radioactive residues to be separated from the demolition work both physically and in time. The possibilities of interium storage and buffer storage of untreated waste and waste packages make for high flexibility in logistics and waste management strategy. (orig.) [de

  2. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  3. Solid sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of boron in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resano, M.; Briceno, J.; Aramendia, M.; Belarra, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the potential of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of B in plant tissues has been investigated. Three certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves, NIST SRM 1573a tomato leaves and BCR CRM 679 white cabbage) were selected for this study, the goal always being to develop a fast procedure that could be robust enough to provide a satisfactory performance for all of them, without any modifications in the conditions applied. The use of a suitable chemical modifier was found to be essential for obtaining a reproducible and sufficiently sensitive signal for boron solutions. In this regard, the performance of the combination of citric acid plus W (added as a permanent modifier) was noteworthy, resulting in well-defined signal profiles, a remarkable analyte stabilization during the pyrolysis step (up to 2100 deg. C) and minimal memory effects. This mixture of modifiers provided a good performance for the direct analysis of solid samples as well, but only if a suitable temperature program, favoring the interaction between the analyte and the modifiers, was used. Thus, such a temperature program, with two pyrolysis steps and the addition of NH 4 NO 3 in order to carry out the in situ sample microdigestion, was optimized. Under these conditions, the peak areas obtained for both solid samples and aqueous standards were comparable. Finally, the analysis of the samples was carried out. In all cases, a good agreement with the certified values was obtained, while R.S.D. values ranged between 6 and 10%. It can be concluded that the method proposed shows significant advantages for the determination of this complicated element in solid samples such as the use of aqueous standards for calibration, a high sample throughput (20 min per sample), a suitable limit of detection (0.3 μg g -1 ) and reduced risk of analyte losses and contamination

  4. Inflammable materials stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandagopan, V.

    2017-01-01

    A new Inflammable Materials Stores has been constructed by A and SED, BARC near Gamma Field for storage of inflammable materials falling into Petroleum Class ‘A’ ‘B’ and “C” mainly comprising of oils and lubricants, Chemicals like Acetone, Petroleum Ether etc. which are regularly procured by Central Stores Unit (CSU) for issue to the various divisions of BARC. The design of the shed done by A and SED, BARC was duly got approved from Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organization (PESO) which is a mandatory requirement before commencement of the construction. The design had taken into account various safety factors which is ideally required for an inflammable materials stores

  5. Information for Stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The DISTRELEC catalogue (IT) is now available in EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and the catalogues of existing suppliers. Using an EDH materials request form, users can now order DISTRELEC equipment from amongst the following product groups: peripherals, multimedia, PC components, data media, communication and data cables and adapters. Non-authorised materials will be clearly indicated. As a reminder, the system automatically manages the distribution of standard Stores equipment and punch out equipment ordered on the same request form. In both cases, delivery will take a maximum of 48 hours. The approval of the EDH document will follow the usual EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  6. Sensitivity of HER-2/neu antibodies in archival tissue samples: potential source of error in immunohistochemical studies of oncogene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, M F; Hung, G; Godolphin, W; Slamon, D J

    1994-05-15

    HER-2/neu oncogene amplification and overexpression of breast cancer tissue has been correlated with poor prognosis in women with both node-positive and node-negative disease. However, several studies have not confirmed this association. Review of these studies reveals the presence of considerable methodological variability including differences in study size, follow-up time, techniques and reagents. The majority of papers with clinical follow-up information are immunohistochemical studies using archival, paraffin-embedded breast cancers, and a variety of HER-2/neu antibodies have been used in these studies. Very little information, however, is available about the ability of the antibodies to detect overexpression following tissue processing for paraffin-embedding. Therefore, a series of antibodies, reported in the literature or commercially available, were evaluated to assess their sensitivity and specificity as immunohistochemical reagents. Paraffin-embedded samples of 187 breast cancers, previously characterized as frozen specimens for HER-2/neu amplification by Southern blot and for overexpression by Northern blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry, were used. Two multitumor paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were prepared from the previously analyzed breast cancers as a panel of cases to test a series of previously studied and/or commercially available anti-HER-2/neu antibodies. Immunohistochemical staining results obtained with 7 polyclonal and 21 monoclonal antibodies in sections from paraffin-embedded blocks of these breast cancers were compared. The ability of these antibodies to detect overexpression was extremely variable, providing an important explantation for the variable overexpression rate reported in the literature.

  7. Microbiological viability of bovine amniotic membrane stored in glycerin 99% at room temperature for 48 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristine de Sousa Pontes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The medium for storing biological tissues is of great importance for their optimal use in surgery. Glycerin has been proven efficient for storing diverse tissues for prolonged time, but the preservation of the bovine amniotic membrane in glycerin 99% at room temperature has never been evaluated to be used safely in surgical procedures. This study evaluated the preservation of 80 bovine amniotic membrane samples stored in glycerin 99% at room temperature. The samples were randomly divided evenly into four groups. Samples were microbiologically tested after 1, 6, 12 and 48 months of storage. The presence of bacteria and fungi in the samples was evaluated by inoculation on blood agar and incubation at 37 ºC for 48 hours and on Sabouraud agar at 25 ºC for 5 to 10 days. No fungal or bacterial growth was detected in any of the samples. It was concluded that glycerin is an efficient medium, regarding microbiology, for preserving pre-prepared bovine amniotic membrane, keeping the tissue free of microorganisms that grow in the media up to 48 months at room temperature.

  8. Identification of proteins from cambium tissues of the chinese white poplar (populus tomentosa) sampled during the growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, J.; Liu, S.; Qi, Q.; Hou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Various protein extraction methods have been used to investigate Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa) proteomics. However, extracting and characterizing proteins from woody plants remains a challenge. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is a powerful, widely used method for the analysis of complex protein mixtures extracted from biological samples. The technique separates mixtures of proteins along two dimensions, by isoelectric point and molecular weight, and can resolve thousands of different proteins. Here, we report a new application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to investigate the proteomics of P. tomentosa cambium tissues over the course of a growing season. Of three protein extraction methods that we compared (the Tris-phenol method, trichloroacetic acid-acetone method, and trichloroacetic acid-acetone-phenol method), trichloroacetic acid-acetone was the most efficient approach for protein extraction from cambium tissues of P. tomentosa. After extraction, the proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein quantities of six spots changed over the course of the growing season from February to July. Five spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the sixth spot was identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proteins included enolase, class Ia chitinase, and four unnamed proteins. Our results show the best approach to proteomics in P. tomentosa and reveal trends in protein activities during a growing season in this tree species. (author)

  9. Shaktismen - hinduismens store gudindetradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne Wernicke

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen giver en introduktion til shaktismen - hinduismens store gudindetradition. Den ser på de vigtigste gudinder, begreber, traditioner og forestillinger, ligesom den giver et vue over forskningssituationen. Shaktismens opståen i sin klassiske form, dens hovedretninger, virkelighedsforståelse...

  10. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of March onwards, the LYRECO (stationery) catalogue will be accessible from the Material Request form on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores catalogue and the existing individual supplier catalogues. Items will be delivered within a maximum of 48 hours. Logistics Group FI Department

  11. Store Security: Reducing Shoplifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsel, Robert; Garman, Jerry

    The major purpose of the course outline presented in the document is the reduction of stealing in retail stores. The teaching outline is formatted by juxtaposing the content outline of each substantive area next to relevant activities and methods. Some of the topics covered are psychology of shoplifting, tools used by shoplifters, Ohio's law on…

  12. ALP gene expression in cDNA samples from bone tissue engineering using a HA/TCP/Chitosan scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie, N.; Katarina, H.; Amir, L. R.; Gunawan, H. A.

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the potential use of hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/Chitosan as a bone tissue engineering scaffold. The potential for using HA/TCP/chitosan as a scaffold was analyzed by measuring expression of the ALP osteogenic gene in cDNA from bone biopsies from four Macaque nemestrina. Experimental conditions included control (untreated), treatment with HA/TCP 70:30, HA/TCP 50:50, and HA/TCP/chitosan. cDNA samples were measured quantitively with Real-Time PCR (qPCR) and semi-quantitively by gel electrophoresis. There were no significant differences in ALP gene expression between treatment subjects after two weeks, but the HA/TCP/chitosan treatment gave the highest level of expression after four weeks. The scaffold using the HA/TCP/chitosan combination induced a higher level of expression of the osteogenic gene ALP than did scaffold without chitosan.

  13. Simultaneous extraction and clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites from small tissue samples using pressurized liquid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Zhao, Hongxia; Norstrom, Karin; Li, Xueshu; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction-based method for the simultaneous extraction and in situ clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated (OH)-PCBs and methylsulfonyl (MeSO2)-PCBs from small (< 0.5 gram) tissue samples was developed and validated. Extraction of a laboratory reference material with hexane:dichloromethane:methanol (48:43:9, v/v) and Florisil as fat retainer allowed an efficient recovery of PCBs (78–112%; RSD: 13–37%), OH-PCBs (46±2%; RSD: 4%) and MeSO2-PCBs (89±21%; RSD: 24%). Comparable results were obtained with an established analysis method for PCBs, OH-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs. PMID:19019378

  14. FRD tissue archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fishery genetics tissue collection has over 80,000 tissues stored in 95% ethanol representing fishes and invertebrates collected globally but with a focus on the...

  15. Comparison of the suitability of alkaline or enzymatic sample pre-treatment for characterization of silver nanoparticles in human tissue by single particle ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidmar, Janja; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Löschner, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    and their size are required for studying NP accumulation in placental tissue. In the present study, we applied and compared two sample preparation techniques, alkaline and enzymatic treatment, followed by single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) analysis, for characterizing AgNPs spiked to human placental tissue. Both...... sample preparation approaches are currently used for AgNPs in biological tissues but have not been directly compared yet. We showed that the method using enzymatic tissue treatment followed by spICP-MS is efficient for determination of mass and number concentration and size distribution of AgNPs in human...... placental tissues. Properties of the AgNPs were preserved during enzymatic digestion and comparable with the primary particles. The matrix effect on the determination of Ag sensitivity and transport efficiency in spICP-MS analysis was systematically evaluated as well. The method was applied to human...

  16. STORE IN STORE FRANCHISING STRATEGY: THE TREND IN FRANCHISING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado-Serrano, Alexander; Universidad de Puerto Rico

    2016-01-01

    The literature on franchising has traditionally focused on the effects and transformation it has promoted in the service sector, retailing, restaurants, hotels and other service-related industries. Store within a store research has been focused on the perspective of the manufacturer entering department stores. To date, little research has been carried out for the store in store strategy from the franchising perspective. This paper explores why big box retailers such as Walmart are adopting th...

  17. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim [Aarhus University Hospital, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus C (Denmark); Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva [Dr. Josep Trueta Girona University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Girona (Spain); Gillard, Jonathan H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warburton, Elisabeth A. [Cambrigde University Hospitals, Addenbrooke, Stroke Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baron, Jean-Claude [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne, INSERM U894, Paris (France)

    2015-07-15

    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  18. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim; Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef; Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Warburton, Elisabeth A.; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  19. Fuel element store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spherical fuel elements are stored dry in cans. The cans themselves are stacked in parallel storage shafts, which are combined into a rectangular storage space. The storage space is made earthquake-proof by surrounding it with concrete. It consists of a ceiling assembled from several steel parts, which is connected to the floor by support elements. A cooling air ventilation station supplies the individual storage shaft and therefore the cans with cooling air via incoming and outgoing pipes. (DG) [de

  20. Air corrosion in storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaudier, F.; Feron, D.; Baklouti, M.; Midoux, N.

    2001-01-01

    The air corrosiveness of a radioactive waste package has been estimated in a store inside which the environmental conditions are supposed to be rather close to the outside ones. It is expressed according to the ISO 9223 standard, from the humidification value and the amounts of sulfur dioxide and chlorine ions. A computer code has been perfected too; the thermal behaviour of the package can then been determined. (O.M.)

  1. Store and forward teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthraj Garehatty

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Store and forward and real time or videoconferences are the two types of teledermatology services practiced. Dermatology and radio-diagnosis are visual specialties suited for store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT. Advances in information technology, electronic instruments and biotechnology have revolutionized and brought changes in SAFT. Cellular phone, digital camera, personal digital assistants, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and computer- aided-design software are incorporated to deliver the quality health care to remote geographic regions. Complete SAFT care equivalent to face-to-face consultation (Gold standard is essential. Health care providers in rural areas are the ′eyes′ for the consultants. Consultants to guide them should have a rapid periodic audit of visual parameters and dimensions of lesions. Given this background, this article reviews advances in 1 capture, store and transfer of images. 2 Computer Aided measurements of generalized and localized lesions and 3 the integration model to meet all the above two requirements in a centralized location. This process enables diagnosis, management, periodic assessment and complete follow-up care to achieve patient and physician satisfaction. Preservation of privacy and confidentiality of digital images is important. Uniform rules and regulations are required. Indian space research organization (ISRO, Government of India has demonstrated telemedicine pilot projects utilizing the satellite communication and mobile telemedicine units to be useful in meeting the health care needs of remote and rural India. we have to join hands with them to meet dermatology problems in rural areas.

  2. Right ventricular systolic pressure measurements in combination with harvest of lung and immune tissue samples in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chi; Park, Sung-Hyun; Hoffman, Carol; Philip, Cecil; Robinson, Linda; West, James; Grunig, Gabriele

    2013-01-16

    The function of the right heart is to pump blood through the lungs, thus linking right heart physiology and pulmonary vascular physiology. Inflammation is a common modifier of heart and lung function, by elaborating cellular infiltration, production of cytokines and growth factors, and by initiating remodeling processes. Compared to the left ventricle, the right ventricle is a low-pressure pump that operates in a relatively narrow zone of pressure changes. Increased pulmonary artery pressures are associated with increased pressure in the lung vascular bed and pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension is often associated with inflammatory lung diseases, for example chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or autoimmune diseases. Because pulmonary hypertension confers a bad prognosis for quality of life and life expectancy, much research is directed towards understanding the mechanisms that might be targets for pharmaceutical intervention. The main challenge for the development of effective management tools for pulmonary hypertension remains the complexity of the simultaneous understanding of molecular and cellular changes in the right heart, the lungs and the immune system. Here, we present a procedural workflow for the rapid and precise measurement of pressure changes in the right heart of mice and the simultaneous harvest of samples from heart, lungs and immune tissues. The method is based on the direct catheterization of the right ventricle via the jugular vein in close-chested mice, first developed in the late 1990s as surrogate measure of pressures in the pulmonary artery. The organized team-approach facilitates a very rapid right heart catheterization technique. This makes it possible to perform the measurements in mice that spontaneously breathe room air. The organization of the work-flow in distinct work-areas reduces time delay and opens the possibility to simultaneously perform physiology experiments and harvest immune, heart and lung tissues. The

  3. A novel method for single sample multi-axial nanoindentation of hydrated heterogeneous tissues based on testing great white shark jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Toni L; Boughton, Philip; Slavich, Eve; Wroe, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Nanomechanical testing methods that are suitable for a range of hydrated tissues are crucial for understanding biological systems. Nanoindentation of tissues can provide valuable insights into biology, tissue engineering and biomimetic design. However, testing hydrated biological samples still remains a significant challenge. Shark jaw cartilage is an ideal substrate for developing a method to test hydrated tissues because it is a unique heterogeneous composite of both mineralized (hard) and non-mineralized (soft) layers and possesses a jaw geometry that is challenging to test mechanically. The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for obtaining multidirectional nanomechanical properties for both layers of jaw cartilage from a single sample, taken from the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). A method for obtaining multidirectional data from a single sample is necessary for examining tissue mechanics in this shark because it is a protected species and hence samples may be difficult to obtain. Results show that this method maintains hydration of samples that would otherwise rapidly dehydrate. Our study is the first analysis of nanomechanical properties of great white shark jaw cartilage. Variation in nanomechanical properties were detected in different orthogonal directions for both layers of jaw cartilage in this species. The data further suggest that the mineralized layer of shark jaw cartilage is less stiff than previously posited. Our method allows multidirectional nanomechanical properties to be obtained from a single, small, hydrated heterogeneous sample. Our technique is therefore suitable for use when specimens are rare, valuable or limited in quantity, such as samples obtained from endangered species or pathological tissues. We also outline a method for tip-to-optic calibration that facilitates nanoindentation of soft biological tissues. Our technique may help address the critical need for a nanomechanical testing method that is applicable

  4. A novel method for single sample multi-axial nanoindentation of hydrated heterogeneous tissues based on testing great white shark jaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni L Ferrara

    Full Text Available Nanomechanical testing methods that are suitable for a range of hydrated tissues are crucial for understanding biological systems. Nanoindentation of tissues can provide valuable insights into biology, tissue engineering and biomimetic design. However, testing hydrated biological samples still remains a significant challenge. Shark jaw cartilage is an ideal substrate for developing a method to test hydrated tissues because it is a unique heterogeneous composite of both mineralized (hard and non-mineralized (soft layers and possesses a jaw geometry that is challenging to test mechanically. The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for obtaining multidirectional nanomechanical properties for both layers of jaw cartilage from a single sample, taken from the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias. A method for obtaining multidirectional data from a single sample is necessary for examining tissue mechanics in this shark because it is a protected species and hence samples may be difficult to obtain. Results show that this method maintains hydration of samples that would otherwise rapidly dehydrate. Our study is the first analysis of nanomechanical properties of great white shark jaw cartilage. Variation in nanomechanical properties were detected in different orthogonal directions for both layers of jaw cartilage in this species. The data further suggest that the mineralized layer of shark jaw cartilage is less stiff than previously posited. Our method allows multidirectional nanomechanical properties to be obtained from a single, small, hydrated heterogeneous sample. Our technique is therefore suitable for use when specimens are rare, valuable or limited in quantity, such as samples obtained from endangered species or pathological tissues. We also outline a method for tip-to-optic calibration that facilitates nanoindentation of soft biological tissues. Our technique may help address the critical need for a nanomechanical testing method

  5. Use of alkaline or enzymatic sample pretreatment prior to characterization of gold nanoparticles in animal tissue by single-particle ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Brabrand, Myung Suk Jung; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    , not much is known about the applicability of spICPMS for determination of NPs in complex matrices such as biological tissues. In the present study, alkaline and enzymatic treatments were applied to solubilize spleen samples from rats, which had been administered 60-nm gold nanoparticles (Au......NPs) intravenously. The results showed that similar size distributions of AuNPs were obtained independent of the sample preparation method used. Furthermore, the quantitative results for AuNP mass concentration obtained with spICPMS following alkaline sample pretreatment coincided with results for total gold...... concentration obtained by conventional ICPMS analysis of acid-digested tissue. The recovery of AuNPs from enzymatically digested tissue, however, was approximately four times lower. Spiking experiments of blank spleen samples with AuNPs showed that the lower recovery was caused by an inferior transport...

  6. Store tobacco policies: a survey of store managers, California, 1996-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbaum, Z; Quinn, V; Rogers, T; Roeseler, A

    1999-01-01

    To identify store tobacco policies and retailer perception and beliefs that may have contributed to changes in compliance with youth access laws in California. In the winter of 1996-7, a cross sectional, follow up telephone survey was conducted of California store managers whose stores were anonymously surveyed for illegal tobacco sales in the summer of 1996 (that is, 1996 Youth Tobacco Purchase Survey, YTPS). A simple random sample of stores from a list of California stores likely to sell tobacco, used in the 1996 YTPS. 334 managers (77%) of the 434 stores surveyed in 1996 responded to the survey. After eliminating stores that stopped selling tobacco or were under new management or ownership, 320 responses of store managers were included in the analysis. The stores were analysed by type of ownership: chain, which included corporate managed (n = 61); franchise owned (n = 56); and independent (n = 203). Responses of store managers were linked with the 1996 YTPS outcomes. Manager responses were compared by chi2 tests. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify store factors associated with illegal tobacco sales. A lower likelihood of illegal sales rate was associated with the chain stores when compared with the independent stores (odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2 to 0.9). A lower likelihood of illegal tobacco sales was found in stores that implemented tobacco related activities in the previous year such as changing tobacco displays (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9) or adding new warning signs (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.2). Store managers' beliefs that youth were sent to their stores to do compliance checks also resulted in a lower likelihood of illegal sales (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.1). Store tobacco youth access policies, and managers' beliefs about the extent of youth access enforcement in the community, are important in reducing illegal tobacco sales to minors.

  7. TP53 Staining in Tissue Samples of Chronic Lymphocytic Lymphoma Cases: An Immunohistochemical Survey of 51 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Kulaç

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common lymphoproliferative disease in adults. The aim of this study is to find out if the extent of proliferation centers or the immunohistochemical expression of p53 is related to disease prognosis. Materials and Methods: In the scope of this study, 54 biopsy specimens from 51 patients (50 of lymph nodes; the others of spleen, tonsil, orbit, and liver diagnosed with CLL at the Hacettepe University Department of Pathology in 2000-2013 were reevaluated. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were obtained from our patient database. Biopsy samples were assessed semi-quantitatively for the percentage of proliferation center/total biopsy area (PC/TBA and an immunohistochemical study was performed on representative blocks of tissues for p53 expression. Results: When the patients were divided into two categories according to Rai stage as high and low (stages 0, 1, and 2 vs. stages 3 and 4, it was seen that patients with low Rai stage had a better prognosis than those with high stages (p=0.030. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between overall survival and PC/TBA ratio or p53 expression levels. Conclusion: In our cohort, PC/TBA ratio and immunopositivity of p53 did not show correlations with overall survival.

  8. Performance comparison of machine learning methods for prognosis of hormone receptor status in breast cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinli, Adem; Sarikoc, Fatih; Akgun, Hulya; Ozturk, Figen

    2013-06-01

    We examined the classification and prognostic scoring performances of several computer methods on different feature sets to obtain objective and reproducible analysis of estrogen receptor status in breast cancer tissue samples. Radial basis function network, k-nearest neighborhood search, support vector machines, naive bayes, functional trees, and k-means clustering algorithm were applied to the test datasets. Several features were employed and the classification accuracies of each method for these features were examined. The assessment results of the methods on test images were also experimentally compared with those of two experts. According to the results of our experimental work, a combination of functional trees and the naive bayes classifier gave the best prognostic scores indicating very good kappa agreement values (κ=0.899 and κ=0.949, p<0.001) with the experts. This combination also gave the best dichotomization rate (96.3%) for assessment of estrogen receptor status. Wavelet color features provided better classification accuracy than Laws texture energy and co-occurrence matrix features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NS3 protease resistance-associated substitutions in liver tissue and plasma samples from patients infected by hepatitis C virus genotype 1A or 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsica, Giulia; Andolina, Andrea; Merli, Marco; Messina, Emanuela; Hasson, Hamid; Lazzarin, Adriano; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Bagaglio, Sabrina

    2017-08-01

    The presence of naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in the HCV-protease domain has been poorly investigated in the liver, the main site of HCV replication. We evaluated the natural resistance of the virus to NS3 protease inhibitors in liver tissue and plasma samples taken from HCV-infected patients. RASs were investigated by means of viral population sequencing in liver tissue samples from 18 HCV-infected patients harbouring genotype 1a or genotype 1b; plasma samples from 12 of these patients were also available for virological investigation. A discordant genotype was found in two of the 12 patients (16.6%) who provided samples from both compartments. Sequence analysis of the NS3 protease domain showed the presence of RASs in four of the 18 liver tissue samples (22.2%), two of which showed cross-resistance to protease inhibitors in clinical use or phase 2-3 trials. The analysis of the 12 paired tissues and plasma samples excluded the presence of RASs in the plasma compartment. The dominance of discordant genotypes in the paired liver and plasma samples of some HCV-infected patients suggests mixed infection possibly leading to the selective advantage of different genotype in the two compartments. The presence of RASs at intra-hepatic level is not uncommon and may lead to the early emergence of cross-resistant strains.

  10. An integrated sample preparation to determine coccidiostats and emerging Fusarium-mycotoxins in various poultry tissues with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestoi, Marika; Rokka, Mervi; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2007-05-01

    The usefulness of an existing sample preparation technique used for ionophoric coccidiostats (lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin) was applied in the analysis of emerging Fusarium-mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs) in poultry tissues (liver and meat). Also, maduramicin and liver as a new sample matrix was introduced. The developed methods were validated and applied for the determination of coccidiostats and BEA/ENNs in Finnish poultry tissues in 2004-2005. The validation parameters demonstrated that the integrated sample preparation technique is applicable to the parallel determination of these contaminants in poultry tissues. Of the samples analysed (276 meat and 43 liver), only trace levels of LAS, MON, SAL, NAR and MAD were detected in 7, 3, 5, 6 and 4% of the samples, respectively. Interestingly, for the first time, traces of BEA and ENNs could also be detected in animal tissues. BEA and ENNs A, A1, B and B1 were found in 2, 0.3, 0.6, 4 and 3% of the samples, respectively. The simultaneous presence of coccidiostats and mycotoxins was detected in three turkey samples in 2004.

  11. Storing of free neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinks, U.

    1978-12-01

    The applied method makes use of the interaction between the magnetic moment μ vector of the neutron and a magnetic field B vector. By means of superconducting magnets there can easily be achieved potential walls of μ B approximately 2 x 10 -7 eV. The principle of magnetic storing was first used for the storage ring NESTOR and showed immediate success: the stored neutrons decreased exponentially with a time constant tau = (907 +- 70) sec corresponding to the natural lifetime of the neutrons within the statistical errors. This means that there occurred no measurable additional losses (e.g. by resonance excitation) Neutrons therefore could be observed in the storage ring during about 5 half-lives (in principle of course longer, too). The orbit dynamics for neutrons in the storage ring is smilar to that in circular accelerators for charged particles. It is so well understood that the problem of the storage ring for uncharged particles (with magnetic moment) may be considered to e solved. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. Evaluation of endogenous control genes for gene expression studies across multiple tissues and in the specific sets of fat- and muscle-type samples of the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y R; Li, M Z; Zhang, K; Chen, L; Jiang, A A; Wang, J Y; Li, X W

    2011-08-01

    To normalize a set of quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) data, it is essential to determine an optimal number/set of housekeeping genes, as the abundance of housekeeping genes can vary across tissues or cells during different developmental stages, or even under certain environmental conditions. In this study, of the 20 commonly used endogenous control genes, 13, 18 and 17 genes exhibited credible stability in 56 different tissues, 10 types of adipose tissue and five types of muscle tissue, respectively. Our analysis clearly showed that three optimal housekeeping genes are adequate for an accurate normalization, which correlated well with the theoretical optimal number (r ≥ 0.94). In terms of economical and experimental feasibility, we recommend the use of the three most stable housekeeping genes for calculating the normalization factor. Based on our results, the three most stable housekeeping genes in all analysed samples (TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ) are recommended for accurate normalization of q-PCR data. We also suggest that two different sets of housekeeping genes are appropriate for 10 types of adipose tissue (the HSPCB, ALDOA and GAPDH genes) and five types of muscle tissue (the TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ genes), respectively. Our report will serve as a valuable reference for other studies aimed at measuring tissue-specific mRNA abundance in porcine samples. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Effect of topical anaesthetics on interstitial colloid osmotic pressure in human subcutaneous tissue sampled by wick technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jørgen Timm Guthe

    Full Text Available To measure colloid osmotic pressure in interstitial fluid (COP(i from human subcutaneous tissue with the modified wick technique in order to determine influence of topical application of anaesthetics, dry vs. wet wick and implantation time on COP(i.In 50 healthy volunteers interstitial fluid (IF was collected by subcutaneous implantation of multi-filamentous nylon wicks. Study subjects were allocated to two groups; one for comparing COP(i obtained from dry and saline soaked wicks, and one for comparing COP(i from unanaesthetized skin, and skin after application of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetic (EMLA®, Astra Zeneca cream. IF was sampled from the skin of the shoulders, and implantation time was 30, 60, 75, 90 and 120 min. Colloid osmotic pressure was measured with a colloid osmometer. Pain assessment during the procedure was compared for EMLA cream and no topical anaesthesia using a visual analogue scale (VAS in a subgroup of 10 subjects.There were no significant differences between COP(i obtained from dry compared to wet wicks, except that the values after 75 and 90 min. were somewhat higher for the dry wicks. Topical anaesthesia with EMLA cream did not affect COP(i values. COP(i decreased from 30 to 75 min. of implantation (23.2 ± 4.4 mmHg to 19.6 ± 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.008 and subsequently tended to increase until 120 min. EMLA cream resulted in significant lower VAS score for the procedure.COP(i from subcutaneous tissue was easily obtained and fluid harvesting was well tolerated when topical anaesthetic was used. The difference in COP(i assessed by dry and wet wicks between 75 min. and 90 min. of implantation was in accordance with previous reports. The use of topical analgesia did not influence COP(i and topical analgesia may make the wick technique more acceptable for subjects who dislike technical procedures, including children.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01044979.

  14. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-contact employees, and 57,656 customers of a single retail chain, the authors examined relationships among store manager job satisfaction and job performance, store customer-contact employee job satisfaction and job performance, customer satisfaction with the retailer, and a customer-spending-based store performance metric (customer spending growth over a 2-year period). Via path analysis, several hypothesized direct and interaction relations among these constructs are supported. The results suggest implications for academic researchers and retail managers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Office-based narrow band imaging-guided flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling: A cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating its impact on Taiwanese health insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Hui-Chen; Chen, I-How

    2015-07-01

    Narrow band imaging (NBI)-guided flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling for laryngopharyngeal lesions is a novel technique. Patients underwent the procedure in an office-based setting without being sedated, which is different from the conventional technique performed using direct laryngoscopy. Although the feasibility and effects of this procedure were established, its financial impact on the institution and Taiwanese National Health Insurance program was not determined. This is a retrospective case-control study. From May 2010 to April 2011, 20 consecutive patients who underwent NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling were recruited. During the same period, another 20 age-, sex-, and lesion-matched cases were enrolled in the control group. The courses for procedures and financial status were analyzed and compared between groups. Office-based NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling procedure took 27 minutes to be completed, while 191 minutes were required for the conventional technique. Average reimbursement for each case was New Taiwan Dollar (NT$)1264 for patients undergoing office-based NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling, while NT$10,913 for those undergoing conventional direct laryngoscopy in the operation room (p institution suffered a loss of at least NT$690 when performing NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling. Office-based NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling is a cost-saving procedure for patients and the Taiwanese National Health Insurance program. It also saves the procedure time. However, the net financial loss for the institution and physician would limit its popularization unless reimbursement patterns are changed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Superconducting energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsel, W.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages obtained by the energy store device according to the invention with a superconducting solenoid system consist of the fact that only relatively short superconducting forward and return leads are required, which are collected into cables as far as possible. This limits the coolant losses of the cables. Only one relatively expensive connecting part with a transition of its conductors from room temperature to a low temperature is required, which, like the normal conducting current switch, is easily accessible. As the continuation has to be cooled independently of the upper part solenoid, cooling of this continuation part can prevent the introduction of large quantities of heat into the connected part solenoid. Due to the cooling of the forward and return conductors of the connecting cable with the coolant of the lower part solenoid, there are relatively few separations between the coolant spaces of the part solenoids. (orig./MM) [de

  17. Shopping in discount stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    quarters of intentions to shop in discount stores. Value perception has the strongest total effect, which is partly mediated by enjoyment, shame and guilt. Attributions influence the shopping intention indirectly via value perception and emotions. The inferior quality attribution has the strongest total......This paper analyzes the impact of price-related attributions, emotions and value perception on the intention to shop at grocery discounters in an integrated framework. Moderating effects of price consciousness are also analyzed. The results show that the proposed model explains almost three...... effect, followed by the efficiency of the business model attribution. The unfairness to stakeholders and the tricks in price communication attribution mostly influence the shopping intention for less price-conscious customers....

  18. Direct detection of the AR-E211 G > A gene polymorphism from blood and tissue samples without DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reptova, Silvie; Trtkova, Katerina Smesny; Kolar, Zdenek

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of prostate cancer (CaP) involves alterations in a gene structure of the androgen receptor (AR). The single nucleotide polymorphism AR-E211 G > A localized in exon 1 of the AR gene (G1733A) was detected using direct polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion (PCR-RFLP) method on blood and tissue samples without prior DNA isolation. We used blood samples of patients with a diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or CaP. From monitored group of CaP patients were selected specimen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks with morphology of BPH and CaP. The main objective of our study was to develop a method based the direct PCR-RFLP analysis from blood and tissue without prior DNA isolation for faster genotyping analysis of a large number of samples. We found no statistically significant differences in allelic % of the AR-E211 G > A polymorphism between BPH and CaP patients (p ≤ 0.8462). Genotyping of the AR-E211 G > A variant in blood was not identical with tumor tissue genotyping analysis. Significant agreement between blood and tissue AR-E211 G > A polymorphism only in non-tumor tissue focus was confirmed. Although we analyzed a limited number of the tissue samples, we suppose that a presence of the minor allele A may be associated with cancer transformation-induced changes of the modified AR gene.

  19. Comparison of Nanostring nCounter® Data on FFPE Colon Cancer Samples and Affymetrix Microarray Data on Matched Frozen Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available The prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC stage II and III patients remains a challenge due to the difficulties of finding robust biomarkers suitable for testing clinical samples. The majority of published gene signatures of CRC have been generated on fresh frozen colorectal tissues. Because collection of frozen tissue is not practical for routine surgical pathology practice, a clinical test that improves prognostic capabilities beyond standard pathological staging of colon cancer will need to be designed for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues. The NanoString nCounter® platform is a gene expression analysis tool developed for use with FFPE-derived samples. We designed a custom nCounter® codeset based on elements from multiple published fresh frozen tissue microarray-based prognostic gene signatures for colon cancer, and we used this platform to systematically compare gene expression data from FFPE with matched microarray array data from frozen tissues. Our results show moderate correlation of gene expression between two platforms and discovery of a small subset of genes as candidate biomarkers for colon cancer prognosis that are detectable and quantifiable in FFPE tissue sections.

  20. Analysis of corrosions-products in tissue samples near surgical implants by means of LAMMA (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlagenhaufen, C.

    1996-08-01

    In this work corrosion products of surgical implants in tissue samples were identified. For the characterization of the corrosion products the LAMMA 500 (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) was used. Additional analysis were made with the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) to determine the concentration of chromium, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum in the tissues. In the first part several synthetic chromium- and molybdenum compounds were investigated with LAMMA. With the anionic mass spectra of the chromium-compounds it is possible to the oxidation state of chromium. The mass spectra of the synthetic compounds were used to identify, the compounds in the corrosion products. In the second part thin sections prepared from the tissue samples from the surrounding of the implants were analyzed. Several embedding and cutting methods were tested. Histological staining methods and LAMMA spectra were used to characterize the deposits in the tissue. Three different deposits were found in the tissue. In all tissues metal splinters from the implant were found. In most of the tissues iron-rich deposits were found, that were identified as iron-phosphate. As definitive corrosion products of the implant mixtures of chromium(III)phosphate, calcium molybdate, calcium phosphate and chromium(III) molybdate were identified. The ICP-MS results show in comparison to normal values, very high concentrations for chromium, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. These results support the conclusions based on LAMMA results. The results of these investigations clearly indicate, that stainless steel implants, are not corrosion-resistant in the body. Relatively high amounts of the constituents, of the implant dissolved, and are deposited as solid compounds in the tissue next to the implant. (author)

  1. Office-based narrow band imaging-guided flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling: A cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating its impact on Taiwanese health insurance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Jen Fang

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Office-based NBI flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling is a cost-saving procedure for patients and the Taiwanese National Health Insurance program. It also saves the procedure time. However, the net financial loss for the institution and physician would limit its popularization unless reimbursement patterns are changed.

  2. Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ana Clara; Lock, Karen; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of retail food store, open-air food market, and restaurant observation tools adapted to the Brazilian urban context. METHODS This study is part of a cross-sectional observation survey conducted in 13 districts across the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2010-2011. Food store and restaurant observational tools were developed based on previously available tools, and then tested it. They included measures on the availability, variety, quality, pricing, and promotion of fruits and vegetables and ultra-processed foods. We used Kappa statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients to assess inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities in samples of 142 restaurants, 97 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), and of 62 restaurants and 45 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), respectively. Construct validity as the tool’s abilities to discriminate based on store types and different income contexts were assessed in the entire sample: 305 retail food stores, 8 fruits and vegetable markets, and 472 restaurants. RESULTS Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were generally high, with most Kappa values greater than 0.70 (range 0.49-1.00). Both tools discriminated between store types and neighborhoods with different median income. Fruits and vegetables were more likely to be found in middle to higher-income neighborhoods, while soda, fruit-flavored drink mixes, cookies, and chips were cheaper and more likely to be found in lower-income neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS The measures were reliable and able to reveal significant differences across store types and different contexts. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the tools may be used to reliably measure the food stores and restaurant food environment in urban settings of middle-income countries. Such studies can help .inform health promotion interventions and policies in these

  3. Influence of parasite density and sample storage time on the reliability of Entamoeba histolytica-specific PCR from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Eggert, Petra; Schwarz, Norbert G; Poppert, Sven; Tannich, Egbert; Hagen, Ralf M

    2013-12-01

    We report on the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue in comparison with microscopy and have determined predictors that may influence PCR results. E. histolytica-specific and Entamoeba dispar-specific real-time PCR and microscopy from adjacent histologic sections were performed using a collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained from patients with invasive amebiasis. Specimens had been collected during the previous 4 decades. Association of sample age, parasite density, and reliability of PCR was analyzed. E. histolytica PCR was positive in 20 of 34 biopsies (58.8%); 2 of these 20 were microscopically negative for amebae in neighboring tissue sections. PCR was negative in 9 samples with visible amebae in neighboring sections and in 5 samples without visible parasites in neighboring sections. PCR was negative in all specimens that were older than 3 decades. Low parasite counts and sample ages older than 20 years were predictors for false-negative PCR results. All samples were negative for E. dispar DNA. PCR is suitable for the detection of E. histolytica in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples that are younger than 2 decades and that contain intermediate to high parasite numbers. Negative results in older samples were due to progressive degradation of DNA over time as indicated by control PCRs targeting the human 18S rRNA gene. Moreover, our findings support previous suggestions that only E. histolytica but not E. dispar is responsible for invasive amebiasis.

  4. SU-F-J-193: Efficient Dose Extinction Method for Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) of Real Tissue Samples for Validation of CT HU to Stopping Power Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R; Baer, E; Jee, K; Sharp, G; Flanz, J; Lu, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For proton therapy, an accurate model of CT HU to relative stopping power (RSP) conversion is essential. In current practice, validation of these models relies solely on measurements of tissue substitutes with standard compositions. Validation based on real tissue samples would be much more direct and can address variations between patients. This study intends to develop an efficient and accurate system based on the concept of dose extinction to measure WEPL and retrieve RSP in biological tissue in large number of types. Methods: A broad AP proton beam delivering a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is used to irradiate the samples with a Matrixx detector positioned immediately below. A water tank was placed on top of the samples, with the water level controllable in sub-millimeter by a remotely controlled dosing pump. While gradually lowering the water level with beam on, the transmission dose was recorded at 1 frame/sec. The WEPL were determined as the difference between the known beam range of the delivered SOBP (80%) and the water level corresponding to 80% of measured dose profiles in time. A Gammex 467 phantom was used to test the system and various types of biological tissue was measured. Results: RSP for all Gammex inserts, expect the one made with lung-450 material (<2% error), were determined within ±0.5% error. Depends on the WEPL of investigated phantom, a measurement takes around 10 min, which can be accelerated by a faster pump. Conclusion: Based on the concept of dose extinction, a system was explored to measure WEPL efficiently and accurately for a large number of samples. This allows the validation of CT HU to stopping power conversions based on large number of samples and real tissues. It also allows the assessment of beam uncertainties due to variations over patients, which issue has never been sufficiently studied before.

  5. SU-F-J-193: Efficient Dose Extinction Method for Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) of Real Tissue Samples for Validation of CT HU to Stopping Power Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Baer, E; Jee, K; Sharp, G; Flanz, J; Lu, H [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: For proton therapy, an accurate model of CT HU to relative stopping power (RSP) conversion is essential. In current practice, validation of these models relies solely on measurements of tissue substitutes with standard compositions. Validation based on real tissue samples would be much more direct and can address variations between patients. This study intends to develop an efficient and accurate system based on the concept of dose extinction to measure WEPL and retrieve RSP in biological tissue in large number of types. Methods: A broad AP proton beam delivering a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is used to irradiate the samples with a Matrixx detector positioned immediately below. A water tank was placed on top of the samples, with the water level controllable in sub-millimeter by a remotely controlled dosing pump. While gradually lowering the water level with beam on, the transmission dose was recorded at 1 frame/sec. The WEPL were determined as the difference between the known beam range of the delivered SOBP (80%) and the water level corresponding to 80% of measured dose profiles in time. A Gammex 467 phantom was used to test the system and various types of biological tissue was measured. Results: RSP for all Gammex inserts, expect the one made with lung-450 material (<2% error), were determined within ±0.5% error. Depends on the WEPL of investigated phantom, a measurement takes around 10 min, which can be accelerated by a faster pump. Conclusion: Based on the concept of dose extinction, a system was explored to measure WEPL efficiently and accurately for a large number of samples. This allows the validation of CT HU to stopping power conversions based on large number of samples and real tissues. It also allows the assessment of beam uncertainties due to variations over patients, which issue has never been sufficiently studied before.

  6. Coexistence of Epstein-Barr virus and Parvovirus B19 in tonsillar tissue samples: quantitative measurement by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Fatih; Gümral, Ramazan; Yildizoğlu, Üzeyir; Babayiğit, Mustafa Alparslan; Durmaz, Abdullah; Yiğit, Nuri; Saraçli, Mehmet Ali; Kubar, Ayhan

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence and copy number of six different viruses in tonsillar tissue samples removed surgically because of chronic recurrent tonsillitis or chronic obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy. In total, 56 tissue samples (tonsillar core) collected from 44 children and 12 adults were included in this study. The presence of viruses was investigated using a new TaqMan-based quantitative real-time PCR assay. Of the 56 tissue samples, 67.9% (38/56) were positive for at least one of the six viruses. Epstein-Barr virus was the most frequently detected virus, being found in 53.6% (30/56), followed by human Parvovirus B19 21.4% (12/56), human adenovirus 12.5% (7/56), human Cytomegalovirus 5.4% (3/56), BK polyomavirus 1.8% (1/56), and Herpes simplex virus 1.8% (1/56). Precancerous or cancerous changes were not detected in the tonsillar tissue samples by pathologic examination, whereas lymphoid hyperplasia was observed in 24 patients. In contrast to other viruses, B19 virus was present in high copy number in tonsillar tissues. The rates of EBV and B19 virus with high copy number (>500.000 copies/ml) were higher in children than in adults, and a positive relationship was also found between the presence of EBV and the presence of B19 virus with high copy number (P=0.037). It is previously reported that some viral agents are associated with different chronic tonsillar pathologies. In the present study, the presence of B19 virus in tonsillar core samples was investigated quantitatively for the first time, and our data suggests that EBV infections could be associated with B19 virus infections or could facilitate B19 virus replication. However, further detailed studies are needed to clarify this observation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  8. Store Location in Shopping Centers: Theory & Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry D. Vandell; Charles C. Carter

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a formal theory of store location within shopping centers based on bid rent theory. The bid rent model is fully speci?ed and solved with the objective function of pro?t maximization in the presence of comparative, multipurpose and impulse shopping behavior. Several hypotheses result about the optimal relationships between store types, sizes, rents, sales, and distances from the mall center. The hypotheses are tested and con?rmed using data from a sample of 689 leases in ei...

  9. [Transciptome among Mexicans: a large scale methodology to analyze the genetics expression profile of simultaneous samples in muscle, adipose tissue and lymphocytes obtained from the same individual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastarrachea, Raúl A; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Kent, Jack W; Laviada-Molina, Hugo A; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Torres-Salazar, Amada; Torres-Salazar, Amanda; Nava-González, Edna J; Solis-Pérez, Elizabeth; Gallegos-Cabrales, Esther C; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2008-01-01

    We describe the methodology used to analyze multiple transcripts using microarray techniques in simultaneous biopsies of muscle, adipose tissue and lymphocytes obtained from the same individual as part of the standard protocol of the Genetics of Metabolic Diseases in Mexico: GEMM Family Study. We recruited 4 healthy male subjects with BM1 20-41, who signed an informed consent letter. Subjects participated in a clinical examination that included anthropometric and body composition measurements, muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) subcutaneous fat biopsies anda blood draw. All samples provided sufficient amplified RNA for microarray analysis. Total RNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and amplified for analysis. Of the 48,687 transcript targets queried, 39.4% were detectable in a least one of the studied tissues. Leptin was not detectable in lymphocytes, weakly expressed in muscle, but overexpressed and highly correlated with BMI in subcutaneous fat. Another example was GLUT4, which was detectable only in muscle and not correlated with BMI. Expression level concordance was 0.7 (p< 0.001) for the three tissues studied. We demonstrated the feasibility of carrying out simultaneous analysis of gene expression in multiple tissues, concordance of genetic expression in different tissues, and obtained confidence that this method corroborates the expected biological relationships among LEPand GLUT4. TheGEMM study will provide a broad and valuable overview on metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Tolerance to low temperatures of Toxocara cati larvae in chicken muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, Kensuke; Saitoh, Yasuhide; Okada, Natsuki

    2012-01-01

    Infectivity of Toxocara cati larvae in muscle tissue of chickens after storage at 4 degrees C and -25 degrees C was assessed in a mouse bioassay to provide information on the risk of meat-borne toxocarosis. Muscle tissue samples of 30-day old T. cati infections were stored at 4 degrees C for 14...

  11. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Koller, J.; Kapel, C.M.O.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced...

  12. Virus isolation vs RT-PCR: which method is more successful in detecting VHSV and IHNV in fish tissue sampled under field conditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüsel, R.; Bergmann, S. M.; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2007-01-01

    in Switzerland. Compared to SPNT, the RT-PCR method detected, as with virus isolation, a much lower number of positive cases; reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our results indicate that RT-PCR can not only be successfully applied in field surveys, but may also be slightly more sensitive than virus......This study compared the results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and traditional virus isolation on cell culture in detection of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). RT-PCR was used for 172 tissue sample pools...... (total of 859 fish) originating from a field survey on the occurrence of VHSV and IHNV in farmed and wild salmonids in Switzerland. These samples represented all sites with fish that were either identified as virus-positive by means of virus isolation (three sites, four positive tissue sample pools) and...

  13. Some Physical, Chemical, and Biological Parameters of Samples of Scleractinium Coral Aquaculture Skeleton Used for Reconstruction/Engineering of the Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A A; Sergeeva, N S; Britaev, T A; Komlev, V S; Sviridova, I K; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Dgebuadze, P Yu; Teterina, A Yu; Kuvshinova, E A; Schanskii, Ya D

    2015-08-01

    Physical and chemical (phase and chemical composition, dynamics of resorption, and strength properties), and biological (cytological compatibility and scaffold properties of the surface) properties of samples of scleractinium coral skeletons from aquacultures of three types and corresponding samples of natural coral skeletons (Pocillopora verrucosa, Acropora formosa, and Acropora nobilis) were studied. Samples of scleractinium coral aquaculture skeleton of A. nobilis, A. formosa, and P. verrucosa met the requirements (all study parameters) to materials for osteoplasty and 3D-scaffolds for engineering of bone tissue.

  14. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  15. A strategy for extending the applicability of a validated plasma calibration curve to quantitative measurements in multiple tissue homogenate samples: a case study from a rat tissue distribution study of JI-101, a triple kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Sandip Dhondiram; Jeniffer, Sherine; Punde, Ravindra; Gilibili, Ravindranath Reddy; Giri, Sanjeev; Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2012-04-01

    A general practice in bioanalysis is that, whatever the biological matrix the analyte is being quantified in, the validation is performed in the same matrix as per regulatory guidelines. In this paper, we are presenting the applicability of a validated LC-MS/MS method in rat plasma for JI-101, to estimate the concentrations of JI-101 in various tissues that were harvested in a rat tissue distribution study. A simple protein precipitation technique was used to extract JI-101 and internal standard from the tissue homogenates. The recovery of JI-101 in all the matrices was found to be >70%. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a binary gradient using mobile phase A (acetonitrile) and B (0.2% formic acid in water) at a flow rate of 0.30 mL/min on a Prodigy ODS column with a total run time of 4.0 min. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were 466.1 → 265 for JI-101 and 180.1 → 110.1 for internal standard. The linearity range was 5.02-4017 ng/mL. The JI-101 levels were quantifiable in the various tissue samples harvested in this study. Therefore, the use of a previously validated JI-101 assay in plasma circumvented the tedious process of method development/validation in various tissue matrices. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Stored energy recovery of irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.T.; Chaplin, R.L.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The stored energy released in Stage I recovery of reactor neutron irradiated copper was measured by differential thermal analysis calorimetry for three fluences up to a maximum of 3.5 x 10 18 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV) after irradiation at temperatures of less than 10 K. The dependence of the stored energy upon fluence, and a tendency toward saturation, were observed. Theoretical reaction rate processes were compared directly with the experimental rates of stored energy release, and the parameters associated with the theory were compared with results from previous resistivity measurements. Good agreement was found for several parameters, but major differences with previous D + E substage results lead to the conclusion that the point defect model may not describe materials experiencing severe neutron damage. Computer studies of warmup rates were made for first and second order and for correlated recovery processes as a function of defect concentration and of external power input. First and second order processes show definite distortion in their recovery rate curves for high defect concentrations; the correlated recovery process shows a much less pronounced effect. This investigation of stored energy used several new approaches. The use of induced radioactivity within the sample as the heating source, and the use of computer generated theoretical stored energy release curves to analyze the data were unique. (author)

  17. Peranan Store Atmosphere Dalam Meningkatkan Keputusan Pembelian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennyta Yusiana

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Bandung is a destination for domestic and foreign tourists with culinary goals. There are many restaurants and cafes offering a variety of culinary tastes, ranging from culinary archipelago to abroad. Nowadays consumers are attracted to the restaurant and cafe with a different atmosphere. One of them is the Hummingbird Eatery which implementing store homey atmosphere, with the cozy interior and dominated by furniture made of wood. Atmosphere is an important factor for consumers in choosing where to dine and relax. Cozy atmosphere with unique decor and creative appeal to a restaurant that makes consumers visit. This study aims to determine consumer response regarding the role of Store Atmosphere in increasing consumer purchasing decisions. This type of research is descriptive and quantitative, using 100 samples. Data collection techniques used were questionnaires, observations, interviews, and literature studies. This study uses SPSS V.22 and simple linear regression. The results of this study indicate that the general interior becomes a major consideration as a benefit for consumers in making purchasing decisions apart from other sub variables store atmosphere. Managers can prioritize managing general interior more effectively, because consumers prefer it in the store atmosphere. Keywords: Store Atmosphere, Purchase Decision

  18. Association between store food environment and customer purchases in small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Lenk, Kathleen; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Barnes, Timothy L; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-06-05

    Purchases at small/non-traditional food stores tend to have poor nutritional quality, and have been associated with poor health outcomes, including increased obesity risk The purpose of this study was to examine whether customers who shop at small/non-traditional food stores with more health promoting features make healthier purchases. In a cross-sectional design, data collectors assessed store features in a sample of 99 small and non-traditional food stores not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN in 2014. Customer intercept interviews (n = 594) collected purchase data from a bag check and demographics from a survey. Store measures included fruit/vegetable and whole grain availability, an overall Healthy Food Supply Score (HFSS), healthy food advertisements and in-store placement, and shelf space of key items. Customer nutritional measures were analyzed using Nutrient Databases System for Research (NDSR), and included the purchase of ≥1 serving of fruits/vegetables; ≥1 serving of whole grains; and overall Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for foods/beverages purchased. Associations between store and customer measures were estimated in multilevel linear and logistic regression models, controlling for customer characteristics and store type. Few customers purchased fruits and vegetables (8%) or whole grains (8%). In fully adjusted models, purchase HEI-2010 scores were associated with fruit/vegetable shelf space (p = 0.002) and the ratio of shelf space devoted to healthy vs. less healthy items (p = 0.0002). Offering ≥14 varieties of fruit/vegetables was associated with produce purchases (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.3), as was having produce visible from the store entrance (OR 2.3 95% CI 1.0 to 5.8), but whole grain availability measures were not associated with whole grain purchases. Strategies addressing both customer demand and the availability of healthy food

  19. A practical tissue sampling method using ordinary paper for molecular detection of infectious bursal disease virus RNA by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maw, Min Thein; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kasanga, Christopher J; Terasaki, Kaori; Fukushi, Hideto

    2006-12-01

    A practical sampling method for bursal tissue using ordinary paper for molecular diagnosis of infectious bursal disease (IBD) was established. IBD virus-infected bursa was directly smeared on chromatography paper, filter paper, or stationery copy paper and was then fixed with absolute ethanol, Tris-HCl-saturated phenol, or phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1). Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) card, which is designed for the collection of biological samples for molecular detection, was also used. After storage at 37 C for up to 30 days, total RNA directly extracted from the tissue fixed on the papers and FTA card were subjected to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of IBD virus (IBDV) RNA. In addition, the ability of each chemical used in the fixation and the FTA card to inactivate IBDV was evaluated. Regardless of the paper quality, storage period, and fixation method, IBDV RNA was consistently detected in all of the samples. IBDV in the bursal tissue was inactivated with phenol but not with ethanol or the unknown chemicals in FTA card. These results show that ordinary papers sustain the viral RNA, as does FTA card, but phenol fixation is superior to FTA card in inactivating IBDV. The new sampling method using ordinary paper with phenol fixation is safe, inexpensive, simple, and easy, and is thus suitable for conducting a global survey of IBD even where laboratory resources are limited. This practical method should contribute to the control of IBD worldwide.

  20. Trace metals in mussel shells and corresponding soft tissue samples: a validation experiment for the use of Perna perna shells in pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellotto, V.R. [Vale do Itajai University (UNIVALI), CTTMAR (Center for Technology Earth and Ocean Science), Itajai (Brazil); Miekeley, N. [Pontifical Catholic University (PUC-Rio), Department of Chemistry, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    The uptake of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soft tissue of Perna perna mussels and their shells has been studied in aquarium experiments in which mussels were exposed for 30 or 60 days to seawater spiked with different concentrations of these contaminants (125 and 500 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Tissue samples were analyzed after acid digestion by conventional solution nebulization ICP-MS. Laser ablation ICP-MS was used for the quantitative determination of trace elements in different areas of the corresponding shells. With the exception of Mn and Zn, all other elements studied showed a significant concentration enhancements in soft tissue, with the magnitude of this enhancement following the order: Cr > Ni > Cd > Cu > Pb. A corresponding increase in most contaminants, although less pronounced, was also observed in the newly formed growth rings of mussel shells, contributing to the validation of Perna perna mussel shell as a bioindicator of toxic elements. (orig.)

  1. Dorte Nors "Den store tomat"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Jimmi

    2017-01-01

    Tekstgennemgang og undervisningsforløb til Dorte Nors "Den store tomat". Undervisningsforløbet er henvendt til elever i folkeskolens udskoling......Tekstgennemgang og undervisningsforløb til Dorte Nors "Den store tomat". Undervisningsforløbet er henvendt til elever i folkeskolens udskoling...

  2. Consumers’ preferences regarding department stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, W.; Borgers, A.W.J.; van den Berg, P.E.W.

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for this research was the bankruptcy of one the Dutch oldest and largest chain of department stores at the end of 2015. The main goal of this research is to find what, from a consumers’ perspective, a department store should look like. A four storey (1500 m2 each) building was

  3. Forhastet regulering af de store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke.......Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke....

  4. The importance of preoperative tissue sampling for mobile spine chordomas: literature review and report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccato, Jeffrey A; Witiw, Christopher D; Keith, Julia; Dyer, Erin; Saghal, Arjun; da Costa, Leodante

    2018-01-01

    Pre-operative biopsy and diagnosis of chordomas of the mobile spine is indicated as en bloc resections improve outcomes. This review of the management of mobile spine chordomas includes two cases of unexpected mobile spine chordomas where a preoperative tissue diagnosis was decided against and may have altered surgical decision-making. Two lumbar spine chordomas thought to be metastatic and primary bony lesions preoperatively were not biopsied before surgery and eventual pathology revealed chordoma. Preoperative diagnoses were questioned during surgery after an intraoperative tissue diagnosis of chordoma in one case and unclear pathology with non-characteristic tumor morphology in the other. The surgical plan was altered in these cases to maximize resection as en bloc resection reduces the risk of local recurrence in chordoma. Mobile spine chordomas are rare and en bloc resection is recommended, contrary to the usual approach to more common spine tumors. Since en bloc resection of spine chordomas improves disease free survival, it has been recommended that tissue diagnosis be obtained preoperatively when chordoma is considered in the differential diagnosis, in order to guide surgical planning. We present two cases where a preoperative biopsy was considered but not obtained after neuroradiology consultation and imaging review, which may have been managed differently if the diagnosis of spine chordomas were known pre-operatively.

  5. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid C.

    2011-12-29

    The Saint James\\'s Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260\\/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng\\/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng\\/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng\\/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng\\/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates.

  6. Office-based narrow band imaging-guided flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling: A cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating its impact on Taiwanese health insurance program

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Hui-Chen; Chen, I-How

    2015-01-01

    Narrow band imaging (NBI)-guided flexible laryngoscopy tissue sampling for laryngopharyngeal lesions is a novel technique. Patients underwent the procedure in an office-based setting without being sedated, which is different from the conventional technique performed using direct laryngoscopy. Although the feasibility and effects of this procedure were established, its financial impact on the institution and Taiwanese National Health Insurance program was not determined. Methods: This is a ...

  7. Pre-Analytical Considerations for Successful Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS: Challenges and Opportunities for Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Tissue (FFPE Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Arreaza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cancer drug discovery, it is important to investigate the genetic determinants of response or resistance to cancer therapy as well as factors that contribute to adverse events in the course of clinical trials. Despite the emergence of new technologies and the ability to measure more diverse analytes (e.g., circulating tumor cell (CTC, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA, etc., tumor tissue is still the most common and reliable source for biomarker investigation. Because of its worldwide use and ability to preserve samples for many decades at ambient temperature, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue (FFPE is likely to be the preferred choice for tissue preservation in clinical practice for the foreseeable future. Multiple analyses are routinely performed on the same FFPE samples (such as Immunohistochemistry (IHC, in situ hybridization, RNAseq, DNAseq, TILseq, Methyl-Seq, etc.. Thus, specimen prioritization and optimization of the isolation of analytes is critical to ensure successful completion of each assay. FFPE is notorious for producing suboptimal DNA quality and low DNA yield. However, commercial vendors tend to request higher DNA sample mass than what is actually required for downstream assays, which restricts the breadth of biomarker work that can be performed. We evaluated multiple genomics service laboratories to assess the current state of NGS pre-analytical processing of FFPE. Significant differences in pre-analytical capabilities were observed. Key aspects are highlighted and recommendations are made to improve the current practice in translational research.

  8. Numerical and structural genomic aberrations are reliably detectable in tissue microarrays of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples by fluorescence in-situ hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Horn

    Full Text Available Few data are available regarding the reliability of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs. We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tumor specimens arranged in TMA format. We analyzed 46 B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL specimens with known karyotypes for translocations of IGH-, BCL2-, BCL6- and MYC-genes. Locus-specific DNA probes were used for the detection of deletions in chromosome bands 6q21 and 9p21 in 62 follicular lymphomas (FL and six malignant mesothelioma (MM samples, respectively. To test for aberrant signals generated by truncation of nuclei following sectioning of FFPE tissue samples, cell line dilutions with 9p21-deletions were embedded into paraffin blocks. The overall TMA hybridization efficiency was 94%. FISH results regarding translocations matched karyotyping data in 93%. As for chromosomal deletions, sectioning artefacts occurred in 17% to 25% of cells, suggesting that the proportion of cells showing deletions should exceed 25% to be reliably detectable. In conclusion, FISH represents a robust tool for the detection of structural as well as numerical aberrations in FFPE tissue samples in a TMA-based high-throughput setting, when rigorous cut-off values and appropriate controls are maintained, and, of note, was superior to quantitative PCR approaches.

  9. Nested-PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchial alveolar swabs, frozen tissues and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded swine lung samples: comparative evaluation with immunohistochemical findings and histological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection is often performed through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR or a combination of these techniques. PCR can be performed on samples using several conservation methods, including swabs, frozen tissue or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. However, the formalin fixation process often inhibits DNA amplification. To evaluate whether M. hyopneumoniae DNA could be recovered from FFPE tissues, 15 lungs with cranioventral consolidation lesions were collected in a slaughterhouse from swine bred in herds with respiratory disease. Bronchial swabs and fresh lung tissue were collected, and a fragment of the corresponding lung section was placed in neutral buffered formalin for 48 hours. A PCR assay was performed to compare FFPE tissue samples with samples that were only refrigerated (bronchial swabs or frozen (tissue pieces. M. hyopneumoniae was detected by PCR in all 15 samples of the swab and frozen tissue, while it was detected in only 11 of the 15 FFPE samples. Histological features of M. hyopneumoniae infection were presented in 11 cases and 7 of these samples stained positive in IHC. Concordance between the histological features and detection results was observed in 13 of the FFPE tissue samples. PCR was the most sensitive technique. Comparison of different sample conservation methods indicated that it is possible to detect M. hyopneumoniae from FFPE tissue. It is important to conduct further research using archived material because the efficiency of PCR could be compromised under these conditions.

  10. Ethical considerations in forensic genetics research on tissue samples collected post-mortem in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathfield, Laura J; Maistry, Sairita; Martin, Lorna J; Ramesar, Raj; de Vries, Jantina

    2017-11-29

    The use of tissue collected at a forensic post-mortem for forensic genetics research purposes remains of ethical concern as the process involves obtaining informed consent from grieving family members. Two forensic genetics research studies using tissue collected from a forensic post-mortem were recently initiated at our institution and were the first of their kind to be conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. This article discusses some of the ethical challenges that were encountered in these research projects. Among these challenges was the adaptation of research workflows to fit in with an exceptionally busy service delivery that is operating with limited resources. Whilst seeking guidance from the literature regarding research on deceased populations, it was noted that next of kin of decedents are not formally recognised as a vulnerable group in the existing ethical and legal frameworks in South Africa. The authors recommend that research in the forensic mortuary setting is approached using guidance for vulnerable groups, and the benefit to risk standard needs to be strongly justified. Lastly, when planning forensic genetics research, consideration must be given to the potential of uncovering incidental findings, funding to validate these findings and the feedback of results to family members; the latter of which is recommended to occur through a genetic counsellor. It is hoped that these experiences will contribute towards a formal framework for conducting forensic genetic research in medico-legal mortuaries in South Africa.

  11. The effect of the transfusion of stored RBCs on intestinal microvascular oxygenation in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, J.; de Korte, D.; Lind, A.; Siegemund, M.; Trouwborst, A.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Ince, C.; Henny, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    Although it is known that the transfusion of stored RBCs does not always improve tissue O(2) consumption under conditions of limited tissue oxygenation, the efficiency of O(2) delivery to the microcirculation by stored RBCs has never been determined. In a rat hemorrhagic shock model, the effects of

  12. Genetic Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from a Large Number of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Samples of Human Isolates in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Sima; Torbaghan, Shams Shariat; Dabiri, Shahriar; Babaei, Zahra; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, presents an important medical and veterinary problem globally, including that in Iran. Different genotypes of E. granulosus have been reported from human isolates worldwide. This study identifies the genotype of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in three provinces of Iran using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. In this study, 200 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from human CE cases were collected from Alborz, Tehran, and Kerman provinces. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were performed for genetic characterization of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates from this study and reference sequences of different genotypes was done using a maximum likelihood method. In total, 54.4%, 0.8%, 1%, and 40.8% of the samples were identified as the G1, G2, G3, and G6 genotypes, respectively. The findings of the current study confirm the G1 genotype (sheep strain) to be the most prevalent genotype involved in human CE cases in Iran and indicates the high prevalence of the G6 genotype with a high infectivity for humans. Furthermore, this study illustrates the first documented human CE case in Iran infected with the G2 genotype. PMID:25535316

  13. Relative sensitivity of conventional and real-time PCR assays for detection of SFG Rickettsia in blood and tissue samples from laboratory animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina E Zemtsova

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural transmission cycles of zoonotic pathogens and the reservoir competence of vertebrate hosts require methods for reliable diagnosis of infection in wild and laboratory animals. Several PCR-based applications have been developed for detection of infections caused by Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spp. in a variety of animal tissues. These assays are being widely used by researchers, but they differ in their sensitivity and reliability. We compared the sensitivity of five previously published conventional PCR assays and one SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of rickettsial DNA in blood and tissue samples from Rickettsia- infected laboratory animals (n = 87. The real-time PCR, which detected rickettsial DNA in 37.9% of samples, was the most sensitive. The next best were the semi-nested ompA assay and rpoB conventional PCR, which detected as positive 18.4% and 14.9% samples respectively. Conventional assays targeting ompB, gltA and hrtA genes have been the least sensitive. Therefore, we recommend the SYBR green-based real-time PCR as a tool for the detection of rickettsial DNA in animal samples due to its higher sensitivity when compared to more traditional assays.

  14. Relative sensitivity of conventional and real-time PCR assays for detection of SFG Rickettsia in blood and tissue samples from laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemtsova, Galina E; Montgomery, Merrill; Levin, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the natural transmission cycles of zoonotic pathogens and the reservoir competence of vertebrate hosts require methods for reliable diagnosis of infection in wild and laboratory animals. Several PCR-based applications have been developed for detection of infections caused by Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spp. in a variety of animal tissues. These assays are being widely used by researchers, but they differ in their sensitivity and reliability. We compared the sensitivity of five previously published conventional PCR assays and one SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of rickettsial DNA in blood and tissue samples from Rickettsia- infected laboratory animals (n = 87). The real-time PCR, which detected rickettsial DNA in 37.9% of samples, was the most sensitive. The next best were the semi-nested ompA assay and rpoB conventional PCR, which detected as positive 18.4% and 14.9% samples respectively. Conventional assays targeting ompB, gltA and hrtA genes have been the least sensitive. Therefore, we recommend the SYBR green-based real-time PCR as a tool for the detection of rickettsial DNA in animal samples due to its higher sensitivity when compared to more traditional assays.

  15. PERSONALITY INFLUENCES ON ONLINE STORES CUSTOMERS BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costinel DOBRE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Online customer behaviors include a wide range of processes and activities related to sensory reactions, perceptions, attitude formation, preferences, decisions, satisfaction evaluation, and loyalty formation. Online customer behaviors are influenced by exogenous and endogenous factors. Exogenous factors include attributes associated with the online retailer and the consumer’s environmental influences. Endogenous factors include characteristics attributed to consumers. Of these, personality has major influences on customer behavior in the online stores. In this paper we highlight the influences of personality on important decision making variables linked to the customer’s online visiting, buying and post purchase process. Thus, we intend to point out the influences of personality on the criteria used in evaluating stores, on expectations customers form towards stores, on the perception of store performance and the assessment of satisfaction. This will involve carrying out a survey, and its administration will be performed on the Internet. The sample under research will comprise respondents who own an account on the social network Facebook, assuming these respondents have time and are more likely to have purchased online at least once. The results of this study are useful both for academic researchers and practitioners engaged in online marketing, online communication and web design.

  16. Allegheny County Supermarkets & Convenience Stores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Location information for all Supermarkets and Convenience Stores in Allegheny County was produced using the Allegheny County Fee and Permit Data for 2016.

  17. Molecular glycopathology by capillary electrophoresis: Analysis of the N-glycome of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mouse tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczo, Boglarka; Szarka, Mate; Tovari, Jozsef; Ostoros, Gyorgyi; Csanky, Eszter; Guttman, Andras

    2017-06-01

    Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection was used to analyze endoglycosidase released and fluorophore-labeled N-glycans from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) mouse tissue samples of lung, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney and intestine. The FFPE samples were first deparaffinized followed by solubilization and glycoprotein retrieval. PNGase F mediated release of the N-linked oligosaccharides was followed by labeling with aminopyrene trisulfonate. After CE-LIF glycoprofiling of the FFPE mouse tissues, the N-glycan pool of the lung specimen was subject to further investigation by exoglycosidase array based carbohydrate sequencing. Structural assignment of the oligosaccharides was accomplished by the help of the GUcal software and the associated database, based on the mobility shifts after treatments with the corresponding exoglycosidase reaction mixtures. Sixteen major N-linked carbohydrate structures were sequenced from the mouse lung FFPE tissue glycome and identified, as high mannose (3) neutral biantennary (3) sialylated monoantennary (1) and sialylated bianennary (9) oligosaccharides. Two of these latter ones also possessed alpha(1-3) linked galactose residues. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Information from the central stores

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    All items sold in the CERN shop (Bldg. 33) are now available in the central stores (Bldg. 73) and can be purchased on-line via EDH “Material Request” or at the “Emergency Desk” of the stores on the ground floor of Bldg. 73. These items are visible in the CERN catalogue under the “SCEM” codes beginning with 92. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SEM Group

  19. Hemoglobin Function in Stored Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    States during 1973. Several advantages over ACA) are important. Blood stored in CPD maintains higher ./ levels of 2,3-DPG (2,3- diphosphoglycerate ) and a...survival and ATP levels in stored blood is explained by the several functions of ATP which are necessary for cell viability. However, ATP levels do...not correlate with oxygen affinity during storage. Levels of 2,3-DPG determine oxygen affinity and thus hemoglobin function. (12,13) When normal levels

  20. Automated Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling-HPLC-MS/MS Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A fully automated liquid extraction-based surface sampling system utilizing a commercially available autosampler coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) detection is reported. Discrete spots selected for droplet-based sampling and automated sample queue generation for both the autosampler and MS were enabled by using in-house developed software. In addition, co-registration of spatially resolved sampling position and HPLC-MS information to generate heatmaps of compounds monitored for subsequent data analysis was also available in the software. The system was evaluated with whole-body thin tissue sections from propranolol dosed rat. The hands-free operation of the system was demonstrated by creating heatmaps of the parent drug and its hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites with 1 mm resolution in the areas of interest. The sample throughput was approximately 5 min/sample defined by the time needed for chromatographic separation. The spatial distributions of both the drug and its metabolites were consistent with previous studies employing other liquid extraction-based surface sampling methodologies.

  1. Identification of Viruses Present in Tissues Collected from Chickens with Hypoglycemia-Spiking Mortality Syndrome (H-SMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissues were collected, over a 10-year period, from broiler chickens diagnosed with severe H-SMS at the Georgia Poultry Lab, in Oakwood, GA. All samples were stored in tissue culture media, with antibiotics and 15% fetal bovine serum, in an ultra-cold freezer @ -80F. Specimens were homogenized,...

  2. Changes in the corneal Na-K ATPase levels in eyes stored in moist chamber at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with a chronological measurement of Na-K ATPase enzyme activity in human and bovine corneas stored in a moist chamber at 4°C. Paired human and bovine eyes were sterilized by the standard eye bank procedure and stored up to 6 days. At the desired time, the corneal endothelium was assayed for Na-K ATPase activity. The protein content of each tissue sample was also determined. In a parallel set of experiments, the viability of identical stored corneas was determined by trypan blue and alizarin red staining technique, and morphometric analysis was done to quantify the extent of the corneal endothelial damage. The human corneas showed that there was a significant progressive decrease in the Na-K ATPase activity as the storage time increased. The decrease was related to morphological endothelial damage.

  3. Explaining Online Purchase Intentions: A Multi-Channel Store Image Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dolen, van, Willemijn; Verhagen, Tibert

    2007-01-01

    This study is one of the few empirical works addressing the impact of offline and online store impressions on consumer online purchase intentions. Building upon the literature on store image and consumer online purchasing, we propose positive effects of online store image and suggest mixed influences of offline store image perceptions. Drawing on a sample of 630 customers of one of the largest music retail stores in the Netherlands, hypotheses are tested. The empirical results clearly support...

  4. CORPORATE REBRANDING OF GRAMEDIA STORE (CORPORATE REBRANDING DI GRAMEDIA STORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Helena Kairupan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purposes of this research are to determine the stages of analysis, planning, and evaluation of corporate rebranding process of Gramedia Book Store to be Gramedia Store to rise stakeholder’s awareness. The method used is descriptive qualitative with positivism paradigm. The technique of collecting data through in-depth interview, observation, and literature study. The result of this research showed the analysis stage by analyzing the market through insights and foresights, brand audit through SWOT analysis, and identifying opportunities. The planning stage is by determine the purpose of the planning process and then determine the target audience, consist of external and internal customer. The planning of external customer by renaming and change of corporate identity, and marketing planning using communication channel (above the line and below the line. The planning of internal customer by Brand Induction, training, inspiration briefing at store, and innovation competition. The evaluation of rebranding process of Gramedia Store is having a focus group discussion with customer, media monitoring, and presentation to BOD. Keywords : Process, Corporate Rebranding, Stakeholder Awareness, Corporate Identity, Gramedia Store Abstrak.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana tahapan analisis, perencanaan, dan evaluasi proses corporate rebranding Gramedia Book Store menjadi Gramedia Store untuk meningkatkan stakeholder awareness. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah kualitatif dengan paradigma positivisme dan jenis studi deksriptif. Teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi, dan studi pustaka. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, tahapan analisis dilakukan dengan menganalisis pasar melalui insights dan foresights, audit merek dengan analisis SWOT, dan mengidentifikasi peluang. Dalam tahapan perencanaan dengan menentukan tujuan kemudian menentukan target audiens, yaitu eksternal dan internal. Perencanaan

  5. Extraction of nucleic acids from yeast cells and plant tissues using ethanol as medium for sample preservation and cell disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Bettina; Schröder, Kersten; Arter, Juliane; Gasperazzo, Tatiana; Woehlecke, Holger; Ehwald, Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Here we report that dehydrated ethanol is an excellent medium for both in situ preservation of nucleic acids and cell disruption of plant and yeast cells. Cell disruption was strongly facilitated by prior dehydration of the ethanol using dehydrated zeolite. Following removal of ethanol, nucleic acids were extracted from the homogenate pellet using denaturing buffers. The method provided DNA and RNA of high yield and integrity. Whereas cell wall disruption was essential for extraction of DNA and large RNA molecules, smaller molecules such as tRNAs could be selectively extracted from undisrupted, ethanol-treated yeast cells. Our results demonstrate the utility of absolute ethanol for sample fixation, cell membrane and cell wall disruption, as well as preservation of nucleic acids during sample storage.

  6. Effect of sample preparation techniques on the concentrations and distributions of elements in biological tissues using µSRXRF: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ebraheem, A; Dao, E; Desouza, E; McNeill, F E; Farquharson, M J; Li, C; Wainman, B C

    2015-01-01

    Routine tissue sample preparation using chemical fixatives is known to preserve the morphology of the tissue being studied. A competitive method, cryofixation followed by freeze drying, involves no chemical agents and maintains the biological function of the tissue. The possible effects of both sample preparation techniques in terms of the distribution of bio-metals (calcium (Ca), copper (Cu) zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) specifically) in human skin tissue samples was investigated. Micro synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (μSRXRF) was used to map bio-metal distribution in epidermal and dermal layers of human skin samples from various locations of the body that have been prepared using both techniques. For Ca, Cu and Zn, there were statistically significant differences between the epidermis and dermis using the freeze drying technique (p = 0.02, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). Also using the formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique the levels of Ca, Cu and Zn, were significantly different between the epidermis and dermis layers (p = 0.03, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). However, the difference in levels of Fe between the epidermis and dermis was unclear and further analysis was required. The epidermis was further divided into two sub-layers, one mainly composed of the stratum corneum and the other deeper layer, the stratum basale. It was found that the difference between the distribution of Fe in the two epidermal layers using the freeze drying technique resulted in a statistically significant difference (p = 0.012). This same region also showed a difference in Fe using the formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique (p < 0.01). The formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique also showed a difference between the deeper epidermal layer and the dermis (p < 0.01). It can be concluded that studies involving Ca, Cu and Zn might show similar results using both sample preparation techniques, however studies involving Fe would need more

  7. Tissue and serum samples of patients with papillary thyroid cancer with and without benign background demonstrate different altered expression of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiaty Iryani Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is mainly diagnosed using fine-needle aspiration biopsy. This most common form of well-differentiated thyroid cancer occurs with or without a background of benign thyroid goiter (BTG. Methods In the present study, a gel-based proteomics analysis was performed to analyse the expression of proteins in tissue and serum samples of PTC patients with (PTCb; n = 6 and without a history of BTG (PTCa; n = 8 relative to patients with BTG (n = 20. This was followed by confirmation of the levels of proteins which showed significant altered abundances of more than two-fold difference (p < 0.01 in the tissue and serum samples of the same subjects using ELISA. Results The data of our study showed that PTCa and PTCb distinguish themselves from BTG in the types of tissue and serum proteins of altered abundance. While higher levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT and heat shock 70 kDa protein were associated with PTCa, lower levels of A1AT, protein disulfide isomerase and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N seemed apparent in the PTCb. In case of the serum proteins, higher abundances of A1AT and alpha 1-beta glycoprotein were detected in PTCa, while PTCb was associated with enhanced apolipoprotein A-IV and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG. The different altered expression of tissue and serum A1AT as well as serum AHSG between PTCa and PTCb patients were also validated by ELISA. Discussion The distinctive altered abundances of the tissue and serum proteins form preliminary indications that PTCa and PTCb are two distinct cancers of the thyroid that are etiologically and mechanistically different although it is currently not possible to rule out that they may also be due other reasons such as the different stages of the malignant disease. These proteins stand to have a potential use as tissue or serum biomarkers to discriminate the three different thyroid neoplasms although this requires further validation in clinically

  8. TruStore: Implementing a Trusted Store for Android

    OpenAIRE

    Yury, Zhauniarovich; Olga, Gadyatskaya; Bruno, Crispo

    2013-01-01

    In the Android ecosystem, the process of verifying the integrity of downloaded apps is left to the user. Different from other systems, e.g., Apple, App Store, Google does not provide any certified vetting process for the Android apps. This choice has a lot of advantages but it is also the open door to possible attacks as the recent one shown by Bluebox. To address this issue, we present how to enable the deployment of application certification service, we called TruStores, for the Android pla...

  9. Compliance to two city convenience store ordinance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie K Chaumont; Amandus, Harlan E; Wu, Nan; Hendricks, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Background Robbery-related homicides and assaults are the leading cause of death in retail businesses. Robbery reduction approaches focus on compliance to Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) guidelines. Purpose We evaluated the level of compliance to CPTED guidelines specified by convenience store safety ordinances effective in 2010 in Dallas and Houston, Texas, USA. Methods Convenience stores were defined as businesses less than 10 000 square feet that sell grocery items. Store managers were interviewed for store ordinance requirements from August to November 2011, in a random sample of 594 (289 in Dallas, 305 in Houston) convenience stores that were open before and after the effective dates of their city’s ordinance. Data were collected in 2011 and analysed in 2012–2014. Results Overall, 9% of stores were in full compliance, although 79% reported being registered with the police departments as compliant. Compliance was consistently significantly higher in Dallas than in Houston for many requirements and by store type. Compliance was lower among single owner-operator stores compared with corporate/franchise stores. Compliance to individual requirements was lowest for signage and visibility. Conclusions Full compliance to the required safety measures is consistent with industry ‘best practices’ and evidence-based workplace violence prevention research findings. In Houston and Dallas compliance was higher for some CPTED requirements but not the less costly approaches that are also the more straightforward to adopt. PMID:26337569

  10. A novel method for sample preparation of fresh lung cancer tissue for proteomics analysis by tumor cell enrichment and removal of blood contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orre Lotta

    2010-02-01

    was an effective removal of contaminants from red blood cells and plasma proteins resulting in larger proteome coverage compared to the direct lysis of frozen samples. This sample preparation method may be successfully implemented for the discovery of lung cancer biomarkers on tissue samples using mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

  11. Method of storing solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yutaro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to efficiently and satisfactorily cool and store solidification products of liquid wastes generated from the reactor spent fuel reprocessing process by a simple facility. Method: Liquid wastes generated from the reactor spent fuel reprocessing process are caused to flow from the upper opening to the inside of a spherical canistor. The opening of the spherical canistor is welded with a lid by a remote control and the liquid wastes are tightly sealed within the spherical canistor as glass solidification products. Spherical canistors having the solidification products tightly sealed therein are sent into and stored in a hopper by the remote control. Further, a blower is driven upon storing to suck cooling air from the cooling air intake port to the inside of the hopper to absorb the decay heat of radioactive materials in the solidification products and the air is discharged from the duct and through the stack to the atmosphere. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in formalin-fixed porcine intestinal tissue samples: comparison of immunofluorescence and in-situ hybridization, and evaluation of the effects of controlled autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T K; Boesen, H T; Vigre, H; Boye, M

    2010-01-01

    Two methods, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA; with a Lawsonia intracellularis-specific monoclonal antibody) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH; with a specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of the bacterium), were compared for their ability to detect L. intracellularis (the cause of porcine proliferative enteritis [PE]) in formalin-fixed samples of intestinal tissue. Of 69 intestinal samples with gross lesions of PE, 63 were positive by both FISH and IFA, but six were positive only by IFA. This indicated that the sensitivity of FISH was 91% that of IFA. However, both methods had a specificity of 100%. Fifty normal porcine intestines were negative by both tests. IFA was much less susceptible than FISH to the effects of autolysis. Thus, three of nine samples from pigs with PE were FISH-negative after being kept at 20 degrees C for 4 days, and seven were FISH negative after 2 weeks; after 4 weeks at this temperature, however, six of the nine samples were still IFA positive. After being kept at 4 degrees C for 12 weeks, the majority of samples (> or = 66%) were positive by both methods.

  13. Method of storing fissile mateiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoshita, Toshio; Ishitobi, Masuhiro

    1989-01-01

    Upon storing nuclear fissile materials in a storing building, vessels packed with fissile materials are inserted into a containing chamber divided with partition walls comprising neutron absorbers and neutron moderators. Thus, released neutrons permeating the vessel are moderated by the neutron moderators and then absorbed by the neutron absorbers. Accordingly, the neutron absorbing effect by the neutron absorbers is improved, and irradiation of neutrons released from one of vessels to the other of vessels can be suppressed. Accordingly, it is possible to shorten the distance between the vessels in a contained state as much as possible, while securing the critical safety, to improve the containing density during storage. (T.M.)

  14. Evaluation of Two Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Kits for Chikungunya Virus IgM Using Samples from Deceased Organ and Tissue Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrich, Michelle L.; Nowicki, Marek J.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of nearly 3,500 cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in U.S. residents returning in 2014 and 2015 from areas in which it is endemic has raised concerns within the transplant community that, should recently infected individuals become organ and/or tissue donors, CHIKV would be transmitted to transplant recipients. Thus, tests designed to detect recent CHIKV infection among U.S. organ and tissue donors may become necessary in the future. Accordingly, we evaluated 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for CHIKV IgM readily available in the United States using 1,000 deidentified serum or plasma specimens collected from donors between November 2014 and March 2015. The Euroimmun indirect ELISA identified 38 reactive specimens; however, all 38 were negative for CHIKV IgG and IgM in immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) conducted at a reference laboratory and, thus, were falsely reactive in the Euroimmun CHIKV IgM assay. The InBios IgM-capture ELISA identified 26 reactive samples, and one was still reactive (index ≥ 1.00) when retested using the InBios kit with a background subtraction modification to identify false reactivity. This reactive specimen was CHIKV IgM negative but IgG positive by IFAs at two reference laboratories; plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) demonstrated CHIKV-specific reactivity. The IgG and PRNT findings strongly suggest that the InBios CHIKV IgM-reactive result represents true reactivity, even though the IgM IFA result was negative. If testing organ/tissue donors for CHIKV IgM becomes necessary, the limitations of the currently available CHIKV IgM ELISAs and options for their optimization must be understood to avoid organ/tissue wastage due to falsely reactive results. PMID:27535838

  15. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD, an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  16. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Li, Tao; Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  17. Virome profiling of bats from Myanmar by metagenomic analysis of tissue samples reveals more novel Mammalian viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao He

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoir animals harboring many important pathogenic viruses and with the capability of transmitting these to humans and other animals. To establish an effective surveillance to monitor transboundary spread of bat viruses between Myanmar and China, complete organs from the thorax and abdomen from 853 bats of six species from two Myanmar counties close to Yunnan province, China, were collected and tested for their virome through metagenomics by Solexa sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. In total, 3,742,314 reads of 114 bases were generated, and over 86% were assembled into 1,649,512 contigs with an average length of 114 bp, of which 26,698 (2% contigs were recognizable viral sequences belonging to 24 viral families. Of the viral contigs 45% (12,086/26,698 were related to vertebrate viruses, 28% (7,443/26,698 to insect viruses, 27% (7,074/26,698 to phages and 95 contigs to plant viruses. The metagenomic results were confirmed by PCR of selected viruses in all bat samples followed by phylogenetic analysis, which has led to the discovery of some novel bat viruses of the genera Mamastrovirus, Bocavirus, Circovirus, Iflavirus and Orthohepadnavirus and to their prevalence rates in two bat species. In conclusion, the present study aims to present the bat virome in Myanmar, and the results obtained further expand the spectrum of viruses harbored by bats.

  18. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  19. 1300 nm and 890 nm OCT images of oral cancer tissue engineered models and biopsy samples offer complimentary performance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Joseph; Byers, Robert A.; Fernandes, Jon; Mittar, Shweta; Hearnden, Vanessa; Lu, Zenghai; MacNeil, Sheila; Thornhill, Martin; Murdoch, Craig; Hunter, Keith D.; McKechnie, Alasdair; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2016-02-01

    OCT has demonstrated great potential to non-invasively detect oral epithelial cancers, potentially guiding biopsy and surgical resection. On non-ophthalmic tissues the preferred illumination wavelength is 1300 nm. Previous studies on skin have shown that useful image data can also be obtained at shorter wavelengths, with systems at 1060 nm and 820 nm offering reduced depth penetration but higher contrast. Here we apply a similar comparison to tissue engineered models of oral cancer and also to human biopsy samples, generally finding a similar trend. 1300 nm multi-beam OCT (Michelson Diagnostics EX1301) visualises stromal structures and surface keratin more clearly, providing useful image contrast down to around 1 mm. This system was compared with an ultra-high resolution home-built system operating at 890 nm (2.5 micron resolution vs 7.5 micron axial resolution for the EX1301). The UHR system reveals epithelial features more clearly, especially in the DOK pre-invasive cell line model and the biopsy samples. The relative effects of center wavelength vs axial resolution in generating the differential, wavelength-dependent contrast are assessed and the OCT biopsy images are compared with contemporary histology.

  20. Human papillomavirus in anal biopsy tissues and liquid-based cytology samples of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Thai men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tippawan Pankam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV-related anal cancer. We compared HPV genotypes in anal tissues (Bx and anal liquid-based cytology fluid (LBC from HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. Methods: Bx (32 normal, 41 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and 22 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, along with LBC from the same visit, were selected from 61 HIV-positive and 34 HIV-negative MSM who enrolled into a prospective cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. HPV genotyping was performed on Bx and LBC. Results: Any HPV and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence were 63.2% and 60.0% in Bx and 71.6% and 62.1% in LBC, respectively. HIV-positive MSM had higher rates of HR-HPV genotypes detection (70.5% vs. 47.1%, p=0.03 in LBC than HIV-negative MSM. HPV16 (27% was the most common HR-HPV found in HSIL tissue. In HIV-positive MSM, the frequency of HR-HPV detection increased with histopathologic grading in both Bx and LBC samples. HSIL was associated with the presence of any HR-HPV(OR 7.6 (95%CI 1.8–31.9; P=0.006 in LBC and in Bx((OR 5.6 (95%CI 1.4–22.7; P=0.02. Conclusions: Our data strongly support the integration of HR-HPV screening on LBC samples, along with HPV vaccination, into an anal cancer prevention program. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Anal tissues, Men who have sex with men, HIV, Thailand

  1. Microbiological evaluation of poultry sausages stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of poultry sausages, which were stored at different temperatures (4 °C, 15 °C. Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeasts and filamentous microscopic fungi were detected in poultry sausages. Microbiological quality was evaluated using the horizontal method for the determination number of microorganisms. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (after opening to 4.35 × 104 CFU.g-1  in sample 1 (7th day of storage. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 3.25 × 103 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (after opening to 3.12 × 106 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 to 3.12 × 106  CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (7th day of storage.  Coliform bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 to 3.15 × 105 CFU.g-1. Coliform bacteria in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 1.54 × 103 CFU.g-1 to 1.40 × 106 CFU.g-1.  Yeasts and microscopic filamentous fungi in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 2.75 × 104 CFU.g-1 to 1.40 × 106 CFU.g-1.  Yeasts and microscopic filamentous fungi in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 1.30 × 104 CFU.g-1 to 1.44 × 106  CFU.g-1. Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic fungi were not in accordance with Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic on 3rd day in samples stored at 15 °C.

  2. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal populations in stored topsoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.A.; Hunter, D.; Birch, P.; Short, K.C. (North East London Polytechnic, London (UK). Environment and Industry Research Unit, Dept. of Biology and Biochemistry)

    1987-01-01

    Two soil stores of different ages were sampled to investigate their vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) populations. The soils collected were assessed for pH, moisture content, loss on ignition, spore numbers, number and size of root fragments present and percentage of these roots infected with VAM. A corn-root bioassay was used to determine soil infectivity. Root fragment number, size, % root infection and soil infectivity were negatively correlated with soil depth. VAM spore number was not significantly correlated with depth in either store. It appears that infected root fragments and fresh roots were the source of inoculum although there may have been a contribution from spores in the younger store. The infectivity of the older store soil was less than that of the younger store. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  4. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-09-12

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  5. Stores, Weight and Inertial System Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides stores weight, center of gravity, and inertia measurements in support of weapon/aircraft compatibility testing. System provides store weight...

  6. Storing XML Documents in Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Schmidt; S. Manegold (Stefan); M.L. Kersten (Martin); L.C. Rivero; J.H. Doorn; V.E. Ferraggine

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce concepts for loading large amounts of XML documents into databases where the documents are stored and maintained. The goal is to make XML databases as unobtrusive in multi-tier systems as possible and at the same time provide as many services defined by the XML

  7. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  8. Storing biomass in round bales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summer, H.R.; Hellwig, R.E.; Monroe, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    Biomass fuels, in the form of crop residues, were stored outside in large round bales. The influence of rainfall on bale mass and the change in apparent average moisture content (A.A.M.C) was studied. Covering the bales with large sheets of polyethylene was found to be the most effective way of reducing moisture penetration.

  9. s larvae to stored cocoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olufunke oyedokun

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... theobromine levels decrease, which in turn affects the colour, flavor (aroma) of the beans (Lagunes et al., 2007;. Rodriguez-Campos et al., 2011) and the organoleptic properties of the dried cocoa beans in store (Camu et al.,. 2008). Freshly harvested cocoa beans require fermentation for 5 - 7 days before ...

  10. Model/School Store Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This teacher-coordinator manual assists in planning, organizing, directing, and evaluating student learning experiences associated with either a model store, school store, or combination. (A model store in a marketing laboratory simulates marketing functions; the school store markets merchandise to fellow students, faculty, and/or the public.)…

  11. A Method to Correlate mRNA Expression Datasets Obtained from Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Samples: A Matter of Thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana A M Mustafa

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling of tumors is a successful tool for the discovery of new cancer biomarkers and potential targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Reliable profiling is preferably performed on fresh frozen (FF tissues in which the quality of nucleic acids is better preserved than in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE material. However, since snap-freezing of biopsy materials is often not part of daily routine in pathology laboratories, one may have to rely on archival FFPE material. Procedures to retrieve the RNAs from FFPE materials have been developed and therefore, datasets obtained from FFPE and FF materials need to be made compatible to ensure reliable comparisons are possible.To develop an efficient method to compare gene expression profiles obtained from FFPE and FF samples using the same platform.Twenty-six FFPE-FF sample pairs of the same tumors representing various cancer types, and two FFPE-FF sample pairs of breast cancer cell lines, were included. Total RNA was extracted and gene expression profiling was carried out using Illumina's Whole-Genome cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation (WG-DASL V3 arrays, enabling the simultaneous detection of 24,526 mRNA transcripts. A sample exclusion criterion was created based on the expression of 11 stably expressed reference genes. Pearson correlation at the probe level was calculated for paired FFPE-FF, and three cut-off values were chosen. Spearman correlation coefficients between the matched FFPE and FF samples were calculated for three probe lists with varying levels of significance and compared to the correlation based on all measured probes. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to verify performance of the included probe lists to compare matched FPPE-FF samples.Twenty-seven FFPE-FF pairs passed the sample exclusion criterion. From the profiles of 27 FFPE and FF matched samples, the best correlating probes were identified

  12. Storing XML Documents in Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, A.R.; Manegold, Stefan; Kersten, Martin; Rivero, L.C.; Doorn, J.H.; Ferraggine, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce concepts for loading large amounts of XML documents into databases where the documents are stored and maintained. The goal is to make XML databases as unobtrusive in multi-tier systems as possible and at the same time provide as many services defined by the XML standards as possible. The ubiquity of XML has sparked great interest in deploying concepts known from Relational Database Management Systems such as declarative query languages, transactions, indexes ...

  13. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  14. Specialty Store and Multi-Brand Store loyalty: An Indian consumer perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive era of retailing, retailers need to understand the importance of store format preferences. The study aimed to understand consumer store loyalty; in-depth interview was conducted to examine consumer store loyalty antecedents for two retail formats: specialty stores and multi brand stores. The study conceptualizes store loyalty factors like program loyalty, trust and brand commitment. Trust and brand commitment act as mediating factors between store image and store loyalty formats, and also between brand image and store loyalty formats. The findings highlight how consumer store loyalty preference differ for these two formats.

  15. Future trends and needs in stored product entomology-pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest management in stored products, and in particular the concept of integrated pest management (IPM), has different meanings depending on one's viewpoint of IPM. One of the difficulties in stored products is adequately sampling large bulk bins or silos of raw stored grain or large milling an...

  16. Understanding Retailers’ Acceptance of Virtual Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Y.L. Chen

    2010-01-01

    The acceptance of e-commerce among consumers has stimulated the rise of virtual stores. Increasing traditional retailers or people who do not have sufficient capital for maintaining a brick-and-mortar store have considered using virtual stores to reach global market. In the e-commerce literature, there has been rich research evidence concerning consumers’ acceptance of virtual stores. However, rigorous academic research on retailers’ acceptance of virtual stores is relatively scarce today. Th...

  17. Usefulness of pulse-wave doppler tissue sampling and dobutamine stress echocardiography for identification of false positive inferior wall defects in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinmakas, S.; Dagdeviren, B.; Turkmen, M.; Gursurer, M.; Say, B.; Tezel, T.; Ersek, B.

    2000-01-01

    False positive inferior wall perfusion defects restrict the accuracy of SPECT in diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Pulse-Wave Tissue Doppler (PWTD) has been recently proposed to assess regional wall motion velocities. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of CAD by using PWTD during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients with an inferior perfusion defect detected by SPECT and compare PWTD parameters of normal cases with patients who had inferior perfusion defect and CAD. Sixty-five patients (mean age 58±8 years, 30 men) with a normal LV systolic function at rest according to echocardiographic evaluation with an inferior ischemia determined by SPECT and a control group (CG) of 34 normal cases (mean age 56±7 years, 16 men) were included in this study. All patients underwent a standard DSE (up to 40 μg/kg/min with additional atropine during sub-maximum heart rate responses). Pulse-wave Doppler tissue sampling of inferior wall was performed in the apical 2-chamber view at rest and stress. The coronary angiography was performed within 24 hours. The results were evaluated for the prediction of significant right coronary artery (RCA) and/or left circumflex coronary artery (CX) with narrowing (≥50% diameter stenosis, assessed by quantitative coronary angiography). It was observed that the peak stress mean E/A ratio was lower in patients with CAD when compared to patients without CAD (0.78±0.2 versus 1.29±0.11 p<0.0001). Also the peak stress E/A ratio of normal cases was significantly higher than patients who had CAD (1.19±0.3 versus 0.78±0.2 p<0.0001). When the cut off point for the E/A ratio was determined as 1, the sensitivity and specificity of dobutamine stress PWTD E/A were 89% and 86%, respectively. The peak stress E/A ratio was higher than 1 in all patients with a false positive perfusion defect. Systolic S velocity increase during DSE was significantly lower in patients with CAD (54%±17 versus 99%±24 p=0

  18. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  19. DNA Sampling Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  20. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections samples and healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svent-Kucina, Natasa; Pirs, Mateja; Kofol, Romina; Blagus, Rok; Smrke, Dragica Maja; Bilban, Marjan; Seme, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the most important human pathogens. It is associated with different infections and is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The aim of our study was to compare S. aureus isolates associated with SSTIs with isolates obtained from healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic diversity by clonal complex (CC)/sequence type, spa type, and by toxin gene profiling. In total, 274 S. aureus isolates were collected prospectively by culturing wound samples from 461 SSTI patients and nasal samples from 451 healthy carriers. We have demonstrated high heterogeneity in terms of CCs and spa type in both groups of isolates. The main clone among SSTI strains was Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) positive CC121, whereas the main clone among carrier strains was CC45 carrying a large range of toxin genes. The main spa type in both groups was t091. Pvl was more frequently present in SSTI strains (31.2% SSTI vs 3.6% carrier strains) and staphylococcal enterotoxin C was more frequently present in carrier strains (1.6% SSTI vs 17.0% carrier strains). We have also demonstrated that methicillin-resistant S. aureus was a rare cause (2.8%) of SSTIs in our region. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Application of solid phase microextraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the determination of antibiotic drugs and their metabolites in human whole blood and tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szultka-Mlynska, Malgorzata; Pomastowski, Pawel; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2018-06-01

    A sensitive, rapid and specific analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS) was developed to determine selected antibiotic drugs and their metabolites (amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and metronidazole; amoxycilloic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl glycyl amoxicillin, desacetyl cefotaxime, 3-desacetyl cefotaxime lactone, ciprofloxacin N-oxide, N-demethylclindamycin, clindamycin sulfoxide, and hydroxy metronidazole) in human whole blood and vascularized tissue after single oral administration. The samples were prepared by solid phase microextraction with C18 fibers (SPME C18 ) and determined on a GRACE analytical C18 column, Vision HT (50 × 2 mm, 1.5 μm) at the flow rate of 0.4 mL min -1 using water and acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) as the mobile phase. The proposed method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of the selected antibiotic drugs and their metabolites in real human samples. Additionally, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) was used for identification and qualification analysis of the target compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Virus characterization and discovery in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewes, Rogier; van Run, Peter R W A; Schürch, Anita C; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Kuiken, Thijs; Smits, Saskia L

    2015-01-01

    Detection and characterization of novel viruses is hampered frequently by the lack of properly stored materials. Especially for the retrospective identification of viruses responsible for past disease outbreaks, often only formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are available.

  3. Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme in the tissue samples of patients with various clinicopathological stages of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Aruldoss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme in the tissue samples of patients with various clinicopathological stages of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Materials and Methods: The samples for the study were divided into 4 groups. Group A comprised 20 healthy individuals with no habits. Twenty healthy individuals with habitual tobacco usage and no oral lesions were included in Group B. Twenty cases of leukoplakia diagnosed clinically and histopathologically were included in Group C. Staging was done using the modified classification and staging system of oral leukoplakia. Twenty cases of OSCC diagnosed clinically and histopathologically were included in Group D. Immunohistochemical staining was done on these 80 samples (paraffin blocks for COX-2 expression by indirect method using polymer based Horseradish peroxidase system. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman′s rank correlation test. Results: Significant and proportional increase of COX-2 staining was noted with the increase in the severity of dysplasia. Eighty percent of OSCC expressed COX-2, increasing in its intensity of staining with the decrease in differentiation. Seventy five percent of leukoplakia showed positive COX-2 expression. Only 15% of positive controls were COX-2 positive. No normal mucosa showed positive expression of COX-2. Conclusion: High expression of COX-2 is seen in advanced stages of leukoplakia and OSCC. Hence, COX-2 enzyme increases cell proliferation, promotes angiogenesis and inhibits immune surveillance in carcinogenesis; it can be an early detection marker in oral leukoplakia and a prognostic marker of OSCC.

  4. (13)Carbon and (15)nitrogen isotopes in autopsy liver tissue samples from Greenlandic Inuit and Danes: consumption of marine versus terrestrial food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Laursen, J.; Mulvad, G.

    2010-01-01

    in liver tissue from Greenlandic Inuit and Danes. Subjects/Methods: Normal liver tissue was obtained at autopsy in 1992-1994 from 60 Inuit with a median age of 61 years (range 25-83) and in 1986 from 15 ethnic Danes with a median age of 84 years (range 66-93). By sieving, liver tissue was separated...

  5. Compliance to two city convenience store ordinance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie K; Amandus, Harlan E; Wu, Nan; Hendricks, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Robbery-related homicides and assaults are the leading cause of death in retail businesses. Robbery reduction approaches focus on compliance to Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) guidelines. We evaluated the level of compliance to CPTED guidelines specified by convenience store safety ordinances effective in 2010 in Dallas and Houston, Texas, USA. Convenience stores were defined as businesses less than 10 000 square feet that sell grocery items. Store managers were interviewed for store ordinance requirements from August to November 2011, in a random sample of 594 (289 in Dallas, 305 in Houston) convenience stores that were open before and after the effective dates of their city's ordinance. Data were collected in 2011 and analysed in 2012-2014. Overall, 9% of stores were in full compliance, although 79% reported being registered with the police departments as compliant. Compliance was consistently significantly higher in Dallas than in Houston for many requirements and by store type. Compliance was lower among single owner-operator stores compared with corporate/franchise stores. Compliance to individual requirements was lowest for signage and visibility. Full compliance to the required safety measures is consistent with industry 'best practices' and evidence-based workplace violence prevention research findings. In Houston and Dallas compliance was higher for some CPTED requirements but not the less costly approaches that are also the more straightforward to adopt. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. A Dual Function Energy Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Tolmie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat can be collected from local energy sources and concentrated into a relatively small volume, and at a useful working temperature, by using a heat pump as the concentrator. That heat can be stored and utilized at a later date for applications like space heating. The process is doing two things at the same time: storing heat and shifting the power demand. The concentration step can be done at night when there is normally a surplus of power and its timing can be directly controlled by the power grid operator to ensure that the power consumption occurs only when adequate power is available. The sources of heat can be the summer air, the heat extracted from buildings by their cooling systems, natural heat from the ground or solar heat, all of which are free, abundant and readily accessible. Such systems can meet the thermal needs of buildings while at the same time stabilizing the grid power demand, thus reducing the need for using fossil-fuelled peaking power generators. The heat pump maintains the temperature of the periphery at the ambient ground temperature so very little energy is lost during storage.

  7. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Kamiya, K; Sugimoto, Y

    1976-01-09

    A method is claimed to decrease the number of storage containers filled with radioactive wastes. A wire-netting containers having a capacity of 67 liters is filled with 60 kg of pellet-like radioactive solid material. The wire-netting container is held in the middle of a drum can, and asphalt is poured between the drum can and the wire-netting container and stored until radioactivity is attenuated. After storage, the stored body is heated to melt the asphalt and the wire-netting container is removed. Thereafter, the pellet-like radioactive solid material is taken out of the wire-netting container and combined with the other pellet-like radioactive solid material similarly taken out of the storage container, and the resultant material is filled into a wire-netting container having a capacity of 167 liters every 150 kg, and inserted again into the same drum can, into which recovered asphalt is poured for final storage.

  8. [Occupational risks in grocery stores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco S

    2014-01-01

    This work provides an overview of the spectrum of possible occupational risk factors in the retail grocery store/supermarket workplace. Literature on this theme, obtained consulting PubMed database and Google Scholar, was checked. We also exjlore results from the National bInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). RESULTs: Contacts with objects, use of dangerous equipment (cutter, food slicer) and falls to the same level (slips, trips and falls) are the mainly described workplace hazards. Exposure to chemical (flour dust, components of detergents or disinfectants, volatile organic compounds and contact with nickel) and physical agents (cold exposure, nonionizing radiation and whole bpdy vibration) are reported by many authors. Relations between biomechanical and ergonomic risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders represent the main subjects of study. Few studies are found about biological agents (particularly among butchers). Data regarding psychosocial risks factors in this setting are still limited. Musculoskeletal disorders continue to be the most recurrent health problem between the grocery store workers (particularly low back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome among cashiers). Many technical documents and international Srecommendations are present to prevent these kinds of disorders. Psychosocial risk factors and risk of workplace violence should deserve further investigation.

  9. Use of Biopsy Tissue Samples, Incubated In Vitro for Autoradiographic Measurement of Cell Proliferation in Human Tissues; Utilisation de Biopsies Incubees In Vitro pour la Mesure Autoradiographique de la Proliferation Cellulaire de Tissus Humains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galand, P. [Faculte de Medecine de l' Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1970-02-15

    ) choice of the region of the sample where homogeneous labelling occurs after the diffusion of the labelled thymidine, and (3) tests on the stability of the biopsy during incubation. This was done by using varied time interval between {sup 3}H-thymidine administrations. The good correlation between the results obtained in this way also gives supports to the validity of our distinction between the two kinds of labelling intensity. In conclusion, this method could be applied to several types of tissues, provided they can be obtained by biopsy, and with proper safeguards, namely in the choice of the doses range and in the definition of the proliferating population. (author) [French] Afin d'eviter les risques d'effets radiobiologiques lies a l'utilisation de thymidine tritiee, plusieurs chercheurs ont procede a des incubations de biopsies in vitro en presence de ce precurseur radiomarque de l'ADN. Ils s' efforcaient de definir le taux de proliferation cellulaire d'apres la distribution et l' intensite du marquage dans les autoradiographies. Toutefois, pour evaluer exactement la duree du cycle mitotique ou temps de generation, il est necessaire de connaitrez duree de la phase S (phase de synthese de l'ADN), car l'index de marquage ne depend que de l'importance de cette phase par rapport a la duree totale du cycle mitotique. L'auteur a choisi la methode du 'double marquage', utilisant deux differentes doses de thymidine tritiee, qui a ete mise au point par Maurer et ses collaborateurs. En administrant deux doses du precurseur tritie (une dose faible et une dose forte) a un intervalle de temps donne et en soumettant le tissu traite au processus autobiographique, on peut calculer la duree (s) de la phase S d'apres la formule N{sub F}/N{sub f} = S/t. Np est le nombre de noyaux fortement marques (c'est-a-dire les noyaux qui etaient en phase S pendant le deuxieme marquage); Nf est le nombre de noyaux faiblement marques, correspondant aux cellules qui ont quitte la phase S pendant l

  10. 16-channel analog store and multiplexer unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, M; Kulka, Z [Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    1979-03-15

    A 16-channel analog store and multiplexer unit is described. The unit enables storing and selection of analog information which is then digitally encoded by single ADC. This solution becomes economically attractive particularly in multidetector pulse height analysis systems.

  11. Store Separations From a Supersonic Cone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simko, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    ... analyses of supersonic store separations. Also included in this research is a study of supersonic base pressure profiles, near-wake velocity profiles, wind tunnel shock interactions and force/moment studies on a conical store and parent vehicle...

  12. In-Store Media and Channel Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Dukes; Yunchuan Liu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interesting and complicated effects of retailer in-store media on distribution channel relationships. With the help of advanced technology, retailers can open in-store media in their stores and allow manufacturers to advertise through the instore media. We show that opening in-store media is a strategic decision for a retailer, and a retailer may strategically subsidize manufacturers on their advertising through instore media to better coordinate the channel. Even ...

  13. Consumer behaviour in Apple's App Store

    OpenAIRE

    Ayalew, Romel

    2011-01-01

    Mobile applications stores such as Apple’s App Store and Google’s Android Market revolutionized the distribution of applications for mobile devices. However, with thousands of application submissions, limited testing resources and the lack of an effective filtering mechanism, application stores suffer from information overload and a risk of releasing poor quality applications that could create confusion to consumers and may seriously affect the App store markets. Thus concern has been raised ...

  14. Corner stores: the perspective of urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sandra; Grode, Gabrielle; McCoy, Tara; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Wojtanowski, Alexis; Sandoval, Brianna Almaguer; Foster, Gary D

    2015-02-01

    We examined the perspectives of low-income, urban youth about the corner store experience to inform the development of corner store interventions. Focus groups were conducted to understand youth perceptions regarding their early shopping experiences, the process of store selection, reasons for shopping in a corner store, parental guidance about corner stores, and what their ideal, or "dream corner store" would look like. Thematic analysis was employed to identify themes using ATLAS.ti (version 6.1, 2010, ATLAS.ti GmbH) and Excel (version 2010, Microsoft Corp). Focus groups were conducted in nine kindergarten-through-grade 8 (K-8) public schools in low-income neighborhoods with 40 fourth- to sixth-graders with a mean age of 10.9±0.8 years. Youth report going to corner stores with family members at an early age. By second and third grades, a growing number of youth reported shopping unaccompanied by an older sibling or adult. Youth reported that the products sold in stores were the key reason they choose a specific store. A small number of youth said their parents offered guidance on their corner store purchases. When youth were asked what their dream corner store would look like, they mentioned wanting a combination of healthy and less-healthy foods. These data suggest that, among low-income, urban youth, corner store shopping starts at a very young age and that product, price, and location are key factors that affect corner store selection. The data also suggest that few parents offer guidance about corner store purchases, and youth are receptive to having healthier items in corner stores. Corner store intervention efforts should target young children and their parents/caregivers and aim to increase the availability of affordable, healthier products. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Retail brand architecture and consumer store loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    is to investigate the relationship between consumers perceived retail brand architecture, their store satisfaction and loyalty. Furthermore we use perceived store image as a mediating factor in our framework. In total 772 Danish households participated in a telephone interview and returned questionnaires by mail....... The major contribution of this research is to conceptualise and empirically investigate the role of brand architecture for perceived store image, store satisfaction and loyalty....

  16. A core invasiveness gene signature reflects epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but not metastatic potential in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Marsan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metastases remain the primary cause of cancer-related death. The acquisition of invasive tumour cell behaviour is thought to be a cornerstone of the metastatic cascade. Therefore, gene signatures related to invasiveness could aid in stratifying patients according to their prognostic profile. In the present study we aimed at identifying an invasiveness gene signature and investigated its biological relevance in breast cancer. METHODS & RESULTS: We collected a set of published gene signatures related to cell motility and invasion. Using this collection, we identified 16 genes that were represented at a higher frequency than observed by coincidence, hereafter named the core invasiveness gene signature. Principal component analysis showed that these overrepresented genes were able to segregate invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cell lines, outperforming sets of 16 randomly selected genes (all P<0.001. When applied onto additional data sets, the expression of the core invasiveness gene signature was significantly elevated in cell lines forced to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The link between core invasiveness gene expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition was also confirmed in a dataset consisting of 2420 human breast cancer samples. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CIG expression is not associated with a shorter distant metastasis free survival interval (HR = 0.956, 95%C.I. = 0.896-1.019, P = 0.186. DISCUSSION: These data demonstrate that we have identified a set of core invasiveness genes, the expression of which is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines and in human tissue samples. Despite the connection between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasive tumour cell behaviour, we were unable to demonstrate a link between the core invasiveness gene signature and enhanced metastatic potential.

  17. Oral pathology follow-up by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy on tissue and blood serum samples: an application of wavelet and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, I.; Camerlingo, C.; Zenone, F.; Perna, G.; Capozzi, V.; Cirillo, N.; Gaeta, G. M.; De Mol, E.; Lepore, M.

    2009-02-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease that cause blistering of the skin and oral cavity. It is characterized by disruption of cell-cell adhesion within the suprabasal layers of epithelium, a phenomenon termed acantholysis Patients with PV develop IgG autoantibodies against normal constituents of the intercellular substance of keratinocytes. The mechanisms by which such autoantibodies induce blisters are not clearly understood. The qualitative analysis of such effects provides important clues in the search for a specific diagnosis, and the quantitative analysis of biochemical abnormalities is important in measuring the extent of the disease process, designing therapy and evaluating the efficacy of treatment. Improved diagnostic techniques could permit the recognition of more subtle forms of disease and reveal incipient lesions clinically unapparent, so that progression of potentially severe forms could be reversed with appropriate treatment. In this paper, we report the results of our micro-Raman spectroscopy study on tissue and blood serum samples from ill, recovered and under therapy PV patients. The complexity of the differences among their characteristic Raman spectra has required a specific strategy to obtain reliable information on the illness stage of the patients For this purpose, wavelet techniques and advanced multivariate analysis methods have been developed and applied to the experimental Raman spectra. Promising results have been obtained.

  18. Apparatus for storing protective suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englemann, H.J.; Koller, J.; Schrader, H.R.; Schade, G.; Pedrerol, J.

    1975-01-01

    Arrangements are described for storing one or more protective suits when contaminated on the outside. In order to permit a person wearing a contaminated suit to leave a contaminated area safely, and without contaminating the environment, it has hitherto been the practice for the suit to be passed through a 'lock' and cleansed under decontaminating showers whilst still being worn. This procedure is time wasting and not always completely effective, and it may be necessary to provide a second suit for use whilst the first suit is being decontaminated. Repeated decontamination may also result in undue wear and tear. The arrangements described provide a 'lock' chamber in which a contaminated suit may be stowed away without its interior becoming contaminated, thus allowing repeated use by persons donning and shedding it. (U.K.)

  19. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  20. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the ...

  1. Store brands’ purchase intention: Examining the role of perceived quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Calvo-Porral

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increase of the store brand's market share globally, the present study addresses the following question: “Does the consumer product perceived quality influence store brands’ proneness?”; or in other words “Does product perceived quality influence store brands’ purchase intention?”, since perceived quality is a customer-based undertaken variable. The present study proposes and empirically tests a conceptual model of the influence of perceived product quality of store brands relative to perceived value and purchase intention. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was developed on a sample of 439 consumers, distinguishing between consumers with high perceived quality (HPQ and low perceived quality (LPQ. Our findings highlight that store brands’ purchase intention is strongly influenced by confidence for both HPQ and LPQ customers, followed by product price. Additionally, our results suggest the moderating role of perceived quality on some of the proposed relationships. Store brand managers and retailers could develop market segmentation and perform marketing strategies based on customers’ perceived quality.

  2. Thermal annealing of high dose radiation induced damage at room temperature in alkaline. Stored energy, thermoluminescence and coloration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.

    1980-01-01

    The possible relation between stored energy, thermoluminescence and colour centre annealing in gamma and electron irradiated alkali halides is studied. Thermoluminescence occurs at temperature higher than the temperature at which the main stored energy peak appears. No stored energy release is detected in additively coloured KC1 samples. Plastic deformation and doping with Ca and Sr induce a stored energy spectrum different from the spectrum observed in pure and as cleaved samples, but the amount of stored energy does not change for a given irradiation dose.Capacity of alkali halides to store energy by irradiation increases as the cation size decreases. (Author) 51 refs

  3. Pengujian Kartu Fta Sebagai Alat Sampling Dna Jamur Patogen Dariberbagi Bagian Tanaman Yang Terinfeksi

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyawati, Purnamila

    2011-01-01

    FTA card offers a simple and fast method for retrieval of DNA samples at room temperature and storage of DNA in the short and long term. This will fasiliate the detection and identification of plant pathogens rapidly; increasing the number of samples can be collected, stored and transported in the field, especially from remote locations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the suitability of FTA cards as a new method for sampling DNA from multiple infected of plant tissues such as ...

  4. Online purchase intentions: A multi-channel store image perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; van Dolen, W.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of the bricks-and-clicks retail format in the battle for the online customer has been widely discussed but empirical research on it has been limited. We applied a multi-channel store image perspective to assess its influence on online purchase intentions. Drawing on a sample of 630

  5. Slow, stopped and stored light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.; Scully, M.

    2005-01-01

    Light that can been slowed to walking pace could have applications in telecommunications, optical storage and quantum computing. Whether we use it to estimate how far away a thunderstorm is, or simply take it for granted that we can have a conversation with someone on the other side of the world, we all know that light travels extremely fast. Indeed, special relativity teaches us that nothing in the universe can ever move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum: 299 792 458 ms sup - sup 1. However, there is no such limitation on how slowly light can travel. For the last few years, researchers have been routinely slowing light to just a few metres per second, and have recently even stopped it dead in its tracks so that it can be stored for future use. Slow-light has considerable popular appeal, deriving perhaps from the importance of the speed of light in relativity and cosmology. If everyday objects such as cars or people can travel faster than 'slow' light, for example, then it might appear that relativistic effects could be observed at very low speeds. Although this is not the case, slow light nonetheless promises to play an important role in optical technology because it allows light to be delayed for any period of time desired. This could lead to all-optical routers that would increase the bandwidth of the Internet, and applications in optical data storage, quantum information and even radar. (U.K.)

  6. Gas storing and processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Takano, Yosoko.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the gas injection processing performance and obtain stable accumulation layers by increasing the thickness of the accumulation layers of amorphous alloy. Constitution: The gas storing processing device comprises a cylindrical vessel constituting an outer cathode for introducing gases to be processed, an inner cathode in which transition metal material and rare earth metal material as a sputtering target disposed in the vessel are combined by way of insulating material, an anode cover disposed to the upper portion of the vessel and an anode bottom disposed at the bottom thereof. It is adapted such that DC high voltage sources are connected respectively to the outer and the inner cathodes and sputtering voltage can be applied, removed and controlled independently to the transition metal and the rare earth metal of the inner cathode. This enables to control the composition ratio of the accumulation layers of amorphous alloy formed to the surface of the outer cathode, thereby enabling operation related with the gas injection ratio. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. TEMPO DE VIABILIDADE DE AMOSTRAS DE SANGUE VENOSO BOVINO DESTINADAS AO EXAME HEMOGASOMÉTRICO, QUANDO MANTIDAS SOB CONSERVAÇÃO EM ÁGUA GELADA VIABILITY TIME OF BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS IN BOVINE VENOUS BLOOD SAMPLES STORED IN ICE WATER BATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2001-04-01

    adequadamente conservadas em banho de água gelada, mantendo, assim, o seu valor diagnóstico.In order to verify the viability of blood gas analysis in bovine venous blood stored on ice water bath, two samples (10ml each were taken from the jugular vein of 14 healthy animals (7 males and 7 females, 1- to 5-year-old, using plastic syringes and attached needles filled with sodium heparin (1,000IU. The blood samples were obtained anaerobically, the air bubbles observed were immediately removed, and the needle was maintened capped with a rubber stopper. Each syringe of the pair was distinctally stored at room temperature (23-30ºC or in ice water bath (0-4ºC during the experimental period. Values of pH, carbon dioxide (PvCO2 and oxigen (PvO2 tensions, bicarbonate (HCO3-, total carbon dioxide (TCO2, base excess (BE, standard bicarbonate (StB, oxigen saturation (SatO2, and oxigen content (O2 were determined soon after sampling and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. According to the type of storage temperature, the results were analysed through repeated measurements ANOVA, considering the contrast between the mean value of each time and the initial one. On the storage at room temperature, the in vitro changes were characterized from continuous decreases in pH, PvO2, BE, StB, SatO2, and O2 values, and gradual increase in PvCO2, starting at 2- or 3-hour after the collection. In the samples stored at 0-4ºC, on the other hand, the changes in pH occurred only at the 4th hour, and the stability of the PvCO2, BE, and StB values were maintened for up to the 6th hour. These results indicated that the diagnostic utility of blood gas analysis is conserved in bovine venous blood samples adequately stored up to 6 hours in ice water bath, at 0-4ºC.

  8. Connective tissue: cancer patients’ attitudes towards medical research using excised (tumour) tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Schmidt, M.K.; Cornel, M.C.; Knoppers, B.M.; van Leeuwen, F.E.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the views of Dutch cancer patients on the use of excised and stored (tumor) tissues in medical research. Excised tissues are routinely stored in hospitals for future diagnostic use. They are also important for scientific research. This article discusses

  9. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  10. Understanding Retailers’ Acceptance of Virtual Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Y.L. Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of e-commerce among consumers has stimulated the rise of virtual stores. Increasing traditional retailers or people who do not have sufficient capital for maintaining a brick-and-mortar store have considered using virtual stores to reach global market. In the e-commerce literature, there has been rich research evidence concerning consumers’ acceptance of virtual stores. However, rigorous academic research on retailers’ acceptance of virtual stores is relatively scarce today. This study draws upon the theory of planned behavior and information richness theory to propose an integrated theoretical model. A field survey is used to collect data from e-tailers. The data are analyzed to examine the six relationships posited in the research model. Findings of this study provide a further research avenue for e-commerce, and implications for those who are managing or considering using virtual stores.

  11. Copycat snacks: Can students differentiate between school and store snacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna

    2018-02-01

    In 2014, the national Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards placed regulations on all snack foods sold in schools. Many food companies reformulated common snack food products for sale in schools, called "copycat snacks", which look similar to nutritionally different foods sold in stores. It is possible that these snacks create consumer confusion among students. The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school students could differentiate, in taste and appearance, between school (copycat) and store versions of common snacks. Seventy-six middle school students evaluated three different food products offered in schools: Froot Loops, Rice Krispy Treats, and Doritos. Students tasted snacks in a series of triangle tests for difference, one for each snack food, including school and store versions. Students were also presented with packages, school and store versions of the same products, and asked to determine the expected taste, purchase intentions, and perceived healthfulness. Students could determine taste differences between school and store Rice Krispy Treats yet could not differentiate between Froot Loop and Dorito varieties. Students rated store versions of all three snacks with greater expected taste, higher intention to purchase, and as less healthy. While it seems product confusion concerning copycat snacks may not be severe in this sample, snack food brands are still a prominent feature in schools. It is possible that these copycat snacks can confuse students' perceptions of healthy foods. Alternative packaging for school foods or reformation of store versions of snack foods may be viable solutions to this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation of MLH1 and MGMT methylation levels between peripheral blood leukocytes and colorectal tissue DNA samples in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Wang, Yibaina; Zhang, Zuoming; Yao, Xiaoping; Ge, Jie; Zhao, Yashuang

    2013-11-01

    CpG island methylation in the promoter regions of the DNA mismatch repair gene mutator L homologue 1 ( MLH1 ) and DNA repair gene O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase ( MGMT ) genes has been shown to occur in the leukocytes of peripheral blood and colorectal tissue. However, it is unclear whether the methylation levels in the blood leukocytes and colorectal tissue are correlated. The present study analyzed and compared the levels of MGMT and MLH1 gene methylation in the leukocytes of peripheral blood and colorectal tissues obtained from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The methylation levels of MGMT and MLH1 were examined using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis. A total of 44 patients with CRC were selected based on the MLH1 and MGMT gene methylation levels in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood. Corresponding colorectal tumor and normal tissues were obtained from each patient and the DNA methylation levels were determined. The correlation coefficients were evaluated using Spearman's rank test. Agreement was determined by generalized κ-statistics. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r) for the methylation levels of the MGMT and MLH1 genes in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood and normal colorectal tissue were 0.475 and 0.362, respectively (P=0.001 and 0.016, respectively). The agreement of the MGMT and MLH1 gene methylation levels in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood and normal colorectal tissue were graded as fair and poor (κ=0.299 and 0.126, respectively). The methylation levels of MGMT and MLH1 were moderately and weakly correlated between the patient-matched leukocytes and the normal colorectal tissue, respectively. Blood-derived DNA methylation measurements may not always represent the levels of normal colorectal tissue methylation.

  13. Propagating separable equalities in an MDD store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzic, Tarik; Hooker, John N.; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We present a propagator that achieves MDD consistency for a separable equality over an MDD (multivalued decision diagram) store in pseudo-polynomial time. We integrate the propagator into a constraint solver based on an MDD store introduced in [1]. Our experiments show that the new propagator pro...... provides substantial computational advantage over propagation of two inequality constraints, and that the advantage increases when the maximum width of the MDD store increases....

  14. Signature-based store checking buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  15. Customers' willingness to purchase new store brands

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Stephan; Dobbelstein, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing customers’ willingness to purchase new store brands. Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops a 3 £ 3 design to investigate the impact of price and quality positioning on the willingness to purchase new store brands in five product groups. A total of 990 respondents completed a questionnaire about store brand perception, aspects of purchasing behavior and willingness to buy. Data are analyzed with analysis...

  16. Insect pests of stored grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to control insect pests in stored grains. The radiosensitivity of the most common insect pests at their different developmental stages is presented and discussed. The conclusions of this review are compiled in an executive summary. 62 refs

  17. Organizational choices and financial performance: the case of company-owned stores, franchisee-owned stores and stores-within-a-store among French fashion retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Amadieu; Karine Picot-Coupey; Jean-Laurent Viviani

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the governance and financial performance issues in the context of French Fashion retail companies. In this study, we analyze the influence of the organizational choices on the financial performance at the network level. We consider three forms used in isolation (company-owned stores, franchisee-owned stores and stores-within-a-store), three dually-organized forms (dual forms mixing two of the three forms) as well as a combined form associating the three ones. We study a ...

  18. Store Image: Scale implementation Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel du Preez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the final in the three-part series regarding store image. The purposes of this article are to (1 implement the developed scale to assess whether it illustrates acceptable psychometric properties of reliability and validity, (2 assess the model fit of the developed scale and (3 formulate recommendations for future research. Results indicated that the Apparel Store Image Scale (ASIS show acceptable reliability and model fit. A refined definition of store image was proposed together with a Final Model of Apparel Store Image. Recommendations for future research are made.

  19. How the Measurement of Store Choice Behaviour Moderates the Relationship between Distance and Store Choice Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Cumberland, Flemming; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2013-01-01

    The influence of distance on consumer store choice behaviour has been considered in many studies. In that respect, frequency and budget share are frequently used methods of measurement to determine the consumer's store choice behavour. In this study, we propose that the significance of distance...... is influenced by the way in which store choice behaviour is conceptualized. A survey among 631 consuemrs was performed in order to examine the research proposition. Structural equation results suggest that the negative effect of distance on store choice behaviour is larger when store choice behaviour...... is measured as number of visits to a particular store than wehen store cjoice behaviour is measured as the percentage of budget spend at a particular store. Our results indicate that researchers should carefully consider the measurement of store choice behaviour when carrying out empirical research invlving...

  20. Vitamin E nanoemulsion activity on stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A L; Azevedo Filho, C A; Pereira, G; Silva, D C N; Castro, M C A B; Almeida, A F; Lucena, S C A; Santos, B S; Barjas-Castro, M L; Fontes, A

    2017-06-01

    Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo numerous changes that have been termed RBC storage lesion, which can be related to oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, acting on cell lipids. Thus, this study aimed to investigate vitamin E activity on stored RBCs. We prepared a vitamin E nanoemulsion that was added to RBC units and stored at 4 °C. Controls, without vitamin E, were kept under the same conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored for up to 35 days of storage. RBC elasticity was also evaluated using an optical tweezer system. Vitamin E-treated samples presented a significant decrease in ROS production. Additionally, the elastic constant for vitamin E-treated RBCs did not differ from the control. Vitamin E decreased the amount of ROS in stored RBCs. Because vitamin E acts on lipid oxidation, results suggest that protein oxidation should also be considered a key factor for erythrocyte elastic properties. Thus, further studies combining vitamin E with protein antioxidants deserve attention, aiming to better preserve overall stored RBC properties. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  1. Human radiobiology tissue repository for workers of the first Russian Nuclear enterprise as a unique resource for research on effects from protracted radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muksinova, K. N.; Neta, R.; Kirillova, E. N.; Zakharova, M. L.; Revina, V. S.; Drougova, E. D.

    2004-07-01

    The research objective was establishment of the Human Radiobiology Tissue Repository (HRTR) for collection and storage of biological material for its further utilization in research on health effects of protracted radiation exposure. The HRTR consists of three constantly replenished banks of bio material from nuclear workers. The autopsy tissue bank contains formation fixed tissues, paraffin blocks and histological slides from 900 cases. The surgery/biopsy tissue bank contains tumor tissues from various sites and samples of lymphoid bone and other tissues stored at -78 degree centigree (200 cases). The blood bank stores leukocytes, immortalized B-lymphocytes, erythrocytes, blood plasma and DNA from 1,200 individuals at -78 degree centigree and -160 degree centigree. The occupational, dosimetry and detailed medical information is available for each donor. (Author) 12 refs.

  2. Effect of sample size on multi-parametric prediction of tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke using a random forest classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Fiehler, Jens

    2015-03-01

    The tissue outcome prediction in acute ischemic stroke patients is highly relevant for clinical and research purposes. It has been shown that the combined analysis of diffusion and perfusion MRI datasets using high-level machine learning techniques leads to an improved prediction of final infarction compared to single perfusion parameter thresholding. However, most high-level classifiers require a previous training and, until now, it is ambiguous how many subjects are required for this, which is the focus of this work. 23 MRI datasets of acute stroke patients with known tissue outcome were used in this work. Relative values of diffusion and perfusion parameters as well as the binary tissue outcome were extracted on a voxel-by- voxel level for all patients and used for training of a random forest classifier. The number of patients used for training set definition was iteratively and randomly reduced from using all 22 other patients to only one other patient. Thus, 22 tissue outcome predictions were generated for each patient using the trained random forest classifiers and compared to the known tissue outcome using the Dice coefficient. Overall, a logarithmic relation between the number of patients used for training set definition and tissue outcome prediction accuracy was found. Quantitatively, a mean Dice coefficient of 0.45 was found for the prediction using the training set consisting of the voxel information from only one other patient, which increases to 0.53 if using all other patients (n=22). Based on extrapolation, 50-100 patients appear to be a reasonable tradeoff between tissue outcome prediction accuracy and effort required for data acquisition and preparation.

  3. Tissue banking in a regional hospital: a promising future concept? First report on fresh frozen tissue banking in a hospital without an integrated institute of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Strauss und Torney, Marco; Güller, Ulrich; Rezaeian, Farid; Brosi, Philippe; Terracciano, Luigi; Zuber, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Vital tissue provided by fresh frozen tissue banking is often required for genetic tumor profiling and tailored therapies. However, the potential patient benefits of fresh frozen tissue banking are currently limited to university hospitals. The objective of the present pilot study--the first one in the literature--was to evaluate whether fresh frozen tissue banking is feasible in a regional hospital without an integrated institute of pathology. Patients with resectable breast and colon cancer were included in this prospective study. Both malignant and healthy tissue were sampled using isopentan-based snap-freezing 1 h after tumor resection and stored at -80 °C before transfer to the main tissue bank of a University institute of pathology. The initial costs to set up tissue banking were 35,662 US$. Furthermore, the running costs are 1,250 US$ yearly. During the first 13 months, 43 samples (nine samples of breast cancer and 34 samples of colon cancer) were collected from 41 patients. Based on the pathology reports, there was no interference with standard histopathologic analyses due to the sample collection. This is the first report in the literature providing evidence that tissue banking in a regional hospital without an integrated institute of pathology is feasible. The interesting findings of the present pilot study must be confirmed by larger investigations.

  4. Examination of long-stored uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gate, A.M.; Hambley, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    A small quantity of unirradiated uranium from Magnox fuel elements is currently held in archive storage. Some of these samples date back to the late fifties. This material has been stored, untreated, in unsealed containers in air at ambient temperature, humidity and pressure conditions. Such conditions are relevant to those that may exist in a passive storage facility. A sample of this material has been subject to optical, electron-optical and Raman spectroscopic examination to determine the extent of corrosion and the composition of corrosion product arising from long-term, low-temperature oxidation of uranium metal in air. The examinations have established that, even after a period in excess of 40 years, there was no observable spalling of uranium oxide from the sample during storage. The extent of oxidation of the metal, derived by SEM analysis, was slight and insignificant in relation to overall structural stability of the material. Raman spectroscopy data showed that the bulk of the oxide layer was comprised of hyper-stoichiometric UO 2 , with U 4 O 9 being the dominant component. The oxygen/uranium ratio was observed to be decreased at the metal/oxide interface, with a very thin layer that consisted of mainly UO 2 at the metal surface. At the oxide/air interface, a very thin U 3 O 8 layer was detected. U 4 O 9 is relatively mechanically stable, due to a significantly higher density than UO 2 and U 3 O 8 . It is likely that the lower internal stresses in the thick U 4 O 9 layer have resulted in less oxide film cracking than would be expected from UO 2 or U 3 O 8 and hence the low oxidation rate observed. These results suggest that storage of uranium metal in air over decades is a safe and credible option. (authors)

  5. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted

    2011-01-01

    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  6. (G6PD) in stored blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red blood cell viability in stored blood determines successful transfusion. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity has been shown to maintain red blood cell membrane integrity. This study was, therefore, aimed at estimating the G6PD activity in stored blood bags at the blood bank of the University of Nigeria ...

  7. Performance Determinants for Convenience Store Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Zainah Abdullah; Aznur Hajar Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) usage, internal relationship, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and inventory management on convenience store suppliers- performance. Data was collected from 275 convenience store managers in Malaysia using a set of questionnaire. The multiple linear regression results indicate that inventory management, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and internal relation...

  8. Apple iTunes music store

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzi, R.; Schmucker, M.; Spadoni, F.

    2003-01-01

    This technical report analyses the Apple iTunes Music Store and its success factors. Besides the technical aspects, user and customer aspects as well as content aspects are considered. Furthermore, iTunes Music Store's impact to online music distribution services is analysed and a short outlook to future music online distribution is given.

  9. Insect pest management in stored grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored grain is vulnerable to attach by a variety of insect pests, that can generally be classified as external or internal feeders. Infestations primarily occur after grain is stored, though there is some evidence that infestations can occur in the field right before harvest. There are a variety of...

  10. Win-Win Strategies at Discount Stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Deleersnyder (Barbara); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict); O. Koll (Oliver)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn important development that contributes to store brands’ growing success in the grocery market is the increasing number of discount stores that sell predominantly own, private-label, brands. To fight private labels, manufacturers of national brands feel increasingly compelled to

  11. Nudging consumer behaviour in retail stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah

    2016-01-01

    -effectiveness of alternative interventions in retail store settings. In cooperation with a supermarket chain in Denmark, we manipulated food locations inside the store so that relatively low energy dense products were placed favorable shelf locations. The underlying theory for the experiment was the behavioral approach (so...

  12. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  13. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When a new store is integrated with an aircraft, it is necessary to verify that it separates safely for all possible release and emergency jettison scenarios. A large number of store separation analyses are required to comply with this requirement...

  14. Store-operate-coherence-on-value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-11-18

    A system, method and computer program product for performing various store-operate instructions in a parallel computing environment that includes a plurality of processors and at least one cache memory device. A queue in the system receives, from a processor, a store-operate instruction that specifies under which condition a cache coherence operation is to be invoked. A hardware unit in the system runs the received store-operate instruction. The hardware unit evaluates whether a result of the running the received store-operate instruction satisfies the condition. The hardware unit invokes a cache coherence operation on a cache memory address associated with the received store-operate instruction if the result satisfies the condition. Otherwise, the hardware unit does not invoke the cache coherence operation on the cache memory device.

  15. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...

  16. EGFR T790M mutation testing of non-small cell lung cancer tissue and blood samples artificially spiked with circulating cell-free tumor DNA: results of a round robin trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassunke, Jana; Ihle, Michaela Angelika; Lenze, Dido; Lehmann, Annika; Hummel, Michael; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Penzel, Roland; Volckmar, Anna-Lena; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Endris, Volker; Jung, Andreas; Lehmann, Ulrich; Zeugner, Silke; Baretton, Gustavo; Kreipe, Hans; Schirmacher, Peter; Kirchner, Thomas; Dietel, Manfred; Büttner, Reinhard; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine

    2017-10-01

    The European Commision (EC) recently approved osimertinib for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR T790M mutations. Besides tissue-based testing, blood samples containing cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can be used to interrogate T790M status. Herein, we describe the conditions and results of a round robin trial (RRT) for T790M mutation testing in NSCLC tissue specimens and peripheral blood samples spiked with cell line DNA mimicking tumor-derived ctDNA. The underlying objectives of this two-staged external quality assessment (EQA) approach were (a) to evaluate the accuracy of T790M mutations testing across multiple centers and (b) to investigate if a liquid biopsy-based testing for T790M mutations in spiked blood samples is feasible in routine diagnostic. Based on a successfully completed internal phase I RRT, an open RRT for EGFR T790M mutation testing in tumor tissue and blood samples was initiated. In total, 48 pathology centers participated in the EQA. Of these, 47 (97.9%) centers submitted their analyses within the pre-defined time frame and 44 (tissue), respectively, 40 (plasma) successfully passed the test. The overall success rates in the RRT phase II were 91.7% (tissue) and 83.3% (blood), respectively. Thirty-eight out of 48 participants (79.2%) successfully passed both parts of the RRT. The RRT for blood-based EGFR testing initiated in Germany is, to the best of our knowledge, the first of his kind in Europe. In summary, our results demonstrate that blood-based genotyping for EGFR resistance mutations can be successfully integrated in routine molecular diagnostics complementing the array of molecular methods already available at pathology centers in Germany.

  17. Beyond Promotion-Based Store Switching: Antecedents and Consequences of Systematic Multiple-Store Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that single-purpose multiple store shopping is not only driven by opportunistic, promotion-based motivations, but may also be part of a longer term shopping planning process based on stable store characteristics.Starting from a utility-maximizing shopping behavior model, we find that consumers systematically visit multiple stores to take advantage of two types of store complementarity.With 'fixed cost complementarity', consumers alternate visits to highly preferr...

  18. Using a Virtual Store As a Research Tool to Investigate Consumer In-store Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploydanai, Kunalai; van den Puttelaar, Jos; van Herpen, Erica; van Trijp, Hans

    2017-07-24

    People's responses to products and/or choice environments are crucial to understanding in-store consumer behaviors. Currently, there are various approaches (e.g., surveys or laboratory settings) to study in-store behaviors, but the external validity of these is limited by their poor capability to resemble realistic choice environments. In addition, building a real store to meet experimental conditions while controlling for undesirable effects is costly and highly difficult. A virtual store developed by virtual reality techniques potentially transcends these limitations by offering the simulation of a 3D virtual store environment in a realistic, flexible, and cost-efficient way. In particular, a virtual store interactively allows consumers (participants) to experience and interact with objects in a tightly controlled yet realistic setting. This paper presents the key elements of using a desktop virtual store to study in-store consumer behavior. Descriptions of the protocol steps to: 1) build the experimental store, 2) prepare the data management program, 3) run the virtual store experiment, and 4) organize and export data from the data management program are presented. The virtual store enables participants to navigate through the store, choose a product from alternatives, and select or return products. Moreover, consumer-related shopping behaviors (e.g., shopping time, walking speed, and number and type of products examined and bought) can also be collected. The protocol is illustrated with an example of a store layout experiment showing that shelf length and shelf orientation influence shopping- and movement-related behaviors. This demonstrates that the use of a virtual store facilitates the study of consumer responses. The virtual store can be especially helpful when examining factors that are costly or difficult to change in real life (e.g., overall store layout), products that are not presently available in the market, and routinized behaviors in familiar

  19. Buying in multiple stores : Shopping strategies beyond price promotions and their effects on Store Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2013-01-01

    Grocery-store switching has typically been viewed as evidence of cherry-picking behavior, with consumers switching stores to benefit from temporary promotional offers. However, research reveals that it may also result from a longer-term planning process based on stable store characteristics. Even in

  20. Quantitation of repaglinide and metabolites in mouse whole-body thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiqi; Wang, Lifei; Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Gan, Jinping

    2016-03-25

    Herein, quantitation aspects of a fully automated autosampler/HPLC-MS/MS system applied for unattended droplet-based surface sampling of repaglinide dosed thin tissue sections with subsequent HPLC separation and mass spectrometric analysis of parent drug and various drug metabolites were studied. Major organs (brain, lung, liver, kidney and muscle) from whole-body thin tissue sections and corresponding organ homogenates prepared from repaglinide dosed mice were sampled by surface sampling and by bulk extraction, respectively, and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A semi-quantitative agreement between data obtained by surface sampling and that by employing organ homogenate extraction was observed. Drug concentrations obtained by the two methods followed the same patterns for post-dose time points (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h). Drug amounts determined in the specific tissues was typically higher when analyzing extracts from the organ homogenates. In addition, relative comparison of the levels of individual metabolites between the two analytical methods also revealed good semi-quantitative agreement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections.

  2. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. The distributed energy store railgun used multiple current sources connected to the rails of a railgun at points distributed along the bore. These current sources (energy stores) are turned on in sequence as the projectile moves down the bore so that current is fed to the railgun from behind the armature. In this system the length of the rails that carry the full armature current is less than the total length of the railgun. If a sufficient number of energy stores is used, this removes the limitation on the length of a railgun. An additional feature of distributed energy store type railguns is that they can be designed to maintain a constant pressure on the projectile being accelerated. A distributed energy store railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this first demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed

  3. NASA Armstrong's Approach to Store Separation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuff, Chris; Bui, Trong

    2015-01-01

    Presentation will an overview of NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities and how they have been applied recently. Objective of the presentation is to brief Generation Orbit and other potential partners on NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities. It will include discussions on the use of NAVSEP and Cart3D, as well as some Python scripting work to perform the analysis, and a short overview of this methodology applied to the Towed Glider Air Launch System. Collaboration with potential customers in this area could lead to funding for the further development of a store separation capability at NASA Armstrong, which would boost the portfolio of engineering expertise at the center.

  4. AND/OR Importance Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Gogate, Vibhav; Dechter, Rina

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces AND/OR importance sampling for probabilistic graphical models. In contrast to importance sampling, AND/OR importance sampling caches samples in the AND/OR space and then extracts a new sample mean from the stored samples. We prove that AND/OR importance sampling may have lower variance than importance sampling; thereby providing a theoretical justification for preferring it over importance sampling. Our empirical evaluation demonstrates that AND/OR importance sampling is ...

  5. Expression Analysis of Previously Verified Fecal and Plasma Dow-regulated MicroRNAs (miR-4478, 1295-3p, 142-3p and 26a-5p), in FFPE Tissue Samples of CRC Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Reza; Rezasoltani, Sama; Hashemi, Javad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Tahmasebifar, Arash; Arefian, Ehsan; Mobarra, Naser; Asadi, Jahanbakhsh; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Knuutila, Sakari; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis of this neoplasm is critical and may reduce patients' mortality. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules whose expression pattern can be altered in various diseases such as CRC. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of miR-142-3p, miR-26a-5p (their reduced expression in plasma samples of CRC patients was previously confirmed), miR-4478 and miR-1295-3p (their reduced expression in stool samples of CRC patients was previously confirmed) in tissue samples of CRC patients in comparison to healthy subjects. To achieve this purpose, total RNA including small RNA was extracted from 53 CRC and 35 normal subjects' Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples using the miRNeasy FFPE Mini Kit. The expression levels of these four selected miRNAs were measured using quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). We found that the expression levels of miR-4478 and miR-1295b-3p (two previously down-regulated fecal miRNAs) were significantly decreased in FFPE samples of CRC patients compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, no significant differences were seen in expression levels of miR-142-3p and miR-26a-5p (two previously down-regulated circulating miRNAs) in FFPE samples between these two groups. Regarding current findings, it may be concluded that to diagnose CRC patients based on the miRNAs approach, stool samples are more likely preferable to plasma samples; nevertheless, additional studies with more samples are needed to confirm the results.

  6. Stored energy in irradiated silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Burchell, T.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report presents a short review of the phenomenon of Wigner stored energy release from irradiated graphite and discusses it in relation to neutron irradiation of silicon carbide. A single published work in the area of stored energy release in SiC is reviewed and the results are discussed. It appears from this previous work that because the combination of the comparatively high specific heat of SiC and distribution in activation energies for recombining defects, the stored energy release of SiC should only be a problem at temperatures lower than those considered for fusion devices. The conclusion of this preliminary review is that the stored energy release in SiC will not be sufficient to cause catastrophic heating in fusion reactor components, though further study would be desirable.

  7. Boligmarkedet uden for de store byer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Andersen, Hans Thor; Haldrup, Karin

    landet som helhed, hvor den østjyske millionby og hovedstaden er migrationens mål. Dermed må der på steder langt fra de store byers infrastruktur og arbejdspladser forventes faldende eller meget begrænset efterspørgsel efter boliger. Det gælder især gamle, dårligt vedligeholdte boliger og boliger med...... og lokalpolitiske planer og indsatser. Tre casestudier belyser, hvordan man i lokalsamfund i tre kommuner uden for de store byer aktivt tager den udfordring op, som følger af en generel strukturændring med øget urbanisering og aldrende befolkning i områderne uden for de store byer. Med blandt andet...... nye samarbejdsformer mellem private, frivillige og kommunale aktører og aktivitets- og beboerhuse som base for foreningsaktivitet er det flere steder lykkedes at tiltrække tilflyttere til samfund langt uden for de store byer....

  8. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  9. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  10. Human Resources Operational Data Store Core Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database contains only a very small subset of the Human Resources Operational Data Store data. It supports the SSA Employee and Office Data Retrieval (SEODR)...

  11. Apparatus and method for monitoring stored material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.E.; Lewis, D.R.; Galloway, L.A.; Lowrey, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Material, e.g. radioactive waste or other hazardous material, which is to be stored and monitored is placed within the innermost container of a series of nested containers and monitoring fluids are circulated in a closed loop of fluid flow through the spaces between the nested containers. Monitoring devices are used to analyse said monitoring fluids to detect leakage of the stored material from the innermost nested container and to detect the migration of external fluids into the series of nested containers. A computer based monitoring system continually checks the values of various parameters of the monitoring fluids to immediately detect and report the presence of stored material or external fluid in the monitoring fluids. The stored material may then be immediately retrieved from storage to repair leaks in the series of nested containers. (author)

  12. STRATEGI MARKET ENTRY CONVENIENCE STORE DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Respati Wulandari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa dan melihat strategi yang digunakan pada Convenience Store di Indonesia dengan mengambil 7-Eleven sebagai sumber field study dengan metode orientasi pasar. Pengaruh lifestyle menjadi indikator penunjang dalam perkembangan 7-Eleven ddengan menerapkan beberapa strategi yang mengena di market Indonesia, terutama bagi kalangan muda dimana diketahui memiliki indikasi terpenting dalam siklus lifestyle di Indonesia. Tujuan tercapai dengan mengetahui penerapan strategi yang digunakan sehingga dapat diterapkan dalam menjalankan strategi bisnis pada Convenience Store

  13. Torness delay is storing up trouble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavenagh, Andrew.

    1994-01-01

    A recent decision by the Scottish Office to delay planning permission for the construction of a 50 million dry store for spent nuclear fuel at Torness Power Station is proving frustrating and inexplicable to many in the nuclear industry. The possible reasons for this apparent about face in government policy on spent fuel management are debated and the economic ramifications of the decision for British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), if the store were to go ahead, are outlined. (UK)

  14. Measurement of indicator genes using global complementary DNA (cDNA) amplification, by polyadenylic acid reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (poly A RT-PCR): A feasibility study using paired samples from tissue and ductal juice in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Sudip; Siriwardena, Ajith K; Byers, Richard

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to compare gene expression profiles in RNA isolated from pancreatic ductal juice with the RNA expression profiles of the same genes from matched intra-operative tissue samples from pancreatic tumours. Intra-operative sampling of pancreatic juice and collection of matched tissue samples was undertaken in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for clinically suspected pancreatic cancer and a precursor lesion, main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. RNA was isolated and Poly A PCR was used to globally amplify the RNA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure expression levels of 17 genes selected from microarray studies. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to examine the relationship of gene expression between pancreatic juice and tissue. The study was approved by Regional Ethics Committee. Mesothelin (MSLN) showed significant correlation (p cDNA using poly A PCR is technically feasible. Application of the technique to non-invasively obtained pancreatic juice during endoscopic assessment of tumours and the use of gene arrays of cancer indicator genes are the next steps in development of this technique. Copyright © 2018 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Examination of long-stored uranium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gate, A.M.; Hambley, D.I. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    A small quantity of unirradiated uranium from Magnox fuel elements is currently held in archive storage. Some of these samples date back to the late fifties. This material has been stored, untreated, in unsealed containers in air at ambient temperature, humidity and pressure conditions. Such conditions are relevant to those that may exist in a passive storage facility. A sample of this material has been subject to optical, electron-optical and Raman spectroscopic examination to determine the extent of corrosion and the composition of corrosion product arising from long-term, low-temperature oxidation of uranium metal in air. The examinations have established that, even after a period in excess of 40 years, there was no observable spalling of uranium oxide from the sample during storage. The extent of oxidation of the metal, derived by SEM analysis, was slight and insignificant in relation to overall structural stability of the material. Raman spectroscopy data showed that the bulk of the oxide layer was comprised of hyper-stoichiometric UO{sub 2}, with U{sub 4}O{sub 9} being the dominant component. The oxygen/uranium ratio was observed to be decreased at the metal/oxide interface, with a very thin layer that consisted of mainly UO{sub 2} at the metal surface. At the oxide/air interface, a very thin U{sub 3}O{sub 8} layer was detected. U{sub 4}O{sub 9} is relatively mechanically stable, due to a significantly higher density than UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. It is likely that the lower internal stresses in the thick U{sub 4}O{sub 9} layer have resulted in less oxide film cracking than would be expected from UO{sub 2} or U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and hence the low oxidation rate observed. These results suggest that storage of uranium metal in air over decades is a safe and credible option. (authors)

  16. Marketing practices of vapor store owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-06-01

    We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies.

  17. Marketing Practices of Vapor Store Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Methods. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Results. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Conclusions. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies. PMID:25880960

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SERVICE QUALITY AND STORE ATMOSPHERE ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miswanto Miswanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the influence of service quality (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy and store atmosphere on customer satisfaction and the influence of customer satisfaction on repurchase intention, trust, and word of mouth on customers of souvenir stores in Yogyakarta. Selection of the sample is done by using purposive sampling with one criterion: they have shopped in souvenir stores in Yogyakarta. Data are collected by using questionnaires and 200 souvenir store customers participate in this study. The data are analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with Amos computer program. The findings show that none of service quality’s dimension: tangibles and store atmosphere have positive influences on customer satisfaction.

  19. The Key Points of Building an Online Store

    OpenAIRE

    Etuaro, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Online shopping is becoming more popular in Finland and online shopping sales levels have increased. There has been concern that brick and mortar stores are losing their customers to online stores and that Finnish stores are losing their customers to international online stores. One solution to this concern is that Finnish brick and mortar stores also start selling online. But how to build online stores? The aim of this thesis was to study about building an online store based on theory and...

  20. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Automated blood sampling through a vascular catheter is a frequently utilized technique in laboratory mice. The potential immunological and physiological implications associated with this technique have, however, not been investigated in detail. The present study compared plasma levels of the cyt...... and embolized to distant sites. Thus, catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling may have physiological impact. Possible confounding effects of visceral damage should be assessed and considered, when using catheterized mouse models....

  1. The detection of Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia cysts by immunofluorescence in animal tissues and fecal samples subjected to cycles of freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, S L; Sherlock, L A; Bemrick, W J

    1990-04-01

    The effects of freezing and thawing on the detection of selected Giardia spp. cysts were investigated using immunofluorescence, bright field microscopy, and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Giardia muris cysts were obtained from either animal carcasses, fecal pellets, or isolated cyst preparations, whereas Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from fecal samples. These samples were stained using an immunofluorescence technique after 1-3 freezing (-16 C) and thawing (20 C) cycles. Cysts were detected successfully by immunofluorescence in all samples. However, in those samples subjected to freeze-thawing, the cyst walls often became distorted and then were not detectable by bright field microscopy. Low voltage SEM demonstrated that the filaments in the distorted cyst wall underwent rearrangements of interfilament spacing. Quantitation of cyst recovery after freezing and thawing demonstrated that a substantial loss occurred after 1 cycle of alternating temperature when low concentrations of cysts were used, but not with high concentrations of cysts. Cyst recovery, after 3 freezing and thawing cycles, was dramatically lowered irrespective of the initial cyst concentration. These results demonstrated that immunofluorescence was an effective technique for the detection of Giardia spp. cysts in frozen samples and would suggest that freezing and thawing of fecal samples could prevent the detection of cysts when only bright field microscopy was employed.

  2. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  3. [Use of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for molecular genetic analysis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošová, Marie; Kučerová, Jana; Flodr, Patrik; Mikešová, Michaela; Procházka, Vít; Papajík, Tomáš

    2014-04-01

    The currently valid molecular genetic subclassification of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into three prognostic subgroups based on expression profiling has been the objective of numerous genetic studies. In routine clinical practice, however, expression profiling technology remains unavailable for the most of centers. Apart from the technology, in some cases molecular genetic laboratories have problems obtaining high-quality material, i.e. fresh tissues, for RNA isolation to determine gene expression. One possibility is to determine the gene expression from RNA obtained by isolation from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. This pilot study aimed at isolating RNA from FFPE in patients diagnosed with DLBCL and verifying the potential use of such RNA for the expression analysis of 7 selected genes. Although the study showed that it is possible to isolate RNA and determine the expression of the selected genes from archival material, the values of relative expression of some genes in the set were too variable to be used for unambiguous prognostic classification. It was confirmed that retrospective analyses of selected genes may be performed with sufficient material obtained, and that properly archived blocks may be used for molecular biology analyses even after 8 years.

  4. Senior's lifestyle and their store choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesakova Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To attract and retain customers, an understanding of their motives and reasons for selecting particular food and grocery store is needed. This is of particular importance in the growing segment of seniors. The size of the senior's market demands a better understanding of the older consumer. The aim of our study is to identify psychographic characteristics of the elderly consumer, and to indicate the lifestyle groups and the relationship between these groups and retail store attributes. Differences in the motives for patronizing specific food stores are analyzed for lifestyle groups. We use the lifestyle as a segmentation variable in the diverse population of seniors for the reason, that the lifestyle of the elderly provides more valuable information than chronological age alone. This information can be used by retailers to improve marketing strategies in order to appeal to a target group of senior shoppers. Empirical research is based on a self-administrated questionnaire aimed on the identification of the lifestyle characteristics and retail store attributes of the consumers in 65+ age, used for the choice of food purchasing retail stores. Lifestyles characteristics were measured by the respondents activities, interests and opinions (AIO. The results of the research indicate that there are differences among the lifestyle groups with significant differences in attitudes towards quality of products or internal store environment. Our research demonstrates the value of psychographic information over age alone regarding the patronage factors in store selection. Our study is a part of the research project VEGA 1/0612/12 'Determinants of the size, structure and tendences in the individual consumption of seniors'.

  5. Practical experience in post-mortem tissue donation in consideration of the European tissue law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbe, Thomas; Braun, Christian; Wulff, Birgit; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2010-03-01

    In consequence of the European guidelines of safety and quality standards for the donation, retrieval, storing and distribution of human tissues and cells the purpose of tissue transplantation was implemented into German legislation in May 2007. The law came into effect on August 1st 2007 considering of the European rules. The Institutes for Legal Medicine of the University of Frankfurt/Main and the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf developed a model for tissue retrieval. The Institute of Legal Medicine (I.f.R.) at the University Medical Center Hamburg cooperates with the German Institute of Cell and Tissue Replacement (Deutsches Institut für Zell--und Gewebeersatz DIZG). Potential post-mortem tissue donors (PMTD) among the deceased are selected by standardized sets of defined criteria. The procedure is guided by the intended exclusion criteria of the tissue regulation draft (German Transplant Law TPG GewV) in accordance with the European Guideline (2006/17/EC). Following the identification of the donor and subsequent removal of tissue, the retrieved samples were sent to the DIZG, a non-profit tissue bank according to the tissue regulation. Here the final processing into transplantable tissue grafts takes place, which then results in the allocation of tissue to hospitals in Germany and other European countries. The Center of Legal Medicine at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Medical Center Frankfurt/Main cooperates since 2000 with Tutogen, a pharmaceutical company. Harvesting of musculoskeletal tissues follows corresponding regulations. To verify the outcome of PMTD at the I.f.R. Hamburg, two-statistic analysis over 12 and 4 months have been implemented. Our results have shown an increasing number of potential appropriate PMTD within the second inquiry interval but a relatively small and unvaryingly rate of successful post-mortem tissue retrievals similar to the first examination period. Thus, the aim of the model developed by the I.f.R. is to

  6. Sodium in Store and Restaurant Food Environments - Guam, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; VanFrank, Brenna K; Lundeen, Elizabeth; Uncangco, Alyssa; Alam, Lawrence; King, Sallyann M Coleman; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-05-27

    Compared with the United States overall, Guam has higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and stroke (1). Excess sodium intake can increase blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease (2,3). To determine the availability and promotion of lower-sodium options in the nutrition environment, the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services (DPHSS) conducted an assessment in September 2015 using previously validated tools adapted to include sodium measures. Stores (N = 114) and restaurants (N = 63) were randomly sampled by region (north, central, and south). Data from 100 stores and 62 restaurants were analyzed and weighted to account for the sampling design. Across the nine product types assessed, lower-sodium products were offered less frequently than regular-sodium products (prestaurants engaged in promotion practices such as posting sodium information (3%) or identifying lower-sodium entrées (1%). Improving the availability and promotion of lower-sodium foods in stores and restaurants could help support healthier eating in Guam.

  7. [Investigation of Acaroid mites breeding in stored dry fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ning; Zhan, Xiao-dong; Sun, En-tao; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-12-01

    To study the species and density of Acaroid mites breeding in stored dry fruits. The samples from the dried fruit stores and warehouses were collected, and the mites breeding in them were separated, then the slides with mites were prepared and observed by a light microscope for species identification and counting. The indexes such as the breeding density, species richness index, diversity index and evenness index were calculated. Totally 12 species of Acaroid mites belonging to 6 families and 10 genera were obtained from the total 49 samples. The dominant mite species were Carpoglyphus lactis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and Caloglyphus berlesei. The breeding densities of mites in longans, filberts and plum candies were 79.78, 48.91, 35.73 mites/g, respectively, which were higher than those in other dry fruits. The seasonal variation experiment of mites found that the average breeding density of acaroid mites was higher in July and October, the richness index and diversity index reached the highest value in July, and the evenness index was higher in January and April. The observation of the growth and decline of Acaroid mites under the artificial condition found the number of Caloglyphus berlesei declined sharply and Tyrophagus putrescentiae first increased and then decreased. The pollution of Acaroid mites is serious in the stored dried fruits, for which the positive prevention and control measures to the mite breeding should be taken to reduce the harm.

  8. Virtual store atmosphere in internet retailing: Measuring virtual retail store layout effects on consumer buying behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vrechopoulos, Adam P

    2001-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The research presented in this dissertation is concerned with the effects of the "virtual store atmosphere" on consumer buying behaviour within the context of Internet retailing. More specifically, the focus of this research is to investigate whether the virtual store layout, as a major virtual store atmosphere determinant, affects consumer buying behaviour during shopping activity w...

  9. Rethinking the grocery store: inclusive wayfinding system for visually impaired shoppers in grocery stores

    OpenAIRE

    Khattab, Doaa

    2015-01-01

    Many people with disabilities face considerable barriers while shopping in grocery stores.  One such barrier is that they cannot find their way around easily, especially when they visit the grocery store for the first time and have not yet built a cognitive map in their memory. They may also experience delays in finding the right product or waiting for assistance from store employees, thus leading them to rely on family, friends, relatives, or volunteers to help them with their shopping. Prob...

  10. Functional Store Image and Corporate Social Responsibility Image: A Congruity Analysis on Store Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaliah Mohd. Yusof; Rosidah Musa; Sofiah Abd. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    With previous studies that examined the importance of functional store image and CSR, this study is aimed at examining their effects in the self-congruity model in influencing store loyalty. In particular, this study developed and tested a structural model in the context of retailing industry on the self-congruity theory. Whilst much of the self-congruity studies have incorporated functional store image, there has been lack of studies that examined social responsibility i...

  11. Food and beverage purchases in corner stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Lenk, Kathleen; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Barnes, Timothy L; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about customer purchases of foods and beverages from small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores and pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) describe customer characteristics, shopping frequency and reasons for shopping at small and non-traditional food retailers; and (ii) describe food/beverage purchases and their nutritional quality, including differences across store type. Data were collected through customer intercept interviews. Nutritional quality of food/beverage purchases was analysed; a Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for purchases was created by aggregating participant purchases at each store. Small and non-traditional food stores that were not WIC-authorized in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA. Customers (n 661) from 105 food retailers. Among participants, 29 % shopped at the store at least once daily; an additional 44 % shopped there at least once weekly. Most participants (74 %) cited convenient location as the primary draw to the store. Customers purchased a median of 2262 kJ (540 kcal), which varied by store type (P=0·04). The amount of added sugar far surpassed national dietary recommendations. At dollar stores, participants purchased a median of 5302 kJ (1266 kcal) for a median value of $US 2·89. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the most common purchase. The mean HEI-2010 score across all stores was 36·4. Small and non-traditional food stores contribute to the urban food environment. Given the poor nutritional quality of purchases, findings support the need for interventions that address customer decision making in these stores.

  12. Predictors of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in absence of radiologic honeycombing: A cross sectional analysis in ILD patients undergoing lung tissue sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Margaret L; Xia, Meng; Murray, Susan; Bartholmai, Brian J; Kazerooni, Ella A; Meldrum, Catherine A; Martinez, Fernando J; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) can be diagnosed confidently and non-invasively when clinical and computed tomography (CT) criteria are met. Many do not meet these criteria due to absence of CT honeycombing. We investigated predictors of IPF and combinations allowing accurate diagnosis in individuals without honeycombing. We utilized prospectively collected clinical and CT data from patients enrolled in the Lung Tissue Research Consortium. Included patients had no honeycombing, no connective tissue disease, underwent diagnostic lung biopsy, and had CT pattern consistent with fibrosing ILD (n = 200). Logistic regression identified clinical and CT variables predictive of IPF. The probability of IPF was assessed at various cut-points of important clinical and CT variables. A multivariable model adjusted for age and gender found increasingly extensive reticular densities (OR 2.93, CI 95% 1.55-5.56, p = 0.001) predicted IPF, while increasing ground glass densities predicted a diagnosis other than IPF (OR 0.55, CI 95% 0.34-0.89, p = 0.02). The model-based probability of IPF was 80% or greater in patients with age at least 60 years and extent of reticular density one-third or more of total lung volume; for patients meeting or exceeding these clinical thresholds the specificity for IPF is 96% (CI 95% 91-100%) with 21 of 134 (16%) biopsies avoided. In patients with suspected fibrotic ILD and absence of CT honeycombing, extent of reticular and ground glass densities predict a diagnosis of IPF. The probability of IPF exceeds 80% in subjects over age 60 years with one-third of total lung having reticular densities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples from dogs affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Elodie; Krafft, Emilie; Farnir, Frederic; Holopainen, Saila; Laurila, Henna P; Rajamäki, Minna M; Day, Michael J; Antoine, Nadine; Pirottin, Dimitri; Clercx, Cecile

    2015-10-01

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive disease of the lung parenchyma that is more prevalent in dogs of the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Since the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis in humans, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these same chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from healthy dogs and WHWTs affected with CIPF. Expression of the genes encoding CCL2 and CXCL8 and their respective receptors, namely (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), was compared in unaffected lung tissue and biopsies from dogs affected with CIPF by quantitative PCR and localisation of CCL2 and CXCL8 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Significantly greater CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were found in the BALF from WHWTs affected with CIPF, compared with healthy dogs. Significantly greater serum concentrations of CCL2, but not CXCL8, were found in CIPF-affected dogs compared with healthy WHWTs. No differences in relative gene expression for CCL2, CXCL8, CCR2 or CXCR2 were observed when comparing lung biopsies from control dogs and those affected with CIPF. In affected lung tissues, immunolabelling for CCL2 and CXCL8 was observed in bronchial airway epithelial cells in dogs affected with CIPF. The study findings suggest that both CCL2 and CXCL8 are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. Further studies are required to determine whether these chemokines might have a clinical use as biomarkers of fibrosis or as targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Sirtuin 3 Levels in ALS and Huntington’s Disease—Differential Effects in Human Tissue Samples vs. Transgenic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buck

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by distinct patterns of neuronal loss. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS upper and lower motoneurons degenerate whereas in Huntington’s disease (HD medium spiny neurons in the striatum are preferentially affected. Despite these differences the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are remarkably similar. In addition, non-neuronal features, such as weight loss implicate a dysregulation in energy metabolism. Mammalian sirtuins, especially the mitochondrial NAD+ dependent sirtuin 3 (SIRT3, regulate mitochondrial function and aging processes. SIRT3 expression depends on the activity of the metabolic master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α, a modifier of ALS and HD in patients and model organisms. This prompted us to systematically probe Sirt3 mRNA and protein levels in mouse models of ALS and HD and to correlate these with patient tissue levels. We found a selective reduction of Sirt3 mRNA levels and function in the cervical spinal cord of end-stage ALS mice (superoxide dismutase 1, SOD1G93A. In sharp contrast, a tendency to increased Sirt3 mRNA levels was found in the striatum in HD mice (R6/2. Cultured primary neurons express the highest levels of Sirt3 mRNA. In primary cells from PGC-1α knock-out (KO mice the Sirt3 mRNA levels were highest in astrocytes. In human post mortem tissue increased mRNA and protein levels of Sirt3 were found in the spinal cord in ALS, while Sirt3 levels were unchanged in the human HD striatum. Based on these findings we conclude that SIRT3 mediates the different effects of PGC-1α during the course of transgenic (tg ALS and HD and in the human conditions only partial aspects Sirt3 dysregulation manifest.

  15. Synovial fluid white cell count and histopathological examination of periprosthetic tissue samples (frozen and permanent sections in the diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obada B.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine prospectively the importance of synovial fluid white cell count and intraoperative frozen and permanent sections analysis (number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field in the diagnosis of septic total knee arthroplasty. There were studied prospectively 72 patients who needed a revision total knee arthroplasty between 2013-2015. 30 patients were diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection due to high rates of ESR (93% and CRP (90% and preoperative positive culture from aspirated synovial fluid and 42 patients were considered to have aseptic failure according to negative preoperative culture from joint aspirate. For all the patients was analysed synovial fluid white cell count and histopathological aspect of intraoperative frozen and permanent sections of periprosthetic tissue. The results showed a median value of 13800 of sinovial white cells count for infected knee and 92 for noninfected knee. 90% of the patients with joint infection had more than 5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high power field on intraoperative frozen sections and 83% on permanent sections. None of the patients from aseptic group had more than 5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per field on permanent sections. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level can be supplemented with cultures of aspirated joint fluid and fluid white cell count to confirm the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. When the preoperative diagnosis remain unclear, the histological examination of frozen or permanent sections of periprosthetic tissue with at least 5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high power field, is predictive for the presence of infection.

  16. Validated method for the determination of perfluorinated compounds in placental tissue samples based on a simple extraction procedure followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Alonso, E; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A

    2016-04-01

    Xenobiotic exposure during pregnancy is inevitable. Determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), chemicals described as environmental contaminants by Public Health Authorities due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, is a challenge. In the present work, a method based on a simplified sample treatment involving freeze-drying, solvent extraction and dispersive clean-up of the extracts using C18 sorbents followed by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of five perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C4-C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in placental tissue samples. The most influential parameters affecting the extraction method and clean-up were optimized using Design of Experiments (DOE). The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration. Found limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.03 to 2 ng g(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.08 to 6 ng g(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 14% in all cases. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 94% to 113%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of compounds in human placental tissue samples collected at delivery from 25 randomly selected women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Advantages of infrared transflection micro spectroscopy and paraffin-embedded sample preparation for biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Li, Qian; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Dan; Wu, Rie

    2018-04-01

    Fourier-Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. In this paper, series metal coating films on ITO glass were prepared by the electrochemical method and the different thicknesses of paraffin embedding rat's brain tissue on the substrates were studied by IR micro-spetroscopy in attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode and transflection mode respectively. The Co-Ni-Cu alloy coating film with low cost is good reflection substrates for the IR analysis. The infrared microscopic transflection mode needs not to touch the sample at all and can get the IR spectra with higher signal to noise ratios. The Paraffin-embedding method allows tissues to be stored for a long time for re-analysis to ensure the traceability of the sample. Also it isolates the sample from the metal and avoids the interaction of biological tissue with the metals. The best thickness of the tissues is 4 μm.

  18. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in formalinfixed Porcine Intestinal Tissue Samples: Comparison of Immunofluorescense and In-situ Hybridization, and Evaluation of the Effectf of Controlled Autolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boesen, H. T.; Vigre, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    methods had a specificity of 100%. Fifty normal porcine intestines were negative by both tests. IFA was much less susceptible than FISH to the effects of autolysis. Thus, three of nine samples from pigs with PE were FISH-negative after being kept at 20°C for 4 days, and seven were FISH negative after 2...

  19. Tissue reactions to bacteria-inoculated rat lead samples .2. Effect of local gentamicin release through surface-modified polyurethane tubing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWachem, PB; vanLuyn, MJA; deWit, AW; Raatjes, D; Hendriks, M; Verhoeven, MLPM; Cahalan, PT

    A surface modification technique was developed to achieve controlled release of gentamicin from implanted polyurethane (PU) rat lead samples. PU tubing first was provided with an acrylic acid/acrylamide copolymer surface graft and then loaded with gentamicin. This surface modification technique

  20. Direct-to-PCR tissue preservation for DNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Amy; Berry, Clare; Bruce, David; Gahan, Michelle Elizabeth; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; McNevin, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    Disaster victim identification (DVI) often occurs in remote locations with extremes of temperatures and humidities. Access to mortuary facilities and refrigeration are not always available. An effective and robust DNA sampling and preservation procedure would increase the probability of successful DNA profiling and allow faster repatriation of bodies and body parts. If the act of tissue preservation also released DNA into solution, ready for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the DVI process could be further streamlined. In this study, we explored the possibility of obtaining DNA profiles without DNA extraction, by adding aliquots of preservative solutions surrounding fresh human muscle and decomposing human muscle and skin tissue samples directly to PCR. The preservatives consisted of two custom preparations and two proprietary solutions. The custom preparations were a salt-saturated solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and TENT buffer (Tris, EDTA, NaCl, Tween 20). The proprietary preservatives were DNAgard (Biomatrica(®)) and Tissue Stabilising Kit (DNA Genotek). We obtained full PowerPlex(®) 21 (Promega) and GlobalFiler(®) (Life Technologies) DNA profiles from fresh and decomposed tissue preserved at 35 °C for up to 28 days for all four preservatives. The preservative aliquots removed from the fresh muscle tissue samples had been stored at -80 °C for 4 years, indicating that long-term archival does not diminish the probability of successful DNA typing. Rather, storage at -80 °C seems to reduce PCR inhibition.

  1. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong,; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan, P [Richland, WA

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  2. Understanding Consumers' In-store Visual Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Kristensen, Tore; Grønhaug, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the human brain has limited capacity for perceptual stimuli and consumers'' visual attention, when searching for a particular product or brand in a grocery store, should then be limited by the boundaries of their own perceptual capacity. In this exploratory study, we...... examine the relationship between abundant in-store stimuli and limited human perceptual capacity. Specifically, we test the influence of package design features on visual attention. Data was collected through two eye-tracking experiments, one in a grocery store using wireless eye-tracking equipment......, and another in a lab setting. Findings show that consumers have fragmented visual attention during grocery shopping, and that their visual attention is simultaneously influenced and disrupted by the shelf display. Physical design features such as shape and contrast dominate the initial phase of searching...

  3. White adipose tissue: Getting nervous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Kreier, F.; Voshol, P. J.; Havekes, L. M.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Kalsbeek, A.; Buijs, R. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Neuroendocrine research has altered the traditional perspective of white adipose tissue (WAT) as a passive store of triglycerides. In addition to fatty acids, WAT produces many hormones and can therefore be designated as a traditional endocrine gland actively participating in the integrative

  4. Spin flipping a stored polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caussyn, D.D.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Ellison, T.J.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.J.; von Przewoski, B.; Blinov, B.B.; Chu, C.M.; Courant, E.D.; Crandell, D.A.; Kaufman, W.A.; Krisch, A.D.; Nurushev, T.S.; Phelps, R.A.; Ratner, L.G.; Wong, V.K.; Ohmori, C.

    1994-01-01

    We recently studied the spin flipping of a vertically polarized, stored 139-MeV proton beam. To flip the spin, we induced an rf depolarizing resonance by sweeping our rf solenoid magnet's frequency through the resonance frequency. With multiple spin flips, we found a polarization loss of 0.0000±0.0005 per spin flip under the best conditions; this loss increased significantly for small changes in the conditions. Minimizing the depolarization during each spin flip is especially important because frequent spin flipping could significantly reduce the systematic errors in stored polarized-beam experiments

  5. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John K.; Lindemann, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  6. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  7. Continuing role of a frozen-tissue bank in molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, S P

    1996-12-01

    The growth of molecular diagnostics and its application in various clinical laboratories have made it necessary to standardize the methods used to freeze and store tissues used in molecular testing. It may now be advantageous to preserve fresh tissues and other specimen types in a central frozen-tissue bank so that sample preparation and storage conditions are appropriate for molecular applications and so that the specimen inventory can be efficiently managed. The pathology laboratory is a logical site for the facility because the professional and technical expertise available is focused on the complex scientific and regulatory aspects of laboratory medicine. Organizationally, the tissue-bank program should be overseen by a surgical pathologist to integrate it into routine surgical pathology activities. A member of the laboratory technical staff can serve as the tissue-bank coordinator with responsibility for systematic storage and retrieval of specimens and routine maintenance of equipment and supplies. To facilitate the tissue-freezing procedure and efficient storage of multiple types of specimens, 2.0 ml cryogenic vials are used as the uniform storage container. All specimens are stored at -140 to -150 degrees C in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen. The specimen inventory data are maintained with a computerized program specifically designed to manage complex specimen storage. A frozen-tissue bank is easily implemented in a pathology laboratory and is a valuable institutional asset for diagnostic and research purposes.

  8. Comparison of tissue sample processing methods for harvesting the viral metagenome and a snapshot of the RNA viral community in a turkey gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jigna D; Baller, Joshua; Zhang, Ying; Silverstein, Kevin; Xing, Zheng; Cardona, Carol J

    2014-12-01

    RNA viruses have been associated with enteritis in poultry and have been isolated from diseased birds. The same viral agents have also been detected in healthy flocks bringing into question their role in health and disease. In order to understand better eukaryotic viruses in the gut, this project focused on evaluating alternative methods to purify and concentrate viral particles, which do not involve the use of density gradients, for generating viral metagenome data. In this study, the sequence outcomes of three tissue processing methods have been evaluated and a data analysis pipeline has been established for RNA viruses from the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, with the use of the best method and increased sequencing depth, a glimpse of the RNA viral community in the gastrointestinal tract of a clinically normal 5-week old turkey is presented. The viruses from the Reoviridae and Astroviridae families together accounted for 76.3% of total viruses identified. The rarefaction curve at the species level further indicated that majority of the species diversity was included with the increased sequencing depth, implying that viruses from other viral families were present in very low abundance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Availability, quality and price of produce in low-income neighbourhood food stores in California raise equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi; Brown, Daniel M; Sun, Betty C; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B

    2018-06-01

    To assess produce availability, quality and price in a large sample of food stores in low-income neighbourhoods in California. Cross-sectional statewide survey. Between 2011 and 2015, local health departments assessed store type, WIC (Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)/SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) participation, produce availability, quality and price of selected items in stores in low-income neighbourhoods. Secondary data provided reference chain supermarket produce prices matched by county and month. t Tests and ANOVA examined differences by store type; regression models examined factors associated with price. Large grocery stores (n 231), small markets (n 621) and convenience stores (n 622) in 225 neighbourhoods. Produce in most large groceries was rated high quality (97 % of fruits, 98 % of vegetables), but not in convenience stores (25 % fruits, 14 % vegetables). Small markets and convenience stores participating in WIC and/or SNAP had better produce availability, variety and quality than non-participating stores. Produce prices across store types were, on average, higher than reference prices from matched chain supermarkets (27 % higher in large groceries, 37 % higher in small markets, 102 % higher in convenience stores). Price was significantly inversely associated with produce variety, adjusting for quality, store type, and SNAP and WIC participation. The study finds that fresh produce is more expensive in low-income neighbourhoods and that convenience stores offer more expensive, poorer-quality produce than other stores. Variety is associated with price and most limited in convenience stores, suggesting more work is needed to determine how convenience stores can provide low-income consumers with access to affordable, high-quality produce. WIC and SNAP can contribute to the solution.

  10. Beyond Promotion-Based Store Switching : Antecedents and Consequences of Systematic Multiple-Store Shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that single-purpose multiple store shopping is not only driven by opportunistic, promotion-based motivations, but may also be part of a longer term shopping planning process based on stable store characteristics.Starting from a utility-maximizing shopping behavior

  11. The Journal of Stored-Products Research: The living history of stored product protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year, the Journal of Stored Products Research (JSPR) completes 52 years of history with publications of research papers. With approx. one hundred articles annually, the JSPR is an important scientific forum for stored product researchers throughout the globe. The aims and scope of JSPR are focu...

  12. The influence of store image on customer satisfaction: a case study of a shoe store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsis Souza Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of customers' image of a store is an essential factor in the management of retail outlets. This article presents a case study of the effect of the image customers have of a shoe store on their satisfaction, based on a descriptive and quantitative survey, with the application of a structured questionnaire. We then employed factor analysis to obtain seven store image factors: assortment, convenience, reputation, price, atmosphere, layout and service. The results show that the factor that most affects customer satisfaction in the store studied is service, and that atmosphere and layout have no effect in this respect. The results provide a better understanding of the role store image plays in customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  13. Development of a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of phenylethanolamine A in tissue and feed samples and confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Biyun; He, Guangzhao; Yang, Hong; Chang, Huafang; Li, Shuqun; Deng, Anping

    2013-10-15

    Phenylethanolamine A (PA) is a new emerged β-adrenergic agonist illegally used as feed additives for growth promotion. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of PA in tissue and feed samples was developed and confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By reduction of nitryl group to amino group, the PA derivative was synthesized and coupled to carrier proteins with diazobenzidine method. The antisera obtained from four immunized rabbits were characterized in terms of sensitivity and specificity. All antisera displayed high sensitivity with IC50 values lower than 0.48 ng mL(-1). The most sensitive ELISA was established with IC50 and limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.049 ng mL(-1) and 0.003 ng mL(-1), respectively. The cross-reactivity (CR) values of the antisera with three frequently used β-adrenergic agonists (clenbuterol, salbutamol and ractopamine) were lesser than 0.39%; there was no CR of the antisera with other six compounds including two structurally related substances (isoproterenol, phenylephrine). To investigate the accuracy and precision of the assay, swine kidney, liver, meat and feed samples were fortified with PA at different content and analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 92.2-113.7% and intra-assay coefficients of variation of 3.8-10.9% (n=3) were achieved. Seven spiked samples were simultaneously analyzed by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. There was a high correlation coefficient of 0.9956 (n=7) between the two methods. The proposed ELISA proven to be a feasible quantitative/screening method for PA analysis in tissue and feed samples with the properties of high sensitivity and specificity, high sample throughput and low expensive. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of layer thickness and printing orientation on mechanical properties and dimensional accuracy of 3D printed porous samples for bone tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Farzadi

    Full Text Available Powder-based inkjet 3D printing method is one of the most attractive solid free form techniques. It involves a sequential layering process through which 3D porous scaffolds can be directly produced from computer-generated models. 3D printed products' quality are controlled by the optimal build parameters. In this study, Calcium Sulfate based powders were used for porous scaffolds fabrication. The printed scaffolds of 0.8 mm pore size, with different layer thickness and printing orientation, were subjected to the depowdering step. The effects of four layer thicknesses and printing orientations, (parallel to X, Y and Z, on the physical and mechanical properties of printed scaffolds were investigated. It was observed that the compressive strength, toughness and Young's modulus of samples with 0.1125 and 0.125 mm layer thickness were more than others. Furthermore, the results of SEM and μCT analyses showed that samples with 0.1125 mm layer thickness printed in X direction have more dimensional accuracy and significantly close to CAD software based designs with predefined pore size, porosity and pore interconnectivity.

  15. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  16. Convenience store sales forecasting - art before science?

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, SM; Browne, S

    2006-01-01

    The science of store location decision making and sales forecasting has received a huge degree of attention throughout retail management and retail geography research. This literature has focused on the conceptualisation of techniques for determining the optimal location and sales, primarily of the food supermarket.

  17. Walmart Experimental Store Performance Stories: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Kozubal, E.; Norton, P.

    2010-08-01

    Walmart opened two experimental stores--one in Colorado and one in Texas--in 2005 to serve as test beds for several advanced building systems. Each embodied more than 50 experiments covering materials, water systems, energy systems, and renewable energy production. Walmart worked for three years with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the Colorado Store and Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Texas store to monitor, analyze, and report on their performance. HVAC experiments included waste oil boilers, a microturbine/absorption chiller combined heat and power system, evaporative cooling, and a transpired solar collector. The refrigeration systems integrated a medium-temperature secondary loop, evaporatively cooled condenser, doors on medium-temperature cases, and light-emitting diodes on cases. Experiments in the lighting systems included a redesigned roof for clerestory daylighting and T-5 fluorescent lamps. Three photovoltaic systems for a total of 135 kW and a 50-kW wind turbine are also included. The energy system performance was compared to the measured performance of a prototypical Walmart store and to other benchmarks.

  18. Charge and Energy Stored in a Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Using a data-acquisition system, the charge and energy stored in a capacitor are measured and displayed during the charging/discharging process. The experiment is usable as a laboratory work and/or a lecture demonstration. (Contains 3 figures.)

  19. The Changing Face of the College Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Increased competition from Internet merchants, coupled with the swelling popularity of electronic books and skyrocketing textbook prices, is forcing the nation's college stores to get creative, find new ways to boost revenues, and drive sales of books and other merchandise to students and faculty. To make up for lost revenue as a result of…

  20. TO ALL USERS OF GAS FROM STORES

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2002-01-01

    Users of gas from stores are requested to return empty gas containers (cylinders, etc.) as soon as possible after use. These containers belong to the supplier and are therefore subject to a hire charge. Gas users are invited to place the empty containers at the official delivery points, where they will be collected by the supplier. Thank you. SPL Division Logistics Group

  1. Energy stored in irradiated NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidiard, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Recently reported measurements of the energy stored in heavily irradiated NaCl are reviewed in the light of recent understanding of radiation-damage processes in this material. It is shown that, in the ranges of temperatures and dose rates of these experiments, the F-centres produced by the irradiation are retained principally in the form of colloids: the stored energy is thus a direct measure of the number of F-centres retained in this form. Comparison of these results with the prediction of the recently proposed theory of colloid growth shows that the predictions of the dependence of colloid growth rates upon temperature and dose rate are qualitatively correct. The dependence of stored energy dose, however, appears to require the inclusion of a thermally activated back-reaction and possible modifications to the theory are briefly discussed. However, further experiments in this range of temperatures and dose rates are necessary for more quantitative tests of the theory. This reconsideration of the data does not alter the broad conclusion as to the relative insignificance of stored energy in a natural salt formation used as a radioactive waste repository, although more extensive measurements permitting a more exact test of theory would allow better predictions to be made for such applications. (author)

  2. Method for storing radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Atsushi; Nagao, Hiroyuki; Takiguchi, Yukio; Kanazawa, Toshio; Soya, Masataka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To safely and securely store radioactive rare gases for a long period of time. Structure: The waste gases produced in nuclear power plant are cooled by a cooler and then introduced into a low temperature adsorbing device so that the gases are adsorbed by adsorbents, and then discharged into atmosphere through the purifying gas discharge line. When the radioactive rare gases reach a level of saturation in the amount of adsorption, they are heated and extracted by a suction pump and heated by a heater. The gases are then introduced into an oxygen-impurity removing device and the purified rare gases containing no oxygen and impurities are cooled by a cooler and fed into a gas holder. When the amount of radioactive rare gases stored within the gas holder reaches a given level, they are compressed and sealed by a compressure into a storing cylinder and residual gases in the piping are sucked and recovered into the gas holder, after which the cylinder is removed and stored in a fixed room. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Key Findings of AAP Store Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendes, Bob; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results of the Association of American Publishers "College Bookstore Marketing Survey" in the fall of 1976 are summarized. The intent was to improve college textbook publisher services to college stores in the areas of order fulfillment, publication scheduling, print quantities, shipping, billing, and processing of returns. (LBH)

  4. Experimental verification of stored energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hann, C.R.; Christensen, J.A.; Lanning, D.D.; Marshall, R.K.; Williford, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is provided of irradiation tests designed to provide data needed to verify existing steady state fuel performance codes. The tests are being conducted in the Halden Reactor, and are designed to provide data pertinent to stored energy calculations over a range of linear heat ratings utilized in contemporary power reactors

  5. Column Stores as an IR Prototyping Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); T. Samar (Thaer); J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract. We make the suggestion that instead of implementing custom index structures and query evaluation algorithms, IR researchers should simply store document representations in a column-oriented relational database and write ranking models using SQL. For rapid prototyping, this is

  6. Analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue via proteomic techniques and misconceptions of antigen retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Matthew B; Padula, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Since emerging in the late 19(th) century, formaldehyde fixation has become a standard method for preservation of tissues from clinical samples. The advantage of formaldehyde fixation is that fixed tissues can be stored at room temperature for decades without concern for degradation. This has led to the generation of huge tissue banks containing thousands of clinically significant samples. Here we review techniques for proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples with a specific focus on the methods used to extract and break formaldehyde crosslinks. We also discuss an error-of-interpretation associated with the technique known as "antigen retrieval." We have discovered that this term has been mistakenly applied to two disparate molecular techniques; therefore, we argue that a terminology change is needed to ensure accurate reporting of experimental results. Finally, we suggest that more investigation is required to fully understand the process of formaldehyde fixation and its subsequent reversal.

  7. Accumulation of ethoxyquin in the tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    Ethoxyquin (EQ) residue levels in the mouse tissue were determined by the HPLC-fluorometric detection method. Mice were given powdered feed containing 0, 0.125, and 0.5% EQ HCl and the EQ residue levels in liver, kidney, lung, and brain tissues were determined after 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 wk (4 mice/group). The tissue samples were homogenized in 10 volumes (w/v) of acetonitrile-water (7:3, v/v), centrifuged, and the supernatants were stored in a freezer for 2-3 h or until the two layers separated; then the clear upper layers were analyzed. The mean EQ residue levels in the tissue ranged 0.84-4.58 micrograms EQ/g liver and 0.11-0.92 micrograms EQ/g brain. The relative weight of the liver (5.21-7.07% body weight) and the hepatic glutathione level (5.99-7.83 microM GSH/g tissue) of mice that received EQ were significantly higher than those of the controls (4.67-5.05% body weight and 4.30-5.78 microM GSH/g tissue, respectively). The mean hepatic mitochondrial glutathione level of the higher EQ feeding group, following dietary administration of EQ for 14 wk, was approximately twofold (1.68 nM GSH/mg protein) of both the control and the lower EQ feeding groups (0.83 and 0.74 nM GSH/mg protein, respectively)

  8. Permafrost stores a globally significant amount of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Schuster, P. F.; Antweiler, R.; Aiken, G.; DeWild, J.; Gryziec, J. D.; Gusmeroli, A.; Hugelius, G.; Jafarov, E.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Liu, L.; Herman-Mercer, N. M.; Mu, C.; Roth, D. A.; Schaefer, T.; Striegl, R. G.; Wickland, K.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Changing climate in northern regions is causing permafrost to thaw with major implications for the cycling of mercury in arctic and subarctic ecosystems. Permafrost occurs in nearly one quarter of the Earth's Northern Hemisphere. We measured total soil mercury concentration in 588 samples from 13 soil permafrost cores from the interior and the North Slope of Alaska. The median concentration was 47.7±23.4 ng Hg g soil-1 and the median ratio of Hg to carbon was 1.56±0.86 µg Hg g C-1. We estimate Alaskan permafrost stores 56±32 kilotons of mercury and the entire northern hemisphere permafrost land mass stores 773±441 kilotons of mercury. This increases estimates of mercury stored in soils by 60%, making permafrost the second largest reservoir of mercury on the planet. Climate projections indicate extensive permafrost thawing, releasing mercury into the environment through a variety of mechanisms, for example, terrestrial transport via dissolved organic carbon (DOC), gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) evasion, forest fires, atmospheric mixing processes with ozone, and Springtime atmospheric Hg depletion after the polar sunrise. These findings have major implications for terrestrial and aquatic life, the world's fisheries, and ultimately human health.

  9. A Comparison of Customer Relationships between Large Chain Stores and Small Local Stores in the Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Krstevska, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates customer relationships of two distinct store formats (small local stores and large chain stores) in the fashion industry. The aim is to find out if there are differences between the store formats regarding customer relationships. Relationship marketing theory was used to formulate hypotheses. Shoppers of small local stores and large chain stores in Würzburg, Germany, were surveyed to test the hypotheses. Results indicate that customer relationships significantly dif...

  10. Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

  11. The Strategic Management of Store Brand Perceived Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defeng

    Store brand plays a vital role in the success of retailers. Perceived quality is one of important factors influencing consumers' store brand purchase intention. Store brand perceived quality is lower compared with objective quality or national brand. For this end, the purpose of this article is to examine how to manage store brand perceived quality in strategic level. This article firstly discusses how consumers evaluate product quality, and the theoretical background of the reason that store brand perceived quality is lower from the view of cue related theories. Then, consumers' store brand quality evaluation is explored. Finally, this article presents several strategic tactics to increase store brand perceived quality. These tactics include choosing store's name as store brand name, making large advertising investment, improving store brand product package, and strengthening the relationship with store brand product suppliers.

  12. Lymphoid Tissue Grafts in Man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, H. E.M. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    1969-07-15

    Grafts of lymphoid tissue or of lymphoid stem cells may be appropriate in the treatment of some congenital immune deficiency disorders. The reasons for preferring tissues of foetal origin are discussed and the evidence for foetal immunocompetence is briefly summarized. Methods of storing foetal liver cells and cells or fragments of thymus are mentioned, and the organization of the Foetal Tissue Bank of the Royal Marsden Hospital is described. Clinical data from transplantation of lymphoid cells in various immune deficiency disorders are briefly presented. (author)

  13. Genetic Sample Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected primarily from the U.S. east coast. The collection includes samples from field programs,...

  14. Genetic Sample Inventory - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico from 2010-2015. The collection includes samples from...

  15. Several genes encoding ribosomal proteins are over-expressed in prostate-cancer cell lines: confirmation of L7a and L37 over-expression in prostate-cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarala, M H; Porvari, K S; Kyllönen, A P; Mustonen, M V; Lukkarinen, O; Vihko, P T

    1998-09-25

    A cDNA library specific for mRNA over-expressed in prostate cancer was generated by subtractive hybridization of transcripts originating from prostatic hyperplasia and cancer tissues. cDNA encoding ribosomal proteins L4, L5, L7a, L23a, L30, L37, S14 and S18 was found to be present among 100 analyzed clones. Levels of ribosomal mRNA were significantly higher at least in one of the prostate-cancer cell lines, LNCaP, DU-145 and PC-3, than in hyperplastic tissue, as determined by slot-blot hybridization. Furthermore, L23a- and S14-transcript levels were significantly elevated in PC-3 cells as compared with those in the normal prostate epithelial cell line PrEC. Generally, dramatic changes in the mRNA content of the ribosomal proteins were not detected, the most evident over-expression being that of L37 mRNA, which was 3.4 times more abundant in LNCaP cells than in hyperplastic prostate tissue. The over-expression of L7a and L37 mRNA was confirmed in prostate-cancer tissue samples by in situ hybridization. Elevated cancer-related expression of L4 and L30 has not been reported, but levels of the other ribosomal proteins are known to be increased in several types of cancers. These results therefore suggest that prostate cancer is comparable with other types of cancers, in that a larger pool of some ribosomal proteins is gained during the transformation process, by an unknown mechanism.

  16. STUDY OF ACAROID MITES POLLUTION IN STORED FRUIT-DERIVED CHINESE MEDICINAL MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-fa; Li, He-xia; Xu, Peng-fei; Xu, Hai-feng; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-08-01

    to investigate the species and breeding density of acaroid mites in stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui province. samples of stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials were collected from 30 herb stores and storehouses in 17 Anhui cities, where the breeding acaroids mites were detected. 20 species of acaroids mites were found in 33 samples, belonging to 15 genus, 5 families of the acaridae respectively, among which T. putrescentiae, A. farinae, C. lactis, and C. berlesei are predominant species. stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui areas suffer from serious acaroid mites pollution. Therefore, proactive measures should be taken to control acaroid mites from breeding in an effort to reduce the harm on medicinal materials. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Viability Tests for Fresh and Stored Haemopoietic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner, T. M. [Abteilung fuer klinische Physiologie, Zentrum fuer Klinische Grundlagenforschung, Universitaet Ulm, Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-07-15

    This paper reviews current methods of measurement of the viability of fresh and stored haemopoietic cells. The life expectancy of granulocytes and monocytes after transfusion can be studied by in-vitro labelling with {sup 3}H-DFP and subsequent autoradiography. The evaluation of data in about 30 patients with various haemopoietic conditions indicates a wide variation of the disappearance half-time of granulocytes. {sup 3}H-cytidine labels essentially all lymphocytes in vitro, predominantly in their RNA. Transfusion of {sup 3}H-cytidine-labelled lymphocytes enables one to measure the lower limit of their life-expectancy as well as their rate of RNA metabolism. If bone-marrow cells are labelled in vitro with {sup 3}H-thymidine and subsequently transfused, their capability to circulate, to reach the haemopoietic tissue of the host, to proliferate and to mature can be demonstrated. However, the repopulating capacity of frozen and thawed marrow is independent of the ability of {sup 3}H-TDR-labelled marrow cells to circulate, proliferate and mature. It is assumed that bone-marrow cells capable of repopulating depleted haemopoietic tissue are resting under steady-state conditions and can be labelled by means of {sup 3}H-TDR only using special conditions. Thus the only viability tests for fresh and stored bone-marrow cells at present appear to be bioassay methods at the animal experimental level. The results indicate the need for the development of reliable viability tests for stem cells applicable in both experimental and clinical conditions. (author)

  18. Spatial cluster analysis of nanoscopically mapped serotonin receptors for classification of fixed brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Michael; Silye, Rene; Göhring, Janett; Muresan, Leila; Schilcher, Kurt; Jacak, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    We present a cluster spatial analysis method using nanoscopic dSTORM images to determine changes in protein cluster distributions within brain tissue. Such methods are suitable to investigate human brain tissue and will help to achieve a deeper understanding of brain disease along with aiding drug development. Human brain tissue samples are usually treated postmortem via standard fixation protocols, which are established in clinical laboratories. Therefore, our localization microscopy-based method was adapted to characterize protein density and protein cluster localization in samples fixed using different protocols followed by common fluorescent immunohistochemistry techniques. The localization microscopy allows nanoscopic mapping of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor groups within a two-dimensional image of a brain tissue slice. These nanoscopically mapped proteins can be confined to clusters by applying the proposed statistical spatial analysis. Selected features of such clusters were subsequently used to characterize and classify the tissue. Samples were obtained from different types of patients, fixed with different preparation methods, and finally stored in a human tissue bank. To verify the proposed method, samples of a cryopreserved healthy brain have been compared with epitope-retrieved and paraffin-fixed tissues. Furthermore, samples of healthy brain tissues were compared with data obtained from patients suffering from mental illnesses (e.g., major depressive disorder). Our work demonstrates the applicability of localization microscopy and image analysis methods for comparison and classification of human brain tissues at a nanoscopic level. Furthermore, the presented workflow marks a unique technological advance in the characterization of protein distributions in brain tissue sections.

  19. Pengaruh Customer Relationship Management (Crm) Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Dan Customer Loyalty Pada Pelanggan Matahari Department Store

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Meyske

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect Benefits of Customer Relationship Management and Customer satisfation to Customer Loyalty in Customers Matahari Department Store. Customer relationship management (CRM) is part of a marketing strategy to get satisfaction and increase customer loyalty. CRM and customer satisfaction can encourage customer loyalty where customers do not easily switch to other companies. The population is all customers Matahari Department Store, and the sample are ...

  20. Pricing of Staple Foods at Supermarkets versus Small Food Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa J; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-08-15

    Prices affect food purchase decisions, particularly in lower-income communities, where access to a range of food retailers (including supermarkets) is limited. The aim of this study was to examine differences in staple food pricing between small urban food stores and the closest supermarkets, as well as whether pricing differentials varied based on proximity between small stores and larger retailers. In 2014, prices were measured for 15 staple foods during store visits in 140 smaller stores (corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN and their closest supermarket. Mixed models controlling for store type were used to estimate the average price differential between: (a) smaller stores and supermarkets; (b) isolated smaller stores (>1 mile to closest supermarket) and non-isolated smaller stores; and (c) isolated smaller stores inside versus outside USDA-identified food deserts. On average, all items except white bread were 10-54% more expensive in smaller stores than in supermarkets ( p Prices were generally not significantly different in isolated stores compared with non-isolated stores for most items. Among isolated stores, there were no price differences inside versus outside food deserts. We conclude that smaller food stores have higher prices for most staple foods compared to their closest supermarket, regardless of proximity. More research is needed to examine staple food prices in different retail spaces.

  1. Re-thinking the store image study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    Store image has traditionally been of interest in the Western markets. Studies of store image have also assessed the image of one or a few competing stores. This paper develops an approach to capture store images of an entire retail sector, an issue of importance when enter-ing the new emerging...

  2. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L. D.

    1984-02-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. A distributed energy storage railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed. A simple simulation of the railgun system based on this model, but ignoring frictional drag, was compared with the experimental results. During the process of comparing results from the simulation and the experiment, the effect of significant frictional drag of the projectile on the sidewalls of the bore was observed.

  3. Accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1990-10-01

    Polarization hadron experiments at high energies continue to generate surprises. Many questions remain unanswered or unanswerable within the frame work of QCD. These include such basic questions as to why at high energies the polarization analyzing power in pp elastic scattering remains high, why hyperons are produced with high polarizations etc. It is, therefore, interesting to investigate the possibilities of accelerating and storing polarized beams in high energy colliders. On the technical side the recent understanding and confirmation of the actions of partial and multiple Siberian snakes made it possible to contemplate accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams to multi-TeV energies. In this paper, we will examine the equipment, the operation and the procedure required to obtain colliding beams of polarized protons at TeV energies

  4. Storing Data Flow Monitoring in Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The on-line data flow monitoring for the CMS data acquisition system produces a large amount of data. Only 5% of data is stored permanently in a relational database due to performance issues and the cost for using dedicated infrastructure (e.g. Oracle systems). In a commercial environment, companies and organizations need to find new innovative approaches to process such big volumes of data, known as “big data”. The Big Data approach is trying to address the problem of a large and complex collection of data sets that become difficult to handle using traditional data processing applications. Using these new technologies, it should be possible to store all the monitoring information for a time window of months or a year. This report contains an initial evaluation of Hadoop for storage of data flow monitoring and subsequent data mining.

  5. Salmonella Dublin kan give store tab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2012-01-01

    Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere.......Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere....

  6. The Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A mobile robot system called Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) is under development by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure to potential hazards and create accurate, high-quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance and enhance waste management operations. Development work is coordinated among several Department of Energy (DOE), academic, and commercial entities in accordance wit DOE's technology transfer initiative. The prototype system, SWAMI I, was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) in November, 1993. SWAMI II is now under development for field trails at the Fernald site

  7. Inefficiency of Data Storing in Physical Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruddin Malik Mohamad; Sapiee Haji Jamel; Mustafa Mat Deris

    2009-01-01

    Memory forensic is important in digital investigation. The forensic is based on the data stored in physical memory that involve memory management and processing time. However, the current forensic tools do not consider the efficiency in terms of storage management and the processing time. This paper shows the high redundancy of data found in the physical memory that cause inefficiency in processing time and memory management. The experiment is done using Borland C compile...

  8. Swedish subseabed store - phase 1 nears completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, James

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the storage of radioactive waste in the subseabed in Sweden. The wastes are low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes arising from the Swedish nuclear power programme. The repository is a cavern which has been excavated under the seabed in the Baltic Sea, about a kilometre out from shore. The specifications of the repository are given, along with the volume of the radioactive wastes to be stored in it. (UK)

  9. Apparatus for storing and processing fissionable substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, B.G.; Bogatyrev, V.K.; Vladykov, G.M.; Sviridenko, V.Y.

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus is described for storing and processing fissionable substances in which there is provided a protective shield in the form of a layer of neutron absorbing material located in direct proximity to a vessel with a fissionable substance contained therein. The layer of neutron retarding material according to the present invention has alternating projections and depressions facing the layer of neutron-absorbing material. (author)

  10. Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.

  11. Addition of urea and thiourea to electrophoresis sample buffer improves efficiency of protein extraction from TCA/acetone-treated smooth muscle tissues for phos-tag SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Kosuke; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Miyazu, Motoi; Takai, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorylation analysis by using phos-tag technique has been reported to be suitable for highly sensitive quantification of smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain (LC 20 ) phosphorylation. However, there is another factor that will affect the sensitivity of phosphorylation analysis, that is, protein extraction. Here, we optimized the conditions for total protein extraction out of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-fixed tissues. Standard SDS sample buffer extracted less LC 20 , actin and myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) from TCA/acetone treated ciliary muscle strips. On the other hand, sample buffer containing urea and thiourea in addition to lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) or SDS extracted those proteins more efficiently, and thus increased the detection sensitivity up to 4-5 fold. Phos-tag SDS-PAGE separated dephosphorylated and phosphorylated LC 20 s extracted in LDS/urea/thiourea sample buffer to the same extent as those in standard SDS buffer. We have concluded that LDS (or SDS) /urea/thiourea sample buffer is suitable for highly sensitive phosphorylation analysis in smooth muscle, especially when it is treated with TCA/acetone. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Consumer Right to Information before Purchase: Research on the Romanian Online Stores for Technical Consumer Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Balan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper is to evaluate the status of the protection of consumer right to information before the purchase from Romanian online stores. The perspective focuses on technical consumer goods. The research pursued two major objectives. The former consisted in analysing the compliance of the online stores with the provisions of article 6 paragraph 1 of the Directive 2011/83/EU on consumer rights, relative to the information provided to potential buyers before the purchase. The latter was to identify the consumer awareness of the rights stipulated by article 6 of the directive, as well as to study the opinions of consumers relative to the information that online stores are compelled to supply before purchase. The first objective was accomplished by applying the content analysis method to the information available on the Web for a sample of 100 online stores. The second objective was achieved through the survey method on a sample of 351 persons from the 25 to 34 age group, residing in Bucharest. Compared to other studies, the major contributions of the present research approach are the following: the investigation of an extensive sample of online stores; the wider range of products; the focus on both online stores and consumers. The results show that improvements are needed in the level of compliance and in the consumer awareness of own rights.

  13. Temporal changes in stored-product insect populations associated with boot, pit, and load-out areas of grain elevators and feed mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial grain elevator and feed mill facilities can quickly become infested with stored-product insect pests, compromising the protection of the raw and processed cereal products stored at each facility type. Grain facilities of each type were sampled monthly for adults of stored-product insects ...

  14. RETHINKING THE GROCERY STORE: INCLUSIVE WAYFINDING SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED SHOPPERS IN GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Khattab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many people with disabilities face considerable barriers while shopping in grocery stores.  One such barrier is that they cannot find their way around easily, especially when they visit the grocery store for the first time and have not yet built a cognitive map in their memory. They may also experience delays in finding the right product or waiting for assistance from store employees, thus leading them to rely on family, friends, relatives, or volunteers to help them with their shopping. Problems start when these people are not available, in which case the individual is forced to cancel their visit to the grocery store and reschedule the trip. Grocery stores include many different zones and services, the aisles area being one of the main barriers to access for people with different disabilities. This area features many different sections such as canned goods, dry packaged goods, spices, drinks and snacks, baking supplies, baby items, cereals, cleaning products, pet supplies, and health and beauty items. For visually impaired individuals, however, it can be hard to reach these various sections and find the relevant products. The objective of this research is to design an inclusive and innovative wayfinding system in grocery stores for visually impaired shoppers in order to help them find the center zone, orient between different aisles, decide where to go, move easily between different sections, and select products with ease. The research approach will be based on the literature review and the application of the Delphi method.

  15. The presence of enterovirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus B19 in myocardial tissue samples from autopsies: an evaluation of their frequencies in deceased individuals with myocarditis and in non-inflamed control hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Hansen, Jakob; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Baandrup, Ulrik Thorngren; Banner, Jytte

    2014-09-01

    Multiple viruses have been detected in cardiac tissue, but their role in causing myocarditis remains controversial. Viral diagnostics are increasingly used in forensic medicine, but the interpretation of the results can sometimes be challenging. In this study, we examined the prevalence of adenovirus, enterovirus, and parvovirus B19 (PVB) in myocardial autopsy samples from myocarditis related deaths and in non-inflamed control hearts in an effort to clarify their significance as the causes of myocarditis in a forensic material. We collected all autopsy cases diagnosed with myocarditis from 1992 to 2010. Eighty-four suicidal deaths with morphologically normal hearts served as controls. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the viral genomes (adenovirus, enterovirus, and PVB) in myocardial tissue specimens. The distinction between acute and persistent PVB infection was made by the serological determination of PVB-specific immunoglobulins M and G. PVB was detected in 33 of 112 (29 %) myocarditis cases and 37 of 84 (44 %) control cases. All of the samples were negative for the presence of adenovirus and enterovirus. Serological evidence of an acute PVB infection, determined by the presence of immunoglobulin M, was only present in one case. In the remaining cases, PVB was considered to be a bystander with no or limited association to myocardial inflammation. In this study, adenovirus, enterovirus, and PVB were found to be rare causes of myocarditis. The detection of PVB in myocardial autopsy samples most likely represents a persistent infection with no or limited association with myocardial inflammation. The forensic investigation of myocardial inflammation demands a thorough examination, including special attention to non-viral causes and requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  16. Evaluation of ultrasound-assisted extraction as sample pre-treatment for quantitative determination of rare earth elements in marine biological tissues by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costas, M.; Lavilla, I.; Gil, S.; Pena, F.; Calle, I.; Cabaleiro, N. de la; Bendicho, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the determination of rare earth elements (REEs), i.e. Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in marine biological tissues by inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after a sample preparation method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is described. The suitability of the extracts for ICP-MS measurements was evaluated. For that, studies were focused on the following issues: (i) use of clean up of extracts with a C18 cartridge for non-polar solid phase extraction; (ii) use of different internal standards; (iii) signal drift caused by changes in the nebulization efficiency and salt deposition on the cones during the analysis. The signal drift produced by direct introduction of biological extracts in the instrument was evaluated using a calibration verification standard for bracketing (standard-sample bracketing, SSB) and cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts. Parameters influencing extraction such as extractant composition, mass-to-volume ratio, particle size, sonication time and sonication amplitude were optimized. Diluted single acids (HNO 3 and HCl) and mixtures (HNO 3 + HCl) were evaluated for improving the extraction efficiency. Quantitative recoveries for REEs were achieved using 5 mL of 3% (v/v) HNO 3 + 2% (v/v) HCl, particle size <200 μm, 3 min of sonication time and 50% of sonication amplitude. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation from three independent extractions, ranged from 0.1 to 8%. In general, LODs were improved by a factor of 5 in comparison with those obtained after microwave-assisted digestion (MAD). The accuracy of the method was evaluated using the CRM BCR-668 (mussel tissue). Different seafood samples of common consumption were analyzed by ICP-MS after UAE and MAD.

  17. HOW IN-STORE MARKETING AFFECTS PURCHASE AND SALESMAN’S RECOMMENDATION RATE IN TELECOM RETAIL STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melik Karabıyıkoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors study in-store marketing for telecom retail stores in GSM sector in Turkey which handset manufacturers practice special application in stores for increasing purchasing and improving suggestion rates of their products. They develop a theoretical model of dealers, and manufacturers behavior based on observations about key aspects of the mobile phone market. The analysis provides important insights about in-store marketing and their applications. For example, owner of the store and salesmen would like to support in-store marketing applications of manufacturers in spite of operators’s in-store rules. The authors find empirical support when they test the theoretical results.

  18. Comparison of pinniped and cetacean prey tissue lipids with lipids of their elasmobranch predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bruce; Cliff, Geremy

    2014-01-01

    The great white shark is known to include pinnipeds and cetaceans in its diet. Both groups of marine mammals deposit thick blubber layers around their bodies. Elasmobranchs do not produce adipose tissue, but rather store lipid in their livers, thus a great white predating on a marine mammal will deposit the lipids in its liver until required. Samples from great white liver and muscle, Cape fur seal, Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin and common dolphin liver, muscle and blubber were analyzed for their lipid and fatty acid profiles. The great white liver and marine mammal blubber samples showed a considerable degree of homogeneity, but there were significant differences when comparing between the muscle samples. Blubber from all three marine mammal species was calculated to provide greater than 95% of lipid intake for the great white shark from the tissues analyzed. Sampling of prey blubber may give a good indication of the lipids provided to the shark predator.

  19. Preservation of Multiple Mammalian Tissues to Maximize Science Return from Ground Based and Spaceflight Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungshin; Ray, Hami E; Lai, San-Huei; Alwood, Joshua S; Globus, Ruth K

    2016-01-01

    Even with recent scientific advancements, challenges posed by limited resources and capabilities at the time of sample dissection continue to limit the collection of high quality tissues from experiments that can be conducted only infrequently and at high cost, such as in space. The resources and time it takes to harvest tissues post-euthanasia, and the methods and duration of long duration storage, potentially have negative impacts on sample quantity and quality, thereby limiting the scientific outcome that can be achieved. The goals of this study were to optimize methods for both sample recovery and science return from rodent experiments, with possible relevance to both ground based and spaceflight studies. The first objective was to determine the impacts of tissue harvest time post-euthanasia, preservation methods, and storage duration, focusing on RNA quality and enzyme activities in liver and spleen as indices of sample quality. The second objective was to develop methods that will maximize science return by dissecting multiple tissues after long duration storage in situ at -80°C. Tissues of C57Bl/6J mice were dissected and preserved at various time points post-euthanasia and stored at -80°C for up to 11 months. In some experiments, tissues were recovered from frozen carcasses which had been stored at -80°C up to 7 months. RNA quantity and quality was assessed by measuring RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values using an Agilent Bioanalyzer. Additionally, the quality of tissues was assessed by measuring activities of hepatic enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase and GAPDH). Fresh tissues were collected up to one hour post-euthanasia, and stored up to 11 months at -80°C, with minimal adverse effects on the RNA quality of either livers or RNAlater-preserved spleens. Liver enzyme activities were similar to those of positive controls, with no significant effect observed at any time point. Tissues dissected from frozen carcasses that had been stored for up to 7

  20. Improving detection probabilities for pests in stored grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmouttie, David; Kiermeier, Andreas; Hamilton, Grant

    2010-12-01

    The presence of insects in stored grain is a significant problem for grain farmers, bulk grain handlers and distributors worldwide. Inspection of bulk grain commodities is essential to detect pests and thereby to reduce the risk of their presence in exported goods. It has been well documented that insect pests cluster in response to factors such as microclimatic conditions within bulk grain. Statistical sampling methodologies for grain, however, have typically considered pests and pathogens to be homogeneously distributed throughout grain commodities. In this paper, a sampling methodology is demonstrated that accounts for the heterogeneous distribution of insects in bulk grain. It is shown that failure to account for the heterogeneous distribution of pests may lead to overestimates of the capacity for a sampling programme to detect insects in bulk grain. The results indicate the importance of the proportion of grain that is infested in addition to the density of pests within the infested grain. It is also demonstrated that the probability of detecting pests in bulk grain increases as the number of subsamples increases, even when the total volume or mass of grain sampled remains constant. This study underlines the importance of considering an appropriate biological model when developing sampling methodologies for insect pests. Accounting for a heterogeneous distribution of pests leads to a considerable improvement in the detection of pests over traditional sampling models. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.