WorldWideScience

Sample records for storing co2 capter

  1. CO2 store: the Valleys case study on CO2 capture, transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report summarises results of a study of the potential to capture and store underground the emissions from the proposed Valleys power plant, a 450MW IGCC plant, fuelled by a mixture of petroleum coke (petcoke) and locally mined anthracite, to be constructed at Onllwyn, near Drym, in the South Wales Coalfield. The study is based upon 85% of the total carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, approximately 2.45 million tonnes of CO 2 per year, being captured annually from the Valleys power plant, compressed to 110bar pressure and sent by pipeline for storage in an underground geological reservoir. Fitted for CO 2 capture, the net output of the power plant would be 400MW. Feedstock utilisation would be around 1.05Mt/year based on an annual load factor for the gasification plant of 87.5%. The plant would be economically viable providing carbon credits of 20 Euros per tonne of CO 2 avoided were available, e.g. from the European Union (EU) Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). This is approximately the current price of EU ETS credits at the time of writing. The CO 2 would be captured pre-combustion, using a physical solvent process. The pipeline would be constructed of carbon steel and would consist of an onshore leg of around 90km and an offshore leg of around 45km. Pipeline capital costs are assessed at between 50-70MEuros. Annual pipeline operation and maintenance costs are assessed as 3% of the capital cost, at around 1.8MEuros. Geological investigations demonstrated that the opportunities for geological storage of CO 2 in the Welsh coalfield and the Bristol Channel are limited, and the best potential for a geological CO 2 storage site for the CO 2 captured from the Valleys power plant is in the St George's Channel Basin (SGCB), off the NW coast of Pembrokeshire. An outline risk assessment of CO 2 storage at this site was undertaken. The reservoir consists of relatively thin fluvial sands that occur near the base of the Cainozoic succession. The distribution of these sands in 3

  2. Legal aspects of storing CO2. Update and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-21

    CO2 emissions from energy production and consumption are a major contributor to climate change. Thus, stabilising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere by reducing these emissions is an increasingly urgent international necessity. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) represents one of the most promising potential solutions to contain emissions resulting from continued use of coal and other fossil fuels. However, challenges such as a lack of legal and regulatory frameworks to guide near-term demonstration projects and long-term technology expansion must be addressed to facilitate the expanded use of CCS. In October 2006, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) convened with legal experts,to discuss the range of legal issues associated with expanded use of CCS and to identify ways to facilitate further CCS development and implementation Participants examined gaps and barriers to the deployment of CCS and identified recommendations to guide further development of appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks. This publication provides policymakers with a detailed summary of the main legal issues surrounding the CCS debate, including up-to-date background information, case studies and conclusions on the best legal and regulatory approaches to advance CCS. These strategies can be used to enable further development, deployment and demonstration of CCS technology, potentially an essential element in global efforts to mitigate climate change.

  3. Can Producing Oil Store Carbon? Greenhouse Gas Footprint of CO2EOR, Offshore North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R Jamie; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2015-05-05

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields while permanently storing large tonnages of injected CO2. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, there are currently no CO2EOR projects in the United Kingdom. Here, we examine whether offshore CO2EOR can store more CO2 than onshore projects traditionally have and whether CO2 storage can offset additional emissions produced through offshore operations and incremental oil production. Using a high-level Life Cycle system approach, we find that the largest contribution to offshore emissions is from flaring or venting of reproduced CH4 and CO2. These can already be greatly reduced by regulation. If CO2 injection is continued after oil production has been optimized, then offshore CO2EOR has the potential to be carbon negative--even when emissions from refining, transport, and combustion of produced crude oil are included. The carbon intensity of oil produced can be just 0.056-0.062 tCO2e/bbl if flaring/venting is reduced by regulation. This compares against conventional Saudi oil 0.040 tCO2e/bbl or mined shale oil >0.300 tCO2e/bbl.

  4. Storing CO2 under the North Sea Basin - A key solution for combating climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogen, T; Morris, B; Agerup, M; Svenningsen, S Oe; Kropelien, K F; Solheim, M; Northmore, B; Dixon, T; O'Carroll, K; Greaves, A; Golder, J; Selmer-Olsen, S; Sjoeveit, A; Kaarstad, O; Riley, N; Wright, I; Mansfield, C

    2007-06-01

    This report represents the first deliverable of the North Sea Basin Task Force, which Norway and the UK established in November 2005 to work together on issues surrounding the transport and storage of CO 2 beneath the North Sea. The North Sea represents the best geological opportunity for storing our CO 2 emissions away from the atmosphere for both the UK and Norway

  5. CO2 -dependent metabolic modulation in red blood cells stored under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Larry J; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic red blood cell (RBC) storage reduces oxidative damage, maintains adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels, and has superior 24-hour recovery at 6 weeks compared to standard storage. This study will determine if removal of CO2 during O2 depletion by gas exchange may affect RBCs during anaerobic storage. This is a matched three-arm study (n = 14): control, O2 and CO2 depleted with Ar (AN), and O2 depleted with 95%Ar/5%CO2 (AN[CO2 ]). RBCs in additives AS-3 or OFAS-3 were evenly divided into three bags, and anaerobic conditions were established by gas exchange. Bags were stored at 1 to 6°C in closed chambers under anaerobic conditions or ambient air, sampled weekly for up to 9 weeks for a panel of in vitro tests. A full metabolomics screening was conducted for the first 4 weeks of storage. Purging with Ar (AN) results in alkalization of the RBC and increased glucose consumption. The addition of 5% CO2 to the purging gas prevented CO2 loss with an equivalent starting and final pH and lactate to control bags (p > 0.5, Days 0-21). ATP levels are higher in AN[CO2 ] (p CO2 ] arms (p = 0.6). Maintenance of ATP in the AN[CO2 ] arm demonstrates that ATP production is not solely a function of the pH effect on glycolysis. CO2 in anaerobic storage prevented the maintenance of DPG, and DPG production appears to be pH dependent. CO2 as well as O2 depletion provides metabolic advantage for stored RBCs. © 2015 AABB.

  6. Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Vivak

    2014-06-30

    The USA is embarking upon tackling the serious environmental challenges posed to the world by greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). The dimension of the problem is daunting. In fact, according to the Energy Information Agency, nearly 6 billion metric tons of CO2 were produced in the USA in 2007 with coal-burning power plants contributing about 2 billion metric tons. To mitigate the concerns associated with CO2 emission, geological sequestration holds promise. Among the potential geological storage sites, unmineable coal seams and shale formations in particular show promise because of the probability of methane recovery while sequestering the CO2. However. the success of large-scale sequestration of CO2 in coal and shale would hinge on a thorough understanding of CO2's interactions with host reservoirs. An important parameter for successful storage of CO2 reservoirs would be whether the pressurized CO2 would remain invariant in coal and shale formations under reasonable internal and/or external perturbations. Recent research has brought to the fore the potential of induced seismicity, which may result in caprock compromise. Therefore, to evaluate the potential risks involved in sequestering CO2 in Illinois bituminous coal seams and shale, we studied: (i) the mechanical behavior of Murphysboro (Illinois) and Houchin Creek (Illinois) coals, (ii) thermodynamic behavior of Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ≤ T ≤ 300oC, (iii) how high pressure CO2 (up to 20.7 MPa) modifies the viscosity of the host, (iv) the rate of emission of CO2 from Illinois bituminous coal and shale cores if the cores, which were pressurized with high pressure (≤ 20.7 MPa) CO2, were exposed to an atmospheric pressure, simulating the development of leakage pathways, (v) whether there are any fractions of CO2 stored in these hosts which are resistance to emission by simply exposing the cores to atmospheric pressure, and (vi) how compressive shockwaves applied to the coal and

  7. Capturing and storing CO2 to combat the greenhouse effect. What IFP is doing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The growing awareness of the international community and the convergence of the scientific data concerning climate change make it urgent to deploy, throughout the world, technologies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Indeed, the growth of the world energy demand will prevent any rapid reduction of the use of fossil fuels - oil, natural gas, and coal - that are the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions. To reconcile the use of these resources with control of the emissions responsible for global warming, the capture and storage of CO 2 are a very promising approach; the economic and industrial stakes are high. To meet the objective of reducing CO 2 emissions, IFP is exploring three approaches: The first approach is to reduce energy consumption by improving the efficiency of energy converters, in particular internal combustion engines. A second approach is to reduce the carbon content of energy by favoring the use of natural gas or by incorporating in the fuel recycled carbon (biofuels and synfuels) and by developing hydrogen as an energy carrier. The third approach is to capture the CO 2 from industrial processes used for electricity, steel, and cement production, which emit it in large quantities, then store it underground so as to keep it out of the atmosphere. This approach for reducing the CO 2 emissions consists in capturing the CO 2 (Post-combustion, oxy-combustion), transporting it to the place of storage, then injecting it underground to store it. Storage sites are selected and evaluated prior to injection in order to estimate the injectivity, the propagation of CO 2 in the subsoil and the impact of geochemical and geomechanical transformations on the tightness of the overburden and of the injection well. The injection phase is followed by a phase of monitoring to ensure the safety and long-term viability of CO 2 storage facilities. IFP, through the research it is conducting either alone or in partnership with universities, research centers, and the

  8. Toward physical aspects affecting a possible leakage of geologically stored CO2 into the shallow subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens Olaf; Görke, Uwe Jens

    2014-01-01

    In geological formations, migration of CO2 plume is very complex and irregular. To make CO2 capture and storage technology feasible, it is important to quantify CO2 amount associated with possible leakage through natural occurring faults and fractures in geologic medium. Present work examines...

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 and trace ethylene present throughout the storage season on the processing colour of stored potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels-Lake, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous short-term trials (9-week duration) have shown that the fry colour of stored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) can be negatively affected by simultaneous exposure to elevated CO2 plus a trace concentration of ethylene gas. In the present study, trials were conducted during each of two storage

  10. ULtimateCO2 : A FP7 European project dedicated to the understanding of the long term fate of geologically stored CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audigane, P.; Brown, S.; Dimier, A.; Frykman, P.; Gherardi, F.; Gallo, Y.L.; Maurand, N.; Cremer, H.; Pearce, J.; Rütters, H.; Spiers, C.; Yalamas, T.

    2013-01-01

    ULTimateCO2 will assess the long-term CO2 storage behaviour in terms of efficiency and security. The project is dedicated to studying the main physical processes needed to develop a better, quantitative understanding of the longterm geological storage of CO2, namely: (i) reservoir trapping, (ii)

  11. Coupled LBM-DEM Three-phase Simulation on Seepage of CO2 Stored under the Seabed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Y.; Sato, T.

    2017-12-01

    Concerning the seepage of CO2 stored in a subsea formation, CO2 bubble/droplet rises to the sea-surface dissolving into the seawater, and the acidification of local seawater will be a problem. Previous research indicated that seepage rate and bubble size significantly affect its behaviour (Kano et al., 2009; Dewar et al., 2013). On the other hand, Kawada's experiments (2014) indicated that grain size affects formation of gas channels and bubbles through granular media. CO2 seepage through marine sediments probably shows similar behaviour. Additionally, such mobilisation and displacement of sand grains by gas migration may also cause capillary fracturing of CO2 in the reservoir and seal. To predict these phenomena, it is necessary to reveal three-phase behaviour of gas-water-sediment grains. We built gas-liquid-solid three-phase flow 3D simulator by coupling LBM-DEM program, and simulation results showed that the mobilisation of sand grain forms gas channels and affects bubble formation compared with that through solid porous media (Kano and Sato, 2017). In this presentation, we will report simulation results on effects of porosity, grain size and gas flow rate on the formation of gas channels and bubble and their comparison with laboratory experimental data. The results indicate that porosity and grain size of sand gravels affect the width of formed gas channels and resulting formed bubble size on the order of supposed seepage rate in the CO2 storage and that in most of experiment's conditions. References: Abe, S., Place, D., Mora, P., 2004. Pure. Appl. Geophys., 161, 2265-2277. (accessed Aug 01, 2017). Dewar, M., Wei, W., McNeil, D., Chen, B., 2013. Marine Pollution Bulletin 73(2), 504-515. Kano, Y., Sato, T., Kita, J., Hirabayashi, S., Tabeta, S., 2009. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol. 3(5), 617-625. Kano, Y. and Sato, T., 2017. In Proceeding of GHGT-13, Lausanne, Switzerland, Nov. 14-18, 2016. Kawada, R. 2014. Graduation thesis. Faculty of Engineering, The

  12. Feasibility of storing CO2 in the Utsira formation as part of a long term Dutch CCS strategy. An evaluation based on a GIS/MARKAL toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, M.A.; Ramirez-Ramirez, A.; Turkenburg, W.; Faaij, A; Groenenberg, H.; Neele, F.P.; Viebahn, P.

    2009-09-01

    This study provides insight into the feasibility of a CO2 trunkline from the Netherlands to the Utsira formation in the Norwegian part of the North Sea, which is a large geological storage reservoir for CO2. The feasibility is investigated in competition with CO2 storage in onshore and near-offshore sinks in the Netherlands. Least-cost modelling with a MARKAL model in combination with ArcGIS was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of the trunkline as part of a Dutch greenhouse gas emission reduction strategy for the Dutch electricity sector and CO2 intensive industry. The results show that under the condition that a CO2 permit price increases from 25 euro per tCO2 in 2010 to 60 euro per tCO2 in 2030, and remains at this level up to 2050, CO2 emissions in the Netherlands could reduce with 67% in 2050 compared to 1990, and investment in the Utsira trunkline may be cost-effective from 2020-2030 provided that Belgian and German CO2 is transported and stored via the Netherlands as well. In this case, by 2050 more than 2.1 GtCO2 would have been transported from the Netherlands to the Utsira formation. However, if the Utsira trunkline is not used for transportation of CO2 from Belgium and Germany, it may become cost-effective 10 years later, and less than 1.3 GtCO2 from the Netherlands would have been stored in the Utsira formation by 2050. On the short term, CO2 storage in Dutch fields appears more cost-effective than in the Utsira formation, but as yet there are major uncertainties related to the timing and effective exploitation of the Dutch offshore storage opportunities.

  13. A Natural Analogue Approach for Discriminating Leaks of CO2 Stored Underground Using Groundwater Geochemistry Statistical Methods, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Koo Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage (CCS is one of several useful strategies for capturing greenhouse gases to counter global climate change. In CCS, greenhouse gases such as CO2 that are emitted from stacks are isolated in underground geological storage. Natural analogue studies that can provide insights into possible geological CO2 storage sites, can deliver crucial information about the safety and security of geological sequestration, the long-term impact of CO2 storage on the environment, and the field operation and monitoring requirements for geological sequestration. This study adopted a probability density function (PDF approach for CO2 leakage monitoring by characterizing naturally occurring CO2-rich groundwater as an analogue that can occur around a CO2 storage site due to CO2 dissolving into fresh groundwater. Two quantitative indices, (QItail and QIshift, were estimated from the PDF test and were used to compare CO2-rich and ordinary groundwaters. Key geochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, HCO3−, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SiO2 in different geological regions of South Korea were determined through a comparison of quantitative indices and the respective distribution patterns of the CO2-rich and ordinary groundwaters.

  14. Preliminary investigation on the chemical response of cementitious grouts used for borehole sealing in geologically stored CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoukos, Konstantinos; Hall, Matthew; Rochelle, Christopher; Milodowski, Antoni; Rigby, Sean

    2014-05-01

    The successful geological storage of CO2 in underground reservoirs aims to immobilize the injected CO2 stream in the form of secondary minerals through reaction with primary minerals or pore fluids in the host rock formations. Injection wells and other boreholes within the reservoir represent a major potential pathway for CO2 to leak back to the surface. Therefore, the stability of well seals is a critical factor for the risk assessment of existing and the design of new CO2 injection wells. Cement-based grouts emplaced within the steel borehole liner, and between the liner and the rock formation, must seal the well against leakage, both during the CO2 injection stage and for a significant time after well abandonment, to allow for the CO2 to be immobilized though rock-water interaction in the reservoir. The injected super-critical CO2 (scCO2) experiences temperatures up to 180oC and pressures at depths greater than 800m, and when dissolved in rock formation waters create chemically reactive species that could impact the stability of cement seals. In an attempt to evaluate the impact of scCO2-saturated fluids in class G oilfield grouts, batch experiments at 80bar and 60oC/ 120oC were carried for pure cement and cement-steel cylindrical samples immersed in a realistic formation porewater composition. Destructive and healing features were observed by means of backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSE) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) elemental mapping; both phenomena were evident in Ca leaching from, and deposition on, the surface of the samples, respectively. Structural cement components like Si appear to have retained their original particle-like shape in the regions affected by the CO2 in the 60oC experiments, but their preservation at 120oC is vaguer. The liberation of Ca2+ from the hydrated cement particles (indicated by local decrease of the Ca/Si ratio), and the reactions with the incoming carbonate/bicarbonate anions seem to evolve

  15. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2 atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The combined effect of CO2 and ethylene sprout inhibitor on the fry colour of stored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels-Lake, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the darkening of potato processing colour attributable to a trace concentration of ethylene gas is more severe when CO2 is also elevated. In view of the increasing use of ethylene gas for sprout suppression in potato storage facilities, it was considered important to

  17. CO2 and O2 solubility and diffusivity data in food products stored in data warehouse structured by ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, Valérie; Buche, Patrice; Dibie, Juliette; Dervaux, Stéphane; Acerbi, Filippo; Chaix, Estelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Guillaume, Carole

    2016-06-01

    This data article contains values of oxygen and carbon dioxide solubility and diffusivity measured in various model and real food products. These data are stored in a public repository structured by ontology. These data can be retrieved through the @Web tool, a user-friendly interface to capitalise and query data. The @Web tool is accessible online at http://pfl.grignon.inra.fr/atWeb/.

  18. Kalundborg case study, a feasibility study of CO{sub 2} storage in onshore saline aquifers. CO2STORE[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Michael; Bech, N.; Bidstrup, T.; Christensen, Niels Peter; Vangkilde-Pedersen, T. [GEUS (Denmark); Biede, O. [ENERGI E2 (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The Danish case-study of the CO2STORE project comprises the potential future capture and underground storage of CO{sub 2} from two point sources. These are the coal fired power plant Asnaesvaerket and the Statoil refinery both located in the city of Kalundborg, Denmark. Initial mapping of the storage structure was conducted as part of the EU funded research project GESTCO that was concluded in 2003. The study identified a large underground structure forming a potential, future storage site 15 km to the northeast of the city. Porous sandstones filled with saline water at a depth of approximately 1.500 m form the reservoir. The structure covers approximately 160 km{sup 2} and a preliminary calculation suggests a storage capacity of nearly 900 million tonnes of CO2 equal to more than 150 years of CO{sub 2} emissions from the two point sources. In the Kalundborg case-study, a fictive capture and storage scenario will be formulated and modelled. The scenario is based on experiences learned through the SACS and GESTCO projects. Detailed geological modelling, reservoir simulation, reservoir and cap rock characterisation and risk assessment will be important issues for the case-study. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is project leader for the Kalundborg case-study. Information on CO{sub 2} emissions from the point sources and technical and economical input for the three scenarios is provided by the industrial partners; ENERGI E2 and Statoil ASA. The scenario is designed only for this case study and does not reflect the strategic plans of ENERGI E2 nor Statoil ASA. Geochemical simulation and modelling studies on reservoir and cap rock were performed at Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) in France. The CO2STORE project is performed within the European Community supported 5th Framework Programme. (au)

  19. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaitsi, Elsa; Magan, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. PMID:29462982

  20. Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following the introduction of Condensators, resistors and potentiometers from the Farnell electronic-catalogue into CERN Stores' catalogue, following products are now available: PRODUCT FAMILY GROUP SCEM Oscillators and quartz crystals 07.94.10 / 07.94.12 Diodes 08.51.14 / 08.51.54 Thyristors 08.51.60 / 08.51.66 Opto-electronics 08.52 Transistors 08.53 Integrated circuits 08.54 / 08.55 These articles can be procured in the same way as any other stores item, by completing a Material Request. N.B. Individual Farnell order codes can be used as keywords to facilitate searches in the CERN Stores Catalogue.

  1. Efeito de tratamentos com altas concentrações de CO2 sobre a qualidade de maçãs 'Golden delicious' armazenadas em atmosfera controlada Effect of treatment with high CO2 concentrations on quality of 'Golden delicious' apples stored in controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve por objetivo avaliar a influência das altas concentrações iniciais de CO2 sobre os aspectos físico-químicos de maçãs 'Golden Delicious' armazenadas em atmosfera controlada. Os tratamentos foram 10% de CO2 e 5% de O2 e 15% de CO2 e 5% de O2 durante 5, 10 e 15 dias, sendo que durante o restante do período de armazenamento os frutos foram armazenados em 4% de CO2 e 1,5% de O2, na temperatura de +0,5 °C e umidade relativa de 97%. Após 10 meses, não foi verificado diferenças significativas na firmeza de polpa, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis totais e controle de podridões. Na abertura das câmaras os tratamentos iniciais com CO2 não mostraram influência na degenerescência da polpa e escaldadura, porém, após 14 dias todos os tratamentos com CO2 aumentaram a incidência de degenerescência interna e tratamentos com 15% de CO2 diminuíram ligeiramente a ocorrência da escaldadura.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of initial high CO2 concentrations on quality of 'Golden Delicious' apples stored in controlled atmosphere. The treatments were 10% of CO2, and 5% of O2, and 15% of CO2, and 5% of O2, during 5, 10 and 15 days but during the remaining of storage time fruits were kept in 4% of CO2, and 1.5% of O2, at +0,5 °C and 97% RH. After 10 months, no diferences in firmness, total soluble solids contents, acidity and decay were observed. At opening of controlled atmosphere chambers CO2 treatment had no influence in internal breakdown and scald, but after 14 days in shelf-life. all treatments with high CO2 increased internal breakdown and 15% of CO2 decreased scald incidence.

  2. Soil Organic Matter Stores and Dynamics in a Chaparral Ecosystem After Eight Years of Exposure to a Gradient of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations, From pre-Industrial Level to 750 ppm

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Galdo, I.; Oechel, W. C.; Cotrufo, F.

    2004-12-01

    Due to the continuously increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, it has become a priority to understand if soil organic matter (SOM) will act as a sink or a source of CO2, under future environmental change. Although many studies have addressed the question, a clear answer, in particular on the long term response, is still missing. Here we report the results of an experiment where we quantified the soil C stores and investigated the dynamics of SOM, its aggregation and pool composition, in a Californian chaparral ecosystem, exposed to a gradient of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In the study site of Sky Oaks (Warner Springs, CA, USA), twelve closed chambers were installed in 1992, and for 8 years they were fumigated with different concentration of CO2, ranging from pre-industrial levels (250 ppm) to 750 ppm CO2, with step increments of 100 ppm. Fossil fuel-derived CO2, depleted in 13C, was used to fumigate the chambers, thus allowed to trace the C input from the vegetation to the soil at all levels of CO2 exposure. In January 2003, soil were sampled from each chamber and shipped to the SUN (Italy). Here, soil samples were separated by wet sieving into different classes of aggregates, namely, macroaggregates (>250μ m), microaggregates (53-250 μ m) and silt&clay (<53 μ m). Within macroaggregates, we isolated three different structural and functional pools: the coarse particulate organic matter (POM), the microaggregates and the occluded silt&clay. Lastly, a density floatation with Sodium Polytungstate allowed the separation of light fraction contained in the microaggregates from the intra and inter-POM. The isotope mixing-model approach was used to quantify the net C input from the vegetation to the soil along the entire gradient of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  3. CCS in the North Sea region: A comparison on the cost-effectiveness of storing CO2 in the Utsira formation at regional and national scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strachan, N.; Hoefnagels, R.; Ramirez, A.

    2011-01-01

    modelling at the national level (ensuring country-specific technical, economic and policy detail), and the regional level (ensuring transboundary electricity and CO2 trade). Analysis at alternate model scales investigates the full range of drivers on the feasibility and trade-offs in using the Utsira......The potential scale of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) under long-term decarbonisation scenarios means that analysis on the contribution of large international CO2 storage reservoirs is critical. This paper compares the potentially key role of CCS within cost-optimizing energy systems...... formation as a common North Sea CO2 storage resource. A robust finding is that low carbon electricity is a primary decarbonisation pathway and that CCS plays a key role (32–40%) within this portfolio. This paper confirms that the overall driver of the amount of CCS utilized is the climate policy...

  4. Experimental investigations and geochemical modelling of site-specific fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions in underground storage of CO2/H2/CH4 mixtures: the H2STORE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Pilz, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Underground gas storage is increasingly regarded as a technically viable option for meeting the energy demand and environmental targets of many industrialized countries. Besides the long-term CO2 sequestration, energy can be chemically stored in form of CO2/CH4/H2 mixtures, for example resulting from excess wind energy. A precise estimation of the impact of such gas mixtures on the mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical properties of specific reservoirs and caprocks is crucial for site selection and optimization of storage depth. Underground gas storage is increasingly regarded as a technically viable option for meeting environmental targets and the energy demand through storage in form of H2 or CH4, i.e. resulting from excess wind energy. Gas storage in salt caverns is nowadays a mature technology; in regions where favorable geologic structures such as salt diapires are not available, however, gas storage can only be implemented in porous media such as depleted gas and oil reservoirs or suitable saline aquifers. In such settings, a significant amount of in-situ gas components such as CO2, CH4 (and N2) will always be present, making the CO2/CH4/H2 system of particular interest. A precise estimation of the impact of their gas mixtures on the mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical properties of specific reservoirs and caprocks is therefore crucial for site selection and optimization of storage depth. In the framework of the collaborative research project H2STORE, the feasibility of industrial-scale gas storage in porous media in several potential siliciclastic depleted gas and oil reservoirs or suitable saline aquifers is being investigated by means of experiments and modelling on actual core materials from the evaluated sites. Among them are the Altmark depleted gas reservoir in Saxony-Anhalt and the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Brandenburg (Germany). Further sites are located in the Molasse basin in South Germany and Austria. In particular, two

  5. CO2 chemical valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Rakotojaona, Loic; Bucy, Jacques de; Clodic, Denis; Roger, Anne-Cecile; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Thybaud, Nathalie; Oeser, Christian; Forti, Laurent; Gimenez, Michel; Savary, David; Amouroux, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO 2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO 2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO 2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO 2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO 2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO 2 /t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO 2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO 2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an

  6. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  7. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  8. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  9. Toxic emissions and devaluated CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    with a climate policy whose goals of CO2-reduction were made operational by green-wash. Arguments are given for the devaluation of CO2- neutrality in case of burning wood. Alternative practices as storing C in high quality wood products and/or leaving wood in the forest are recommended. A counter...

  10. Effects of CO2 solubility on the long-term fate of CO2 sequestered in a saline aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Wees, J.D. van

    2006-01-01

    Sequestering CO2 in aquifers is an attractive option for reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. The success of CO2 sequestration during the Statoil Sleipner injection project proves that under the right conditions large volumes of CO2 can be stored in a water-bearing subsurface formation. In

  11. Clean Coal: myth or reality? At the heart of the energy-climate equation, capturing and storing CO2 - Proceedings of the 2007 Le Havre's international meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufenacht, Antoine; Brodhag, Christian; Mocilnikar, Antoine-Tristan; Bennaceur, Kamel; Esseid, Ablaziz; Lemoine, Stephane; Prevot, Henri; Diercks, Thorsten; Jaclot, Francois; Fache, Dominique; Coulon, Pierre-Jean; Capris, Renaud; TRANIE, Jean-Pascal; Le Thiez, Pierre; Marliave, Luc de; Perrin, Nicolas; Paelinck, Philippe; Clodic, Denis; Thabussot, Laurent; Alf, Martin; Boon, Gustaaf; Giger, Francois; Bisseaud, Jean-Michel; Michel, Patrick; Poyer, Luc; Biebuyck, Christian; Kalaydjian, Francois; Roulet, Claude; Bonijoly, Didier; Gresillon, Francois Xavier; Bonneville, Alain; Tauziede, Christian; Munier, Gilles; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Frois, Bernard; Charmant, Marcel; Thybaud, Nathalie; Fares, Tewfik; Lacave, Jean-Marc; Duret, Benoit; Gerard, Bernard

    2007-03-01

    This document comprises the French and English versions of the executive summary of the RIH 2007 meetings, followed by the available presentations (slides). Content: - Symposium Opening: Government and the Coal Issue; 1 - First Session - Energy, Climate, Coal: - Scenarios for energy technologies and CO 2 emissions: Energy outlooks, CO 2 emissions, Technologies (Kamel BENNACEUR); - The global situation of coal: The situation of the international steam coal market, Change in this market, Total's position in this business, Major challenges for the future (Ablaziz ESSEID); - Coal markets: availability, competitiveness, and growing maturity (Stephane LEMOINE); - Coal in the geopolitics of greenhouse gases (Henri PREVOT); - Questions; 2 - Second Session - Coal Economy: - Opportunities and challenges for coal in the European energy mix: the Commission's energy package: The European situation, The European energy mix, The role of EURACOAL (Thorsten DIERCKS); - The development of a coal bed in Lucenay-les-Aix and Cossaye in the Massif Central (Francois JACLOT); - The Russian view of coal's place in the energy mix (Dominique FACHE); - Coal, a key to development in Niger (Pierre-Jean COULON); - The energy and environmental efficiency of coal-fired power plants associated with heating networks (Renaud CAPRIS); - The Valorca project: efficient and immediate use of coal, and strong outlooks for the future (Jean-Pascal TRANIE); - Questions; 3 - Third and Forth Sessions - Clean Power Plants: - CO 2 capture systems (Pierre LE THIEZ); - CO 2 geological capture and storage in the Lacq basin (Luc de MARLIAVE); - Clean coal: Air Liquide technology developments and industrial solutions (Nicolas PERRIN); - Clean combustion and CO 2 (Philippe PAELINCK); - CO 2 capture by freezing/defrosting at low temperatures (Denis CLODIC); - Questions; - Using the experience of a large corporation (ENDESA), to develop clean energy: coal (Laurent THABUSSOT); - Pathways to reduce CO 2

  12. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003469.htm CO2 blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate ...

  13. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  14. CO2 storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Andersson, Annika; Kling, Aasa; Bernstone, Christian; Carlsson, Anders; Liljemark, Stefan; Wall, Caroline; Erstedt, Thomas; Lindroth, Maria; Tengborg, Per; Edstroem, Mikael

    2004-07-01

    This study considers options, that could be feasible for Sweden, to transport and geologically store CO 2 , providing that technology for electricity production with CO 2 capture will be available in the future and also acceptable from cost- and reliability point of view. As a starting point, it is assumed that a new 600-1000 MW power plant, fired with coal or natural gas, will be constructed with CO 2 capture and localised to the Stockholm, Malmoe or Goeteborg areas. Of vital importance for storage of carbon dioxide in a reservoir is the possibility to monitor its distribution, i.e. its migration within the reservoir. It has been shown in the SACS-project that the distribution of carbon dioxide within the reservoir can be monitored successfully, mainly by seismic methods. Suitable geologic conditions and a large storage potential seems to exist mainly in South West Scania, where additional knowledge on geology/hydrogeology has been obtained since the year 2000 in connection to geothermal energy projects, and in the Eastern part of Denmark, bordering on South West Scania. Storage of carbon dioxide from the Stockholm area should not be excluded, but more studies are needed to clarify the storage options within this area. The possibilities to use CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery, EOR, in i.a. the North Sea should be investigated, in order to receive incomes from the CO 2 and shared costs for infrastructure, and by this also make the CO 2 regarded as a trading commodity, and thereby achieving a more favourable position concerning acceptance, legal issues and regulations. The dimensions of CO 2 -pipelines should be similar to those for natural natural gas, although regarding some aspects they have different design and construction prerequisites. To obtain cost efficiency, the transport distances should be kept short, and possibilities for co-ordinated networks with short distribution pipelines connected to common main pipelines, should be searched for. Also, synergies

  15. Potential and economics of CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, Ph.; Orr, J.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2 . Some techniques could be used to reduced CO 2 emission and stabilize atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2 and to review the various options for CO 2 sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO 2 is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon-storing approach to agriculture, forests and land management could

  16. Avaliação da suculência e da solubilização de pectinas em maçãs 'gala' armazenadas em atmosfera controlada, em função de diferentes pressões parciais de O2 e CO2 Evaluation of juiciness and pectins solubilization in ‘Gala’ apples, stored in controlled atmosphere, in function of different partial pressures of O2 and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Lunardi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de pressões parciais de O2 e CO2 (1,0 kPa+2,5 kPa, 1,0 kPa+2,0 kPa, 0,8 kPa+2,0 kPa, 0,8 kPa+2,5 kPa e 20,8 kPa+0,03 kPa, respectivamente em maçãs `Gala´ (Malus domestica Baumg. armazenadas por 8 meses em atmosfera controlada (AC sobre a perda de suculência, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de pectina solúvel (PS e atividade das enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG. A temperatura de armazenamento foi de 0,5°C e umidade relativa do ar, em torno de 96%. Ao final do período em AC e mais 7 dias a 20°C, foram avaliadas a suculência, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de PS e atividades da PME e PG. As pressões parciais de 1,0 kPa de O2 + 2,0 kPa de CO2 e 0,8 kPa de O2 + 2,0 kPa de CO2 conferiram maior suculência após 8 meses em AC; e as maçãs mais firmes foram as mais suculentas, independente da concentração da atmosfera.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of O2 and CO2 partial pressures (1.0 kPa+2.5 kPa; 1.0 kPa+2.0 kPa; 0.8 kPa+2.0 kPa; 0.8 kPa+2.5 kPa and 20.8 kPa+0.03 kPa, respectively in apples `Gala´ (Malus domestica Baumg. stored by 8 months in controlled atmosphere (CA on the juiciness loss, flesh firmness, soluble pectin content (SPC and activities of pectinmethylesterase (PME and polygalacturonase (PG. The storage temperature was 0.5°C and relative humidities around 96%. At the end of the CA period in and 7 more days at 20°C were evaluated the juiciness, flesh firmness, SPC, PME and PG. The partial pressures of 1.0 kPa O2 and 2.0 kPa CO2 or 0.8 kPa O2 and 2.0 kPa CO2 were more juicy after 8 months in CA; firmer apples were more juicy independent by of the concentration of the atmosphere.

  17. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, Kristian; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Orr, Franklin M.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage

  18. CO2 Capture by Injection of Flue Gas or CO2-N2 Mixtures into Hydrate Reservoirs: Dependence of CO2 Capture Efficiency on Gas Hydrate Reservoir Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpouryouzband, Aliakbar; Yang, Jinhai; Tohidi, Bahman; Chuvilin, Evgeny; Istomin, Vladimir; Bukhanov, Boris; Cheremisin, Alexey

    2018-04-03

    Injection of flue gas or CO 2 -N 2 mixtures into gas hydrate reservoirs has been considered as a promising option for geological storage of CO 2 . However, the thermodynamic process in which the CO 2 present in flue gas or a CO 2 -N 2 mixture is captured as hydrate has not been well understood. In this work, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of CO 2 capture efficiency on reservoir conditions. The CO 2 capture efficiency was investigated at different injection pressures from 2.6 to 23.8 MPa and hydrate reservoir temperatures from 273.2 to 283.2 K in the presence of two different saturations of methane hydrate. The results showed that more than 60% of the CO 2 in the flue gas was captured and stored as CO 2 hydrate or CO 2 -mixed hydrates, while methane-rich gas was produced. The efficiency of CO 2 capture depends on the reservoir conditions including temperature, pressure, and hydrate saturation. For a certain reservoir temperature, there is an optimum reservoir pressure at which the maximum amount of CO 2 can be captured from the injected flue gas or CO 2 -N 2 mixtures. This finding suggests that it is essential to control the injection pressure to enhance CO 2 capture efficiency by flue gas or CO 2 -N 2 mixtures injection.

  19. CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  20. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based...... on 3.8 billion GPS records from 16 thousand cars and 198 million records from 218 cars annotated with fuel consumption data, respectively. The fuel consumption estimates from the system are validated using fuel-pump data. We find that estimates have good accuracy, i.e., are generally within 10......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  1. Comparison of Dry Gas Seasonal Storage with CO2 Storage and Re-Use Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Killerud, Marie

    2013-01-01

    To make large-scale CO2 storage economic, many groups have proposed using CO2in EOR projects to create value for CO2 storage. However, CO2 EOR projectsgenerally require a large and variable supply of CO2 and consequently may requiretemporary storage of CO2 in geological formations. In order to store CO2 atoffshore sites as a source for CO2 EOR projects, the CO2 needs to be extractedfrom a storage site to a certain extent. Alternatively, CO2 EOR projects maybe developed alongside saline aquife...

  2. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...

  3. CO2-neutral fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  4. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  5. Shelf life of case-ready beef steaks (Semitendinosus muscle) stored in oxygen-depleted master bag system with oxygen scavengers and CO2/N2 modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbo, S; Uboldi, E; Adobati, A; Iametti, S; Bonomi, F; Mascheroni, E; Santagostino, S; Powers, T H; Franzetti, L; Piergiovanni, L

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the stability of beef from Semitendinosus muscle packaged in oxygen permeable wrapped-tray units and stored in a master bag system, with and without oxygen scavengers. Changes in the atmosphere composition, microbiological indexes, myoglobin forms and color parameters were monitored during the storage in master bag, blooming and display life. The presence of scavengers reduced rapidly the oxygen concentration and maintained it at values not detectable instrumentally. Within few days of storage in master bags, the resolution of the transient discoloration was completed and the meat quality was maintained over the anoxic storage. After the removal from master bags meat bloomed completely reaching OxyMb level and Chroma values higher than those on fresh meat at t(0). During 48 h of display life at 4 °C, quality attributes had a decay slower than samples stored traditionally in air. Without scavengers the oxygen caused the irreversible discoloration within 7 days, due to the formation of metmyoglobin on the surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  7. CO2 storage capacity calculations for the Dutch subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Yavuz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the capacity of a geological formation to store CO2 is not a straightforward or simple process. Bradshaw [1] has recently listed various estimations for both regional and global CO2 storage capacity. The estimations were quoted as "very large" with ranges for the estimates in the order of

  8. Recycling CO 2 ? Computational Considerations of the Activation of CO 2 with Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Drees, Markus

    2012-08-10

    Faced with depleting fossil carbon sources, the search for alternative energy carriers and energy storage possibilities has become an important issue. Nature utilizes carbon dioxide as starting material for storing sun energy in plant hydrocarbons. A similar approach, storing energy from renewable sources in chemical bonds with CO 2 as starting material, may lead to partial recycling of CO 2 created by human industrial activities. Unfortunately, currently available routes for the transformation of CO 2 involve high temperatures and are often not selective. With the development of more sophisticated methods and better software, theoretical studies have become both increasingly widespread and useful. This concept article summarizes theoretical investigations of the current state of the feasibility of CO 2 activation with molecular transition metal catalysts, highlighting the most promising reactions of CO 2 with olefins to industrially relevant acrylic acid/acrylates, and the insertion of CO 2 into metal-element bonds, particularly for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates and polymers. Rapidly improving computational power and methods help to increase the importance and accuracy of calculations continuously and make computational chemistry a useful tool helping to solve some of the most important questions for the future. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-01-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  10. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on soil CO2 efflux in a young longleaf pine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Brett Runion; John R. Butnor; S. A. Prior; R. J. Mitchell; H. H. Rogers

    2012-01-01

    The southeastern landscape is composed of agricultural and forest systems that can store carbon (C) in standing biomass and soil. Research is needed to quantify the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on terrestrial C dynamics including CO2 release back to the atmosphere and soil sequestration. Longleaf...

  11. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  12. What does CO2 geological storage really mean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    It is now accepted that human activities are disturbing the carbon cycle of the planet. CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, has accumulated in the atmosphere where it contributes to climate change. Amongst the spectrum of short term measures that need to be urgently implemented to mitigate climate change, CO 2 capture and storage can play a decisive role as it could contribute 33% of the CO 2 reduction needed by 2050. This document aims to explain this solution by answering the following questions: where and how much CO 2 can we store underground, How can we transport and inject large quantities of CO 2 , What happens to the CO 2 once in the storage reservoir? Could CO 2 leak from the reservoir and if so, what might be the consequences? How can we monitor the storage site at depth and at the surface? What safety criteria need to be imposed and respected? (A.L.B.)

  13. On-board co2 capture and storage with metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-17

    In general, this disclosure describes method of capturing and storing CO2 on a vehicle. The method includes contacting an vehicle exhaust gas with one or more of a first metal organic framework (MOF) composition sufficient to separate CO2 from the exhaust gas, contacting the separated CO2 with one or more of a second MOF composition sufficient to store the CO2 and wherein the one or more first MOF composition comprises one or more SIFSIX-n-M MOF and wherein M is a metal and n is 2 or 3. Embodiments also describe an apparatus or system for capturing and storing CO2 onboard a vehicle.

  14. India Co2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    created a balance in between the “developed” and developing countries. If India was producing the same amounts of emissions per capita as the it would have a total of 20 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions annually.

  15. CO2 interaction with geomaterials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, George D. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Al-Saidi, Wissam A. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Jordan, Kenneth D. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Voora, Vamsee, K. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Lopano, Christina L (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Myshakin, Eugene M. (URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA); Hur, Tae Bong (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Warzinski, Robert P. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Lynn, Ronald J. (URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA); Howard, Bret H. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-09-01

    This work compares the sorption and swelling processes associated with CO2-coal and CO2-clay interactions. We investigated the mechanisms of interaction related to CO2 adsortion in micropores, intercalation into sub-micropores, dissolution in solid matrix, the role of water, and the associated changes in reservoir permeability, for applications in CO2 sequestration and enhanced coal bed methane recovery. The structural changes caused by CO2 have been investigated. A high-pressure micro-dilatometer was equipped to investigate the effect of CO2 pressure on the thermoplastic properties of coal. Using an identical dilatometer, Rashid Khan (1985) performed experiments with CO2 that revealed a dramatic reduction in the softening temperature of coal when exposed to high-pressure CO2. A set of experiments was designed for -20+45-mesh samples of Argonne Premium Pocahontas No.3 coal, which is similar in proximate and ultimate analysis to the Lower Kittanning seam coal that Khan used in his experiments. No dramatic decrease in coal softening temperature has been observed in high-pressure CO2 that would corroborate the prior work of Khan. Thus, conventional polymer (or 'geopolymer') theories may not be directly applicable to CO2 interaction with coals. Clays are similar to coals in that they represent abundant geomaterials with well-developed microporous structure. We evaluated the CO2 sequestration potential of clays relative to coals and investigated the factors that affect the sorption capacity, rates, and permanence of CO2 trapping. For the geomaterials comparison studies, we used source clay samples from The Clay Minerals Society. Preliminary results showed that expandable clays have CO2 sorption capacities comparable to those of coal. We analyzed sorption isotherms, XRD, DRIFTS (infrared reflectance spectra at non-ambient conditions), and TGA-MS (thermal gravimetric analysis) data to compare the effects of various factors on CO2 trapping. In montmorillonite, CO

  16. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-07-20

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  17. Convergent Cenozoic CO2 history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, D. L.; Beerling, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The quality and quantity of Cenozoic CO2 records have increased significantly in the last decade. Gains in quality have come primarily from a fuller accounting of confounding factors; examples include soil respiration rates in the pedogenic carbonate method, alkalinity and seawater δ11B in the boron method, and cell size in the alkenone phytoplankton method. Previously, variability across Cenozoic CO2 estimates in a given time period sometimes exceeded an order of magnitude, but through these improvements variability has been reduced to a factor of two or less. Further improvements in the record can probably be facilitated by more robust quantification of statistical error, generation of CO2 estimates at single locations from multiple methods, and cross-calibration with Pleistocene ice-core CO2 records (Beerling & Royer, 2011, Nature Geoscience 4: 418-420). An improved Cenozoic CO2 record offers opportunities for better understanding Earth system processes. We provide one example related to climate sensitivity. We find a significant relationship between CO2 radiative forcing and global temperature during the Cenozoic, even after accounting for forcings related to solar evolution and paleogeographic changes. Although the calculations are based on simple assumptions and should be taken as provisional, the mean Cenozoic climate sensitivity (3 °C or higher per CO2 doubling) is similar to or higher than calculations for the present-day (~3 °C per CO2 doubling).

  18. 14CO2 in breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, J.L.; Lopez-Majano, V.

    1981-01-01

    The diagnosis of metabolic disorders can be made by detecting 14 CO 2 in the breath. This is possible because 14 CO 2 can label any organic compound without any deteriorations in the nature of the compound. This type of analysis is dependable, noninvasive and simple to perform with a scintillation counter. (orig.)

  19. The sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thiez, P.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO 2 , represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO 2 emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  20. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  1. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  2. Dynamics of CO2 in coal as a reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumder, S.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms, by which the coal seams sorb, retain and store gases needs, to be understood. The results presented in this thesis give an insight into the dynamics of CO2 and other flue gas components in coal that are related to operation feasibility of ECBM projects. The main issues relate to the permeability behavior and the flue gas/ CO2 sorption. The cleat network in coal seams provides the principal source of permeability for fluid flow. Understanding and predicting the cleat attributes...

  3. Industrial Applications Of Low-Power CO2 Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John P.

    1986-11-01

    Until recently, applications of carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers in industry have primarily used high-power laser systems for cutting and welding. Today, the most rapid growth rate is occuring in applications of small, sealed laser systems to soldering, wirestripping, marking, sealing, degating and slitting of a wide variety of materials. In the future, small CO2 laser based systems will be in use in shopping centers and department stores, and unit sales will be in the multiple thousands per year.

  4. Supported Catalysts for CO2 Methanation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Frontera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CO2 methanation is a well-known reaction that is of interest as a capture and storage (CCS process and as a renewable energy storage system based on a power-to-gas conversion process by substitute or synthetic natural gas (SNG production. Integrating water electrolysis and CO2 methanation is a highly effective way to store energy produced by renewables sources. The conversion of electricity into methane takes place via two steps: hydrogen is produced by electrolysis and converted to methane by CO2 methanation. The effectiveness and efficiency of power-to-gas plants strongly depend on the CO2 methanation process. For this reason, research on CO2 methanation has intensified over the last 10 years. The rise of active, selective, and stable catalysts is the core of the CO2 methanation process. Novel, heterogeneous catalysts have been tested and tuned such that the CO2 methanation process increases their productivity. The present work aims to give a critical overview of CO2 methanation catalyst production and research carried out in the last 50 years. The fundamentals of reaction mechanism, catalyst deactivation, and catalyst promoters, as well as a discussion of current and future developments in CO2 methanation, are also included.

  5. The effect of elevated CO2 on the vegetative and generative growth of Phalaenopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromwijk, J.A.M.; Meinen, E.; Dueck, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Phalaenopsis is a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant which absorbs and binds CO2 as malate during the night. During daytime the stomata close and the CO2 stored in the vacuole is released and used for photosynthesis. Because the CO2 taken up by CAM plants was assumed to be unaffected by the

  6. Compensation of CO2 emissions by air travels: an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardi F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several aircraft companies launched awareness campaigns, offering to their passenger the opportunity to known and also calculate their own per-capita CO2 emissions related to the flight they are going to make. Such campaigns permits to the passenger to pay a volunteer contribution in order to compensate their CO2 emissions. In this short communication, some programs undertaken by airline companies are showed. These initiatives are all characterized by a common denominator: the achievement of concrete, proved and verifiable results to compensate the aircraft CO2 emissions. Moreover, also a concrete case is reported as example: it is useful to show which is the per capita CO2 emission for a sample flight in Europe and, quantitatively, the amount of compensation measurements. Finally, this communication highlights on how the estimates of such measurements are usually miscalculated, considering that the capability of forest ecosystems to store CO2 are often underestimated.

  7. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  8. Carbon balance of CO2-EOR for NCNO classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lopez, Vanessa [The University of Texas at Austin; Gil-Egui, Ramon; Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana; Hovorka, Susan D

    2017-03-18

    The question of whether carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) constitutes a valid alternative for greenhouse gas emission reduction has been frequently asked by the general public and environmental sectors. Through this technology, operational since 1972, oil production is enhanced by injecting CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs in order displace the residual oil toward production wells in a solvent/miscible process. For decades, the CO2 utilized for EOR has been most commonly sourced from natural CO2 accumulations. More recently, a few projects have emerged where anthropogenic CO2 (A-CO2) is captured at an industrial facility, transported to a depleted oil field, and utilized for EOR. If carbon geologic storage is one of the project objectives, all the CO2 injected into the oil field for EOR could technically be stored in the formation. Even though the CO2 is being prevented from entering the atmosphere, and permanently stored away in a secured geologic formation, a question arises as to whether the total CO2 volumes stored in order to produce the incremental oil through EOR are larger than the CO2 emitted throughout the entire CO2-EOR process, including the capture facility, the EOR site, and the refining and burning of the end product. We intend to answer some of these questions through a DOE-NETL funded study titled “Carbon Life Cycle Analysis of CO2-EOR for Net Carbon Negative Oil (NCNO) Classification”. NCNO is defined as oil whose carbon emissions to the atmosphere, when burned or otherwise used, are less than the amount of carbon permanently stored in the reservoir in order to produce the oil. In this paper, we focus on the EOR site in what is referred to as a gate-to-gate system, but are inclusive of the burning of the refined product, as this end member is explicitly stated in the definition of NCNO. Finally, we use Cranfield, Mississippi, as a case study and come to the conclusion that the incremental oil produced is net carbon negative.

  9. Possible impacts of CO2 storage on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poremski, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the potential impacts of deep-sea carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration on the marine environment. The upper layers of oceans are currently saturated with CO 2 , while deeper ocean waters remain undersaturated. Arctic and Antarctic waters have higher uptake rates of CO 2 due to their lower temperatures. CO 2 deposited in Arctic and Antarctic waters sinks to the bottom of the ocean, and is then transported to equatorial latitudes, where stored amounts of CO 2 that are not fixed by biochemical processes will be released and enter the atmosphere again after a period of approximately 1000 years. Nearly 50 per cent of CO 2 fixation occurs as a result of phytoplankton growth, which is dependent on the availability of a range of nutrients, essential trace metals, and optimal physical conditions. Fertilization-induced CO 2 fixation in the sediments of southern oceans will result in nutrient depletion of bottom layers, which will in turn result in lower primary production levels at equatorial latitudes. Current modelling approaches to CO 2 injection assume that the injected CO 2 will dissolve in a plume extending 100 m around a riser. Retention times of several hundred years are anticipated. However, further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of CO 2 deep ocean storage technologies. Increased CO 2 uptake can also increase the formation of bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) acidification, decrease pH values, and inhibit the formation of biomass in addition to impacting on the calcification of many organisms. It was concluded that ocean storage by injection or deep storage is an untenable option at present due to the fact that the effects of excessive CO 2 in marine environments are not fully understood. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  10. CO2 capture-sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    CO 2 capture-sequestration could be an acceptable temporary solution for the abatement of greenhouse gas releases to the atmosphere, before the implementation of new carbon-free power generation means. This paper briefly summarizes the principles of this technology: capture (post-combustion, oxi-combustion, pre-combustion); CO 2 transport and sequestration (deep saline aquifers, injection in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs, injection in abandoned coal seams); examples of operations in progress

  11. Sequestering CO2 in the Ocean: Options and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Caldeira, K.

    2002-12-01

    The likelihood of negative climate and environmental impacts associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 has prompted serious consideration of various CO2 mitigation strategies. Among these are methods of capturing and storing of CO2 in the ocean. Two approaches that have received the most attention in this regard have been i) ocean fertilization to enhanced biological uptake and fixation of CO2, and ii) the chemical/mechanical capture and injection of CO2 into the deep ocean. Both methods seek to enhance or speed up natural mechanisms of CO2 uptake and storage by the ocean, namely i) the biological CO2 "pump" or ii) the passive diffusion of CO2 into the surface ocean and subsequent mixing into the deep sea. However, as will be reviewed, concerns about the capacity and effectiveness of either strategy in long-term CO2 sequestration have been raised. Both methods are not without potentially significant environmental impacts, and the costs of CO2 capture and injection (option ii) are currently prohibitive. An alternate method of ocean CO2 sequestration would be to react and hydrate CO2 rich waste gases (e.g., power plant flue gas) with seawater and to subsequently neutralize the resulting carbonic acid with limestone to produce calcium and bicarbonate ions in solution. This approach would simply speed up the CO2 uptake and sequestration that naturally (but very slowly) occurs via global carbonate weathering. This would avoid much of the increased acidity associated with direct CO2 injection while obviating the need for costly CO2 separation and capture. The addition of the resulting bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich solution to the ocean would help to counter the decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration, and hence loss of biological calcification that is presently occurring as anthropogenic CO2 invades the ocean from the atmosphere. However, as with any approach to CO2 mitigation, the costs, impacts, risks, and benefits of this method need to be better understood

  12. Foraminiferal calcification and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijer, L. D.; Toyofuku, T.; Reichart, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing burning of fossil fuels increases atmospheric CO2, elevates marine dissolved CO2 and decreases pH and the saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate. Intuitively this should decrease the ability of CaCO3-producing organisms to build their skeletons and shells. Whereas on geological time scales weathering and carbonate deposition removes carbon from the geo-biosphere, on time scales up to thousands of years, carbonate precipitation increases pCO2 because of the associated shift in seawater carbon speciation. Hence reduced calcification provides a potentially important negative feedback on increased pCO2 levels. Here we show that foraminifera form their calcium carbonate by active proton pumping. This elevates the internal pH and acidifies the direct foraminiferal surrounding. This also creates a strong pCO2 gradient and facilitates the uptake of DIC in the form of carbon dioxide. This finding uncouples saturation state from calcification and predicts that the added carbon due to ocean acidification will promote calcification by these organisms. This unknown effect could add substantially to atmospheric pCO2 levels, and might need to be accounted for in future mitigation strategies.

  13. The Value of CO2-Geothermal Bulk Energy Storage to Reducing CO2 Emissions Compared to Conventional Bulk Energy Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland-Hand, J.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Sedimentary basin geothermal resources and CO2 that is captured from large point sources can be used for bulk energy storage (BES) in order to accommodate higher penetration and utilization of variable renewable energy resources. Excess energy is stored by pressurizing and injecting CO2 into deep, porous, and permeable aquifers that are ubiquitous throughout the United States. When electricity demand exceeds supply, some of the pressurized and geothermally-heated CO2 can be produced and used to generate electricity. This CO2-BES approach reduces CO2 emissions directly by storing CO2 and indirectly by using some of that CO2 to time-shift over-generation and displace CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants that would have otherwise provided electricity. As such, CO2-BES may create more value to regional electricity systems than conventional pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) or compressed air energy storage (CAES) approaches that may only create value by time-shifting energy and indirectly reducing CO2 emissions. We developed and implemented a method to estimate the value that BES has to reducing CO2 emissions from regional electricity systems. The method minimizes the dispatch of electricity system components to meet exogenous demand subject to various CO2 prices, so that the value of CO2 emissions reductions can be estimated. We applied this method to estimate the performance and value of CO2-BES, PHES, and CAES within real data for electricity systems in California and Texas over the course of a full year to account for seasonal fluctuations in electricity demand and variable renewable resource availability. Our results suggest that the value of CO2-BES to reducing CO2 emissions may be as much as twice that of PHES or CAES and thus CO2-BES may be a more favorable approach to energy storage in regional electricity systems, especially those where the topography is not amenable to PHES or the subsurface is not amenable to CAES.

  14. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  15. ACCURACY OF CO2 SENSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2008-10-01

    Are the carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in your demand controlled ventilation systems sufficiently accurate? The data from these sensors are used to automatically modulate minimum rates of outdoor air ventilation. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements while adjusting the ventilation rate with changes in occupancy in order to save energy. Studies of energy savings from demand controlled ventilation and of the relationship of indoor CO2 concentrations with health and work performance provide a strong rationale for use of indoor CO2 data to control minimum ventilation rates1-7. However, this strategy will only be effective if, in practice, the CO2 sensors have a reasonable accuracy. The objective of this study was; therefore, to determine if CO2 sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. This article provides a summary of study methods and findings ? additional details are available in a paper in the proceedings of the ASHRAE IAQ?2007 Conference8.

  16. Effects of Elevated Soil Carbon dioxide (CO2) Concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Author of correspondence: 1Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin,. Benin City, Ugbowo Campus ... Detection (ASGARD) facility which controls CO2 injection into the soil. Eight plots (each 2.5 x ... potential for leakage of stored carbon dioxide to the ocean or ...

  17. Dynamics of CO2 in coal as a reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazumder, S.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms, by which the coal seams sorb, retain and store gases needs, to be understood. The results presented in this thesis give an insight into the dynamics of CO2 and other flue gas components in coal that are related to operation feasibility of ECBM projects. The main issues relate to the

  18. The CO2nnect activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  19. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  20. Nuclear power and CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, R.

    2005-01-01

    Temperatures in the atmosphere have risen by nearly one degree in the twentieth century. To contain changes in global climate and their consequences, worldwide emissions of CO 2 need to be curbed drastically in the future. Even if CO 2 emissions are not taken into account, nuclear power has no economic disadvantages compared to fossil fuels. On the basis of an amount of money per ton of carbon emitted, nuclear power is cheaper than coal and, in most cases, also than natural gas. Actually, the worldwide CO 2 problem and energy generation are part of the ongoing 'sustainability' debate. The following arguments, among others, used in the discussion show the sustainable character of nuclear power: - Comparison of the risks associated with major accidents for various sources of energy show nuclear power to be relatively free from hazard. - The introduction of fast breeders and other technical factors will make it possible to use nuclear fission as an important source of energy for many centuries. - The radiotoxicity of waste over very long periods of time can be influenced, for instance, by transmutation. The need to further develop CO 2 -free nuclear power has been recognized by many countries, among them Switzerland. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) works towards developing a new generation of nuclear power plants by 2030. It will be the symbiosis of the new types of reactors with today's modern plants which finally will establish CO 2 -free nuclear fission as a sustainable cornerstone of energy generation worldwide. That nuclear power has this potential for further development must be acknowledged generally. (orig.)

  1. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.; Zapatero, M. A.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.

    2007-01-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmailable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 refs

  2. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.

    2006-01-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref

  3. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Seleccion de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.

    2006-07-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref.

  4. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Selecci0n de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.; Zapatero, M. A.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.

    2007-09-18

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmailable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 refs.

  5. Fang CO2 med Aminosyrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    2010-01-01

    Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer.......Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer....

  6. Global energy / CO2 projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.

    1990-09-01

    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21 st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO 2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO 2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  7. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  8. CO2 blasting in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankerckhoven, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    Carbon dioxide blasting can be used during the lifetime of nuclear facilities to remove deposited contamination and reduce the dose to personnel during repair and maintenance. By contrast with conventional mechanical or chemical decontamination methods, it does not leave additional secondary wastes. During the process, liquid CO 2 is expanded and converted into dry snow which is compressed and extruded to form small dry ice pellets. These low temperature pellets are blasted at high speed in a stream of compressed air against the surface to be treated where the mechanical and thermal shock embrittles the contaminating layer and severs its bond with the surface. The dry ice sublimes into the atmosphere as CO 2 gas and the loosened contamination can be removed via a ventilation and filtration system. Some examples of the effective use of CO 2 blasting are given. They include decontamination of: a supercompactor used on radioactive waste drums; the walls and floors of a nuclear fuel fabrication plant; the vacuum vessel of the Joint European Torus, hot cells; a phosphate fertilizer plant contaminated by radium 226. (UK)

  9. Improving CO2 permeation and separation performance of CO2-philic polymer membrane by blending CO2 absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Hu, Leiqing; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-07-01

    To research effects of CO2 absorption capacity and type of CO2 absorbent on the CO2 separation and free-volume properties of facilitated transport membranes, two types of CO2 absorbents, namely monoethanolamine (MEA) and ionic liquids (ILs:[P66614][Triz] and [P66614][2-Op]), were adopted. The CO2 absorption capacities of MEA, [P66614][Triz] and [P66614][2-Op] were about 0.561 mol CO2 per mol, 0.95 mol CO2 per mol and 1.60 mol CO2 per mol, respectively. All mean free-volume hole radiuses of membranes decreased after blending CO2 absorbents. After polymer membrane blended with two ILs, number of free-volume hole increased, resulting in modest increase of the fractional free volume. Both CO2 permeability and selectivity increased after blending MEA and ILs. The increasing range of CO2 permeability corresponded with CO2 absorption capacity of CO2 absorbents, and membrane blending with [P66614][2-Op] showed the highest CO2 permeability of 672.1 Barrers at 25 °C. Pebax/PEGDME membrane blending with MEA obtained the highest CO2/H2 and CO2/CH4 selectivity at 17.8 and 20.5, respectively.

  10. Noble gas geochemistry to monitor CO2 geological storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafortune, St.

    2007-11-01

    According to the last IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report, a probability of 90 % can be now established for the responsibility of the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions for the global climate change observed since the beginning of the 20. century. To reduce these emissions and keep producing energy from coal, oil or gas combustions, CO 2 could be stored in geological reservoirs like aquifers, coal beds, and depleted oil or gas fields. Storing CO 2 in geological formations implies to control the efficiency and to survey the integrity of the storages, in order to be able to detect the possible leaks as fast as possible. Here, we study the feasibility of a geochemical monitoring through noble gas geochemistry. We present (1) the development of a new analytical line, Garodiox, developed to extract quantitatively noble gas from water samples, (2) the testing of Garodiox on samples from a natural CO 2 storage analogue (Pavin lake, France) and (3) the results of a first field work on a natural CO 2 accumulation (Montmiral, France). The results we obtain and the conclusions we draw, highlight the interest of the geochemical monitoring we suggest. (author)

  11. Impact of CO2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO2 Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliver, Djuna M.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2016-01-01

    -dependent results suggest a limited ability to predict the emerging dominant species for other CO 2 -exposed environments. This study improves the understanding of how a subsurface microbial community may respond to conditions expected from GCS and CO 2 leakage. This is the first step for understanding how a CO 2 -altered microbial community may impact injectivity, permanence of stored CO 2 , and subsurface water quality. Future work with microbial communities from new subsurface sites would increase the current understanding of this project. Additionally, incorporation of metagenomic methods would increase understanding of potential microbial processes that may be prevalent in CO 2 exposed environments.

  12. CO2 fixation as a residual product. New technology available

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ligt, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Face Foundation works for organisations and companies that take their responsibility seriously and don't want to contribute to Global Warming. By planting trees and conserving forest ecosystems via Face (Forests Absorbing Carbon dioxide Emission) they compensate for their CO2 emissions.The sustainable forests supported all over the world by Face absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide and store the carbon for a very long period, thus slowing down Global Warming. The extra CO2 sequestered in this way amounts to about 38 million of tons

  13. In situ carbonation of peridotite for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Peter B.; Matter, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    The rate of natural carbonation of tectonically exposed mantle peridotite during weathering and low-temperature alteration can be enhanced to develop a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. Natural carbonation of peridotite in the Samail ophiolite, an uplifted slice of oceanic crust and upper mantle in the Sultanate of Oman, is surprisingly rapid. Carbonate veins in mantle peridotite in Oman have an average 14C age of ≈26,000 years, and are not 30–95 million years old as previously believed. These data and reconnaissance mapping show that ≈104 to 105 tons per year of atmospheric CO2 are converted to solid carbonate minerals via peridotite weathering in Oman. Peridotite carbonation can be accelerated via drilling, hydraulic fracture, input of purified CO2 at elevated pressure, and, in particular, increased temperature at depth. After an initial heating step, CO2 pumped at 25 or 30 °C can be heated by exothermic carbonation reactions that sustain high temperature and rapid reaction rates at depth with little expenditure of energy. In situ carbonation of peridotite could consume >1 billion tons of CO2 per year in Oman alone, affording a low-cost, safe, and permanent method to capture and store atmospheric CO2.

  14. PEAT-CO2. Assessment of CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooijer, A.; Silvius, M.; Woesten, H.; Page, S.

    2006-12-01

    Forested tropical peatlands in SE Asia store at least 42,000 Megatonnes of soil carbon. This carbon is increasingly released to the atmosphere due to drainage and fires associated with plantation development and logging. Peatlands make up 12% of the SE Asian land area but account for 25% of current deforestation. Out of 27 million hectares of peatland, 12 million hectares (45%) are currently deforested and mostly drained. One important crop in drained peatlands is palm oil, which is increasingly used as a biofuel in Europe. In the PEAT-CO2 project, present and future emissions from drained peatlands were quantified using the latest data on peat extent and depth, present and projected land use and water management practice, decomposition rates and fire emissions. It was found that current likely CO2 emissions caused by decomposition of drained peatlands amounts to 632 Mt/y (between 355 and 874 Mt/y). This emission will increase in coming decades unless land management practices and peatland development plans are changed, and will continue well beyond the 21st century. In addition, over 1997-2006 an estimated average of 1400 Mt/y in CO2 emissions was caused by peatland fires that are also associated with drainage and degradation. The current total peatland CO2 emission of 2000 Mt/y equals almost 8% of global emissions from fossil fuel burning. These emissions have been rapidly increasing since 1985 and will further increase unless action is taken. Over 90% of this emission originates from Indonesia, which puts the country in 3rd place (after the USA and China) in the global CO2 emission ranking. It is concluded that deforested and drained peatlands in SE Asia are a globally significant source of CO2 emissions and a major obstacle to meeting the aim of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions, as expressed by the international community. It is therefore recommended that international action is taken to help SE Asian countries, especially Indonesia, to better conserve

  15. RODZAJE METOD SEKWESTRACJI CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia LUBAŃSKA

    Full Text Available Z pojęciem ochrony środowiska wiąże się bardzo szeroko w ostatnim czasie omawiane zagadnienie dotyczące ograniczenia emisji CO2. Konsekwencją globalnych zmian klimatu wywołanego przez ludzi jest wzrost stężenia atmosferycznego gazów cieplarnianych, które powodują nasilający się efekt cieplarniany. Wzrasta na świecie liczba ludności, a co za tym idzie wzrasta konsumpcja na jednego mieszkańca, szczególnie w krajach szeroko rozwiniętych gospodarczo. Protokół z Kioto ściśle określa działania jakie należy podjąć w celu zmniejszenia stężenia dwutlenku węgla w atmosferze. Pomimo maksymalnej optymalizacji procesu spalania paliw kopalnianych wykorzystywanych do produkcji energii, zastosowania odnawialnych źródeł energii zmiana klimatu jest nieunikniona i konsekwentnie będzie postępować przez kolejne dekady. Prognozuje się, że duże znaczenie odegra nowoczesna technologia, która ma za zadanie wychwycenie CO2 a następnie składowanie go w odpowiednio wybranych formacjach geologicznych (CCS- Carbon Capture and Storage. Eksperci są zgodni, że ta technologia w niedalekiej przyszłości stanie się rozwiązaniem pozwalającym ograniczyć ogromną ilość emisji CO2 pochodzącą z procesów wytwarzania energii z paliw kopalnych. Z analiz Raportu IPCC wynika, iż technologia CSS może się przyczynić do ok. 20% redukcji emisji dwutlenku węgla przewidzianej do 2050 roku [3]. Zastosowanie jej napotyka na wiele barier, nie tylko technologicznych i ekonomicznych, ale także społecznych. Inną metodą dającą ujemne źródło emisji CO2 jest możliwość wykorzystania obszarów leśnych o odpowiedniej strukturze drzewostanu. Środkiem do tego celu, oprócz ograniczenia zużycia emisjogennych paliw kopalnych (przy zachowaniu zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju może być intensyfikacja zalesień. Zwiększanie lesistości i prawidłowa gospodarka leśna należy do najbardziej efektywnych sposobów kompensowania

  16. Shifting terrestrial feedbacks from CO2 fertilization to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan; Canadell, Josep; Obersteiner, Michael; Piao, Shilong; Vautard, Robert; Sardans Jordi Sardans, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Humans are increasingly fertilizing the planet. Our activities are increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrogen inputs to ecosystems and global temperatures. Individually and combined, they lead to biospheric availability of carbon and nitrogen, enhanced metabolic activity, and longer growing seasons. Plants can consequently grow more and take up more carbon that can be stored in ecosystem carbon pools, thus enhancing carbon sinks for atmospheric CO2. Data on the increased strength of carbon sinks are, however, inconclusive: Some data (eddy covariance, short-term experiments on elevated CO2 and nutrient fertilization) suggest that biospheric carbon uptake is already effectively increasing but some other data suggest it is not, or are not general and conclusive (tree-ring, forest inventory). The combined land-ocean CO2 sink flux per unit of excess atmospheric CO2 above preindustrial levels declined over 1959-2012 by a factor of about 1/3, implying that CO2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO2. We will discuss the available data, and the discussion will drive us to revisit our projections for enhanced carbon sinks. We will reconsider the performance of the modulators of increased carbon uptake in a CO2 fertilized and warmed world: nutrients, climate, land use and pollution. Nutrient availability in particular plays a crucial role. A simple mass-balance approach indicates that limited phosphorus availability and the corresponding N:P imbalances can jointly reduce the projected future carbon storage by natural ecosystems during this century. We then present a new paradigm: we are shifting from a fertilization to a warming era. Compared to the historical period, future impacts of warming will be larger than the benefits of CO2 fertilization given nutrient limitations, management and disturbance (which reduces C stocks and thus sequestration potential) and because CO2 will decrease by 2050 in RCP2.6, meaning loss of CO2 fertilization, and CO2

  17. Prospective techno-economic and environmental assessment of carbon capture at a refinery and CO2 utilisation in polyol synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Dacosta, Cora; Van Der Spek, Mijndert; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Oregionni, Gabriel David; Skagestad, Ragnhild; Parihar, Prashant; Gokak, D. T.; Strømman, Anders Hammer; Ramirez, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    CO2 utilisation is gaining interest as a potential element towards a sustainable economy. CO2 can be used as feedstock in the synthesis of fuels, chemicals and polymers. This study presents a prospective assessment of carbon capture from a hydrogen unit at a refinery, where the CO2 is either stored,

  18. One strategy for estimating the potential soil carbon storage due to CO2 fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, K.G.; Bonani, G.

    1994-01-01

    Soil radiocarbon measurements can be used to estimate soil carbon turnover rates and inventories. A labile component of soil carbon has the potential to respond to perturbations such as CO 2 fertilization, changing climate, and changing land use. Soil carbon has influenced past and present atmospheric CO 2 levels and will influence future levels. A model is used to calculate the amount of additional carbon stored in soil because of CO 2 fertilization

  19. Intensive management modifies soil CO2 efflux in 6-year-old Pinus taeda L. stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Kurt Johnsen; Tom Stokes; Weinlang Lu

    2004-01-01

    Intensive forestry may reduce net CO2 emission into atmosphere by storing carbon in living biomass, dead organic matter and soil, and durable wood products. Because quantification of belowground carbon dynamics is important for reliable estimation of the carbon sequestered by intensively managed plantations, we examined soil CO2...

  20. IEA GHG Weyburn CO2 monitoring and storage project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an integrated overview of the results from over 50 individual technical research projects conducted under the auspices of the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas R and D Programme (International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas R and D Programme, http://www.ieagreen.org.uk). The overall project, called the IEA GHG Weyburn CO 2 Monitoring and Storage Project (IEA GHG Weyburn CO 2 Monitoring and Storage Project, http://www.ieagreen.org.uk), was created to predict and verify the ability of an oil reservoir to securely and economically store CO 2 . Research activities in the project were divided into four 'themes' that applied leading-edge science and engineering in geophysics, geomechanics, geochemistry, geology, reservoir engineering, risk assessment, and economics. (author)

  1. Alberta industrial synergy CO2 programs initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.

    1998-01-01

    The various industrial sectors within Alberta produce about 350,000 tonnes of CO 2 per day. This presentation was concerned with how this large volume and high concentration of CO 2 can be used in industrial and agricultural applications, because every tonne of CO 2 used for such purposes is a tonne that does not end up in the atmosphere. There is a good potential for an industrial synergy between the producers and users of CO 2 . The Alberta Industrial Synergy CO 2 Programs Initiative was established to ultimately achieve a balance between the producers of CO 2 and the users of CO 2 by creating ways to use the massive quantities of CO 2 produced by Alberta's hydrocarbon-based economy. The Alberta CO 2 Research Steering Committee was created to initiate and support CO 2 programs such as: (1) CO 2 use in enhanced oil recovery, (2) creation of a CO 2 production inventory, (3) survey of CO 2 users and potential users, (4) investigation of process issues such as power generation, oil sands and cement manufacturing, and (5) biofixation by plants, (6) other disposal options (e.g. in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, in aquifers, in tailings ponds, in coal beds). The single most important challenge was identified as 'rationalizing the formation of the necessary infrastructure'. Failing to do that will greatly impede efforts directed towards CO 2 utilization

  2. Potential evaluation on CO2-EGR in tight and low-permeability reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqing Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available CO2-EGR, i.e. enhanced gas recovery by injecting CO2, is to displace natural gas by injecting CO2 in the supercritical phase. It can both enhance the recovery of gas reservoirs and realize CO2 storage. Currently, this technique is still at its exploring stage. The effect of CO2-EGR is not clarified, the geologic conditions for CO2-EGR are not definite, and the rational working system for CO2-EGR is not available. In this paper, the long-core experiment was conducted to determine whether and how much the recovery of low-permeability reservoirs can be enhanced by injecting CO2. According to the experimental results, the recovery can be enhanced by 12% when CO2 content in produced gas is more than 10%. Moreover, the multi-component seepage mathematical model was built for displacing natural gas by injecting supercritical CO2, and the model accuracy was verified using laboratory data. With this mathematical model, the influence factors for displacing natural gas by injecting supercritical CO2 were analyzed in order to define the conditions for selecting favorable zones. The Well DK13 area in the Daniudi gas field, Ordos Basin, was selected for potential evaluation of CO2-EGR. As indicated by the numerical simulation results, when CO2 content of producing wells in the Well DK13 area is 10% (with a lower cost for corrosion prevention, the ratio of CO2-EGR is 8.0–9.5%, and 31.1% HCPV(hydrocarbon pores volume of CO2 storage can be realized. It is thus concluded that the CO2-EGR technique can enhance the recovery of gas reservoirs and also store CO2 underground, contributing to the increase of both social and economic benefits.

  3. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge regarding carbon dioxide (CO2)-brine interfacial tension (IFT) is important for petroleum industry and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies. In petroleum industry, CO2-brine IFT is especially importance for CO2 – based enhanced oil recovery strategy as it affects phase behavior and fluid transport in porous media. CCS which involves storing CO2 in geological storage sites also requires understanding regarding CO2-brine IFT as this parameter affects CO2 quantity that could be securely stored in the storage site. Several methods have been used to compute CO2-brine interfacial tension. One of the methods employed is by using Density Gradient Theory (DGT) approach. In DGT model, IFT is computed based on the component density distribution across the interface. However, current model is only applicable for modelling low to medium ionic strength solution. This limitation is due to the model only considers the increase of IFT due to the changes of bulk phases properties and does not account for ion distribution at interface. In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections. The saddle point of tangent plane distance where ( ) was defined as the boundary separating the two sections of the interface. Electrolyte is assumed to be present only in the second section which is connected to the bulk liquid phase side. Numerical simulations were performed using the proposed approach for single and mixed salt solutions for three salts (NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2), for temperature (298 K to 443 K), pressure (2 MPa to 70 MPa), and ionic strength (0.085 mol·kg-1 to 15 mol·kg-1). The simulation result shows that the tuned model was able to predict with good accuracy CO2-brine IFT for all studied cases. Comparison with current DGT model showed that the proposed approach yields better match with the experiment data

  4. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    ppmvin 1960 to 390 ppmv in 2012, probably due to human activity. A lot of research is being carried out forreducing CO2emissions from large stationary sources. Ofwhich, the carbonate looping process is anew process and has the potential to reduce CO2emissions with lower energy penalties. Most of thework...... and the main parameter that controls the performance of the carbonator, a process model integrating the carbonate looping process with the cement pyro-process was simulated. The process simulation results indicate that the CO2 emission was only 0.07 kg/ kg cl, with an energy penalty of 2 MJ/kg CO2 captured......Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310...

  5. CO2 Virtual Science Data Environment API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CO2 Virtual Data Environment is a comprehensive effort at bringing together the models, data, and tools necessary to perform research on atmospheric CO2.This...

  6. ISLSCP II Globalview: Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GlobalView Carbon Dioxide (CO2) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected sites that were created...

  7. ISLSCP II Globalview: Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The GlobalView Carbon Dioxide (CO2) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected sites that...

  8. Modeling of CO2 migration injected in Weyburn oil reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Stenhouse, M.J.; Arthur, R.

    2008-01-01

    Injecting CO 2 into oil and gas field is a way to enhance oil recovery (EOR) as well as mitigate global warming effect by permanently storing the greenhouse gas into underground. This paper details the models and results of simulating the long-term migration of CO 2 injected into the Weyburn field for both Enhanced Oil Recovery operations and CO 2 sequestration. A System Model was established to define the spatial and temporal extents of the analysis. The Base Scenario was developed to identify key processes, features, and events (FEPs) for the expected evolution of the storage system. A compositional reservoir simulator with equations-of-states (EOS) was used as the modeling tool in order to simulate multiphase, multi-component flow and transport coupled with CO 2 mass partitioning into oil, gas, and water phases. We apply a deterministic treatment to CO 2 migration in the geosphere (natural pathways), whereas the variability of abandoned wells (man-made pathways) necessitates a stochastic treatment. The simulation result was then used to carry out consequence analysis to the local environment. (authors)

  9. Sensitivity to hypercapnia and elimination of CO2 following diving in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2014-05-01

    The diving ability of marine mammals is a function of how they use and store oxygen and the physiological control of ventilation, which is in turn dependent on the accumulation of CO2. To assess the influence of CO2 on physiological control of dive behaviour, we tested how increasing levels of inspired CO2 (hypercarbia) and decreasing inspired O2 (hypoxia) affected the diving metabolic rate, submergence times, and dive recovery times (time to replenish O2 stores and eliminate CO2) of freely diving Steller sea lions. We also measured changes in breathing frequency of diving and non-diving individuals. Our findings show that hypercarbia increased breathing frequency (as low as 2 % CO2), but did not affect metabolic rate, or the duration of dives or surface intervals (up to 3 % CO2). Changes in breathing rates indicated respiratory drive was altered by hypercarbia at rest, but blood CO2 levels remained below the threshold that would alter normal dive behaviour. It took the sea lions longer to remove accumulated CO2 than it did for them to replenish their O2 stores following dives (whether breathing ambient air, hypercarbia, or hypoxia). This difference between O2 and CO2 recovery times grew with increasing dive durations, increasing hypercarbia, and was greater for bout dives, suggesting there could be a build-up of CO2 load with repeated dives. Although we saw no evidence of CO2 limiting dive behaviour, the longer time required to remove CO2 may eventually exhibit control over the overall time they can spend in apnoea and overall foraging duration.

  10. Bioelectrochemical conversion of CO2 to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Pant, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    The recent concept of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) has evolved as an electricity-driven production technology for chemicals from low-value carbon dioxide (CO2) using micro-organisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises bioelectrochemical reduction of CO2 to multi-carbon organic compounds

  11. CO2 Permeability of Biological Membranes and Role of CO2 Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeward, Volker; Arias-Hidalgo, Mariela; Al-Samir, Samer; Gros, Gerolf

    2017-01-01

    We summarize here, mainly for mammalian systems, the present knowledge of (a) the membrane CO2 permeabilities in various tissues; (b) the physiological significance of the value of the CO2 permeability; (c) the mechanisms by which membrane CO2 permeability is modulated; (d) the role of the intracellular diffusivity of CO2 for the quantitative significance of cell membrane CO2 permeability; (e) the available evidence for the existence of CO2 channels in mammalian and artificial systems, with a brief view on CO2 channels in fishes and plants; and, (f) the possible significance of CO2 channels in mammalian systems. PMID:29064458

  12. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, H.

    2013-06-01

    CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit). The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year) is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1) finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2) make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3) build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4) set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1) the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2) there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3) the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples close to the

  13. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit. The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1 finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2 make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3 build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4 set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1 the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2 there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3 the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples

  14. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  15. Using noble gas fingerprints at the Kerr Farm to assess CO2 leakage allegations linked to the Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gilfillan, Stuart; Sherk, George Williams; Poreda, Robert J.; Haszeldine, Robert

    2017-01-01

    For carbon capture and storage technology to successfully contribute to climate mitigation efforts, the stored CO2 must be securely isolated from the atmosphere and oceans. Hence, there is a need to establish and verify monitoring techniques that can detect unplanned migration of injected CO2 from a storage site to the near surface. Noble gases are sensitive tracers of crustal fluid input in the subsurface due to their low concentrations and unreactive nature. Several studies have identified ...

  16. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  17. Analysis of Microbial Communities in the Oil Reservoir Subjected to CO2-Flooding by Using Functional Genes as Molecular Biomarkers for Microbial CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng eLiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sequestration of CO2 in oil reservoirs is considered to be one of the feasible options for mitigating atmospheric CO2 building up and also for the in situ potential bioconversion of stored CO2 to methane. However, the information on these functional microbial communities and the impact of CO2 storage on them is hardly available. In this paper a comprehensive molecular survey was performed on microbial communities in production water samples from oil reservoirs experienced CO2-flooding by analysis of functional genes involved in the process, including cbbM, cbbL, fthfs, [FeFe]-hydrogenase and mcrA. As a comparison, these functional genes in the production water samples from oil reservoir only experienced water-flooding in areas of the same oil bearing bed were also analyzed. It showed that these functional genes were all of rich diversity in these samples, and the functional microbial communities and their diversity were strongly affected by a long-term exposure to injected CO2. More interestingly, microorganisms affiliated with members of the genera Methanothemobacter, Acetobacterium and Halothiobacillus as well as hydrogen producers in CO2 injected area either increased or remained unchanged in relative abundance compared to that in water-flooded area, which implied that these microorganisms could adapt to CO2 injection and, if so, demonstrated the potential for microbial fixation and conversion of CO2 into methane in subsurface oil reservoirs.

  18. Stored CO2 and Methane Leakage Risk Assessment and Monitoring Tool Development: CO2 Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Kieki

    2008-09-30

    The primary project goal is to develop and test tools for optimization of ECBM recovery and geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds, in addition to tools for monitoring CO{sub 2} sequestration in coalbeds to support risk assessment. Three critical topics identified are (1) the integrity of coal bed methane geologic and engineered systems, (2) the optimization of the coal bed storage process, and (3) reliable monitoring and verification systems appropriate to the special conditions of CO{sub 2} storage and flow in coals.

  19. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, M. R.; Arzilli, F.; Chiarugi, A.; Marliyani, G. I.; Anggara, F.; Harijoko, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back‐arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid‐dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s−1 (117 t d−1) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d−1, comparable with the expected back‐arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man‐portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom‐up quantification of CO2 fluxes. PMID:28944134

  20. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savioli, Gabriela B; Santos, Juan E

    2011-01-01

    Storage of CO 2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO 2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO 2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO 2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO 2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO 2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO 2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO 2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO 2 after injection.

  1. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queißer, M.; Burton, M. R.; Arzilli, F.; Chiarugi, A.; Marliyani, G. I.; Anggara, F.; Harijoko, A.

    2017-06-01

    Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s-1 (117 t d-1) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d-1, comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO2 fluxes.

  2. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  3. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Laura; Risk, David

    2018-02-01

    Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil-snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days) timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model-measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil-snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection) responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack) reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux measurement systems.

  4. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Graham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2 respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil–snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model–measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil–snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux

  5. Technological CO2 reduction potential for transport in CO2; Technologisch CO2-reductie potentieel voor transport in 2040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passier, G.L.M.; Driever, J.P.M.; Van Baalen, J.; Foster, D.; Kadijk, G.; Verbeek, R.

    2008-09-15

    TNO conducted a study of the CO2 reduction potential in Dutch continental transport up to 2040. The main conclusion is that reduction of approximately 40% in CO2 emissions compared to 1990 is feasible by means of technological innovations and deployment of alternative energy sources. (mk) [Dutch] TNO heeft een studie uitgevoerd naar CO2-besparingsmogelijkheden in het Nederlandse continentaal vervoer tot het jaar 2040. De hoofdconclusie is dat een reductie van ca. 40% in de CO2-uitstoot ten opzichte van 1990 mogelijk is door middel van technologische innovaties en toepassing van alternatieve energiebronnen.

  6. Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 sorbent for highly selective CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwu; Zhai, Xinru; Liu, Dongyang; Sun, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 materials are used as CO2 sorbent to improve the selectivity of CH4/CO2 separation. The SBA-15 sorbents modified by physical CO2 absorbents are very limited to increasing CO2 adsorption and present poor selectivity. However, the SBA-15 sorbents modified by chemical CO2 absorbents increase CO2 adsorption capacity obviously. The separation coefficients of CO2/CH4 increase in this case. The adsorption and regeneration properties of the SBA-15 sorbents modified by TEA, MDEA and DIPA have been compared. The SBA-15 modified by triethanolamine (TEA) presents better CO2/CH4 separation performance than the materials modified by other CO2 absorbents.

  7. Energyless CO2 Absorption, Generation, and Fixation Using Atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Okada, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Chiaki; Yamada, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Kenta; Mukai, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    From an economic and ecological perspective, the efficient utilization of atmospheric CO2 as a carbon resource should be a much more important goal than reducing CO2 emissions. However, no strategy to harvest CO2 using atmospheric CO2 at room temperature currently exists, which is presumably due to the extremely low concentration of CO2 in ambient air (approximately 400 ppm=0.04 vol%). We discovered that monoethanolamine (MEA) and its derivatives efficiently absorbed atmospheric CO2 without requiring an energy source. We also found that the absorbed CO2 could be easily liberated with acid. Furthermore, a novel CO2 generator enabled us to synthesize a high value-added material (i.e., 2-oxazolidinone derivatives based on the metal catalyzed CO2-fixation at room temperature) from atmospheric CO2.

  8. Global CO2 Emission from Volcanic Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, N.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Padron, E.; Barrancos, J.; Calvo, D.; Kusukabe, M.; Mori, T.; Nolasco, D.

    2009-12-01

    During the last two decades, scientists have paid attention to CO2 volcanic emissions and its contribution to the global C budget. Excluding MORBs as a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere, the global CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanism has been estimated about 300 Mt y-1 and this rate accounts for both visible (plume & fumaroles) and non-visible (diffuse) volcanic gas emanations (Mörner & Etíope, 2002). However, CO2 emissions from volcanic lakes have not been considered to estimate the global CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanoes. In order to improve this global CO2 emission rate and estimate the global CO2 emission from volcanic lakes, an extensive research on CO2 emission of volcanic lakes from Phillipines, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Mexico, Indonesia, Germany, France, Cameroon, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Ecuador had been recently carried out. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of volcanic lakes were performed by means of a modified floating device of the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total CO2 emission from each volcanic lake, CO2 efflux maps were constructed using sequential Gaussian simulations (sGs). CO2 emission rates were normalized by the lake area (km2), and volcanic lakes were grouped following classification in acid, alkaline and neutral lakes. The observed average normalized CO2 emission rate values increase from alkaline (5.5 t km-2 d-1), neutral (210.0 t km-2 d-1), to acid (676.8 t km-2 d-1) volcanic lakes. Taking into account (i) these normalized CO2 emission rates from 31 volcanic lakes, (ii) the number of volcanic lakes in the world (~ 1100), (iii) the fraction of the investigated alkaline (45%), neutral (39%), and acid (16%) volcanic lakes, and (iv) the average areas of the investigated alkaline (36,8 km2), neutral (3,7 km2), and acid (0,5 km2) volcanic lakes; the global CO2 emission from volcanic lakes is about ~ 182 Mt year-1. This estimated value is about ~ 50% of the actual estimated global CO2

  9. Metal-Organic Framework-Stabilized CO2/Water Interfacial Route for Photocatalytic CO2Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Zhang, Jianling; Li, Wei; He, Zhenhong; Sun, Xiaofu; Shi, Jinbiao; Shao, Dan; Zhang, Bingxing; Tan, Xiuniang; Han, Buxing

    2017-11-29

    Here, we propose a CO 2 /water interfacial route for photocatalytic CO 2 conversion by utilizing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as both an emulsifier and a catalyst. The CO 2 reduction occurring at the CO 2 /water interface produces formate with remarkably enhanced efficiency as compared with that in conventional solvent. The route is efficient, facile, adjustable, and environmentally benign, which is applicable for the CO 2 transformation photocatalyzed by different kinds of MOFs.

  10. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  11. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  12. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  13. CO2 Allowance and Electricity Price Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    With the introduction of CO2 emission constraints on power generators in the European Union, climate policy is starting to have notable effects on energy markets. This paper sheds light on the links between CO2 prices, electricity prices, and electricity costs to industry. It is based on a series of interviews with industrial and electricity stakeholders, as well as a rich literature seeking to estimate the exact effect of CO2 prices on electricity prices.

  14. Constraints on the magnitude and rate of CO2 dissolution at Bravo Dome natural gas field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaye, Kiran J; Hesse, Marc A; Cassidy, Martin; Stockli, Daniel F

    2014-10-28

    The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) captured at large point sources into deep saline aquifers can significantly reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Dissolution of the injected CO2 into the formation brine is a trapping mechanism that helps to ensure the long-term security of geological CO2 storage. We use thermochronology to estimate the timing of CO2 emplacement at Bravo Dome, a large natural CO2 field at a depth of 700 m in New Mexico. Together with estimates of the total mass loss from the field we present, to our knowledge, the first constraints on the magnitude, mechanisms, and rates of CO2 dissolution on millennial timescales. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology records heating of the Bravo Dome reservoir due to the emplacement of hot volcanic gases 1.2-1.5 Ma. The CO2 accumulation is therefore significantly older than previous estimates of 10 ka, which demonstrates that safe long-term geological CO2 storage is possible. Integrating geophysical and geochemical data, we estimate that 1.3 Gt CO2 are currently stored at Bravo Dome, but that only 22% of the emplaced CO2 has dissolved into the brine over 1.2 My. Roughly 40% of the dissolution occurred during the emplacement. The CO2 dissolved after emplacement exceeds the amount expected from diffusion and provides field evidence for convective dissolution with a rate of 0.1 g/(m(2)y). The similarity between Bravo Dome and major US saline aquifers suggests that significant amounts of CO2 are likely to dissolve during injection at US storage sites, but that convective dissolution is unlikely to trap all injected CO2 on the 10-ky timescale typically considered for storage projects.

  15. CO2 capture in different carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Vicente; Ramírez-Lucas, Ana; Díaz, José Antonio; Sánchez, Paula; Romero, Amaya

    2012-07-03

    In this work, the CO(2) capture capacity of different types of carbon nanofibers (platelet, fishbone, and ribbon) and amorphous carbon have been measured at 26 °C as at different pressures. The results showed that the more graphitic carbon materials adsorbed less CO(2) than more amorphous materials. Then, the aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the carbon materials by increasing the porosity during the chemical activation process. After chemical activation process, the amorphous carbon and platelet CNFs increased the CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.6 times, whereas fishbone and ribbon CNFs increased their CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.1 and 8.2 times, respectively. This increase of CO(2) adsorption capacity after chemical activation was due to an increase of BET surface area and pore volume in all carbon materials. Finally, the CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that activated amorphous carbon exhibited the best CO(2) capture capacity with 72.0 wt % of CO(2) at 26 °C and 8 bar.

  16. Synthetic biology for CO2fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Recycling of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into fuels and chemicals is a potential approach to reduce CO 2 emission and fossil-fuel consumption. Autotrophic microbes can utilize energy from light, hydrogen, or sulfur to assimilate atmospheric CO 2 into organic compounds at ambient temperature and pressure. This provides a feasible way for biological production of fuels and chemicals from CO 2 under normal conditions. Recently great progress has been made in this research area, and dozens of CO 2 -derived fuels and chemicals have been reported to be synthesized by autotrophic microbes. This is accompanied by investigations into natural CO 2 -fixation pathways and the rapid development of new technologies in synthetic biology. This review first summarizes the six natural CO 2 -fixation pathways reported to date, followed by an overview of recent progress in the design and engineering of CO 2 -fixation pathways as well as energy supply patterns using the concept and tools of synthetic biology. Finally, we will discuss future prospects in biological fixation of CO 2 .

  17. Tundra ecosystems observed to be CO2 sources due to differential amplification of the carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshe, E F; Schuur, E A G; Bolker, B M

    2013-10-01

    Are tundra ecosystems currently a carbon source or sink? What is the future trajectory of tundra carbon fluxes in response to climate change? These questions are of global importance because of the vast quantities of organic carbon stored in permafrost soils. In this meta-analysis, we compile 40 years of CO2 flux observations from 54 studies spanning 32 sites across northern high latitudes. Using time-series analysis, we investigated if seasonal or annual CO2 fluxes have changed over time, and whether spatial differences in mean annual temperature could help explain temporal changes in CO2 flux. Growing season net CO2 uptake has definitely increased since the 1990s; the data also suggest (albeit less definitively) an increase in winter CO2 emissions, especially in the last decade. In spite of the uncertainty in the winter trend, we estimate that tundra sites were annual CO2 sources from the mid-1980s until the 2000s, and data from the last 7 years show that tundra continue to emit CO2 annually. CO2 emissions exceed CO2 uptake across the range of temperatures that occur in the tundra biome. Taken together, these data suggest that despite increases in growing season uptake, tundra ecosystems are currently CO2 sources on an annual basis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Experimental Ion Mobility measurements in Ne-CO$_2$ and CO$_2$-N$_2$ mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.; Santos, F.P.; Trindade, A.M.F.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility, K0, of ions in neon-carbon dioxide (Ne-CO2) and carbon dioxide-nitrogen (CO2-N2) gaseous mixtures for total pressures ranging from 8–12 Torr, reduced electric fields in the 10–25 Td range, at room temperature. Regarding the Ne-CO2 mixture only one peak was observed for CO2 concentrations above 25%, which has been identified as an ion originated in CO2, while below 25% of CO2 a second-small peak appears at the left side of the main peak, which has been attributed to impurities. The mobility values for the main peak range between 3.51 ± 0.05 and 1.07 ± 0.01 cm2V−1s−1 in the 10%-99% interval of CO2, and from 4.61 ± 0.19 to 3.00 ± 0.09 cm2V−1s−1 for the second peak observed (10%–25% of CO2). For the CO2-N2, the time-of-arrival spectra displayed only one peak for CO2 concentrations above 10%, which was attributed to ions originated in CO2, namely CO2+(CO2), with a second peak appearing for CO2 concentrations below 10%. This secon...

  19. CO2-Brine Displacement in Geological CO2 Sequestration: Microfluidic Flow Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S. C.; Jung, J.

    2014-12-01

    Geological CO2 sequestration is a promising method to reduce atmospheric CO2 and deep saline aquifers is one of the most important options due to their capacity for CO2 storage. Thus, a better understanding of two immiscible brine-CO2 mobility and its saturation, including invading patterns in deep saline aquifers as CO2 storage sites is required. Lenormand (1990) explored the invading patterns of two immiscible fluids in porous media with a transition region and three dominant regions: capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and stable displacement. These are determined by two main aspect ratios Nm and Nc through experimental studies using micromodel. Micromodel provides the opportunity to discover unrecognized processes, and test existing theories and assumptions in fluid flow through porous media. In this study, the micromodel was used to explore the effects of the scCO2 injecting velocity and ionic strength on invading patterns in geological CO2 sequestration. When scCO2 was injected into the micromodel that has already saturated with brine, the brine in the micromodel was displaced by injected scCO2. Continuous scCO2 injection into the micromodel leaded the scCO2 to pass through the micromodel. And the scCO2-brine displacement distribution in the micromodel remained constant during additional 100 PV scCO2 injection after injecting scCO2 passed through micromodel. When scCO2 passed through the porous media, the scCO2-brine displacement distribution represented the maximum displacement ratio. Results showed that scCO2-brine displacement ratios increased with: elevated pressures in the range of 3MPa~8MPa, decreased ionic strength from 5M to 1M NaCl, and increased scCO2 injecting velocity up to 40 μL/min. Also, Nm and Nc obtained in this study are located in transition region of the invading patterns suggested by Lenormand (1990).

  20. Geochemistry and Age Dating of Ancient and Modern CO2 -rich Hydrothermal Systems as Natural Analogues for CO2 storage: Examples from Australia and Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, I.; Golding, S.; Esterle, J.; Feng, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated physico-chemical conditions during mineral authigenesis in CO2-rich ancient and recent hydrothermal environments in Eastern Australia (Gunnedah and Bowen Basins) and Turkey, respectively. We performed Rb-Sr and U-series dating of clay-carbonate associations and travertine veins respectively to evaluate the degassing and storage history of CO2. Intense carbonate veining and coal seam cleat mineralisation in the Gunnedah Basin took place as a result of heat and CO2 release associated with magmatism during the breakup of Gondwana in the Late Cretaceous. Widespread carbonate veining and cementation in the Bowen Basin occurred as products of basin-wide CO2 rich meteoric hydrothermal fluids during the Late Triassic extension. CO2 has largely been used for carbonate precipitation (calcite, siderite, ankerite and dawsonite) in eastern Australian basins; however, some high proportion of CO2 has been stored in coal seams as adsorbed molecules on coal. Significant CO2 degassing is common in geothermal fields in Turkey, as manifested by recent deposition of travertine pools and terraces as well as travertine vein networks in damage zones of active major fault systems. Trace element geochemistry indicates that transient ascent of CO2-bearing fluids during seismic strain cycles without significant interaction with basement and host rocks resulted in rapid precipitation of the vein travertine near the surface. Such veins and associated breccias formed by hydraulic fracturing in response to overpressure of CO2-rich fluids. Correlation of high-precision U-series ages with global/regional climate events indicates that late Quaternary climate variability may have controlled the geothermal water circulation that regulates CO2 accumulation and the generation of CO2 over-pressurised reservoirs and their behaviour during seismic events.

  1. Membrane Technologies for CO2 Capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons-Fischbein, K.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of membrane technology for the effective CO2/CH4 separation. The work focuses on two different membrane processes to accomplish the separation: 1) The use of a gas-liquid membrane contactor for the selective absorption of CO2 from CH4 2) The use of thin, dense

  2. Recent development of capture of CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Rosa Hilda

    2014-01-01

    "Recent Technologies in the capture of CO2" provides a comprehensive summary on the latest technologies available to minimize the emission of CO2 from large point sources like fossil-fuel power plants or industrial facilities. This ebook also covers various techniques that could be developed to reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. The contents of this book include chapters on oxy-fuel combustion in fluidized beds, gas separation membrane used in post-combustion capture, minimizing energy consumption in CO2 capture processes through process integration, characterization and application of structured packing for CO2 capture, calcium looping technology for CO2 capture and many more. Recent Technologies in capture of CO2 is a valuable resource for graduate students, process engineers and administrative staff looking for real-case analysis of pilot plants. This eBook brings together the research results and professional experiences of the most renowned work groups in the CO2 capture field...

  3. Corn residue removal and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the primary greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the soil due to agricultural activities. In the short-term, increases in CO2 emissions indicate increased soil microbial activity. Soil micro-organisms decompose crop residues and release...

  4. Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z; Dong, J. H.

    2008-10-01

    This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team members expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

  5. The challenges of monitoring CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.; Vandeweijer, V.

    2011-01-01

    At present there is an increasing consensus that the global climate is changing as a result of increased atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as CO2. The emissions of CO2 are directly linked to the abundant application of fossil energy sources. © 2011 Society of Exploration

  6. Flow assurance studies for CO2 transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltin, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to compensate for the relative lack of experience of the CCTS community, Flow Assurance studies of new CO2 pipelines and networks are a very important step toward reliable operation. This report details a typical approach for Flow Assurance study of CO2 transport pipeline. Considerations to

  7. Options for CO2 sequestration in Kuwait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.; Vandeweijer, V.; Mayyan, H.; Sharma, S.R.; Kamal, D.

    2017-01-01

    In preparation for future requirements to abate CO2 emission levels, a CO2 storage feasibility study was carried out for the country of Kuwait. At present, no definite plans exist to install capture facilities at the larger emission points in the country; the study presented is one of the first

  8. Monitoring Options for CO2 Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.; Winthaegen, P.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of various monitoring techniques for CO2 storage that is structured into three categories-instrumentation in a well (monitoring well); instrumentation at the (near) surface (surface geophysical methods); and sampling at the (near) surface measuring CO2

  9. CO2 Absorbing Capacity of MEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Huertas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the use of a gas bubbler apparatus in which the gas phase is bubbled into a fixed amount of absorbent under standard conditions as a uniform procedure for determining the absorption capacity of solvents. The method was systematically applied to determine the CO2 absorbing capacity of MEA (Ac at several aqueous MEA (β and gas-phase CO2 concentrations. Ac approached the nominal CO2 absorbing capacity of MEA (720 g CO2/kg MEA at very low β levels, increasing from 447.9±18.1 to 581.3±32.3 g CO2/kg MEA as β was reduced from 30 to 2.5% (w/w. Ac did not depend on the CO2 concentration in the inlet gas stream as long as the gas stream did not include other amine sensitive components. During the bubbling tests the outlet CO2 concentration profiles exhibited a sigmoidal shape that could be described by an exponential equation characterized by an efficiency factor (a and a form factor (n. Statistical analysis based on correlation analysis indicated that in all cases the experimental data fit the equation well when a was 6.1±0.35 and n was 2.5±0.12. The results of these experiments may be used to optimize scrubber designs for CO2 sequestration from fossil fuel derived flue gases.

  10. Characterization of Unconventional Reservoirs: CO2 Induced Petrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verba, C.; Goral, J.; Washburn, A.; Crandall, D.; Moore, J.

    2017-12-01

    As concerns about human-driven CO2 emissions grow, it is critical to develop economically and environmentally effective strategies to mitigate impacts associated with fossil energy. Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a potentially promising technique which involves the injection of captured CO2 into subsurface formations. Unconventional shale formations are attractive targets for GCS while concurrently improving gas recovery. However, shales are inherently heterogeneous, and minor differences can impact the ability of the shale to effectively adsorb and store CO2. Understanding GCS capacity from such endemic heterogeneities is further complicated by the complex geochemical processes which can dynamically alter shale petrophysics. We investigated the size distribution, connectivity, and type (intraparticle, interparticle, and organic) of pores in shale; the mineralogy of cores from unconventional shale (e.g. Bakken); and the changes to these properties under simulated GCS conditions. Electron microscopy and dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy were used to reconstruct 2D/3D digital matrix and pore structures. Comparison of pre and post-reacted samples gives insights into CO2-shale interactions - such as the mechanism of CO2 sorption in shales- intended for enhanced oil recovery and GCS initiatives. These comparisons also show how geochemical processes proceed differently across shales based on their initial diagenesis. Results show that most shale pore sizes fall within meso-macro pore classification (> 2 nm), but have variable porosity and organic content. The formation of secondary minerals (calcite, gypsum, and halite) may play a role in the infilling of fractures and pore spaces in the shale, which may reduce permeability and inhibit the flow of fluids.

  11. The ins and outs of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Beardall, John

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish influx and efflux of inorganic C in photosynthesizing tissues; this article examines what is known and where there are gaps in knowledge. Irreversible decarboxylases produce CO2, and CO2 is the substrate/product of enzymes that act as carboxylases and decarboxylases. Some irreversible carboxylases use CO2; others use HCO3(-). The relative role of permeation through the lipid bilayer versus movement through CO2-selective membrane proteins in the downhill, non-energized, movement of CO2 is not clear. Passive permeation explains most CO2 entry, including terrestrial and aquatic organisms with C3 physiology and biochemistry, terrestrial C4 plants and all crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, as well as being part of some mechanisms of HCO3(-) use in CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) function, although further work is needed to test the mechanism in some cases. However, there is some evidence of active CO2 influx at the plasmalemma of algae. HCO3(-) active influx at the plasmalemma underlies all cyanobacterial and some algal CCMs. HCO3(-) can also enter some algal chloroplasts, probably as part of a CCM. The high intracellular CO2 and HCO3(-) pools consequent upon CCMs result in leakage involving CO2, and occasionally HCO3(-). Leakage from cyanobacterial and microalgal CCMs involves up to half, but sometimes more, of the gross inorganic C entering in the CCM; leakage from terrestrial C4 plants is lower in most environments. Little is known of leakage from other organisms with CCMs, though given the leakage better-examined organisms, leakage occurs and increases the energetic cost of net carbon assimilation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. The ins and outs of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A.; Beardall, John

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish influx and efflux of inorganic C in photosynthesizing tissues; this article examines what is known and where there are gaps in knowledge. Irreversible decarboxylases produce CO2, and CO2 is the substrate/product of enzymes that act as carboxylases and decarboxylases. Some irreversible carboxylases use CO2; others use HCO3 –. The relative role of permeation through the lipid bilayer versus movement through CO2-selective membrane proteins in the downhill, non-energized, movement of CO2 is not clear. Passive permeation explains most CO2 entry, including terrestrial and aquatic organisms with C3 physiology and biochemistry, terrestrial C4 plants and all crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, as well as being part of some mechanisms of HCO3 – use in CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) function, although further work is needed to test the mechanism in some cases. However, there is some evidence of active CO2 influx at the plasmalemma of algae. HCO3 – active influx at the plasmalemma underlies all cyanobacterial and some algal CCMs. HCO3 – can also enter some algal chloroplasts, probably as part of a CCM. The high intracellular CO2 and HCO3 – pools consequent upon CCMs result in leakage involving CO2, and occasionally HCO3 –. Leakage from cyanobacterial and microalgal CCMs involves up to half, but sometimes more, of the gross inorganic C entering in the CCM; leakage from terrestrial C4 plants is lower in most environments. Little is known of leakage from other organisms with CCMs, though given the leakage better-examined organisms, leakage occurs and increases the energetic cost of net carbon assimilation. PMID:26466660

  13. Silvering substrates after CO2 snow cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.

    2005-09-01

    There have been some questions in the astronomical community concerning the quality of silver coatings deposited on substrates that have been cleaned with carbon dioxide snow. These questions center around the possible existence of carbonate ions left behind on the substrate by CO2. Such carbonate ions could react with deposited silver to produce insoluble silver carbonate, thereby reducing film adhesion and reflectivity. Carbonate ions could be produced from CO2 via the following mechanism. First, during CO2 snow cleaning, a small amount of moisture can condense on a surface. This is especially true if the jet of CO2 is allowed to dwell on one spot. CO2 gas can dissolve in this moisture, producing carbonic acid, which can undergo two acid dissociations to form carbonate ions. In reality, it is highly unlikely that charged carbonate ions will remain stable on a substrate for very long. As condensed water evaporates, Le Chatelier's principle will shift the equilibrium of the chain of reactions that produced carbonate back to CO2 gas. Furthermore, the hydration of CO2 reaction of CO2 with H20) is an extremely slow process, and the total dehydrogenation of carbonic acid is not favored. Living tissues that must carry out the equilibration of carbonic acid and CO2 use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to speed up the reaction by a factor of one million. But no such enzymatic action is present on a clean mirror substrate. In short, the worst case analysis presented below shows that the ratio of silver atoms to carbonate radicals must be at least 500 million to one. The results of chemical tests presented here support this view. Furthermore, film lift-off tests, also presented in this report, show that silver film adhesion to fused silica substrates is actually enhanced by CO2 snow cleaning.

  14. Dynamics of CO2 fluxes and concentrations during a shallow subsurface CO2 release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2009-09-01

    A field facility located in Bozeman, Montana provides the opportunity to test methods to detect, locate, and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. From 9 July to 7 August 2008, 0.3 t CO2 d{sup -1} were injected from a 100-m long, {approx}2.5 m deep horizontal well. Repeated measurements of soil CO2 fluxes on a grid characterized the spatio-temporal evolution of the surface leakage signal and quantified the surface leakage rate. Infrared CO2 concentration sensors installed in the soil at 30 cm depth at 0 to 10 m from the well and at 4 cm above the ground at 0 and 5 m from the well recorded surface breakthrough of CO2 leakage and migration of CO2 leakage through the soil. Temporal variations in CO2 concentrations were correlated with atmospheric and soil temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, and CO2 injection rate.

  15. Carbonation and CO2 uptake of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Seo, Eun-A; Tae, Sung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a reliable procedure to assess the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake of concrete by carbonation during the service life of a structure and by the recycling of concrete after demolition. To generalize the amount of absorbable CO 2 per unit volume of concrete, the molar concentration of carbonatable constituents in hardened cement paste was simplified as a function of the unit content of cement, and the degree of hydration of the cement paste was formulated as a function of the water-to-cement ratio. The contribution of the relative humidity, type of finishing material for the concrete surface, and the substitution level of supplementary cementitious materials to the CO 2 diffusion coefficient in concrete was reflected using various correction factors. The following parameters varying with the recycling scenario were also considered: the carbonatable surface area of concrete crusher-runs and underground phenomena of the decreased CO 2 diffusion coefficient and increased CO 2 concentration. Based on the developed procedure, a case study was conducted for an apartment building with a principal wall system and an office building with a Rahmen system, with the aim of examining the CO 2 uptake of each structural element under different exposure environments during the service life and recycling of the building. As input data necessary for the case study, data collected from actual surveys conducted in 2012 in South Korea were used, which included data on the surrounding environments, lifecycle inventory database, life expectancy of structures, and recycling activity scenario. Ultimately, the CO 2 uptake of concrete during a 100-year lifecycle (life expectancy of 40 years and recycling span of 60 years) was estimated to be 15.5%–17% of the CO 2 emissions from concrete production, which roughly corresponds to 18%–21% of the CO 2 emissions from the production of ordinary Portland cement. - Highlights: • CO 2 uptake assessment approach owing to the

  16. Sequestering CO2 in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    Calera’s Carbonate Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation (CMAP) technology with beneficial reuse has been called, “game-changing” by Carl Pope, Director of the Sierra Club. Calera offers a solution to the scale of the carbon problem. By capturing carbon into the built environment through carbonate mineralization, Calera provides a sound and cost-effective alternative to Geologic Sequestration and Terrestrial Sequestration. The CMAP technology permanently converts carbon dioxide into a mineral form that can be stored above ground, or used as a building material. The process produces a suite of carbonate-containing minerals of various polymorphic forms. Calera product can be substituted into blends with ordinary Portland cements and used as aggregate to produce concrete with reduced carbon, carbon neutral, or carbon negative footprints. For each ton of product produced, approximately half a ton of carbon dioxide can be sequestered using the Calera process. Coal and natural gas are composed of predominately istopically light carbon, as the carbon in the fuel is plant-derived. Thus, power plant CO2 emissions have relatively low δ13C values.The carbon species throughout the CMAP process are identified through measuring the inorganic carbon content, δ13C values of the dissolved carbonate species, and the product carbonate minerals. Measuring δ13C allows for tracking the flue gas CO2 throughout the capture process. Initial analysis of the capture of propane flue gas (δ13C ˜ -25 ‰) with seawater (δ13C ˜ -10 ‰) and industrial brucite tailings from a retired magnesium oxide plant in Moss Landing, CA (δ13C ˜ -7 ‰ from residual calcite) produced carbonate mineral products with a δ13C value of ˜ -20 ‰. This isotopically light carbon, transformed from flue gas to stable carbonate minerals, can be transferred and tracked through the capture process, and finally to the built environment. CMAP provides an economical solution to global warming by producing

  17. The FP7 ULTimateCO2 project: a study of the long term fate of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigane, Pascal; Waldmann, Svenja; Pearce, Jonathan; Dimier, Alain; Le Gallo, Yann; Frykman, Peter; Maurand, Nicolas; Gherardi, Fabrizio; Yalamas, Thierry; Cremer, Holger; Spiers, Chris; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project are to study specific processes that could influence the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2, mainly: the trapping mechanisms occurring in the storage reservoir, the influence of fluid-rock interactions on mechanical integrity of caprock and well vicinity, and also the modifications induced at the regional scale (brine displacement, fault reactivation, hydrogeology changes...). A comprehensive approach combining laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and natural analogue studies is developed to assess all the processes mentioned above. A collection of data has been generated from natural and industrial (oil industry) analogues on the fluid flow and mechanical properties, structure, and mineralogy of faults and fractures that could affect the long-term storage capacity of underground CO2 storage sites. To address geochemical trapping at reservoir scale, an experimental approach is developed using sandstone core materials in batch reactive mode with CO2 and impurities at reservoir pressure and temperature conditions. Three inter-related lines of laboratory experiments investigate the long-term evolution of the mechanical properties and sealing integrity of fractured and faulted caprocks using Opalinus clay of Mont Terri Gallery (Switzerland), an analogue for caprock well investigated in the past for nuclear waste disposal purpose. To evaluate the interactions between CO2 (and formation fluid) and the well environment (formation, cement, casing) and to assess the consequences of these interactions on the transport properties of well materials, a 1 to 1 scale experiment has been set in the Mont Terri Gallery Opalinus clay to reproduce classical well objects (cemented annulus, casing and cement plug) perforating caprock formations. An extensive program of numerical modeling is also developed to calibrate, to reproduce and to extrapolate the experimental results at longer time scales including uncertainty

  18. Characterization and modelling of a naturally fractured reservoir-caprock unit targeted for CO2 storage in arctic Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senger, K.; Mulrooney, M.; Schaaf, N.; Tveranger, J.; Braathen, A.; Ogata, K.; Olaussen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Successfully storing CO2 underground requires a good understanding of the subsurface at the storage site, and its robust representation in geological models. Geological models, and related simulations, provide important quantitative information on critical parameters for the optimal utilisation of

  19. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  20. CO2 content of electricity losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daví-Arderius, Daniel; Sanin, María-Eugenia; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Countries are implementing policies to develop greener energy markets worldwide. In Europe, the ¨2030 Energy and Climate Package¨ asks for further reductions of green house gases, renewable sources integration, and energy efficiency targets. But the polluting intensity of electricity may be different in average than when considering market inefficiencies, in particular losses, and therefore the implemented policy must take those differences into account. Precisely, herein we study the importance in terms of CO2 emissions the extra amount of energy necessary to cover losses. With this purpose we use Spanish market and system data with hourly frequency from 2011 to 2013. Our results show that indeed electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions, with a higher CO2 emissions rate when covering losses than the average rate of the system. Additionally, we find that the market closing technologies used to cover losses have a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions: when polluting technologies (coal or combined cycle) close the market, the impact of losses on CO2 emissions is high compared to the rest of technologies (combined heat and power, renewables or hydropower). To the light of these results we make some policy recommendations to reduce the impact of losses on CO2 emissions. - Highlights: • Electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions. • Policies aimed to reducing losses have a positive impact on CO2 emissions. • The market closing technology used to cover losses have impacts on CO2 emissions. • Pollutant technologies that close the market should be replaced by renewables.

  1. Studies on CO 2 laser marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Saitoh, Yoshikazu; Hachisuka, Hideki; Ishigaki, Hiroyuki; Gokoh, Yukihiro; Mantani, Hiroshi

    The nature of CO 2 laser marking was studied with a view to putting these lasers to practical use in the semiconductor industry. The marking is found to be due to surface spattering rather than burning, which is the main factor in YAG laser marking. The visibility greatly increases by the application of a surface treatment such as marker ink, varnish or poster color. The CO 2 laser may therefore be used in place of the YAG laser, now widely used for marking, with some merits: CO 2 laser marking is cheaper and faster, and in addition there is no danger of injury from irradiating laser light.

  2. Studies on CO2 Laser Marking

    OpenAIRE

    UEDA, Masahiro; SAITOH, Yoshikazu; HACHISUKA, Hideki; ISHIGAKI, Hiroyuki; GOKOH, Yukihiro; MANTANI, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    The nature of CO2 laser marking was studied with a view to putting these lasers to practical use in the semiconductor industry. The marking is found to be due to surface spattering rather than burning, which is the main factor in YAG laser marking. The visibility greatly increases by the application of a surface treatment such as marker ink, varnish or poster color. The CO2 laser may therefore be used in place of the YAG laser, now widely used for marking, with some merits: CO2 laser marki...

  3. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    -effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The gains from CO2 trade may give vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe, for example, and it will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further......The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost...

  4. Monitoring techniques of a natural analogue for sub-seabed CO2 leakages

    OpenAIRE

    Caramanna, Giorgio; Fietzek, Peer; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in sub-seafloor aims to store CO2 inside geological trapping structures below the seafloor. However there are concerns related to the possibility of leakage from the storage sites and potential consequences on the marine environment. In order to develop safe and reliable methods for CO2 monitoring, field studies were conducted in a natural analogue–an area where there is a natural release of CO2 from the seafloor. Due to the very high volume of gas emitted, ...

  5. Leaching of Metal Ions from Blast Furnace Slag by Using Aqua Regia for CO2 Mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Hwan Bang; Seung-Woo Lee; Chiwan Jeon; Sangwon Park; Kyungsun Song; Whan Joo Jo; Soochun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS) was selected as the source of Ca for CO2 mineralization purposes to store CO2 as CaCO3. BFS was dissolved using aqua regia (AR) for leaching metal ions for CO2 mineralization and rejecting metal ions that were not useful to obtain pure CaCO3 (as confirmed by XRD analysis). The AR concentration, as well as the weight of BFS in an AR solution, was varied. Increasing the AR concentration resulted in increased metal ion leaching efficiencies. An optimum concentration of 2...

  6. Turbulent diffusion and transport from a CO2 lake in the deep ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Haugan, Peter Mosby; Alendal, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    If liquid CO2 is stored as a dense ‘‘lake’’ on the deep ocean floor, it is expected to dissolve in seawater. Ocean currents and turbulence can increase the net rate of CO2 release by several orders of magnitude compared to molecular diffusion. However, density stratification in the seawater created by dissolved CO2 will tend to reduce vertical mixing. A two-dimensional numerical study with a high-resolution advection-diffusion model, coupled with a general turbulence model, reveals significan...

  7. Equilibration of metabolic CO2 with preformed CO2 and bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hems, R.; Saez, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Entry of metabolic 14 CO 2 into urea is shown to occur more readily than it equilibrates with the general pool of cellular plus extracellular bicarbonate plus CO 2 . Since the sites of CO 2 production (pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and of fixation (carbamoylphosphate synthetase) are intramitochondrial, it is likely that the fixation of CO 2 is also more rapid than its equilibration with the cytoplasmic pool of bicarbonate plus CO 2 . This observation may point to a more general problem concerning the interpretation of isotope data, with compartmentation or proximity of sites of production and utilisation of metabolites may result in the isotope following a preferred pathway. (Auth.)

  8. Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Annie; Hare, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Light on Mars shows potential for providing the energy means necessary for enhanced In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Through photocatalysis, the energy barrier required to convert CO2 is lowered and CH4 production is favorable.

  9. Policy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogusz, Christine; Howlett, Christian

    2008-01-01

    .... Reducing that risk would require restraining the growth of CO2 emissions and ultimately limiting those emissions to a level that would stabilize atmospheric concentrations which would involve costs...

  10. Sustainable Process Networks for CO2 Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Kongpanna, P.; Pavarajam, V.

    , such as methanol (MeOH) have the largest market, this network will include a variety of thermodynamically feasible conversion paths [4]. From reviews of work previously done, there are ranges of possible products that are formed from CO2 and another co-reactant directly. Methanol, dimethyl ether, dimethyl...... the emissions is the conversion of CO2 into useful products, such as methanol [3]. In this work, through a computer-aided framework for process network synthesis-design, a network of feasible conversion processes that all use emitted CO2 is investigated. CO2 is emitted into the environment from various sources......: power generation, industrial processes, transportation and commercial processes. Within these there are high-purity emissions and low-purity emissions. Rather than sending these to the atmosphere, it is possible to collect them and use them for other purposes. In this work, the first step is determining...

  11. CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kundak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Global CO2 emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels over the past century are presented. Taking into consideration the total world production of more than 1,3 billion tons of steel, the steel industry produces over two billion tons of CO2. Reductions in CO2 emissions as a result of technological improvements and structural changes in steel production in industrialized countries during the past 40 years are described. Substantial further reductions in those emissions will not be possible using conventional technologies. Instead, a radical cutback may be achieved if, instead of carbon, hydrogen is used for direct iron ore reduction. The cost and the ensuing CO2 generation in the production of hydrogen as a reducing agent from various sources are analysed.

  12. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as...

  13. Capture and geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Capture and geological storage of CO 2 could be a contribution to reduce CO 2 emissions, and also a way to meet the factor 4 objective of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This publication briefly presents the capture and storage definitions and principles, and comments some key data related to CO 2 emissions, and their natural trapping by oceans, soils and forests. It discusses strengths (a massive and perennial reduction of CO 2 emissions, a well defined regulatory framework) and weaknesses (high costs and uncertain cost reduction perspectives, a technology which still consumes a lot of energy, geological storage capacities still to be determined, health environmental impacts and risks to be controlled, a necessary consultation of population for planned projects) of this option. Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed

  14. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in several industrial processes such as enhanced oil recovery, carbon capture and storage, and supercritical extractions, where CO2 is used as a solvent. Despite this importance......, accurate predictions of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing CO2 are challenging with classical models such as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state (EoS). This is believed to be due to the fact, that CO2 has a large quadrupole moment which the classical models...... and with or without introducing an additional pure compound parameter. In the absence of quadrupolar compounds qCPA reduces to CPA, which itself reduces toSRK in the absence of association. As the number of adjustable parameters in thermodynamic models increase, the parameter estimation problem becomes increasingly...

  15. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  16. Pulmonary CO2 elimination during surgical procedures using intra- or extraperitoneal CO2 insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullett, C E; Viale, J P; Sagnard, P E; Miellet, C C; Ruynat, L G; Counioux, H C; Motin, J P; Boulez, J P; Dargent, D M; Annat, G J

    1993-03-01

    We examined end-tidal CO2 tension (PETCO2) and pulmonary CO2 elimination of CO2 (VECO2) during CO2 insufflation under general anesthesia for three surgical procedures: gynecologic laparoscopy (intraperitoneal CO2 insufflation for 43 +/- 4 min), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (intraperitoneal CO2 insufflation for 125 +/- 14 min), and pelviscopy (extraperitoneal CO2 insufflation for 45 +/- 3 min). All patients (10 in each group) underwent controlled mechanical ventilation. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and VECO2 were measured at 2-min intervals by a system using a mass spectrometer. For the three surgical procedures, VO2 remained stable, whereas VECO2 and PETCO2 increased in parallel from the 8th to the 10th min after the start of CO2 insufflation. A plateau was reached 10 min later in patients having intraperitoneal insufflation, whereas VECO2 and PETCO2 continued to increase slowly throughout CO2 insufflation during pelviscopy. During pelviscopy, the maximum increase in VECO2 and PETCO2 (76 +/- 5% and 71 +/- 7%) was significantly more pronounced than that observed during cholecystectomy (25 +/- 4% and 25 +/- 4%) and gynecologic laparoscopy (15 +/- 3% and 12 +/- 2%). The authors conclude that CO2 diffusion into the body is more marked during extraperitoneal than during intraperitoneal CO2 insufflation but is not influenced markedly by the duration of intraperitoneal insufflation.

  17. CO2 Sensing and CO2 Regulation of Stomatal Conductance: Advances and Open Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Cawas B; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordström, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas-exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense [CO2] changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in the CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars that perform better in a shifting climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Udvikling af CO2 neutralt byrumsarmatur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Corell, Dennis Dan

    Denne rapport indeholder en beskrivelse af arbejdet udført i og resultaterne af forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ” Udvikling af CO2 neutralt byrumsarmatur” og udgør slutrapportering for dette projekt.......Denne rapport indeholder en beskrivelse af arbejdet udført i og resultaterne af forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ” Udvikling af CO2 neutralt byrumsarmatur” og udgør slutrapportering for dette projekt....

  19. Combustion of hythane diluted with CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hraiech Ibtissem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about energy shortage and environmental protection, improving engine fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions have become major research topics in combustion and engine development. Hythane (a blend of hydrogen H2 and natural gas NG has generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. This paper describes an experimental study of the effects of CO2 addition on the stability of a turbulent jet diffusion NG-H2 flame. The mole fraction of hydrogen (% H2 in NG-H2 mixture was varied from 0% to 50%. The equivalence ratio of the hythane/CO2/air mixture was kept at stoichiometry. The results show that the lift-off height increases with the addition of CO2 at various % H2 content in hythane. However, we observe that with 20% H2, we can obtain a stable flame diluted with 40% CO2, while for 0% H2, the flame is blown out above 20% CO2. This means that the limits of flame blowing out are pushed with the additions of H2. Moreover, the results show that for %H2 content in NG-H2 fuel up to 10%, the addition of CO2 could produce lifted flame if the % CO2 is low. At higher % CO2 dilution, flame would remain attached until blow-out. This is mainly due to the fact that the dilution leads to ejection velocities very high but reactivity of the mixture does not change so the flame tends to stretch.

  20. Membraneless water filtration using CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sangwoo; Shardt, Orest; Warren, Patrick B.; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-01-01

    Water purification technologies such as microfiltration/ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis utilize porous membranes to remove suspended particles and solutes. These membranes, however, cause many drawbacks such as a high pumping cost and a need for periodic replacement due to fouling. Here we show an alternative membraneless method for separating suspended particles by exposing the colloidal suspension to CO2. Dissolution of CO2 into the suspension creates solute gradients that drive phoreti...

  1. Flow assurance studies for CO2 transport

    OpenAIRE

    Veltin, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to compensate for the relative lack of experience of the CCTS community, Flow Assurance studies of new CO2 pipelines and networks are a very important step toward reliable operation. This report details a typical approach for Flow Assurance study of CO2 transport pipeline. Considerations to take during the design of a pipeline are highlighted, with an emphasis on operability of the system. The steady state aspects of a pipeline operation are first addressed, putting some highlight in...

  2. Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

    2014-05-01

    part of the BASTOR study and three possible modes of seal failure were identified. These include top seal failure, migration up the bounding fault planes and leakage across fault planes. The risk associated with all of these is considered low, based on currently available data. A test injection methodology aimed at assessing the commercial viability of CO2 injection in the Baltic Sea region has been designed. This includes the characterisation of reservoir, caprock and hydraulic properties, pump testing as well as CO2 migration and trapping using a phased approach methodology. An outline MMV programme has been developed based on the results of the dynamic modelling and the development phases of a CO2 injection site. Since the potential to store significant quantities of CO2 in the Swedish part of the Dalders Monocline appears to be limited, exploration efforts and the acquisition of new, site specific data through geophysical surveys, drilling and injection testing as well as detailed sampling and laboratory analyses, should be focussed on areas of better reservoir qualities than the current study area. New data covering the north eastern portion of the Dalders Monocline, in particular offshore Latvia and onshore as well as offshore Kaliningrad, would allow a detailed charterisation of individual potential sites for CO2 storage. This would also define site-specific seal integrity as well as chracterise small-scale fault structures that would ultimately dictate the potential injection and storage conditions.

  3. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  4. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  5. Density of aqueous solutions of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Julio E.

    2001-10-10

    In this report, we present a numerical representation for the partial molar volume of CO2 in water and the calculation of the corresponding aqueous solution density. The motivation behind this work is related to the importance of having accurate representations for aqueous phase properties in the numerical simulation of carbon dioxide disposal into aquifers as well as in geothermal applications. According to reported experimental data the density of aqueous solutions of CO2 can be as much as 2-3% higher than pure water density. This density variation might produce an influence on the groundwater flow regime. For instance, in geologic sequestration of CO2, convective transport mixing might occur when, several years after injection of carbon dioxide has stopped, the CO2-rich gas phase is concentrated at the top of the formation, just below an overlaying caprock. In this particular case the heavier CO2 saturated water will flow downward and will be replaced by water with a lesser CO2 content.

  6. Abatement of CO2 emissions: IFP's solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In a context of increasing energy consumption and world economic growth, the fight against greenhouse gases has become a major technological challenge for the coming years. The capture and sequestration of CO 2 in the underground is a promising solution in terms of environmental impact, especially in places and sectors characterized by a strong concentration of CO 2 emissions (power generation plants, big industries). However, such a solution requires important R and D efforts to reduce the costs and warrant the long-term reliability of the storage. The French institute of petroleum (IFP) will play an important role in the implementation of the geological sequestration. This press kit comprises 7 documents: a press release from November 4, 2003; a press conference with a series of slides presenting the stakes, solutions and actions proposed by the IFP in collaboration with several foreign partners (CO 2 capture, storage in depleted hydrocarbon deposits, saline aquifers or abandoned coal seams, storage potential, reduction of costs); a summary of the stakes and solutions for CO 2 sequestration in deep underground; a similar document presented at the Panorama 2003 colloquium; the CO 2 constraint in France and in Europe (international consensus on climatic change, Kyoto protocol, European directive about tradable carbon permits, voluntary commitment of companies in the fight against greenhouse effects (AERES)); the European project Castor (CO 2 from capture to storage); and the IFP brochure 'innovating for a sustainable development in the energy domain'. (J.S.)

  7. How much CO2 is trapped in carbonate minerals of a natural CO2 occurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Csilla; Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Szamosfalvi, Ágnes; Cseresznyés, Dóra; Király, Edit; Szabó, Csaba; Falus, György

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a transitional technology to decrease CO2 emissions from human fossil fuel usage and, therefore, to mitigate climate change. The most important criteria of a CO2 geological storage reservoir is that it must hold the injected CO2 for geological time scales without its significant seepage. The injected CO2 undergoes physical and chemical reactions in the reservoir rocks such as structural-stratigraphic, residual, dissolution or mineral trapping mechanisms. Among these, the safest is the mineral trapping, when carbonate minerals such as calcite, ankerite, siderite, dolomite and dawsonite build the CO2 into their crystal structures. The study of natural CO2 occurrences may help to understand the processes in CO2 reservoirs on geological time scales. This is the reason why the selected, the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 occurrence as our research area, which is able to provide particular and highly significant information for the future of CO2 storage. The area is one of the best known CO2 fields in Central Europe. The main aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the mineral phase at Mihályi-Répcelak CO2 reservoirs. For gaining the suitable data, we apply petrographic, major and trace element (microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) and stable isotope analysis (mass spectrometry) and thermodynamic and kinetic geochemical models coded in PHREEQC. Rock and pore water compositions of the same formation, representing the pre-CO2 flooding stages of the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 reservoirs are used in the models. Kinetic rate parameters are derived from the USGS report of Palandri and Kharaka (2004). The results of petrographic analysis show that a significant amount of dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH)2, max. 16 m/m%) precipitated in the rock due to its reactions with CO2 which flooded the reservoir. This carbonate mineral alone traps about 10-30 kg/m3 of the reservoir rock from the CO2 at Mihályi-Répcelak area, which is an

  8. Impacts of fluvial sedimentary heterogeneities on CO2 storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issautier, B. H.; Viseur, S.; Audigane, P. D.

    2011-12-01

    of some 50 scenarios. The results show that a strong compartmentalization, due to a shaly barrier, may decrease storage capacity by 11 to 25 percent. ? Flow-simulation of an 8-scenario sample extracted from the 50 possible scenarios. In contrast to the static modelling estimated capacities, the preliminary flow-simulation results indicate that capacity remains similar whichever model is applied (A or B). This is because the scale of the heterogeneity is similar to the extent of the CO2 plume, meaning that heterogeneity does not affect the amount of injected CO2 that can be stored in the sedimentary body. Nevertheless, connectivity strongly influences storage capacity, as determined by the 8 scenarios (model A) in which the total amount of CO2 injected ranges between 7 and 12 Mt over a 50-year period. Moreover, heterogeneity significantly increases pressure build-up, and may strongly disrupt the hydrodynamics in the aquifer.

  9. Experimental Ion Mobility measurements in Ne-CO2 and CO2-N2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Cortez, A.F.V.; Santos, F.P.; Trindade, A.M.F.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility, K 0 , of ions in neon-carbon dioxide (Ne-CO 2 ) and carbon dioxide-nitrogen (CO 2 -N 2 ) gaseous mixtures for total pressures ranging from 8–12 Torr, reduced electric fields in the 10–25 Td range, at room temperature. Regarding the Ne-CO 2 mixture only one peak was observed for CO 2 concentrations above 25%, which has been identified as an ion originated in CO 2 , while below 25% of CO 2 a second-small peak appears at the left side of the main peak, which has been attributed to impurities. The mobility values for the main peak range between 3.51 ± 0.05 and 1.07 ± 0.01 cm 2 V −1 s −1 in the 10%-99% interval of CO 2 , and from 4.61 ± 0.19 to 3.00 ± 0.09 cm 2 V −1 s −1 for the second peak observed (10%–25% of CO 2 ). For the CO 2 -N 2 , the time-of-arrival spectra displayed only one peak for CO 2 concentrations above 10%, which was attributed to ions originated in CO 2 , namely CO 2 + (CO 2 ), with a second peak appearing for CO 2 concentrations below 10%. This second peak, with higher mobility, was attributed to CO 2 + ions. The mobility values of the main peak range between 2.11 ± 0.04 and 1.10 ± 0.03 cm 2 V −1 s −1 in the 1%–99% interval of CO 2 , while the second peak's from 2.26 ± 0.02 and 1.95 ± 0.04 cm 2 V −1 s −1 (1%–10% of CO 2 ). The inverse of the mobility displays an aproximately linear dependence on the CO 2 concentration in the mixture.

  10. Nepenthes pitchers are CO2-enriched cavities, emit CO2to attract preys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Zachariah, Elavinamannil Jacob; Hussain, Abdul Azeez

    2017-09-12

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes supplement their nutrient deficiency by capturing arthropods or by mutualistic interactions, through their leaf-evolved biological traps (pitchers). Though there are numerous studies on these traps, mostly on their prey capture mechanisms, the gas composition inside them remains unknown. Here we show that, Nepenthes unopened pitchers are CO 2 -enriched 'cavities', when open they emit CO 2 , and the CO 2 gradient around open pitchers acts as a cue attracting preys towards them. CO 2 contents in near mature, unopened Nepenthes pitchers were in the range 2500-5000 ppm. Gas collected from inside open N. khasiana pitchers showed CO 2 at 476.75 ± 59.83 ppm. CO 2 -enriched air-streaming through N. khasiana pitchers (at 619.83 ± 4.53 ppm) attracted (captured) substantially higher number of aerial preys compared to air-streamed pitchers (CO 2 at 412.76 ± 4.51 ppm). High levels of CO 2 dissolved in acidic Nepenthes pitcher fluids were also detected. We demonstrate respiration as the source of elevated CO 2 within Nepenthes pitchers. Most unique features of Nepenthes pitchers, viz., high growth rate, enhanced carbohydrate levels, declined protein levels, low photosynthetic capacity, high respiration rate and evolved stomata, are influenced by the CO 2 -enriched environment within them.

  11. Primary, secondary, and tertiary amines for CO2 capture: designing for mesoporous CO2 adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Seung Su; Choi, Ung Su

    2011-09-15

    CO(2) emissions, from fossil-fuel-burning power plants, the breathing, etc., influence the global worming on large scale and the man's work efficiency on small scale. The reversible capture of CO(2) is a prominent feature of CO(2) organic-inorganic hybrid adsorbent to sequester CO(2). Herein, (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS), [3-(methylamino)propyl] trimethoxysilane (MAPTMS), and [3-(diethylamino) propyl] trimethoxysilane (DEAPTMS) are immobilized on highly ordered mesoporous silicas (SBA-15) to catch CO(2) as primary, secondary, and tertiary aminosilica adsorbents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the immobilized APTMS, MAPTMS, and DEAPTMS on the SBA-15. We report an interesting discovery that the CO(2) adsorption and desorption on the adsorbent depend on the amine type of the aminosilica adsorbent. The adsorbed CO(2) was easily desorbed from the adsorbent with the low energy consumption in the order of tertiary, secondary, and primary amino-adsorbents while the adsorption amount and the bonding-affinity increased in the reverse order. The effectiveness of amino-functionalized (1(o), 2(o), and 3(o) amines) SBA-15s as a CO(2) capturing agent was investigated in terms of adsorption capacity, adsorption-desorption kinetics, and thermodynamics. This work demonstrates apt amine types to catch CO(2) and regenerate the adsorbent, which may open new avenues to designing "CO(2) basket". Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Modeling CO2 Gas Migration of Shallow Subsurface CO2 Leakage Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Plampin, M. R.; Pawar, R.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Leakage of injected CO2 into shallow subsurface aquifers or back into the atmosphere at geologic carbon sequestration sites is a risk that must be minimized. One potential CO2 leakage pathway involves the transport of dissolved CO2 into a shallow aquifer where the CO2 exsolves, forming a free CO2 gas phase that subsequently migrates through the aquifer. In order to reduce the negative effects of CO2 exsolution, it is important to fully understand each of the processes controlling the movement CO2, as well as the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on the overall fate and transport of CO2. In this work, we present multiphase flow simulations of intermediate scale CO2 exsolution experiments. The multiphase flow simulations were carried out using the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer code (FEHM) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Simulations were first designed to model experiments conducted in two different homogeneous packed sands. PEST (Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) was used to optimize multiphase flow parameters (i.e., porosity, permeability, relative permeability, and capillary pressure) within FEHM. The optimized parameters were subsequently used to model heterogeneous experiments consisting of various packing configurations using the same sands. Comparisons of CO2 saturation between experiments and simulations will be presented and analyzed.

  13. Highly CO2 sensitive extruded fluorescent plastic indicator film based on HPTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Yusufu, Dilidaer

    2016-02-07

    Highly-sensitive optical fluorescent extruded plastic films are reported for the detection of gaseous and dissolved CO2. The pH-sensitive fluorescent dye used is 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS, PTS(-)) coated on the surface of hydrophilic fumed silica and the base is tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH). The above components are used to create an HPTS pigment (i.e. HPTS/SiO2/TBAH) with a high CO2 sensitivity (%CO2 (S = 1/2) = 0.16%) and fast 50% response (t50↓) = 2 s and recovery (t50↑) = 5 s times. Highly CO2-sensitive plastic films are then fabricated, via the extrusion of the HPTS pigment powder in low-density polyethylene (LDPE). As with the HPTS-pigment, the luminescence intensity (at 515 nm) and absorbance (at 475 nm) of the HPTS plastic film decreases as the %CO2 in the ambient gas phase increases. The HPTS plastic film exhibits a high CO2 sensitivity, %CO2 (S = 1/2), of 0.29%, but a response time six month when stored in the dark but under otherwise ambient conditions). Moreover, the HPTS-LDPE film is stable in water, salt solution and even in acid (pH = 2), and in each of these media it can be used to detect dissolved CO2.

  14. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Response of Microbial Reactions to High CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qusheng; Kirk, Matthew F.

    2016-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses. PMID:27909425

  15. Thermodynamic and kinetic response of microbial reactions to high CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusheng Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses.

  16. Is there a decrease in the sink of atmospheric CO2 in the Nordic seas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Are; Anderson, Leif G.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that the seas off Norway sink a lot of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, mainly because of the large heat loss from the sea in the area, which makes CO 2 more soluble in the water. Whether this sink has increased after the industrial revolution and thereby contributes to slowing down the increase of atmospheric CO 2 is uncertain. That is, it is uncertain whether there is a sink of anthropogenic CO 2 . There are indications that the opposite is true, that the sink of CO 2 in this area has slowed down along with the rise in the concentration of atmospheric CO 2 . Storing of anthropogenic CO 2 , however, takes place at higher latitudes where deep-water formation occurs, such as in the Nordic seas, where water that is saturated with anthropogenic CO 2 is transported down in the deep sea and becomes shielded from the atmosphere. Model calculations show that increased CO 2 in the atmosphere will reduce the sink of this gas in the Nordic seas. This conclusion is supported by observations from the Barents Sea

  17. On CO2 Behavior in the Subsurface, Following Leakage from aGeologic Storage Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-09

    and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely ingeologic formations. This requires an understanding of the risks andhazards associated with geologic storage, and a demonstration that therisks are acceptably small or can be mitigated. Much work is currentlyunderway to develop comprehensive approaches towards risk assessment froma systems analysis perspective, which in general requires a simplifieddescription of physical and chemical processes (Maul, et al., 2004,Espie, 2004; Wildenborg, et al., 2004; Walton, et al., 2004). This typeof approach is very important, but needs to be complemented withdevelopment of an understanding of the physical and chemical processesassociated with CO2 storage and leakage (Evans, et al.,2004).

  18. CO2-Water-Rock Wettability: Variability, Influencing Factors, and Implications for CO2Geostorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan

    2017-05-16

    Carbon geosequestration (CGS) has been identified as a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and thus significantly mitigate climate change. In CGS, CO 2 is captured from large point-source emitters (e.g., coal fired power stations), purified, and injected deep underground into geological formations for disposal. However, the CO 2 has a lower density than the resident formation brine and thus migrates upward due to buoyancy forces. To prevent the CO 2 from leaking back to the surface, four trapping mechanisms are used: (1) structural trapping (where a tight caprock acts as a seal barrier through which the CO 2 cannot percolate), (2) residual trapping (where the CO 2 plume is split into many micrometer-sized bubbles, which are immobilized by capillary forces in the pore network of the rock), (3) dissolution trapping (where CO 2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks deep into the reservoir due to a slight increase in brine density), and (4) mineral trapping (where the CO 2 introduced into the subsurface chemically reacts with the formation brine or reservoir rock or both to form solid precipitates). The efficiency of these trapping mechanisms and the movement of CO 2 through the rock are strongly influenced by the CO 2 -brine-rock wettability (mainly due to the small capillary-like pores in the rock which form a complex network), and it is thus of key importance to rigorously understand CO 2 -wettability. In this context, a substantial number of experiments have been conducted from which several conclusions can be drawn: of prime importance is the rock surface chemistry, and hydrophilic surfaces are water-wet while hydrophobic surfaces are CO 2 -wet. Note that CO 2 -wet surfaces dramatically reduce CO 2 storage capacities. Furthermore, increasing pressure, salinity, or dissolved ion valency increases CO 2 -wettability, while the effect of temperature is not well understood. Indeed theoretical understanding of CO 2 -wettability and the

  19. Elevated CO2and temperature increase soil C losses from a soybean-maize ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher K; Davis, Sarah C; Hudiburg, Tara W; Bernacchi, Carl J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2017-01-01

    Warming temperatures and increasing CO 2 are likely to have large effects on the amount of carbon stored in soil, but predictions of these effects are poorly constrained. We elevated temperature (canopy: +2.8 °C; soil growing season: +1.8 °C; soil fallow: +2.3 °C) for 3 years within the 9th-11th years of an elevated CO 2 (+200 ppm) experiment on a maize-soybean agroecosystem, measured respiration by roots and soil microbes, and then used a process-based ecosystem model (DayCent) to simulate the decadal effects of warming and CO 2 enrichment on soil C. Both heating and elevated CO 2 increased respiration from soil microbes by ~20%, but heating reduced respiration from roots and rhizosphere by ~25%. The effects were additive, with no heat × CO 2 interactions. Particulate organic matter and total soil C declined over time in all treatments and were lower in elevated CO 2 plots than in ambient plots, but did not differ between heat treatments. We speculate that these declines indicate a priming effect, with increased C inputs under elevated CO 2 fueling a loss of old soil carbon. Model simulations of heated plots agreed with our observations and predicted loss of ~15% of soil organic C after 100 years of heating, but simulations of elevated CO 2 failed to predict the observed C losses and instead predicted a ~4% gain in soil organic C under any heating conditions. Despite model uncertainty, our empirical results suggest that combined, elevated CO 2 and temperature will lead to long-term declines in the amount of carbon stored in agricultural soils. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Economic efficiency of CO2 reduction programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvonen, O.; Storch, H. von; Storch, J. von

    1993-01-01

    A highly simplified time-dependent low-dimensional system has been designed to describe conceptually the interaction of climate and economy. Enhanced emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is understood as the agent that not only favors instantaneous consumption but also causes unfavorable climate changes at a later time. The problem of balancing these two counterproductive effects of CO 2 emissions on a finite time horizon is considered. The climate system is represented by just two parameters, namely a globally averaged near-surface air-temperature and a globally averaged troposheric CO 2 concentration. The costs of abating CO 2 emissions are monitored by a function which depends quadratically on the percentage reduction of emission compared to an 'uncontrolled emission' scenario. Parameters are fitted to historical climate data and to estimates from studies of CO 2 abatement costs. Two optimization approaches, which differ from earlier attempts to describe the interaction of economy and climate, are discussed. In the 'cost oriented' strategy an optimal emission path is identified which balances the abatement costs and explicitly formulated damage costs. These damage costs, whose estimates are very uncertain, are hypothesized to be a linear function of the time-derivative of temperature. In the 'target oriented' strategy an emission path is chosen so that the abatement costs are minimal while certain restrictions on the terminal temperature and concentration change are met. (orig.)

  1. Rangeland -- plant response to elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owensby, C.E.; Coyne, P.I.; Ham, J.M.; Parton, W.; Rice, C.; Auen, L.M.; Adam, N.

    1993-01-01

    Plots of a tallgrass prairie ecosystem were exposed to ambient and twice-ambient CO 2 concentrations in open-top chambers and compared to unchambered ambient CO 2 plots during the entire growing season from 1989 through 1992. Relative root production among treatments was estimated using root ingrowth bags which remained in place throughout the growing season. Latent heat flux was simulated with and without water stress. Botanical composition was estimated annuallyin all treatments. Open-top chambers appeared to reduce latent heat flux and increase water use efficiency similar to elevated CO 2 when water stress was not severe, but under severe water stress, chamber effect on water use efficiency was limited. In natural ecosystems with periodic moisture stress, increased water use efficiency under elevated CO 2 apparently would have a greater impact on productivity than photosynthetic pathway. Root ingrowth biomass was greater in 1990 and 1991 on elevated CO 2 plots compared to ambient or chambered-ambient plots. In 1992, there was no difference in root ingrowth biomass among treatments

  2. CO2 and CO Simulations and Their Source Signature Indicated by CO/CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Randy; Huisheng, Bian

    2004-01-01

    Three years (2000-2002) atmospheric CO2 and CO fields are simulated by a Chemistry Transport Model driven by the assimilated meteorological fields from GEOS-4. The simulated CO2 and CO are evaluated by measurements from surface (CMDL), satellite (MOPITT/CO), and aircraft. The model-observation comparisons indicate reasonable agreement in both source and remote regions, and in the lower and upper troposphere. The simulation also captures the seasonality of CO2 and CO variations. The ratios of CO/CO2 are analyzed over different representative regions to identify the source signature, since the anthropogenic CO comes fiom the same combustion processes as CO2. This work enables us to improve satellite inversion estimates of CO2 sources and sinks by simultaneously using satellite CO measurement.

  3. CO2-Switchable Membranes Prepared by Immobilization of CO2-Breathing Microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhenwu; Lei, Lei; Tang, Jun; Wang, Jianli; Zhu, Shiping

    2017-12-20

    Herein, we report the development of a novel CO 2 -responsive membrane system through immobilization of CO 2 -responsive microgels into commercially available microfiltration membranes using a method of dynamic adsorption. The microgels, prepared from soap-free emulsion polymerization of CO 2 -responsive monomer 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEA), can be reversibly expanded and shrunken upon CO 2 /N 2 alternation. When incorporated into the membranes, this switching behavior was preserved and further led to transformation between microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes, as indicated from the dramatic changes on water flux and BSA rejection results. This CO 2 -regulated performance switching of membranes was caused by the changes of water transportation channel, as revealed from the dynamic water contact angle tests and SEM observation. This work represents a simple yet versatile strategy for making CO 2 -responsive membranes.

  4. CO2 sensing and CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance: advances and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Cawas; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense CO2 concentration changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in CO2-regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars which perform better in a shifting climate. PMID:26482956

  5. Effective CO2 lifetime and future CO2 levels based on fit function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Sonnemann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimated global CO2 emission rates and the measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations show that only a certain share of the emitted CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere. For given atmospheric emissions of CO2, the effective lifetime determines its accumulation in the atmosphere and, consequently, its impact on the future global warming. We found that on average the inferred effective lifetime of CO2 decreases as its atmospheric concentration increases, reducing the rate of its accumulation in the atmosphere. We derived a power function that fits the varying lifetimes. Based on this fitting function, we calculated the increase of CO2 for different scenarios of future global emission rates.

  6. CO2-based hydrogen storage: CO2 hydrogenation to formic acid, formaldehyde and methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The storage of hydrogen via hydrogenation of CO2 to small organic molecules can be attractive for mobile applications. In this article, the state of the art regarding hydrogen storage in Methanol, Formic Acid as well as Formaldehyde and derivates based on CO2 hydrogenation is summarized. The reverse reaction, the release of hydrogen from these molecules is also crucial and described in the articles together with possible concepts for the use of hydrogen storage by CO2 hydrogenation.

  7. Behavior of CO2/water flow in porous media for CO2geological storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Yu, Minghao; Liu, Yu; Yang, Mingjun; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Ziqiu; Suekane, Tetsuya; Song, Yongchen

    2017-04-01

    A clear understanding of two-phase fluid flow properties in porous media is of importance to CO 2 geological storage. The study visually measured the immiscible and miscible displacement of water by CO 2 using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and investigated the factor influencing the displacement process in porous media which were filled with quartz glass beads. For immiscible displacement at slow flow rates, the MR signal intensity of images increased because of CO 2 dissolution; before the dissolution phenomenon became inconspicuous at flow rate of 0.8mLmin -1 . For miscible displacement, the MR signal intensity decreased gradually independent of flow rates, because supercritical CO 2 and water became miscible in the beginning of CO 2 injection. CO 2 channeling or fingering phenomena were more obviously observed with lower permeable porous media. Capillary force decreases with increasing particle size, which would increase permeability and allow CO 2 and water to invade into small pore spaces more easily. The study also showed CO 2 flow patterns were dominated by dimensionless capillary number, changing from capillary finger to stable flow. The relative permeability curve was calculated using Brooks-Corey model, while the results showed the relative permeability of CO 2 slightly decreases with the increase of capillary number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evasion of CO2 injected into the ocean in the context of CO2 stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2004-01-01

    The eventual evasion of injected CO 2 to the atmosphere is one consideration when assessing deep-sea disposal of CO 2 as a potential response option to climate change concerns. Evasion estimated using an ocean carbon cycle model is compared to long-term trajectories for future CO 2 emissions, including illustrative cases leading to stabilization of CO 2 concentration at various levels. Modeled residence time for CO 2 injected into the deep ocean exceeds the 100-year time-scale usually considered in scenarios for future emissions, and the potential impacts of climate change. Illustrative cases leading monotonically to constant CO 2 concentration have been highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to give guidance on possible timing of emission reductions that may be required to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at various levels. For stabilization cases considered, significant modeled evasion does not occur until long after CO 2 emissions have reached a maximum and begun to decline. Illustrative cases can also lead to a maximum in CO 2 concentration followed by a decline to slowly decreasing concentrations. In such cases, future injection of emissions into the deep ocean leads to lower maximum CO 2 concentration, with less effect on concentration later on in time

  9. Effect of Uncertainties in CO2 Property Databases on the S-CO2 Compressor Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Seong Gu; Cha, Je Eun

    2013-01-01

    Various S-CO 2 Brayton cycle experiment facilities are on the state of construction or operation for demonstration of the technology. However, during the data analysis, S-CO 2 property databases are widely used to predict the performance and characteristics of S-CO 2 Brayton cycle. Thus, a reliable property database is very important before any experiment data analyses or calculation. In this paper, deviation of two different property databases which are widely used for the data analysis will be identified by using three selected properties for comparison, C p , density and enthalpy. Furthermore, effect of above mentioned deviation on the analysis of test data will be briefly discussed. From this deviation, results of the test data analysis can have critical error. As the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle researcher knows, CO 2 near the critical point has dramatic change on thermodynamic properties. Thus, it is true that a potential error source of property prediction exists in CO 2 properties near the critical point. During an experiment data analysis with the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle experiment facility, thermodynamic properties are always involved to predict the component performance and characteristics. Thus, construction or defining of precise CO 2 property database should be carried out to develop Korean S-CO 2 Brayton cycle technology

  10. The Abundance of Atmospheric CO_2 in Ocean Exoplanets: a Novel CO_2 Deposition Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, A.; Sasselov, D.; Podolak, M.

    2017-01-01

    We consider super-Earth sized planets which have a water mass fraction large enough to form an external mantle composed of high-pressure water-ice polymorphs and also lack a substantial H/He atmosphere. We consider such planets in their habitable zone, so that their outermost condensed mantle is a global, deep, liquid ocean. For these ocean planets, we investigate potential internal reservoirs of CO_2, the amount of CO_2 dissolved in the ocean for the various saturation conditions encountered, and the ocean-atmosphere exchange flux of CO_2. We find that, in a steady state, the abundance of CO_2 in the atmosphere has two possible states. When wind-driven circulation is the dominant CO_2 exchange mechanism, an atmosphere of tens of bars of CO_2 results, where the exact value depends on the subtropical ocean surface temperature and the deep ocean temperature. When sea-ice formation, acting on these planets as a CO_2 deposition mechanism, is the dominant exchange mechanism, an atmosphere of a few bars of CO_2 is established. The exact value depends on the subpolar surface temperature. Our results suggest the possibility of a negative feedback mechanism, unique to water planets, where a reduction in the subpolar temperature drives more CO_2 into the atmosphere to increase the greenhouse effect.

  11. The idea of global CO2 trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO 2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO 2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO 2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future

  12. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost......-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably...... not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future....

  13. CO2 utilization: Developments in conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan Alper

    2017-03-01

    The potential utilization of CO2, captured at power plants, should also been taken into consideration for sustainability. This CO2 source, which is potentially a raw material for the chemical industry, will be available at sufficient quality and at gigantic quantity upon realization of on-going tangible capture projects. Products resulting from carboxylation reactions are obvious conversions. In addition, provided that enough supply of energy from non-fossil resources, such as solar [1], is ensured, CO2 reduction reactions can produce several valuable commodity chemicals including multi-carbon compounds, such as ethylene and acrylic acid, in addition to C1 chemicals and polymers. Presently, there are only few developing technologies which can find industrial applications. Therefore, there is a need for concerted research in order to assess the viability of these promising exploratory technologies rationally.

  14. Upscaling of enzyme enhanced CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold

    the mass transfer of CO2 with slow-capturing but energetically favorable solvents can open up a variety of new process options for this technology. The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which enhances the mass transfer of CO2 in the lungs by catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2, is one very...... promising mass transfer rate promoter for CCS. This process has been previously been tested successfully in lab scale and in some rare cases in pilot scale, but no validated process model for this technology has been published yet. This PhD thesis presents an investigation of the feasibility of enzyme...... enzyme kinetic model and validating it against in-house pilot plant experiments. The work consisted of identifying a suitable enzyme-solvent system and the ideal process conditions by comparing mass transfer rates of different solvents and enzyme enhanced solvents in a lab scale wetted wall column...

  15. Assessment of CO2 free energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, N.; Raseta, D.; Matutinovic, I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the European Union climate and energy targets is to significantly reduce CO 2 emissions, at least 20% by 2020, compared to 1990. In the power industry, most popular solution is use of solar and wind power. Since their production varies significantly during the day, for the purpose of base-load production they can be paired with gas-fired power plant. Other possible CO 2 -free solution is nuclear power plant. This article compared predicted cost of energy production for newly built nuclear power plant and newly built combination of wind or solar and gas-fired power plant. Comparison was done using Levelized Unit of Energy Cost (LUEC). Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo method. For input parameters that have biggest uncertainty (gas cost, CO 2 emission fee) those uncertainties were addressed not only through probability distribution around predicted value, but also through different scenarios. Power plants were compared based on their economic lifetime. (authors)

  16. Membraneless water filtration using CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Shardt, Orest; Warren, Patrick B; Stone, Howard A

    2017-05-02

    Water purification technologies such as microfiltration/ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis utilize porous membranes to remove suspended particles and solutes. These membranes, however, cause many drawbacks such as a high pumping cost and a need for periodic replacement due to fouling. Here we show an alternative membraneless method for separating suspended particles by exposing the colloidal suspension to CO 2 . Dissolution of CO 2 into the suspension creates solute gradients that drive phoretic motion of particles. Due to the large diffusion potential generated by the dissociation of carbonic acid, colloidal particles move either away from or towards the gas-liquid interface depending on their surface charge. Using the directed motion of particles induced by exposure to CO 2 , we demonstrate a scalable, continuous flow, membraneless particle filtration process that exhibits low energy consumption, three orders of magnitude lower than conventional microfiltration/ultrafiltration processes, and is essentially free from fouling.

  17. Molecular simulations of CO2 at interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestri, Alessandro

    . DFT has some advantages over MD in terms of computational cost but MD allows exploration of larger and more complex systems. Dierent options for geologic storage of CO2 have been proposed. Carbonate minerals are ubiquitous, limestone, chalk and marble constitute a signicant fraction of the sedimentary...... rock record and the formations are generally porous so their probable response to CO2 sequestration needs to be investigated. However, despite the large number of geologic sequestration publications on water{rock interactions over the last decade, studies on carbonate reservoirs remain scarce....... Carbonate reservoirs are being considered as CO2 storage sites so more information is needed, for providing data for safety assessment models and for fundamental understanding of the relevant processes and their in uence. Theoretical approaches for the carbonate minerals are even more scarce and only few...

  18. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng

    2008-01-01

    the concentration and flux fields against those of a uniform forested surface. We use an atmospheric boundary layer two-equation closure model that accounts for the flow dynamics and vertical divergence of CO2 sources/sinks within a plant canopy. This paper characterizes the spatial variation of CO2 fluxes...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...... monotonously. Such a variation is caused by scalar advection in the trunk space and reveals itself as a decrease or increase in vertical fluxes over the forest relative to carbon dioxide exchange of the underlying forest. The effect was more pronounced in model forests where the leaf area is concentrated...

  19. A cost effective CO2 strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are evaluated according to CO2 reduction potential and according to the ‘shadow price’ on a reduction of one ton CO2. The shadow price reflects the costs (and benefits) of the different measures. Comparing the measures it is possible to identify cost effective measures, but these measures are not necessarily......) between measures are also addressed. It has not been possible to analyse combinations and packages of measures consistently in a model like the on outlined above. However, the obvious connections are addressed and clearly show the limitations with respect to fulfilling the target set by the Kyoto protocol...... national strategies for climate and transport and associated implementation deficits will be discussed, reflecting the presently changing institutional conditions for policy formulation and implementation. The main differences compared to earlier CO2 strategies are the EU ETS and targets set for non...

  20. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237783; The ATLAS collaboration; Zwalinski, L.; Bortolin, C.; Vogt, S.; Godlewski, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Van Overbeek, M.; Blaszcyk, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity.

  1. Decoupling of CO2 emissions and GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Rocha de Salles Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work is to analyze the variation of CO2 emissions and GDP per capita throughout the years and identify the possible interaction between them. For this purpose, data from the International Energy Agency was collected on two countries, Brazil and the one with the highest GDP worldwide, the United States. Thus, the results showed that CO2 emissions have been following the country’s economic growth for many years. However, these two indicators have started to decouple in the US in 2007 while in Brazil the same happened in 2011. Furthermore, projections for CO2 emissions are made until 2040, considering 6 probable scenarios. These projections showed that even if the oil price decreases, the emissions will not be significantly affected as long as the economic growth does not decelerate.

  2. Photovoltaic Parks' Impact On Soil CO2 Releasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodea, Larisa; Popescu, Iustina; Gabriela, Dorobantu; Deák, Gyorgy

    2015-04-01

    The sun provides a tremendous source for generating green and sustainable energy without any greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Even though photovoltaic energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, its development poses new environmental questions and potential threats. Due to its no GHG emissions property, photovoltaic energy grew at an unprecedented rate at global level, expanding by 50 % per year over the last decade. Unfortunately, there is still a knowledge gap on the long-term effects of photovoltaic parks on habitat loss, on soil quality, and hence on soil carbon dynamics. This subject should draw scientists' attention due to the occurred land use changes, possible soil compaction, potential alteration of drainage channels, increased runoff and erosion, use of herbicides which may leach to groundwater, but mainly due to the soil probability to lose the storing capacity of organic C, leading to CO2 emissions. Soil capacity of storing organic C emission may be affected by photovoltaic parks construction as follows: soil temperature increase due to poor ventilation, changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration processes, the balance of direct and diffuse radiation, climate induced changes in plant and soil microbial community composition and activity, but not only. Anyhow, studies reported by other authors showed that CO2 emission led by removal of vegetation followed by photovoltaic parks construction is high, total organic C remained 30 % lower than on undisturbed areas. The aim of this study was to perform an in-depth analysis of photovoltaic parks development in Romania and to assess their potential impact on below-ground organic C pools regarding the increasing of C release back into the atmosphere as CO2. The study showed that the photovoltaic parks constructed in Romania reached, until the January 2014, a total installed power of 1022 MW, some of them being installed on arable land, thus changing land use and posing a risk to soil

  3. Local CO2-induced swelling of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluymakers, Anne; Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    2017-04-01

    In heterogeneous shale rocks, CO2 adsorbs more strongly to organic matter than to the other components. CO2-induced swelling of organic matter has been shown in coal, which is pure carbon. The heterogeneity of the shale matrix makes an interesting case study. Can local swelling through adsorption of CO2 to organic matter induce strain in the surrounding shale matrix? Can fractures close due to CO2-induced swelling of clays and organic matter? We have developed a new generation of microfluidic high pressure cells (up to 100 bar), which can be used to study flow and adsorption phenomena at the microscale in natural geo-materials. The devices contain one transparent side and a shale sample on the other side. The shale used is the Pomeranian shale, extracted from 4 km depth in Poland. This formation is a potential target of a combined CO2-storage and gas extraction project. To answer the first question, we place the pressure cell under a Veeco NT1100 Interferometer, operated in Vertical Scanning Interferometry mode and equipped with a Through Transmissive Media objective. This allows for observation of local swelling or organic matter with nanometer vertical resolution and micrometer lateral resolution. We expose the sample to CO2 atmospheres at different pressures. Comparison of the interferometry data and using SEM-EDS maps plus optical microscopy delivers local swelling maps where we can distinguish swelling of different mineralogies. Preliminary results indicate minor local swelling of organic matter, where the total amount is both time- and pressure-dependent.

  4. Status of Geological Storage of CO2 as Part of Negative Emissions Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent analyses show that many GHG stabilization scenarios require technologies that permanently extract CO2 from the atmosphere -so-called "net negative emissions." Among the most promising negative emissions approaches is bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). The most mature options for CO2 storage are in sedimentary rocks located in thick sedimentary basins. Within those basins, CO2 can be stored either in depleted or depleting hydrocarbon formations or in so-called saline aquifers. In addition to the economic costs of bioenergy with CO2 capture, key to the success of and scale at which BECCS can contribute to negative emissions is the ability to store quantities on the order of 1 Gt per year of CO2. Today, about 65 Mt of CO2 per year are injected underground for the purposes of enhancing oil recovery (CO2-EOR) or for CO2 storage, the vast majority being for CO2-EOR. Achieving 1 Gt per year of negative emissions will require a 15-fold scale up of the current injection operations. This paper will review the conditions necessary for storage at this scale, identify what has been learned from nearly 2 decades of experience with CO2 storage that provides insight into the feasibility of CO2 storage on this scale, and identify critical issues that remain to be resolved to meet these ambitious negative emissions targets. Critical technological issues include but are not limited to: the amount of CO2 storage capacity that is available and where it is located in relation to biomass energy resources; identification of sustainable injection rates and how this depends on the properties of the geological formation; the extent to which water extraction will be required to manage the magnitude of pressure buildup; identification of regions at high risk for induced seismicity that could damage structures and infrastructure; and selection of sites with a adequate seals to permanently contain CO2. Social, economic and political issues are also important: including the

  5. Soil CO2 production in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna Lee; Edward A.G. Schuur; Jason G. Vogel

    2010-01-01

    Permafrost soils store nearly half of global soil carbon (C), and therefore permafrost thawing could lead to large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions via decomposition of soil organic matter. When ice-rich permafrost thaws, it creates a localized surface subsidence called thermokarst terrain, which changes the soil microenvironment. We used soil profile CO2...

  6. Studying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through Carbon-13 stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Thesis ‘Studying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through carbon-13 stable isotopes’ Ivar van der Velde Making predictions of future climate is difficult, mainly due to large uncertainties in the carbon cycle. The rate at which carbon is stored in the oceans and terrestrial

  7. System to determine leaf photosynthetic activity by means of 14CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1977-01-01

    A method to determine leaf photosynthetic activity is described. 14 CO 2 labeled air is produced from 14 CO 3 Ba and stored in a poliethylene balloon and supplied by means of an automatic dispenser to a perspex chamber inside of which is the leaf. (author) [es

  8. An integrated GIS-MARKAL toolbox for designing a CO2 infrastructure network in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, M.A.; Brederode, E.; Ramirez, C.A.; Kramers, K.; van der Kuip, M.; Wildenborg, T.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale implementation of carbon capture and storage needs a whole new infrastructure to transport and store CO2. Tools that can support planning and designing of such infrastructure require incorporation of both temporal and spatial aspects. Therefore, a toolbox that integrates ArcGIS, a

  9. Studying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through Carbon-13 stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Thesis ‘Studying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through

    carbon-13 stable isotopes’

    Ivar van der Velde

    Making predictions of future climate is difficult, mainly due to large uncertainties in the carbon cycle. The rate at which carbon is stored in the oceans and

  10. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late

  11. Kronikken: Handel og handling med CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    De fleksible mekanismer i Kyoto-aftalen fortjener indgående overvejelser, ikke kun fordi de giver mulighed for en rabat på CO2-reduktionen, men også fordi de rummer globale og sikkerhedspolitiske dimensioner som er essentielle.......De fleksible mekanismer i Kyoto-aftalen fortjener indgående overvejelser, ikke kun fordi de giver mulighed for en rabat på CO2-reduktionen, men også fordi de rummer globale og sikkerhedspolitiske dimensioner som er essentielle....

  12. Modelling the Martian CO2 Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listowski, Constantino; Määttänen, A.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.

    2012-10-01

    Martian CO2 ice cloud formation represents a rare phenomenon in the Solar System: the condensation of the main component of the atmosphere. Moreover, on Mars, condensation occurs in a rarefied atmosphere (large Knudsen numbers, Kn) that limits the growth efficiency. These clouds form in the polar winter troposphere and in the mesosphere near the equator. CO2 ice cloud modeling has turned out to be challenging: recent efforts (e.g. [1]) fail in explaining typical small sizes (80 nm-130 nm) observed for mesospheric clouds [2]. Supercold pockets (TWood, S. E., (1999), Ph.D. thesis, UCLA [6] Young, J. B., J. Geophys. Res., 36, 294-2956, 1993

  13. Capture and Geological Storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.; Brockett, S.; Hegan, L.; Barbucci, P.; Tullius, K.; Scott, J.; Otter, N.; Cook, P.; Hill, G.; Dino, R.; Aimard, N.; Giese, R.; Christensen, N.P.; Munier, G.; Paelinck, Ph.; Rayna, L.; Stromberg, L.; Birat, J.P.; Audigane, P.; Loizzo, M.; Arts, R.; Fabriol, H.; Radgen, P.; Hartwell, J.; Wartmann, S.; Drosin, E.; Willnow, K.; Moisan, F.

    2009-01-01

    To build on the growing success of the first two international symposia on emission reduction and CO 2 capture and geological storage, held in Paris in 2005 and again in 2007, IFP, ADEME and BRGM organised a third event on the same topic the 5-6 November 2009. This time, the focus was on the urgency of industrial deployment. Indeed, the IPCC 4. assessment report indicates that the world must achieve a 50 to 85% reduction in CO 2 emissions by 2050 compared to 2000, in order to limit the global temperature increase to around 2 deg. C. Moreover, IPCC stresses that a 'business as usual' scenario could lead to a temperature increase of between 4 deg. C to 7 deg. C across the planet. The symposium was organized in 4 sessions: Session I - Regulatory framework and strategies for enabling CCS deployment: - CCS: international status of political, regulatory and financing issues (Tom Kerr, IEA); - EC regulatory framework (Scott Brockett, European Commission, DG ENV); - Canada's investments towards implementation of CCS in Canada (Larry Hegan, Office of Energy Research and Development - Government of Canada); - A power company perspective (Pietro Barbucci, ENEL); - EC CCS demonstration network (Kai Tullius, European Commission, DG TREN); - Strategies and policies for accelerating global CCS deployment (Jesse Scott, E3G); - The global CCS Institute, a major initiative to facilitate the rapid deployment of CCS (Nick Otter, GCCSI); Session II - From pilot to demonstration projects: - Otway project, Australia (David Hilditch, CO2 CRC); - US regional partnerships (Gerald Hill, Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - SECARB); - CCS activities in Brazil (Rodolfo Dino, Petrobras); - Lessons learnt from Ketzin CO2Sink project in Germany (Ruediger Giese, GFZ); - CO 2 storage - from laboratory to reality (Niels-Peter Christensen, Vattenfall); - Valuation and storage of CO 2 : A global project for carbon management in South-East France (Gilles Munier, Geogreen); Session III

  14. CO2 convective dissolution controlled by temporal changes in free-phase CO2 properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Raad, S. M.; Emami-Meybodi, H.; Hassanzadeh, H.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the factors that control CO2 convective dissolution, which is one of the permanent trapping mechanisms, in the deep saline aquifer is crucial in the long-term fate of the injected CO2. The present study investigates the effects of temporal changes in the solubility of CO2 at the free-phase CO2/brine interface on the onset of natural convection and the subsequent convective mixing by conducting linear stability analyses (LSA) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). A time-dependent concentration boundary is considered for the free-phase CO2/brine interface where the CO2 concentration first decreases with the time and then remains constant. The LSA results show that the temporal variation in the concentration increases the onset of natural convection up to two orders of magnitude. In addition, the critical Rayleigh number significantly increases as CO2 concentration decreases. In other words, size and pressure of the injected CO2 affect the commencement of convective mixing. Based on LSA results, several scaling relations are proposed to correlate critical Rayleigh number, critical time, and its corresponding wavenumbers with time-dependent boundary's parameters, such as concentration decline rate and equilibrium concentration ratio. The DNS results reveal that the convective fingering patterns are significantly influenced by the variation of CO2 concentration at the interface. These findings improve our understanding of CO2 solubility trapping and are particularly important in estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage sites characterization and screening. Keywords: CO2 sequestration; natural convection; solubility trapping; time-dependent boundary condition; numerical simulation; stability analysis

  15. Competing roles of rising CO2 and climate change in the contemporary European carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hughes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems respond to, and may affect climate change through uptake and storage of atmospheric CO2. Here we use the land-surface and carbon cycle model JULES to simulate the contemporary European carbon balance and its sensitivity to rising CO2 and changes in climate. We find that the impact of climate change is to decrease the ability of Europe to store carbon by 97 TgC yr−1. In contrast, the effect of rising atmospheric CO2 has been to stimulate increased uptake and storage. The CO2 effect is currently dominant leading to a net increase of 114 TgC yr−1. Our simulations do not at present include other important factors such as land use and management, the effects of forest age classes and nitrogen deposition. Understanding this balance and its implications for mitigation policies is becoming increasingly important.

  16. CO2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, Steffen; Mayer-Spohn, Oliver; Fahl, Ulrich; Blesl, Markus; Voss, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    A survey of LCA studies on nuclear electricity generation revealed life cycle CO 2 emissions ranging between 3 g/kWhe to 60 g/kWhe and above. Firstly, this paper points out the discrepancies in studies by estimating the CO 2 emissions of nuclear power generation. Secondly, the paper sets out to provide critical review of future developments of the fuel cycle for light water reactors and illustrates the impact of uncertainties on the specific CO 2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation. Each step in the fuel cycle will be considered and with regard to the CO 2 emissions analysed. Thereby different assumptions and uncertainty levels are determined for the nuclear fuel cycle. With the impacts of low uranium ore grades for mining and milling as well as higher burn-up rates future fuel characteristics are considered. Sensitivity analyses are performed for all fuel processing steps, for different technical specifications of light water reactors as well as for further external frame conditions. (authors)

  17. Plasma Arc Augmented CO2 laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Andersen, Mikkel; Frederiksen, Niels

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the hardness of laser beam welded 2.13 mm medium strength steel CMn 250, a plasma arc has been used simultaneously with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser source. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the plasma arc current, plasma gas flow and distance to the laser source were varied...

  18. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J. M

    2009-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2-10 degrees C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows...

  19. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...

  20. Artificial photosynthesis - CO2 towards methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, D.; Czech, B.

    2011-03-01

    The new insight into the problem of carbon dioxide utilization into valuable compound - methanol and then its transformation into fuel is presented. Because the highly endothermic requirements of the reaction of CO2 hydrogenation a photocatalytic route is applied. Combining of the two reactions: water splitting and CO2 hydrogenation using H2O as a source of hydrogen at the same time and place are proposed. The studies over modified TiO2 catalysts supported on Al2O3 were conducted in a self-designed circulated photocatalytic reaction system under at room temperature and constant pressure. Experimental results indicated that the highest yield of the photoreduction of CO2 with H2O were obtained using TiO2 with the active anatase phase modified by Ru and WO3 addition. The conversion was very high - almost 97% of CO2 was transformed mainly into methanol (14%vol.) and into small amount of formic and acetic acid and ester.

  1. Harvesting Energy from CO2 Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaetzle, O.; Paz-García, J.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    When two fluids with different compositions are mixed, mixing energy is released. This holds true for both liquids and gases, though in the case of gases, no technology is yet available to harvest this energy source. Mixing the CO2 in combustion gases with air represents a source of energy with a

  2. Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilizing strain database

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... CSD can be used to gain information related to CO2 fixing microbes. It can also contribute to devising biological strategies for reducing carbon dioxide from the environment. It introduces an innovative idea of exploring the potential of these bacterial strains for reversing global warming. The CSD can be.

  3. Climate change and CO2 emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Duong, M.; Campos, A.S.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents the results of an opinion poll performed on a representative sample of 1000 persons about their sensitivity to climate change and to environment protection, their knowledge about technologies which are useful for environment protection, their opinion about geological CO 2 sequestration, and technologies to be developed to struggle against climate warming

  4. CO2 laser used in cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chenglie

    1993-03-01

    Cases of various kinds of warts, nevi, papillomas, skin angiomas, ephilises, skin vegetation, scars and brandy noses were vaporized and solidified with a 2.5 - 8 W low power CO2 laser with an overall satisfaction rate up to 99.8% and the satisfaction rate for one time 92%.

  5. CO2 laser in stapes surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Sergije; Schoenfeld, Uwe; Berghaus, Andreas; Fischer, R.; Scherer, Hans H.

    1993-07-01

    Stapedotomy is not only one of the most successful interventions in otology but also one of the most dangerous for the inner ear. To reduce the risk of damaging middle and inner ear structures through manipulations with conventional instruments, the CO2 laser beam is used for perforating the footplate and removing the suprastructures. This non-contact technique aims at precise and controlled management of middle ear structures. Consideration is given to the impact of experimental data on the clinical application of the CO2 laser in stapes surgery. The discussion covers the advantages and disadvantages with regard to optical and tissue-related properties and points out possible dangers to the inner ear. Our experimental and clinical experience is taken as a basis for examining the surgical technique and the varying demands made on the laser beam in treating the stapedial tendon, crura and footplate. Attention is called to the need for additional instruments. Effective energy parameters for CO2 laser stapedeotomy are evaluated for different lasers. Application of the CO2 laser contributes towards optimization of this high-precision intervention and promises to reduce the incidence of inner ear damages in large numbers of cases. This technique appears useful particularly in difficult anatomic situations and, above all, for revisional operations.

  6. Managing CO2 emissions in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obioh, I.B.; Oluwole, A.F.; Akeredolu, F.A.

    1994-01-01

    The energy resources in Nigeria are nearly equally divided between fossil fuels and biofuels. The increasing pressure on them, following expected increased population growth, may lead to substantial emissions of carbon into the atmosphere. Additionally agricultural and forestry management practices in vogue are those related to savannah burning and rotational bush fallow systems, which have been clearly implicated as important sources of CO 2 and trace gases. An integrated model for the prediction of future CO 2 emissions based on fossil fuels and biomass fuels requirements, rates of deforestation and other land-use indices is presented. This is further based on trends in population and economic growth up to the year 2025, with a base year in 1988. A coupled carbon cycle-climate model based on the contribution of CO 2 and other trace gases is established from the proportions of integrated global warming effects for a 20-year averaging time using the product of global warming potential (GWP) and total emissions. An energy-technology inventory approach to optimal resources management is used as a tool for establishing the future scope of reducing the CO 2 emissions through improved fossil fuel energy efficiencies. Scenarios for reduction based on gradual to swift shifts from biomass to fossil and renewable fuels are presented together with expected policy options required to effect them

  7. Detection of 14CO2 in radiotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, Francoise; Bocquet, Colette.

    1980-12-01

    14 CO 2 is detected in exhaled air by conversion to Ba 14 CO 3 which is then filtered, dried and weighed. The radioactivity is measured by liquid scintillation counting. The radioactivity is expressed in μCi per litre of exhaled air according to the ICRP recommendations. The detection threshold is well below the values indicated by the ICRP [fr

  8. Stereotactic CO2 laser therapy for hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozodoy-Pins, Rebecca L.; Harrington, James A.; Zazanis, George A.; Nosko, Michael G.; Lehman, Richard M.

    1994-05-01

    A new fiber-optic delivery system for CO2 radiation has been used to successfully treat non-communicating hydrocephalus. This system consists of a hollow sapphire waveguide employed in the lumen of a stereotactically-guided neuroendoscope. CO2 gas flows through the bore of the hollow waveguide, creating a path for the laser beam through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This delivery system has the advantages of both visualization and guided CO2 laser radiation without the same 4.3 mm diameter scope. Several patients with hydrocephalus were treated with this new system. The laser was used to create a passage in the floor of the ventricle to allow the flow of CSF from the ventricles to the sub-arachnoid space. Initial postoperative results demonstrated a relief of the clinical symptoms. Long-term results will indicate if this type of therapy will be superior to the use of implanted silicone shunts. Since CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 micrometers is strongly absorbed by the water in tissue and CSF, damage to tissue surrounding the lesion with each laser pulse is limited. The accuracy and safety of this technique may prove it to be an advantageous therapy for obstructive hydrocephalus.

  9. Heterotrophic fixation of CO2 in soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Elhottová, Dana; Novák, Jaroslav; Picek, T.; Šimek, Miloslav; Tykva, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 218-225 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/1036; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6066901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : heterotrophic fixation * CO2 * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2005

  10. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    , the capacity of synthetic raw meal was similar to that of pure limestone, whereas at 950 °C in N2 and in a CO2-rich atmosphere there was a significant difference. The SEM and BET analyses indicate that sintering is the main reason for the lower capture capacity of the limestone in the raw meal. The main...

  11. Exercise carbon dioxide (CO2) retention with inhaled CO2 and breathing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shykoff, Barbara E; Warkander, Dan E

    2012-01-01

    Combined effects on respiratory minute ventilation (VE)--and thus, on end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(ET)CO2)--of breathing resistance and elevated inspired carbon dioxide (CO2) had not been determined during heavy exercise. In this Institutional Review Board-approved, dry, sea-level study, 12 subjects in each of three phases exercised to exhaustion at 85% peak oxygen uptake while V(E) and P(ET)CO2 were measured. Participants inhaled 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% CO2 in air, or 0% or 2% CO2 in oxygen, with or without breathing resistance, mimicking the U.S. Navy's MK 16 rebreather underwater breathing apparatus (UBA). Compared to air baseline (0% inspired CO2 in air without resistance): (1) Oxygen decreased baseline V(E) (p carbon dioxide partial pressure and respiratory effort. Because elevated CO2 may not increase V(E) if breathing resistance and VE are high, rebreather UBA safety requires very low inspired CO2.

  12. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Kurt H. Johnsen; Heather R. McCarthy; Ram. Oren

    2014-01-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity,...

  13. Uncertainties in the CO2 buget associated to boundary layer dynamics and CO2-advection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaikkonen, J.P.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between boundary layer dynamics and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated by using mixed-layer theory. We derive a new set of analytical relations to quantify the uncertainties on the estimation of the bulk CO2 mixing ratio and the

  14. Literatuuronderzoek CAM-fotosynthese en CO2-bemesting en CO2-bemesting bij bromelia's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, A.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    De ‘normale’ wijze van CO2-opname gebeurt bij de meeste planten overdag, wanneer er licht is om de opgenomen CO2 door middel van fotosynthese direct om te zetten in suikers. Hiervoor is het nodig dat de huidmondjes overdag open staan, ‘s nachts zijn huidmondjes meestal dicht. Via de huidmondjes gaat

  15. CO2 emissions vs. CO2 responsibility: An input-output approach for the Turkish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek Tunc, G.; Tueruet-Asik, Serap; Akbostanci, Elif

    2007-01-01

    Recently, global warming (greenhouse effect) and its effects have become one of the hottest topics in the world agenda. There have been several international attempts to reduce the negative effects of global warming. The Kyoto Protocol can be cited as the most important agreement which tries to limit the countries' emissions within a time horizon. For this reason, it becomes important to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions of countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO 2 -the most important greenhouse gas-emissions, for the Turkish economy. An extended input-output model is estimated by using 1996 data in order to identify the sources of CO 2 emissions and to discuss the share of sectors in total emission. Besides, 'CO 2 responsibility', which takes into account the CO 2 content of imports, is estimated for the Turkish economy. The sectoral CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities are compared and these two notions are linked to foreign trade volume. One of the main conclusions is that the manufacturing industry has the first place in both of the rankings for CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities, while agriculture and husbandry has the last place

  16. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  17. Extraction of lipids from microalgae using CO2-expanded methanol and liquid CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Ashok; Jessop, Michael J; Stubbins, Spencer H; Champagne, Pascale; Jessop, Philip G

    2015-05-01

    The use of CO2-expanded methanol (cxMeOH) and liquid carbon dioxide (lCO2) is proposed to extract lipids from Botryococcus braunii. When compressed CO2 dissolves in methanol, the solvent expands in volume, decreases in polarity and so increases in its selectivity for biodiesel desirable lipids. Solid phase extraction of the algal extract showed that the cxMeOH extracted 21 mg of biodiesel desirable lipids per mL of organic solvent compared to 3mg/mL using either neat methanol or chloroform/methanol mixture. The non-polar lCO2 showed a high affinity for non-polar lipids. Using lCO2, it is possible to extract up to 10% neutral lipids relative to the mass of dry algae. Unlike extractions using conventional solvents, these new methods require little to no volatile, flammable, or chlorinated organic solvents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flash scanning the CO2 laser: a revival of the CO2 laser in plastic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Elliot

    1994-09-01

    The CO2 laser has broad clinical application yet also presents a number of practical disadvantages. These drawbacks have limited the success and utilization of this laser in plastic surgery. Flashscanner technology has recently been used for char-free CO2 laser surgery of the oropharynx, the external female genital tract, and perirectal mucosa. A commercially available optomechanical flashscanner unit `Swiftlase,' was adapted to a CO2 laser and used for treatment in numerous plastic surgical applications. Conditions and situations that were treated in this study included generalized neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, rhinophyma, viral warts, breast reconstruction, and deepithelialization prior to microsurgery or local flap transfer and/or skin graft placement. There were no significant wound healing complications. Some patients previously sustained undue scarring from conventional CO2 laser surgery. Conservative, primarily ablative CO2 laser surgery with the Swiftlase has usefulness for treatment of patients in plastic surgery including those that were previously unsuccessfully treated.

  19. The Li–CO2 battery: a novel method for CO2 capture and utilization

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shaomao

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel primary Li-CO2 battery that consumes pure CO2 gas as its cathode. The battery exhibits a high discharge capacity of around 2500 mA h g-1 at moderate temperatures. At 100 °C the discharge capacity is close to 1000% higher than that at 40 °C, and the temperature dependence is significantly weaker for higher surface area carbon cathodes. Ex-situ FTIR and XRD analyses convincingly show that lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is the main component of the discharge product. The feasibility of similar primary metal-CO2 batteries based on earth abundant metal anodes, such as Al and Mg, is demonstrated. The metal-CO2 battery platform provides a novel approach for simultaneous capturing of CO2 emissions and producing electrical energy. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Imaging volcanic CO2 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, A.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Porter, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting and quantifying volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is of relevance to volcanologists. Changes in the amount and composition of gases that volcanoes emit are related to subsurface magma movements and the probability of eruptions. Volcanic gases and related acidic aerosols are also an important atmospheric pollution source that create environmental health hazards for people, animals, plants, and infrastructures. For these reasons, it is important to measure emissions from volcanic plumes during both day and night. We present image measurements of the volcanic plume at Kīlauea volcano, HI, and flux derivation, using a newly developed 8-14 um hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, the Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI). THI is capable of acquiring images of the scene it views from which spectra can be derived from each pixel. Each spectrum contains 50 wavelength samples between 8 and 14 um where CO2 and SO2 volcanic gases have diagnostic absorption/emission features respectively at 8.6 and 14 um. Plume radiance measurements were carried out both during the day and the night by using both the lava lake in the Halema'uma'u crater as a hot source and the sky as a cold background to detect respectively the spectral signatures of volcanic CO2 and SO2 gases. CO2 and SO2 path-concentrations were then obtained from the spectral radiance measurements using a new Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)-based inversion algorithm, which was developed as part of this project. Volcanic emission fluxes were determined by combining the path measurements with wind observations, derived directly from the images. Several hours long time-series of volcanic emission fluxes will be presented and the SO2 conversion rates into aerosols will be discussed. The new imaging and inversion technique, discussed here, are novel allowing for continuous CO2 and SO2 plume mapping during both day and night.

  1. CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Feaga, Lori; Bodewits, Dennis; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Spacecraft missions to comets return a treasure trove of details of their targets, e.g., the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Deep Impact experiment at comet 9P/Tempel 1, or even the flyby of C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) at Mars. Yet, missions are rare, the diversity of comets is large, few comets are easily accessible, and comet flybys essentially return snapshots of their target nuclei. Thus, telescopic observations are necessary to place the mission data within the context of each comet's long-term behavior, and to further connect mission results to the comet population as a whole. We propose a large Cycle 11 project to study the long-term activity of past and potential future mission targets, and select bright Oort cloud comets to infer comet nucleus properties, which would otherwise require flyby missions. In the classical comet model, cometary mass loss is driven by the sublimation of water ice. However, recent discoveries suggest that the more volatile CO and CO2 ices are the likely drivers of some comet active regions. Surprisingly, CO2 drove most of the activity of comet Hartley 2 at only 1 AU from the Sun where vigorous water ice sublimation would be expected to dominate. Currently, little is known about the role of CO2 in comet activity because telluric absorptions prohibit monitoring from the ground. In our Cycle 11 project, we will study the CO2 activity of our targets through IRAC photometry. In conjunction with prior observations of CO2 and CO, as well as future data sets (JWST) and ongoing Earth-based projects led by members of our team, we will investigate both long-term activity trends in our target comets, with a particular goal to ascertain the connections between each comet's coma and nucleus.

  2. The Role of the CO2 Laser and Fractional CO2 Laser in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Tokuya; Numano, Kayoko

    2014-03-27

    Tremendous advances have been made in the medical application of the laser in the past few decades. Many diseases in the dermatological field are now indications for laser treatment that qualify for reimbursement by many national health insurance systems. Among laser types, the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser remains an important system for the dermatologist. The lasers used in photosurgery have wavelengths that differ according to their intended use and are of various types, but the CO2 laser is one of the most widely used lasers in the dermatology field. With its wavelength in the mid-infrared at 10,600 nm, CO2 laser energy is wellabsorbed in water. As skin contains a very high water percentage, this makes the CO2 laser ideal for precise, safe ablation with good hemostasis. In addition to its efficacy in ablating benign raised lesions, the CO2 laser has been reported to be effective in the field of esthetic dermatology in the revision of acne scars as well as in photorejuvenation. With the addition of fractionation of the beam of energy into myriad microbeams, the fractional CO2 laser has offered a bridge between the frankly full ablative indications and the nonablative skin rejuvenation systems of the 2000s in the rejuvenation of photoaged skin on and off the face. The CO2 laser remains an efficient, precise and safe system for the dermatologist. Technological advances in CO2 laser construction have meant smaller spot sizes and greater precision for laser surgery, and more flexibility in tip sizes and protocols for fractional CO2 laser treatment. The range of dermatological applications of the CO2 laser is expected to continue to increase in the future.

  3. Experimental Study of Cement - Sandstone/Shale - Brine - CO2 Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Susan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive-transport simulation is a tool that is being used to estimate long-term trapping of CO2, and wellbore and cap rock integrity for geologic CO2 storage. We reacted end member components of a heterolithic sandstone and shale unit that forms the upper section of the In Salah Gas Project carbon storage reservoir in Krechba, Algeria with supercritical CO2, brine, and with/without cement at reservoir conditions to develop experimentally constrained geochemical models for use in reactive transport simulations. Results We observe marked changes in solution composition when CO2 reacted with cement, sandstone, and shale components at reservoir conditions. The geochemical model for the reaction of sandstone and shale with CO2 and brine is a simple one in which albite, chlorite, illite and carbonate minerals partially dissolve and boehmite, smectite, and amorphous silica precipitate. The geochemical model for the wellbore environment is also fairly simple, in which alkaline cements and rock react with CO2-rich brines to form an Fe containing calcite, amorphous silica, smectite and boehmite or amorphous Al(OH3. Conclusions Our research shows that relatively simple geochemical models can describe the dominant reactions that are likely to occur when CO2 is stored in deep saline aquifers sealed with overlying shale cap rocks, as well as the dominant reactions for cement carbonation at the wellbore interface.

  4. Experimental Study of Cement - Sandstone/Shale - Brine - CO2 Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; McNab, Walt W; Torres, Sharon C

    2011-11-11

    Reactive-transport simulation is a tool that is being used to estimate long-term trapping of CO2, and wellbore and cap rock integrity for geologic CO2 storage. We reacted end member components of a heterolithic sandstone and shale unit that forms the upper section of the In Salah Gas Project carbon storage reservoir in Krechba, Algeria with supercritical CO2, brine, and with/without cement at reservoir conditions to develop experimentally constrained geochemical models for use in reactive transport simulations. We observe marked changes in solution composition when CO2 reacted with cement, sandstone, and shale components at reservoir conditions. The geochemical model for the reaction of sandstone and shale with CO2 and brine is a simple one in which albite, chlorite, illite and carbonate minerals partially dissolve and boehmite, smectite, and amorphous silica precipitate. The geochemical model for the wellbore environment is also fairly simple, in which alkaline cements and rock react with CO2-rich brines to form an Fe containing calcite, amorphous silica, smectite and boehmite or amorphous Al(OH)3. Our research shows that relatively simple geochemical models can describe the dominant reactions that are likely to occur when CO2 is stored in deep saline aquifers sealed with overlying shale cap rocks, as well as the dominant reactions for cement carbonation at the wellbore interface.

  5. Techno-Economic Assessment of Four CO2 Storage Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruson J.-F.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS should be a key technology in order to achieve a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity of the power sector and other intensive industry, but this potential deployment could be restricted by cost issues as the International Energy Agency (IEA in their last projections (World Energy Outlook 2013 has considered only around 1% of global fossil fuel-fired power plants could be equipped with CCS by 2035. The SiteChar project funded by 7th Framework Programme of European Commission gives the opportunity to evaluate the most influential parameters of techno-economic evaluations of four feasible European projects for CO2 geological storage located onshore and offshore and related to aquifer storage or oil and gas reservoirs, at different stages of characterization. Four potential CO2 storage sites have been assessed in terms of storage costs per tonne of CO2 permanently stored (equivalent cost based. They are located offshore UK, onshore Denmark, offshore Norway and offshore Italy. The four SiteChar techno-economic evaluations confirm it is not possible to derive any meaningful average cost for a CO2 storage site. The results demonstrate that the structure of costs for a project is heterogeneous and the storage cost is consequently site dependent. The strategy of the site development is fundamental, the technical choices such as the timing, rate and duration of injection are also important. The way monitoring is managed, using observation wells and logging has a strong impact on the estimated monitoring costs. Options to lower monitoring costs, such as permanent surveys, exist and should be further investigated. Table 1 below summarizes the cost range in Euro per tonne (Discount Rate (DR at 8% for the different sites, which illustrates the various orders of magnitude due to the specificities of each site. These figures have how to be considered with care. In particular the Italian and Norwegian sites present very specific

  6. Supercritical CO2 impregnation of polyethylene components for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamse Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modem hip and knee endoprosthesis are produced in titanium and to reduce the friction at the contact area polymer parts, mainly ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE, are installed. The polyethylene is impregnated with a-tocopherol (vitamin E before processing for remarkable decrease of oxidative degradation. Cross linked UHMW-PE offers much higher stability, but a-tocopherol cannot be added before processing, because a-tocopherol hinders the cross linking process accompanied by a heavy degradation of the vitamin. The impregnation of UHMW-PE with a-tocopherol has to be performed after the cross linking process and an accurate concentration has to be achieved over the cross section of the whole material. In the first tests UHMW-PE-cubes were stored in pure a-tocopherol under inert atmosphere at temperatures from 100 to 150 °C resulting in a high mass fraction of a-tocopherol in the edge zones and no constant concentration over the cross section. For better distribution and for regulating the mass fraction of a-tocopherol in the cross linked UHMW-PE material supercritical CO2 impregnation tests were investigated. Again UHMW-PE-cubes were impregnated in an autoclave with a-tocopherol dissolved in supercritical CO2 at different pressures and temperatures with variable impregnation times and vitamin E concentrations. Based on the excellent results of supercritical CO2 impregnation standard hip and knee cups were stabilized nearly homogeneously with varying mass fraction of a-tocopherol.

  7. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  8. Potentiel des méthodes de séparation et stockage du CO2 dans la lutte contre l'effet de serreThe role of CO2 capture and sequestration in mitigation of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Ducroux, René

    2003-06-01

    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2. Technical solutions exist to reduce CO 2 emission and stabilise atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including energy saving and energy efficiency, switch to lower carbon content fuels like natural gas and to energy sources that operate with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, etc.), and last but not least, sequester CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2. Some of the factors that will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are also discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology; however, substantial R&D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to more than 30% of the global anthropogenic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the battle against global warming. To cite this article: P. Jean-Baptiste, R. Ducroux, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  9. Strengthening seasonal marine CO2 variations due to increasing atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landschützer, Peter; Gruber, Nicolas; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Stemmler, Irene; Six, Katharina D.

    2018-02-01

    The increase of atmospheric CO2 (ref. 1) has been predicted to impact the seasonal cycle of inorganic carbon in the global ocean2,3, yet the observational evidence to verify this prediction has been missing. Here, using an observation-based product of the oceanic partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) covering the past 34 years, we find that the winter-to-summer difference of the pCO2 has increased on average by 2.2 ± 0.4 μatm per decade from 1982 to 2015 poleward of 10° latitude. This is largely in agreement with the trend expected from thermodynamic considerations. Most of the increase stems from the seasonality of the drivers acting on an increasing oceanic pCO2 caused by the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. In the high latitudes, the concurrent ocean-acidification-induced changes in the buffer capacity of the ocean enhance this effect. This strengthening of the seasonal winter-to-summer difference pushes the global ocean towards critical thresholds earlier, inducing stress to ocean ecosystems and fisheries4. Our study provides observational evidence for this strengthening seasonal difference in the oceanic carbon cycle on a global scale, illustrating the inevitable consequences of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  10. The Relationship Between CO2 Levels and CO2 Related Symptoms Reported on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, M.; Law, J.; Foy, M.; Wear, M. L.; Mason, S.; Mendez, C.; Meyers, V.

    2014-01-01

    Medical Operations, Toxicology, and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health collaborated to assess the association of CO2 levels on board the International Space Station and USOS crew reported symptoms inflight, i.e. headache and vision changes. Private Medical Conference (PMC) documents and the weekly Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT) Notes were used to provide a robust data set of inflight medical events. All events and non-events were documented independent of CO2 levels and other potential contributors. Average (arithmetic mean) and single point maximum ppCO2 was calculated for the 24 hours and 7 days prior to the PMC or SMOT date and time provided by LSAH. Observations falling within the first 7 days of flight (147) were removed from the datasets analyzed to avoid confounding with Space Adaptation Syndrome. The final analysis was based on 1716 observations. For headache, 46 headaches were observed. CO2 level, age at launch, time inflight, and data source were all significantly associated with headache. In particular, for each 1 mmHg increase in CO2, the odds of a crewmember reporting a headache doubled. For vision changes, 29 reports of vision changes were observed. These observations were not found to be statistically associated with CO2 levels as analyzed. While the incidence of headache has was not high (3%), headaches may be an indicator of underlying increases in intracranial pressure, which may result likely from the synergy between CO2-induced cerebral vasodilatation and decreased venous drainage in microgravity. Vision changes were inconsistently reported and as a result did not align appropriately with the CO2 levels. Further analysis is needed. Our results support ongoing efforts to lower the CO2 exposure limits in spacecraft.

  11. Case study - Dynamic pressure-limited capacity and costs of CO2 storage in the Mount Simon sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven T.; Jahediesfanjani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Widespread deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is likely necessary to be able to satisfy baseload electricity demand, to maintain diversity in the energy mix, and to achieve climate and other objectives at the lowest cost. If all of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from stationary sources (such as fossil-fuel burning power plants, and other industrial plants) in the United States needed to be captured and stored, it could be possible to store only a small fraction of this CO2 in oil and natural gas reservoirs, including as a result of CO2 utilization for enhanced oil recovery. The vast majority would have to be stored in saline-filled reservoirs (Dahowski et al., 2005). Given a lack of long-term commercial-scale CCS projects, there is considerable uncertainty in the risks, dynamic capacity, and their cost implications for geologic storage of CO2. Pressure buildup in the storage reservoir is expected to be a primary source of risk associated with CO2 storage, and could severely limit CO2 injection rates (dynamic storage capacities). Most cost estimates for commercial-scale deployment of CCS estimate CO2 storage costs under assumed availability of a theoretical capacity to store tens, hundreds, or even thousands of gigatons of CO2, without considering geologic heterogeneities, pressure limitations, or the time dimension. This could lead to underestimation of the costs of CO2 storage (Anderson, 2017). This paper considers the impacts of pressure limitations and geologic heterogeneity on the dynamic CO2 storage capacity and storage (injection) costs. In the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)’s National Assessment of Geologic CO2 Storage Resources (USGS, 2013), the mean estimate of the theoretical storage capacity in the Mount Simon Sandstone was about 94 billion metric tons of CO2. However, our results suggest that the pressure-limited capacity after 50 years of injection could be only about 4% of the theoretical geologic storage capacity in this formation

  12. Sustainable Concrete Performance—CO2-Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Latawiec

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The balance of carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases in the life cycle of concrete is one of the important elements affecting the sustainable development of concrete technology. Modifications in the composition in the aim of minimization of so-called “carbon footprint” of concrete also affect the majority of its technical features, including primarily the mechanical properties and durability. The article presents a desirability function that would allow us to estimate the combined effect of the modification in terms of both CO2 emissions and some of the technical features of the concrete. As criterial features equivalent CO2 emission, compressive strength and susceptibility/resistance to concrete carbonation are selected. Selected features should be considered as an example for the presentation of the proposed methodology and represent the three pillars of concrete desirability in terms of sustainable development, i.e., the constructional usefulness, durability, and environmental performance.

  13. National CO2 emissions trading in European perspective; Nationale CO2-emissiehandel in Europees perspectief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This report is the reaction of the Social and economic council (SER) in the Netherlands to the request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning en Environment (VROM) to formulate an advice on the final report of the Committee CO2 Trade (a.k.a the Vogtlander Committee). This Committee has drafted a proposal for a CO2 emission trade system in the Netherlands. The SER has also taken into account the proposal of the European Committee on a guideline for CO2 emission trade in the European Union (EU)

  14. A data driven model for the impact of IFT and density variations on CO2 sequestration in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad; Riaz, Amir

    2017-11-01

    CO2 storage in geological formations is one of the most promising solutions for mitigating the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. One of the important issues for CO2 storage in subsurface environments is the sealing efficiency of low-permeable cap-rocks overlying potential CO2 storage reservoirs. A novel model is proposed to find the IFT of the systems (CO2/brine-salt) in a range of temperatures (300-373 K), pressures (50-250 bar), and up to 6 molal salinity applicable to CO2 storage in geological formations through a machine learning-assisted modeling of experimental data. The IFT between mineral surfaces and CO2/brine-salt solutions determines the efficiency of enhanced oil or gas recovery operations as well as our ability to inject and store CO2 in geological formations. Finally, we use the new model to evaluate the effects of formation depth on the actual efficiency of CO2 storage. The results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep subsurface environments as a global-warming mitigation strategy, CO2 storage capacity are improved with reservoir depth.

  15. Determinants of CO2 growth in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, L.; Di Giulio, E.

    1999-01-01

    In order to obtain a clear understanding of the relationship between the Italian economy and CO 2 emissions in the 1975-1995 period, a sectorial decomposition analysis of emissions, based on Laspeyres index analysis, were calculated. Building on this analysis, qualitative reflections are made in order to individuate the more appropriate areas of action to respect the target that the Kyoto Protocol assigns to Italy [it

  16. Integration of CO2 assessment tools

    OpenAIRE

    van Noort, Martijn; Mahmod, Mohamed Kamil Morsi; Behrisch, Michael; Benz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the CO2 impacts of ICT measures in transport requires a chain of software tools that need to be used in an integrated way. This paper reports on work performed in the Amitran project on a standard and an implementation for the assessment framework and interfaces that will enable researchers to easily combine these tools according to their preferences, and provides details on the implemented interfaces.

  17. Panorama 2016 - Chemical recycling of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forti, Laurent; Fosse, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The ongoing rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is a major environmental and societal concern. Among the potential solutions for reducing carbon emissions in the energy sector, the chemical recycling of CO 2 has received considerable attention. Conversion of carbon dioxide into other recoverable substances offers the benefit of reducing the carbon footprint of newly developed products and of shifting away from the use of fossil resources. Various methods to create a wide range of products are currently being studied. (authors)

  18. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  19. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None listed

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  20. Bifunctional Catalysts for CO2 Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    dioxide reduction catalysis . (SA 1 – Catalyst candidate synthesis) As outlined in the original proposal, ligand platforms have been synthesized to...was limited to outer-sphere electron transfer (necessary oxidation potentials for catalysis > –2.1 V vs. [Cp2Fe] +/0). Thus, we pursued two...high altitude air travel is the transportation of the fuel itself. Our targeted strategy is to transform CO2 into viable building blocks for synthetic

  1. CO2 capture takes its industrial turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoue, A.; Lutzky, A.

    2009-01-01

    The CO 2 capture and sequestration is entering the industrial era. The technologies are ready, the regulation is progressively put into action, the financing of demonstration facilities is unfreezing and companies are on the starting line from Canada to China, including the USA and Europe. The market takeoff is expected for 2015 but the competition is already hard between equipment manufacturers who wish to develop proprietary technologies. (J.S.)

  2. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerten, S G J; Tayler, M C D; Kentgens, A P M; van Bentum, P J M

    2016-06-01

    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for (1)H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in (1)H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Martian Gullies: Formation by CO2 Fluidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    2006-12-01

    Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies. Some theories developed tried explain its origin, either by liquid water, liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material. We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones. We propose that the mechanism of formation of the gullies is as follows: In winter CO2 snow mixed with sand falls in the terrain. In spring the CO2 snow sublimate and gaseous CO2 make fluid the sand which flows like liquid eroding the terrain and forming the gullies. By experimental work with dry granular material, we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air in the granular material. We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment, sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City, México. We compare them with Martian gullies choose from four different areas, to target goal recognize or to distinguish, (to identify) possible processes evolved in its formation. Also, we measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 m to 1775 meters. Finally, we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material.

  4. CO2 flux geothermometer for geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J. V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C. F.; Bloomberg, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Oladottir, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A new geothermometer (TCO2 Flux) is proposed based on soil diffuse CO2 flux and shallow temperature measurements made on areas of steam heated, thermally altered ground above active geothermal systems. This CO2 flux geothermometer is based on a previously reported CO2 geothermometer that was designed for use with fumarole analysis. The new geothermometer provides a valuable additional exploration tool for estimating subsurface temperatures in high-temperature geothermal systems. Mean TCO2 Flux estimates fall within the range of deep drill hole temperatures at Wairakei (New Zealand), Tauhara (New Zealand), Rotokawa (New Zealand), Ohaaki (New Zealand), Reykjanes (Iceland) and Copahue (Argentina). The spatial distribution of geothermometry estimates is consistent with the location of major upflow zones previously reported at the Wairakei and Rotokawa geothermal systems. TCO2 Flux was also evaluated at White Island (New Zealand) and Reporoa (New Zealand), where limited sub-surface data exists. Mode TCO2 Flux at White Island is high (320 °C), the highest of the systems considered in this study. However, the geothermometer relies on mineral-water equilibrium in neutral pH reservoir fluids, and would not be reliable in such an active and acidic environment. Mean TCO2 Flux at Reporoa (310 °C) is high, which indicates Reporoa has a separate upflow from the nearby Waiotapu geothermal system; an outflow from Waiotapu would not be expected to have such high temperature.

  5. Large temporal scale and capacity subsurface bulk energy storage with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Fleming, M. R.; Adams, B. M.; Ogland-Hand, J.; Nelson, E. S.; Randolph, J.; Sioshansi, R.; Kuehn, T. H.; Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Decarbonizing energy systems by increasing the penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires efficient and short- to long-term energy storage. Very large amounts of energy can be stored in the subsurface as heat and/or pressure energy in order to provide both short- and long-term (seasonal) storage, depending on the implementation. This energy storage approach can be quite efficient, especially where geothermal energy is naturally added to the system. Here, we present subsurface heat and/or pressure energy storage with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) and discuss the system's efficiency, deployment options, as well as its advantages and disadvantages, compared to several other energy storage options. CO2-based subsurface bulk energy storage has the potential to be particularly efficient and large-scale, both temporally (i.e., seasonal) and spatially. The latter refers to the amount of energy that can be stored underground, using CO2, at a geologically conducive location, potentially enabling storing excess power from a substantial portion of the power grid. The implication is that it would be possible to employ centralized energy storage for (a substantial part of) the power grid, where the geology enables CO2-based bulk subsurface energy storage, whereas the VRE technologies (solar, wind) are located on that same power grid, where (solar, wind) conditions are ideal. However, this may require reinforcing the power grid's transmission lines in certain parts of the grid to enable high-load power transmission from/to a few locations.

  6. CO2 Dissociation using the Versatile Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge Experiment (VADER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindon, Michael Allen

    As of 2013, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) estimates that the world emits approximately 36 trillion metric tons of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere every year. These large emissions have been correlated to global warming trends that have many consequences across the globe, including glacial retraction, ocean acidification and increased severity of weather events. With green technologies still in the infancy stage, it can be expected that CO2 emissions will stay this way for along time to come. Approximately 41% of the emissions are due to electricity production, which pump out condensed forms of CO2. This danger to our world is why research towards new and innovative ways of controlling CO2 emissions from these large sources is necessary. As of now, research is focused on two primary methods of CO2 reduction from condensed CO2 emission sources (like fossil fuel power plants): Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) and Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU). CCS is the process of collecting CO2 using absorbers or chemicals, extracting the gas from those absorbers and finally pumping the gas into reservoirs. CCU on the other hand, is the process of reacting CO2 to form value added chemicals, which can then be recycled or stored chemically. A Dielectric Barrier discharge (DBD) is a pulsed, low temperature, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasma which creates high energy electrons suitable for dissociating CO2 into its components (CO and O) as one step in the CCU process. Here I discuss the viability of using a DBD for CO2 dissociation on an industrial scale as well as the fundamental physics and chemistry of a DBD for CO2 dissociation. This work involved modeling the DBD discharge and chemistry, which showed that there are specific chemical pathways and plasma parameters that can be adjusted to improve the CO2 reaction efficiencies and rates. Experimental studies using the Versatile Atmospheric dielectric barrier Discharge Expe

  7. ULTimateCO2 - State of the art report. Dealing with uncertainty associated with long-term CO2 geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    ULTimateCO2, a four-year collaborative project financed by the 7. Framework Programme and coordinated by BRGM, aims to shed more light on the long-term processes associated with the geological storage of CO 2 . ULTimateCO2 unites 12 partners (research institutes, universities, industrialists) and a varied panel of experts (NGOs, national authority representatives, IEAGHG,...). Based on a multidisciplinary approach, and bringing together laboratory experiments, numerical modelling and natural analogue field studies, ULTimateCO2 will increase our understanding of the long-term effects of CO 2 Capture and Storage (CCS) in terms of hydrodynamics, geochemistry, mechanics of the storage formations and their vicinity. The report contains the partners' pooled knowledge and provides a view of the current state-of-the-art for the issues addressed by this project: - The long-term reservoir trapping efficiency (WP3); - The long-term sealing integrity of faulted and fractured cap-rock (WP4); - The near-well leakage characterisation and chemical processes (WP5); - The long-term behavior of stored CO 2 looking at the basin scale (WP2); - Uncertainty assessment (WP6). Each chapter is divided into two sections: (i) a summary which explains in 'simple words' the main issues and objectives of the WP, and (ii) a current state of the art section which provides a more sound review on the specific studied processes. The aim is to provide answers to pertinent questions from a variety of users, particularly project owners, site operators and national authorities, about their exposure to uncertainty downstream of closure of a CO 2 geological storage site

  8. Polymeric nanoporous materials fabricated with supercritical CO2 and CO2-expanded liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aijuan; Zhang, Qingkun; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Both academia and industries have put great efforts into developing non-destructive technologies for the fabrication of polymeric nanoporous materials. Such non-destructive technologies developed with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and CO2-expanded liquids (CXLs) have been attracting more and more attention because they have been demonstrated to be green and effective media for porous polymer preparation and processing. In this tutorial review, we present several such new technologies with scCO2 and CXLs, which have the capacity to prepare polymeric nanoporous materials with unique morphologies. The fabricated nanoporous polymers have significantly improved the performance of polymeric monoliths and films, and have found wide applications as templates, antireflection coatings, low-k materials, tissue engineering scaffolds and filtration membranes. This tutorial review also introduces the associated characterization methods, including the imaging, scattering and physisorption techniques.

  9. Biosequestration of atmospheric CO2 and flue gas-containing CO2 by microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Show, Pau Loke; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching

    2015-05-01

    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-term CO2 exchange response to temperature, irradiance, and CO2 concentration in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D E; Young, R

    1986-01-01

    Relative importance of short-term environmental interaction and preconditioning to CO2 exchange response was examined in Fragaria ananasa (strawberry, cv. Quinault). Tests included an orthogonal comparison of 15 to 60-min and 6 to 7-h exposures to different levels of temperature (16 to 32°C), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 200 to 800 μE m(2) s(-1)), and CO2 (300 to 600 μl/l) on successive days of study. Plants were otherwise maintained at 21°C, 300 μE m(2) s(-1) PAR and 300-360 μl/l CO2 as standard conditions. Treatment was restricted to the mean interval of 14 h daily illumination and the first 3-4 days of each test week over a 12-week cultivation period. CO2 exchange rates were followed with each step-change in environmental level including ascending/descending temperature/PAR within a test period, initial response at standard conditions on successive days of testing, and measurement at reduced O2. Response generally supported prior concepts of leaf biochemical modeling in identifying CO2 fixation as the major site of environmental influence, while overall patterns of whole plant CO2 exchange suggested additional effects for combined environmental factors and preconditioning. These included a positive interaction between temperature and CO2 concentration on photosynthesis at high irradiance and a greater contribution by 'dark' respiration at lower PAR than previously indicated. The further importance of estimating whole plant CO2 exchange from repetitive tests and measurements was evidenced by a high correlation of response to prior treatment both during the daily test period and on consecutive days of testing.

  11. CO2 Absorptibility of Seagrass, Enhalus Acoroides, From Tongkaina Coast, North Minahasa, North Sulawesi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Kondoy, Khristin I. F

    2016-01-01

    Climate change results from increase in green house effect and particles in the atmosphere. It comes from 1) fossil fuel combustion, green house gas removals, such as CO2, called “brown carbon”, and dust particles called “black carbon”; 2) emission from forest vegetation clear cut, forest fire, and agricultural activities (fertilizer); 3) low ability of the natural ecosystem to absorb carbon in photosynthesis and store it called “green carbon”. Seagrass can function to absorb CO2 in photosy...

  12. CO2 capture by gas hydrate crystallization: Application on the CO2-N2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchemoua, A.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 capture and sequestration represent a major industrial and scientific challenge of this century. There are different methods of CO 2 separation and capture, such as solid adsorption, amines adsorption and cryogenic fractionation. Although these processes are well developed at industrial level, they are energy intensive. Hydrate formation method is a less energy intensive and has an interesting potential to separate carbon dioxide. Gas hydrates are Document crystalline compounds that consist of hydrogen bonded network of water molecules trapping a gas molecule. Gas hydrate formation is favored by high pressure and low temperature. This study was conducted as a part of the SECOHYA ANR Project. The objective is to study the thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the process to capture CO 2 by gas hydrate crystallization. Firstly, we developed an experimental apparatus to carry out experiments to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic formation conditions of CO 2 -N 2 gas hydrate mixture in water as liquid phase. We showed that the operative pressure may be very important and the temperature very low. For the feasibility of the project, we used TBAB (Tetrabutylammonium Bromide) as thermodynamic additive in the liquid phase. The use of TBAB may reduce considerably the operative pressure. In the second part of this study, we presented a thermodynamic model, based on the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. This model allows the estimation of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Experimental equilibrium data of CO 2 -CH 4 and CO 2 -N 2 mixtures are presented and compared to theoretical results. (author)

  13. Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Lassen, Rune Nørbæk; Sakaki, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A primary concern for geologic carbon storage is the potential for leakage of stored carbon dioxide (CO2) into the shallow subsurface where it could degrade the quality of groundwater and surface water. In order to predict and mitigate the potentially negative impacts of CO2 leakage, it is import......A primary concern for geologic carbon storage is the potential for leakage of stored carbon dioxide (CO2) into the shallow subsurface where it could degrade the quality of groundwater and surface water. In order to predict and mitigate the potentially negative impacts of CO2 leakage...... concentration in the flowing water, the distance between the heterogeneity and the leakage location, and some fundamental properties of the porous media. Results also show that interfaces where a less permeable material overlies a more permeable material affect gas phase evolution more significantly than...

  14. Elevated CO2 Atmosphere Minimizes the Effect of Drought on the Cerrado Species Chrysolaena obovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vanessa F; Silva, Emerson A; Carvalho, Maria A M

    2016-01-01

    Chrysolaena obovata stores inulin in the rhizophores, associated with drought tolerance. While crop plants are widely studied concerning the interactive effects of high [CO2] and drought, few studies reported these effects in native species. Here, we evaluated the combined effects of these factors on water status and fructan metabolism in C. obovata, a native Cerrado species. Two lots of plants were kept at 380 and 760 ppm CO2 in open-top chambers. In each, [CO2] plants were divided into four groups and cultivated under different water availability: irrigation with 100 (control), 75 (low), 50 (medium), and 25% (severe drought) of the water evapotranspirated in the last 48 h. In each, water treatment plants were collected at 0, 9, 18, and 27 days. On day 27, all plants were re-watered to field capacity and, after 5 days, a new sampling was made. Water restriction caused a decrease in plant moisture, photosynthesis, and in enzymes of fructan metabolism. These changes were generally more pronounced in 25% plants under ambient [CO2]. In the later, increases in the proportion of hexoses and consequent modification of the fructan chain sizes were more marked than under high [CO2]. The results indicate that under elevated [CO2], the negative effects of water restriction on physiological processes were minimized, including the maintenance of rhizophore water potential, increase in water use efficiency, maintenance of photosynthesis and fructan reserves for a longer period, conditions that shall favor the conservation of this species in the predicted climate change scenarios.

  15. A methodology for estimating occupant CO2 source generation rates from measurements in small commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Thomas M.; Braun, James E.

    2007-01-01

    It is necessary to know CO 2 source generation rates and system flow parameters, such as supply flow rate and overall room ventilation effectiveness, in order to evaluate cost savings for demand-controlled ventilation applied to commercial buildings. This paper presents a methodology for estimating schedules for generation rates and flow parameters using short-term testing. These parameters are used within a model that predicts return air CO 2 concentrations as part of an overall energy analysis model. As a first step in developing the methodology, two different parameter estimation techniques were evaluated using simulated data. Each method gave models that provide good predictions of return air CO 2 concentrations, but differed in terms of the identified parameters. The preferred parameter estimation method provides estimates of both average hourly source generation rates and day-to-day variations. This technique was applied to three different types of commercial buildings using field monitored data. The sites are small commercial buildings with packaged HVAC equipment and included modular schoolrooms, children's play areas in fast food restaurants and a pharmacy retail store. The impact of the length of model training data period on estimated CO 2 generation rates was investigated. Eight weeks of data is sufficient for training. Expressed in terms of the coefficient of variation, the errors in predicted CO 2 concentrations ranged from 4% to 15% depending on the sites. The predicted frequency of time that CO 2 concentrations were within a given range agreed well with the field measured data. (author)

  16. TO STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2001-01-01

    Stores users are informed that the Stores (Central, Emergency window, Raw materials, Chemical products and Prévessin Self service stores) will be closed on Friday, 7 December owing to migration of the Stores computers to Windows 2000. Thank you for your understanding.

  17. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  18. Atmospheric CO2 from fossil plant cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerp, Hans

    2002-01-03

    Plants respond to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels by regulating the number of stomata in their leaves. In his reconstruction of a continuous, 300-million-year record of atmospheric CO2, Retallack bases his curve on stomatal counts of fossil plant cuticles taken from published micrographs. However, the preservation of cuticles from Permian times is generally too fragmentary for the stomatal index to be reliably determined, the micrographs used could have biased the results, and there are important errors in the supplementary data - all of which cast doubt on the Permian part of Retallack's record.

  19. Childhood asthma and anthropogenic CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Amrita DosanjhPediatric Pulmonologist, San Diego, California, USATrends in the incidence of childhood asthma worldwide have paralleled the sharp increase in carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions, over at least the last two decades. The prevalence of asthma in the United States has quadrupled over the last 20 years in part due to climate-related factors. In a report released by Harvard Medical School and the Center for Health and the Global Environment, it was noted that there was an increase in asthma incidence of 160% from 1980–1994 among preschool children.  

  20. Photosynthesis and Plant Growth at Elevated Levels of CO_2

    OpenAIRE

    Amane, Makino; Tadahiko, Mae; Department of Applied Plant Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University; Department of Applied Plant Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University

    1999-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the effects of elevated CO_2 levels on photosynthesis in relation to the whole plant growth in terrestrial higher C_3 plants. Short-term CO_2 enrichment stimulates the rate of phtosynthesis. Plant mass is also enhanced by CO_2 enrichment. However, the effects of long-term CO_2 enrichment on photosynthesis are variable. Generally, the prolonged exposure to CO_2 enrichment reduces the initial stimulation of photosynthesis in many spesies, and frequently suppresses pho...

  1. Nouveaux procédés de réduction catalytique du CO2 en consommables chimiques

    OpenAIRE

    Savourey , Solene

    2016-01-01

    Fossil resources have been extensively used for the past 200 years allowing a fast paced industrializationin our society. However we are facing today several challenges to preserve our way of life 1) CO2 shouldbe captured and stored/used to avoid large quantity of CO2 to be released in the atmosphere 2) Bypassthe use of fossil resource by using another source of carbon for the synthesis of chemicals 3) Developefficient energy storage technologies to rely more on renewable intermittent energy ...

  2. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury?symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Franklin T; Zhu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus ? domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies, such as controlled atmosphere (CA) and 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). However, CA storage can cause external CO2 injury for some apple cultivars. The molecular changes associated with the development of CO2 inj...

  3. Saturated CO2 inhibits microbial processes in CO2-vented deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, D.; Haeckel, M.; Neumann, J.; Wegener, G.; Inagaki, F.; Boetius, A.

    2013-08-01

    This study focused on biogeochemical processes and microbial activity in sediments of a natural deep-sea CO2 seepage area (Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Japan). The aim was to assess the influence of the geochemical conditions occurring in highly acidic and CO2 saturated sediments on sulfate reduction (SR) and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM). Porewater chemistry was investigated from retrieved sediment cores and in situ by microsensor profiling. The sites sampled around a sediment-hosted hydrothermal CO2 vent were very heterogeneous in porewater chemistry, indicating a complex leakage pattern. Near the vents, droplets of liquid CO2 were observed emanating from the sediments, and the pH reached approximately 4.5 in a sediment depth > 6 cm, as determined in situ by microsensors. Methane and sulfate co-occurred in most sediment samples from the vicinity of the vents down to a depth of 3 m. However, SR and AOM were restricted to the upper 7-15 cm below seafloor, although neither temperature, low pH, nor the availability of methane and sulfate could be limiting microbial activity. We argue that the extremely high subsurface concentrations of dissolved CO2 (1000-1700 mM), which disrupt the cellular pH homeostasis, and lead to end-product inhibition. This limits life to the surface sediment horizons above the liquid CO2 phase, where less extreme conditions prevail. Our results may have to be taken into consideration in assessing the consequences of deep-sea CO2 sequestration on benthic element cycling and on the local ecosystem state.

  4. Saturated CO2 inhibits microbial processes in CO2-vented deep-sea sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. de Beer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on biogeochemical processes and microbial activity in sediments of a natural deep-sea CO2 seepage area (Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Japan. The aim was to assess the influence of the geochemical conditions occurring in highly acidic and CO2 saturated sediments on sulfate reduction (SR and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM. Porewater chemistry was investigated from retrieved sediment cores and in situ by microsensor profiling. The sites sampled around a sediment-hosted hydrothermal CO2 vent were very heterogeneous in porewater chemistry, indicating a complex leakage pattern. Near the vents, droplets of liquid CO2 were observed emanating from the sediments, and the pH reached approximately 4.5 in a sediment depth > 6 cm, as determined in situ by microsensors. Methane and sulfate co-occurred in most sediment samples from the vicinity of the vents down to a depth of 3 m. However, SR and AOM were restricted to the upper 7–15 cm below seafloor, although neither temperature, low pH, nor the availability of methane and sulfate could be limiting microbial activity. We argue that the extremely high subsurface concentrations of dissolved CO2 (1000–1700 mM, which disrupt the cellular pH homeostasis, and lead to end-product inhibition. This limits life to the surface sediment horizons above the liquid CO2 phase, where less extreme conditions prevail. Our results may have to be taken into consideration in assessing the consequences of deep-sea CO2 sequestration on benthic element cycling and on the local ecosystem state.

  5. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C

  6. Full Characterization of CO2-Oil Properties On-Chip: Solubility, Diffusivity, Extraction Pressure, Miscibility, and Contact Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbatian, Atena; Abedini, Ali; Qi, ZhenBang; Sinton, David

    2018-02-20

    Carbon capture, storage, and utilization technologies target a reduction in net CO 2 emissions to mitigate greenhouse gas effects. The largest such projects worldwide involve storing CO 2 through enhanced oil recovery-a technologically and economically feasible approach that combines both storage and oil recovery. Successful implementation relies on detailed measurements of CO 2 -oil properties at relevant reservoir conditions (P = 2.0-13.0 MPa and T = 23 and 50 °C). In this paper, we demonstrate a microfluidic method to quantify the comprehensive suite of mutual properties of a CO 2 and crude oil mixture including solubility, diffusivity, extraction pressure, minimum miscibility pressure (MMP), and contact angle. The time-lapse oil swelling/extraction in response to CO 2 exposure under stepwise increasing pressure was quantified via fluorescence microscopy, using the inherent fluorescence property of the oil. The CO 2 solubilities and diffusion coefficients were determined from the swelling process with measurements in strong agreement with previous results. The CO 2 -oil MMP was determined from the subsequent oil extraction process with measurements within 5% of previous values. In addition, the oil-CO 2 -silicon contact angle was measured throughout the process, with contact angle increasing with pressure. In contrast with conventional methods, which require days and ∼500 mL of fluid sample, the approach here provides a comprehensive suite of measurements, 100-fold faster with less than 1 μL of sample, and an opportunity to better inform large-scale CO 2 projects.

  7. Reconsideration of atmospheric CO2 lifetime: potential mechanism for explaining CO2 missing sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, R.; Gorbacheva, T.; Gerardo, R.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon cycle data (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1996) indicate that fossil fuel use accounts for emissions to the atmosphere of 5.5±0.5 GtC (Gigatons of carbon) annually. Other important processes in the global CO2 budget are tropical deforestation, estimated to generate about 1.6±1.0 GtC/yr; absorption by the oceans, removing about 2.0±0.8 GtC/yr; and regrowth of northern forests, taking up about 0.5±0.5 GtC/yr. However, accurate measurements of CO2 show that the atmosphere is accumulating only about 3.3±0.2 GtC/yr. The imbalance of about 1.3±1.5 GtC/yr, termed the "missing sink", represents the difference between the estimated sources and the estimated sinks of CO2; that is, we do not know where all of the anthropogenic CO2 is going. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain this missing carbon, such as CO2 fertilization, climate change, nitrogen deposition, land use change, forest regrowth et al. Considering the complexity of ecosystem, most of ecosystem model cannot handle all the potential mechanisms to reproduce the real world. It has been believed that the dominant sink mechanism is the fertilizing effects of increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and the addition to soils of fixed nitrogen from fossil-fuel burning and agricultural fertilizers. However, a recent analysis of long-term observations of the change in biomass and growth rates suggests that such fertilization effects are much too small to explain more than a small fraction of the observed sink. In addition, long-term experiments in which small forest patches and other land ecosystems have been exposed to elevated CO2 levels for extended periods show a rapid decrease of the fertilization effect after an initial enhancement. We will explore this question of the missing sink in atmospheric CO2 residence time. Radioactive and stable carbon isotopes (13-C/12-C) show the real CO2 lifetime is about 5 years; i.e. CO2 is quickly taken out of the atmospheric

  8. Global CO2 emissions from cement production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Robbie M.

    2018-01-01

    The global production of cement has grown very rapidly in recent years, and after fossil fuels and land-use change, it is the third-largest source of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. The required data for estimating emissions from global cement production are poor, and it has been recognised that some global estimates are significantly inflated. Here we assemble a large variety of available datasets and prioritise official data and emission factors, including estimates submitted to the UNFCCC plus new estimates for China and India, to present a new analysis of global process emissions from cement production. We show that global process emissions in 2016 were 1.45±0.20 Gt CO2, equivalent to about 4 % of emissions from fossil fuels. Cumulative emissions from 1928 to 2016 were 39.3±2.4 Gt CO2, 66 % of which have occurred since 1990. Emissions in 2015 were 30 % lower than those recently reported by the Global Carbon Project. The data associated with this article can be found at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.831455.

  9. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  10. Wheat response to CO2 enrichment: CO2 exchanges transpiration and mineral uptakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, M.; Ducloux, H.; Richaud, C.

    1986-01-01

    When simulating canopies planted in varied densities, researchers were able to demonstrate that increase of dry matter production by enhancing CO2 quickly becomes independant of increase of leaf area, especially above leaf area index of 2; dry matter gain results mainly from photosynthesis stimulation per unit of surface (primary CO2 effect). When crop density is low (the plants remaining alone a longer time), the effects of increasing leaf surface (tillering, leaf elongation here, branching for other plants etc.) was noticeable and dry matter simulation factor reached 1.65. This area effect decreased when canopy was closed in, as the effect of different surfaces no longer worked. The stimulation of photosynthesis reached to the primary CO2 effect. The accumulation in dry matter which was fast during that phase made the original weight advantage more and more neglectible. Comparison with short term measurements showed that first order long term effect of CO2 in wheat is predictible with short term experiment, from the effect of CO2 on photosynthesis measured on reference sample.

  11. Effect of CO2 partial pressure and different CO2 phases on carbon steel corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlobo, MGR; Premlall, K.; Olubambi, PA

    2017-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the recent promising technology aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emission. Like many other developed technologies, CCS is faced with great challenges such as pipeline transportation failure due to corrosion. There are many factors contributing to steel corrosion during the pipeline transportation of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study focuses on CO2 partial pressure and different phases of CO2 as some of the factors contributing to steel corrosion. Carbon steel was used as a testing specimen. High pressure reactor was used in this study to compress CO2 from low to high pressures ultimately changing the CO2 from gaseous phase to gas/liquid phase (subcritical) and to dense phase (supercritical). Weight loss method was employed to determine the corrosion rate while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the carbon steel morphology and phase analysis. Using low magnification digital camera, the type of corrosion that took place on the carbon steel surface was identified.

  12. Nonlinear CO2 flux response to 7 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Marguerite; Bracho, Rosvel; Celis, Gerardo; Hutchings, Jack; Natali, Susan M; Pegoraro, Elaine; Salmon, Verity G; Schädel, Christina; Webb, Elizabeth E; Schuur, Edward A G

    2017-09-01

    Rapid Arctic warming is expected to increase global greenhouse gas concentrations as permafrost thaw exposes immense stores of frozen carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also stimulates plant growth, which could offset C loss. Using data from 7 years of experimental Air and Soil warming in moist acidic tundra, we show that Soil warming had a much stronger effect on CO 2 flux than Air warming. Soil warming caused rapid permafrost thaw and increased ecosystem respiration (R eco ), gross primary productivity (GPP), and net summer CO 2 storage (NEE). Over 7 years R eco , GPP, and NEE also increased in Control (i.e., ambient plots), but this change could be explained by slow thaw in Control areas. In the initial stages of thaw, R eco , GPP, and NEE increased linearly with thaw across all treatments, despite different rates of thaw. As thaw in Soil warming continued to increase linearly, ground surface subsidence created saturated microsites and suppressed R eco , GPP, and NEE. However R eco and GPP remained high in areas with large Eriophorum vaginatum biomass. In general NEE increased with thaw, but was more strongly correlated with plant biomass than thaw, indicating that higher R eco in deeply thawed areas during summer months was balanced by GPP. Summer CO 2 flux across treatments fit a single quadratic relationship that captured the functional response of CO 2 flux to thaw, water table depth, and plant biomass. These results demonstrate the importance of indirect thaw effects on CO 2 flux: plant growth and water table dynamics. Nonsummer R eco models estimated that the area was an annual CO 2 source during all years of observation. Nonsummer CO 2 loss in warmer, more deeply thawed soils exceeded the increases in summer GPP, and thawed tundra was a net annual CO 2 source. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Antibacterial and Odontogenesis Efficacy of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Combined with CO2 Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tuan-Ti; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kao, Chia-Tze; Chen, Yi-Wen; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-07-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been successfully used in clinical applications in endodontics. Studies show that the antibacterial effects of CO2 laser irradiation are highly efficient when bacteria are embedded in biofilm because of a photothermal mechanism. The aim of this study was to confirm the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on MTA with regard to both material characterization and cell viability. MTA was irradiated with a dental CO2 laser using directly mounted fiber optics in the wound healing mode with a spot area of 0.25 cm(2) and then stored in an incubator at 100% relative humidity and 37°C for 1 day to set. The human dental pulp cells cultured on MTA were analyzed along with their proliferation and odontogenic differentiation behaviors. The results indicate that the setting time of MTA after irradiation by the CO2 laser was significantly reduced to 118 minutes rather than the usual 143 minutes. The maximum diametral tensile strength and x-ray diffraction patterns were similar to those obtained without CO2 laser irradiation. However, the CO2 laser irradiation increased the amount of Ca and Si ions released from the MTA and regulated cell behavior. CO2 laser-irradiated MTA promoted odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, with the increased formation of mineralized nodules on the substrate's surface. It also up-regulated the protein expression of multiple markers of odontogenic and the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein protein. The current study provides new and important data about the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on MTA with regard to the decreased setting time and increased ion release. Taking cell functions into account, the Si concentration released from MTA with laser irradiation may be lower than a critical value, and this information could lead to the development of new regenerative therapies for dentin and periodontal tissue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deglacial Western Equatorial Pacific pCO2 Reconstruction Using Boron Isotopes of Planktonic Foraminiferas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Sagawa, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamazaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    During the last deglaciation (ca. 19 - 11 ka), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) of the atmosphere increased by 80 μatm. Many paleoceanographers point out that the ocean had played an important role in atmospheric CO2 rise, since the ocean have 60 times larger capacity to store carbon compared to the atmosphere. However, evidence on where carbon was transferred from the ocean to the atmosphere is still lacking, hampering our understanding of global carbon cycles in glacial-interglacial timescales. Boron isotope of skeletons of marine calcifying organisms such as corals and foraminiferas can pin down where CO2 source/sink existed, because boron isotopes of marine calcium carbonates is dependent on seawater pH, from which pCO2 of the past seawater can be reconstructed. In previous studies using the boron isotope teqnique, Martinez-Boti et al. (2015, Nature) and Kubota et al. (2014, Scientific Reports) revealed that central and eastern parts of the equatorial Pacific acted as a CO2 source (i.e., CO2 emission) during the last deglaciation, suggesting the equatorial Pacific's contribution to atmospheric CO2 rise. However, some conflicting results have been confirmed in a marine sediment record from the western part of the equatorial Pacific (Palmer & Pearson, 2003, Science), making the conclusion elusive. In this presentation, we will show new results of Mg/Ca, oxygen isotope, and boron isotope measurements during the last 35 ka on two species of surface dwelling foraminiferas (Globigerinoides ruber and G. sacculifer) which was hand-picked separatedly from a well-dated marine sediment core recovered from the West Caroline Basin (KR05-15 PC01) (Yamazaki et al., 2008, GRL). From the new records, we will discuss how the equatorial Pacific behaved during the last deglaciation and how it related to the global carbon cycles.

  15. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is around ten times higher than methane solubility, a non-negligible factor in the relevant reservoir...... simulations. In our previous study, a 1-D slimtube simulator, which rigorously accounts for both CO2 solubility in brine and water content in hydrocarbon phases using the Peng-Robinson EoS modified by Soreide and Whitson, has been used to investigate the influence of CO2 solubility on the simulation...

  16. Numerical Simulation of CO2 Flooding of Coalbed Methane Considering the Fluid-Solid Coupling Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    Full Text Available CO2 flooding of coalbed methane (CO2-ECBM not only stores CO2 underground and reduces greenhouse gas emissions but also enhances the gas production ratio. This coupled process involves multi-phase fluid flow and coal-rock deformation, as well as processes such as competitive gas adsorption and diffusion from the coal matrix into fractures. A dual-porosity medium that consists of a matrix and fractures was built to simulate the flooding process, and a mathematical model was used to consider the competitive adsorption, diffusion and seepage processes and the interaction between flow and deformation. Due to the effects of the initial pressure and the differences in pressure variation during the production process, permeability changes caused by matrix shrinkage were spatially variable in the reservoir. The maximum value of permeability appeared near the production well, and the degree of rebound decreased with increasing distance from the production well.

  17. Unusually large magmatic CO2 gas emissions prior to a basaltic paroxysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Guerrieri, Sergio; Liuzzo, Marco; Murè, Filippo; Salerno, Giuseppe

    2010-09-01

    The low-intensity activity of basaltic volcanoes is occasionally interrupted by short-lived but energetic explosions which, whilst frequently observed, are amongst the most enigmatic volcanic events in Nature. The combination of poorly understood and deep, challenging to measure, source processes make such events currently impossible to forecast. Here we report increases in quiescent degassing CO2 emissions (>10,000 t/day) prior to a powerful explosive event on Stromboli volcano on 15 March 2007. We interpret such large CO2 flux as being sourced by passive gas leakage from a deeply (>4 km) stored magma, whose depressurization, possibly caused by the onset of an effusive eruption on 28 February 2007, was the explosion trigger. Our observations suggest that continuous CO2 flux monitoring may allow anomalously large explosions to be accurately forecast at basaltic volcanoes.

  18. Aluminophosphate monoliths with high CO2-over-N2 selectivity and CO2 capture capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Farid; Keshavarzi, Neda; Shakarova, Dilshod; Cheung, Ocean; Hedin, Niklas; Bergström, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Monoliths of microporous aluminophosphates (AlPO4-17 and AlPO4-53) were structured by binder-freepulsed current processing. Such monoliths could be important for carbon capture from flue gas. TheAlPO4-17 and AlPO4-53 monoliths exhibited a tensile strength of 1.0 MPa and a CO2 adsorption capacityof 2.5 mmol g1 and 1.6 mmol g1, respectively at 101 kPa and 0 C. Analyses of single component CO2and N2 adsorption data indicated that the AlPO4-53 monoliths had an extraordinarily high CO2-over-N2sele...

  19. Reducing CO2 from shipping – do non-CO2 effects matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Eide

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shipping is a growing sector in the global economy, and it contributions to global CO2 emissions are expected to increase. CO2 emissions from the world shipping fleet will likely be regulated in the near future, and studies have shown that significant emission reductions can be achieved at low cost. Regulations are being discussed for both existing ships as well as for future additions to the fleet. In this study a plausible CO2 emission reduction inventory is constructed for the cargo fleet existing in 2010, as well as for container ships, bulk ships and tankers separately. In the reduction inventories, CO2 emissions are reduced by 25–32% relative to baseline by applying 15 technical and operational emission reduction measures in accordance with a ship-type-specific cost-effectiveness criterion, and 9 other emission compounds are changed as a technical implication of reducing CO2. The overall climate and environmental effects of the changes to all 10 emission components in the reduction inventory are assessed using a chemical transport model, radiative forcing (RF models and a simple climate model. We find substantial environmental and health benefits with up to 5% reduction in surface ozone levels, 15% reductions in surface sulfate and 10% reductions in wet deposition of sulfate in certain regions exposed to heavy ship traffic. The major ship types show distinctly different contributions in specific locations. For instance, the container fleet contributes 50% of the sulfate decline on the west coast of North America. The global radiative forcing from a 1 yr emission equal to the difference between baseline and reduction inventory shows an initial strong positive forcing from non-CO2 compounds. This warming effect is due to reduced cooling by aerosols and methane. After approximately 25 yr, the non-CO2 forcing is balanced by the CO2 forcing. For the global mean temperature change, we find a shift from warming to cooling after approximately 60

  20. Response of atmospheric CO2 to changes in land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.W.; Emanuel, W.R.; Post, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter examines how different histories of CO 2 release from past changes in land use influence the simulation of past and future changes in atmospheric CO 2 . The authors first simulate past change in atmospheric CO 2 using reconstructed histories of land-use CO 2 release from a historical-ecological model of land-use change and CO 2 release. They examine the impact of each history on the coincidence between simulated and observed atmospheric CO 2 . They then compare these CO 2 release histories, and their contribution to coincidence or noncoincidence of simulation and observation, with histories reconstructed by deconvolution of the atmospheric CO 2 record. They conclude by exploring the implications of these deconvolved reconstructions for the simulation of future changes in atmospheric CO 2

  1. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  2. CO(2) Inhibits Respiration in Leaves of Rumex crispus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, J S; Koch, G W; Bloom, A J

    1992-02-01

    Curly dock (Rumex crispus L.) was grown from seed in a glasshouse at an ambient CO(2) partial pressure of about 35 pascals. Apparent respiration rate (CO(2) efflux in the dark) of expanded leaves was then measured at ambient CO(2) partial pressure of 5 to 95 pascals. Calculated intercellular CO(2) partial pressure was proportional to ambient CO(2) partial pressure in these short-term experiments. The CO(2) level strongly affected apparent respiration rate: a doubling of the partial pressure of CO(2) typically inhibited respiration by 25 to 30%, whereas a decrease in CO(2) elicited a corresponding increase in respiration. These responses were readily reversible. A flexible, sensitive regulatory interaction between CO(2) (a byproduct of respiration) and some component(s) of heterotrophic metabolism is indicated.

  3. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  4. Demonstration of CO2 Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. M. Dowson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO2 utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO2 in nitrogen similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO2, this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO2 to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO2 to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so-called hydrogen

  5. Demonstration of CO2 Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowson, George R. M.; Styring, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO 2 utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO 2 in nitrogen) similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO 2 , this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO 2 to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO 2 to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so-called hydrogen economy.

  6. CO2 point sources and subsurface storage capacities for CO2 in aquifers in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boee, Reidulv; Magnus, Christian; Osmundsen, Per Terje; Rindstad, Bjoern Ivar

    2002-01-01

    The GESTCO project comprises a study of the distribution and coincidence of thermal CO 2 emission sources and location/quality of geological storage capacity in Europe. Four of the most promising types of geological storage are being studied. 1. Onshore/offshore saline aquifers with or without lateral seal. 2. Low entalpy geothermal reservoirs. 3. Deep methane-bearing coal beds and abandoned coal and salt mines. 4. Exhausted or near exhausted hydrocarbon structures. In this report we present an inventory of CO 2 point sources in Norway (1999) and the results of the work within Study Area C: Deep saline aquifers offshore/near shore Northern and Central Norway. Also offshore/near shore Southern Norway has been included while the Barents Sea is not described in any detail. The most detailed studies are on the Tilje and Aare Formations on the Troendelag Platform off Mid-Norway and on the Sognefjord, Fensfjord and Krossfjord Formations, southeast of the Troll Field off Western Norway. The Tilje Formation has been chosen as one of the cases to be studied in greater detail (numerical modelling) in the project. This report shows that offshore Norway, there are concentrations of large CO 2 point sources in the Haltenbanken, the Viking Graben/Tampen Spur area, the Southern Viking Graben and the central Trough, while onshore Norway there are concentrations of point sources in the Oslofjord/Porsgrund area, along the coast of western Norway and in the Troendelag. A number of aquifers with large theoretical CO 2 storage potential are pointed out in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and in the Southern Barents Sea. The storage capacity in the depth interval 0.8 - 4 km below sea level is estimated to be ca. 13 Gt (13000000000 tonnes) CO 2 in geological traps (outside hydrocarbon fields), while the storage capacity in aquifers not confined to traps is estimated to be at least 280 Gt CO 2 . (Author)

  7. Plasma catalytic process for CO2 methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizio, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The limited resources of oil and natural gas, together with an increasing energy demand, forces us to seek more and more efficient and cleaner energy production alternatives. Hydrogen has been recently considered as a promising energy carrier. However, there are several inherent problems to the utilization of H 2 , from its transportation to its distribution. Transformation of the H 2 molecule by fixing into a carbon-containing compound, i.e. CH 4 , will offer the possibility of using the conventional transportation network. Indeed, the Sabatier reaction, which is highly exothermic, involves the reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas in order to produce methane and water. This process, called methanation, represents a feasible approach contributing to the reduction of the CO 2 emissions in our atmosphere, through a closed carbon cycle involving the valorization of CO 2 , i.e. from capture. However, below a temperature of 250 C, the conversion becomes practically close to 0 %, whereas at higher temperatures, i.e., (≥300 C), the co-existence of secondary reactions favours the formation of CO and H 2 . This is the reason why new catalysts and process conditions are continuously being investigated in order to maximize the methane selectivity at low reaction temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, by using catalysts combined to Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasmas (DBD), the activation of the methanation reaction can be enhanced and overcome the drawbacks of existing conventional processes. Several Ni-containing catalysts were prepared using various ceria-zirconia oxides as supports, with different Ce/Zr ratios. The results obtained in the adiabatic conditions at low temperatures (ranging between 100-150 C), in the presence of catalysts activated by plasma, are promising. Indeed, the conversion of CO 2 to CH 4 is about 85 % with a selectivity close to 100 %. The same conversion in the absence of the plasma activation of the catalyst is observed at 350 C

  8. Interface characteristics in Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Hong; Wang, Guangzhao; Yuan, Hongkuan

    2016-05-01

    Interface characteristics of Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer have been investigated by means of first-principles. The most likely interface is formed by connecting MnSi-termination to the bridge site between two Ag atoms. As annealed at high temperature, the formation of interface DO3 disorder is most energetically favorable. The spin polarization is reduced by both the interface itself and interface disorder due to the interface state occurs in the minority-spin gap. As a result, the magneto-resistance ratio has a sharp drop based on the estimation of a simplified modeling.

  9. Power stabilized CO2 gas transport laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.D.; Kirk, R.F.; Moreno, F.E.; Ahmed, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The output power of a high power (1 kW or more) CO 2 gas transport laser is stabilized by flowing the gas mixture over copper plated baffles in the gas channel during operation of the laser. Several other metals may be used instead of copper, for example, nickel, manganese, palladium, platinum, silver and gold. The presence of copper in the laser gas circuit stabilizes output power by what is believed to be a compensation of the chemical changes in the gas due to the cracking action of the electrical discharge which has the effect of diminishing the capactiy of the carbon dioxide gas mixture to maintain the rated power output of the laser. (U.S.)

  10. Enhanced Molecular Sieve CO2 Removal Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan; ElSherif, Dina; MacKnight, Allen

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively characterize the performance of two major types of molecular sieves for two-bed regenerative carbon dioxide removal at the conditions compatible with both a spacesuit and station application. One sorbent is a zeolite-based molecular sieve that has been substantially improved over the materials used in Skylab. The second sorbent is a recently developed carbon-based molecular sieve. Both molecular sieves offer the potential of high payoff for future manned missions by reducing system complexity, weight (including consumables), and power consumption in comparison with competing concepts. The research reported here provides the technical data required to improve CO2 removal systems for regenerative life support systems for future IVA and EVA missions.

  11. High gain, multiatmosphere CO2 laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, G. C.; Houtman, H.; Meyer, J.

    1987-02-01

    A novel TE discharge, 15-mm aperture, multiatmosphere, CO2 laser amplifier is described, with measured electrical characteristics and gain measurements on the 9.294-micron, 9R (16) line. The electrical circuit used in this amplifier is a realistic alternative to the Marx bank or conventional LC inversion circuit and, similarly, it would be useful for excitation of other gas lasers as well. This automatically preionized, double-sided, fourfold LC inversion circuit uses only one spark gap, and it is shown to provide small-signal gains of 5.7 percent/cm, at 120 J/l atm and 10 atm. The generalization to an n-stage device, which would be suitable for higher pressures, and larger apertures, is discussed.

  12. Smart Transportation CO2 Emission Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulescu, S.; Tarulescu, R.; Soica, A.; Leahu, C. I.

    2017-10-01

    Transport represents the sector with the fastest growing greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The main global objective is to reduce energy usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. For this study it was analyzed the road transportation system from Brasov Metropolitan area. The study was made for the transportation route that connects Ghimbav city to the main surrounding objectives. In this study ware considered four optimization measures: vehicle fleet renewal; building the detour belt for the city; road increasing the average travel speed; making bicycle lanes; and implementing an urban public transport system for Ghimbav. For each measure it was used a mathematical model to calculate the energy consumption and carbon emissions from the road transportation sector. After all four measures was analyzed is calculated the general energy consumption and CO2 reduction if this are applied from year 2017 to 2020.

  13. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.

    1997-01-01

    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:Yag laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 ms is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  14. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.

    1997-10-01

    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:YAG laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 msec is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  15. Goodbye water use, tailings and Co2?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, R.P.

    2011-03-15

    Alberta Bitumen Link (ABL), a new integrated oilsands technology, is described. ABL combines the use of dimethyl ester (DME) as a solvent at lower temperatures in SAGD and the manufacture of DME by gasification of coal and asphaltenes so CO2 formation is reduced. The heat from the gasification process cogenerates electricity, while the produced DME is sent for use in the in-situ bitumen recovery. ABL finds the same mobility in bitumen stimulated with solvent at 80 C as a reservoir heated to 230 C by steam. The intellectual property now resides with Envirotech Consulting Inc. of Edmonton and Thermax Systems Co. of Japan and the technology is in small-scale testing. 1 fig.

  16. Nitrogen uptake, distribution, turnover, and efficiency of use in a CO2-enriched sweetgum forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The Progressive Nitrogen Limitation (PNL) hypothesis suggests that ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere will sequester C and N in long-lived biomass and soil organic pools, thereby limiting available N and constraining the continued response of net primary productivity to elevated [CO2]. Here, we present a six-year record of N dynamics of a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) stand exposed to elevated [CO2] in the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. We also evaluate the concept of PNL for this ecosystem from the perspective of N uptake, content, distribution, and turnover, and N-use efficiency. Leaf N content was 11% lower on a leaf mass basis (NM) and 7% lower on a leaf area basis (N{sub A}) in CO2-enriched trees. However, there was no effect of [CO2] on total canopy N content. Resorption of N during senescence was not altered by [CO2], so NM of litter, but not total N content, was reduced. The NM of fine roots was not affected, but the total amount of N required for fine-root production increased significantly, reflecting the large stimulation of fine-root production in this stand. Hence, total N requirement of the trees was higher in elevated [CO2], and the increased requirement was met through an increase in N uptake rather than increased retranslocation of stored reserves. Increased N uptake was correlated with increased net primary productivity (NPP). N-use efficiency, however, did not change with CO2 enrichment because increased N productivity was offset by lower mean residence time of N in the trees. None of the measured responses of plant N dynamics in this ecosystem indicated the occurrence of PNL, and the stimulation of NPP by elevated [CO2] was sustained for the first six years of the experiment. Although there are some indications of developing changes in the N economy, the N supply in the soil at this site may be sufficient to meet an increasing demand for available N, especially as the roots of CO2-enriched trees

  17. Nanoscale Chemical Processes Affecting Storage Capacities and Seals during Geologic CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Zhang, Lijie; Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun

    2017-07-18

    Geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising strategy to mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. Suitable geologic storage sites should have a porous reservoir rock zone where injected CO 2 can displace brine and be stored in pores, and an impermeable zone on top of reservoir rocks to hinder upward movement of buoyant CO 2 . The injection wells (steel casings encased in concrete) pass through these geologic zones and lead CO 2 to the desired zones. In subsurface environments, CO 2 is reactive as both a supercritical (sc) phase and aqueous (aq) species. Its nanoscale chemical reactions with geomedia and wellbores are closely related to the safety and efficiency of CO 2 storage. For example, the injection pressure is determined by the wettability and permeability of geomedia, which can be sensitive to nanoscale mineral-fluid interactions; the sealing safety of the injection sites is affected by the opening and closing of fractures in caprocks and the alteration of wellbore integrity caused by nanoscale chemical reactions; and the time scale for CO 2 mineralization is also largely dependent on the chemical reactivities of the reservoir rocks. Therefore, nanoscale chemical processes can influence the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of geomedia, such as their wettability, permeability, mechanical strength, and fracturing. This Account reviews our group's work on nanoscale chemical reactions and their qualitative impacts on seal integrity and storage capacity at GCS sites from four points of view. First, studies on dissolution of feldspar, an important reservoir rock constituent, and subsequent secondary mineral precipitation are discussed, focusing on the effects of feldspar crystallography, cations, and sulfate anions. Second, interfacial reactions between caprock and brine are introduced using model clay minerals, with focuses on the effects of water chemistries (salinity and organic ligands) and water content on mineral dissolution and

  18. Experimental Investigations into CO2 Interactions with Injection Well Infrastructure for CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Amer; Shi, Ji-Quan; Durucan, Sevket; Nash, Graham; Korre, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Wellbore integrity is an essential requirement to ensure the success of a CO2 Storage project as leakage of CO2 from the injection or any other abandoned well in the storage complex, could not only severely impede the efficiency of CO2 injection and storage but also may result in potential adverse impact on the surrounding environment. Early research has revealed that in case of improper well completions and/or significant changes in operating bottomhole pressure and temperature could lead to the creation of microannulus at cement-casing interface which may constitute a preferential pathway for potential CO2 leakage during and post injection period. As a part of a European Commission funded CO2CARE project, the current research investigates the sealing behaviour of such microannulus at the cement-casing interface under simulated subsurface reservoir pressure and temperature conditions and uses the findings to develop a methodology to assess the overall integrity of CO2 storage. A full scale wellbore experimental test set up was constructed for use under elevated pressure and temperature conditions as encountered in typical CO2 storage sites. The wellbore cell consists of an assembly of concentric elements of full scale casing (Diameter= 0.1524m), cement sheath and an outer casing. The stainless steel outer ring is intended to simulate the stiffness offered by the reservoir rock to the displacement applied at the wellbore. The Central Loading Mechanism (CLM) consists of four case hardened shoes that can impart radial load onto the well casing. The radial movement of the shoes is powered through the synchronised movement of four precision jacks controlled hydraulically which could impart radial pressures up to 15 MPa. The cell body is a gas tight enclosure that houses the wellbore and the central loading mechanism. The setup is enclosed in a laboratory oven which acts both as temperature and safety enclosure. Prior to a test, cement mix is set between the casing and

  19. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  20. CO2 chemoreception in cardiorespiratory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Considerable progress has been made elucidating the cellular signals and ion channel targets involved in the response to increased CO2/H+ of brain stem neurons from chemosensitive regions. Intracellular pH (pHi) does not exhibit recovery from an acid load when extracellular pH (pHo) is also acid. This lack of pHi recovery is an essential but not unique feature of all chemosensitive neurons. These neurons have pH-regulating transporters, especially Na+/H+ exchangers, but some may also contain HCO3--dependent transporters as well. Studies in locus ceruleus (LC) neurons have shown that firing rate will increase in response to decreased pHi or pHo but not in response to increased CO2 alone. A number of K+ channels, as well as other channels, have been suggested to be targets of these pH changes with a fall of pH inhibiting these channels. In neurons from some regions it appears that multiple signals and multiple channels are involved in their chemosensitive response while in neurons from other regions a single signal and/or channel may be involved. Despite the progress, a number of key issues remain to be studied. A detailed study of chemosensitive signaling needs to be done in neurons from more brain stem regions. Fully describing the chemosensitive signaling pathways in brain stem neurons will offer new targets for therapies to alter the strength of central chemosensitivity and will yield new insights into the reason why there are multiple central chemoreceptive sites.

  1. Modeling CO2-Water-Mineral Wettability and Mineralization for Carbon Geosequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunfeng; Tsuji, Shinya; Jia, Jihui; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2017-07-18

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) is an important climate change mitigation option along with improved energy efficiency, renewable energy, and nuclear energy. CO 2 geosequestration, that is, to store CO 2 under the subsurface of Earth, is feasible because the world's sedimentary basins have high capacity and are often located in the same region of the world as emission sources. How CO 2 interacts with the connate water and minerals is the focus of this Account. There are four trapping mechanisms that keep CO 2 in the pores of subsurface rocks: (1) structural trapping, (2) residual trapping, (3) dissolution trapping, and (4) mineral trapping. The first two are dominated by capillary action, where wettability controls CO 2 and water two-phase flow in porous media. We review state-of-the-art studies on CO 2 /water/mineral wettability, which was found to depend on pressure and temperature conditions, salt concentration in aqueous solutions, mineral surface chemistry, and geometry. We then review some recent advances in mineral trapping. First, we show that it is possible to reproduce the CO 2 /water/mineral wettability at a wide range of pressures using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As the pressure increases, CO 2 gas transforms into a supercritical fluid or liquid at ∼7.4 MPa depending on the environmental temperature. This transition leads to a substantial decrease of the interfacial tension between CO 2 and reservoir brine (or pure water). However, the wettability of CO 2 /water/rock systems depends on the type of rock surface. Recently, we investigated the contact angle of CO 2 /water/silica systems with two different silica surfaces using MD simulations. We found that contact angle increased with pressure for the hydrophobic (siloxane) surface while it was almost constant for the hydrophilic (silanol) surface, in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, we found that the CO 2 thin films at the CO 2 -hydrophilic

  2. An equivalence factor between CO2 avoided emissions and sequestration. Description and applications in forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.M.; Wilson, C.

    2000-01-01

    Concern about the issue of permanence and reversibility of the effects of carbon sequestration has led to the need to devise accounting methods that quantify the temporal value of storing carbon that has been actively sequestered or removed from the atmosphere, as compared to carbon stored as a result of activities taken to avoid emissions. This paper describes a method for accounting for the atmospheric effects of sequestration-based land-use projects in relation to the duration of carbon storage. Firstly, the time period over which sequestered carbon should be stored in order to counteract the radiative forcing effect of carbon emissions was calculated, based on the residence time and decay pattern of atmospheric CO2, its Absolute Global Warming Potential. This time period was called the equivalence time, and was calculated to be approximately 55 years. From this equivalence time, the effect of storage of 1 t CO2 for 1 year was derived, and found to be similar to preventing the effect of the emission of 0.0182 t CO2. Potential applications of this tonne.year figure, here called the equivalence factor, are then discussed in relation to the estimation of atmospheric benefits over time of sequestration-based land use projects. 15 refs

  3. Faults as Windows to Monitor Gas Seepage: Application to CO2 Sequestration and CO2-EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Klusman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting are needed for both cost and technical effectiveness. This work provides an overview of some of the geochemical methods that have been demonstrated to be effective for an existing CO2-EOR (Rangely, CA, USA and a proposed project at Teapot Dome, WY, USA. Carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and shallow soil gas concentrations were measured, followed by nested completions of 10-m deep holes to obtain concentration gradients. The focus at Teapot Dome was the evaluation of faults as pathways for gas seepage in an under-pressured reservoir system. The measurements were supplemented by stable carbon and oxygen isotopic measurements, carbon-14, and limited use of inert gases. The work clearly demonstrates the superiority of CH4 over measurements of CO2 in early detection and quantification of gas seepage. Stable carbon isotopes, carbon-14, and inert gas measurements add to the verification of the deep source. A preliminary accounting at Rangely confirms the importance of CH4 measurements in the MVA application.

  4. Root-derived CO2 efflux via xylem stream rivals soil CO2 efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug P. Aubrey; Robert O. Teskey

    2009-01-01

    Respiration consumes a large portion of annual gross primary productivity in forest ecosystems and is dominated by belowground metabolism. Here, we present evidence of a previously unaccounted for internal CO2 flux of large magnitude from tree roots through stems. If this pattern is shown to persist over time and in other forests, it suggests...

  5. Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have

  6. CO2-ECBM and CO2 Sequestration in Polish Coal Seam – Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baran

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The results indicate successful sorption of carbon dioxide in each experiment. This provides the rationale to study the application of the coal tested to obtain methane genetic origin genetic methane with the use of the CO2 injection.

  7. Interface characteristics in Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Hong; Wang, Guangzhao; Yuan, Hongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Inferface DO 3 disorder is most favorable in Co 2 MnSi/Ag/Co 2 MnSi trilayer. • Interface itself and inferface DO 3 disorder destroy the half-metallicity of interface layers. • Magnetoresistance is reduced by the interface itself and interface disorder. • Magnetotransport coefficient is largely reduced by the interface itself and interface disorder. - Abstract: Interface characteristics of Co 2 MnSi/Ag/Co 2 MnSi trilayer have been investigated by means of first-principles. The most likely interface is formed by connecting MnSi-termination to the bridge site between two Ag atoms. As annealed at high temperature, the formation of interface DO 3 disorder is most energetically favorable. The spin polarization is reduced by both the interface itself and interface disorder due to the interface state occurs in the minority-spin gap. As a result, the magneto-resistance ratio has a sharp drop based on the estimation of a simplified modeling.

  8. Investigational research on CO2 isolation technology in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo nisanka tanso no kakuri gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper studied present technical subjects and future study subjects of the CO2 isolation technology in order to clarify technical and social problems and the developmental subjects of the CO2 isolation technology and related technologies for separating/concentrating CO2 emitted in relation to quantity consumption of fossil fuel and storing it in ocean or underground. Main items for the study were: (1) investigational study of the technology of CO2 ocean storage, (2) investigational study of environmental effect assessment in storing CO2 in ocean, (3) investigational study of the technology of CO2 ocean storage, etc. Technologies required for the ocean isolation were arranged such as CO2 storage, injection, dispersion technique, CO2 behavior simulation, and the developmental subjects were extracted. Further, in the deep-sea bottom storage method, a simulation to calculate the range of PH effects was conducted presuming the specified amount of CO2 and applying known physical values, and evaluation of the CO2 ocean discharge/solution method was made. A method was also studied for experiments on water bacteria and benthos. 127 refs., 102 figs., 81 tabs.

  9. Decontamination of solid matrices using supercritical CO2: study of contaminant-additives-CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.

    2006-11-01

    This work deals with the decontamination of solid matrices by supercritical CO 2 and more particularly with the study of the interactions between the surfactants and the CO 2 in one part, and with the interactions between the contaminant and the surfactants in another part. The first part of this study has revealed the different interactions between the Pluronics molecules and the supercritical CO 2 . The diagrams graphs have shown that the pluronics (PE 6100, PE 8100 and PE 10100) present a solubility in the supercritical CO 2 low but sufficient (0.1% m/m at 25 MPa and 313 K) for the studied application: the treatment of weak quantities of cerium oxide (or plutonium). An empirical approach based on the evolutions of the slops value and of the origin ordinates of the PT diagrams has been carried out to simulate the phase diagrams PT of the Pluronics. A modeling based on the state equations 'SAFT' (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) has been studied in order to confirm the experimental results of the disorder points and to understand the role of the different blocks 'PEO' and 'PPO' in the behaviour of Pluronics; this modeling confirms the evolution of the slopes value with the 'CO 2 -phily' of the system. The measure of the surface tension in terms of the Pluronics concentration (PE 6100, 81000 and 10100) has shown different behaviours. For the PE 6100, the surface tension decreases when the surfactant concentration increases (at constant pressure and temperature); on the other hand, for the PE 8100 a slop rupture appears and corresponds to the saturation of the interface water/CO 2 and allows then to determine the Interface Saturation Concentration (ISC). The ISC value (at constant pressure and temperature) increases with an increase of the 'CO 2 -phily'). The model hydrophilous medium being an approximation, it has been replaced by a solid polar phase of CeO 2 . A parallel has been established between the evolution of the surface tension between the water and

  10. High-resolution global CO2 modeling: a comparison to GOSAT column CO2 retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. F.

    2010-12-01

    Over a year’s worth of column CO2 concentrations retrieved by the Japanese Greenhouse-gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are now available: with a global distribution and good sensitivity down to the surface, these data could provide an important new view of the functioning of the global carbon cycle. The retrievals seem to be corrupted by systematic errors with a magnitude of several ppm, however; to be truly useful, these biases must be greatly reduced before being used in atmospheric transport inversions. Here GOSAT column CO2 retrievals are compared to values from a high-resolution global atmospheric transport model; the residuals are correlated with a variety of factors (including aerosol optical depth, cloud coverage, surface type, and viewing geometry) globally, across a full year of data, to help identify systematic errors in the retrievals and attribute them to possible causes. This broad comparison to model data is meant to complement the comparison to in situ CO2 measurements and upward-looking Fourier spectrometer data currently being used to validate the retrievals at a relatively few times and locations. NASA’s GEOS5 analyzed meteorology products at 0.5° x 0.67° resolution (lat/lon) are used both to compute diurnally-varying land biospheric fluxes (with the SiB model) and to transport these fluxes through the atmosphere with the off-line PCTM model (40 vertical layers, also at 0.5° x 0.67°). Global fossil fuel fluxes with similarly-high spatial resolution, but low temporal resolution, plus monthly varying air-sea fluxes from an ocean model, are also transported. The net fluxes and CO2 fields are optimized at coarse scales in a Transcom-like time-dependent inversion to agree with data from the in situ CO2 measurement network before the GOSAT comparison is made.

  11. Novel Long-Term CO2 Removal System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current Technology for CO2 removal from enclosed air of spacecraft utilizes LiOH canisters for CO2 absorption. This absorption is irreversible so longer flights...

  12. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: International Emissions and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA August 2011 report on global non-CO2 emissions projections (1990-2030) for emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated greenhouse gases) from more than twenty emissions sources.

  13. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  14. Methods to Assess Geological CO2 Storage Capacity: Status and Best Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    To understand the emission reduction potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), decision makers need to understand the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored in the subsurface and the geographical distribution of storage resources. Estimates of storage resources need to be made using reliable and consistent methods. Previous estimates of CO2 storage potential for a range of countries and regions have been based on a variety of methodologies resulting in a correspondingly wide range of estimates. Consequently, there has been uncertainty about which of the methodologies were most appropriate in given settings, and whether the estimates produced by these methods were useful to policy makers trying to determine the appropriate role of CCS. In 2011, the IEA convened two workshops which brought together experts for six national surveys organisations to review CO2 storage assessment methodologies and make recommendations on how to harmonise CO2 storage estimates worldwide. This report presents the findings of these workshops and an internationally shared guideline for quantifying CO2 storage resources.

  15. Study on Introduction of CO2 Free Energy to Japan with Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Shoji; Nishimura, Motohiko; Harada, Eichi

    In Japan, both CO2(Carbon dioxide) emission reduction and energy security are the very important social issues after Fukushima Daiichi accident. On the other hand, FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle)using hydrogen will be on the market in 2015. Introducing large mass hydrogen energy is being expected as expanding hydrogen applications, or solution to energy issues of Japan.And then,the Japanese government announced the road map for introducing hydrogen energy supply chain in this June,2014. Under these circumstances, imported CO2 free hydrogen will be one of the solutions for energy security and CO2 reduction, if the hydrogen price is affordable. To achieve this, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) performed a feasibility studyon CO2-free hydrogen energy supply chainfrom Australian brown coal linked with CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) to Japan. In the study, hydrogen production systems utilizing brown coal gasificationandLH2 (liquid hydrogen)systems as storing and transporting hydrogen are examined.This paper shows the possibilityof realizingthe CO2 free hydrogen supply chain, the cost breakdown of imported hydrogen cost, its cost competitiveness with conventionalfossil, andLH2systems as key technologies of the hydrogen energy chain.

  16. Integration of CO2 capture and mineral carbonation by using recyclable ammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2011-09-19

    A new approach to capture and store CO(2) by mineral carbonation using recyclable ammonium salts was studied. This process integrates CO(2) capture with mineral carbonation by employing NH(3), NH(4)HSO(4), and NH(4)HCO(3) in the capture, mineral dissolution, and carbonation steps, respectively. NH(4)HSO(4) and NH(3) can then be regenerated by thermal decomposition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4). The use of NH(4)HCO(3) as the source of CO(2) can avoid desorption and compression of CO(2). The mass ratio of Mg/NH(4)HCO(3)/NH(3) is the key factor controlling carbonation and the optimum ratio of 1:4:2 gives a conversion of Mg ions to hydromagnesite of 95.5%. Thermogravimetric analysis studies indicated that the regeneration efficiency of NH(4)HSO(4) and NH(3) in this process is 95%. The mass balance of the process shows that about 2.63 tonnes of serpentine, 0.12 tonnes of NH(4)HSO(4), 7.48 tonnes of NH(4)HCO(3), and 0.04 tonnes of NH(3) are required to sequester 1 tonne of CO(2) as hydromagnesite. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Relationship between sea level and climate forcing by CO2 on geological timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gavin L; Rohling, Eelco J

    2013-01-22

    On 10(3)- to 10(6)-year timescales, global sea level is determined largely by the volume of ice stored on land, which in turn largely reflects the thermal state of the Earth system. Here we use observations from five well-studied time slices covering the last 40 My to identify a well-defined and clearly sigmoidal relationship between atmospheric CO(2) and sea level on geological (near-equilibrium) timescales. This strongly supports the dominant role of CO(2) in determining Earth's climate on these timescales and suggests that other variables that influence long-term global climate (e.g., topography, ocean circulation) play a secondary role. The relationship between CO(2) and sea level we describe portrays the "likely" (68% probability) long-term sea-level response after Earth system adjustment over many centuries. Because it appears largely independent of other boundary condition changes, it also may provide useful long-range predictions of future sea level. For instance, with CO(2) stabilized at 400-450 ppm (as required for the frequently quoted "acceptable warming" of 2 °C), or even at AD 2011 levels of 392 ppm, we infer a likely (68% confidence) long-term sea-level rise of more than 9 m above the present. Therefore, our results imply that to avoid significantly elevated sea level in the long term, atmospheric CO(2) should be reduced to levels similar to those of preindustrial times.

  18. CO2 perturbation in aquifers : reaction kinetics and metals behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Rillard, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate hydrogeochemical perturbation induced by CO2 in natural aquifers. In a first step, we used chemical data from natural CO2-rich hydrothermal water. We studied variation of fluid chemical composition as a function of CO2 content in order to evaluate reactivity of minerals composing the initial reservoir. Fluid chemical analyses showed decrease in pH, and systematic enrichment in alkalinity and major cations correlated to increase in CO2 content. Chemica...

  19. Can elevated CO(2) improve salt tolerance in olive trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, Juan Carlos; Syvertsen, James P; García-Sánchez, Francisco

    2008-04-18

    We compared growth, leaf gas exchange characteristics, water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence, and Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration of two cultivars ('Koroneiki' and 'Picual') of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees in response to high salinity (NaCl 100mM) and elevated CO(2) (eCO(2)) concentration (700microLL(-1)). The cultivar 'Koroneiki' is considered to be more salt sensitive than the relatively salt-tolerant 'Picual'. After 3 months of treatment, the 9-month-old cuttings of 'Koroneiki' had significantly greater shoot growth, and net CO(2) assimilation (A(CO(2))) at eCO(2) than at ambient CO(2), but this difference disappeared under salt stress. Growth and A(CO(2)) of 'Picual' did not respond to eCO(2) regardless of salinity treatment. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf transpiration were decreased at eCO(2) such that leaf water use efficiency (WUE) increased in both cultivars regardless of saline treatment. Salt stress increased leaf Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration, reduced growth and leaf osmotic potential, but increased leaf turgor compared with non-salinized control plants of both cultivars. Salinity decreased A(CO(2)), g(s), and WUE, but internal CO(2) concentrations in the mesophyll were not affected. eCO(2) increased the sensitivity of PSII and chlorophyll concentration to salinity. eCO(2) did not affect leaf or root Na(+) or Cl(-) concentrations in salt-tolerant 'Picual', but eCO(2) decreased leaf and root Na(+) concentration and root Cl(-) concentration in the more salt-sensitive 'Koroneiki'. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation was associated with the lower water use in 'Koroneiki' but not in 'Picual'. Although eCO(2) increased WUE in salinized leaves and decreased salt ion uptake in the relatively salt-tolerant 'Koroneiki', growth of these young olive trees was not affected by eCO(2).

  20. [Effects of plastic film mulching on soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration in an oasis cotton field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-xiang; Zhao, Cheng-yi; Jia, Hong-tao; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Tian-he; Yang, Yu-guang; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration between mulched and non-mulched cotton fields by using closed chamber method and diffusion chamber technique. Soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration exhibited a similar seasonal pattern, decreasing from July to October. Mulched field had a lower soil CO2 efflux but a higher CO2 concentration, compared to those of non-mulched fields. Over the measurement period, cumulative CO2 efflux was 1871.95 kg C . hm-2 for mulched field and 2032.81 kg C . hm-2 for non-mulched field. Soil CO2 concentration was higher in mulched field (ranging from 5137 to 25945 µL . L-1) than in non- mulched field (ranging from 2165 to 23986 µL . L-1). The correlation coefficients between soil CO2 concentrations at different depths and soil CO2 effluxes were 0.60 to 0.73 and 0.57 to 0.75 for the mulched and non-mulched fields, indicating that soil CO2 concentration played a crucial role in soil CO2 emission. The Q10 values were 2.77 and 2.48 for the mulched and non-mulched fields, respectively, suggesting that CO2 efflux in mulched field was more sensitive to the temperature.

  1. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  2. CO2 in Alberta - a vision of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, K.

    1999-01-01

    The potential to develop a province-wide infrastructure for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) collection and transmission was discussed. The petroleum industry's original interest in CO 2 was its potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) for Alberta's depleted oil fields. However, new interest has stemmed from its perceived role in global climate change and the potentially negative business and economic implications of emitting CO 2 into the atmosphere. It was suggested that the development of a province wide infrastructure to collect CO 2 would address both interests. A simple screening of the reservoirs was carried out to determine if Alberta has the right oil reservoirs and sufficient CO 2 supplies to support a large-scale CO 2 infrastructure. The proposed infrastructure would consist of CO 2 supplies from electrical power generation plants, CO 2 trunklines, feeder pipelines to deliver CO 2 from the trunklines to the field and the oil reservoirs where the CO 2 would be injected. Such infrastructures already exist in Texas and Mexico where more than 1 billion scf per day of CO 2 is used for EOR. This study compared the factors leading to a large-scale CO 2 industry with factors in place during the 1970s and 1980s, when most of the hydrocarbon miscible floods were initiated in Alberta. It was concluded that the preliminary economics suggest that the concept has merit. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  3. A liquid CO2-compatible hydrocarbon surfactant: experiment and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants soluble in liquid CO2 are rare and knowledge on interfacial and self-assembly behaviour is fragmented. We found that polyoxyethylene (5) isooctylphenyl ether is interfacially active at the water–liquid CO2 interface. Water–liquid CO2 interfacial tension was measured at various surfactant

  4. Activation of CO2 by phosphinoamide hafnium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgro, Michael J; Stephan, Douglas W

    2013-04-04

    Hf-phosphinoamide cation complexes behave as metal-based frustrated Lewis pairs and bind one or two equivalent of CO2 and in as well can activate CO2 in a bimetallic fashion to give a pseudo-tetrahedral P2CO2 fragment linking two Hf centres.

  5. Mechanochemical synthesis and characterization of pure Co2B ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Co2B nanoparticles have been com- monly employed as effective catalysts both for the hydro- genation and hydrogen production processes [7–17]. A study on the hydrogenation activity of Co2B particles in the CTAB/. 1-hexanol/water reversed micellar system was performed by. Ma et al [7]. Co2B was first tried as a catalyst ...

  6. Modeling of CO2 absorber using an AMP solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: An explicit model for carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility in an aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) has been proposed and an expression for the heat of absorption of CO2 has been developed as a function of loading and temperature. A rate-based steady-state model for CO2...

  7. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of t...

  8. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  9. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  10. Sensory Transduction of the CO2 Response of Guard Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Eduardo Zeiger

    2003-06-30

    Stomata have a key role in the regulation of gas exchange and intercellular CO2 concentrations of leaves. Guard cells sense internal and external signals in the leaf environment and transduce these signals into osmoregulatory processes that control stomatal apertures. This research proposal addresses the characterization of the sensory transduction of the CO2 signal in guard cells. Recent studies have shown that in Vicia leaves kept at constant light and temperature in a growth chamber, changes in ambient CO2 concentrations cause large changes in guard cell zeaxanthin that are linear with CO2-dependent changes in stomatal apertures. Research proposed here will test the hypothesis that zeaxanthin function as a transducer of CO2 signals in guard cells. Three central aspects of this hypothesis will be investigated: CO2 sensing by the carboxylation reaction of Rubisco in the guard cell chloroplast, which would modulate zeaxanthin concentrations via changes in lumen pH; transduction of the CO2 signal by zeaxanthin via a transducing cascade that controls guard cell osmoregulation; and blue light dependence of the CO2 signal transduction by zeaxanthin, required for the formation of an isomeric form of zeaxanthin that is physiologically active as a transducer. The role of Rubisco in CO2 sensing will be investigated in experiments characterizing the stomatal response to CO2 in the Arabidopsis mutants R100 and rca-, which have reduced rates of Rubisco-dependent carboxylation. The role of zeaxanthin as a CO2 transducer will be studied in npq1, a zeaxanthin-less mutant. The blue light-dependence of CO2 sensing will be studied in experiments characterizing the stomatal response to CO2 under red light. Arabidopsis mutants will also be used in further studies of an acclimation of the stomatal response to CO2, and a possible role of the xanthophyll cycle of the guard cell chloroplast in acclimations of the stomatal response to CO2. Studies on the osmoregulatory role of sucrose in

  11. CO2 condensation is a serious limit to the deglaciation of Earth-like planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbet, Martin; Forget, Francois; Leconte, Jeremy; Charnay, Benjamin; Tobie, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    It is widely believed that the carbonate-silicate cycle is the main agent, through volcanism, to trigger deglaciations by CO2 greenhouse warming on Earth and on Earth-like planets when they get in a frozen state. Here we use a 3D Global Climate Model to simulate the ability of planets initially completely frozen to escape from glaciation episodes by accumulating enough gaseous CO2. The model includes CO2 condensation and sublimation processes and the water cycle. We find that planets with Earth-like characteristics (size, mass, obliquity, rotation rate, etc.) orbiting a Sun-like star may never be able to escape from a glaciation era, if their orbital distance is greater than ∼1.27 Astronomical Units (Flux greenhouse effect. Furthermore, our results indicate that for (1) high rotation rates (Prot water ice albedo (H2O albedo > 0.6), this critical limit could occur at a significantly lower equivalent distance (or higher insolation). For each possible configuration, we show that the amount of CO2 that can be trapped in the polar caps depends on the efficiency of CO2 ice to flow laterally as well as its gravitational stability relative to subsurface water ice. We find that a frozen Earth-like planet located at 1.30 AU of a Sun-like star could store as much as 1.5, 4.5 and 15 bars of dry ice at the poles, for internal heat fluxes of 100, 30 and 10 mW m-2, respectively. But these amounts are in fact lower limits. For planets with a significant water ice cover, we show that CO2 ice deposits should be gravitationally unstable. They get buried beneath the water ice cover in geologically short timescales of ∼104 yrs, mainly controlled by the viscosity of water ice. CO2 would be permanently sequestered underneath the water ice cover, in the form of CO2 liquids, CO2 clathrate hydrates and/or dissolved in subglacial water reservoirs (if any). This would considerably increase the amount of CO2 trapped and further reduce the probability of deglaciation.

  12. Organic matter composition and substrate diversity under elevated CO2 in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, M. M.; Hess, N. J.; Koyama, A.; Evans, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about how rising atmospheric CO2 concentration will impact long-term plant biomass or the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) in arid ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the change in the molecular composition of SOM by high resolution mass spectrometry after 10 years exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility. Samples were collected from soil profiles from 0 to 1m in 0.2m increments under the dominant evergreen shrub (Larrea tridentata). The differences in the composition of SOM were more evident in soils close to the surface and consistent with higher bulk soil organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) concentrations under elevated than ambient CO2, reflecting increased net productivity of shrubs under elevated CO2, which could be attributed to increased litter input from above-ground biomass and/or shallow roots, root exudation and/or microbial residues. This was further supported by the significant increase in the abundance of amino sugars-, protein- and carbohydrate-like compounds. These compounds are involved in diverse pathways ranging from sugars and amino-acid metabolism to lipid biosynthesis. This indicates increased activity and metabolism under elevated CO2 and suggests that elevated CO2 have altered microbial C use patterns, reflecting changes in the quality and quantity of soil C inputs. A significant increase in the mineral-bound soil organic C was also observed in the surface soils under elevated CO2. This was accompanied by increased microbial residues as identified by mass spectrometry that supports microbial lipid analysis, and reflecting accelerated microbial turnover under elevated CO2. Fungal neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFA) abundance doubled under elevated CO2. When provided with excess labile compounds, such as root exudates, and with limited supply of nutrients, fungi assimilate the excess labile C and store it as NLFA likely contributing to increased total N

  13. The Potential for Forestry to Reduce Net CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    . However, the trees have to be grown on good sites; otherwise long rotations could be better options for broad-leaved stands. In coniferous stands, a shortened rotation period resulted in lower carbon stocks than a prolonged rotation period, but the amount of residues that could substitute fossil fuel increased with a shorter rotation. However, annual rates of carbon accumulation in biomass might decline in both short- and long-rotation stands in the future. If so, carbon sequestration in biomass would not be the best option. In a long-term perspective, wood products could have high potential to reduce net CO 2 emissions, since wood can replace energy-intensive materials like cement, plastics and aluminium. Intensively managed forests (e.g. fertilized forests or shortened rotation lengths) could contribute more to reductions in CO 2 emissions than current forest management. Using forest products (i.e. wood products and biofuel) is probably more important than storing carbon in biomass and soil, but it is necessary to conserve the existing stocks. Intensive forest management and increased use of biomass may, however, conflict with environmental quality objectives

  14. Removing extra CO2in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Laura W; Federspiel, William J

    2013-01-01

    For patients experiencing acute respiratory failure due to a severe exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), noninvasive positive pressure ventilation has been shown to significantly reduce mortality and hospital length of stay compared to respiratory support with invasive mechanical ventilation. Despite continued improvements in the administration of noninvasive ventilation (NIV), refractory hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis continue to prevent its successful use in many patients. Recent advances in extracorporeal gas exchange technology have led to the development of systems designed to be safer and simpler by focusing on the clinical benefits of partial extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R), as opposed to full cardiopulmonary support. While the use of ECCO 2 R has been studied in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), its use for acute hypercapnic respiratory during COPD exacerbations has not been evaluated until recently. This review will focus on literature published over the last year on the use of ECCO 2 R for removing extra CO 2 in patients experiencing an acute exacerbation of COPD.

  15. CO2 Emission Reduction in Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, A.; Sustersic, A.; Voncina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to human activities, concentrations of the greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere much quicker than they naturally would. Today it is clear that climate change is the result of human activities. With the purpose of preventing, reducing and mitigating of climate change, the EU, whose member is also Slovenia, set ambitious goals. In order to keep rise of the global atmosphere temperature below 2 degrees of C, the European Council set an objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 - 95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. It is important that every single individual is included in achieving of these goals. Certainly, the most important role is assumed by individual sectors especially Public Electricity and Heat Production sector as one of the greatest emitters of the greenhouse gases. As a possible solution of radical reduction of the greenhouse gases emission from mentioned sector Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is implemented. In the article the range of CO 2 reduction possibilities, technology demands and environmental side effects of CCS technology are described. Evaluation of CCS implementation possibilities in Slovenia is also included.(author)

  16. Ventilation in Sewers Quantified by Measurements of CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2012-01-01

    occurring compound CO2. Most often Danish wastewater is supersaturated with CO2 and hence a potential for stripping is present. A novel model was built based on the kinetics behind the stripping process. It was applied to simulate ventilation rates from field measurements of wastewater temperature, p......H, alkalinity and sewer-air CO2 concentrations. An intercepting sewer was studied and an average sewer-air retention time of approximately 1.5-2.5 hours was found at CO2 levels around 4-6 times the natural background. Also an upstream sub-catchment was studied. In this part of the sewer system the level of CO2...

  17. Characterizing near-surface CO2 conditions before injection - Perspectives from a CCS project in the Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, R.A.; Krapac, I.G.; Lewicki, J.L.; Curtis-Robinson, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is conducting a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) project in Decatur, Illinois, USA to demonstrate the ability of a deep saline formation to store one million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from an ethanol facility. Beginning in early 2011, CO2 will be injected at a rate of 1,000 tonnes/day for three years into the Mount Simon Sandstone at a depth of approximately 2,100 meters. An extensive Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program has been undertaken for the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) and is focused on the 0.65 km2 project site. Goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. MVA efforts are being conducted pre-, during, and post- CO2 injection. Soil and net CO2 flux monitoring has been conducted for more than one year to characterize near-surface CO2 conditions. More than 2,200 soil CO2 flux measurements have been manually collected from a network of 118 soil rings since June 2009. Three ring types have been evaluated to determine which type may be the most effective in detecting potential CO 2 leakage. Bare soil, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm into the ground and were prepared to minimize surface vegetation in and near the rings. Bare soil, deep-depth rings were prepared similarly, but were driven 46 cm. Natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm and are most representative of typical vegetation conditions. Bare-soil, shallow-depth rings had the smallest observed mean flux (1.78 ??mol m-2 s-1) versus natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings (3.38 ??mol m-2 s-1). Current data suggest bare ring types would be more sensitive to small CO2 leak signatures than natural ring types because of higher signal to noise ratios. An eddy covariance (EC) system has been in use since June

  18. Next generation of CO2 enhanced water recovery with subsurface energy storage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Kühn, Michael; Ma, Jianli; Niu, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization and storage (CCUS) is very popular in comparison with traditional CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in China. In particular, CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers with enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR) [1] is gaining more and more attention as a cleaner production technology. The CO2-EWR was written into the "U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change" released November 11, 2014. "Both sides will work to manage climate change by demonstrating a new frontier for CO2 use through a carbon capture, use, and sequestration (CCUS) project that will capture and store CO2 while producing fresh water, thus demonstrating power generation as a net producer of water instead of a water consumer. This CCUS project with enhanced water recovery will eventually inject about 1.0 million tonnes of CO2 and create approximately 1.4 million cubic meters of freshwater per year." In this article, at first we reviewed the history of the CO2-EWR and addressed its current status in China. Then, we put forth a new generation of the CO2-EWR with emphasizing the collaborative solutions between carbon emission reductions and subsurface energy storage or renewable energy cycle [2]. Furthermore, we figured out the key challenging problems such as water-CCUS nexus when integrating the CO2-EWR with the coal chemical industry in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China [3-5]. Finally, we addressed some crucial problems and strategic consideration of the CO2-EWR in China with focuses on its technical bottleneck, relative advantage, early opportunities, environmental synergies and other related issues. This research is not only very useful for the current development of CCUS in the relative "cold season" but also beneficial for the energy security and clean production in China. [1] Li Q, Wei Y-N, Liu G, Shi H (2015) CO2-EWR: a cleaner solution for coal chemical industry in China. Journal of Cleaner Production 103:330-337. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.073 [2] Streibel M

  19. Oxidative degradation of dyes in water using Co2+/H2O2 and Co2+/peroxymonosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sie King; Wang, Shaobin; Peng, Yuelian

    2010-06-15

    Dye degradation using advanced oxidation processes with Co(2+)/H(2)O(2) and Co(2+)/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) systems has been investigated. Two types of dyes, basic blue 9 and acid red 183, were employed. Several parameters affecting dye degradation such as Co(2+), PMS, H(2)O(2), and dye concentrations were investigated. The optimal ratio of oxidant (PMS, H(2)O(2))/Co(2+) for the degradation of two dyes was determined. It is found that dye decomposition is much faster in Co(2+)/PMS system than in Co(2+)/H(2)O(2). For Co(2+)/H(2)O(2), an optimal ratio of H(2)O(2) to Co(2+) at 6 is required for the maximum decomposition of the dyes. For Co(2+)/PMS, higher concentrations of Co(2+) and PMS will increase dye degradation rate with an optimal ratio of 3, achieving 95% decolourisation. For basic blue 9, a complete decolourisation can be achieved in 5 min at 0.13 mM Co(2+), 0.40 mM PMS and 7 mg/l basic blue 9 while the complete degradation of acid red 183 will be achieved at 30 min at 0.13 mM Co(2+), 0.40 mM PMS and 160 mg/l of acid red 183. The degradation of acid red 183 follows the second-order kinetics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of CO2-differentiated vehicle tax systems on car choice, CO2 emissions and tax revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of a CO2-differentiated tax policy designed to influence car purchasing trends towards lower CO2 emitting vehicles in the Netherlands. Since 2009, gasoline and diesel cars up to 110 and 95 gram CO2 per km are exempted from the vehicle registration tax (VRT). In

  1. Detection of CO2 leaks from carbon capture and storage sites with combined atmospheric CO2 and O-2 measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Charlotte; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a transportable instrument that simultaneously measures the CO2 and (relative) O-2 concentration of the atmosphere with the purpose to aid in the detection of CO2 leaks from CCS sites. CO2 and O-2 are coupled in most processes on earth (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration and

  2. CO2 niet meer dan genoeg: Teelt van Tomaat in 2012 bij Improvement Centre met lichtafhankelijk doseren van CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, de A.; Warmenhoven, M.G.; Dieleman, J.A.; Klapwijk, P.; Baar, van P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw heeft met financiering van Kas als Energiebron en Samenwerken aan Vaardigheden onderzoek gedaan naar efficienter gebruik van CO2. In een kasproef bij GreenQ/Improvement Centre is een CO2 doseerstrategie getest, waarbij iets meer CO2 wordt gegeven dan er op basis van de

  3. Recent global CO2 flux inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations and its regional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The net surface exchange of CO2 for the years 2002–2007 is inferred from 12 181 atmospheric CO2 concentration data with a time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversion scheme. Monthly CO2 fluxes are optimized for 30 regions of the North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Although there have been many previous multiyear inversion studies, the reliability of atmospheric inversion techniques has not yet been systematically evaluated for quantifying regional interannual variability in the carbon cycle. In this study, the global interannual variability of the CO2 flux is found to be dominated by terrestrial ecosystems, particularly by tropical land, and the variations of regional terrestrial carbon fluxes are closely related to climate variations. These interannual variations are mostly caused by abnormal meteorological conditions in a few months in the year or part of a growing season and cannot be well represented using annual means, suggesting that we should pay attention to finer temporal climate variations in ecosystem modeling. We find that, excluding fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans absorb an average of 3.63 ± 0.49 and 1.94 ± 0.41 Pg C yr−1, respectively. The terrestrial uptake is mainly in northern land while the tropical and southern lands contribute 0.62 ± 0.47, and 0.67 ± 0.34 Pg C yr−1 to the sink, respectively. In North America, terrestrial ecosystems absorb 0.89 ± 0.18 Pg C yr−1 on average with a strong flux density found in the south-east of the continent.

  4. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

    1999-10-15

    The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

  5. CO2 recovery system using solar energy; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita CO2 bunri kaishu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosho, F.; Naito, H.; Yugami, H.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As a part of studies on chemical absorption process with MEA (monoethanolamine) for CO2 recovery from boiler waste gas in thermal power plants, use of solar heat as MEA regenerating energy was studied. An integrated stationary evacuated concentrator (ISEC) effective as collector in a medium temperature range was used to realize a regenerating temperature range of 100-120degC. ISEC is featured by vacuum insulation, use of selective absorbing membranes for an absorber, a CPC (compound parabolic concentrator)-shaped reflection mirror, and high-efficiency. An MEA regenerator is composed of an ISEC and PG(propylene glycol)-MEA heat exchanger, and circulates PG as heat medium. Heat collection experiment was also made using water instead of MEA. Both batch and continuous systems could supply a heat quantity necessary for MEA regeneration. CO2 concentration in the top of the regenerator rapidly decreased with PG circulation regenerating MEA. As mol ratios of CO2/MEA were compared between before and after regeneration, a recovery rate was estimated to be 59.4% for the batch system. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Spectroscopic properties of five-coordinated Co2+ in phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunault, M; Robert, J-L; Newville, M; Galoisy, L; Calas, G

    2014-01-03

    Co3(PO4)2, SrCo2(PO4)2, Co2P2O7, BaCoP2O7 and SrCoP2O7 present different geometries of five-coordinated Co(2+) (([5])Co(2+)) sites, coexisting with ([6])Co(2+) in Co3(PO4)2 and Co2P2O7, and ([4])Co(2+) in SrCo2(PO4)2. ([5])Co K-edge XANES spectra show that the intensity of the pre-edge and main-edge is intermediate between those of ([6])- and ([4])Co. Diffuse reflectance spectra show the contributions of Co(2+) in (D3h) symmetry for SrCo2(PO4)2, and (C4v) symmetry for BaCoP2O7 and SrCoP2O7. In Co3(PO4)2 and Co2P2O7 the multiple transitions observed arise from energy level splitting and may be labeled in (C2v) symmetry. Spectroscopic data confirm that (D3h) and (C4v) symmetries may be distinguished upon the intensity of the optical absorption bands and crystal field splitting values. We discuss the influence of the geometrical distortion and of the nature of the next nearest neighbors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequestration of fermentation CO2 from ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S.; Prince, Roger C.

    2005-01-01

    Renewable energy from biomass is conventionally thought to avoid emissions of the greenhouse gas CO 2 by replacing the roles of fossil fuels. We show that if the off-gases produced during the fermentation of sugars to fuel-ethanol were captured and, for example, injected deep underground to keep them from the atmosphere, then the production of ethanol could lead to the net removal of CO 2 from the atmosphere in addition to avoiding gasoline-related CO 2 emissions by using the ethanol as a transportation fuel. We give estimates of net CO 2 emissions for current systems for the production of fuel-ethanol, these systems modified to sequester fermentation CO 2 , and gasoline-related CO 2 emission offsets. We consider future developments that might affect the scope and economic feasibility of the sequestration of fermentation CO 2

  8. Economics show CO2 EOR potential in central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Pancake, R.E.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that CO2 EOR should provide an internal rate of return (IRR) greater than 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for \\$20/bbl, CO2 costs \\$1/Mcf, and gross utilization is 10 Mcf of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 cost is reduced to \\$0.75/Mcf, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling indicates that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost. A project requires a minimum recovery of 1,500 net bbl/acre (about 1 million net bbl/1-mile section) under a best-case scenario. Less important variables to the economics are capital costs and non-CO2 related lease operating expenses.

  9. Supercritical CO2 Compressor with Active Magnetic Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, JeKyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2016-01-01

    For the stable operation of the sCO 2 integral test facility SCIEL, KAERI prepared Active Magnetic Bearing sCO 2 compressor for the 70,000RPM operation. Power generation test with AMB compressor will be finished within first half year of 2016 under supercritical state. The principal advantages of the sCO 2 Cycle are high efficiency at moderate temperature range, compact components size, simple cycle configuration, and compatibility with various heat sources. The Supercritical CO 2 Brayton Cycle Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL) has been installed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to develop the base technologies for the sCO 2 cycle power generation system. The operation of the SCIEL has mainly focused on sCO 2 compressor development and establishing sCO 2 system control logic

  10. Modeling CO2-facilitated transport across a diethanolamine liquid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lihong Bao; Michael C. Trachtenberg [Carbozyme Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)

    2005-12-15

    We compared experimental and model data for the facilitated transport of CO2 from a CO2-air mixture across an aqueous solution of diethanolamine (DEA) via a hollow fiber, contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) permeator. A two-step carbamate formation model was devised to analyze the data instead of the one-step mechanism used by previous investigators. The effects of DEA concentration, liquid membrane thickness and feed CO2 concentration were also studied. With a 20% (wt) DEA liquid membrane and feed of 15% CO2 in CO2-air mixture at atmosphere pressure, the permeance reached 1.51E-8 mol/m{sup 2} s Pa with a CO2/N2 selectivity of 115. Model predictions compared well with the experimental results at CO2 concentrations of industrial importance. Short-term stability of the HFCLM permeator performance was examined. The system was stable during 5-days of testing.

  11. Subsurface oxide plays a critical role in CO2activation by Cu(111) surfaces to form chemisorbed CO2, the first step in reduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Marco; Xiao, Hai; Cheng, Tao; Goddard, William A; Yano, Junko; Crumlin, Ethan J

    2017-06-27

    A national priority is to convert CO 2 into high-value chemical products such as liquid fuels. Because current electrocatalysts are not adequate, we aim to discover new catalysts by obtaining a detailed understanding of the initial steps of CO 2 electroreduction on copper surfaces, the best current catalysts. Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy interpreted with quantum mechanical prediction of the structures and free energies, we show that the presence of a thin suboxide structure below the copper surface is essential to bind the CO 2 in the physisorbed configuration at 298 K, and we show that this suboxide is essential for converting to the chemisorbed CO 2 in the presence of water as the first step toward CO 2 reduction products such as formate and CO. This optimum suboxide leads to both neutral and charged Cu surface sites, providing fresh insights into how to design improved carbon dioxide reduction catalysts.

  12. Quantitative analysis of an engineered CO2-fixing Escherichia coli reveals great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Liu, Guoxia; Zhai, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jie; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Production of fuels from the abundant and wasteful CO2 is a promising approach to reduce carbon emission and consumption of fossil fuels. Autotrophic microbes naturally assimilate CO2 using energy from light, hydrogen, and/or sulfur. However, their slow growth rates call for investigation of the possibility of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. Although preliminary research has suggested that CO2 fixation in heterotrophic microbes is feasible after incorporation of a CO2-fixing bypass into the central carbon metabolic pathway, it remains unclear how much and how efficient that CO2 can be fixed by a heterotrophic microbe. A simple metabolic flux index was developed to indicate the relative strength of the CO2-fixation flux. When two sequential enzymes of the cyanobacterial Calvin cycle were incorporated into an E. coli strain, the flux of the CO2-fixing bypass pathway accounts for 13 % of that of the central carbon metabolic pathway. The value was increased to 17 % when the carbonic anhydrase involved in the cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanism was introduced, indicating that low intracellular CO2 concentration is one limiting factor for CO2 fixation in E. coli. The engineered CO2-fixing E. coli with carbonic anhydrase was able to fix CO2 at a rate of 19.6 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rate of 22.5 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1). This CO2-fixation rate is comparable with the reported rates of 14 autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae (10.5-147.0 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rates of 3.5-23.7 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1)). The ability of CO2 fixation was created and improved in E. coli by incorporating partial cyanobacterial Calvin cycle and carbon concentrating mechanism, respectively. Quantitative analysis revealed that the CO2-fixation rate of this strain is comparable with that of the autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae, demonstrating great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

  13. Information for Stores Users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2004-01-01

    As the FARNELL Catalogue CAPACITORS, RESISTORS and POTENTIOMETERS have now been integrated into the CERN Stores Catalogue (SCEM Groups 10 and 11) they can now be obtained via an EDH 'Material Request' like any other Stores item. N.B. The Farnell 'Order code' is one of the key-words that make it easier to find items in the Stores Catalogue. Logistics Group FI Department

  14. Controle de Rhyzopertha dominica pela atmosfera controlada com CO2, em trigo Control of Rhyzopertha dominica using a controlled atmosphere with CO2, in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Amaro Gonçalves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de gases inertes como fumigantes no controle de pragas é uma alternativa ao uso de fosfina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de uma atmosfera com CO2 no controle de Rhyzoperta dominica (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae em grãos de trigo armazenado. O trabalho constou de cinco concentrações de CO2 (0, 30 , 40, 50 e 60%, completadas com N2, três períodos de exposição (5, 10, 15 dias, três populações de R. dominica (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae (Campo Mourão, PR, Sete Lagoas, MG e Santa Rosa, RS e sete fases de desenvolvimento do inseto (ovo, larva de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º ínstar, pupa e adulto com três repetições. As diferentes fases da R. dominica foram acondicionadas em tecido organza e levadas para câmaras de expurgo de 200 litros com 75% deste volume repletos de grãos. As câmaras foram vedadas com borracha de silicone para garantir a hermeticidade. Após a vedação das câmaras injetavam-se os gases contendo diferentes teores de CO2. Os resultados mostraram que todos os teores de CO2 causaram 100% de mortalidade de adultos das três populações nos três períodos de exposição utilizados. Em pupas a mortalidade atingiu 100% no teor de 60% de CO2 para as três populações no período de 15 dias de exposição; porém, todos os teores de CO2 utilizados no período de 15 dias de exposição causaram 100% de mortalidade das pupas da população de Santa Rosa. Para o adequado controle de larvas de diferentes ínstares são necessários teores de CO2 iguais ou acima de 50%. Nos períodos de 10 e 15 dias de exposição, todos os teores de CO2 causaram 100% de mortalidade dos ovos das três populações avaliadas.Controlled atmosphere with inert gases offers an alternative to phosphine use to control stored grain pests. The objective of this research was to test a controlled atmosphere with CO2 to control Rhyzoperta dominica, (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae, an important pest of stored wheat

  15. Design of CO2 absorption plant for recovery of CO2 from flue gases of gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofarahi, Masoud; Khojasteh, Yaser; Khaledi, Hiwa; Farahnak, Arsalan

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing human-induced emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) threatens to change the earth's climate. A major factor in global warming is CO 2 emission from thermal power plants, which burn fossil fuels. One possible way of decreasing CO 2 emissions is to apply CO 2 removal, which involves recovering of CO 2 from energy conversion processes. This study is focused on recovery of CO 2 from gas turbine exhaust of Sarkhun gas refinery power station. The purpose of this study is to recover the CO 2 with minimum energy requirement. Many of CO 2 recovery processes from flue gases have been studied. Among all CO 2 recovery processes which were studied, absorption process was selected as the optimum one, due to low CO 2 concentration in flue gas. The design parameters considered in this regard, are: selection of suitable solvent, solvent concentration, solvent circulation rate, reboiler and condenser duty and number of stages in absorber and stripper columns. In the design of this unit, amine solvent such as, diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and monoethanolamine (MEA) were considered and the effect of main parameters on the absorption and stripping columns is presented. Some results with simultaneous changing of the design variables have been obtained. The results show that DGA is the best solvent with minimum energy requirement for recovery of CO 2 from flue gases at atmospheric pressure. (author)

  16. Observational evidence for the long-term integrity of CO2-reservoir caprocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Niko; Bertier, Peiter; Busch, Andreas; Snippe, Jeroen; Pipich, Vitaly; Harrington, Jon; Bickle, Mike

    2015-04-01

    Storage of anthropogenic CO2 in geological formations relies on impermeable caprocks as the primary seal preventing buoyant super-critical CO2 escaping upwards. Although natural CO2 reservoirs demonstrate that CO2 may be stored safely for millions of years, uncertainty remains in predicting how caprocks will react in contact with acid CO2-bearing brines. This uncertainty is a significant barrier to risk assessment and consequently implementation of carbon capture and storage schemes. Prediction of caprock behavior is based primarily on theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments. However, the coupled reactive transport phenomena cannot be faithfully reproduced in laboratory experiments over sufficient timescales, theoretical models have not been calibrated against observational data and existing studies on natural caprocks have not resolved mineral reactions. Here we report the first detailed description and interpretation of a CO2 reservoir-caprock system exposed to CO2 over ~ 105 years, a time-scale comparable with that needed for effective geological carbon storage. Fluid-mineral reactions in the basal seven cm of the caprock, driven by diffusion of CO2 and minor H2S from the underlying reservoir, result in dissolution of haematite, dolomite and K-feldspar and precipitation of Fe-bearing dolomites, gypsum, pyrite and illite. The mineral dissolution reactions within the caprock generate transient increases in porosity but the propagation of these mineral reaction fronts is retarded by the reaction stoichiometry and mineral precipitation. Neutron scattering measurements indicate that the decrease in tortuosity and the fractal dimensions of the pore-network following mineral dissolution is only partly offset by mineral precipitation, implying a non-recoverable increase in effective diffusivity. Analytical modeling is used to extract kinetic data from the geometry of the mineral reaction fronts and numerical reactive transport modeling is used to place

  17. Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration as a Closure Option for Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sutapa; Dey, Kaushik

    2018-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, 1998, was signed by member countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a minimum acceptable level. India agreed to Kyoto Protocol since 2002 and started its research on GHG mitigation. Few researchers have carried out research work on CO2 sequestration in different rock formations. However, CO2 sequestration in abandoned mines has yet not drawn its attention largely. In the past few years or decades, a significant amount of research and development has been done on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, since it is a possible solution for assuring less emission of CO2 to the atmosphere from power plants and some other major industrial plants. CCS mainly involves three steps: (a) capture and compression of CO2 from source (power plants and industrial areas), (b) transportation of captured CO2 to the storage mine and (c) injecting CO2 into underground mine. CO2 is stored at an underground mine mainly in three forms: (1) adsorbed in the coals left as pillars of the mine, (2) absorbed in water through a chemical process and (3) filled in void with compressed CO2. Adsorption isotherm is a graph developed between the amounts of adsorbate adsorbed on the surface of adsorbent and the pressure at constant temperature. Various types of adsorption isotherms are available, namely, Freundlich, Langmuir and BET theory. Indian coal is different in origin from most of the international coal deposits and thus demands isotherm experiments of the same to arrive at the right adsorption isotherm. To carry out these experiments, adsorption isotherm set up is fabricated in the laboratory with a capacity to measure the adsorbed volume up to a pressure level of 100 bar. The coal samples are collected from the pillars and walls of the underground coal seam using a portable drill machine. The adsorption isotherm experiments have been carried out for the samples taken from a mine. From the adsorption isotherm experiments, Langmuir Equation is found to be

  18. Your View or Mine: Spatially Quantifying CO2 Storage Risk from Various Stakeholder Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Pollak, M.; Wilson, E.; Elliot, T. R.; Guo, B.; Nogues, J. P.; Peters, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    CO2 capture and storage involves injecting captured CO2 into geologic formations, such as deep saline aquifers. This injected CO2 is to be "stored" within the rock matrix for hundreds to thousands of years, but injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, may leak from the target reservoir. Such leakage could interfere with other subsurface activities-water production, energy production, energy storage, and waste disposal-or migrate to the surface. Each of these interferences will incur multiple costs to a variety of stakeholders. Even if injected or displaced fluids do not interfere with other subsurface activities or make their way to the surface, costs will be incurred to find and fix the leak. Consequently, the suitability of a site for CO2 storage must therefore include an assessment of the risk of leakage and interference with various other activities within a three-dimensional proximity of where CO2 is being injected. We present a spatial analysis of leakage and interference risk associated with injecting CO2 into a portion of the Mount Simon sandstone in the Michigan Basin. Risk is the probability of an outcome multiplied by the impact of that outcome (Ro=po*Io). An outcome is the result of the leakage (e.g., interference with oil production), and the impact is the cost associated with the outcome. Each outcome has costs that will vary by stakeholder. Our analysis presents CO2 storage risk for multiple outcomes in a spatially explicit manner that varies by stakeholder. We use the ELSA semi-analytical model for estimating CO2 and brine leakage from aquifers to determine plume and pressure front radii, and CO2 and brine leakage probabilities for the Mount Simon sandstone and multiple units above it. Results of ELSA simulations are incorporated into RISCS: the Risk Interference Subsurface CO2 Storage model. RISCS uses three-dimensional data on subsurface geology and the locations of wells and boreholes to spatially estimate risks associated with CO2 leakage from

  19. Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration as a Closure Option for Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sutapa; Dey, Kaushik

    2018-04-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, 1998, was signed by member countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a minimum acceptable level. India agreed to Kyoto Protocol since 2002 and started its research on GHG mitigation. Few researchers have carried out research work on CO2 sequestration in different rock formations. However, CO2 sequestration in abandoned mines has yet not drawn its attention largely. In the past few years or decades, a significant amount of research and development has been done on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, since it is a possible solution for assuring less emission of CO2 to the atmosphere from power plants and some other major industrial plants. CCS mainly involves three steps: (a) capture and compression of CO2 from source (power plants and industrial areas), (b) transportation of captured CO2 to the storage mine and (c) injecting CO2 into underground mine. CO2 is stored at an underground mine mainly in three forms: (1) adsorbed in the coals left as pillars of the mine, (2) absorbed in water through a chemical process and (3) filled in void with compressed CO2. Adsorption isotherm is a graph developed between the amounts of adsorbate adsorbed on the surface of adsorbent and the pressure at constant temperature. Various types of adsorption isotherms are available, namely, Freundlich, Langmuir and BET theory. Indian coal is different in origin from most of the international coal deposits and thus demands isotherm experiments of the same to arrive at the right adsorption isotherm. To carry out these experiments, adsorption isotherm set up is fabricated in the laboratory with a capacity to measure the adsorbed volume up to a pressure level of 100 bar. The coal samples are collected from the pillars and walls of the underground coal seam using a portable drill machine. The adsorption isotherm experiments have been carried out for the samples taken from a mine. From the adsorption isotherm experiments, Langmuir Equation is found to be

  20. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  1. Isotopic tracers of sources, wells and of CO2 reactivity in geological reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assayag, N.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this research works consisted in studying the behaviour of the carbonate system (dissolved inorganic carbon: DIC) following a CO 2 injection (artificial or natural), in geological reservoirs. One part of the study consisted in improving an analytical protocol for the measurement of δ 13 C DIC and DIC, using a continuous flow mass spectrometer. As a first study, we have focused our attention on the Pavin Lake (Massif Central, France). Owing to its limnologic characteristics (meromictic lake) and a deep volcanic CO 2 contribution, it can be viewed as a natural analogue of reservoir storing important quantities of CO 2 in the bottom part. Isotopic measurements (δ 18 O, δ 13 C DIC) allowed to better constrain the dynamics of the lake (stratification, seasonal variations), the magnitudes of biological activities (photosynthesis, organic matter decay, methane oxidation, methano-genesis), carbon sources (magmatic, methano-genetic), and the hydrological budgets (sub-lacustrine inputs). The second study was conducted on the Lamont-Doherty test well site (NY, USA). It includes an instrumental borehole which cuts through most of the section of the Palisades sill and into the Newark Basin sediments. Single well push-pull tests were performed: a test solution containing conservative tracers and a reactive tracer (CO 2 ) was injected at a permeable depth interval located in basaltic and meta sedimentary rocks. After an incubation period, the test solution/groundwater mixture was extracted from the hydraulically isolated zone. Isotopic measurements (δ 18 O, δ 13 C DIC) confronted to chemical data (major elements) allowed to investigate the extent of in-situ CO 2 -water-rock interactions: essentially calcite dissolution and at a lesser extend silicate dissolution...and for one of the test, CO 2 degassing. (author)

  2. Mechanisms for chemostatic behavior in catchments: implications for CO2 consumption by mineral weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of weathering products in streams often show relatively little variation compared to changes in discharge, both at event and annual scales. In this study, several hypothesized mechanisms for this “chemostatic behavior” were evaluated, and the potential for those mechanisms to influence relations between climate, weathering fluxes, and CO2 consumption via mineral weathering was assessed. Data from Loch Vale, an alpine catchment in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, indicates that cation exchange and seasonal precipitation and dissolution of amorphous or poorly crystalline aluminosilicates are important processes that help regulate solute concentrations in the stream; however, those processes have no direct effect on CO2 consumption in catchments. Hydrograph separation analyses indicate that old water stored in the subsurface over the winter accounts for about one-quarter of annual streamflow, and almost one-half of annual fluxes of Na and SiO2 in the stream; thus, flushing of old water by new water (snowmelt) is an important component of chemostatic behavior. Hydrologic flushing of subsurface materials further induces chemostatic behavior by reducing mineral saturation indices and increasing reactive mineral surface area, which stimulate mineral weathering rates. CO2 consumption by carbonic acid mediated mineral weathering was quantified using mass-balance calculations; results indicated that silicate mineral weathering was responsible for approximately two-thirds of annual CO2 consumption, and carbonate weathering was responsible for the remaining one-third. CO2 consumption was strongly dependent on annual precipitation and temperature; these relations were captured in a simple statistical model that accounted for 71% of the annual variation in CO2 consumption via mineral weathering in Loch Vale.

  3. Polyurethane Foam-Based Ultramicroporous Carbons for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chao; Song, Jian; Qin, Zhangfeng; Wang, Jianguo; Fan, Weibin

    2016-07-27

    A series of sustainable porous carbon materials were prepared from waste polyurethane foam and investigated for capture of CO2. The effects of preparation conditions, such as precarbonization, KOH to carbon precursor weight ratio, and activation temperature, on the porous structure and CO2 adsorption properties were studied for the purpose of controlling pore sizes and nitrogen content and developing high-performance materials for capture of CO2. The sample prepared at optimum conditions shows CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.67 and 4.33 mmol·g(-1) at 0 and 25 °C under 1 bar, respectively, which are comparable to those of the best reported porous carbons prepared from waste materials. The HCl treatment experiment reveals that about 80% of CO2 adsorption capacity arises from physical adsorption, while the other 20% is due to the chemical adsorption originated from the interaction of basic N groups and CO2 molecules. The relationship between CO2 uptake and pore size at different temperatures indicates that the micropores with pore size smaller than 0.86 and 0.70 nm play a dominant role in the CO2 adsorption at 0 and 25 °C, respectively. It was found that the obtained carbon materials exhibited high recyclability and high selectivity to adsorption of CO2 from the CO2 and N2 mixture.

  4. CO2 impulse response curves for GWP calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.K.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The primary purpose of Global Warming Potential (GWP) is to compare the effectiveness of emission strategies for various greenhouse gases to those for CO 2 , GWPs are quite sensitive to the amount of CO 2 . Unlike all other gases emitted in the atmosphere, CO 2 does not have a chemical or photochemical sink within the atmosphere. Removal of CO 2 is therefore dependent on exchanges with other carbon reservoirs, namely, ocean and terrestrial biosphere. The climatic-induced changes in ocean circulation or marine biological productivity could significantly alter the atmospheric CO 2 lifetime. Moreover, continuing forest destruction, nutrient limitations or temperature induced increases of respiration could also dramatically change the lifetime of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Determination of the current CO 2 sinks, and how these sinks are likely to change with increasing CO 2 emissions, is crucial to the calculations of GWPs. It is interesting to note that the impulse response function is sensitive to the initial state of the ocean-atmosphere system into which CO 2 is emitted. This is due to the fact that in our model the CO 2 flux from the atmosphere to the mixed layer is a nonlinear function of ocean surface total carbon

  5. Elevated CO2enhances resprouting of a tropical savanna tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, W A; Bazzaz, F A; Chatterton, N J; Harrison, P A; Jackson, R B

    2000-05-01

    The savannas (cerrado) of south-central Brazil are currently subjected to frequent anthropogenic burning, causing widespread reduction in tree density. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 could reduce the impact of such frequent burning by increasing the availability of nonstructural carbohydrate, which is necessary for resprouting. We tested the hypotheses that elevated CO 2 stimulates resprouting and accelerates replenishment of carbohydrate reserves. Using a factorial experiment, seedlings of a common Brazilian savanna tree, Keilmeyera coriacea, were grown at 350 ppm and 700 ppm CO 2 and at two nutrient levels. To simulate burning, the plants were either clipped at 15 weeks or were left unclipped. Among unclipped plants, CO 2 and nutrients both stimulated growth, with no significant interaction between nutrient and CO 2 effects. Among clipped plants, both CO 2 and nutrients stimulated resprouting. However, there was a strong interaction between CO 2 and nutrient effects, with CO 2 having a significant effect only in the presence of high nutrient availability. Under elevated CO 2 , carbohydrate reserves remained at higher levels following clipping. Root total nonstructural carbohydrate remained above 36% in all treatments, so carbohydrate reserves did not limit regrowth. These results indicate that under elevated CO 2 this species may be better able to endure the high frequency of anthropogenic burning in the Brazilian savannas.

  6. Comparison of regional and ecosystem CO2 fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Søgaard, Henrik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO2 from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio-soundings......A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO2 from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio......-soundings and standard measurements of the CO2 concentration near the ground. The method was used to derive the regional flux of CO2 over an agricultural site at Zealand in Denmark during an experiment on 12–13 June 2006. The regional fluxes of CO2 represent a combination of agricultural and forest surface conditions....... It was found that the regional flux of CO2 in broad terms follows the behavior of the flux of CO2 at the agricultural (grassland) and the deciduous forest station. The regional flux is comparable not only in size but also in the diurnal (daytime) cycle of CO2 fluxes at the two stations....

  7. Forecasting CO2 emissions in the Persian Gulf States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Olabemiwo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Persian Gulf States (Bahrain. Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and United Arab Emirate have dominated the oil and gas sector since the discovery of oil in the region. They are the world largest producers of crude oil, producing about 35 and 25 percent of the world natural gas and crude oil respectively. The use of fossil fuels is directly linked to the release of CO2 into the environment. CO2 accounts for 58.8 percent of all greenhouse gases released via human activities, consequently, presenting a malign impact on the environment through climate change, global warming, biodiversity, acid rain and desertification among others. Due to its importance, the data on CO2 emission obtained from US EIA from 1980 – 2010 was regressed using least square techniques and projections were made to the year 2050. Results indicated that each country’s p-value was less than 0.05 which implies that the models can be used for predicting CO2 emissions into the future. The data shows the emission of CO2 by countries from the highest to the lowest in 2016 as: Iran (590.72 Mtonnes; 7.58 tonnes of CO2/person > Saudi Arabia (471.82 Mtonnes; 18 tonnes of CO2/person > UAE (218.58 Mtonnes; 41.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Iraq (114.01 Mtonees; 3.71 tonnes of CO2/person > Kuwait (92.58 Mtonnes; 36.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Qatar (68.26 Mtonnes; 37 tonnes of CO2/person > Bahrain (33.16 Mtonnes; 27.5 tonnes of CO2/person". The sequence from the country with highest emission (Iran to the country with lowest emission (Bahrain will remain the same until 2050. A projection depicting a 7.7 percent yearly increase in CO2 emission in the Persian Gulf States.

  8. Natural analogue study of CO2 storage monitoring using probability statistics of CO2-rich groundwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. K.; Hamm, S. Y.; Kim, S. O.; Yun, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    For confronting global climate change, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several very useful strategies as using capture of greenhouse gases like CO2 spewed from stacks and then isolation of the gases in underground geologic storage. CO2-rich groundwater could be produced by CO2 dissolution into fresh groundwater around a CO2 storage site. As consequence, natural analogue studies related to geologic storage provide insights into future geologic CO2 storage sites as well as can provide crucial information on the safety and security of geologic sequestration, the long-term impact of CO2 storage on the environment, and field operation and monitoring that could be implemented for geologic sequestration. In this study, we developed CO2 leakage monitoring method using probability density function (PDF) by characterizing naturally occurring CO2-rich groundwater. For the study, we used existing data of CO2-rich groundwaters in different geological regions (Gangwondo, Gyeongsangdo, and Choongchungdo provinces) in South Korea. Using PDF method and QI (quantitative index), we executed qualitative and quantitative comparisons among local areas and chemical constituents. Geochemical properties of groundwater with/without CO2 as the PDF forms proved that pH, EC, TDS, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SiO2 were effective monitoring parameters for carbonated groundwater in the case of CO2leakage from an underground storage site. KEY WORDS: CO2-rich groundwater, CO2 storage site, monitoring parameter, natural analogue, probability density function (PDF), QI_quantitative index Acknowledgement This study was supported by the "Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2013R1A1A2058186)" and the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from KEITI (Project number: 2014001810003).

  9. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO 2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO 2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO 2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO 2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO 2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO 2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO 2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  10. Development of a low cost and low power consumption system for monitoring CO_{2} soil concentration in volcanic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah Estévez, Shadia; Moure-García, David; Torres-González, Pedro; Acosta Sánchez, Leopoldo; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    Volatiles dissolved in magma are released as gases when pressure or stress conditions change. H2O, CO2, SO2 and H2S are the most abundant gases involved in volcanic processes. Emission rates are related to changes in the volcanic activity. Therefore, in order to predict possible eruptive events, periodic measurements of CO2 concentrations from the soil should be carried out. In the last years, CO2 monitoring has been widespread for many reasons. A direct relationship between changes in volcanic activity and variations in concentration, diffuse flux and isotope ratios of this gas, have been observed prior to some eruptions or unrest processes. All these factors have pointed out the fact that CO2 emission data are crucial in volcanic monitoring programs. In addition, relevant instrumentation development has also taken place: improved accuracy, cost reduction and portability. Considering this, we propose a low cost and a low power consumption system for measuring CO2 concentration in the soil based on Arduino. Through a perforated pick-axe buried at a certain depth, gas samples are periodically taken with the aid of a piston. These samples are injected through a pneumatic circuit in the spectrometer, which measures the CO2 concentration. Simultaneously, the system records the following meteorological parameters: atmospheric pressure, precipitation, relative humidity and air and soil temperature. These parameters are used to correct their possible influence in the CO2 soil concentration. Data are locally stored (SD card) and transmitted via GPRS or WIFI to a data analysis center.

  11. A Comparison of national CCS strategies for Northwest Europe, with a focus on the potential of common CO2 storage at the Utsira formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Andrea; Hoefnagels, Ric; van den Broek, Machteld

    2011-01-01

    distance to Utsira while the Netherlands utilise the Utsira formation due to limited domestic low cost storage fields and the use of the country as a regional hub for CO2. In Germany and Denmark, the competitiveness of CO2storage in Utsira is determined by the availability of domestic onshore saline......Mega structures for CO2 storage, such as the Utsira formation in the North Sea, could theoretically supply CO2 storage capacity for several countries for a period of several decades. Their use could increase the cost-effectiveness of CCS in a region while minimizing opposition from the public to CO......2 storage. However, this will not only depend on their potential available capacity to store CO2 flows but also on the cost effectiveness of such an option within national portfolios of mitigation measures. This article shows key results of a research project aiming to assess the potentials...

  12. Evaluating cubic equations of state for calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium of CO2 and CO2-mixtures for CO2 capture and storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Yan, J.

    2009-01-01

    Proper solution of vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) is essential to the design and operation of CO 2 capture and storage system (CCS). According to the requirements of engineering applications, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to predict VLE properties. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of five cubic EOSs, including PR, PT, RK, SRK and 3P1T for predicting VLE of CO 2 and binary CO 2 -mixtures containing CH 4 , H 2 S, SO 2 , Ar, N 2 or O 2 , based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that SRK is superior in the calculations about the saturated pressure of pure CO 2 ; while for the VLE properties of binary CO 2 -mixtures, PR, PT and SRK are generally superior to RK and 3P1T. The impacts of binary interaction parameter k ij were also analyzed. k ij has very clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the property calculations of CO 2 -mixtures. In order to improve the calculation accuracy, the binary interaction parameter was calibrated for all of the studied EOSs regarding every binary CO 2 -mixture. (author)

  13. Modeling of Single and Dual Reservoir Porous Media Compressed Gas (Air and CO2) Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Liu, H.; Borgia, A.; Pan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent renewable energy sources are causing increasing demand for energy storage. The deep subsurface offers promising opportunities for energy storage because it can safely contain high-pressure gases. Porous media compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES) is one approach, although the only facilities in operation are in caverns (C-CAES) rather than porous media. Just like in C-CAES, PM-CAES operates generally by injecting working gas (air) through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Unlike in C-CAES, the storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Because air is the working gas, PM-CAES has fairly low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density. To improve the energy storage density, we have conceived and modeled a closed-loop two-reservoir compressed CO2 energy storage system. One reservoir is the low-pressure reservoir, and the other is the high-pressure reservoir. CO2 is cycled back and forth between reservoirs depending on whether energy needs to be stored or recovered. We have carried out thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions for CO2 using a steady-state model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of PM-CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given

  14. Storage of Renewable Energy by Reduction of CO2 with Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Mauron, Philippe; Kato, Shunsuke; Callini, Elsa; Holzer, Marco; Huang, Jianmei

    2015-01-01

    The main difference between the past energy economy during the industrialization period which was mainly based on mining of fossil fuels, e.g. coal, oil and methane and the future energy economy based on renewable energy is the requirement for storage of the energy fluxes. Renewable energy, except biomass, appears in time- and location-dependent energy fluxes as heat or electricity upon conversion. Storage and transport of energy requires a high energy density and has to be realized in a closed materials cycle. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines, is a closed cycle. However, the hydrogen density in a storage system is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which limits the energy density to about half of the energy density in fossil fuels. Introducing CO(2) into the cycle and storing hydrogen by the reduction of CO(2) to hydrocarbons allows renewable energy to be converted into synthetic fuels with the same energy density as fossil fuels. The resulting cycle is a closed cycle (CO(2) neutral) if CO(2) is extracted from the atmosphere. Today's technology allows CO(2) to be reduced either by the Sabatier reaction to methane, by the reversed water gas shift reaction to CO and further reduction of CO by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to hydrocarbons or over methanol to gasoline. The overall process can only be realized on a very large scale, because the large number of by-products of FTS requires the use of a refinery. Therefore, a well-controlled reaction to a specific product is required for the efficient conversion of renewable energy (electricity) into an easy to store liquid hydrocarbon (fuel). In order to realize a closed hydrocarbon cycle the two major challenges are to extract CO(2) from the atmosphere close to the thermodynamic limit and to reduce CO(2) with hydrogen in a controlled reaction to a specific hydrocarbon. Nanomaterials with

  15. Qualidade de caqui 'Rama forte' após armazenamento refrigerado, influenciada pelos tratamentos 1-MCP e/ou CO2 Quality of 'Rama Forte' perssimon following cold torage influenced by 1-MCP and/or CO2treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Peterson Pereira Gardin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos tratamentos com CO2 e 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno sobre a adstringência (índice de tanino, firmeza da polpa e distúrbios da epiderme em caqui 'Rama Forte'. Frutos foram tratados com 1-MCP por 24 h, logo após a colheita e/ou com alto CO2 (70% por 24 ou 48 h, um dia após a colheita ou após o armazenamento refrigerado (AR. Os caquis foram armazenados sob atmosfera modificada a 0 ºC, por 45 dias, e a seguir mantidos a 23 ºC, por 9 dias. Frutos-controle (não tratados com 1-MCP nem com CO2 amoleceram em três dias e perderam aproximadamente 50% da adstringência em 6 dias após o AR. A exposição ao CO2 acelerou a redução da adstringência. Esse efeito do CO2 foi menor em frutos tratados com 1-MCP, especialmente quando o CO2 foi aplicado após o AR, por apenas 24 h. O tratamento com 1-MCP inibiu o amolecimento e a redução da adstringência, especialmente nos frutos não tratados com CO2. O amolecimento de frutos tratados com 1-MCP foi maior quando a exposição ao CO2 ocorreu antes do AR. A combinação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP e alto CO2 reduziu a incidência de podridões e manchas translúcidas, mas não alterou o desenvolvimento de pintas pretas ('estrias'. Os resultados indicam que é possível induzir perda da adstringência sem excessiva perda da firmeza da polpa de caquis 'Rama Forte' após o AR pela associação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP logo após a colheita e alto CO2 após o AR.This study evaluated the effects of CO2 and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene treatments on astringency (tannin index, flesh firmness and skin disorders on 'Rama Forte' persimmon. Fruit were treated with 1-MCP for 24 h right after harvest and/or with high CO2 (70% CO2 balanced with air for 24 or 48 h, one day after harvest or after cold storage (CS. Fruit were stored in modified atmosphere for 45 days at 0ºC and then held at 23ºC for 9 days. Control fruit (untreated with neither 1-MCP nor CO2 softened in 3 days and lost about 50

  16. CO2 Flux Inversion Error Analyses for Future Active Space CO2 Missions like ASCENDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. F.; Kawa, S. R.; Rayner, P. J.; Browell, E. V.; Menzies, R. T.; Abshire, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    We assess the ability of different proposed CO2 lidar measurement approaches to constrain surface CO2 fluxes, as part of the development of science requirements for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are performed for different overall measurement uncertainty levels and vertical weightings to determine what designs will yield useful new information on the global carbon cycle. The OSSEs are based on a variational data assimilation method that models the measurements at the time and location they occur with minimal averaging and solves for the surface fluxes at regional spatial scales. Measurements are simulated using the PCTM off-line atmospheric transport model driven by GEOS5 analysis data (winds and vertical mixing parameters) and forced by realistic modeled CO2 fluxes. Both day- and night-side fluxes are estimated in weekly blocks at 4.5°x6° resolution (lat/lon) using a full year of simulated data. Error estimates are computed by direct comparison to the known truth; only random errors in the measurements and assumed flux prior are considered here. Relative measurement uncertainties and vertical averaging kernels have been derived for lidar measurements made using CO2 absorption lines in the 1.57 and 2.06 micron bands using realistic assumptions about clouds, aerosols, and surface reflectivity taken from CALIPSO and MODIS. Two measurement cases are considered for the 1.57 μm band, one using a vertical weighting function weighted to the mid- to lower troposphere, and one combining this with a function peaking near the tropopause. A third case is considered for measurements in the 2.06 μm band, with a vertical weighting peaking strongly near the surface. For each of these cases, three overall measurement uncertainty levels are examined (tied to reference uncertainties of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.2 ppm (1σ) at Railroad Valley, Nevada). OSSEs with simple measurement biases are run to test how the random-error-only findings hold in

  17. Recent enlightening strategies for co2 capture: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Qiu, Ziyang; Liu, Jia

    2017-05-01

    The global climate change has seriously affected the survival and prosperity of mankind, where greenhouse effect owing to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment is a great cause. Accordingly, a series of down-to-earth measures need to be implemented urgently to control the output of CO2. As CO2 capture appears as a core issue in developing low-carbon economy, this review provides a comprehensive introduction of recent CO2 capture technologies used in power plants or other industries. Strategies for CO2 capture, e.g. pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxyfuel combustion, are covered in this article. Another enlightening technology for CO2 capture based on fluidized beds is intensively discussed.

  18. CO2 absorption characteristics of nanoparticle suspensions in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jung Yeul; Lee, Jae Won; Kang, Yong Tae

    2012-01-01

    Recently there have been growing concerns that anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions cause the global warming problem. Therefore, the cutting edge technologies for the reduction, separation and collection of the CO 2 are very important to alleviate this problem. The best methods for reducing the CO 2 emission are to increase the energy efficiency and to remove it from the power plant. The CO 2 absorption from the syngas in the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) might increase the energy efficiency of the power generation systems, which also contribute to mitigate the global warming. In this study, the suspensions of nanoparticles in methanol called the nanofluid are developed and estimated to apply it to absorb CO 2 gas in the IGCC systems. The nanofluids are prepared by the ultrasonic treatment and show the good stability. It is found that the CO 2 absorption rate by the nanofluid is enhanced up to ∼8.3% compared to the pure methanol

  19. Concentrating on CO2: the Scandinavian and Arctic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements made in Scandinavia and in the Arctic region before measurements started at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, in 1958. The CO2 hypothesis of climate change was one reason to measure atmospheric CO2 in the mid-1950s. The earlier history of CO2 measurements--for instance, the work of the chemist Kurt Buch--was also influential in this period. It is unclear when the CO2 hypothesis of climate change began to provide sufficient motivation for measurements, and the measurements may relate in a nonlinear way to the growth in popularity of the hypothesis. Discussions between meteorologist Carl-Gustaf Rossby at Stockholm Högskola and scientists in America reveal how different kinds of CO2 studies varied with regard to precision.

  20. New era for CO2 as a working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2000-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extensive international activity to find acceptable alternatives to ozone-depleting CFC and HCFC substances that have been widely used as working fluids in refrigerating and heat pump plants. At present, the so-called natural working fluids constitute the most environmentally friendly alternative, and they include first of all ammonia, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide (CO2). NTNU and SINTEF Energy Research, Norway, have been pioneers in the development of refrigerating and heat pump systems that use CO2 as a working fluid. The favourable technical and environmental properties of CO2 as well as the promising results have now led to considerable international interest in CO2 technology for refrigerating and heat pump applications. Two examples are international licensing for Norwegian CO2 technology and co-operation with Indonesia on CO2 for refrigeration

  1. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, S A; Dlugokencky, E J; Butler, J H

    2011-08-03

    Earth's climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from fossil fuel combustion. Anthropogenic emissions of non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting substances (largely from sources other than fossil fuels), also contribute significantly to warming. Some non-CO(2) greenhouse gases have much shorter lifetimes than CO(2), so reducing their emissions offers an additional opportunity to lessen future climate change. Although it is clear that sustainably reducing the warming influence of greenhouse gases will be possible only with substantial cuts in emissions of CO(2), reducing non-CO(2) greenhouse gas emissions would be a relatively quick way of contributing to this goal.

  2. Financial development and sectoral CO2 emissions in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Ibrahim Kabiru; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Saari, Mohd Yusof

    2017-03-01

    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO 2 ) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO 2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO 2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO 2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO 2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO 2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.

  3. CO2 emissions in the World in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecoiffier, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data of CO 2 emissions in the world and their evolution. It more particularly addresses CO 2 emissions due to energy combustion which represent more than 80 per cent of these emissions or 62 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions, and which increased in 2013 with respect to 2012 (+ 2.2 pc). The distribution of CO 2 emissions due to energy combustion in different continents and regions is indicated (levels in 1990, 2012 and 2013, evolutions). The decrease of the CO 2 emission intensity with respect to the GDP is briefly commented (evolution since 1970), as well as the level of CO 2 emissions per inhabitant in China with respect to that in the EU (evolutions since 1970). The evolution of CO 2 emissions is then analysed with respect to different determining parameters according to the Kaya equation (population, GDP, primary energy consumption and their evolution or relationship one to each other)

  4. A Circular Bioeconomy with Biobased Products from CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Modestra, J Annie; Amulya, K; Butti, Sai Kishore; Velvizhi, G

    2016-06-01

    The unprecedented climate change influenced by elevated concentrations of CO2 has compelled the research world to focus on CO2 sequestration. Although existing natural and anthropogenic CO2 sinks have proven valuable, their ability to further assimilate CO2 is now questioned. Thus, we highlight here the importance of biological sequestration methods as alternate and viable routes for mitigating climate change while simultaneously synthesizing value-added products that could sustainably fuel the circular bioeconomy. Four conceptual models for CO2 biosequestration and the synthesis of biobased products, as well as an integrated CO2 biorefinery model, are proposed. Optimizing and implementing this biorefinery model might overcome the limitations of existing sequestration methods and could help realign the carbon balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying Activity Descriptors for CO2 Electro-Reduction to Methanol on Rutile (110) Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Hansen, Heine Anton; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    Electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to liquid fuels using energy from renewable sources has the potential to form the basis of a carbon neutral sustainable energy system, while integrating seamlessly in the established infrastructure1. Storing intermittent renewable energy in a chemical fuel...... and almost no alcohols are produced. Experimental studies have shown that mixed rutile oxides (Ru/Ir/Ti) can catalyze the conversion of CO2 to alcohols3-5. However, very little is known about the reduction of CO2to alcohols on oxide electrocatalysts. Here, we present a computational study of the thermo...... ruthenium oxide electrodes in 0.5 M NaHCO3. 421,(1997). doi:10.1016/S0022-0728(96)04823-1 4. Qu, J., Zhang, X., Wang, Y. & Xie, C. Electrochemical reduction of CO2 on RuO2/TiO2 nanotubes composite modified Pt electrode. Electrochim. Acta 50,3576–3580 (2005). doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2004.11.061 5. Ullah, N...

  6. The Characteristics of Peats and Co2 Emission Due to Fire in Industrial Plant Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningsih, Ambar Tri; Rayahu Prasytaningsih, Sri

    2017-12-01

    Riau Province has a high threat to forest fire in peat soils, especially in industrial forest areas. The impact of fires will produce carbon (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere. The magnitude of carbon losses from the burning of peatlands can be estimated by knowing the characteristics of the fire peat and estimating CO2 emissions produced. The objectives of the study are to find out the characteristics of fire-burning peat, and to estimate carbon storage and CO2 emissions. The location of the research is in the area of industrial forest plantations located in Bengkalis Regency, Riau Province. The method used to measure peat carbon is the method of lost in ignation. The results showed that the research location has a peat depth of 600-800 cm which is considered very deep. The Peat fiber content ranges from 38 to 75, classified as hemic peat. The average bulk density was 0.253 gram cm-3 (0.087-0,896 gram cm-3). The soil ash content is 2.24% and the stored peat carbon stock with 8 meter peat thickness is 10723,69 ton ha-1. Forest fire was predicted to burn peat to a depth of 100 cm and produced CO2 emissions of 6,355,809 tons ha-1.

  7. Experimental and numerical study on the fracture of rocks during injection of CO2-saturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Wu, Zhishen; Lei, Xing-Lin; Murakami, Yutaka; Satoh, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 into depleted hydrocarbon reserviors or saline aquifers presents the enormous potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuels. However, it may give rise to a complicated coupling physical and chemical process. One of the processes is the hydro-mechanical impact of CO2 injection. During the injection project, the increase of pore pressures of storing formations can induce the instability, which finally results in a catastrophic failure of disposal sites. This paper focuses mainly on the role of CO2-saturated water in the fracturing behavior of rocks. To investigate how much the dissolved CO2 can influence the pore pressure change of rocks, acoustic emission (AE) experiments were performed on sandstone and granite samples under triaxial conditions. The main innovation of this paper is to propose a time dependent porosity method to simulate the abrupt failure process, which is observed in the laboratory and induced by the pore pressure change due to the volume dilatancy of rocks, using a finite element scheme associated with two-phase characteristics. The results successfully explained the phenomena obtained in the physical experiments.

  8. One-step electrosynthesis of ethylene and ethanol from CO2 in an alkaline electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sichao; Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Luo, Raymond; Heima, Minako; Yamauchi, Miho; Kenis, Paul J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Electroreduction of CO2 has potential for storing otherwise wasted intermittent renewable energy, while reducing emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Identifying robust and efficient electrocatalysts and associated optimum operating conditions to produce hydrocarbons at high energetic efficiency (low overpotential) remains a challenge. In this study, four Cu nanoparticle catalysts of different morphology and composition (amount of surface oxide) are synthesized and their activities towards CO2 reduction are characterized in an alkaline electrolyzer. Use of catalysts with large surface roughness results in a combined Faradaic efficiency (46%) for the electroreduction of CO2 to ethylene and ethanol in combination with current densities of ∼200 mA cm-2, a 10-fold increase in performance achieved at much lower overpotential (only high production levels of ethylene and ethanol can be attributed mainly to the use of alkaline electrolyte to improve kinetics and the suppressed evolution of H2, as well as the application of gas diffusion electrodes covered with active and rough Cu nanoparticles in the electrolyzer. These high performance levels and the gained fundamental understanding on Cu-based catalysts bring electrochemical reduction processes such as presented here closer to practical application.

  9. Hydrogenation of CO2at Room Temperature and Low Pressure with a Cobalt Tetraphosphine Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Samantha A; Grubel, Katarzyna; Appel, Aaron M; Wiedner, Eric S; Linehan, John C

    2017-07-17

    Large-scale implementation of carbon neutral energy sources such as solar and wind will require the development of energy storage mechanisms. The hydrogenation of CO 2 into formic acid or methanol could function as a means to store energy in a chemical bond. The catalyst reported here operates under low pressure, at room temperature, and in the presence of a base much milder (7 pK a units lower) than the previously reported CO 2 hydrogenation catalyst, Co(dmpe) 2 H. The Co(I) tetraphosphine complex, [Co(L3)(CH 3 CN)]BF 4 , where L3 = 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-bis(diphenylphosphino)propyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane (0.31 mM), catalyzes CO 2 hydrogenation with an initial turnover frequency of 150(20) h -1 at 25 °C, 1.7 atm of a 1:1 mixture of H 2 and CO 2 , and 0.6 M 2-tert-butyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine.

  10. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group - FI Department

    2005-01-01

    The Farnell catalogue can now be accessed from the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue. Users can order Farnell equipment as well as standard Stores equipment at the same time using a single document, the EDH Materials Request form. The Materials Request form offers users items from both the internal 'Stores' catalogue and the external 'Farnell' catalogue, all of which may be ordered on the same form. The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Farnell equipment to Farnell. The delivery time is 48 hours in both cases. Requests for materials are routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  11. The CO2-tax and its ability to reduce CO2 emissions related to oil and gas production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemo, F.; Lund, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The primary ambition of the paper is to illustrate some relevant effects of the CO 2 -tax, and draw the line from company adaptation via national ambitions and goals to global emission consequences. The CO 2 -tax is a success for oil and gas production only to the extent that the CO 2 emission per produced unit oil/gas is reduced as a consequence of the tax. If not, the CO 2 -tax is a pure fiscal tax and has no qualitative impact on the CO 2 emissions. The reduction potential is then isolated to the fact that some marginal fields will not be developed, and the accelerated close down of fields in production. The paper indicates that a significant replacement of older gas turbines at a certain level of the CO 2 -tax could be profitable for the companies. This is dependent on change in turbine energy utilization, and the investment cost. The CO 2 -tax is a political success for the nation if it is a significant contributor to achieve national emission goals. Furthermore, is the CO 2 -tax an environmental success only to the extent it contributes to reductions in the CO 2 emissions globally. The paper indicates that there are possibilities for major suboptimal adaptations in connection with national CO 2 -taxation of the oil and gas production. 13 refs., 6 figs

  12. Influence of Capillary Force and Buoyancy on CO2 Migration During CO2 Injection in a Sandstone Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Pollyea, R.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one component of a broad carbon management portfolio designed to mitigate adverse effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. During CCS, capillary trapping is an important mechanism for CO2 isolation in the disposal reservoir, and, as a result, the distribution of capillary force is an important factor affecting CO2 migration. Moreover, the movement of CO2 being injected to the reservoir is also affected by buoyancy, which results from the density difference between CO2 and brine. In order to understand interactions between capillary force and buoyancy, we implement a parametric modeling experiment of CO2 injections in a sandstone reservoir for combinations of the van Genuchten capillary pressure model that bound the range of capillary pressure-saturation curves measured in laboratory experiments. We simulate ten years supercritical CO2 (scCO2) injections within a 2-D radially symmetric sandstone reservoir for five combinations of the van Genuchten model parameters λ and entry pressure (P0). Results are analyzed on the basis of a modified dimensionless ratio, ω, which is similar to the Bond number and defines the relationship between buoyancy pressure and capillary pressure. We show how parametric variability affects the relationship between buoyancy and capillary force, and thus controls CO2 plume geometry. These results indicate that when ω >1, then buoyancy governs the system and CO2 plume geometry is governed by upward flow. In contrast, when ω screening tool for qualitative assessment of reservoir performance.

  13. Variability and trends in surface seawater pCO2 and CO2 flux in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A. J.; Wanninkhof, R.; Sabine, C. L.; Feely, R. A.; Cronin, M. F.; Weller, R. A.

    2017-06-01

    Variability and change in the ocean sink of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) have implications for future climate and ocean acidification. Measurements of surface seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and wind speed from moored platforms are used to calculate high-resolution CO2 flux time series. Here we use the moored CO2 fluxes to examine variability and its drivers over a range of time scales at four locations in the Pacific Ocean. There are significant surface seawater pCO2, salinity, and wind speed trends in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, especially during winter and spring, which reduce CO2 uptake over the 10 year record of this study. Starting in late 2013, elevated seawater pCO2 values driven by warm anomalies cause this region to be a net annual CO2 source for the first time in the observational record, demonstrating how climate forcing can influence the timing of an ocean region shift from CO2 sink to source.

  14. Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.

    2017-12-01

    Measurement and modelling of regional or country-level carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are becoming critical for verification of the greenhouse gases emission control. One of the commonly adopted approaches is inverse modelling, where CO2 fluxes (emission: positive flux, sink: negative flux) from the terrestrial ecosystems are estimated by combining atmospheric CO2 measurements with atmospheric transport models. The inverse models assume anthropogenic emissions are known, and thus the uncertainties in the emissions introduce systematic bias in estimation of the terrestrial (residual) fluxes by inverse modelling. Here we show that the CO2 sink increase, estimated by the inverse model, over East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia), by about 0.26 PgC year-1 (1 Pg = 1012 g) during 2001-2010, is likely to be an artifact of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing too quickly in China by 1.41 PgC year-1. Independent results from methane (CH4) inversion suggested about 41% lower rate of East Asian CH4 emission increase during 2002-2012. We apply a scaling factor of 0.59, based on CH4 inversion, to the rate of anthropogenic CO2 emission increase since the anthropogenic emissions of both CO2 and CH4 increase linearly in the emission inventory. We find no systematic increase in land CO2 uptake over East Asia during 1993-2010 or 2000-2009 when scaled anthropogenic CO2 emissions are used, and that there is a need of higher emission increase rate for 2010-2012 compared to those calculated by the inventory methods. High bias in anthropogenic CO2 emissions leads to stronger land sinks in global land-ocean flux partitioning in our inverse model. The corrected anthropogenic CO2 emissions also produce measurable reductions in the rate of global land CO2 sink increase post-2002, leading to a better agreement with the terrestrial biospheric model simulations that include CO2-fertilization and climate effects.

  15. CO2 Reduction: From the Electrochemical to Photochemical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jinghua; Huang, Yang; Ye, Wen; Li, Yanguang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is believed to have a profound impact on the global climate. To reverse the impact would necessitate not only curbing the reliance on fossil fuels but also developing effective strategies capture and utilize CO2 from the atmosphere. Among several available strategies, CO2 reduction via the electrochemical or photochemical approach is particularly attractive since the required energy input can be potentially supplied from renewable source...

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 ON WELL CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage is one way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Underground gas storage operations and CO2 sequestration in aquifers relay on both the proper wellbore construction and sealing properties of the cap rock. CO2 injection candidates may be new wells or old wells. In both cases, the long-term wellbore integrity (up to 1 000 years is one of the key performance criteria in the geological storage of CO2. The potential leakage paths are the migration CO2 along the wellbore due to poor cementation and flow through the cap rock. The permeability and integrity of the set cement will determine how effective it is in preventing the leakage. The integrity of the cap rock is assured by an adequate fracture gradient and by sufficient set cement around the casing across the cap rock and without a micro-annulus. CO2 storage in underground formations has revived the researc of long term influence of the injected CO2 on Portland cements and methods for improving the long term efficiency of the wellbore sealant. Some researchers predicted that set cement will fail when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage to the atmosphere or into underground formations that may contain potable water. Other researchers show set cement samples from 30 to 50 year-old wells (CO2 EOR projects that have maintained sealing integrity and prevented CO2 leakage, in spite of some degree of carbonation. One of reasons for the discrepancy between certain research lab tests and actual field performance measurements is the absence of standard protocol for CO2 resistance-testing devices, conditions, or procedures. This paper presents potential flow paths along the wellbore, CO2 behaviour under reservoir conditions, and geochemical alteration of hydrated Portland cement due to supercritical CO2 injection.

  17. Including dynamic CO2 intensity with demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, Pia; Brandt, Nils; Nordström, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Hourly demand response tariffs with the intention of reducing or shifting loads during peak demand hours are being intensively discussed among policy-makers, researchers and executives of future electricity systems. Demand response rates have still low customer acceptance, apparently because the consumption habits requires stronger incentive to change than any proposed financial incentive. An hourly CO 2 intensity signal could give customers an extra environmental motivation to shift or reduce loads during peak hours, as it would enable co-optimisation of electricity consumption costs and carbon emissions reductions. In this study, we calculated the hourly dynamic CO 2 signal and applied the calculation to hourly electricity market data in Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. This provided a novel understanding of the relationships between hourly electricity generation mix composition, electricity price and electricity mix CO 2 intensity. Load shifts from high-price hours resulted in carbon emission reductions for electricity generation mixes where price and CO 2 intensity were positively correlated. The reduction can be further improved if the shift is optimised using both price and CO 2 intensity. The analysis also indicated that an hourly CO 2 intensity signal can help avoid carbon emissions increases for mixes with a negative correlation between electricity price and CO 2 intensity. - Highlights: • We present a formula for calculating hybrid dynamic CO 2 intensity of electricity generation mixes. • We apply the dynamic CO 2 Intensity on hourly electricity market prices and generation units for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate the spearman correlation between hourly electricity market price and dynamic CO 2 intensity for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate carbon footprint of shifting 1 kWh load daily from on-peak hours to off-peak hours using the dynamic CO 2 intensity. • We conclude that using dynamic CO 2 intensity for

  18. CO 2 hydrogenation to hydrocarbons over iron nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogenation of CO2 to hydrocarbons over iron nanoparticles supported on oxygenfunctionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes was studied in a fixed-bed U-tube reactor at 25 bar with a H2:CO2 ratio of 3. Conversion of CO2 was approximately 35% yielding C1-C5 products at 360°C with methane and CO as major ...

  19. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  20. Estimation of 14CO2 amount in the atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Světlík, Ivo; Molnár, M.; Váňa, M.; Michálek, V.; Stefanov, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 1 (2009), s. 137-141 ISSN 0236-5731. [International Conference on Nuclear Analytical Methods in the Life Sciences/9./. Lisabon, 07.09.2008-12.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 14CO2 * global suess effect * anthropogenic CO2 * delay of atmospheric CO2 Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2009

  1. Corrosion studies on casing steel in CO2 storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Benedictus, T.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of casing steel N80 in brine plus CO2 was studied in autoclave to simulate the CO2 storage environment. The brine solution used in the study contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2. The CO2 was charged in the autoclave at different pressures (60, 80 and 100 bar)

  2. CO2 laser resurfacing of the face and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M P

    2001-05-01

    Laser resurfacing with the short-pulsed, high-energy CO2 laser has been used to treat photodamaged skin and acne scars. Efficacy and safety have been demonstrated with this technique since 1992. Newer treatment methods, including sequential or combination treatment with the Er:YAG laser have led to increased efficacy with a decrease in adverse sequelae. This article details the author's experience with CO2 laser resurfacing and promotes the use of sequential CO2/Er:YAG laser resurfacing.

  3. Numerical Simulations for Enhanced Methane Recovery from Gas Hydrate Accumulations by Utilizing CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara, Prathyusha

    transport properties with change in pressure and temperature due to the presence of the simple CO2-hydrate and mixed hydrates (mainly CH4-CO2 hydrate and CH4 -CO2-N2 hydrate) in the porous geologic media. These simulations on CO2/ CH4-CO2 hydrate reservoirs provided a basic insight to formulate and interpret a novel technological approach. This approach aims at prediction of enhanced gas production profiles from Class 2 hydrate accumulations by utilizing CO2 sequestration. The approach also offers a possibility to permanently store CO 2 in the geologic formation to a greater extent compared to a direct injection of CO2 into gas hydrate sediments. The production technique implies a three-stage approach using one vertical well design. In Stage I, the CO2 is injected into the underlying aquifer. In Stage II, the well is shut in and injected CO2 is allowed to be converted into immobile CO2 hydrate. Finally, during Stage III, decomposition of CH4 hydrate is induced by the depressurization method. The gas production potential is estimated over 15 years. The results reveal that methane production is increased together with simultaneous reduction of concomitant water production rate comparing to a conventional Class 2 reservoir production.

  4. CO2 Sink/Source in the Indonesian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Two distinct CO2 sink/source characteristics appeared from the compiled observed data 1984-2013 in the tropical Indonesian seas. The western part persistently emits CO2 to the atmosphere, while the eastern is rather dynamic which emits and absorbs smaller amount of CO2 to and from atmosphere, respectively. The segregation is proximal to the virtual Wallace line, where in the continental shelf is located. Lower salinity and higher silicate condition in the western part influenced the higher pCO2 condition in Java Sea. Temperature is found to have a limited influence to control different characteristic in the west and east, but SST change of 2.0 0C during La Ninã condition effectively reduced the source amount of CO2 by 50% compared to Normal year condition. Yet, during La Ninã, higher wind speed increases CO2 flux twice compared to Normal year. In the continental shelf area where CO2 sink area is found, 29 years data showed that pCO2 trend is increasing ±0.6-3.8 μatm/year. From this study, the overall areas have a significant source of CO2 of approximately 10 - 24 μatm.

  5. A CO2-strategy for BTC [Belgian Development Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, J. [Prospect C and S, Brussels (Belgium); Hanekamp, E. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The CO2 footprint is determined the CO2 strategy is developed for the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). BTC is the Belgian agency for development cooperation, and finances development projects in 23 partner countries. The CO2 footprint covered BTC's activities in 2007 in all their offices worldwide. Footprint and strategy were finalised and adopted by the Executive Board at the end of 2008. Meanwhile, the BTC began with the introduction of the proposed strategy. Partners for Innovation and Prospect were asked to support the introduction of the strategy and to determine the CO2 footprint of 2008.

  6. A Global Perspective of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, William M.; Ott, Lesley; Darmenov, Anton; daSilva, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important greenhouse gas affected by human activity. About half of the CO2 emitted from fossil fuel combustion remains in the atmosphere, contributing to rising temperatures, while the other half is absorbed by natural land and ocean carbon reservoirs. Despite the importance of CO2, many questions remain regarding the processes that control these fluxes and how they may change in response to a changing climate. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), launched on July 2, 2014, is NASA's first satellite mission designed to provide the global view of atmospheric CO2 needed to better understand both human emissions and natural fluxes. This visualization shows how column CO2 mixing ratio, the quantity observed by OCO-2, varies throughout the year. By observing spatial and temporal gradients in CO2 like those shown, OCO-2 data will improve our understanding of carbon flux estimates. But, CO2 observations can't do that alone. This visualization also shows that column CO2 mixing ratios are strongly affected by large-scale weather systems. In order to fully understand carbon flux processes, OCO-2 observations and atmospheric models will work closely together to determine when and where observed CO2 came from. Together, the combination of high-resolution data and models will guide climate models towards more reliable predictions of future conditions.

  7. Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Column CO2: Airborne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Heaps, W. S.; Mao, J.; Andrews, A. E.; Burris, J. F.; Miodek, M.; Georgieva, E.

    2002-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 measurements are essential to resolving significant discrepancies in our understanding of the global carbon budget and, hence, humankind's role in global climate change. The science measurement requirements for CO2 are, however, extremely demanding (precision approximately 0.3%). We are developing a novel application of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to detect spectral absorption of reflected sunlight by CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere that should be able to achieve sufficient sensitivity and signal-to-noise to measure column CO2 at the target specification. We are currently constructing a prototype instrument for deployment on aircraft. The aircraft version will measure total column CO2 and CO2 below the aircraft as well as O2, which allows normalization of CO2 column amounts for varying surface height and pressure. This instrument will be a valuable asset in carbon budget field studies as well as a useful tool for evaluating existing and future space-based CO2 measurements. We will present the instrument concept, sensitivity calculations, and the results of testing a bench system in the laboratory and outdoors on the ground. We will also discuss our plan for deployment on the aircraft and potential flight applications to the CO2 budget problem.

  8. Atmospheric CO2 Variability Observed From ASCENDS Flight Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Browell, Edward; Campbell, Joel; Choi, Yonghoon; Dobler, Jeremy; Fan, Tai-Fang; Harrison, F. Wallace; Kooi, Susan; Liu, Zhaoyan; Meadows, Byron; hide

    2015-01-01

    Significant atmospheric CO2 variations on various spatiotemporal scales were observed during ASCENDS flight campaigns. For example, around 10-ppm CO2 changes were found within free troposphere in a region of about 200x300 sq km over Iowa during a summer 2014 flight. Even over extended forests, about 2-ppm CO2 column variability was measured within about 500-km distance. For winter times, especially over snow covered ground, relatively less horizontal CO2 variability was observed, likely owing to minimal interactions between the atmosphere and land surface. Inter-annual variations of CO2 drawdown over cornfields in the Mid-West were found to be larger than 5 ppm due to slight differences in the corn growing phase and meteorological conditions even in the same time period of a year. Furthermore, considerable differences in atmospheric CO2 profiles were found during winter and summer campaigns. In the winter CO2 was found to decrease from about 400 ppm in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to about 392 ppm above 10 km, while in the summer CO2 increased from 386 ppm in the ABL to about 396 ppm in free troposphere. These and other CO2 observations are discussed in this presentation.

  9. Positive feedback between increasing atmospheric CO2 and ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will likely affect both the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem productivity. Current assumptions that increasing CO2 will lead to increased ecosystem productivity and plant water use efficiency (WUE) are driving optimistic predictions of higher crop yields as well as greater availability of freshwater resources due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. The plant physiological response that drives these effects is believed to be an increase in carbon uptake either by (a) stronger CO2 gradient between the stomata and the atmosphere, or by (b) reduced CO2 limitation of enzymatic carboxylation within the leaf. The (a) scenario will lead to increased water use efficiency (WUE) in plants. However, evidence for increased WUE is mostly based on modeling studies, and experiments producing a short duration or step-wise increase in CO2 concentration (e.g. free-air CO2 enrichment). We hypothesize that the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is having a positive effect on ecosystem productivity and WUE. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed meteorological, ANPP, and soil CO2 flux datasets together with carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of archived plant samples from the long term ecological research (LTER) program at Kellogg Biological Station. The datasets were collected between 1989 and 2007 (corresponding to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~33 ppmv at Mauna Loa). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples taken from 1989 and 2007 show a significant decrease in the C isotope discrimination factor (Δ) over time. Stomatal conductance is directly related to Δ, and thus Δ is inversely related to plant intrinsic WUE (iWUE). Historical changes in the 13C/12C ratio (δ13C) in samples of a perennial forb, Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), taken from adjacent successional fields, indicate changes in Δ upon uptake of CO2 as well. These temporal trends in Δ suggest a positive feedback between the increasing CO2 concentration in the

  10. Investigation of CO2precursors in roasted coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuju; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2017-03-15

    Two CO 2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO 2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO 2 . However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO 2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO 2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO 2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO 2 formation. Further studies on the heating of various components isolated from green coffee beans showed that CO 2 was generated from various green coffee components, including water insoluble proteins and polysaccharides. Around 50% of CO 2 was formed from thermal reactions of lower molecular weight compounds that represent ∼25% by weight in green coffee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Future CO2 removal from pulp mills - Process integration consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, Erik; Berntsson, Thore

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that capturing the CO 2 from flue gases in the recovery boiler at a pulp mill can be a cost-effective way of reducing mill CO 2 emissions. However, the CO 2 capture cost is very dependent on the fuel price. In this paper, the potential for reducing the need for external fuel and thereby the possibility to reduce the cost for capturing the CO 2 are investigated. The reduction is achieved by using thermal process integration. In alternative 1, the mill processes are integrated and a steam surplus made available for CO 2 capture, but still there is a need for external fuel. In alternative 2, the integration is taken one step further, the reboiler is fed with MP steam, and the heat of absorption from the absorption unit is used for generation of LP steam needed at the mill. The avoidance costs are in both cases lower than before the process integration. The avoidance cost in alternative 1 varies between 25.4 and 30.7 EUR/tonne CO 2 depending on the energy market parameters. For alternative 2, the cost varies between 22.5 and 27.2 EUR/tonne CO 2 . With tough CO 2 reduction targets and correspondingly high CO 2 emission costs, the annual earnings can be substantial, 18.6 MEUR with alternative 1 and 21.2 MEUR with alternative 2

  12. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-07-22

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8-1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) during a multiday (36 h total hours) CO2 electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 10(6) and 4 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient

  13. Predicting, monitoring and controlling geomechanical effects of CO2 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, J.E.; Siggins, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    A key objective of geological carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage in porous rock is long-term subsurface containment of CO 2 . Fault stability and maximum sustainable pore-fluid pressures should be estimated in geomechanical studies in order to avoid damage to reservoir seals and fault seals of storage sites during CO 2 injection. Such analyses rely on predicting the evolution of effective stresses in rocks and faults during CO 2 injection. However, geomechanical analyses frequently do not incorporate poroelastic behaviour of reservoir rock, as relevant poroelastic properties are rarely known. The knowledge of rock poroelastic properties would allow the use of seismic methods for the accurate measurement of the effective stress evolution during CO 2 injection. This paper discussed key geomechanical effects of CO 2 injection into porous rock, and in particular, focused on the effects that the poroelasticity of reservoir rocks and pore pressure/stress coupling have on effective stresses. Relevant geophysical monitoring techniques were also suggested. The paper also outlined how these techniques could be applied to measure stress changes related to poroelastic rock behaviour during CO 2 injection and to test the predictions of sustainable changes in effective stress in CO 2 storage sites. It was concluded that a combination of predictive geomechanical techniques and application of geophysical monitoring techniques is a valid new concept for controlling and monitoring the geomechanical effects of CO 2 storage. 36 refs., 5 figs

  14. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Warsaw, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process, the IEA is making available for free download the ''Highlights'' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion now for sale on IEA Bookshop. This annual publication contains, for more than 140 countries and regions: estimates of CO2 emissions from 1971 to 2011; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; a decomposition of CO2 emissions into driving factors; and CO2emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, key sources, and other relevant information. The nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP-19), in conjunction with the ninth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 9), met in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 22 November 2013. This volume of ''Highlights'', drawn from the full-scale study, was specially designed for delegations and observers of the meeting in Warsaw.

  15. CO2 emissions from Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Bagger, Anne

    2011-01-01

    CO2 emission from the construction of buildings is seldom taken into account because focus is primarily on building operation. New technologies have therefore mainly been developed to reduce the energy consumption connected to operation. Super-light technology is a new structural principle giving...... rise to a substantial reduction of the CO2 emission in the construction phase. The present paper describes how the CO2 emission is reduced when using Super-light technology instead of traditional structural components. Estimations of the CO2 emissions from a number of projects using various...

  16. CO2 emissions by the economic circuit in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenglart, F.; Lesieur, Ch.; Pasquier, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Before commenting various statistical data on CO 2 emission in France, this report explains how these data have been established according to the 'Stiglitz' Commission recommendations, i.e. by integrating CO 2 emissions in the national accounts. While commenting the evolutions of CO 2 emissions in relationship with economic activity and giving table of world data, it outlines that France represents 3% of the World GDP, 1.3% of CO 2 emissions and 1% of the population. The relationship between standard of living and pollutant emissions are commented. As far as France is concerned and with a comparison with world data the shares of different sources of energy and of the different sectors in CO 2 emissions are indicated and commented. The report comments the influence of the domestic demand on foreign CO 2 emissions, the differences between households in terms of CO 2 emissions with respect to their revenues, the shares of household consumption and of CO 2 emissions among expense items, the influence of socio-professional, of age, and of household composition category on CO 2 emissions. Some methodological and computational aspects are given

  17. A practical CO2 flux remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Manuel; Burton, Mike

    2017-04-01

    An accurate quantification of CO2 flux from both natural and anthropogenic sources is of great interest in various areas of the Earth, environmental and atmospheric sciences. As emitted excess CO2 quickly dilutes into the 400 ppm ambient CO2 concentration and degassing often occurs diffusively, measuring CO2 fluxes is challenging. Therefore, fluxes are usually derived from grids of in-situ measurements, which are labour intensive measurements. Other than a safe measurement distance, remote sensing offers quick, spatially integrated and thus a more thorough measurement of gas fluxes. Active remote sensing combines these merits with operation independent of sunlight or clear sky conditions. Due to their weight and size, active remote sensing platforms for CO2, such as LIDAR, cannot easily be applied in the field or transported overseas. Moreover, their complexity requires a rather lengthy setup procedure to be undertaken by skilled personal. To meet the need for a rugged, practical CO2 remote sensing technique to scan volcanic plumes, we have developed the CO2 LIDAR. It measures 1-D column densities of CO2 with sufficient sensitivity to reveal the contribution of magmatic CO2. The CO2 LIDAR has been mounted inside a small aircraft and used to measure atmospheric column CO2 concentrations between the aircraft and the ground. It was further employed on the ground, measuring CO2 emissions from mud volcanism. During the measurement campaign the CO2 LIDAR demonstrated reliability, portability, quick set-up time (10 to 15 min) and platform independence. This new technique opens the possibility of rapid, comprehensive surveys of point source, open-vent CO2 emissions, as well as emissions from more diffuse sources such as lakes and fumarole fields. Currently, within the proof-of-concept ERC project CarbSens, a further reduction in size, weight and operational complexity is underway with the goal to commercialize the platform. Areas of potential applications include fugitive

  18. A model for estimating CO2 solubility in aqueous alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    Partial pressures of carbon dioxide (CO2) over aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) have been correlated using a simple approach where only one chemical equilibrium reaction is taken into account and assuming ideal gas and ideal liquid...... of CO2 over an aqueous alkanolamine solution. Accurate values for the partial pressure of CO2 are obtained for a limited loading, temperature, and pressure range that is useful in modeling CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Heat of absorption values derived from the model agree with experimental...

  19. Forestry and biomass energy projects: bottom-up comparisons of CO2 storage and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and net carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO 2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone is sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction. The methodology allows consistent comparisons of the costs and quantities of carbon stored in different types of projects and/or national programs, facilitating the inclusion of forestry and biomass energy projects in a possible CO 2 emission reduction regime. (Author)

  20. Bottom-up comparisons of CO2 storage and costs in forestry and biomass energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    In order to include forestry and biomass energy projects in a possible CO 2 emission reduction regime, and to compare the costs of individual projects or national programs, it is necessary to determine the rate of equivalency between carbon in fossil fuel emissions and carbon stored in different types of forestry, biomass and renewable energy projects. This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO 2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone is sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction

  1. Triazine containing N-rich microporous organic polymers for CO2 capture and unprecedented CO2/N2 selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Subhajit; Bhanja, Piyali; Das, Sabuj Kanti; Sen, Tapas; Bhaumik, Asim

    2017-03-01

    Targeted synthesis of microporous adsorbents for CO2 capture and storage is very challenging in the context of remediation from green house gases. Herein we report two novel N-rich microporous networks SB-TRZ-CRZ and SB-TRZ-TPA by extensive incorporation of triazine containing tripodal moiety in the porous polymer framework. These materials showed excellent CO2 storage capacities: SB-TRZ-CRZ displayed the CO2 uptake capacity of 25.5 wt% upto 1 bar at 273 K and SB-TRZ-TPA gave that of 16 wt% under identical conditions. The substantial dipole quadruple interaction between network (polar triazine) and CO2 boosts the selectivity for CO2/N2. SB-TRZ-CRZ has this CO2/N2 selectivity ratio of 377, whereas for SB-TRZ-TPA it was 97. Compared to other porous polymers, these materials are very cost effective, scalable and very promising material for clean energy application and environmental issues.

  2. Leakage and Seepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO 2 may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO 2 leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO 2 overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO 2 bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s -1 at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s -1 . Liquid CO 2 bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO 2 bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO 2 and CH 4 at three different seepage rates reveals that

  3. CO2 Capture Rate Sensitivity Versus Purchase of CO2 Quotas. Optimizing Investment Choice for Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Paula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture technology (and associated storage, applied to power plants, reduces atmospheric CO2 emissions. This article demonstrates that, in the particular case of the deployment phase of CO2 capture technology during which CO2 quota price may be low, capturing less than 90% of total CO2 emissions from power plants can be economically attractive. Indeed, for an electric power company capture technology is interesting, only if the discounted marginal cost of capture is lower than the discounted marginal cost of purchased quotas. When CO2 price is low, it is interesting to have flexibility and reduce the overall capture rate of the site, by stopping the capture system of one of the combustion trains if the site has multiple ones, or by adopting less than 90% CO2 capture rate.

  4. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO2 abatement technology. The case of CO2 capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Vincent M.; Reilly, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO 2 -trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO 2 abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that captures empirical links between CO 2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We specify CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) as a discrete CO 2 abatement technology. We find that combining CO 2 -trading schemes with an adoption subsidy is the most effective instrument to induce adoption of the CCS technology. Such a subsidy directly improves the competitiveness of the CCS technology by compensating for its markup over the cost of conventional electricity. Yet, introducing R and D subsidies throughout the entire economy leads to faster adoption of the CCS technology as well and in addition can be cost-effective in achieving the abatement target. (author)

  5. Investigating CO2 Reservoirs at Gale Crater and Evidence for a Dense Early Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, P. B.; Archer, P. D.; Heil, E.; Eigenbrode, J.; McAdam, A.; Sutter, B.; Franz, H.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Ming, D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; hide

    2015-01-01

    One of the most compelling features of the Gale landing site is its age. Based on crater counts, the formation of Gale crater is dated to be near the beginning of the Hesperian near the pivotal Hesperian/Noachian transition. This is a time period on Mars that is linked to increased fluvial activity through valley network formation and also marks a transition from higher erosion rates/clay mineral formation to lower erosion rates with mineralogies dominated by sulfate minerals. Results from the Curiosity mission have shown extensive evidence for fluvial activity within the crater suggesting that sediments on the floor of the crater and even sediments making up Mt. Sharp itself were the result of longstanding activity of liquid water. Warm/wet conditions on early Mars are likely due to a thicker atmosphere and increased abundance of greenhouse gases including the main component of the atmosphere, CO2. Carbon dioxide is minor component of the Earth's atmosphere yet plays a major role in surface water chemistry, weathering, and formation of secondary minerals. An ancient martian atmosphere was likely dominated by CO2 and any waters in equilibrium with this atmosphere would have different chemical characteristics. Studies have noted that high partial pressures of CO2 would result in increased carbonic acid formation and lowering of the pH so that carbonate minerals are not stable. However, if there were a dense CO2 atmosphere present at the Hesperian/Noachian transition, it would have to be stored in a carbon reservoir on the surface or lost to space. The Mt. Sharp sediments are potentially one of the best places on Mars to investigate these CO2 reservoirs as they are proposed to have formed in the early Hesperian, from an alkaline lake, and record the transition to an aeolian dominated regime near the top of the sequence. The total amount of CO2 in the Gale crater soils and sediments is significant but lower than expected if a thick atmosphere was present at the

  6. A possible CO2 conducting and concentrating mechanism in plant stomata SLAC1 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plant SLAC1 is a slow anion channel in the membrane of stomatal guard cells, which controls the turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought, high levels of carbon dioxide, and bacterial invasion. Recent study demonstrated that bicarbonate is a small-molecule activator of SLAC1. Higher CO(2 and HCO(3(- concentration activates S-type anion channel currents in wild-type Arabidopsis guard cells. Based on the SLAC1 structure a theoretical model is derived to illustrate the activation of bicarbonate to SLAC1 channel. Meanwhile a possible CO(2 conducting and concentrating mechanism of the SLAC1 is proposed. METHODOLOGY: The homology structure of Arabidopsis thaliana SLAC1 (AtSLAC1 provides the structural basis for study of the conducting and concentrating mechanism of carbon dioxide in SLAC1 channels. The pK(a values of ionizable amino acid side chains in AtSLAC1 are calculated using software PROPKA3.0, and the concentration of CO(2 and anion HCO(3(- are computed based on the chemical equilibrium theory. CONCLUSIONS: The AtSLAC1 is modeled as a five-region channel with different pH values. The top and bottom layers of channel are the alkaline residue-dominated regions, and in the middle of channel there is the acidic region surrounding acidic residues His332. The CO(2 concentration is enhanced around 10(4 times by the pH difference between these regions, and CO(2 is stored in the hydrophobic region, which is a CO(2 pool. The pH driven CO(2 conduction from outside to inside balances the back electromotive force and maintain the influx of anions (e.g. Cl(- and NO(3(- from inside to outside. SLAC1 may be a pathway providing CO(2 for photosynthesis in the guard cells.

  7. Intermediate-Scale Experimental Study to Improve Fundamental Understanding of Attenuation Capacity for Leaking CO2 in Heterogeneous Shallow Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Porter, Mark L.; Pawar, Rajesh J.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2017-12-01

    To assess the risks of Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS), it is crucial to understand the fundamental physicochemical processes that may occur if and when stored CO2 leaks upward from a deep storage reservoir into the shallow subsurface. Intermediate-scale experiments allow for improved understanding of the multiphase evolution processes that control CO2 migration behavior in the subsurface, because the boundary conditions, initial conditions, and porous media parameters can be better controlled and monitored in the laboratory than in field settings. For this study, a large experimental test bed was designed to mimic a cross section of a shallow aquifer with layered geologic heterogeneity. As water with aqueous CO2 was injected into the system to mimic a CO2-charged water leakage scenario, the spatiotemporal evolution of the multiphase CO2 plume was monitored. Similar experiments were performed with two different sand combinations to assess the relative effects of different types of geologic facies transitions on the CO2 evolution processes. Significant CO2 attenuation was observed in both scenarios, but by fundamentally different mechanisms. When the porous media layers had very different permeabilities, attenuation was caused by local accumulation (structural trapping) and slow redissolution of gas phase CO2. When the permeability difference between the layers was relatively small, on the other hand, gas phase continually evolved over widespread areas near the leading edge of the aqueous plume, which also attenuated CO2 migration. This improved process understanding will aid in the development of models that could be used for effective risk assessment and monitoring programs for GCS projects.

  8. Intelligent monitoring system for real-time geologic CO2 storage, optimization and reservoir managemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Commer, M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Freifeld, B. M.; Robertson, M.; Wood, T.; McDonald, S.

    2017-12-01

    Archer Daniels Midland Company's (ADM) world-scale agricultural processing and biofuels production complex located in Decatur, Illinois, is host to two industrial-scale carbon capture and storage projects. The first operation within the Illinois Basin-Decatur Project (IBDP) is a large-scale pilot that injected 1,000,000 metric tons of CO2 over a three year period (2011-2014) in order to validate the Illinois Basin's cap