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Sample records for stora kylvattenutslaepp erfarenheter

  1. Experience from a number of larger surface earth heating systems. Erfarenheter fraan naagra stora ytjordvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    The heat pump systems investigated in this project supply heat to the following loads: the Adult High School in Oestra Grevie, a cycle factory in Vandsbro, detached houses in Surte and detached houses in the Sandhed area of Orsa. The heat pumps in all four have operated reasonably well. As far as design is concerned the systems are of monovalent type with low-temperature heating systems. Although the Oestra Grevie installation incorporates an oil-fired boiler for supplying heat during the winter to an older part of the school, there is no load-sharing between the boiler and the heat pump. The Vansbro installation incorporates an eletric boiler, but is has not been necessary in practice to use it. As a result, the systems have not suffered from what would normally be the relatively common problems encountered in bivalent systems from joint operation. Total heat and energy demands are generally over-estimated, which has meant that heat pumps are larger than was originally intended. In purely physical terms, specific heat abstraction from the ground in kWh/m/sup 2/ per year for the various systems could be increased by 100-700%, although abstraction should also be related to the intended use of the ground. However, it is clear that it could be higher in the systems investigated here. If building these systems today, optimum system design would enable capital costs to be reduced by 10-35%. However, there does not appear to be any scope for general cost reductions per m of hose in large collector systems: the decisive factors are ground conditions and the distance between the collector and the heat pump in each individual case.

  2. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  3. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Várilly, Joseph C.; Gracia-Bondía, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  4. BRS “Symmetry”, the main role of Raymond Stora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becchi, Carlo M., E-mail: becchi@ge.infn.it

    2016-11-15

    We discuss how Raymond Stora's absolute need of mathematical rigor has determined the discovery of BRS “Symmetry”. This need having been the essential reason for the construction of the identity which has been presented by Rouet and Stora in the lectures given at Lausanne-1973. Once written this identity the celebrated discovery has been a matter of reading. We also recall the less celebrated discovery of BRS cohomology and its impact on Physics.

  5. BRS “Symmetry”, the main role of Raymond Stora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchi, Carlo M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how Raymond Stora's absolute need of mathematical rigor has determined the discovery of BRS “Symmetry”. This need having been the essential reason for the construction of the identity which has been presented by Rouet and Stora in the lectures given at Lausanne-1973. Once written this identity the celebrated discovery has been a matter of reading. We also recall the less celebrated discovery of BRS cohomology and its impact on Physics.

  6. Autism och Asperger syndromtvå studier om pedagogers ochspecialpedagogers kunskaper och erfarenheter

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Pauline; Olsson, Sofia; Simonsson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Lindgren, P, Olsson, S & Simonsson, D. (2008) Autism och Asperger syndrom – två studier om pedagogers och specialpedagogers kunskaper och erfarenheter (Autism and Asperger syndrome – two studies of teachers´ and special educators´ knowledge and experience). Högskolan, Kristianstad. Specialpedagogiska programmet. Syftet med vårt arbete är att undersöka vilka kunskaper som specialpedagoger inom grund-skola och grundsärskola har, samt hur pedagoger uppfattar sina kunskaper och erfarenheter när d...

  7. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Fredag 7. mars 1997 Stora salen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kontserthuset Göteborg. Göteborgs Symfoniker. Chefdirigent: Neeme Järvi. Dirigent: Neeme Järvi. Kontsertmästare: Per Enoksson, Christer Thorvaldsson. Fredag 7. mars 1997 Stora salen (orange serie). Kavas: Ingvar Lidholm "Toccata e canto", Eduard Tubin Sümfoonia N 5 h-moll, Igor Stravinski "Püha kevad" Lk. 3-4: Kruckenberg, Sven: Tubin - Symfoni nr 5. Lk. 7 Neeme Järvi dirigenditööst

  8. Imavere Sawmill is Stora Ensos Jewel in the Region / Seppo Vainio ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainio, Seppo

    2004-01-01

    Skandinaavia metsanduskontserni Stora Enso Timberi tegevuse juht Baltikumis vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti suurima metsatööstuse Sylvesteri ostu 2003. aastal, Baltikumi üksuste osa Stora Enso tegevuses, Imavere saeveski valimist aasta välisinvestoriks. Vt. samas: Imavere saeveski eile ja täna. Tabel: "Välisinvestor 2004" nominendid

  9. Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin quantization of histories electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noltingk, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    This article is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the history fields have five components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this article we quantize the classical theory developed previously by two methods. First we quantize the reduced classical history space to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Second we quantize the classical BRST-extended history space, and use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin charge to define a 'cohomological' quantum history theory. Finally, we show that the reduced history theory is isomorphic (as a history theory) to the cohomological history theory

  10. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 1: Basic facts; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivning av STORA SKOG:s goedslingsprogram. Del 1: faktaunderlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe. [SkogForsk, Uppsala (Sweden); Westling, O. [IVL-Aneboda, Lammhult (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilization of forest soils has been used for several decades to improve productivity. STORA plans to fertilize 10 to 15 thousand hectares forests with nitrogen annually, over an area of 1 545 000 hectares productive forest land. The ecological effects of this forest fertilization plan have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in this report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), include the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part, presented in a separate report contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. Environmental effects of nitrogen fertilization are described in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. 193 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  11. Corporate social responsibility as a business strategy: Stora Enso-WWF partnership project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysiachniouk, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the strategic partnership between transnational corporation Stora-Enso and international nongovernmental organization NGO WWF as a business strategy that helps the company to adopt its business to the turbulent environment of the economy in transition. In this paper I draw from

  12. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Lördag 15. mars 1997 Stora salen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kontserdi kavas juttu: Eduard Tubina "Balalaikakontsert" ning Wilhelm Stenhammari ja Sergei Prokofjevi teosed Lk. 3-4: Kruckenberg, Sven: Tubin - Balalajkakontsert. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Göteborgs Symfoniker, chefdirigent: Neeme Järvi. Dirigent: Neeme Järvi, solist: Gennady Zut, balalajka. Kontsertmästare: Per Enoksson, Christer Thorvaldsson. Lördag 15. mars 1997 Stora salen (grön serie)

  13. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 2: Judgement; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivning av STORA SKOG:s goedslingsprogram. Del 2: bedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westling, O [IVL-Aneboda, Lammhult (Sweden); Nohrstedt, H Oe [SkogForsk, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The ecological effects of forest fertilization have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in an earlier report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), included the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part is presented here, and contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. The general consensus of this EIA is that the forest fertilization plans drawn up by STORA will not negatively affect the use of the forest as a natural resource in an ecologically sound way, taken into account that the guidelines included in the EIA are followed. The possible environmental effects of a 10 to 20 year period from onset of the plan were studied in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. The recommendations given in this EIA include the choice of forest stands for fertilization, environmental awareness, amount of fertilizer applied, frequency of applications, application procedures and effects follow up, communications, and documentation of the events. 69 refs, 14 tabs

  14. Corporate social responsibility as a business strategy: Stora Enso-WWF partnership project

    OpenAIRE

    Tysiachniouk, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the strategic partnership between transnational corporation Stora-Enso and international nongovernmental organization NGO WWF as a business strategy that helps the company to adopt its business to the turbulent environment of the economy in transition. In this paper I draw from the theory of institutional sociology to explain complex interaction between transnational actors and actors in localities that jointly form a governance generating network in order to implement the ...

  15. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 1: Basic facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Westling, O.

    1995-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilization of forest soils has been used for several decades to improve productivity. STORA plans to fertilize 10 to 15 thousand hectares forests with nitrogen annually, over an area of 1 545 000 hectares productive forest land. The ecological effects of this forest fertilization plan have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in this report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), include the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part, presented in a separate report contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. Environmental effects of nitrogen fertilization are described in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. 193 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  16. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 2: Judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westling, O.; Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1995-12-01

    The ecological effects of forest fertilization have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in an earlier report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), included the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part is presented here, and contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. The general consensus of this EIA is that the forest fertilization plans drawn up by STORA will not negatively affect the use of the forest as a natural resource in an ecologically sound way, taken into account that the guidelines included in the EIA are followed. The possible environmental effects of a 10 to 20 year period from onset of the plan were studied in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. The recommendations given in this EIA include the choice of forest stands for fertilization, environmental awareness, amount of fertilizer applied, frequency of applications, application procedures and effects follow up, communications, and documentation of the events. 69 refs, 14 tabs

  17. "Forntidens vildar" : Perspektiv på relationen mellan djur och människor i grottan Stora Förvar

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The cave Stora Förvar, excavated in the end of the 19th century, yielded a vast archaeological assemblage, providing great insight into the stone-age occupation of Stora Karlsö, an island a few kilometers off the west coast of Gotland. The bones of around ten humans dating to the Mesolithic have previously been identified among the four tons of faunal remains recovered from the cave. The human bone material featured cut-marks and split tubular bones. This, along with the apparent mixing of hu...

  18. On the Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations, and spin–orbit coupling: A tribute to Raymond Stora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations describing the motions of a spinning, charged, relativistic particle endowed with an anomalous magnetic moment in an electromagnetic field, are reconsidered. They are shown to duly stem from the linearization of the characteristic distribution of a presymplectic structure refining the original one of Souriau. In this model, once specialized to the case of a static electric-like field, the angular momentum and energy given by the associated moment map now correctly restore the spin–orbit coupling term. This is the state-of-the-art of unfinished joint work with Raymond Stora.

  19. On the Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations, and spin–orbit coupling: A tribute to Raymond Stora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Duval

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations describing the motions of a spinning, charged, relativistic particle endowed with an anomalous magnetic moment in an electromagnetic field, are reconsidered. They are shown to duly stem from the linearization of the characteristic distribution of a presymplectic structure refining the original one of Souriau. In this model, once specialized to the case of a static electric-like field, the angular momentum and energy given by the associated moment map now correctly restore the spin–orbit coupling term. This is the state-of-the-art of unfinished joint work with Raymond Stora.

  20. On the Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations, and spin–orbit coupling: A tribute to Raymond Stora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, Christian

    2016-11-15

    The Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations describing the motions of a spinning, charged, relativistic particle endowed with an anomalous magnetic moment in an electromagnetic field, are reconsidered. They are shown to duly stem from the linearization of the characteristic distribution of a presymplectic structure refining the original one of Souriau. In this model, once specialized to the case of a static electric-like field, the angular momentum and energy given by the associated moment map now correctly restore the spin–orbit coupling term. This is the state-of-the-art of unfinished joint work with Raymond Stora.

  1. On the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equations, and spin-orbit coupling: A tribute to Raymond Stora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Christian

    2016-11-01

    The Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equations describing the motions of a spinning, charged, relativistic particle endowed with an anomalous magnetic moment in an electromagnetic field, are reconsidered. They are shown to duly stem from the linearization of the characteristic distribution of a presymplectic structure refining the original one of Souriau. In this model, once specialized to the case of a static electric-like field, the angular momentum and energy given by the associated moment map now correctly restore the spin-orbit coupling term. This is the state-of-the-art of unfinished joint work with Raymond Stora.

  2. Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av psykosocial arbetsmiljö i primärvården : En kvantitativ enkätstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Elin; Thomsgård, Elin

    2018-01-01

    Bakgrund I begreppet arbetsmiljö ingår de fysiska, psykiska och sociala upplevelser som en individ har i sitt arbete. Distriktssköterskans arbetsplats kan vara stressig på flera sätt vilket kan påverka den psykosociala arbetsmiljön negativt. Tillfredsställelse och motivation i arbetslivet är grundläggande för god psykosocial arbetsmiljö och för en individs goda hälsa. Syfte Att undersöka distriktsköterskors erfarenheter av psykosocial arbetsmiljö i primärvården. Metod Föreliggande studie har ...

  3. Digitala spel : En kvalitativ studie om E-sportspelares erfarenheter från karriär och upplevd hälsa

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Ungdomar och unga vuxna är de främsta användarna av digitala spel och även de främsta entusiasterna av fenomenet E-sport. Spelvanor är av betydelse då studier har påvisat att det finns determinanter, både fysiologiska och psykologiska som kan påverka individens välbefinnande.Syftet med studien var att undersöka professionella E-sportspelares erfarenheter av att utöva sin sport och hur de upplever att detta påverkar hälsan. En kvalitativ metod användes och datainsamling utfördes genom intervju...

  4. Sociala medier - en påverkande faktor på identitetsutveckling och psykiskt välbefinnande : En kvalitativ studie om unga kvinnors uppfattningar och erfarenheter av sociala medier

    OpenAIRE

    Wiksten, Isabell; Ström, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och uppmärksamma unga kvinnors uppfattningar och erfarenheter avseende hur sociala medier påverkar deras identitetsutveckling och psykiska välbefinnande. Det är en kvalitativ studie baserad på två fokusgrupper med tre högskole- och universitetsstuderande kvinnor, i åldern 18 - 25. Det genomfördes även en individuell intervju med en professionell som är verksam på en stödmottagning för psykisk ohälsa. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten i analysen är symbolis...

  5. Vilka typer av nyheter har drivit stora prisförändringar hos börsnoterade europeiska fotbollsklubbar? : Är prisförändringarna ekonomiskt rationella?

    OpenAIRE

    Dagberg, Michael; Yap, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Det som skiljer fotbollsbranschen från övriga företag är att framgång i inte enbart mäts i ökade marknadsandelar eller intäkter utan även utifrån sportsliga framgångar. Traditionell finansteori med utgångspunkt i ekonomisk rationalitet kontrasterar en känslobaserad beteendeekonomi för att förklara vad som driver fotbollsklubbars aktiepriser. Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att identifiera och kartlägga vilka typer av nyheter som har drivit stora prisförändringar och analysera om det ...

  6. Bortom Lissabonstrategin : Om projektarbetares erfarenheter av inkluderingsarbete

    OpenAIRE

    Engstrand, Åsa-Karin; Andersson, Josefin; Vesterberg, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    The European commission formed the first version of the Lisbon strategy in 2000. The objective was to turn the European Union into ‘the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion’ by 2010. One of the governing mechanisms for achieving this is the Social Fund. The objective of the Social Fund in Sweden is to ‘contribute to speeding up change and renewal within working life’. The ...

  7. Erfarenhet som uppfostran, konst som erfarenhet - Om John Deweys pedagogik och estetik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Burman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EXPERIENCE AS EDUCATION, ART AS EXPERIENCE. ON JOHN DEWEY’S PEDAGOGY ANDAESTHETICS. This article deals with the relationship between aesthetics andpedagogy, art and education, in John Dewey’s thinking. First, I try to showthat traces of the young Dewey’s interest in Hegel and German idealismcould be found even in his later writings, on both aesthetics and pedagogy.He worked, in both these areas, with the same main perspectives and con-cepts, such as nature, process, growing and experience. Although in recentyears some authors have tried to emphasize the importance of Dewey’saesthetics, suggesting that it can help us to understand contemporary art, Iargue that his pedagogical theory has greater relevance today than his aes-thetics, but also that educational practitioners as well as scholars nonethe-less have much to learn from his aesthetic theories, i.e. that these theories arenow more fruitful within pedagogy than within aesthetics itself.

  8. Experiences with environmentally adapted Kaplan runners; Erfarenheter med miljoeanpassade Kaplanloephjul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukonsaari; Jan

    2012-08-15

    This study concerns environmentally adapted Kaplan runners, which have no oil for lubricating the blade regulation mechanisms and bearings. The runners are water or air filled with self lubricated bearings. Recent design also includes regulation system pressure increase and servo motor placement below runner centre and environmentally adapted synthetic ester as hydraulic fluid. These together with power output increase and efficiency optimization are suspected sources of poor runner function. Of 37 runners 43 % have had some kind of problem and 30 % bearing or mechanism related ones. When the axial blade bearing problems are excluded the problems occurred at 16 %. Deeper look into the design of newer runners shows that only bronze based runner hubs is significantly more problem dense regarding regulation mechanisms (50 %). Hidden figures of increased runner regulation forces are suspected. All problems cannot be explained and the young machines limit the experiences. The working group's opinion and bring ups of historical and present examples during the work show evidence that the old oil filled runners function is far from perfect, nor the life length. The future is not with oil filled runner hubs. Main parts of the discovered problems have been solved and can be resolved by thorough design analysis. One future concern is what effects the recent design changes will cause due to increase demand for power output changes including the number of starts and stops. That is why the working group's recommendation is to put joint effort into material fatigue and in which a first step is to identify the real forces the runners are exposed to.

  9. Green electricity - experiences from USA; Groen el - erfarenheter fraan USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graens, N

    1995-10-01

    Environmental concern has opened a market for electric power produced from renewable energy sources in USA. A number of American electric utilities have responded to the interest from the public and offered green electricity at a price somewhat above the normal rates. Most of these programs, that have existed for a few years, have succeeded quite well, giving the utilities better relations to their customers and experiences from marketing new products. The customers have been satisfied and shown enthusiasm for the new product. The present report reviews the attitudes to and drive behind green electricity from/relative to utilities, customers, environmental organizations and authorities. The programs and experiences of the utilities are described, and the prospects for green power on a deregulated market are discussed. Speculations about market responses to green power in Sweden are also made. 37 refs, 13 figs

  10. Erfarenhetsåterföring : Diskussionsforum ett nytt verktyg för erfarenhetsåterföringen

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchnak, Micke Amir

    2009-01-01

      Abstract This is a bachelor’s thesis within the program society development on the collage Mälardalens högskola. The subject that will be handled is knowledge recycling, this intervenes very well with the program I am undergoing, and this is because Construction Company’s does in general do the same mistakes over and over again. In the long run this will mean higher end prices for the end user. Knowledge recycle is a subject that haven’t been researched a lot, and therefore the choice of th...

  11. Legalisering som lösning? Erfarenheter av holländsk eutanasipraxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Th.A.

    2002-01-01

    Fastän vi lever i ett Europa som växer samman, så fortsätter dock många gränser att bestå. Vissa skillnader förblir eller har i de förgångna årtiondena till och med blivit djupare. Dödshjälpsdebatterna i Holland och Skandinavien ger oss ett exempel. Två stater med till stor del lika kultur, men

  12. Experiences from Swedish demonstration projects with phosphoric acid fuel cells; Erfarenheter fraan svenska demonstrationsprojekt med fosforsyrabraensleceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarkoezi, Laszlo [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    In Sweden, there are today two phosphoric acid fuel cells installed, one PC25A which have been in operation in more than 4 years, and one PC25C which have been in operation for two years. The aim with this project has been two compare operation characteristics, performance, and operation experiences for these two models.

  13. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  14. Optimized district heating supply temperature for large networks; Optimerad framledningstemperatur foer stora fjaerrvaermenaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Lisa; Boman, Katarina

    2012-02-15

    The supply temperature of the Uppsala district heating network was optimized using a model-based control strategy. Simulation of the network showed that the supply temperature could be decreased by in average 8 deg and the electricity production of the plants supplying the network could be increased with 2.5 % during the period January- April, giving an extra income of 1.2 MSEK due to increased income from electricity sales

  15. Raymond Stora, le physicien, l'homme, l'ami ( Memorial meeting )

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

      Speakers:  Michel Bauer, Michel Dubois-Violette, Sergio Ferrara, Marc Henneaux, Camillo Imbimbo, Juan Luis Manes, Ivan Todorov Organizers:  Luis Alvarez-Gaumé, Luc Frappat, Paul Sorba, Frank Thuillier

  16. Ashes in concrete related applications. Regulations, best practice and experiences; Energiaskor i betongrelaterade tillaempningar. Normer, praxis och erfarenheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, Erik; Thorsell, Per-Erik

    2003-10-01

    A compilation of regulations and best practice from different techniques to utilize ashes in concrete related applications is presented in this report. The term 'concrete related' applications also include geotechnical applications where cement is used as a binder. It can be seen that fully developed regulations is only available for concrete used as a structural building material. In other applications the formulations give an opportunity to use alternative materials as long as similar properties are achieved. In some applications not even this type of regulations are available but the alternatives are judged from case to case. The purpose with this work was to high-light acceptable variations for the parameters where limitations on constituent materials are formulated. During the work it has become clear that the task is not possible to solve since this kind of values seldom are available. A discussion about the economical potential for different applications is presented in the end of the report. In summary, the concrete applications do not allow the major part of the ashes to be utilized and the demands on the ashes are high. But it can also be stated that the high costs for cement give a big incitement for change of binder in concrete to e.g. flyash. In the geotechnical applications there is also a big potential both regarding technical and economical aspects, but the possible effects on soil and ground water will give rise to more rigorous considerations by the environmental authorities. Finally, the mining applications can give a large amount of ashes to be utilized in a limited region, and the transport cost can be problematic for the ash producers. The conclusions from the present work are that there exist several possible concrete applications also for other ashes than pure coal ashes. Type of ash, available amounts, storage facilities, local market, stability in fuel-mix, personal interests are important parameters influencing the possibilities for utilization. This work has identified a potential for utilization of ashes as: filler material in concrete with crushed aggregates and in self compacting concrete; in mining applications; road building material with improved frost properties; in ground stabilisation with lime/cement columns and in cement stabilised gravel; in injection grouts for stabilisation of soil and depots. A final aspect on the possibilities to utilize ashes is the general acceptance level which influence the potential. Many concrete manufacturers are skeptical against use of flyashes in concrete. A change can be seen nowadays with an increased interest for ashes and residues in concrete. Higher level of environmental awareness further strengthen this change. By no means the safety and durability should be risked but where use of ashes is possible money can be saved and also the CO{sub 2}-emissions are lowered (very high during cement production)

  17. De traditionella könsrollernas betydelse i missbruksvården : Åtta missbrukares upplevelser och erfarenheter

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Annelie; Andersson, Malin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Title: The signification of the traditional gender roles in misuse treatment – the experiences of eight addicts Author: Andersson Malin, Gunnarsson Annelie Supervisor: Lindberg Odd The purpose with this essay is to study if the staff in two LVM treatment facilities do strengthen the traditional gender roles in their daily work and interactions with the clients. The aim was also to study if the staff reconstruct traditional gender roles and if this can be seen as an advantage or disad...

  18. Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att möta patienter med prediabetes : -En kvalitativ intervjustudie

    OpenAIRE

    Elvingson, Veronika; Wiberg, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prediabetes is caused by relative insulin deficiency and insulin resistance in the body tissue which leads to abnormal blood glucose levels. Prediabetes can over time lead to type 2 diabetes mellitus. To prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes and its complications, it is important to identify early elevated blood glucose levels and thereby prediabetes. Objective: To describe nurses' knowledge and experience regarding the management of patients with prediabetes. Methods: Qualitative ...

  19. Evaluation of salix farmers experiences and attitudes to growing; Utvaerdering av salixodlares erfarenheter och attityder till odling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Roennbaeck, Marie (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, Carina; Olsson, Johanna (Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Approximately 16 000 hectares of salix (willow) were planted in Sweden in the early 1990s, driven by subsidies and optimistic market expectations. Today the salix plantations have decreased to approximately 12000 hectares. In this study 29 salix farmers and four entrepreneurs that work with salix harvest were interviewed to find out more about their attitudes to, and experiences of growing salix. Most of the farmers interviewed were not satisfied with their salix plantation. The reasons given were the low profitability and problems with the harvest systems. Key reasons for the low profitability are cited as: old plantations that are planted on poor soil; lack of fertilization; an ineffective organization to taking care of the harvest and to sell the salix chips; and a low price for the salix chips. In addition the system for harvesting needs to be more flexible and there is a need for machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields

  20. Feminismens skilda erfarenheter : Problematiken att kombinera islam och feminism för muslimska kvinnor i Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Till följd av att en muslimsk kvinna misshandlades i en förort till Stockholm på grund av att hon bar slöja, genomfördes den politiska manifestationen Hijabuppropet. Denna manifestation resulterade i att kvinnor uppmanades att beslöja sig i syfte att visa solidaritet för den misshandlade kvinnan, och muslimska kvinnor som en marginaliserad samhällsgrupp. Agerandet möttes med en stark kritik från bland annat den svenska kvinnorörelsen som menade att slöjan är anti-feministisk och representerar...

  1. 29. IV-22. V on Stora Enso Packaging ASi uues tehasehoones Jälgimäel Tänassilma tehnopargis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Noorte kunstnike näitus "Paper Talks!". Väljapaneku koordinaator Maarin Ektermann. Installatsiooni märksõna on interdistsiplinaarsus, kaasa on haaratud hüpermaal, graafika, arhitektoonika, videokunst

  2. Symanzik–Becchi–Rouet–Stora lessons on renormalizable models with broken symmetry: The case of Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cima, Oswaldo M.; Franco, Daniel H.T.; Piguet, Olivier, E-mail: opiguet@pq.cnpq.br

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we revisit the issue intensively studied in recent years on the generation of terms by radiative corrections in models with broken Lorentz symmetry. The algebraic perturbative method of handling the problem of renormalization of the theories with Lorentz symmetry breaking, is used. We hope to make clear the Symanzik's aphorism: “Whether you like it or not, you have to include in the lagrangian all counter terms consistent with locality and power-counting, unless otherwise constrained by Ward identities.”{sup 1}.

  3. Biofuels in agriculture - How the daily work is affected, rules and experiences; Biodrivmedel inom lantbruket - Hur det vardagliga arbetet paaverkas, regler och erfarenheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eksvaerd, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 5% of transport fuels for Swedish vehicles 2010 came from renewable biomass. EU wants the share within the EU to reach 10% in 2020. LRF is working towards the goal that 20% of transport fuels in Sweden should be renewable by 2020. The reason is that carbon dioxide emissions need to fall sharply and that a declining and uncertain supply of fossil fuels contributes to higher costs. What biofuel to be used in different vehicles will differ. Today, biogas, ethanol, RME (rapeseed methyl ester) and on some vehicles also DME (dimethyl ether) are used. In agriculture, the RME is the only practical option today, although there are a couple of biogas and rapeseed oil tractors. In this report rules and experiences of diesel is compared with five potential biofuels: RME, biogas (both compressed and liquid), DME, ethanol and methanol. For FT-diesel from biomass (made from methane via Ficher-Tropf method) the same rules apply as for fossil diesel. The report contains: a) brief background information on these biofuels, b) practical experience and views on the use of them, and c) the different rules that apply to storage, transportation and small tractor operation of the various fuels. Examples are also given of the differences between different fuels in their everyday work. Ethanol, methanol, DME and FT-diesel can be produced from both fossil and biomass feedstock. The term biogas is used, however, consistently for methane produced by anaerobic digestion of biomass.

  4. Nätmobbning : om pressens bild av nätmobbning i relation till högstadie- och gymnasieungdomars erfarenheter

    OpenAIRE

    Ingesson, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about cyber-bullying, the youth’s experience and how the papers image of cyber- bullying looks. The relevance of this essay be to be found in the aim of the research of the cyber bullying today. By examining how the youth’s usage and experience’s - and the papers image of cyber-bullying in the social media, it will be possible to create an understanding for how the social media is represented today. And in the next stage having the ability to work against the cyber bullying. Tw...

  5. Corrosion fatigue in LP steam turbine blading - experiences, causes and appropriate measures; Korrosionsutmattning i aangturbinskovlar - Erfarenheter, inverkande faktorer och moejliga aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavast, J [ABB STAL AB, Finspaang (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Corrosion fatigue in LP steam turbine blading was reviewed together with result of tests performed in order to find blade materials with improved resistance against this. According to international experience, corrosion fatigue of 12Cr steam turbine blades in the transition zone between dry and wet steam, is one of the major causes, if not the major cause, for unavailability of steam turbines. Corrosion fatigue in LP blading is a frequent problem also in Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants, especially in turbines of type D54 in BWR-plants. Corrosion fatigue has also been discovered in at least one type of nuclear turbine. Initiation times have been very long and the varying experiences in different types of turbines may simply reflect differing initiation times. Corrosion fatigue may therefore become more frequent in other types of turbines in the future. The type of water treatment (BWR/PWR) and possibly temperature after reheating seem to influence the risk for corrosion fatigue. Influence of inleakage of cooling water is less clear for these nuclear plants. The long initiation times together with the fact that very few of the cracked blades have actually failed, indicate that the cracks initiate and/or propagate during transients. Extensive laboratory tests show that there are alternative blade materials available with improved resistance against corrosion fatigue, with the most promising being 15/5 PH and A905, together with Ti6Al4V. The Ti alloy shows the best resistance against corrosion fatigue in most environments and is already used in some turbines. Disadvantage is a higher cost and possible need for redesign of the blades. The alternative materials are recommended for use for blades in the transition zone between dry and wet steam in LP turbines. The main disadvantage is a lack of references, even if 15%5 PH has been used to a very limited extent. 40 refs, 24 figs, 12 tabs, 9 appendices

  6. Facing the nuclear power phaseout - Swedish experiences of enterprise shutdown and organisational development; Infoer kaernkraftavveckling - svenska erfarenheter av foeretagsnedlaeggningar och foeraendringsarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study is to make an overview of problems and experiences connected to decommissioning and organisational changes of Swedish enterprises and public agencies from a safety perspective. The central point is the view of decommissioning of nuclear power plants as a process of change. In practice decommissioning includes both downsizing and organisational development. The question is which problems can arise and which strategy of change is most adequate from the standpoint of safety. The report starts with a summary of the most important experiences of the process of decommissioning of enterprises during the sixties to eighties concerning the consequences for the individuals and the labour market. After that follows the main results from earlier investigations of shut-down of nuclear power plants regarding the staff. The restructuring and downsizing of the public sector during the nineties have given rise to a large amount of material on staffing issues. The knowledge and experiences drawn from the organisational change processes of Swedish working life during the nineties are then summarised. At last some conclusions for decommissioning of nuclear power plants are discussed. The period before and after the termination of power generation is connected with great strain. The vulnerability of the staff increases and the faith in management can easily be destroyed, which can affect safety and the decommissioning work. The feeling of security increases if the staff continuously is kept informed and within certain limits can influence the course of events. A learning strategy is preferable in comparison to an expert oriented strategy because it is impossible to gain complete control over the technically and socially complex process of decommissioning. Instead of detailed and central planning of the process it will be safer to work in a participative way and to include all the staff in the preparations from the very beginning. By a learning way of working is meant that groups of staff continuously prepare workplans, implement, monitor, reflect and change their actions. This will give a double loop-learning situation where knowledge and competence are developed. The participants will then develop a common view and shared control over the process. This way of working demands a high level of leadership, co-ordination and monitoring. The preparation period is of utmost importance for the safety of decommissioning and demands time. It is of great importance that everybody will be engaged in this work from the start. The critical period from the decision to the termination of power generation, when the plant loses its mission, has to be minimized and the staff must gain new orientations as fast as possible. The best way of doing that is to help the individuals getting new hopes for a future and a new mission. Experiences show that downsizing and developmental activities should be separated. It is preferable if the outplacement can take place in a special organisation made up for this reason. The part of the staff that will remain in the plant will have to be given opportunities to develop their competence through learning at work. The safety culture of the plant which is built on the organisational competence of the staff must be kept during the whole process of decommissioning. It can`t completely be replaced by drawings and documentation. Every plant should prepare for decommissioning by developing their own policy containing the values, strategies and means for implementing the process. Supporting the plants during the process of decommissioning can raise the level of safety and the readiness to handle unforeseen events. Learn from the first processes of decommissioning. Monitoring activities and evaluations are highly needed

  7. Tobaksvanor i medelåldern : riskfaktormönster, rökstoppsattityder och erfarenheter av att sluta röka

    OpenAIRE

    Lundqvist, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco use, mostly smoking, has been a deeply rooted habit for many people for centuries. However, it was not until the second half of last century that the risks with smoking became obvious. Today when the bad consequences of smoking are recognized by almost all people, it is important to discuss why smokers choose to continue smoking. The main aim of this thesis is to try to better explain why some middle aged smokers choose to continue smoking in spite of knowledge of the huge mass of inf...

  8. SCR in biomass and waste fuelled plants. Benchmarking of Swedish and European plants; SCR i biobraensle- och avfallseldade anlaeggningar. Erfarenheter fraan svenska och europeiska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Olsson, Henrik; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-11-15

    In this report the state-of-art of SCR technology in biomass and waste fired plants is investigated. The aim of the investigation is to answer the question why new Swedish biomass combustion and co-combustion plants often prefer SNCR technology, whilst European waste combustion plants often choose SCR technology. In the report positives and negatives of various types of SCR installations are discussed, high-dust versus tail-end, 'normal' SCR versus low-temperature SCR, etc. Experiences, e g catalyst lifetime, deactivation and maintenance requirement, are discussed. The investigation is based partly on literature, but mainly on interviews with plant owners and with suppliers of SCR installations. The interviewed suppliers are mentioned in the reference list and the interviewed plant owners are mentioned in appendix A and B. The experiences from the Swedish and European plants are quite similar. Tail-end SCR is often operated without serious problems in both biomass and waste fuelled plants. The catalyst lifetimes are as long or even longer than for coal fired plants with high-dust SCR. In waste incineration plants high-dust SCR causes big problems and these plants are almost always equipped with tail-end SCR. In co-combustion boilers, where coal and biomass is co-combusted, high-dust SCR is more common, especially if the boilers were originally coal fired. In plants with both SNCR and high-dust SCR, i.e. slip-SCR, the SCR installation is considered to be much less of a problem. Although the activity loss of the catalyst is as quick as in conventional high-dust SCR, the catalyst can be changed less often. This is due to the fact that installed slip-SCR catalysts often are as large as conventional SCR catalysts, although less NO{sub x} reduction is required after the initial SNCR step. Thus, the catalyst lifetime is prolonged.

  9. Glass-covering of large building volumes. An interdisciplinary evaluation of a shopping centre; Oeverglasning av stora byggnadsvolymer; En tvaervetenskaplig utvaerdering av ett koepcentrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeman, R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Technology

    1993-11-01

    Systematized experiences of the function of large glass- covered spaces related to shopping centres, hotels, office buildings etc. are still relatively limited. With the glazed pedestrian precincts of the rebuilt Skaerholmen Centre in Stockholm as the main object of interdisciplinary studies, the aim of this thesis is to provide additional knowledge of large glass-covered spaces (atrium buildings). The studies comprises thermal comfort, temperature conditions, ventilation, energy balance, humidity - mycology, acoustics, operation - maintenance - durability and sociology. To sum up, it is clear that in the Scandinavian climate there is every likelihood of large glass-covered spaces in the public places functioning well from a technical as well as a social point of view. The energy consumption on heating the whole complex, based on theoretical calculations and measurement, is shown to have been reduced by the order of 10%. (author) figs., tabs., 101 refs

  10. Konserthuset Göteborg - 21. oktober 1995 kl. 15.00 Stora Salen. I avslutning till Estival 95 Estniska Kulturdagar i Göteborg : [kontserdi kava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1995-01-01

    Erkki-Sven Tüür: Insula deserta für strakorkester W. A. Mozart: vesperae solennes de confessore K 339; Eduard Tubin: Piano concertino; L. v. Beethoven: Fantasi c-moll för piano, kör och orkester, op. 80. Göteborger Symphoniker, dirigent Neeme Järvi. Solister: Vardo Rumessen, piano; Kaia Urb, sopran; Riina Airenne, mezzosopran; Mati Kõrts, tenor; Uku Joller, bas. Estniska Gosskören, Venno Laul. Esinejate lühitutvustus

  11. Radiation doses from the use of peat-fuel in heating power plants; Straaldoser vid anvaendning av torvbraensle i stora anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moere, Hans; Hubbard, Lynn Marie

    2003-02-01

    The radiation doses and the need for radiological protection arising from the use of peat-fuel that contain naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs are assessed. Dose calculations for the worst case are performed for two reference ashes, one containing normal concentrations of radionuclides and the other containing high concentrations. The concentrations of radionuclides in the normally active ash reflect the median value of U and Th in energy producing peat bogs. The concentrations in the highly active ash were chosen in such a way that not more than 5 percent of the peat bogs would exceed the values. The doses have been estimated for workers and the general public for different exposure pathways. These are 1) harvesting and handling of peat, 2) releases from heating plants, 3) land filling, 4) landscaping and 5) handling of ashes. Under normal circumstances the resulting doses from the normally active ash are insignificant (<0.01 mSv/year). For the highly active ash the doses are below 0.1 mSv/year under the assumptions made in the investigation. For the general public the doses are also insignificant for the highly active ash except for the influence of a landfill. The dose estimates of the influence from leached water from a landfill are very uncertain due to that too few measurements of environmental samples have been carried out. At today's production of 3.5 TWh per year the peat-ash can amount to between 30,000 and 60,000 tons per year. Today the Swedish Geological Survey limits the dose from peat-use informally. They advise against the harvesting of peat with a uranium content exceeding 200 ppm in an ashed peat sample, which corresponds to 2,470 Bq/kg of 238 U. The resulting doses are estimated to be about half of those estimated for the highly active ash. Thus 10 percent of otherwise suitable peat land is not harvested.

  12. Pre-study - compilation and synthesis of knowledge about energy crops from cultivation to energy production; Foerstudie - sammanstaellning och syntes av kunskap och erfarenheter om groedor fraan aaker till energiproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Myringer, Aase; Palm, Ola; Roennbaeck, Marie; Tullin, Claes

    2007-06-15

    Energy crops constitute a yet not fully utilized potential as fuel for heating and power production. As competition for biomass hardens the interest for agricultural fuels such as straw, energy grain, willow, reed canary grass and hemp increases. Utilization of the potential for energy crops as fuels demands that cultivation and harvest are coordinated with transportation, storage and combustion of the crops. Together, Vaermeforsk and Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have taken the initiative to a common research programme. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture to combustion for heat and power production in Sweden. The vision is that during the programme, 2006 - 2009, decisive steps will be taken towards a working market for biofuels for bioenergy from agriculture. This survey has compiled and synthesized available knowledge and experiences about energy crops from the field to energy production. The aim has been to give a picture of knowledge today, to identify knowledge gaps and to synthesize knowledge of today into future research needs. A proposal of a research plan has been developed for the research programme.

  13. Reed canary grass as an energy crop. Experiences from full-scale tests at BTC, Umeaa during the period 2000-2004; Roerflen som energigroeda. Erfarenheter fraan fullskalefoersoek vid Biobraensletekniskt Centrum (BTC) i Umeaa under aaren 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Sylvia; Oerberg, Haakan; Kalen, Gunnar; Thyrel, Mikael

    2006-07-01

    In the years 2000-2004, reed canary grass (RCG) has been cultivated, harvested, stored, upgraded, and combusted at Umeaa Biofuel Technology Center (BTC), SLU Roebaecksdalen, Umeaa. The entire chain from the field to hot water has been handled by personnel at BTC. Data and experiences from the different handling stages have been continuously collected. In this time period, RCG has been harvested each spring. The mean harvest level on SLU properties has been approximately 4 ton DM/ha and the dry matter content at harvest has been on average 11-12 %. Winter and harvest losses has been determined to approximately 44 %, by a comparison of harvest levels in spring and harvest levels in sample squares in late fall. An alternate method of cutting in late fall, where the crop is left in the field until spring, has been tested. With this method, the risk for cutting of green shoots is eliminated and the isolating effect of the cut ley is decreasing the frost depth in the field. Three different techniques of baling have been tested: large and small square baling, and round baling. Round baling is most suitable for the conditions at BTC, because of the low availability of large square baling equipment in the area. Otherwise large square baling is more time efficient. Thus, the low weight of round baling equipment is advantageous and gives rise to less ground damages. On BTC, the RCG bales are stored outside on an asphalt area, covered with ensilage plastic on a layer of pallets. This handling procedure is working satisfactory with relatively low material losses, but when larger quantities are stored inside storage is to prefer. The economy of RCG cultivation is, as for all agricultural crops, dependent of subsidies within EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Subsidies can be received for RCG cultivation on ordinary farmland and on fallow farmland. An extra energy crop subsidy can be received for RCG cultivation on ordinary farmland if the energy crop is utilised as energy feedstock. In comparison to other agricultural crops, RCG cultivation only to receive subsidies but without harvesting is probably the most economically competitive alternative to RCG production for energy purposes. To reach the same profitability as that alternative, the fuel price for RCG feedstock at farmgate has to be at least 62-79 SEK/MWh (ordinary farmland) and 75-107 SEK/MWh (fallow farmland) when the harvest level is 9-4 ton DM/ha (storage costs excluded). Large scale storage of RCG, at for instance a pellet production site, has to be estimated from a point of view where the warehouse also have other uses ( i.e. storage of other feedstock and pellets). Storage in a newly built warehouse where RCG storage is assumed to use half of the storage time amounts to a cost of approximately 35 SEK/MWh. Both briquette and pellet production of RCG have been performed at BTC. Briquettes are produced continuously and constitute an essential part of the fuel required for the commercial boiler. Pelletizing has been performed within different projects with an acceptable result, but fine tuning of the technique is desirable to increase the production capacity. Combustion of RCG pellets and briquettes is working well if the boilers are adapted to ash rich fuels. Due to the large amounts of ashes, an automatic ash handling equipment with high capacity is needed. It is also important that the dwell time for RCG fuel in the combustion chamber is long enough to ensure a complete combustion and to avoid high levels of uncombusted material in the ashes. Compared to wood pellet combustion, emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} are higher in RCG combustion due to a higher amount of nitrogen and sulphur in RCG feedstock

  14. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Göteborgs Symfoniker, chefdirigent: Neeme Järvi. Dirigent: Neeme Järvi. Solist: Paata Burchuladze, bas. Kontsertmästare: Per Enoksson, Christer Thorvaldsson. Onsdag 12. mars 1997 Stora salen (brun serie)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kontserdi kavas juttu: Eduard Tubin. Süit balletist "Kratt", Modest Mussorgski "Surma laulud ja tantsud" ja Jean Sibeliuse sümfoonia N 1, e-moll op. 39 Lk. 2-4: Kruckenberg, Sven: Tubin - Svit ur Kratt. Lk. 8 lühidalt Neeme Järvi edaspidisest tööst

  15. Small-scale power production for sustainable development. Households', Utilities' and Retailers' experiences from the market for small-scale solar panels and wind turbines; Smaaskalig elproduktion foer en haallbar utveckling. Hushaalls, energibolags och aaterfoersaeljares erfarenheter av marknaden foer smaaskaliga solpaneler och vindturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, Jenny; Tengvard, Maria

    2009-06-15

    In this report, a special form of small scale renewable solutions marketed towards Swedish households is targeted. During the autumn 2008 the Swedish companies 'Egen El i Stockholm AB' ('Egen El') and 'Home Energy' launched a concept with small scale wind turbines and solar cells that the households connect to the electricity socket so that the own produced electricity can be used directly. The purpose with this report is to analyze how users, retailers and grid companies look upon such small scale production of electricity and discuss what institutional effects own produced energy could have on the electricity market. The main research method used was in-depth interviews. We conducted interviews with representatives of eight retail companies, five grid companies, the industry organization Swedenergy, IKEA Greentech, and 20 households. A main conclusion is that the market concerning households small scale production of electricity is still immature. Though, the media attention that Egen El relieved during spring 2008 has made more households aware of the concept and householders increased interest in the concept is also recognized by other retailers and amongst the grid companies. According to the retailers, it is still hard to make a living from selling these kind of products to household. Nevertheless, they are optimistic and believe that the changes in regulations concerning small scale production of electricity and IKEA's investment in PVs will improve the situation. The grid companies, too, have a positive outlook. Though, they stress a number of problems that could occur with many households producing their own electricity. This is mainly related to security and whether the grid will be able to handle this produced electricity. As for the households, environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle, so such adoption represents a way to take action in the energy area. This investment is symbolic for some, displaying environmental consciousness to others - to set an example. For still others, the adoption is a protest against 'the system' with its large dominant actors or is a way to become self-sufficient. Such micro-generation installations are rejected mainly on economic grounds; other motives are respect for neighbours and difficulties finding a place to install a wind turbine. For these solutions to reach a majority of Swedish households, some important measures are needed to be implemented to eliminate the economic hindrances and to simplify the rules and installation process

  16. Final disposal of high-level nuclear waste in very deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research of bedrock conditions at great depths; Slutfoervaring av hoegaktivt kaernavfall i djupa borrhaal. En utvaerdering baserad paa senare aars forskning om berggrunden paa stora djup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    This report evaluates the feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of high-level nuclear waste, e.g., spent nuclear fuel, in the light of recent technological developments and research on the characteristics of bedrock at extreme depths. The evaluation finds that new knowledge in the field of hydrogeology and technical advances in drilling technology have advanced the possibility of using very deep boreholes (3-5 km) for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Decisive factors are (1) that the repository can be located in stable bedrock at a level where the groundwater is isolated from the biosphere, and (2) that the waste can be deposited and the boreholes permanently sealed without causing long-term disturbances in the density-stratification of the groundwater that surrounds the repository. Very deep borehole disposal might offer important advantage compared to the relatively more shallow KBS approach that is presently planned to be used by the Swedish nuclear industry in Sweden, in that it has the potential of being more robust. The reason for this is that very deep borehole disposal appears to permit emplacement of the waste at depths where the entire repository zone would be surrounded by stable, density-stratified groundwater having no contact with the surface, whereas a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by upwardly mobile groundwater. This hydro-geological difference is a major safety factor, which is particularly apparent in all scenarios that envisage leakage of radioactive substances. Another advantage of a repository at a depth of 3 to 5 km is that it is less vulnerable to impacts from expected events (e.g., changes in groundwater conditions during future ice ages) as well as undesired events (e.g. such as terrorist actions, technical malfunction and major local earthquakes). Decisive for the feasibility of a repository based on the very deep borehole concept is, however, the ability to emplace the waste without failures. In order to achieve this further research and technological development is required.

  17. All concerned large electricity power enterprises merged into the hand of one owner?: The electricity producers, the government and the national power grid 1936-1946; Samtliga beroerda stora kraftfoeretag sammanfoerda i en aegares hand?: Elproducenterna, staten och det nationella kraftoeverfoeringssystemet 1936-1946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Martin

    2011-07-01

    In the latter part of the 1930s, the direction of Swedish transport and communications policy changed. The policies which had been formed during the industrialization process, which began in the 1850s, had been characterized by dual regimes. Even if the State-owned public utility enterprises (affaersverken) had the largest market shares within these dual regimes, they coexisted with private enterprises. However, during the 1930s and 40s the segments within the Swedish transport and communication infrastructure which were controlled by the private enterprises were nationalized. Against this background, this paper examines how this relation between the Swedish National Power Board (Vattenfall) and the private electricity enterprises unfolded with regard to the control and ownership of the national power grid. The national power grid is the infrastructure which provides the transmission of power between the power plants and industries and households. During the examined time period, many hydro power plants were constructed in the northern part of Sweden, which was sparsely-populated and agrarian. Consequently, the electricity they produced had to be transmitted to the industrialized and urban parts in the middle and southern parts of Sweden. This situation actualized the need for an expansion of the national power grid. Consequently, new power transmission lines had to be constructed. At first, this situation produced a conflict of interest between the Swedish National Power Board on the one hand and the private electricity enterprises on the other hand as they could not agree upon their respective roles in the process. However, after mediation efforts from the government, the previous cooperation within the dual regime was reestablished. As a result, the Swedish National Power Board and the private electricity enterprises would cooperate regarding the construction of the power transmission lines within the national power grid. Over time, this cooperation was considered so successful that they in 1945 planned to form a joint enterprise for the construction and control of the national power grid. However, the direction of government electricity policy since the last years of the 1930s had been shifting towards emphasizing the need for a State monopoly over the national power grid, rather than upholding the dual regime. At several times, the Social Democratic and Agrarian parties expressed strong suspicion that the private enterprises eventually would put their own commercial interests and not the public interest first if the existing cooperation arrangements were allowed to carry on. In 1946, as a Social Democratic majority government had come into office, the plans for a joint national grid enterprise was rejected. Instead, the Swedish National Power Board was given a monopoly over the national power grid. The national power grid had then been nationalized just as the railways (in 1939), the trunk roads and highways (in 1944) and the civil airports (in 1946). In the paper, this shift in policy is explained by the ambition of the Social Democrats to use transport policy as an instrument and mechanism to influence the direction of the economy as a whole. As for the national power grid, it was deemed necessary to control the production and distribution of electricity in order to ensure the competitiveness and development of Swedish industry. Already in 1934, Professor Gunnar Myrdal had outlined the general principles for a Social Democratic transport policy. Myrdal stated that private enterprises in sectors such as transport and communications should be regarded as profit-maximizing agents, which could not serve the public interest as constructed by the political majority in society. Instead, these tasks had to be performed by companies controlled by a public agent. Accordingly, the dual regimes in the transport and communications sector were replaced by State monopolies as the State-owned public utility enterprises amalgated the operations from the private enterprises into their own structures. In the final part of the paper, this aspect is discussed as an important factor behind the decision to nationalize the transport and communication infrastructure, while other sectors of the economy were left in private ownership (although heavily regulated). Here, an institutionalist perspective is applied. It is argued that as the State-owned public utility enterprises already were dominating agents within their domain, they provided politicians and decision-makers with an existing alternative, into where the private operations only had to be amalgated. As a result, the role of the State-owned public utility enterprises also changed. From being dominating agents in a dual regime, they were transformed into monopolists and would keep that role until the Swedish transport and communication markets were deregulated during the first part of the 1990s.

  18. ”Kalle, du kan ju läsa!” Förskoleklasslärare synliggör förskoleklasselevers skriftspråksutveckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Alatalo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Den här studien tar sin utgångspunkt i ett kompetensutvecklingsprojekt där lärare i förskoleklass gavs möjlighet att genom erfarenhet i handling samt reflektion stärka sina ämneskunskaper inom skriftspråksområdet. Sju lärare i förskoleklass intervjuades om sina erfarenheter i samband med bedömning av elevers skriftspråksutveckling. Studiens syfte var att undersöka vilket meningsskapande som enligt lärarna sker i samband med bedömningsaktiviteten. Fokus riktades mot lärarnas beskrivningar av det egna, men också elevernas meningsskapande. Studiens grund i sociokulturell teori och pragmatismens begrepp, erfarenhet och meningsskapande som centrala analysverktyg, synliggjorde lärarnas fördjupade förståelse för elevers skriftspråksutveckling. I materialet framträder en bild av att tidigare erfarenheter omvärderades och användes tillsammans med nya erfarenheter för att skapa ny kunskap hos både lärare och elever. Exempelvis beskriver lärare hur elever i samband med bedömningsaktiviteten upptäckte att de kunde läsa. I mötet mellan projektets ämnesfokus och praktisk handling kunde lärarna omvärdera tidigare erfarenheter och upptäcka att elever i förskoleklassen läser, hur de läser och hur de själva kan stimulera eleverna vidare. Studiens avsikt är att öppna för en diskussion om hur kompetensutveckling om skriftspråksutveckling kan öka förskoleklasslärares möjligheter att stimulera elever vidare och öka elevernas förutsättningar att utvecklas i riktning mot skolans kunskapskrav.

  19. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus feeding on lichens and mushrooms: traditional ecological knowledge among reindeer-herding Sami in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Inga

    2009-01-01

    äriserar ett bra vinterbetesland. Informanterna hävdade att lavar företrädesvis betas under vintern, men även kan betas under sommaren då vädret är kallt och fuktigt. Svampar betas under höstmånaderna augusti och september, men enligt några informanter kan svamp även betas senare på hösten (från oktober när den är frusen och under snön. Renskötarna har namn på lavar som i generella termer beskriver deras utseende och växtplats. För svampar använder de enbart ett samiskt namn, guoppar. Av de marklevande lavarna ansåg informanterna att renarna föredrar Cladonia-arter (renlavar, medan kväve-fixerade arter som Nephroma arcticum (norrlandslav och Stereocaulon pascale (påskrislav inte ansågs föredras av renarna. Snöförhållandena är mycket viktiga, och ju mindre snö (och ju lösare den är desto bättre. Växtplatser där renskötarna vet av erfarenhet att snöförhållandena kan bli problematisk, t.ex. i fuktiga och öppna områden med små träd, används till bete tidigt under vintern (oktober-januari innan för mycket snö har fallit. Ett bra vinterbetesområde ska ha gott om lavar. Det bästa är en torr tallhed (Pinus sylvestris med stora och gamla träd med vida kronor som fångar upp snön som upplega och på det viset skyddar marken från snö, vilket gör det lättare för renarna att gräva.

  20. Reflections on the renormalization procedure for gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2016-11-01

    Various pieces of insight were needed to formulate the rules for working with gauge theories of the electro-magnetic, weak and strong forces. First, it was needed to understand how to formulate the Feynman rules. We had to learn that there are many different ways to derive them, and it was needed to know how different formulations of the gauge constraint lead to the same final results: the calculated values of the scattering amplitudes. The rules for dealing with the infinities that had to be subtracted were a big challenge, culminating in the discovery of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry. Fond recollections of the numerous discussions the author had with Raymond Stora on this topic are memorised here. We end with some reflections on the mathematical status of quantum field theories, and the transcription of a letter by R. Stora to the author.

  1. Att utveckla en webbapplikation för att sälja presentböcker

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med denna rapport har varit att beskriva hur man utvecklar en internetbokhandel i form av enwebbapplikation samt att dokumentera erfarenheter från programutveckling. För att kompensera för konkurrenternas stordriftsfördelar valdes en inriktning mot att säljapresentböcker. Genom att leverera ett komplett paket med inslagning och personlig hälsningtillsammans med boken ska det bli möjligt att uppnå lönsamhet. Utvecklingen har skett i ett enmansprojekt och den ensamme projektmedlemmen har...

  2. Mat på arbetet dygnet runt? Arbete – Tid – Måltid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lagnevik, Magnus; Lindén, Anne-Lisa

    Denna rapport syftar således till att försöka skapa en överblick över och systematisera de erfarenheter och kompetenser som finns på båda sidor sundet kring maten på arbetsställan. Områdets tvärvetenskapliga karaktär återspeglas i sammansättningen av projektmedlemmar på båda sidor sundet, där såv...

  3. Översikt och detaljstudium av hårdvara för laborationer i datorteknik

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Detta kandidatexamensarbete avser att bidra till att hålla utbildningen i datorteknik på KTH i Stockholm uppdaterad. Möjligheten undersöks att i laborationer i datorteknik ersätta Alteras DE2-kort med enkortsdatorn Chipkit Uno32. Den centrala frågan är vilken effekt ett sådant byte skulle ha på utvecklingsmiljön i kursen. För att ta fram beslutsunderlag kring Uno32, experimenterar jag med att utveckla relevanta program på enkortsdatorn. Detta arbete samlar min erfarenheter. Jag beskriver två ...

  4. Gympa på skärmen : En kvalitativ studie om IKT-stöd i undervisning i idrott och hälsa

    OpenAIRE

    Herco, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka elevernas upplevelser och erfarenheter av IKT-stöd i undervisningen i idrott och hälsa och hur användningen av IKT bidrog till deras lärande. Den metod som användes i studien var kvalitativa intervjuer genom stimulated recall och nio elever från en högstadieskola intervjuades. Eleverna som intervjuades i studien hade deltagit i IKT-stödd undervisning under en tvåårsperiod där en del av lektionerna spelades in på video. Videodokumentationens syf...

  5. Study of the BRS charge in the Polyakov string by the Kugo-Ojima method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, J.; Rodriguez-Trias, R. (Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias)

    1988-01-01

    Using the method of Kugo and Ojima the authors obtain the Becchi-Rouet-Stora charge in the string theory proposed by Polyakov. When a conformal improved energy-momentum tensor is used, they obtain the same BRS charge that emerges from other methods.

  6. BRS 'Symmetry', prehistory and history

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-09

    Jun 9, 2012 ... Abstract. Prehistory – Starting from 't Hooft's (1971) we have a short look at Taylor's and. Slavnov's works (1971–72) and at the lectures given by Rouet and Stora in Lausanne (1973) which determine the transition from pre-history to history. History – We give a brief account of the main analyses and results ...

  7. ANNUAL REPORT ANNUAL REPORT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Raymond Stora has played a key role in the ..... Phoolan Prasad, Editor-in-Chief of the ... University, a Research Officer of Kerala SCERT ...... The accounts for the financial year 2012-2013 were audited by a firm of chartered accountants.

  8. Greenpeace süüdistab Soome metsatööstust / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Greenpeace'i teatel impordivad Soome metsafirmad, sh. osaliselt riigile kuuluv Stora Enso, Venemaalt illegaalselt maha võetud metsa. Greepeace'i väitel surub Soome EL-is läbi suunda, mis jätab puidu illegaalsuse kontrolli metsatöösturite endi hooleks

  9. Spinor Field Realizations of Non-critical $W_{2,s}$ Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yi-Shi; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin($BRST$) charges of spinor non-critical $W_{2,s}$ strings. The cases of $s=3,4$ are discussed in detail, and spinor realization for $s=4$ is given explicitly. The $BRST$ charges are graded.

  10. Spinor field realizations of non-critical W2,s strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Y.S.; Liu, Y.X.; Zhang, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) charges of spinor non-critical W2,s strings. The cases of s=3,4 are discussed in detail, and spinor realization for s=4 is given explicitly. The BRST charges are graded

  11. Puidu import Venemaalt valmistab raskusi / Ketlin Priilinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priilinn, Ketlin, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. nov. lk. 16. Eesti puiduettevõtetele valmistab raskusi puidu import Venemaalt, sest raudteed pidi enam vedada ei saa ning maanteetransport on häiritud. Küsimustele vastab Venemaa Stora Enso Foresti logistikajuht Jevgeni Popov. Kommenteerib Kunda sadama direktor Alaksander Nikolajev. Diagrammid: Eesti Raudtee puiduveomaht; Puiduveomahud Kunda sadama kaudu

  12. Radwaste disposal by incorporation in matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A process of safe disposal, handling, or storae of radwaste associated with nuclear power productin is described. A feature of the invention is to incorporate the radwaste in a hardenable, matrix-forming mass employing a cement-type binding agent to which alkali or alkaline-earth silicate is added, among other things, to increase liquid absorption. 9 claims

  13. KEEPING THE BOOKS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS: AN EMERGY ANALYSIS OF WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy provides a general accounting mechanism that allows us to view the economy and the environment on the same income statement and balance sheet. This allows an auditor to verify the economic picture by checking it against a more complete representation of the flows and stora...

  14. Supersymmetry algebra cohomology. I. Definition and general structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Friedemann

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns standard supersymmetry algebras in diverse dimensions, involving bosonic translational generators and fermionic supersymmetry generators. A cohomology related to these supersymmetry algebras, termed supersymmetry algebra cohomology, and corresponding 'primitive elements' are defined by means of a BRST (Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin)-type coboundary operator. A method to systematically compute this cohomology is outlined and illustrated by simple examples.

  15. The variational approach to the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manka, R.; Sladkowski, J.

    1987-01-01

    The variational approach to the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model, based on canonical quantization, is presented. It is shown that taking into consideration the Becchi-Rouet-Stora symmetry leads to the correct, temperature-dependent, effective potential. This generalization of the Weinberg-Coleman potential leads to a phase transition of the first kind

  16. Hydrogen plant module (HPM) and vehicle fueled by same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    The goal / objective of the project was to design and fabricate hydrogen plant module (HPM) that is capable of producing : hydrogen fuel onboard a vehicle and that obviates one or more of the present issues related to compressed hydrogen fuel : stora...

  17. Large-N limit of the two-Hermitian-matrix model by the hidden BRST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the large-N limit of the two-Hermitian-matrix model in zero dimensions, using the hidden Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin method. A system of integral equations previously found is solved, showing that it contained the exact solution of the model in leading order of large N

  18. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 78; Issue 6. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 78, Issue 6. June 2012, pages 835-978. Special Issue on Proceedings of the Conference on Symmetries in Gauge Theories - Pertaining to the Work of Raymond Stora. pp 835-836. Foreword · Luis Alvarez-Gaumé Fawzi ...

  19. A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Friis, Carsten; Bowra, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the molecular and biochemical interactions associated with amino acid biosynthesis and storage protein accumulation in the developing grains of field-grown barley. Our strategy was to analyse the transcription of genes associated with the biosynthesis of stora...

  20. Constraints, BRST-Cohomology and stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1989-01-01

    After presenting a pedagogical introduction to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-formalism we introduce stochastic quantization in extended configuration space. The appearance of a specific projection operator and its relationship to the BRST-cohomology is pointed out. 20 refs. (Author)

  1. Fotboll och huliganism i Skandinavien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian

    De skandinaviska länderna är lika i en rad hänseenden, exempelvis samhällsstruktur, lagstiftning och kultur. Också när det gäller fotboll finns stora likheter ? Danmark, Norge och Sverige introducerades ungefär samtidigt under 1970- och 80-talen till den engelska fotbollen och dess supporterkultu...

  2. Wireless Weather Station for the detection of black ice on roads

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Carl-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Att hålla de svenska vägarna säkra under vinterhalvåret är något som kräver stora resurser och kostar samhället stora pengar. De system som idag finns för att ge information om hur väg förhållandena ser ut är inte tillräckliga. Det finns för få väderstationer utplacerade runt om i vägnätet för att kunna ge en bra geografisk upplösning åt de som beslutar om ut dirigering av insatser. Att ta fram en kostnadseffektiv och helt trådlös väderstation som kan placeras ut oavsett tillgång till strömfö...

  3. Nonperturbative construction of massive Yang-Mills fields without the Higgs field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kei-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the so-called decoupling solution for gluon and ghost propagators in QCD, we give a nonperturbative construction of a massive vector field describing a non-Abelian massive spin-one particle, which has the correct physical degrees of freedom and is invariant under a modified Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin transformation, in a massive Yang-Mills model without the Higgs field, i.e., the Curci-Ferrari model. The resulting non-Abelian massive vector boson field is written by using a nonlinear but local transformation from the original fields in the Curci-Ferrari model. As an application, we write down a local mass term for the Yang-Mills field and a dimension-two condensate, which are exactly invariant under the modified Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin transformation, Lorentz transformation, and color rotation.

  4. Reflections on the renormalization procedure for gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, Gerard 't

    2016-01-01

    Various pieces of insight were needed to formulate the rules for working with gauge theories of the electro-magnetic, weak and strong forces. First, it was needed to understand how to formulate the Feynman rules. We had to learn that there are many different ways to derive them, and it was needed to know how different formulations of the gauge constraint lead to the same final results: the calculated values of the scattering amplitudes. The rules for dealing with the infinities that had to be subtracted were a big challenge, culminating in the discovery of the Becchi–Rouet–Stora–Tyutin symmetry. Fond recollections of the numerous discussions the author had with Raymond Stora on this topic are memorised here. We end with some reflections on the mathematical status of quantum field theories, and the transcription of a letter by R. Stora to the author.

  5. Personal history of nucleon polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, O.

    1984-09-01

    The history of nucleon scattering experiments is reviewed, starting with the observation of large proton polarizations in scattering from light elements such as carbon, and ending with the acceleration of polarized proton beams in high-energy synchrotrons. Special mention is made about significant contributions made by C.L. Oxley, L. Wolfenstein, R.D. Tripp, T. Ypsilantis, A. Abragam, M. Borghini, T. Niinikoski, Froissart, Stora, A.D. Krisch, and L.G. Ratner

  6. Trees [Nuclear Physics. B, ISSN 0550-3213, Nov 2016, v. 912, p. 151-171

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developed with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space–times.

  7. Energy from fermentation gas. Testing of basic design; Energie uit gistingsgas. Toetsing van ontwerpgrondslagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    When stabilizing sewage sludge by means of fermentation, fermentation gas is released, consisting for 67% of methane. This gas is an important energy source for waste water treatment plants (wwtp). A previous STORA study (Fermentation gas as a source of energy in waste water treatment plants; 1981) has shown that the most significant energy saving in wwtps using sludge fermentation can be realized through energy generation. The aim of this study is to assess the current practical situation of wwtps that are in operation and generate their own energy. The main parameters in determining the appeal of own energy generation have been examined for these wwtps and compared to the technological and economic starting points of the study from 1981. The results indicate whether and which optimizations are possible for existing and new own systems for generating energy and which parameters from the previous STORA study need to be revised [Dutch] Bij stabilisatie van zuiveringsslib door middel van gisting komt gistingsgas vrij, dat voor circa 67% uit methaan bestaat. Dit gas vormt een belangrijke energiebron voor rioolwaterzuiveringsinrichtingen (rwzi). In een eerder STORA-onderzoek (Gistingsgas als energiebron op rioolwaterzuiveringsinrichtingen; 1981) is gebleken, dat de belangrijkste energiebesparing op rwzi's met slibgisting kan worden verkregen door toepassing van eigen energieopwekking. Doelstelling van deze studie is de huidige praktijksituatie op de reeds in bedrijf zijnde rwzi's met eigen energieopwekking na te gaan. De belangrijkste parameters die de aantrekkelijkheid van eigen energieopwekking bepalen, zijn voor deze rwzi's nader onderzocht en vergeleken met de technologische en economische uitgangspunten van het onderzoek uit 1981. De resultaten geven aan of en welke optimalisaties voor bestaande en nieuwe eigen energieopwekkingssystemen mogelijk zijn, en welke parameters in de eerdere STORA-studie opnieuw moeten worden bezien.

  8. Jan Amos Komenský - tänapäeva alushariduse suur eelkäija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tutvustus: Jan Amos Komenský. Didactica magna : Stora undervisningsläran, Göteborg, 1989 ; Jan Amos Komenský. Orbis sensualium pictus quadrilinguis : hoc est: omnium fundamentalium, in mundo rerum & in vita actionum, pictura & nomenclatura latina, germanica, hungarica & bohemica, Praha ; Bratislava, 1958. Tallinna Ülikooli pedagoogilise seminari üliõpilased Triinu Lüüde ja Anneli Virves lugesid teoseid inglise keeles ning esinesid ettekannetega Tallinna Ülikooli pedagoogilise seminari 2. kasvatuse ajaloo konverentsil

  9. Path integral measure for gravitational interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Fujikawa

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out that the path-integral variables as well as the local measure for gravitational interactions are uniquely specified if one imposes the anomaly-free condition on the Becchi-Rouet-Stora supersymmetry associated with general coordinate transformations. This prescription is briefly illustrated for the Einstein gravity and supergravity in four space-time dimensions and the relativistic string theory in two dimensions.

  10. Mobile, Cloud, and Big Data Computing: Contributions, Challenges, and New Directions in Telecardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Jui-Chien; Li, Ai-Hsien; Yang, Chung-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have indicated that computing technology can enable off-site cardiologists to read patients’ electrocardiograph (ECG), echocardiography (ECHO), and relevant images via smart phones during pre-hospital, in-hospital, and post-hospital teleconsultation, which not only identifies emergency cases in need of immediate treatment, but also prevents the unnecessary re-hospitalizations. Meanwhile, several studies have combined cloud computing and mobile computing to facilitate better stora...

  11. Torg som mötesplats i stadsrummet : En undersökning om hur ett torg kan göras mer inbjudande och aktivt

    OpenAIRE

    Stjärnesund, Josefine

    2017-01-01

    This is a thesis in Information Design with an emphasis on Spatial Design. The purpose of the study is to create an active square that fullfills modern day expectations and requirements regarding function and aesthetics. The study investigates how Stora torget (English translation: “The Big Square”) in Västerås can be more inviting and how it should be designed to communicate that is is a meeting place for everyone. Through spatial analysis, observations, notation analysis, interviews and the...

  12. Hamiltonian formulation and BRS quantization of the fermionic string in the covariant gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Koh, I.G.; Song, D.

    1988-01-01

    The canonical formalism for fermion string theory is constructed in a covariant way following Dirac's prescription. The second-class constraints between fermionic fields and their conjugate momenta require the Dirac brackets. The algebra of the constraints is found, which is reduced to the superconformal algebra at an orthonormal gauge. Through the Batalin, Fradkin, and Vilkovisky method of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora- (BRS-) invariant formalism, the (classical) BRS charge and the generating functional are obtained

  13. Selection and Performance-Degradation Modeling of LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C Battery Cells as Suitable Energy Storage Systems for Grid Integration With Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the development of energy storage technologies are making them attractive for grid integration together with wind power plants. Thus, the new system, the virtual power plant, is able to emulate the characteristics of today’s conventional power plants. However, at present, energy stora......-degradation models were developed for the two most suitable Li–ion chemistries for the primary frequency regulation service: LiMO2 /Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C....

  14. Undervattensfotografering : Vattnets påverkan på ljus

    OpenAIRE

    Lönnström, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med detta arbete var att jag skulle fördjupa mig i undervattensfotografering och diskutera skillnaderna mellan att fotografera i luft från att fotografera i vatten. Jag ville i och med min forskning bygga upp en kunskapsbank åt mig själv inför kommande projekt. Detta åstadkom jag genom att först studera teorin i böcker av Martin Edge och Blain Brown och på så sätt förbereda mig inför de praktiska fotograferingssessionerna jag senare utförde. Efteråt analyserade jag mina erfarenheter oc...

  15. She’s the Boss – HR och kvinnligt chefskap : Hur Human Resources kan arbeta för att främja kvinnorschefskarriärer

    OpenAIRE

    Linderfyhr, Jessica; Malm, Mikaela

    2017-01-01

    Enligt undersökningar som chefsorganisationen Ledarna publicerar årligen finns det en återkommande problematik med att rekrytera unga kvinnor till chefspositioner. Syftet med examensarbetet är att undersöka vad som kan inverka på kvinnors vilja att söka en chefstjänst och att utforma en HR strategi som främjar och motiverar kvinnor att söka chefstjänster. Unga kvinnor kan känna tvekan inför chefskap på grund av känslan av bristande erfarenhet och svårighet med att identifiera sig med den ster...

  16. Genus inverkan på personcentrerad vård

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Daniel; Sundström, David

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrund: Utifrån erfarenheter och teoretisk kunskap har sjuksköterskestudenter uppmärksammat hur stereotyper kring kön finns starkt närvarande i sjukvården. Vården är dominerad av kvinnor men styrs av maktstrukturer utifrån patriarkala hierarkier. Problem: Kan förutfattade meningar om vad som är manligt och kvinnligt bli ett hinder för personcentrerad vård? Förminskas patienten från att vara en individ till att bli en generalisering utifrån genusnormer? Kan sjukvården bortse från fördomsfull...

  17. Sociala mediers påverkan på värde ur ett konsumentperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Johanna; Singh, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Syfte - Syftet med uppsatsen är att öka förståelsen för hur sociala medier påverkar värde kring kläder för en konsument. Metod - För att få en djupare förståelse av syftet tillämpades en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer.   Resultat - Resultatet av studien är att konsumenter skapar värde genom upplevelser/erfarenheter och förväntningar, vilket påverkas av individuella och sociala kontexter. Värde baseras på de sociala banden mellan individer på sociala medier. För att bygga re...

  18. Musik- och Kulturskolans framtid… : En kvalitativ studie om musiklärares och rektorers tankar om dagens och framtidens musik- och kulturskola

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, David

    2011-01-01

    Den här undersökningen syftar till att få en djupare förståelse för hur musik- och kulturskolans verksamhet kan se ut i framtiden. Jag vill få en inblick i vilka faktorer som påverkar utvecklingen av den kommunala musik- och kulturskolan, samt hur musik- och kulturskolan väljer att förhålla sig till dessa faktorer. För att undersöka detta har jag använt mig av kvalitativ intervju som forskningsmetod för att därigenom få fram fyra instrumentallärares och tre musikledares tankar och erfarenhete...

  19. Föräldrars upplevelse av insatsen föräldrakoordinator.

    OpenAIRE

    Aspén-Franzén, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Föräldrakoordination är en barnfokuserad alternativ konfliktlösningsmetod som praktiserats i Sverige sedan 2009. Denna intervjustudie har undersökt separerade föräldrars upplevelse av att få stöd i sitt föräldrasamarbete av en föräldrakoordinator. Intervjuer har genomförts med sju föräldrar som haft insatsen föräldrakoordinator under minst sex månader. Samtliga deltagande föräldrar har flera års erfarenhet av svårlösta konflikter med den andra föräldern och har tidigare provat andra former av...

  20. Tunaweza - Vi kan! : Om att använda drama som metod för att stärka unga flickors självkänsla i ett utvecklingsland

    OpenAIRE

    Åman, Julia

    2016-01-01

    I detta examensarbete behandlar jag hur man kan använda drama som metod för att stärka unga flickors självkänsla i ett utvecklingsland. Arbetet kretsar kring de erfarenheter jag fick när jag gjorde mitt konstnärliga examensarbete som dramainstruktör på en grundskola i Tanzania. I kapitel ett, två och tre redogör jag för hur kvinnors situation ser ut i Tanzania, lyfter fram hur fysisk bestraffning påverkar ett barns självkänsla, och framhäver att åsikterna gällande effekt...

  1. Studier av radioaktivt cesium i svenska renar. Oversikt over pågående undersokningar 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available I samband med den forskning och forsöksverksamhet som bedrivits vid renforsöksavdelningen har vi arbetat med metodik och teknik som kan tillämpas vid studier av radioaktivt cesium i renbetesväxter och i renar. På betessidan har vi bl.a. arbetat med kontaminering av tungmetaller från gruvindustrin och nitrat efter kvävegödsling. Omfattande studier har utförts av renens mineralstatus och mineralämnesomsättning. Erfarenheter och kunskaper från dessa områden har utnyttjats for planering och genomförande av de studier som nu pågår beträffande radioaktivt cesium i renbetesväxter och renar.

  2. "Positive people always win" : en studie av hur kvinnor som livestreamar på Twitch.tv upplever interaktionen med sina tittare i kanalchatten

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, Josef; Elfwendahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    I denna studie har vi undersökt kvinnor som livestreamar sitt datorspelande på hemsidan Twitch.tv och deras erfarenheter gällande chattkommentarer på deras livesändningar. Vi har främst fokuserat på negativa chattkommentarer och hur dessa påverkar kvinnorna, då tidigare forskning redan har visat på att kvinnor utsätts för fler trakasserier än män, både generellt på internet och på Twitch.tv (Nakandala, Ciampaglia, Su & Ahn. 2016). Vidare ville vi också se hur kvinnorna hanterar dessa nega...

  3. Noether's theorem for local gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karatas, D.L.; Kowalski, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The variational methods of classical field theory may be applied to any theory with an action which is invariant under local gauge transformations. What is the significance of the resulting Noether current? This paper examines such currents for both Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories and provides an explanation for their form and limited range of physical significance on a level accessible to those with a basic knowledge of classical field theory. Several of the more subtle aspects encountered in the application of the residual local gauge symmetry found by Becchi, Rouet, Stora, and Tyutin are also considered in detail in a self-contained manner. 23 refs

  4. Emergence and translations of management interests in corporate branding in the Finnish pulp and paper corporations : a study with an actor-network theory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aspara, Jaakko

    2007-01-01

    The riddle of this Thesis is: How come the management of the Finnish pulp and paper (P&P) corporations became interested in corporate branding around the year 2000? By the Finnish P&P corporations, I refer particularly to the three large P&P corporations based in Finland in 2005: UPM-Kymmene, Stora Enso, and M-Real. By the management, I refer to managers of these corporations including the top managers, i.e. CEOs and executive board members, and even the members of the Boards of Directors. ...

  5. Purely cubic action for string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

  6. Augmented Superfield Approach to Non-Yang Symmetries of Jackiw-Pi Model: Novel Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Kumar, R.

    2013-02-01

    We derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anti-commuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) as well as anti-BRST symmetry transformations corresponding to the non-Yang-Mills (NYM) symmetry transformations of (2+1)-dimensional Jackiw-Pi (JP) model within the framework of "augmented" superfield formalism. The Curci-Ferrari (CF) restriction, which is a hallmark of non-Abelian one-form gauge theories, does not appear in this case. One of the novel features of our present investigation is the derivation of proper (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations corresponding to the auxiliary field ρ that cannot be derived by any conventional means.

  7. Jackiw-Pi model: A superfield approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh

    2014-12-01

    We derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) as well as anti-BRST transformations s ( a) b corresponding to the Yang-Mills gauge transformations of 3D Jackiw-Pi model by exploiting the "augmented" super-field formalism. We also show that the Curci-Ferrari restriction, which is a hallmark of any non-Abelian 1-form gauge theories, emerges naturally within this formalism and plays an instrumental role in providing the proof of absolute anticommutativity of s ( a) b .

  8. Toy superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvi, M.; Kostelecky, V.A.; Moxhay, P.

    1989-01-01

    Superstrings with critical dimension two and two real bosonic spacetime coordinates may serve as useful toy models for the study of string properties. We present details of several such toy superstrings including open, closed, and heterotic models. Conformal methods are used to establish the spectrum and dimensionality. The spin fields are provided and Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin- (BRST-) invariant vertex operators are constructed. Four-point tree-level and four-point one-loop amplitudes in these models are obtained. The closed and heterotic toy superstrings are shown to be modular invariant to this order

  9. Finite field dependent mixed BRST transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Joglekar and Mandal have generalized the usual Bechhi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) transformation by allowing infinitesimal BRST parameter finite and field dependent. Such a generalized BRST transformation (so-called FFBRST transformation) is also the symmetry of the effective action but not of the generating functional of the theory. We generalize the mixed BRST (sum of totally anti-commuting BRST and anti-BRST) symmetry transformation in same manner. We show that such a generalized mixed BRST transformation is the symmetry of the effective action as well as of the generating functional. We show our result by considering several explicit examples. (author)

  10. Spinor Field Realizations of the half-integer $W_{2,s}$ Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie; Ren, Ji-Rong

    2008-01-01

    The grading Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) method gives a way to construct the integer $W_{2,s}$ strings, where the BRST charge is written as $Q_B=Q_0+Q_1$. Using this method, we reconstruct the nilpotent BRST charges $Q_{0}$ for the integer $W_{2,s}$ strings and the half-integer $W_{2,s}$ strings. Then we construct the exact grading BRST charge with spinor fields and give the new realizations of the half-integer $W_{2,s}$ strings for the cases of $s=3/2$, 5/2, and 7/2.

  11. Accelerator lyfter forskningen

    CERN Multimedia

    Frankel, Göran

    2004-01-01

    "Geologerna i Lund har under hösten byggt upp och testat en ny anläggning för $^{14}$C-datering med s.k. AMS - Acceleratormasspektrometri. AMS - Metodenär inte ny men just den här teknologinär det - det här är den första anläggningen i shitt slag i världen och förvänt-ningarna på vad den ska kunna åstad komma är stora" (1 page)

  12. Kritiska framgångsfaktorer vid implementering av affärssystem : beaktas de i e-handelsföretag?

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Nafiz

    2010-01-01

    Syfte: Analysera och diskutera huruvida teori om kritiska framgångsfaktorer vid implementering av affärssystem för fysiska företag beaktas i e-handelsföretag. Identifiera framgångsfaktorer för implementeringen av affärssystem i e-handelsföretag. Forskningsfråga: Beaktas samma kritiska framgångsfaktorer vid implementering av ett affärssystem i stora fysiska företag som små e-handelsföretag? Metod: En kvalitativ metod antogs vilket innebar att en fallstudie genomförts som omfattat två responden...

  13. Why two local BRS algebras in bosonic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouda, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is the first of a set of two articles in which a local Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) operator for string and superstring theories is constructed by using a new procedure in which the nil potency is automatically guaranteed. In this article, it is shown that in bosonic string theory, there are two different methods of dilating the ghost which give rise to two different local BRS algebras. The first method leads to well-known results, already obtained by another procedure. The second method has been applied previously by the author. (author). 8 refs

  14. Seasonal snow storage for space and process cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Skogsberg, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    Kylanvändningen i världen har ökat markant de senaste decennierna. Detta beror bl.a. på ökande befolkningsmängd, industrialisering och komfortkrav samt fler elektriska apparater. De senaste decenniernas byggnadsutformning har dessutom i många fall lett till ökade kylbehov. Konventionella kylmaskiner drivs vanligen av el. En alternativ kylteknik är att använda lagrad vinterkyla, t.ex. genom att utnyttja kyla som lagrats i snö- och is. Detta är möjligt i stora delar av världen. Snö/is kan lagra...

  15. Mödrars upplevelser av att drabbas av postpartumdepression

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Rebecca; Pitkämäki, Kia

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Postpartumdepression (PPD) drabbar mellan 8-15% av alla kvinnor som föder barn och innebär stora påfrestningar för både modern, partnern och spädbarnet. Utvecklandet av PPD har multifaktoriella orsaker som tidigare psykiatrisk sjukdom, dåligt parförhållande och brist på socialt stöd. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka kvinnors upplevelser av postpartumdepression. Metod: Studien är en litteraturöversikt där vetenskapliga artiklar motsvarande studiens syfte granskades. Samtliga a...

  16. On background-independent open-string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1992-01-01

    A framework for background-independent open-string field theory is proposed. The approach involves using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, in a way suggested by recent developments in closed-string field theory, to implicitly define a gauge-invariant Lagrangian in a hypothetical ''space of all open-string world-sheet theories.'' It is built into the formalism that classical solutions of the string field theory are Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin- (BRST-) invariant open-string world-sheet theories and that, when expanding around a classical solution, the infinitesimal gauge transformations are generated by the world-sheet BRST operator

  17. Ett omusikaliskt genombrott : Mottagandet av Elvis Presley i svensk press under rockmusikens etableringsfas 1956-58

    OpenAIRE

    Klang, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Kent Klang: Ett omusikaliskt genombrott: Mottagandet av Elvis Presley i svensk press under rockmusikens etableringsfas 1956-1958. Uppsala Universitet: Institutionen för musikvetenskap, uppsats för 60p. 2007 När Elvis Presley gjorde sitt stora genombrott i USA i mitten på 1950-talet kom han att angripas hårt i bland annat amerikansk press. Upprördheten hade sin grund i Elvis sexuellt utmanande kroppsrörelser och rhythm and blues betonade musik. De här artistiska stildragen avslöjade o...

  18. BRS symmetry, prehistory and history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchi, Carlo M.

    2012-01-01

    Prehistory - Starting from 't Hooft's (1971) we have a short look at Taylor's and Slavnov's works (1971-72) and at the lectures given by Rouet and Stora in Lausanne (1973) which determine the transition from pre-history to history. History - We give a brief account of the main analyses and results of the BRS collaboration concerning the renormalized gauge theories, in particular the method of the regularization-independent, algebraic renormalization, the algebraic proof of S-matrix unitarity and that of gauge choice independence of the renormalized physics. We conclude this report with a suggestion to the crucial question: what could remain of BRS invariance beyond perturbation theory. (author)

  19. Lean hos masskundanpassande producenter : Att masskundanpassa produkter effektivt

    OpenAIRE

    Makdisi, Jacob; Suddek, Nawras

    2016-01-01

    Massproduktion har varit viktigt för producerande företag genom många decennier. Massproduktionär förmågan att kunna producera och erbjuda stora volymer till låga priser. Utvecklingenav kunders efterfrågan har däremot den senaste tiden gått mot kundanpassade produkter. Priset förväntas ligga på samma nivå som massproducerade produkter. Utmaningen förföretagen är att kunna massproducera samtidigt som kunders varierande behov tillgodoses. Kundanpassning innebär att produkter utformas och produc...

  20. Konstruktion av vertikaltransportör för materialhantering

    OpenAIRE

    Furu, Micke

    2012-01-01

    Rotab Rostfria Transportörer AB tillverkar och utvecklar material- och godshanteringsutrustning. Företaget levererar även kompletta materialhanteringslösningar i form av godshanteringsanläggningar som ofta består av transportband och paketeringsutrustning. Examensarbetets mål är att utveckla en vertikaltransportör som ska transportera gods mellan två transportband belägna på olika höjder, transporten ska kunna varieras mellan 1000 - 3000 mm. Transportören ska undvika de två stora nackdelarna ...

  1. Gauge Symmetry and Slavnov-Taylor Identities for Randomly Stirred Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, Arjun; Hochberg, David

    2007-01-01

    The path integral for randomly forced incompressible fluids is shown to have an underlying Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry as a consequence of Galilean invariance. This symmetry must be respected to have a consistent generating functional, free from both an overall infinite factor and spurious relations amongst correlation functions. We present a procedure for respecting this BRS symmetry, akin to gauge fixing in quantum field theory. Relations are derived between correlation functions of this gauge-fixed, BRS symmetric theory, analogous to the Slavnov-Taylor identities of quantum field theory

  2. Att lära sig se trådraken – om tvekan och fokusförskjutning på väg mot förändrat kunnande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléne Johansson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Utgångspunkten i denna artikel är empiriskt förankrade exempel från textilslöjdspraktiker i den svenska skolan; grundskolans slöjdundervisning årskurs 8 och ett specialutformat program inom gymnasieskolan med textil inriktning i årskurserna 1 och 3. Artikelns videoutdrag handlar alla om principiellt samma handling – trådrak mönsterutläggning på tyg – men, dels finns det två olika inramningar (grundskolan och gymnasieskolan, och dels exemplifierar de olika skeden av kunnande. Syftet är att beskriva skillnader i kunnande och vad som framstår som svårt för elever med liten eller ingen erfarenhet av att lägga ut mönster på ett tyg inför tillklippning och hur kunnandet förändras med ökande erfarenhet, liksom vilka nya svårigheter som följer med att elever arbetar med mönster av ökande komplexitet. Det som vid en första blick kan framstå som samma handling utvecklas över tid från något som framstår som enkel handling till att utvecklas i komplexitet. I de tvekan-situationer som beskriv finns potential för ett förändrat deltagande, där förändringen idealt är ett mer kompetent deltagande där ingen tvekan förekommer. Med ökad förtrogenhet kan uppmärksamheten förflyttas till något annat. Det vi är förtrogna med blir till rutiner och därmed behövs det en avvikelse för att fånga uppmärksamheten. I avvikelsen ligger möjligheterna till fortsatt lärande. Artikelns empiriska exempel synliggör dessa skillnader i kunnande som annars oreflekterat kan uppfattas som lika. Eleverna bygger in kunskap i sina handlingar, fokus flyttar från att inte veta vad man tittar på till självklarheten i handlingen. Eleverna lär sig se och urskilja.

  3. Large-scale ash recycling in Central Sweden; Storskalig askhantering i mellansverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Mats [Stora Skog (Sweden)

    1998-08-01

    When logging residues (tops, branches) are withdrawn from the forest, most of the nutrient content of the trees is also lost. Some of the nutrient content of the soil is restored by weathering, but not all. When biomass is burnt as fuel most of the nutrients will be found in the ash. By recycling wood ash, in similar amounts as was withdrawn with the biomass, it is possible to compensate for the nutrient losses. This project was initiated to study how a rational recycling of wood ash could be performed under conditions valid for Stora, a large forest company in the middle of Sweden. A second aim was to give guiding principles for Stora`s own ash recycling while awaiting instructions from the authorities. In the project both theoretical studies and practical field studies were carried out. Studied areas are production of a stabilised ash product and different systems for transport and spreading of the ash product. The costs and results of spreading have also been monitored. The project showed that spreading of the ash can normally only take place when there is no snow. If production or transport is carried out during another time of the year, the ash has to be stored, either at the industry, in an intermediate storage, or in the forest. One important conclusion from the test period was that the result of the spreading depends heavily on the quality of the ash. Some of the ashes hardened in the spreading equipment, causing a complete stop of the spreading. It also caused problems if the ash was too wet. Plate-spreaders led to unequal quality of spreading, where some areas got more ash and some got less. Granulated ash was most easy to spread. Recommended system for spreading ash is: granulated ash transported unpacked in separate transports with lorries with exchangeable platforms. A large fores tractor spreads the ash in clearings, in the summer. The project has shown that large-scale ash recycling is possible to realize 22 figs, 5 tabs, 13 appendices

  4. Lagerskador kontra centralsmörjningssystem

    OpenAIRE

    Egestrand, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Examensarbetet som har genomförts på uppdrag av Stora Enso belyser svårigheter kring övervakning av lagerkondition och korta lagerlivslängder i presspartien på kartongmaskinerna. Arbetet belyser även om de korta lagerlivslängderna är smörjrelaterade och hur smörjmedlet påverkar lagerlivslängden. Det finns problematik med att finna lagerfel vid användning av vibrationsanalys på relativt lågvarviga maskiner, detta beror på den låga energinivån som genereras av en lagerdefekt och därmed döljs la...

  5. Volkswagen - Ett globalt fusk : En deskriptiv studie om biljättens utsläppsskandal och dess påverkan

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Erik; de Bourgh, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Genom åren har ett flertal bolag världen över involverats i olika slags skandaler, en del som rena brott och andra som skylls på misstag eller olyckshändelser. Några av det större slaget är t.ex. BP-skandalen där miljontals fat med olja läckte ut i mexikanska golfen, detta skylldes på en olyckshändelse. Andra exempel är Enron som gjorde ett rent bedrägeri i form av bokföringsbrott eller Stora Enso som sysslade med barnarbete i utvecklingsländer, vilket blossade upp som en skandal i form av bo...

  6. Off-shell renormalization in Higgs effective field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binosi, Daniele; Quadri, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    The off-shell one-loop renormalization of a Higgs effective field theory possessing a scalar potential ˜ {({Φ}^{\\dagger}Φ -υ^2/2)}^N with N arbitrary is presented. This is achieved by renormalizing the theory once reformulated in terms of two auxiliary fields X 1,2, which, due to the invariance under an extended Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry, are tightly constrained by functional identities. The latter allow in turn the explicit derivation of the mapping onto the original theory, through which the (divergent) multi-Higgs amplitude are generated in a purely algebraic fashion. We show that, contrary to naive expectations based on the loss of power counting renormalizability, the Higgs field undergoes a linear Standard Model like redefinition, and evaluate the renormalization of the complete set of Higgs self-coupling in the N → ∞ case.

  7. BRST symmetry and de Rham cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an advanced introduction to extended theories of quantum field theory and algebraic topology, including Hamiltonian quantization associated with some geometrical constraints, symplectic embedding and Hamilton-Jacobi quantization and Becci-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry, as well as de Rham cohomology. It offers a critical overview of the research in this area and unifies the existing literature, employing a consistent notation. Although the results presented apply in principle to all alternative quantization schemes, special emphasis is placed on the BRST quantization for constrained physical systems and its corresponding de Rham cohomology group structure. These were studied by theoretical physicists from the early 1960s and appeared in attempts to quantize rigorously some physical theories such as solitons and other models subject to geometrical constraints. In particular, phenomenological soliton theories such as Skyrmion and chiral bag models have seen a revival following experiment...

  8. ”På Facebook slipper man vara närvarande” : En studie kring unga vuxnas syn på användande, identitetsskapande och kvarlämnade digitala identiteter på Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Carlsson; Lahdensuo, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Bakgrund: Facebook är ett socialt onlinenätverk som under sina levnadsår har ökat explosionsartat i popularitet. På Facebook sköter många användare stora delar av sina sociala relationer och delar med sig mycket av sig själva. Det finns inget tidigare socialt nätverk i stil med Facebook som har haft samma genomslagskraft hos internetanvändarna. I användandet skapas en digital identitet som lämnar spår på Facebook, även om en användare är död. Kring dessa kvalämnade digitala identiteter vill v...

  9. Scientific Information Policy Board 90th Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051371

    2017-01-01

    Gigi Rolandi, sitting in the middle, chairing his last meeting of the Scientific Information Policy Board before his retirement. Rolandi was the chairman of the board from March 2006 until April 2017, a period that has seen lots of dynamics within the field of authoring, publishing and librarianship - both at CERN and beyond. In the first row from left to right: Eckhard Elsen (Director of Research), Jens Vigen (Head Librarian) Gigi Rolandi (SIPB Chair), Anita Hollier (Archivist) and Urs Wiedemann (Theory). In the second row from left to right: Nikos Kasioumis (Invited speaker), Alexander Kohls (Invited speaker), Stella Christodoulaki (Invited speaker), Nick Ellis (Chair CREB), Clara Troncon (ACCU), Annette Holtkamp (Scientific Information Service), Tim Smith (IT) Brigitte Bloch-Devaux (non-LHC experiments), Constantinos Loizides (ALICE), Thierry Stora (Engineering), John Jowett (Beams), Arjan Verweij (Technology), Anne Gentil-Beccot (Scientific Information Service), Fergus Wilson (LHCb), Ludmila Marian (Invit...

  10. Om rättssäkerheten i instans- och processordningen : ur ett svenskt asylrättsligt perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslén, Kristofer

    2007-01-01

    Den 1 Mars 2006 ersattes den gamla UtlL (1989:529) av en ny UtlL (2005:716) med stora förändringar i instans- och processordningen. De grundläggande kraven på denna var att öppenheten i asylprocessen skulle öka, att de sökande skulle ges ökade möjligheter till muntlig förhandling vid överklagande av asyl- och medborgarskapsärenden, att processen skulle bestå av en tvåpartsprocess och att instans- och processordningen skulle utformas så att kraven på skyndsam handläggning uppfylldes. I denna u...

  11. Renormalization of gauge theories in the background-field approach arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinsky, Andrei O.; Herrero-Valea, Mario; Sibiryakov, Sergey M.; Steinwachs, Christian F.

    Using the background-field method we demonstrate the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) structure of counterterms in a broad class of gauge theories. Put simply, we show that gauge invariance is preserved by renormalization in local gauge field theories whenever they admit a sensible background-field formulation and anomaly-free path integral measure. This class encompasses Yang-Mills theories (with possibly Abelian subgroups) and relativistic gravity, including both renormalizable and non-renormalizable (effective) theories. Our results also hold for non-relativistic models such as Yang-Mills theories with anisotropic scaling or Horava gravity. They strengthen and generalize the existing results in the literature concerning the renormalization of gauge systems. Locality of the BRST construction is emphasized throughout the derivation. We illustrate our general approach with several explicit examples.

  12. Curci-Ferrari-type condition in Hamiltonian formalism: A free spinning relativistic particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A.; Bhanja, T.; Malik, R. P.

    2013-03-01

    The Curci-Ferrari (CF)-type restriction emerges in the description of a free spinning relativistic particle within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism when the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations for this system are derived from the application of the horizontality condition (HC) and its supersymmetric generalization (SUSY-HC) within the framework of the superfield formalism. We show that the above CF condition, which turns out to be the secondary constraint of our present theory, remains time-evolution invariant within the framework of Hamiltonian formalism. This time-evolution invariance i) physically justifies the imposition of the (anti-)BRST invariant CF-type condition on this system, and ii) mathematically implies the linear independence of BRST and anti-BRST symmetries of our present theory.

  13. M theory on deformed superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze a noncommutative deformation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in N=1 superspace formalism. We will then analyze the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries for this deformed ABJM theory, and its linear as well as nonlinear gauges. We will show that the sum of the gauge fixing term and the ghost term for this deformed ABJM theory can be expressed as a combination of the total BRST and the total anti-BRST variation, in Landau and nonlinear gauges. We will show that in Landau and Curci-Ferrari gauges deformed ABJM theory is invariant under an additional set of symmetry transformations. We will also discuss the effect that the addition of a bare mass term has on this theory.

  14. Abelian embedding formulation of the Stueckelberg model and its power-counting renormalizable extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadri, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    We elucidate the geometry of the polynomial formulation of the non-Abelian Stueckelberg mechanism. We show that a natural off-shell nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) differential exists allowing to implement the constraint on the σ field by means of BRST techniques. This is achieved by extending the ghost sector by an additional U(1) factor (Abelian embedding). An important consequence is that a further BRST-invariant but not gauge-invariant mass term can be written for the non-Abelian gauge fields. As all versions of the Stueckelberg theory, also the Abelian embedding formulation yields a nonpower-counting renormalizable theory in D=4. We then derive its natural power-counting renormalizable extension and show that the physical spectrum contains a physical massive scalar particle. Physical unitarity is also established. This model implements the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the Abelian embedding formalism

  15. Vinstvarningars påverkan på företag i Large och Small Cap? :  

    OpenAIRE

    Maliqi, Agon; Persson, Henric

    2013-01-01

    Den här studien undersöker hur vinstvarningar påverkar stora och små företag. För att förklara dess påverkan på företagen har den effektiva marknadshypotesen och behavioral finance använts som grund. Avgränsningen har gjorts till Stockholmsbörsen då inga tidigare studier haft fokus på den. Empirin visar att företag i Large Cap påverkas med i snitt -4,63% och företagen i Small Cap med -8,42%. Large Cap visade signifikanta abnorma avkastningar under eventdatumet och dagen efter medan Small Cap ...

  16. Genetic restoration of a stocked brown trout Salmo trutta population using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte; Jensen, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    1. Gene flow from domesticated to wild populations is a major threat to wild salmonid fish. However, few studies have addressed how populations could be restored after admixture has occurred. We analysed the prospects for restoring the previously intensively stocked brown trout population...... of the Skjern River, Denmark, by identifying remaining non-admixed individuals to be used for supportive breeding. 2. We analysed microsatellite DNA markers in historical (1940-50s) and contemporary (1992-2004) samples from the Skjern River system, from the strain of domesticated trout previously used...... for stocking, and from the neighbouring Stora River. We analysed admixture proportions to estimate the genetic contribution by domesticated trout. We identified non-admixed trout using assignment tests, and further analysed the possible sources of indigenous trout by estimating contemporary migration among...

  17. Kontrolsport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2009-01-01

    http://www.idrottsforum.org/features/chrask/chrask090923.html  Svensk intro: Kampen mot dopning inom idrotten har trappats upp betydligt på senare tid. Statistik från World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) pekar i och för sig i en annan riktning; i kvantitativa mått mätt tycks antalet tester ha minskat...... substanser, och i samma område verkar de stora idrottsorganisationerna. Och de senare uppvisar en ibland närmast fanatisk hållning; följande citat av Lamine Diack, president i Internationella friidrottsförbundet är belysande: ”The IAAF will use every method available to it in the next 5 months to chase down...

  18. Franchising i den svenska fastighetsmäklarbranschen : Franchising in the Swedish real estate industry

    OpenAIRE

    Narkander, Christoffer; Ilchishina, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Sammanfattning Bakgrund Idag blir det allt mer vanligt att mindre enskilda mäklarbyråer ansluter sig till de stora franchisekedjorna. Anslutningen innebär att den tidigare enskilde aktören lämnar sitt varumärke och sin tidigare affärsidé för att istället ta del av ett välkänt varumärke och ett framgångsrikt affärskoncept. Syfte & metod Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera vilka positiva och negativa effekter franchising bidrar med i den svenska fastighetsmäklarbranschen samt vilka ekonom...

  19. Oxygen transfer rate estimation in oxidation ditches from clean water measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusam, A; Keesman, K J; Meinema, K; Van Straten, G

    2001-06-01

    Standard methods for the determination of oxygen transfer rate are based on assumptions that are not valid for oxidation ditches. This paper presents a realistic and simple new method to be used in the estimation of oxygen transfer rate in oxidation ditches from clean water measurements. The new method uses a loop-of-CSTRs model, which can be easily incorporated within control algorithms, for modelling oxidation ditches. Further, this method assumes zero oxygen transfer rates (KLa) in the unaerated CSTRs. Application of a formal estimation procedure to real data revealed that the aeration constant (k = KLaVA, where VA is the volume of the aerated CSTR) can be determined significantly more accurately than KLa and VA. Therefore, the new method estimates k instead of KLa. From application to real data, this method proved to be more accurate than the commonly used Dutch standard method (STORA, 1980).

  20. Manuell grönsaksskärare

    OpenAIRE

    Langborg, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Denna rapport är en skriftlig sammanställning av det produktutvecklingsprojekt som gjorts som kandidatarbete inom programmet Design och produktframtagning KTH, under våren 2010. Köket är idag en viktig samlingspunkt för familjer och vänner och antalet köksredskap är oändligt många och anpassade till det moderna köket. Många redskap är stora, drivs av elektricitet för att effektivisera matlagningen och på så sätt spara tid, samtidigt som det ligger en trend i ekologi och energibesparing. Själv...

  1. Spelfördelar med minnesinjektion

    OpenAIRE

    Aspegren, Villiam; Persson, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Spel på internet är populärare än någonsin i dagens samhälle, det är en industri som omsätter stora summor pengar varje år. Fler och fler människor söker sig till dessa spelsajter. Hur kan du som spelare vara säker på att dina motståndare spelar på samma villkor? Arbetet som utförts på KTH undersöker hur programmet på användarens egen dator kan exploateras för att vinna fördelar i spelet. Endast minnesinjektion kommer att undersökas i detta syfte. Olika tekniker för minnesinjektion samt försl...

  2. Abort inom den islamiska rättstraditionen

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed, Mosa

    2013-01-01

    Den svenska patientpopulationens stora heterogenitet, exempelvis med hänsyn till etnicitet, kultur, religion och nationell härkomst, kan på olika sätt påverka hur patienter uppfattar vad som utgör god vård. Islam och muslimer utgör idag en del av det svenska samhället och representerar en beaktansvärd del av dem som vänder sig till hälso- och sjukvården. Forskning om islam och frågor rörande hälso- och sjukvård i den svenska kontexten är dock begränsad. Inte minst gäller det synen på abort in...

  3. BRST quantization of superconformal theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leman Kuang

    1992-01-01

    A complex contour integral method is constructed and applied to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization procedure of string theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces with N=0 and 1 Krichever-Novikov (KN) algebras. This method makes calculations very simple. It is shown that the critical spacetime dimension of the string theories on a genus-g Riemann surface equals that of the string theories on a genus-zero Riemann surface, and that the 'Regge intercepts' in the genus-g case are α(g)=1-3/4g-9/8g 2 and 1/2-3/4g-17/16g 2 for bosonic strings and superstrings, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Protein Microarray Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Klenkar, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Livet tas för givet av de flesta. Det finns däremot många som ägnar stora delar av sitt liv för att försöka lösa dess mysterier. En del av lösningen ligger i att förstå hur alla molekyler är sammanlänkade i det gigantiska nätverk som definierar den levande organismen. Under det senaste seklet har en hel del forskning utförts för att kartlägga dessa nätverk. Resultatet av dessa mödor kan vi se i de läkemedel som vi har idag och som har utvecklats för att bota eller åtminstone lindra olika sjuk...

  5. Accessing the topological susceptibility via the Gribov horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudal, D.; Felix, C. P.; Guimaraes, M. S.; Sorella, S. P.

    2017-10-01

    The topological susceptibility, χ4 , following the work of Witten and Veneziano, plays a key role in identifying the relative magnitude of the η' mass, the so-called U (1 )A problem. A nonzero χ4 is caused by the Veneziano ghost, the occurrence of an unphysical massless pole in the correlation function of the topological current Kμ. In this paper, we investigate the topological susceptibility, χ4, in S U (3 ) and S U (2 ) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory using an appropriate Padé approximation tool and a nonperturbative gluon propagator, within a Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariant framework and by taking into account Gribov copies in a general linear covariant gauge.

  6. Diffusa spänningar eller spännande tillväxt? : Företagsledning i tider av snabb förändring

    OpenAIRE

    Netz, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Ibland påstås snabba förändringar i omvärlden utmana storföretagens överlevnad mer än någonsin tidigare. I studien undersöks hur stora teknikbaserade företag förnyas genom utveckling av nya affärsområden. Sådana förnyelseprocesser har aktualiserats av informationsteknologiers snabba utveckling, en utveckling som fått till följd att etablerade handlingsmönster i affärsutveckling behöver omprövas. I snabbföränderliga miljöer utvecklas spänningar i organisationer, något som tongivande teori anta...

  7. Hälsosamt Ledarskap

    OpenAIRE

    Rydin, Jonas; Nygren, Johanna

    2006-01-01

    I Sverige har antalet stressrelaterade sjukskrivningar ökat dramatiskt de sista åren. Det är viktigt att företagsledningen tar detta på allvar och arbetar för att förebygga stress. Det är också av vikt att ledningen lyckas sprida kunskapen om detta till alla medarbetare så att ett samarbete uppstår och alla arbetar mot samma mål. Syftet med projektet är att analysera företags möjligheter att påverka hälsoläget i samhället. Vi kommer att studera hur tre olika stora företag, och då framför allt...

  8. Gauge field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchi, C.; Rouet, A.; Stora, R.

    1975-10-01

    Stora's analysis is continued in discussing the nonabelian (Yang-Mills) gauge field models (G.F.M.). The gauge independence of the physical scattering operator is discussed in some details and the connection between its unitary and the Slavnov symmetry outlined. Only the models involving semisimple gauge groups are considered. This greatly simplifies the analysis of the possible quantum corrections to the Quantum Action Principle which is reduced to the study of the cohomology group of the Lie algebra characterizing the gauge theory. The discussion is at the classical level for the algebraic properties of the SU(2) Higgs-Kibble-Englert-Brout-Faddeev-Popov lagrangian and its invariance under Slavnov identity transformations is exhibited. The renormalization of the Slavnov identity in the G.M.F. involving semisimple gauge groups is studied. The unitary and gauge independence of the physical S operator in the SU(2) H.K. model is dealt with [fr

  9. On the BRST cohomology in U(1) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    We discuss the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) cohomology in the case of two-dimensional free U(1) gauge theory. In addition to the usual BRST charge, we deduce a conserved and nilpotent dual-BRST charge under which the gauge-fixing term remains invariant. This charge is the analogue of the adjoint (dual) exterior derivative of differential geometry. The BRST extended Casimir operator, corresponding to the Laplacian operator of differential geometry, turns out to generate a symmetry under which the ghost term remains invariant. We take a single photon state in the Hilbert space and demonstrate the notion of gauge invariance, no-(anti)ghost theorem and transversality of photon by exploiting the refinement of cohomology by selecting the physical state as the harmonic state of the Hodge decomposition theorem. (author)

  10. Nyttan av franchising i den svenska fastighetsmäklarbranschen

    OpenAIRE

    Herke, Marie; Olivers, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    Franchising är det mest vanliga kedjekonceptet i fastighetsmäklarbranschen och flera av de största fastighetsmäklarkedjorna är franchisekedjor. De fristående mäklarbyråerna får allt svårare att klara sig i den ökade konkurrensen. Det är främst fristående mäklarbyråer på mindre orter med ett etablerat varumärke samt nischade mäklarbyråer som klarar sig i konkurrensen med de stora kedjorna. På senare år har antalet kedjeanslutna fastighetsmäklare ökat betydligt och flertalet av mäklarkedjorna ä...

  11. Super-Poincare covariant canonical formulation of superparticles and Green-Schwarz superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissimov, E.R.; Pacheva, S.J.

    1987-11-01

    First, a new unified covariant formulation simultaneously describing both superparticles and spinning particles is proposed. In this formulation both models emerge as different gauge fixings from a more general point-particle model with larger and gauge invariance. The general model possesses covariant and functionally independent first-class constraints only. Next, the above construction is generalized to the case of Green-Schwarz (GS) superstrings. This allows straightforward application of the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky (BFV) Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism for a manifestly super-Poincare covariant canonical quantization. The corresponding BRST charge turns out to be remarkably simple and is of rank one. It is used to construct a covariant BFV Hamiltonian for the GS superstring exhibiting explicit Parisi-Sourlas OSp(1,1/2) symmetry. (author). 21 refs

  12. On the formal equivalence of the TAP and thermodynamic methods in the SK model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Parisi, Giorgio; Mezard, Marc

    2003-01-01

    We revisit two classic Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) studies of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model (Bray A J and Moore M A 1980 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 13 L469; De Dominicis C and Young A P 1983 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16 2063). By using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) supersymmetry, we prove the general equivalence of TAP and replica partition functions, and show that the annealed calculation of the TAP complexity is formally identical to the quenched thermodynamic calculation of the free energy at one step level of replica symmetry breaking. The complexity we obtain by means of the BRST symmetry turns out to be considerably smaller than the previous non-symmetric value

  13. Novel symmetries in Weyl-invariant gravity with massive gauge field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhinav, K. [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Salt Lake, Kolkata (India); Shukla, A.; Panigrahi, P.K. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur (India)

    2016-11-15

    The background field method is used to linearize the Weyl-invariant scalar-tensor gravity, coupled with a Stueckelberg field. For a generic background metric, this action is found not to be invariant, under both a diffeomorphism and generalized Weyl symmetry, the latter being a combination of gauge and Weyl transformations. Interestingly, the quadratic Lagrangian, emerging from a background of Minkowski metric, respects both transformations independently. The Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry of scalar-tensor gravity coupled with a Stueckelberg-like massive gauge particle, possessing a diffeomorphism and generalized Weyl symmetry, reveals that in both cases negative-norm states with unphysical degrees of freedom do exist. We then show that, by combining diffeomorphism and generalized Weyl symmetries, all the ghost states decouple, thereby removing the unphysical redundancies of the theory. During this process, the scalar field does not represent any dynamic mode, yet modifies the usual harmonic gauge condition through non-minimal coupling with gravity. (orig.)

  14. Hydrologi i Ulleråker : En studie om dagvattenhantering och dess inverkan på grundvatten

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlquist, Josefin; Larsson, Martin; Rickfält, Tea

    2017-01-01

    Vattenbehovet stiger i världen till följd av ökande befolkning. Med ökad urbaniseringskapas mer hårdgjorda ytor där föreningar ackumuleras. Dagvattnet transporterar dessa föroreningar som således kan nå grundvattnet. Ett miljömål har antagits i Sverigeför att skydda grundvattentäkter och därmed säkra framtida dricksvattenförsörjning. Rullstensåsar innehåller stora grundvattenmagasin och har hög infiltrationsförmåga för vatten från markytan. Uppsala kommun tar 95 % av sitt dricksvatten från ru...

  15. Litteraturarbete i ett svenska som andraspråksklassrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Economou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article considers the role of reading fiction in Swedish as a second language instruction. The study examines how a group of advanced second language learners in a Swedish upper secondary school read, interpret and discuss a contemporary Swedish novel, how they interact with the text and with each other in relation to the text. Furthermore, it analyses which forms of reading the students use. It is a qualitative, empirical study based on field studies, transcriptions of tape recorded interaction and of written texts. The results indicate that second language learners in this context have a positive attitude towards reading and discussing what they read using several forms of reading. They often compare the content of the text to their own lives. One conclusion is that literature teaching and literature can be integrated into one Swedish subject in order to create even more meaningful interactions between students from different backgrounds. Another is that literature can be a means of language development as well as personal development.Keywords: Second language learners, literature pedagogy and didactics, forms of reading, democracy. SammandragDenna artikel handlar om skönlitteraturens roll i skolämnet svenska som andraspråk. Studien undersöker hur en grupp avancerade andraspråksinlärare i en svensk gymnasieskola läser, tolkar och diskuterar en modern svensk roman och hur de interagerar med texten och med varandra i relation till texten. Dessutom analyseras vilka läsarter som eleverna använde sig av. Den är en kvalitativ, empirisk studie som baseras på fältstudier, transkriptioner av inspelade boksamtal och elevtexter. Resultaten visar att andraspråkseleverna hade en positiv attityd till boksamtal och de använde sig av flera läsarter. De jämförde ofta texten till sina egna liv och erfarenheter.  En slutsats är att litteraturundervisning och litteraturarbete skulle kunna integreras i ett gemensamt ämne så att

  16. Vad och hur gör de? − att synliggöra lärande i grundskolans slöjdpraktik via videoetnografi och mikroanalys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléne Johansson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln bygger på resultat och erfarenheter av etnografiskt insamlade videoinspelningar från grundskolans slöjdundervisning utgående från tre studier; dels vid ett projekt med förstudier under slutet av 1990-talet (Johansson, 1996, dels vid avhandlingsprojektet Slöjdpraktik i skolan (Johansson, 2002 och dels inom forskningsprojektet Kommunikation och lärande i slöjdpraktiker, (”Komolär-projektet”, under 2005−2010 (Lindström, Borg, Johansson & Lindberg, 2003.Att insamla empiri i autentiska slöjdmiljöer är av intresse då lärandesituationer kan synliggöras när elever med hjälp av material och redskap arbetar med att tillverka artefakter. Utifrån detaljerade analyser av slöjdaktiviteter går det att upptäcka det som utspelar sig och möjligheter ges att uppfatta något annat jämfört med vad man kan tro känna väl eller ha förenklade och till och med felaktiga uppfattningar om. Videoobservationer möjliggör att antaganden istället görs på empiriskt grundat datamaterial. Med risk att videofilma och analysera det man tror sig veta och söka har forskningsprojektens insamlingar mer förutsättningslöst arbetat efter vad och hur elever och lärare gör i slöjdpraktik och vad man får veta när slöjdaktiviteter analyseras mer ingående. Videomaterialen har analyserats både på en mer övergripande nivå och detaljerat med hjälp av mikroanalyser. Därefter har lärandet synliggjorts och beskrivits bland annat i teman för att visa hur personerna är resurser för varandra och hur lärandet utvecklas genom olika språkanvändning och med slöjdpraktikens fysiska redskap och material.Sökord: metod, slöjd, klassrumsforskning, videoetnografi, mikroanalysURN:NBN:no-29955

  17. Schwinger-Keldysh superspace in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geracie, Michael; Haehl, Felix M.; Loganayagam, R.; Narayan, Prithvi; Ramirez, David M.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2018-05-01

    We examine, in a quantum mechanical setting, the Hilbert space representation of the Becchi, Rouet, Stora, and Tyutin (BRST) symmetry associated with Schwinger-Keldysh path integrals. This structure had been postulated to encode important constraints on influence functionals in coarse-grained systems with dissipation, or in open quantum systems. Operationally, this entails uplifting the standard Schwinger-Keldysh two-copy formalism into superspace by appending BRST ghost degrees of freedom. These statements were previously argued at the level of the correlation functions. We provide herein a complementary perspective by working out the Hilbert space structure explicitly. Our analysis clarifies two crucial issues not evident in earlier works: first, certain background ghost insertions necessary to reproduce the correct Schwinger-Keldysh correlators arise naturally, and, second, the Schwinger-Keldysh difference operators are systematically dressed by the ghost bilinears, which turn out to be necessary to give rise to a consistent operator algebra. We also elaborate on the structure of the final state (which is BRST closed) and the future boundary condition of the ghost fields.

  18. On ghost fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grensing, G.

    2002-01-01

    The path integral for ghost fermions, which is heuristically made use of in the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky approach to quantization of constrained systems, is derived from first principles. The derivation turns out to be rather different from that of physical fermions since the definition of Dirac states for ghost fermions is subtle. With these results at hand, it is then shown that the nonminimal extension of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator must be chosen differently from the notorious choice made in the literature in order to avoid the boundary terms that have always plagued earlier treatments. Furthermore it is pointed out that the elimination of states with nonzero ghost number requires the introduction of a thermodynamic potential for ghosts; the reason is that Schwarz's Lefschetz formula for the partition function of the time-evolution operator is not capable, despite claims to the contrary, to get rid of nonzero ghost number states on its own. Finally, we comment on the problems of global topological nature that one faces in the attempt to obtain the solutions of the Dirac condition for physical states in a configuration space of nontrivial geometry; such complications give rise to anomalies that do not obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions. (orig.)

  19. Geometric derivation of string field theory from first principles: Closed strings and modular invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, M.

    1988-01-01

    We present an entirely new approach to closed-string field theory, called Igeometric string field theory R, which avoids the complications found in Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin string field theory (e.g., ghost counting, infinite overcounting of diagrams, midpoints, lack of modular invariance). Following the analogy with general relativity and Yang-Mills theory, we define a new infinite-dimensional local gauge group, called the unified string group, which uniquely specifies the connection fields, the curvature tensor, the measure and tensor calculus, and finally the action itself. Geometric field theory, when gauge fixed, yields an entirely new class of gauges called the interpolating gauge which allows us to smoothly interpolate between the midpoint gauge and the end-point gauge (''covariantized light-cone gauge''). We can show that geometric string field theory reproduces one copy of the Shapiro-Virasoro model. Surprisingly, after the gauge is broken, a new Iclosed four-string interactionR emerges as the counterpart of the instantaneous four-fermion Coulomb term in QED. This term restores modular invariance and precisely fills the missing region of the complex plane

  20. Anatomy of zero-norm states in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.-T.; Lee, J.-C.; Yi Yang

    2005-01-01

    We calculate and identify the counterparts of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string in two other quantization schemes of string theory, namely, the light-cone Del Giudice-Di Vecchia-Fubine zero-norm states and the off-shell Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) zero-norm states (with ghost) in the Witten string field theory (WSFT). In particular, special attention is paid to the interparticle zero-norm states in all quantization schemes. For the case of the off-shell BRST zero-norm states, we impose the no-ghost conditions and recover exactly two types of on-shell zero-norm states in the OCFQ string spectrum for the first few low-lying mass levels. We then show that off-shell gauge transformations of WSFT are identical to the on-shell stringy gauge symmetries generated by two types of zero-norm states in the generalized massive σ-model approach of string theory. The high-energy limit of these stringy gauge symmetries was recently used to calculate the proportionality constants, conjectured by Gross, among high-energy scattering amplitudes of different string states. Based on these zero-norm state calculations, we have thus related gauge symmetry of WSFT to the high-energy stringy symmetry of Gross

  1. Meaning of the BRS Lagrangian theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Tsai, E.

    1989-01-01

    A simplified treatment of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) Lagrangian theory is presented. With this treatment we show that the BRS Lagrangian theory in general, and the Feynman-gauge field theory in particular, are effective theories, not the physical theory, and the Feynman gauge is not, strictly speaking, a gauge. The relationship between the quantum states in the BRS Lagrangian theory and those in the physical theory is explicitly given. We also show that one may obtain matrix elements of gauge-invariant operators in the physical theory by calculating corresponding ones in the BRS Lagrangian theory. The formulas which equate such matrix elements are called correspondence formulas. The correspondence formula for the S matrix enables us to equate the scattering amplitudes in the physical theory with those in the BRS Lagrangian theory, thus a proof of the unitary of the Feynman-gauge (as well as other covariant gauges) Feynman rules is rendered unnecessary. This treatment can be applied to various gauge field theories and the examples of the pure Yang-Mills theory and a gauge field theory with a Higgs field is explicitly worked out

  2. Augmented superfield approach to gauge-invariant massive 2-form theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Krishna, S.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the complete sets of the off-shell nilpotent (i.e. s 2 (a)b = 0) and absolutely anticommuting (i.e. s b s ab + s ab s b = 0) Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) (s b ) and anti-BRST (s ab ) symmetries for the (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) gauge-invariant massive 2-form theory within the framework of an augmented superfield approach to the BRST formalism. In this formalism, we obtain the coupled (but equivalent) Lagrangian densities which respect both BRST and anti-BRST symmetries on the constrained hypersurface defined by the Curci-Ferrari type conditions. The absolute anticommutativity property of the (anti-) BRST transformations (and corresponding generators) is ensured by the existence of the Curci-Ferrari type conditions which emerge very naturally in this formalism. Furthermore, the gauge-invariant restriction plays a decisive role in deriving the proper(anti-) BRST transformations for the Stueckelberg-like vector field. (orig.)

  3. Decontracted double BRST symmetry on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekal, L. von; Ghiotti, M.; Williams, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    We present the Curci-Ferrari model on the lattice. In the massless case the topological interpretation of this model with its double Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry relates to the Neuberger 0/0 problem which we extend to include the ghost/antighost symmetric formulation of the nonlinear-covariant Curci-Ferrari gauges on the lattice. The introduction of a Curci-Ferrari mass term, however, serves to regulate the 0/0 indeterminate form of physical observables observed by Neuberger. While such a mass m decontracts the double BRST/anti-BRST algebra, which is well known to result in a loss of unitarity, observables can be meaningfully defined in the limit m→0 via l'Hospital's rule. At finite m, the topological nature of the partition function used as the gauge-fixing device seems lost. We discuss the gauge parameter ξ and mass m dependence of the model and show how both cancel when m≡m(ξ) is appropriately adjusted with ξ.

  4. Some novel features in 2D non-Abelian theory: BRST approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, N.; Kumar, S.; Kureel, B. K.; Malik, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Within the framework of Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, we discuss some novel features of a two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory (without any interaction with matter fields). Besides the usual off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommutating (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations, we discuss the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommutating (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations. Particularly, we lay emphasis on the existence of the coupled (but equivalent) Lagrangian densities of the 2D non-Abelian theory in view of the presence of (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations where we pin-point some novel features associated with the Curci-Ferrari (CF-)type restrictions. We demonstrate that these CF-type restrictions can be incorporated into the (anti-)co-BRST invariant Lagrangian densities through the fermionic Lagrange multipliers which carry specific ghost numbers. The modified versions of the Lagrangian densities (where we get rid of the new CF-type restrictions) respect some precise symmetries as well as a couple of symmetries with CF-type constraints. These observations are completely novel as far as the BRST formalism, with proper (anti-)co-BRST symmetries, is concerned.

  5. Nilpotent symmetries and Curci-Ferrari-type restrictions in 2D non-Abelian gauge theory: Superfield approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, N.; Malik, R. P.

    2017-11-01

    We derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the two (1 + 1)-dimensional (2D) non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory by using the theoretical techniques of the geometrical superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism. For this purpose, we exploit the augmented version of superfield approach (AVSA) and derive theoretically useful nilpotent (anti-)BRST, (anti-)co-BRST symmetries and Curci-Ferrari (CF)-type restrictions for the self-interacting 2D non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory (where there is no interaction with matter fields). The derivation of the (anti-)co-BRST symmetries and all possible CF-type restrictions are completely novel results within the framework of AVSA to BRST formalism where the ordinary 2D non-Abelian theory is generalized onto an appropriately chosen (2, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. The latter is parametrized by the superspace coordinates ZM = (xμ,𝜃,𝜃¯) where xμ (with μ = 0, 1) are the bosonic coordinates and a pair of Grassmannian variables (𝜃,𝜃¯) obey the relationships: 𝜃2 = 𝜃¯2 = 0, 𝜃𝜃¯ + 𝜃¯𝜃 = 0. The topological nature of our 2D theory allows the existence of a tower of CF-type restrictions.

  6. Augmented superfield approach to gauge-invariant massive 2-form theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Krishna, S.

    2017-06-01

    We discuss the complete sets of the off-shell nilpotent (i.e. s^2_{(a)b} = 0) and absolutely anticommuting (i.e. s_b s_{ab} + s_{ab} s_b = 0) Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) (s_b) and anti-BRST (s_{ab}) symmetries for the (3+1)-dimensional (4D) gauge-invariant massive 2-form theory within the framework of an augmented superfield approach to the BRST formalism. In this formalism, we obtain the coupled (but equivalent) Lagrangian densities which respect both BRST and anti-BRST symmetries on the constrained hypersurface defined by the Curci-Ferrari type conditions. The absolute anticommutativity property of the (anti-) BRST transformations (and corresponding generators) is ensured by the existence of the Curci-Ferrari type conditions which emerge very naturally in this formalism. Furthermore, the gauge-invariant restriction plays a decisive role in deriving the proper (anti-) BRST transformations for the Stückelberg-like vector field.

  7. Free Abelian 2-form gauge theory: BRST approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss various symmetry properties of the Lagrangian density of a four- (3+1)-dimensional (4D) free Abelian 2-form gauge theory within the framework of Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism. The present free Abelian gauge theory is endowed with a Curci-Ferrari type condition, which happens to be a key signature of the 4D non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory. In fact, it is due to the above condition that the nilpotent BRST and anti-BRST symmetries of our present theory are found to be absolutely anticommuting in nature. For the present 2-form theory, we discuss the BRST, anti-BRST, ghost and discrete symmetry properties of the Lagrangian densities and derive the corresponding conserved charges. The algebraic structure, obeyed by the above conserved charges, is deduced and the constraint analysis is performed with the help of physicality criteria, where the conserved and nilpotent (anti-)BRST charges play completely independent roles. These physicality conditions lead to the derivation of the above Curci-Ferrari type restriction, within the framework of the BRST formalism, from the constraint analysis. (orig.)

  8. Wind power's effects on marine life. A synthesis report; Vindkraftens effekter paa marint liv. En syntesrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Lena (Aquatic Resources, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Oeregrund (Sweden)); Kautsky, Lena (Dept. on Botany, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Stockholm Univ. Marine Research Centre (Sweden)); Malm, Torleif; Aastrand Capetillo, Nastassja (Stockholms Univ. Marine Research Centre (Sweden)); Ohlsson, Hans (wpd Offshore Stockholm AB (Sweden)); Wahlberg, Magnus (Fjord and Baelt (Denmark)); Rosenberg, Rutger (Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Marine Monitoring AB, Lysekil (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    As in many other countries, an expansion of wind power is expected in Sweden during the coming decades. The expansion is driven by rising prices on electricity and the need for an increased production of renewable energy. Since wind conditions at sea are good and relatively constant, several offshore wind farms are planned in Swedish waters. Offshore wind power with a total effect of about 2500 MW has been granted permission and additionally 5500 MW are being planned for in Sweden. Examples of granted projects are Storgrundet with an effect of 265 MW, Stora Middelgrund with an effect of 860 MW and Kaarehamn with an effect of 48 MW. Today Sweden's largest offshore wind farm is Lillgrund in Oeresund with its 48 turbines with an installed effect of 110 MW. Prior to this expected expansion, it is important to investigate the environmental impact of offshore wind power, and how possible negative effects can be minimized. This synopsis about the impact of wind power on the marine life in Swedish waters, is based on more than 600 studies, most of which are scientific articles, but also reports by companies and authorities

  9. On estimating the effective diffusive properties of hardened cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, E.; Bary, B.; Stora, E.; He, Qi-Chang

    2008-01-01

    The effective diffusion coefficients of hardened cement pastes can vary between a few orders of magnitude. The paper aims at building a homogenization model to estimate these macroscopic diffusivities and capture such strong variations. For this purpose, a three-scale description of the paste is proposed, relying mainly on the fact that the initial cement grains hydrate forming a complex microstructure with a multi-scale pore structure. In particular, porosity is found to be well connected at a fine scale. However, only a few homogenization schemes are shown to be adequate to account for such connectivity. Among them, the mixed composite spheres assemblage estimate (Stora, E., He, Q.-C., Bary, B.: J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 084910, 2006a) seems to be the only one that always complies with rigorous bounds and is consequently employed to predict the effects of this fine porosity on the material effective diffusivities. The model proposed provides predictions in good agreement with experimental results and is consistent with the numerous measurements of critical pore diameters issued from mercury intrusion porosimetry tests. The evolution of the effective diffusivities of cement pastes subjected to leaching is also assessed by adopting a simplified scenario of the decalcification process. (authors)

  10. The Handling of Liquid Waste at the Research Station of Studsvik, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, Soeren; Linder, Per

    1965-03-15

    The following quantities of radioactive waste are allowed to be released into a strait between the islands of Stora Bergoe and Studsviksholme: Total {alpha}-activity 0,2 curie/month. Total {beta}-activity 36 curie/month of which cerium, yttrium, rare earth 15 curie/month, strontium 2,4 curie/month. Before the release the radioactive waste has to be collected and controlled. Quantities approaching or exceeding the disposal limits have to be removed and concentrated by evaporation. The liquid waste is classified in several categories depending upon the level of activity: high active and medium active waste, low active waste, process water, sanitary water, surface water and reactor cooling water. The technical dimensioning of each category was based upon expected specific production figures (volume/man - month and activity/ man - month). These figures are based upon information obtained from Harwell. Actual production figures obtained during 1963 and the first half of 1964 are shown and compared with the expected ones. As a conclusion is stated that the actual production follows the predictions fairly well.

  11. Supervariable Approach to the Nilpotent Symmetries for a Toy Model of the Hodge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R. P.; Bhanja, T.; Shukla, D.

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the standard techniques of the supervariable approach to derive the nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations for a toy model of the Hodge theory (i.e., a rigid rotor) and provide the geometrical meaning and interpretation to them. Furthermore, we also derive the nilpotent (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations for this theory within the framework of the above supervariable approach. We capture the (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST invariance of the Lagrangian of our present theory within the framework of augmented supervariable formalism. We also express the (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST charges in terms of the supervariables (obtained after the application of the (dual-)horizontality conditions and (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST invariant restrictions) to provide the geometrical interpretations for their nilpotency and anticommutativity properties. The application of the dual-horizontality condition and ensuing proper (i.e., nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting) fermionic (anti-)co-BRST symmetries are completely novel results in our present investigation.

  12. Repression and black holes in Laurent Mauvignier novel about Algerian War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Raccis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available XXth century history obliged narrators to clash with events that was literally inexpressible, measuring the potential and the lack of literary means. Laurent Mauvignier made this confrontarion the centre of his poetics: from minimal, private tragedies to great, historical dramas, passing through the media mystification of absurd fait divers, his novels face the Evil problem and its representation in words. With Des hommes (2009, Mauvignier addresses his question to one of the most problematic repression object in historical French memory: Algerian War. Building a polyphonic novel, he deals with an event deeply characterized by silence (the veteran silence studied by Benjamin Stora and Andrea Brazzoduro and that has been manipulated by the institutional and mediatic vulgata. Infact, the narration shows how the amnesty of collective faults is based on the "order to say nothing" (overturning Foucault, first of all caused by the social load of an history that nobody wants. This paper aims at showing how Mauvignier's work, inspired by modernist novel and "nouveau roman" (Duras, Simon, resorts to literary experimentalism to "défamiliariser" this historical event using the tools of a fiction claiming the value of a "secondary experience" to redeem a piece of history refused by the public discourse.

  13. The Handling of Liquid Waste at the Research Station of Studsvik, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhe, Soeren; Linder, Per

    1965-03-01

    The following quantities of radioactive waste are allowed to be released into a strait between the islands of Stora Bergoe and Studsviksholme: Total α-activity 0,2 curie/month. Total β-activity 36 curie/month of which cerium, yttrium, rare earth 15 curie/month, strontium 2,4 curie/month. Before the release the radioactive waste has to be collected and controlled. Quantities approaching or exceeding the disposal limits have to be removed and concentrated by evaporation. The liquid waste is classified in several categories depending upon the level of activity: high active and medium active waste, low active waste, process water, sanitary water, surface water and reactor cooling water. The technical dimensioning of each category was based upon expected specific production figures (volume/man - month and activity/ man - month). These figures are based upon information obtained from Harwell. Actual production figures obtained during 1963 and the first half of 1964 are shown and compared with the expected ones. As a conclusion is stated that the actual production follows the predictions fairly well

  14. The effects of wind power on marine life - A Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Malm, Torleif; Ohlsson, Hans; Wahlberg, Magnus; Rosenberg, Rutger; Aastrand Capetillo, Nastassja

    2012-10-15

    As in many other countries, an expansion of wind power is expected in Sweden during the coming decades. The expansion is driven by rising prices on electricity and the need for an increased production of renewable energy. Since wind conditions at sea are good and relatively constant, several offshore wind farms are planned in Swedish waters. Offshore wind power with a total effect of about 2500 MW has been granted permission and an additional 5500 MW are being planned for. Examples of granted projects are Storgrundet with an effect of 265 MW, Stora Middelgrund with an effect of 860 MW and Kaarehamn with an effect of 48 MW. The largest offshore wind farm in Sweden today is Lillgrund in Oeresund, with its 48 turbines with an installed effect of 110 MW. Prior to this expected expansion, it is important to investigate the environmental impact of offshore wind power, and how possible negative effects can be minimized. This synopsis about the impact of wind power on the marine life in Swedish waters is based on more than 600 studies, most of which are scientific articles, but also reports by companies and authorities.

  15. (Anti-)chiral superfield approach to interacting Abelian 1-form gauge theories: Nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, B.; Kumar, S.; Malik, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    We derive the off-shell nilpotent (fermionic) (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations by exploiting the (anti-)chiral superfield approach (ACSA) to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism for the interacting Abelian 1-form gauge theories where there is a coupling between the U(1) Abelian 1-form gauge field and Dirac as well as complex scalar fields. We exploit the (anti-)BRST invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral superfields to derive the fermionic symmetries of our present D-dimensional Abelian 1-form gauge theories. The novel observation of our present investigation is the derivation of the absolute anticommutativity of the nilpotent (anti-)BRST charges despite the fact that our ordinary D-dimensional theories are generalized onto the (D,1)-dimensional (anti-) chiral super-submanifolds (of the general (D,2)-dimensional supermanifold) where only the (anti-)chiral super expansions of the (anti-)chiral superfields have been taken into account. We also discuss the nilpotency of the (anti-)BRST charges and (anti-)BRST invariance of the Lagrangian densities of our present theories within the framework of ACSA to BRST formalism.

  16. Universal Superspace Unitary Operator and Nilpotent (Anti-)Dual-BRST Symmetries: Superfield Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R. P.; Srinivas, N.; Bhanja, T.

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the key concepts of the augmented version of superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism to derive the superspace (SUSP) dual unitary operator and its Hermitian conjugate and demonstrate their utility in the derivation of the nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)dual-BRST symmetry transformations for a set of interesting models of the Abelian 1-form gauge theories. These models are the one (0+1)-dimensional (1D) rigid rotor and modified versions of the two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) Proca as well as anomalous gauge theories and 2D model of a self-dual bosonic field theory. We show the universality of the SUSP dual unitary operator and its Hermitian conjugate in the cases of all the Abelian models under consideration. These SUSP dual unitary operators, besides maintaining the explicit group structure, provide the alternatives to the dual horizontality condition (DHC) and dual gauge invariant restrictions (DGIRs) of the superfield formalism. The derivations of the dual unitary operators and corresponding (anti-)dual-BRST symmetries are completely novel results in our present investigation.

  17. SU(N) chiral gauge theories on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal

    2004-01-01

    We extend the construction of lattice chiral gauge theories based on non-perturbative gauge fixing to the non-Abelian case. A key ingredient is that fermion doublers can be avoided at a novel type of critical point which is only accessible through gauge fixing, as we have shown before in the Abelian case. The new ingredient allowing us to deal with the non-Abelian case as well is the use of equivariant gauge fixing, which handles Gribov copies correctly, and avoids Neuberger's no-go theorem. We use this method in order to gauge fix the non-Abelian group (which we will take to be SU(N)) down to its maximal Abelian subgroup. Obtaining an undoubled, chiral fermion content requires us to gauge-fix also the remaining Abelian gauge symmetry. This modifies the equivariant Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) identities, but their use in proving unitarity remains intact, as we show in perturbation theory. On the lattice, equivariant BRST symmetry as well as the Abelian gauge invariance are broken, and a judiciously chosen irrelevant term must be added to the lattice gauge-fixing action in order to have access to the desired critical point in the phase diagram. We argue that gauge invariance is restored in the continuum limit by adjusting a finite number of counter terms. We emphasize that weak-coupling perturbation theory applies at the critical point which defines the continuum limit of our lattice chiral gauge theory

  18. Stakeholder Involvement in Radioactive Waste Management in Belgium: the Past, the Present and Challenges for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmans, Anne; Steenberge, Annelies Van [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    At present stakeholder involvement in RWM in Belgium focuses solely on siting a LILW-repository, engaging primarily local citizen-stakeholders. If accepting the value of participation in this programme, which NIRAS/ONDRAF explicitly states, the biggest future challenge for the agency will be to match the efforts in its LILWprogramme with similar efforts for the whole of its management operations, both short-term and long-term; and both site specific as well as on a general policy level. The local partnerships (in particular STORA and MONA) today have become NIRAS/ONDRAF's most important stakeholders. Their insisting on opening up a HLW-debate (but without the intention of turning it into a site selection process) might therefore be just the leverage needed to move from a declaration of intent to the setting up of an active participatory programme. Although some might regret it, the introduction of the partnership approach has opened up a Pandora's box, creating self-awareness and self-identification among a particular group of stakeholders who clearly are not prepared to be backing out of their new role in the immediate future.

  19. From topological quantum field theories to supersymmetric gauge theories; Des theories quantiques de champ topologiques aux theories de jauge supersymetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossard, G

    2007-10-15

    This thesis contains 2 parts based on scientific contributions that have led to 2 series of publications. The first one concerns the introduction of vector symmetry in cohomological theories, through a generalization of the so-called Baulieu-Singer equation. Together with the topological BRST (Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin) operator, this symmetry gives an off-shell closed sub-sector of supersymmetry that permits to determine the action uniquely. The second part proposes a methodology for re-normalizing supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory without assuming a regularization scheme which is both supersymmetry and gauge invariance preserving. The renormalization prescription is derived thanks to the definition of 2 consistent Slavnov-Taylor operators for supersymmetry and gauge invariance, whose construction requires the introduction of the so-called shadow fields. We demonstrate the renormalizability of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. We give a fully consistent, regularization scheme independent, proof of the vanishing of the {beta} function and of the anomalous dimensions of the one half BPS operators in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. After a short introduction, in chapter two, we give a review of the cohomological Yang-Mills theory in eight dimensions. We then study its dimensional reductions in seven and six dimensions. The last chapter gives quite independent results, about a geometrical interpretation of the shadow fields, an unpublished work about topological gravity in four dimensions, an extension of the shadow formalism to superconformal invariance, and finally the solution of the constraints in a twisted superspace. (author)

  20. Stakeholder Involvement in Radioactive Waste Management in Belgium: the Past, the Present and Challenges for the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmans, Anne; Steenberge, Annelies Van

    2006-01-01

    At present stakeholder involvement in RWM in Belgium focuses solely on siting a LILW-repository, engaging primarily local citizen-stakeholders. If accepting the value of participation in this programme, which NIRAS/ONDRAF explicitly states, the biggest future challenge for the agency will be to match the efforts in its LILWprogramme with similar efforts for the whole of its management operations, both short-term and long-term; and both site specific as well as on a general policy level. The local partnerships (in particular STORA and MONA) today have become NIRAS/ONDRAF's most important stakeholders. Their insisting on opening up a HLW-debate (but without the intention of turning it into a site selection process) might therefore be just the leverage needed to move from a declaration of intent to the setting up of an active participatory programme. Although some might regret it, the introduction of the partnership approach has opened up a Pandora's box, creating self-awareness and self-identification among a particular group of stakeholders who clearly are not prepared to be backing out of their new role in the immediate future

  1. From topological quantum field theories to supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossard, G.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis contains 2 parts based on scientific contributions that have led to 2 series of publications. The first one concerns the introduction of vector symmetry in cohomological theories, through a generalization of the so-called Baulieu-Singer equation. Together with the topological BRST (Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin) operator, this symmetry gives an off-shell closed sub-sector of supersymmetry that permits to determine the action uniquely. The second part proposes a methodology for re-normalizing supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory without assuming a regularization scheme which is both supersymmetry and gauge invariance preserving. The renormalization prescription is derived thanks to the definition of 2 consistent Slavnov-Taylor operators for supersymmetry and gauge invariance, whose construction requires the introduction of the so-called shadow fields. We demonstrate the renormalizability of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. We give a fully consistent, regularization scheme independent, proof of the vanishing of the β function and of the anomalous dimensions of the one half BPS operators in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. After a short introduction, in chapter two, we give a review of the cohomological Yang-Mills theory in eight dimensions. We then study its dimensional reductions in seven and six dimensions. The last chapter gives quite independent results, about a geometrical interpretation of the shadow fields, an unpublished work about topological gravity in four dimensions, an extension of the shadow formalism to superconformal invariance, and finally the solution of the constraints in a twisted superspace. (author)

  2. Large chiral diffeomorphisms on Riemann surfaces and W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandelloni, G.; Lazzarini, S.

    2006-01-01

    The diffeomorphism action lifted on truncated (chiral) Taylor expansion of a complex scalar field over a Riemann surface is presented in the paper under the name of large diffeomorphisms. After an heuristic approach, we show how a linear truncation in the Taylor expansion can generate an algebra of symmetry characterized by some structure functions. Such a linear truncation is explicitly realized by introducing the notion of Forsyth frame over the Riemann surface with the help of a conformally covariant algebraic differential equation. The large chiral diffeomorphism action is then implemented through a Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) formulation (for a given order of truncation) leading to a more algebraic setup. In this context the ghost fields behave as holomorphically covariant jets. Subsequently, the link with the so-called W-algebras is made explicit once the ghost parameters are turned from jets into tensorial ghost ones. We give a general solution with the help of the structure functions pertaining to all the possible truncations lower or equal to the given order. This provides another contribution to the relationship between Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) flows and W-diffeomorphims

  3. Unexpected enhancements and reductions of rf spin resonance strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Leonova

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We recently analyzed all available data on spin-flipping stored beams of polarized protons, electrons, and deuterons. Fitting the modified Froissart-Stora equation to the measured polarization data after crossing an rf-induced spin resonance, we found 10–20-fold deviations from the depolarizing resonance strength equations used for many years. The polarization was typically manipulated by linearly sweeping the frequency of an rf dipole or rf solenoid through an rf-induced spin resonance; spin-flip efficiencies of up to 99.9% were obtained. The Lorentz invariance of an rf dipole’s transverse ∫Bdl and the weak energy dependence of its spin resonance strength E together imply that even a small rf dipole should allow efficient spin flipping in 100 GeV or even TeV storage rings; thus, it is important to understand these large deviations. Therefore, we recently studied the resonance strength deviations experimentally by varying the size and vertical betatron tune of a 2.1  GeV/c polarized proton beam stored in COSY. We found no dependence of E on beam size, but we did find almost 100-fold enhancements when the rf spin resonance was near an intrinsic spin resonance.

  4. Reaching for the stars - New developments in ground-based astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will briefly review the state-of-the-art in ground-based astronomy - both on the telescope side and the instrument side. Interesting parallels can be drawn in cost, construction and operations with the particle physics facilities. I will then present some recent results in the two hottest topics in astronomy, driving the requests for more advanced facilities: exoplanets and the hunt for life beyond the solar system (calling for Extremely Large Telescope); and cosmology and the understanding of dark energy (calling for large survey telescopes). This will lead to a description of the latest telescope project developments on the ground: the on-going construction of the Large Synoptic Telescope on a quest to better understand dark energy, and the start of the construction of three Extremely Large Telescopes by European and US-led international consortia, hoping to find life on planets around nearby stars.   ATS Seminars Organisers: H. Burkhardt (BE), M. Modena (TE), T. Stora (EN) Coffee / tea will ...

  5. Block Storage Service: Status and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Ster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This memo summarizes the current status of the Ceph block storage service as it is used for OpenStack Cinder Volumes and Glance Images as of May 2014. We present the block storage activity on the current cluster, measuring IOPS and latencies, and present a cost/benefit analysis of using SSDs to optimize the cost and performance efficiency of the service. During tests in collaboration with IT-CF, we have concluded that by adding SSDs as the synchronous write journals (used to guarantee data durability), we are able increase the IOPS capacity by 4-5 times, at a cost of decreasing the available volume by 20%. Further, the testing has shown that the Ceph implementation is able to operate at the limit of the hardware performance; software-induced performance limitations were not yet observed in either the spinning disk or SSD configurations. In addition, we believe that increasing small write performance with SSDs is applicable only to the block storage use-case; high-bandwidth use-cases such as physics data stora...

  6. Augmented superfield approach to gauge-invariant massive 2-form theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R. [University of Delhi, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, New Delhi (India); Krishna, S. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Manauli, Punjab (India)

    2017-06-15

    We discuss the complete sets of the off-shell nilpotent (i.e. s{sup 2}{sub (a)b} = 0) and absolutely anticommuting (i.e. s{sub b}s{sub ab} + s{sub ab}s{sub b} = 0) Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) (s{sub b}) and anti-BRST (s{sub ab}) symmetries for the (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) gauge-invariant massive 2-form theory within the framework of an augmented superfield approach to the BRST formalism. In this formalism, we obtain the coupled (but equivalent) Lagrangian densities which respect both BRST and anti-BRST symmetries on the constrained hypersurface defined by the Curci-Ferrari type conditions. The absolute anticommutativity property of the (anti-) BRST transformations (and corresponding generators) is ensured by the existence of the Curci-Ferrari type conditions which emerge very naturally in this formalism. Furthermore, the gauge-invariant restriction plays a decisive role in deriving the proper(anti-) BRST transformations for the Stueckelberg-like vector field. (orig.)

  7. Towards greener products. A case study of five international Finnish enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, P.; Heiskanen, E.; Melanen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Product-oriented environmental policy has in recent years been widely discussed and the Commission of the European Communities has issued a Green Paper on Integrated Product Policy (IPP). At the same time, companies have envisaged changes in regulatory requirements and adopted various voluntary environmental initiatives in order to achieve competitive advantage. The main principle of integrated product policy is that products and their environmental effects are viewed from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this study was to evaluate how companies incorporate environmental aspects into their product development and how the product policy exercised by government influences to this process. Data were collected at five Finnish companies (KONE, elevators; Nokia, mobile phones; Stora Enso, packaging boards; Virke, textiles; YIT-Yhtymae, building construction) using a case study strategy. The importance of waste and environmental issues in the product development of the case companies appears to have grown in recent years. Environmental concerns have been integrated - in one way or another - into product development processes. However, the results of this integration are not yet fully visible. The principal pressures to incorporate environmental issues into product development have come from customers or through the anticipation or implementation of extended producer responsibility systems. Recognition of the environmental advantages of their own products, and the use of this in marketing has been an important starting-point for environmental initiatives at least at KONE and Virke. (orig.)

  8. Renormalizable massive charged vector-boson theory without spontaneous symmetry breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac, E.

    1977-01-01

    A renormalizable and unitary theory of massive charged vector bosons is proposed. This theory has a similarity with the Georgi-Glashow theory, the difference being that in the former the Lagrangian does not contain the potential term in the scalar fields necessary in theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The mass M > 0 of the charged vector bosons are introduced in the Lagrangian in such a way that the Lagrangian is still invariant under a ''distorted'' local gauge symmetry. This Lagrangian is studied in the generalized renormalizable gauge (gauge R /sub xi/), by means of the Lagrange multiplier formalism. In this way, the fictitious Lagrangian that restores unitarity to the theory can be constructed. The fictitious Lagrangian constructed using the Lagrange multiplier formalism is compared to the one obtained due to the variation of the gauge condition under the gauge transformations. The renormalizability of this theory is studied and the Ward-Takahaski identities are derived; these identities are checked by explicit calculations. Using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora transformation, one can obtain the equation satisfied by the renormalized Lagrangian; solving this equation the most general form of the renormalized Lagrangian is obtained. Also the classical solutions of this kind of theories are studied. Solutions are found suggesting the presence of dyons

  9. Gauge fixing, BRS invariance and Ward identities for randomly stirred flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, Arjun; Hochberg, David

    2009-01-01

    The Galilean invariance of the Navier-Stokes equation is shown to be akin to a global gauge symmetry familiar from quantum field theory. This symmetry leads to a multiple counting of infinitely many inertial reference frames in the path integral approach to randomly stirred fluids. This problem is solved by fixing the gauge, i.e., singling out one reference frame. The gauge fixed theory has an underlying Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry which leads to the Ward identity relating the exact inverse response and vertex functions. This identification of Galilean invariance as a gauge symmetry is explored in detail, for different gauge choices and by performing a rigorous examination of a discretized version of the theory. The Navier-Stokes equation is also invariant under arbitrary rectilinear frame accelerations, known as extended Galilean invariance (EGI). We gauge fix this extended symmetry and derive the generalized Ward identity that follows from the BRS invariance of the gauge-fixed theory. This new Ward identity reduces to the standard one in the limit of zero acceleration. This gauge-fixing approach unambiguously shows that Galilean invariance and EGI constrain only the zero mode of the vertex but none of the higher wavenumber modes.

  10. Gauge fixing, BRS invariance and Ward identities for randomly stirred flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berera, Arjun [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk; Hochberg, David [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: hochbergd@inta.es

    2009-06-21

    The Galilean invariance of the Navier-Stokes equation is shown to be akin to a global gauge symmetry familiar from quantum field theory. This symmetry leads to a multiple counting of infinitely many inertial reference frames in the path integral approach to randomly stirred fluids. This problem is solved by fixing the gauge, i.e., singling out one reference frame. The gauge fixed theory has an underlying Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry which leads to the Ward identity relating the exact inverse response and vertex functions. This identification of Galilean invariance as a gauge symmetry is explored in detail, for different gauge choices and by performing a rigorous examination of a discretized version of the theory. The Navier-Stokes equation is also invariant under arbitrary rectilinear frame accelerations, known as extended Galilean invariance (EGI). We gauge fix this extended symmetry and derive the generalized Ward identity that follows from the BRS invariance of the gauge-fixed theory. This new Ward identity reduces to the standard one in the limit of zero acceleration. This gauge-fixing approach unambiguously shows that Galilean invariance and EGI constrain only the zero mode of the vertex but none of the higher wavenumber modes.

  11. arXiv Global $SU(2)_L \\otimes$BRST symmetry and its LSS theorem: Ward-Takahashi identities governing Green's functions, on-shell T-Matrix elements, and $V_{eff}$, in the scalar-sector of certain spontaneously broken non-Abelian gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, Özenç; Starkman, Glenn D.; Stora, Raymond

    This work is dedicated to the memory of Raymond Stora (1930-2015). $SU(2)_L$ is the simplest spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) non-Abelian gauge theory: a complex scalar doublet $\\phi=\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{2}}\\begin{bmatrix}H+i\\pi_3-\\pi_2 +i\\pi_1\\end{bmatrix}\\equiv\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{2}}\\tilde{H}e^{2i\\tilde{t}\\cdot\\tilde{\\vec{\\pi}}/}\\begin{bmatrix}10\\end{bmatrix}$ and a vector $\\vec{W}^\\mu$. In Landau gauge, $\\vec{W}^\\mu$ is transverse, $\\vec{\\tilde{\\pi}}$ are massless derivatively coupled Nambu-Goldstone bosons (NGB). A global shift symmetry enforces $m^{2}_{\\tilde{\\pi}}=0$. We observe that on-shell T-matrix elements of physical states $\\vec{W}^\\mu$,$\\phi$ are independent of global $SU(2)_{L}$ transformations, and the associated global current is exactly conserved for amplitudes of physical states. We identify two towers of "1-soft-pion" global Ward-Takahashi Identities (WTI), which govern the $\\phi$-sector, and represent a new global symmetry, $SU(2)_L\\otimes$BRST, a symmetry not of the Lagrangian but of the physical...

  12. Neotectonics in northern Sweden - geological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.; Witschard, F.

    1983-05-01

    Fairly large areas around the formerly known quaternary faults have been air photo interpreted. The fault known as the Parvie fault has been found to extend somewhat further towards the south, thereby crossing the valley of the Stora Lule river. Furthermore, another fault has been discovered in the Lansjaerv region, and thus the faults in this area form a better fit to the regional pattern, with a SSW - NNE trend and a relative uplift of the eastern part. The fault scarps have been leveled photogrammatrically, and reproduced on maps on the scales of 1:50000 and 1:100000, and on overview maps on the scale of 1:250000. The highest leveld scarps somewhat exceed 30 m. The total length of the faults is roughly 300 km. During the air photo interpretation, several landslides have been detected, and it seems evident from their location that there is a causal connection between faults and landslides. It seems evident that the different faults are not simultaneously formed, but created at separate events. Representative samples have been collected, and thin sections of these investigated under the microscope. Often, the bedrock shows signs of older tectonic influence, and it seems that the faults largerly have been released along existing zones of weakness in the bedrock. However, striking exceptions, with fracturing through unaltered rock, have been found in several places. The faults illustrated in the maps below undoubtedly represent the most important signs of late quaternary fault activity in Norrbotten east of the Caledonian mountains. The geographic, and very probably also causal connection between faults and landslides seems obvious in both Finland and Sweden. We need a satisfactory tectonic explanation for the faults. Undoubtedly, the glacial - isostatic forces have a central role. The strike of the faults is approximately perpendicular to the direction of plate motion, and compressive forces have acted at the formation of the faults. (author)

  13. Future carbon beams at SPIRAL1 facility: Which method is the most efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunoury, L.; Delahaye, P.; Angot, J.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Frigot, R.; Grinyer, J.; Jardin, P.; Leboucher, C.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    Compared to in-flight facilities, Isotope Separator On-Line ones can in principle produce significantly higher radioactive ion beam intensities. On the other hand, they have to cope with delays for the release and ionization which make the production of short-lived isotopes ion beams of reactive and refractory elements particularly difficult. Many efforts are focused on extending the capabilities of ISOL facilities to those challenging beams. In this context, the development of carbon beams is triggering interest [H. Frånberg, M. Ammann, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Köster, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A708 (2006); M. Kronberger, A. Gottberg, T. M. Mendonca, J. P. Ramos, C. Seiffert, P. Suominen, and T. Stora, in Proceedings of the EMIS 2012 [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source (to be published)]: despite its refractory nature, radioactive carbon beams can be produced from molecules (CO or CO2), which can subsequently be broken up and multi-ionized to the required charge state in charge breeders or ECR sources. This contribution will present results of experiments conducted at LPSC with the Phoenix charge breeder and at GANIL with the Nanogan ECR ion source for the ionization of carbon beams in the frame of the ENSAR and EMILIE projects. Carbon is to date the lightest condensable element charge bred with an ECR ion source. Charge breeding efficiencies will be compared with those obtained using Nanogan ECRIS and charge breeding times will be presented as well.

  14. Sphagnum mosses as a microhabitat for invertebrates in acidified lakes and the colour adaptation and substrate preference in Leucorrhinia dubia (Odonata, Anisoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrikson, B.-I. (Dept. of Zoology, Sect. of Animal Ecology, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    The increase of peat mosses, Sphagnum spp., in acidified lakes leads to a changed microhabitat structure for benthic invertebrates. The importance of this change was investigated for some benthic invertebrates. Comparisons between quantitative samples of Sphagnum and debris within the acidified Lake Stora Haestevatten, in the Lake Gaardsjoen catchment of SW Sweden, showed significantly higher abundances of Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Odonata, Trichoptera, Cladocera and Argyroneta aquatica (Araneae) in Sphagnum. For chironomidae and Cladocera the differences were tenfold. Special reference was made to the libellulid Leucorrhinia dubia which is common in acid lakes. In a laboratory test, late instar larvae of L. dubia were shown to change colour to correspond to the brown and green colour of Sphagnum. This result was completed with a field test where larvae of L. dubia were significantly more common in Sphagnum of the same colour as the larvae. The ability to change colour may have an adaptive value when coexisting with visual predators. Small larvae were more prevalent in Sphagnum and they also showed a preference for this substrate in the laboratory test. Laboratory tests showed mediumsized larvae preferred Sphagnum. Larvae of L. dubia were more successful as predators on Asellus aquaticus in Sphagnum substrate than in debris in the laboratory test. Laboratory predation tests with notonecta glauca, Corixa dentipes, Acilius sulcatus, Hyphydrus ovatus and L. dubia showed that they could all feed on larvae of L. dubia. The complex habitat structure of Sphagnum is probably the reason for the high abundance of invertebrates since it may serve as both shelter against predation and as foraging sites. it is probably important as a key habitat for young instars of, for example, L. dubia. In lakes with large Sphagnum mats, L. dubia can coexist with fish. The expansion of Sphagnum due to acidification will probably benefit many acid-tolerant invertebrate species. (au)

  15. Infestation of mammals by Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in south-central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tälleklint, L; Jaenson, T G

    1997-12-01

    Infestation by Ixodes ricinus ticks on rodents, hares and cervids was examined at Bogesund, 10 km north of Stockholm, in south-central Sweden during 1991-1994 and on varying hares (Lepus timidus) at Stora Karlsö and Gotska Sandön in the Baltic Sea during 1992-1993. At Bogesund, there were great differences between two consecutive years in the number of I. ricinus larvae infesting bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). The seasonal pattern of infestation by I. ricinus larvae and nymphs on bank voles was unimodal in 1991, with peaks in June-July and bimodal in 1992, with peaks in June and August. Male bank voles, compared to females and older voles, compared to young voles, harboured greater numbers of I. ricinus ticks. Apodemus mice, compared to bank voles, harboured greater numbers of I. ricinus ticks. Ixodes ricinus larvae engorged on Apodemus mice were heavier than larvae engorged on bank voles and resulted in larger nymphs. However, there was no difference in the proportions of viable nymphs resulting from larvae engorged on mice or voles. The ranges in the numbers of I. ricinus ticks infesting individual hosts were 1-451 for rodents, 16-2374 for hares and 428-2072 for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). These ranges of tick numbers are estimated to represent potential blood losses from individual hosts of approximately 0.2-65% for rodents, 0.2-13% for hares and 0.3-9.0% for roe deer. Within the populations of all host species examined, the distributions of all stages of I. ricinus were clumped, with most host individuals harbouring few ticks and only a few individuals harbouring many ticks. The data suggest that, even though a small proportion of tick hosts may be severely affected, the direct effects of feeding by I. ricinus are unlikely to play an important role on mammal population dynamics.

  16. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-12-15

    Contaminants present in paper recycling mills can degrade product properties and can also lead to substantial downtime. Of these, adhesive material such as hot melts and pressure sensitive adhesives are especially troublesome. These are known as “ stickies ” and their handling and re- moval requires process equipment such as screens and cleaners as well as chemical additives. In the preceding phase of the project we demonstrated that firing an underwater spark in a tank of stock reduces the tack of the stickies and reduces their impact. The present phase was to demon- strate the technology in full-scale trials, address any issues that might arise, and commercialize the process. Trials were run at the Appleton papers mill in West Carrollton, OH, the Graphics Packag- ing mill at Kalamazoo, MI, Stora Enso mills at Duluth, MN, and Wisconsin Rapids, WI, and the Jackson Paper mill at Sylva, NC. It was shown that the sparker not only detackified stickies but also increased the efficiency of their removal by centrifugal cleaners, improved the effectiveness of dissolved air flotation, and increased the efficiency of flotation deinking. It is estimated that the sparker improves the efficiency of hydrocyclone cleaner, deinking cells and dissolved and dispersed air flotation units by 10-15%. This translates to a corresponding energy benefit in operating these units. The technology has been licensed to Eka Chemicals, a division of Akzo Nobel.

  17. Life cycle adaption of biofuel ashes. Evaluation of new techniques for pelletizing of biofuel ashes, especially regarding operational properties and environmental effects in the forest after ash recycling. Stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevgren, Linnea; Lundmark, Jan-Erik; Jansson, Charlotta

    2000-11-01

    The aim of the project 'Adaptation of Wood Ashes to Recycling' is to evaluate a new technique - roll pelleting - for making wood ash suitable for reuse as a fertiliser for woodland. The project is being carried out at the forest product companies AssiDomaen and Stora Enso. The main financier is the Swedish National Energy Administration. Other financiers are AssiDomaen, Stora Enso, The Thermal Engineering Research Institute and The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden. The project has involved the construction of a full-scale roll pelleter in a mobile container and its trial operation at two Swedish pulp and paper mills. The leaching properties of the ash products were studied with a laboratory method. In addition, the effects of ash fertilisation with these products are being studied in a four-year field trial. Effects on soil pH, nutrient supply, soil water chemistry and ground vegetation are being evaluated by The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden and will be reported separately in the year 2003. In a laboratory prestudy, the leaching properties of pellets from twelve different ash products made in a laboratory prototype machine were evaluated. The ash products were made from residues from the AssiDomaen Froevi mill and the Stora Enso Fors mill. Fly ash from Froevi was used alone and mixed with green liquor sludge and lime sludge respectively. Fly ash from Fors was also used alone and mixed with coating colour. The laboratory method used for the evaluation of leaching properties is the method developed by IVL The Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The results show that the progress of the leaching of roll pelleted ash is significantly slower than for the corresponding crushed product and a reference lime product. The speed of leaching, measured as acid neutralisation capacity, ANC, was significantly lower for the roll pelleted ash compared to self-hardened and crushed ash products. Because of the high content of calcium, lime has on the whole, a

  18. Steam slaking of lime - kinetics and technology. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Aangslaeckning av kalk - kinetik och teknik. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2008-06-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional lime burning and slaking methods are that heat recovery is bad and heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant, and to recover heat at higher temperatures. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with water vapour, for example combined with an indirect heated lime mud drier and a lime kiln. This project is a follow-up to pilot tests performed in a specific machine equipment at year 2006. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The owner of this new project is Carnot AB and the project is performed inside the Vaermeforsk Program for Pulp and Paper Industry 2006-2008. Partners and advisers in project group have been KTH Energy Processes, CTH Energy and Environment, LTH Chemical Technology, SMA Mineral AB, and reference group from STORA Enso Skoghall, Sodra Cell, M-Real Husum and SCA Packaging Piteaa. The task in this stage has included market investigations and laboratory tests. Contacts have been made with suppliers, preliminary dimensioning of process equipment and budget offers are received. Economic calculations have been made out of the offers. The laboratory tests are done as an examination paper at KTH Energiprocesser on the reactivity of burned lime from kraft lime kiln when it is slaked with water vapour instead of green liquor. The vapour intended to be used is at atmospheric pressure or even down to 0,2 atm. Complementary addition to these laboratory

  19. Control of boiler temperature with explicit MPC; Panntemperaturreglering med explicit MPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaetteke, Ola; Velut, Stefan; Raaberg, Martin

    2012-02-15

    MPC is the multivariable controller that has been most successful in the process industry and particularly the petrochemical industry. It has been described as one of the most significant developments in process control and the main reasons for this are: 1. It handles multivariable control problems in a natural manner. 2. It is relative easy to understand the structure of the controller, which is the same whether it is a simple loop or a multivariable system. 3. It handles limitations of both the process and other practical constraints in a systematic way. Examples of this is that a valve can only work between 0 and 100 %, but also that the CO-level in the flue gas must not exceed a certain level. 4. It allows for operating conditions near critical process boundaries, which in many cases is synonymous with increased production rates, reduced raw material consumption, better energy utilization, and faster process transitions. The aim of the project is to evaluate the potential of multivariable control in the form of explicit MPC in a boiler at Stora Enso Hylte Bruk. This research task can be divided into two sub-tasks: 1. General evaluation of explicit MPC. 2. Evaluation of multivariable control of boiler temperature The purpose of subtask one is to evaluate what is required of a facility owner to implement explicit MPC in a control system. This includes everything from available calculation tools, what is important to consider during the design phase of the controller, different pitfalls that exist, management of different operating modes, to how the controller should be implemented and commissioned. Subtask two is intended to evaluate the multivariable control of a boiler of CFB type (circulating fluidized bed). MPC controller will regulate the temperature in the boiler. In order to maintain the waste incineration directive, the temperature in the upper part of the boiler is controlled. This is done by means of changes in the flow of natural gas injection and

  20. WEB-GIS Decision Support System for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Leonard, Anghel; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Le Guen, Yvi; Scradeanu, Daniel; Pagnejer, Mihaela

    2013-04-01

    Environmental decision support systems (DSS) paradigm evolves and changes as more knowledge and technology become available to the environmental community. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to extract, assess and disseminate some types of information, which are otherwise difficult to access by traditional methods. In the same time, with the help of the Internet and accompanying tools, creating and publishing online interactive maps has become easier and rich with options. The Decision Support System (MDSS) developed for the MUSTANG (A MUltiple Space and Time scale Approach for the quaNtification of deep saline formations for CO2 storaGe) project is a user friendly web based application that uses the GIS capabilities. MDSS can be exploited by the experts for CO2 injection and storage in deep saline aquifers. The main objective of the MDSS is to help the experts to take decisions based large structured types of data and information. In order to achieve this objective the MDSS has a geospatial objected-orientated database structure for a wide variety of data and information. The entire application is based on several principles leading to a series of capabilities and specific characteristics: (i) Open-Source - the entire platform (MDSS) is based on open-source technologies - (1) database engine, (2) application server, (3) geospatial server, (4) user interfaces, (5) add-ons, etc. (ii) Multiple database connections - MDSS is capable to connect to different databases that are located on different server machines. (iii)Desktop user experience - MDSS architecture and design follows the structure of a desktop software. (iv)Communication - the server side and the desktop are bound together by series functions that allows the user to upload, use, modify and download data within the application. The architecture of the system involves one database and a modular application composed by: (1) a visualization module, (2) an analysis module, (3) a guidelines module

  1. The partnership experience on the disposal of low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, P. de; Cool, W.; Hooft, E.; Waffelaert, A.; Blommaert, J.; Draulans, J.

    2008-01-01

    With the governmental decision of January 16, 1998, the long-term storage option for the low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste (category A waste) was abandoned and ONDRAF/NIRAS was given the mission to further examine the options of deep and surface disposal, in order to prepare a federal decision on the technical option to be developed. ONDRAF/NIRAS was also asked to develop the methods and structures of interaction with the local stakeholders, and to limit its siting activities to nuclear and candidate municipalities. This brought ONDRAF/NIRAS to the concept of local partnerships with interested municipalities, and during the pre-project phase 1998-2006 partnerships were created with the municipalities of Dessel (STOLA-Dessel, 1999), Mol (MONA, 2000) and Fleurus-Farciennes (PaLoFF, 2003). On 23 June, 2006 the Belgian Government decided that category A waste will be disposed of in a near-surface repository on the territory of the Dessel municipality. This decision implies that ONDRAF/NIRAS, in further interaction with the local stakeholders, can start the preparation of a licence application. This decision was the endpoint of the pre-project phase (1998-2006) and was based on the final reports of the partnerships of Dessel (STOLA-Dessel, now STORA) and Mol (MONA), approved by their municipality councils, and on ONDRAF/NIRAS final report, confirming the feasibility of the proposed disposal systems. As the municipality council of Fleurus did not approve the final report of the partnership PaLoFF, ONDRAF/NIRAS did not submit this report to the responsible minister. The preceding positive local decision in both Dessel (May 2005) and Mol (July 2005), and both on the partnership and municipality council level, to accept, under certain conditions, a disposal facility on their territory was the result of a 6 years long process of discussions within the partnership of all aspects of the disposal system and its integration in the municipality. During these

  2. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Perez-Mercader, Juan; Visser, Matt

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from QFT to the case of

  3. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes

  4. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2003-07-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Project owner has been the Swedish company Torkapparater AB, and the project is performed inside the 'Vaermeforsk Program for Pulp and Paper Industry 2004-2005'. Other partners, besides SMA Svenska Mineral AB, has been Stora Enso Skoghalls Bruk, Carnot AB, AaF Process AB and KTH Energiprocesser. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result

  5. Det diskursiva skrivandets funktion – en läromedelsanalys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Magnusson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Flera forskare har visat att lärare i skolan inte undervisar tillräckligt mycket och tillräckligt tidigt i diskursivt skrivande, ett skrivande som elever behöver för att klara sig i samhället. Som en följd av detta har det diskursiva skrivandet under de senaste åren blivit allt mer uppmärksammat i nya styrdokument och i nya läromedel. Utgångspunkten i den här artikeln är att undersöka vilket stöd lärare får för att klara den uppmärksamheten, alltså de nya kraven som styrdokumenten ställer när det gäller diskursivt skrivande.Det diskursiva skrivandets funktion undersöks här i skrivuppgifter i 19 läromedel i svenska för lågstadiet, där utgångspunkten är den stora betydelse som funktionen har när det gäller skolskrivande, i form av ett tydligt syfte, kontext och mottagare. Ivaničs skrivdiskurser är det analysverktyg som används, och skrivuppgifterna har kategoriserats utifrån dessa diskurser.Det analysen visar är framförallt att variationen är liten i skrivuppgifterna. Eleverna får träna genreform och process, men inte mycket som har med funktion i en samhällskontext utanför skolan att göra. Därutöver visar resultaten att tydliga kontexter och tydliga mottagare är ovanligt i skrivuppgifterna, och i relation till tidigare forskning kan detta ses som problematiskt, då dessa aspekter har visat sig vara avgörande för ett framgångsrikt skrivande.

  6. Samstämmighet i lärares bedömning av nationella prov i läsförståelse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tengberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tillförlitlighet i bedömning är en avgörande komponent i varje testprogram där testtagares resultat bygger på bedömares tolkningar utifrån en bedömningsskala eller en bedömningsguide. Utförliga svar på öppna uppgifter bedöms exempelvis sällan som antingen ”rätt” eller ”fel”. Istället tillämpas skalan eller bedömningsguiden för att fastställa i vilken utsträckning svaret uppvisar den efterfrågade kompetensen. I den här artikeln redovisas resultat från en studie av bedömarreliabilitet på öppna uppgifter i det nationella provets svenska läsförståelsedel i årskurs nio.För att undersöka i vilken mån provsystemet skapar förutsättningar för god bedömarreliabilitet har sex lärare fått bedöma tre elevers lösningar av 14 öppna uppgifter, totalt 252 bedömningar. Analyserna innefattar konsensusestimat (procentuell samstämmighet och Cohens kappa och konsistensestimat (ICC. Dessutom har kvalitativa analyser genomförts på uppgiftsnivå för att visa på aspekter i uppgiftskonstruktionen som kan ligga till grund för låg bedömarreliabilitet.Resultaten från studien visar på moderata nivåer av bedömarreliabilitet, både ifråga om kappavärden (.73 och ICC (.82, vilket motsvarar en variation mellan bedömningarna som får stora konsekvenser för elevernas slutgiltiga provresultat. I artikeln diskuterar vi resultatens implikationer för rättvis bedömning av elevers läsförmåga i Sverige. Vi för också ett resonemang om olika sätt att stärka bedömarreliabiliteten det nationella provet i läsförståelse.

  7. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, David [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA, Carratera Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon, Madrid, (Spain); Molina-Paris, Carmen [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Perez-Mercader, Juan [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Visser, Matt [Physics Department, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from

  8. Global U(1 ) Y⊗BRST symmetry and the LSS theorem: Ward-Takahashi identities governing Green's functions, on-shell T -matrix elements, and the effective potential in the scalar sector of the spontaneously broken extended Abelian Higgs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Bryan W.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2017-09-01

    The weak-scale U (1 )Y Abelian Higgs model (AHM) is the simplest spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) gauge theory: a scalar ϕ =1/√{2 }(H +i π )≡1/√{2 }H ˜ei π ˜/⟨H ⟩ and a vector Aμ. The extended AHM (E-AHM) adds certain heavy (MΦ2,Mψ2˜MHeavy2≫⟨H ⟩2˜mWeak2 ) spin S =0 scalars Φ and S =1/2 fermions ψ . In Lorenz gauge, ∂μAμ=0 , the SSB AHM (and E-AHM) has a global U (1 )Y conserved physical current, but no conserved charge. As shown by T. W. B. Kibble, the Goldstone theorem applies, so π ˜ is a massless derivatively coupled Nambu-Goldstone boson (NGB). Proof of all-loop-orders renormalizability and unitarity for the SSB case is tricky because the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST)-invariant Lagrangian is not U (1 )Y symmetric. Nevertheless, Slavnov-Taylor identities guarantee that on-shell T-matrix elements of physical states Aμ,ϕ , Φ , ψ (but not ghosts ω , η ¯ ) are independent of anomaly-free local U (1 )Y gauge transformations. We observe here that they are therefore also independent of the usual anomaly-free U (1 )Y global/rigid transformations. It follows that the associated global current, which is classically conserved only up to gauge-fixing terms, is exactly conserved for amplitudes of physical states in the AHM and E-AHM. We identify corresponding "undeformed" [i.e. with full global U (1 )Y symmetry] Ward-Takahashi identities (WTI). The proof of renormalizability and unitarity, which relies on BRST invariance, is undisturbed. In Lorenz gauge, two towers of "1-soft-pion" SSB global WTI govern the ϕ -sector, and represent a new global U (1 )Y⊗BRST symmetry not of the Lagrangian but of the physics. The first gives relations among off-shell Green's functions, yielding powerful constraints on the all-loop-orders ϕ -sector SSB E-AHM low-energy effective Lagrangian and an additional global shift symmetry for the NGB: π ˜→π ˜+⟨H ⟩θ . A second tower, governing on-shell T-matrix elements, replaces the old Adler

  9. Reindeer husbandry and local planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars P. Niia

    1986-06-01

    åmna forslag på hur samebyns interessen kan båtre tillvaratas och hur den kan oka sitt inflytande i planeringssammanhang. På grundval av framkomna resultat foreslås: —att samebyn skapar egen kompetens. Det år fråga om att forbereda sig infor forandringar i omgivningen exvis i form av markanvåndnings- och utvecklingsplanering. —att samebyn bygger upp den egna organisationen. —att samebyn får ett mera breddat och fordjupat inflytande i det kommunala planerings- och beslutssystemet. Detta projekt och tidigare erfarenheter visar på att samråd som form for inflytande år svag och osåker.Poronhoito ja kunnallinen suunnittelu.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Keskeinen teema poronhoidon yhteydesså on selkkaukset poronhoidon ja muiden taloudellisten hyotyjen vålillå kuten turismin, yhteiskunnan laajennuksen j.n.e. yhteisten pinta-alojen hyvåksikåytosså. Historiallinen, taannehtiva katsaus osoittaa, ettei tårna ongclma ole millåån tavalla joku uusi ilmio, vaan vanha teema vaihdellen ajassa ja alueilla. Sami Instituhttan erååsså tutkimusprojektissa on suoritettu tutkielma pitåen pååmåårånå: 1. koettaa kuvailla poronhoidon suunnitteluedellytykset, 2. koettaa selvittåå, miten poronhoidon edut otetaan talteen kunnallisessa, fyysilliscssa suunnittelussa, 3. loytåå ilmaisumuotoja siitå, miten poronhoidon maa-alueen kåytto voidaan kuvailla, 4. jåttåå ehdotuksia siitå, miten paliskunnan etuja voidaan paremmin ottaa talteen sckå miten se voi lisåtå vaikutusvaltaansa suunnittelun yhteydesså. Esilletulleiden tulosten perusteella ehdotetaan:— ettå paliskunta muodostaa oman toimivallan. On kysymys valmistautua ympåriston muutoksiin esimerkiksi maa-alueen kåyton- ja kehityssuunnittelussa, — ettå paliskunta perustaa oman jårjeston, — ettå paliskunta saa leveåmmån ja syvemmån vaikutusvallan kunnallisessa suunnittelu- ja pååtoselimesså. Tamd projekti ja aikaisempi kokemus osoittaa, ettå neuvottelu vaikutusvaltaisena on hcikkoa ja epåvarmaa.

  10. Some estimated effects of the planned harnessing of the Ounasjoki river on reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirkko Nieminen

    1983-05-01

    lisaksi tulvaniittyjen hcinåtuotto (noin 25 000 — 30 000 mk/vuosi menetettåisiin. Uusicn estcaitO|en rakentamiseen tarvittaisiin Ounasjoki-alucen paliskunnissa 6,2 milj. mk.Ounasjoki-projektets eventuella foljder på renskotseln.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Vattendragens uttnytjande for production av el-kraft har forstord renbetesmarker och forsvårat renarnas mojlighet att rora sig fritt i Finland. Som exempel hårav må nåmnas byggnadsprojekten for Lokka och Porttipahta regleringsreservoarer (inalles 630 km2 fr.o.m. borjan av 1960-talet inom Lappi renbeteslag. Ounasjoki-projektet omfattar 10 kraftverk samt 2 stora och 12 mindre reservoarer (inalles 270 km2. Byggnadsprojektcts influensområde skulle omfatta 1070 renågarens hushåll inom 7 renbeteslag. Genom att anvånda tre olika råkncsått kommer man till ett resultat, att man skulle bli tvungen att forminska maksimalt 476, 2824 och 9900 renar (ett kottproduction på ca. 0.12-2.5 million FIM/år och skulle mista 64 året rundt anvåndbara arbetsplatser och dessutom bli lidande av flere olika slags damage (forstorda stångslen osv. med ett varde på ca. 3.9 million FIM. Två rcncgendomar skulle bli f5rstorda (0.5 million FIM och dessutom skulle man forlora flodångarnas hoskord (25 000 - 30 000 PTM/år. Inom Ounasjoki-områdets renbeteslag skulle man behova 6.2 million FIM for uppråttande av nya stångsel på området.

  11. Influence of vegetation and sewage sludge on sealing layer of fly ashes in post-treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Inverkan av vegetation och roetslam paa taetskikt av flygaska vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara (Inst. of Bothany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Karl-Erik (Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Mining industry produces 25 Mton mine tailings yearly that are deposited in impoundments in the nature. When this sand, containing sulphur rich minerals, reacts with oxygen and water it starts to weather and acidic metal rich water is formed. To prevent this, the sand can be covered with a sealing layer and a protective cover layer with vegetation. As sealing and cover materials fly ashes and sewage sludge can be used. The aim of this investigation was to find out: 1) how sealing layer of fly ashes with and without sewage sludge, and a cover with sewage sludge can be placed practically on mine tailings in a cold climate. 2) how such a cover should be constructed to minimize the risk of root penetration and leakage of nutrients and metals 3) which vegetation that is most suitable This was investigated in field- and greenhouse tests with a sealing layer of fly ash and/or sewage sludge with a cover layer of sewage sludge in which different plant species were established. The practical application was performed in 0.3-1 ha plots at a mine tailings impoundments at Boliden. The ability of plant roots to penetrate a sealing layer was investigated, as well as the effect of simulated root exudates on the penetration resistance in hardened ash. Leakage of nutrients and metals from cover layer of sewage sludge, in some cases with sealing layers beneath, was investigated in field and greenhouse lysimeters. Various plant species were compared on their ability to affect metal and nutrient leakage as well as root penetration and shattering of the hardened ashes. The project was a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field tests were performed at the impoundment Gillervattnet in Boliden and in Garpenberg. Cooperating were also Iggesund Paperboard, Skellefteaa Kraft, Stora Enso Fors, Umeaa Energi and Vattenfall, all producers of ashes that were used, as well as Stockholm Vatten AB, which produced the sewage sludge. The most important conclusions

  12. Fly ash stabilisation of gravel roads; Flygaska som foerstaerkningslager i grusvaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef

    2006-01-15

    Majority of the existing gravel roads have low bearing capacity during spring and autumn, due to thaw and/or rain. Low bearing capacity leads often to bad road conditions. This situation results in higher costs for the lumber industry and the public. Management of gravel roads all the year around would traditionally require excavation of frost susceptible soils and replacement with natural materials. Fly ash (from bio fuels) has good technical properties as bearing layer in road constructions. Fly ash stabilised gravel roads have better function and longer life span with less maintenance than traditional gravel roads. The aim of this project is to show how fly ash stabilisation of gravel roads can increase bearing capacity and what its environmental impact is. The overall aim is to make it easier for entrepreneurs and consulting companies to use fly ash during gravel road renovation and/or constructing new gravel roads. This report targets fly ash producers and road constructors as well as environmental agencies. Two different pilot tests were investigated in this study, Norberg with fly ash from Stora Enso Fors AB, and Boerje (Uppsala) with fly ash from Vattenfall Uppsala AB. Both road sections with related reference section were investigated during a two year period. Only fly ash was used in the bearing layer at Norberg and fly ash gravel was used at Boerje. Bearing capacity was investigated twice, for both locations, November 2003 one month after the road renovation and during thawing, April 2004. Water samples from lysimeters, ground water and surface water were only collected and analysed from Norberg. Experience from the fly ash stabilised road sections show that curing and traffic load can with time compensate for less compaction. The same is noticed at Boerje, although deflection measurements show that there are small differences. Stabilisation of gravel roads increases the roads bearing capacity. Two years after stabilisation 90 timber loads were

  13. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2004-04-01

    örhet. Glykogenförrådet (energinivån i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet också indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vår undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehållet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehåll och pH-värden i 3 muskler från kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris undersöktes också. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehåll jämfört med de två andra musklerna. Det var inte så stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2 mellan de två hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort, däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2 mycket låg hos kronhjort (3,8% jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%. Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för både kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde också visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18−123 mmol/kg våtvikt när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehåll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.

  14. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lundmark

    2007-04-01

    during hundreds of years. To a large extent these long-term external influences have made reindeer pastoralism what it is today. That aspect should not be overlooked when assessing the future prospects of reindeer pastoralism in Scandinavia.Renskötseln i Sverige 1550-1950Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Först vid mitten av 1500-talet finns det källmaterial som ger oss en tämligen detaljerad bild av renskötseln i Sverige. Vid den tiden levde samerna i en jakt- , fiske- och samlarekonomi. En familj hade normalt 10-20 renar som främst utnyttjades vid transporter. Tamrenarna kunde också mjölkas och fungera som lockdjur vid vildrensjakt. Under senare delen av 1500-talet köpte svenska staten och handelsmän stora mängder pälsverk av samerna. Den vanligaste betalningen var smör och mjöl. Detta skapade ett välstånd som ledde till en betydande folkökning i svenska lappmarken. Befolkningen blev för stor för att rymmas inom ramarna för en jaktochfiskeekonomi. En kris i början av 1600-talet blev startpunkten för övergången till en storskalig rennomadism.Fram till mitten av 1700-talet var den intensiva renskötseln framgångsrik. Men renskötseln blev efterhand alltför intensiv. Under senare delen av 1700-talet började det spridas sjukdomar i de tätt sammanhållna hjordarna. De första decennierna av 1800-talet innebar en allvarlig kris i renskötseln. Antalet renskötande fjällsamer minskade kraftigt, främst genom utvandring till norska kusten. Den intensiva renskötseln med mjölkning av renarna började ersättas av en extensiv renskötsel inriktad på köttproduktion de sista decennierna av 1800-talet. I norr var naturförhållandena och influenser från Kautokeino-samerna en viktig faktor, i söder utvecklades renskötseln i extensiv riktning främst därför att marknaden för renkött kom närmare renskötarna. Under 1920-talet upphörde mjölkningen av renar i Sverige, utom i några enstaka familjer. Då hade förflyttningarna av samer fr

  15. Effects of reindeer density on vascular plant diversity on North Scandinavian mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Olofsson

    2005-04-01

    studerade hur renbete påverkar kärlväxtflorans artrikedom och diversitet på dolomitpåverkade lågalpina lokaler i de artrikaste delarna av norra Fennoskandien. Vi inventerade 8 lokaler med olika rentätheter. Två lokaler ligger inom Malla Nationalpark, där renar har varit förbjudna sedan 1981 och starkt begränsade sedan 1950-talet. De sex andra lokalerna ligger i andra artrika områden med samma dolomitdominerade berggrund, men är betade av renar. Rentätheterna vid de studerade lokalerna varierar från helt obefintligt till bland de högsta rentätheter man kan finna i Fennoskandien. Inventeringen utfördes genom att systematiskt undersöka fyra 2 m x 10 m stora ytor i varje lokal i en habitattyp som är speciellt rik i ovanliga kärlväxter (fjällsippehed-lågörtsäng komplex. Varje yta delades upp i 20 småytor (1 m x 1 m, och en total artlista upprättades för var och en av dessa småytor. Den första axeln i DCA (detrended correspondence analyses analysen korrelerade med rentätheten. Det visar att renar påverkar sammansättningen av växtsamhället. Ingen av de vanliga måtten på biodiversitet (artrikedom eller Shannon-Wiener diversitetsindex var korrelerade med rentätheten. Trots detta, var tätheterna av Ca-gynnade växter och arter rödlistade i Finland positivt korrelerade med rentätheten. Trots att renarna inte påverkade totala artrikedommen, kan de vara betydelsefulla för regionala biodiversiteten eftersom de gynnar ovanliga och hotade arter. De vanliga måtten på biodiversitet har begränsat värde för bevarandebiologiska frågeställningar, eftersom de är lika känsliga för ovanliga och vanliga arter.

  16. Electron microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Rahko

    1990-08-01

    ähän ilmeisesti limaa sisältäviä jyväsiä solulimassaan. Rau-has- ja pikarisoluissa säännölliset mikrovillukset sen sijaan puuttuvat. Niiden sytoplasman täyttävät runsaat li-mapalloset, joita solut muodostavat hyvin kehittyneessä Golgin laitteessaan erittäen limaa sappikäytävän onte-loon. Erite näkyy hienojyväisenä tai tasa-aineisena seinämiä reunustavana aineena. Poikkeuksellisena havaintona voidaan pitää kerässolujen kerästen tai lähes kokonaisten kerässolujen esiintymistä sappikäytäväon-teloissa mahdollisesti osoituksena solujen vaelluskyvystä. Vaikka epiteelisolut muodostavat lujia solukalvosi-doksia toisiinsa, kerässolut eivät kiinnittyneet muihin soluihin. Ilmeistä on, että pinnallisten epiteelisolujen toiminta on pääasiassa absorptiivista, mutta rauhasepiteelisolut ovat erikoistuneet eritystoimintaan.En elektronmikroskopisk studie av gallgången hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Gallgångarnas yt- och körtelepitel bestod av höga epitelceller beklädda med ett regelbundet villusskikt. Intercellulara desmosomer sågs i epitelcellernas parietala cytoplasmamembraner. De intraepiteliala globulara leukocyterna saknade desmosomer eller andra bindningar med nårliggande celler. I de superficiala epitelcellernas apikala cytoplasma fanns elektrontata små kroppar antagligen bestående av mucin. Bägar- och de djupare belagna körtelcellerna inneholl rikligt med stora mucin granulor med ett mindre elektrontatt matrix. Det föreföll som om dessa celler skulle vara sekrerande och de superficiala epitelcellerna absorberande. Kärnen och andra cytoplasmatiska organeller hade egenskaper jamförbara med epitelceller i allmänhet. Gallgången var oftast tom men ibland sågs ett finkornigt amorft material i den. Som en anmarkningsvard observation ansees forekomsten av delar och t.o.m. hela globulara leukocyter i gallgången.

  17. Blood composition of the reindeer. I. Haematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1981-05-01

    raudan puutoksesta tai raskauden ajan punasolujen haviamisesta. Vapaana laiduntavan vaatimen ruumiinpaino (vaihtelu 50-70 kg, punasolumaara (8-11 x 1012/l, hemoglobiinipitoisuus (118-185 g/1, punasolujen tilavuusosuus (42-51%, valkosolumaara (6-10 x 109/l, lasko (3-21 mm/t ja seerumin rautapitoisuus (23-54 micromol/l olivat korkeimmillaan kesalla ja syksylla ja laskivat talvella. Alhaisimmat pitoisuudet mitattiin nalkiintyneille vaatimille varhaiskevaalla. Korkeat veriarvot ja ruumiinpainot mitattiin vaatimille, joita oli ruokittu talvella sailorehulla ja melassilla.Renblod. I. HematologiAbstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Renen, ett halvtamt boskapsdjur, år en idisslare med hog anpassningsformåga till de stora omvåxlingarna av de olika årstiderna som år karakteristiska for de nordliga regionerna. Eftersom renen år ekonomiskt betydelsesfull och man tidigare i ganska liten utstråckning undersokt dess blodsammansåttning, undersoktes 578 renar hematologiskt. Blodproven togs från vena jugularis i samband med oronmårkning av kalvarna på sommaren och i samband med skiljning av 10 renbeteslag på hosten och vintern i norra Finland under olika såsonger 1973-79. Hos nyfodda kalvar var foljande vården låga: mångden av roda blodkroppar (8xl012/l, hemoglobin (108 g/l, hematokrit (35%, vita blodkroppar (6x109/l, serumjårnhalt (26 micromol/1. Dessa vården nådde nivån av ett vuxet djur på hosten i en alder av 5 månader (respektive medeltal 11 x 1012/1, 182 g/1, 51%, 9x109/l, 44 micromol/1. Totalvårdet for serum bilirubin visade sig vara relativt stabilt och B12 vitaminhalten var hog under de forstå dagarna efter fodseln. Det stabila serum bilirubinvårdet tyder på en relativt liten splittring av fetala erytrocyter. E-MCV hos vuxna renkor var ca. 49 fl, de runda erytrocyternas diameter ca. 5,5 microm och deras tjocklek ca. 1,5 microm. Några «sickligs» (skårvaktiga celler kunde inte konstateras. De roda blodkropparnas osmotiska splittring startade i en Na

  18. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folacci, Antoine; Jensen, Bruce

    2003-12-01

    be of great interest for graduate and postgraduate students as well as workers in the domains of quantum field theory in flat and in curved spacetime and string theories. But we believe that the reader must have previously studied standard textbooks on quantum field theory and general relativity. Even with this preparation, it is by no means an easy book to read. However, the reward is to be able to share the deep and unique vision of the quantum theory of fields and its formalism by one of its greatest expositors. References [1] DeWitt B S 1965 Dynamical Theory of Groups and Fields (Les Houches Lectures 1963) (New York: Gordon and Breach) [2] DeWitt B S 1984 Relativity, Groups and Topology II (Les Houches Lectures 1983) ed R Stora and B S DeWitt (Amsterdam: North-Holland) [3] DeWitt B S 1994 Supermanifolds (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

  19. A model for analyzing influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Eriksson

    1987-06-01

    r som renarna bedoms ha behov av detta foder. De två senare uppgifterna grundas på uppskattningar av personer med stor erfarenhet av renskotsel. Den årliga produktionen av trådlavar består dels av lavtillvåxten i det betningsbara hojdintervallet, dels av trådlav som faller ner på snon. Barrdominerade bestånd aldre ån hundra år antas vara trådlavbårande, men åven denna areal reduceras med hånsyn till praktisk tillgånglighet. Årlig produktion av trådlav inom råckhåll for renen skattas som produkt av mångden trådlav, dess tillvåxtprocent och arealen. Av den trådlav som årli-gen faller ner på marken antas en fjårdedel vara tillgånglig under vårvintern. Efterfrågan på trådlav beråknas på i princip samma sått som efterfrågan på marklav, men antal betningsda-gar per år åk lågre eftersom trådlav huvudsakligen år ett visserligen hogkvalitativt och låttillgångligt, men dock nodfoder. Resultaten år osåkra av två huvudorsaker. Dels pga inverkan av faktorer som inte ingår i modellen, dels osåkerhetejn i de faktorer som ingår i modellen. Modellen innehåller uppenbart forenklingar av verkliga samband. Dessa forenklingar beror huvudsakligen på viss brist på grunddata. Mojligheterna att dra såkre slutsatser kommer att oka i takt med båttre kunskap om utnyttjade samband och uppgifter. Den geografiska indelningen i lånsdelar beror på utformningen av riksskogstaxeringen. Forhållandena kan givetvis variera inom dessa lånsdelar, som var och en består av ett flertal samebyar. Resultaten får således inte tillåmpas på enskilda samebyar. Studien visar på en metod for att belysa hur renskotselns lavbete kommer att utvecklas i relation till virkes-produktionen. Resultaten år dock allt for osåkra for att man skall kunna dra några såkra slutsatser. Resultaten antyder emellertid att for vissa områden finns redan i dag en brist på lavbete for den renpopulation som kalkylerats med i denna studie. Beråkningarna antyder att

  20. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulling, S. A.

    2006-05-01

    Witt B 1964 Dynamical theory of groups and fields Relativity, Groups and Topology ed C DeWitt and B DeWitt (London: Gordon and Breach) pp 585 820 (Republished as DeWitt B S 1965 Dynamical Theory of Groups and Fields (London: Gordon and Breach)) DeWitt B 1984 The spacetime approach to quantum field theory Relativity, Groups and Topology II ed BS DeWitt and R Stora (Amersterdam: North-Holland) pp381 738 DeWitt B 1984 Supermanifolds (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) DeWitt B 1975 Phys. Rep. 19 295 357 Alvarez-Gaumé L and Witten E 1983 Nucl. Phys. B 234 269 330