Xingbo Liu; Ever Barbero; Bruce Kang; Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan; James Headrick; Carl Irwin
are due to: i) a reduced number of process shutdowns to change hardware or lining material, ii) reduced need to produce new hardware or lining material, iii) improved product quality leads to reduced need to remake product or manufacturing of new product, iv) reduction in contamination of melt from degradation of refractory and metallic components, v) elimination of worn hardware will increase efficiency of process, vi) reduced refractory lining deterioration or formation of a less insulating phase, would result in decreased heat loss through the walls. Projected 2015 benefits for the U.S. aluminum industry, assuming 21% market penetration of improved refractory materials, are energy savings of approximately 0.2 trillion BTU/year, cost savings of $2.3 billion/year and carbon reductions of approximately 1.4 billion tons/year. The carbon reduction benefit of the project for the hot-dip galvanize and aluminum industries combined is projected to be approximately 2.2 billion tons/year in 2015. Pathways from research to commercialization were based on structure of the project’s industrial partnerships. These partnerships included suppliers, industrial associations, and end users. All parties were involved in conducting the project including planning and critiquing the trials. Supplier companies such as Pyrotech Metaullics, Stoody, and Duraloy have commercialized products and processes developed on the project.