Ion stochastic heating by obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Xinliang; Lu Quanming; Wu Mingyu; Wang Shui
2012-01-01
The ion motions in obliquely propagating Alfven waves with sufficiently large amplitudes have already been studied by Chen et al.[Phys. Plasmas 8, 4713 (2001)], and it was found that the ion motions are stochastic when the wave frequency is at a fraction of the ion gyro-frequency. In this paper, with test particle simulations, we investigate the ion motions in obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves and find that the ion motions also become stochastic when the amplitude of the magnetosonic waves is sufficiently large due to the resonance at sub-cyclotron frequencies. Similar to the Alfven wave, the increase of the propagating angle, wave frequency, and the number of the wave modes can lower the stochastic threshold of the ion motions. However, because the magnetosonic waves become more and more compressive with the increase of the propagating angle, the decrease of the stochastic threshold with the increase of the propagating angle is more obvious in the magnetosonic waves than that in the Alfven waves.
Observation of fluctuations responsible for stochastic ion heating in a turbulent plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amagishi, Y.; Iguchi, H.; Ito, Y.; Kawabe, T.
1977-10-01
Experiments are described in which the correlation time and fluctuation level of ion acoustic waves are measured under the condition of turbulent heating using twin capacitive probes. At the anomalously resistive time, the correlation time becomes shorter, typically several periods of ion waves, and the energy density of the waves is of the order of 10 -2 n sub(e)T sub(e). The ion heating rate previously reported is well explained by these results to be due to stochastic mechanism. (auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gormezano, C.; Hess, W.; Ichtchenko, G.
1980-07-01
The already obtained data on the Wega Tokamak by lower hybrid heating (f=500 MHz - Psub(HF)=130 KW) are revisited in the light of recent theories on ion stochastic heating and quasi-linear electron Landau damping. It is possible to correctly estimate with these theories the fast ion mean energy, the H.F. power density coupled to the ions and that coupled to the electrons. The values of the parallel index of refraction, Nsub(//), which are necessary to obtain a good quantitative agreement between experiment and theoretical estimates, are the same for the ions and for the electrons, even though at higher values than expected
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malescio, G.
1981-04-01
The two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation describing the ion motion in a coherent lower hybrid wave above the stochasticity threshold is analytically solved. An expression is given for the steady state power dissipation
Ion cyclotron resonance heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.
1982-01-01
Ion cyclotron resonance heating of plasmas in tokamak and EBT configurations has been studied using 1-2/2 and 2-1/2 dimensional fully self-consistent electromagnetic particle codes. We have tested two major antenna configurations; we have also compared heating efficiencies for one and two ion species plasmas. We model a tokamak plasma with a uniform poloidal field and 1/R toroidal field on a particular q surface. Ion cyclotron waves are excited on the low field side by antennas parallel either to the poloidal direction or to the toroidal direction with different phase velocities. In 2D, minority ion heating (vsub(perpendicular)) and electron heating (vsub(parallel),vsub(perpendicular)) are observed. The exponential electron heating seems due to the decay instability. The minority heating is consistent with mode conversion of fast Alfven waves and heating by electrostatic ion cyclotron modes. Minority heating is stronger with a poloidal antenna. The strong electron heating is accompanied by toroidal current generation. In 1D, no thermal instability was observed and only strong minority heating resulted. For an EBT plasma we model it by a multiple mirror. We have tested heating efficiency with various minority concentrations, temperatures, mirror ratios, and phase velocities. In this geometry we have beach or inverse beach heating associated with the mode conversion layer perpendicular to the toroidal field. No appreciable electron heating is observed. Heating of ions is linear in time. For both tokamak and EBT slight majority heating above the collisional rate is observed due to the second harmonic heating. (author)
Computational stochastic model of ions implantation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zmievskaya, Galina I., E-mail: zmi@gmail.ru; Bondareva, Anna L., E-mail: bal310775@yandex.ru [M.V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics RAS, 4,Miusskaya sq., 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Levchenko, Tatiana V., E-mail: tatlevchenko@mail.ru [VNII Geosystem Russian Federal Center, Varshavskoye roadway, 8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maino, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.maino@enea.it [Scuola di Lettere e BeniCulturali, University di Bologna, sede di Ravenna, via Mariani 5, 48100 Ravenna (Italy)
2015-03-10
Implantation flux ions into crystal leads to phase transition /PT/ 1-st kind. Damaging lattice is associated with processes clustering vacancies and gaseous bubbles as well their brownian motion. System of stochastic differential equations /SDEs/ Ito for evolution stochastic dynamical variables corresponds to the superposition Wiener processes. The kinetic equations in partial derivatives /KE/, Kolmogorov-Feller and Einstein-Smolukhovskii, were formulated for nucleation into lattice of weakly soluble gases. According theory, coefficients of stochastic and kinetic equations uniquely related. Radiation stimulated phase transition are characterized by kinetic distribution functions /DFs/ of implanted clusters versus their sizes and depth of gas penetration into lattice. Macroscopic parameters of kinetics such as the porosity and stress calculated in thin layers metal/dielectric due to Xe{sup ++} irradiation are attracted as example. Predictions of porosity, important for validation accumulation stresses in surfaces, can be applied at restoring of objects the cultural heritage.
Electron heat transport in stochastic magnetic layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becoulet, M.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Capes, H.; Grosman, A.
1999-06-01
Progress in the theoretical understanding of the local behaviour of the temperature field in ergodic layer was done in the framework of quasi-linear approach but this quasi-linear theory was not complete since the resonant modes coupling (due to stochasticity) was neglected. The stochastic properties of the magnetic field in the ergodic zone are now taken into account by a non-linear coupling of the temperature modes. The three-dimension heat transfer modelling in the ergodic-divertor configuration is performed by quasi-linear (ERGOT1) and non-linear (ERGOT2) numerical codes. The formalism and theoretical basis of both codes are presented. The most important effect that can be simulated with non-linear code is the averaged temperature profile flattening that occurs in the ergodic zone and the barrier creation that appears near the separatrix during divertor operation. (A.C.)
Single-particle stochastic heat engine
Rana, Shubhashis; Pal, P. S.; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A. M.
2014-10-01
We have performed an extensive analysis of a single-particle stochastic heat engine constructed by manipulating a Brownian particle in a time-dependent harmonic potential. The cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps similar to that of a Carnot engine. The engine shows qualitative differences in inertial and overdamped regimes. All the thermodynamic quantities, including efficiency, exhibit strong fluctuations in a time periodic steady state. The fluctuations of stochastic efficiency dominate over the mean values even in the quasistatic regime. Interestingly, our system acts as an engine provided the temperature difference between the two reservoirs is greater than a finite critical value which in turn depends on the cycle time and other system parameters. This is supported by our analytical results carried out in the quasistatic regime. Our system works more reliably as an engine for large cycle times. By studying various model systems, we observe that the operational characteristics are model dependent. Our results clearly rule out any universal relation between efficiency at maximum power and temperature of the baths. We have also verified fluctuation relations for heat engines in time periodic steady state.
Stochastic heating in the cyclotron resonance of electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.
1999-01-01
The study of the different schemes of plasma heating by radiofrequency waves is a very actual problem related with the plasma heating in different machines and the particle acceleration mechanisms. In this work, it is obtained the expression for the temporal evolution of the energy absorbed in the cyclotron resonance of electrons where it is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. It is obtained the stochastic criteria in a magnetic configuration of an Ecr type plasma source. (Author)
Impact of wave phase jumps on stochastic heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zasenko, V.I.; Zagorodny, A.G.; Cherniak, O.M.
2016-01-01
Interaction of charged particles with fields of random waves brings about known effects of stochastic acceleration and heating. Jumps of wave phases can increase the intensity of these processes substantially. Numerical simulation of particle heating and acceleration by waves with regular phases, waves with jumping phase and stochastic electric field impulses is performed. Comparison of the results shows that to some extent an impact of phase jumps is similar to the action of separate field impulses. Jumps of phase not only increase the intensity of resonant particle heating but involves in this process non-resonant particles from a wide range of initial velocities
Collisionally induced stochastic dynamics of fast ions in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgdoerfer, J.
1989-01-01
Recent developments in the theory of excited state formation in collisions of fast highly charged ions with solids are reviewed. We discuss a classical transport theory employing Monte-Carlo sampling of solutions of a microscopic Langevin equation. Dynamical screening by the dielectric medium as well as multiple collisions are incorporated through the drift and stochastic forces in the Langevin equation. The close relationship between the extrinsically stochastic dynamics described by the Langevin and the intrinsic stochasticity in chaotic nonlinear dynamical systems is stressed. Comparison with experimental data and possible modification by quantum corrections are discussed. 49 refs., 11 figs
Ion Bernstein wave heating research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, Masayuki.
1992-03-01
Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW's low phase velocity (ω/k perpendicular ∼ V Ti much-lt V α ) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion α-particles. In addition, the property of IBW's that k perpendicular ρ i ∼ 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW's can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research
Stochasticity and superadiabaticity in radiofrequency plasma heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1979-04-01
In a plasma subject to radiofrequency fields, it is only the resonant particles - comprising just a minor portion of the total velocity distribution - which are strongly affected. Under near-fusion conditions, thermalization by Coulomb collisions is slow, and noncollisional stochasticity can play an important role in reshaping f(v). It is found that the common rf interactions, including Landau, cyclotron and transit-time damping, can be fitted in a unified manner by a simple two-step one-parameter (epsilon) mapping which can display collision-free stochastic or adiabatic (also called superadiabatic) behavior, depending on the choice of epsilon. The effect on the evolution of the space averaged f (x,v,t) is reasonably well described by a pseudo-stochastic diffusion function, D/sub PS/(v,epsilon) which is the quasilinear diffusion coefficient but with appropriate widening of the delta-function spikes. Coulomb collisions, leading to D/sub Coul/(v) which may be added and directly compared to D/sub PS/(v,epsilon), are introduced by Langevin terms in the mapping equations
Mechanisms of Stochastic Diffusion of Energetic Ions in Spherical Tori
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; R.B. White; Yu.V. Yakovenko
2001-01-18
Stochastic diffusion of the energetic ions in spherical tori is considered. The following issues are addressed: (I) Goldston-White-Boozer diffusion in a rippled field; (ii) cyclotron-resonance-induced diffusion caused by the ripple; (iii) effects of non-conservation of the magnetic moment in an axisymmetric field. It is found that the stochastic diffusion in spherical tori with a weak magnetic field has a number of peculiarities in comparison with conventional tokamaks; in particular, it is characterized by an increased role of mechanisms associated with non-conservation of the particle magnetic moment. It is concluded that in current experiments on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) the stochastic diffusion does not have a considerable influence on the confinement of energetic ions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fivaz, M.; Fasoli, A.; Appert, K.; Trans, T.M.; Tran, M.Q.; Skiff, F.
1993-08-01
Dynamical chaos is produced by the interaction between plasma particles and two electrostatic waves. Experiments performed in a linear magnetized plasma and a 1D particle-in-cell simulation agree qualitatively: above a threshold wave amplitude, ion stochastic diffusion and heating occur on a fast time scale. Self-consistency appears to limit the extent of the heating process. (author) 5 figs., 18 refs
Ion heat transport studies in JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mantica, P; Angioni, C; Baiocchi, B
2011-01-01
Detailed experimental studies of ion heat transport have been carried out in JET exploiting the upgrade of active charge exchange spectroscopy and the availability of multi-frequency ion cyclotron resonance heating with 3He minority. The determination of ion temperature gradient (ITG) threshold a...
Low-altitude ion heating with downflowing and upflowing ions
Shen, Y.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.; James, G.; Miles, D.; Cogger, L. L.; Perry, G. W.
2017-12-01
Mechanisms that energize ions at the initial stage of ion upflow are still not well understood. We statistically investigate ionospheric ion energization and field-aligned motion at very low altitudes (330-730 km) using simultaneous plasma, magnetic field, wave electric field and optical data from the e-POP satellite. The high-time-resolution (10 ms) dataset enables us to study the micro-structures of ion heating and field-aligned ion motion. The ion temperature and field-aligned bulk flow velocity are derived from 2-D ion distribution functions measured by the SEI instrument. From March 2015 to March 2016, we've found 17 orbits (in total 24 ion heating periods) with clear ion heating signatures passing across the dayside cleft or the nightside auroral regions. Most of these events have consistent ion heating and flow velocity characteristics observed from both the SEI and IRM instruments. The perpendicular ion temperature goes up to 4.5 eV within a 2 km-wide region in some cases, in which the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) sees broadband extremely low frequency (BBELF) waves, demonstrating significant wave-ion heating down to as low as 350 km. The e-POP Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) and Magnetic Field (MGF) instruments show that many events are associated with active aurora and are within downward current regions. Contrary to what would be expected from mirror-force acceleration of heated ions, the majority of these heating events (17 out of 24) are associated with the core ion downflow rather than upflow. These statistical results provide us with new sights into ion heating and field-aligned flow processes at very low altitudes.
Ion and electron heating in ICRF heating experiments on LHD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saito, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)] [and others
2001-02-01
This paper reports on the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating conducted in 1999 in the 3rd experimental campaign on the Large Helical Device (LHD) with an emphasis on the optimization of the heating regime. Specifically, an exhaustive study of seven different heating regimes was carried out by changing the RF frequency relative to the magnetic field intensity, and the dependence of the heating efficiency on H-minority concentration was investigated. It was found in the experiment that both ion and electron heating are attainable with the same experimental setup by properly choosing the frequency relative to the magnetic field intensity. In the cases of both electron heating and ion heating, the power absorption efficiency depends on the minority ion concentration. An optimum minority concentration exists in the ion heating case while, in the electron heating case, the efficiency increases with concentration monotonically. A simple model calculation is introduced to provide a heuristic understanding of these experimental results. Among the heating regimes examined in this experiment, one of the ion heating regimes was finally chosen as the optimized heating regime and various high performance discharges were realized with it. (author)
Stochastic analysis of residential micro combined heat and power system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karami, H.; Sanjari, M. J.; Gooi, H. B.
2017-01-01
In this paper the combined heat and power functionality of a fuel-cell in a residential hybrid energy system, including a battery, is studied. The demand uncertainties are modeled by investigating the stochastic load behavior by applying Monte Carlo simulation. The colonial competitive algorithm...... algorithm. The optimized scheduling of different energy resources is listed in an efficient look-up table for all time intervals. The effects of time of use and the battery efficiency and its size are investigated on the operating cost of the hybrid energy system. The results of this paper are expected...
Heat flux driven ion turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.
1998-01-01
This work is an analysis of an ion turbulence in a tokamak in the case where the thermal flux is fixed and the temperature profile is allowed to fluctuate. The system exhibits some features of Self-Organized Critical systems. In particular, avalanches are observed. Also the frequency spectrum of the thermal flux exhibits a structure similar to the one of a sand pile automaton, including a 1/f behavior. However, the time average temperature profile is found to be supercritical, i.e. the temperature gradient stays above the critical value. Moreover, the heat diffusivity is lower for a turbulence calculated at fixed flux than a fixed temperature gradient, with the same time average temperature. This behavior is attributed to a stabilizing effect of avalanches. (author)
Heating tokamaks via the ion-cyclotron and ion-ion hybrid resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, F.W.
1977-04-01
For the ion-ion hybrid resonance it is shown that: (1) the energy absorption occurs via a sequence of mode conversions; (2) a poloidal field component normal to the ion-ion hybrid mode conversion surface strongly influences the mode conversion process so that roughly equal electron and ion heating occurs in the present proton-deuterium experiments, while solely electron heating is predicted to prevail in deuterium-tritium reactors; (3) the ion-ion hybrid resonance suppresses toroidal eigenmodes; and (4) wave absorption in minority fundamental ion-cyclotron heating experiments will be dominated by ion-ion hybrid mode conversion absorption for minority concentrations exceeding roughly 1 percent. For the ion-cyclotron resonance, it is shown that: (1) ion-cyclotron mode conversion leads to surface electron heating; and (2) ion-cyclotron mode conversion absorption dominates fundamental ion-cyclotron absorption thereby preventing efficient ion heating
Potential of stochastic cooling of heavy ions in the LHC
Schaumann, M; Blaskiewicz, M
2013-01-01
The dynamics of the high intensity lead beams in the LHC are strongly influenced by intra-beam scattering (IBS), leading to significant emittance growth and particle losses at all energies. Particle losses during collisions are dominated by nuclear electromagnetic processes and the debunching effect arising from the influence of IBS, resulting in a non-exponential intensity decay during the fill and short luminosity lifetimes. In the LHC heavy ion runs, 3 experiments will be taking data and the average fill duration will be rather short as a consequence of the high burn-off rate. The achievements with stochastic cooling at RHIC suggest that such a system at LHC could substantially reduce the emittance growth and the debunching component during injection and collisions. The luminosity lifetime and fill length could be improved to optimize the use of the limited run time of 4 weeks per year. This paper discusses the first results of a feasibility study to use stochastic cooling on the lead ion beams in the LHC....
Theory of ion heat transport in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gott, Y.V.; Yurchenko, E.I.
1987-01-01
Experiments which have been carried out in several tokamaks to determine the ion thermal conductivity show that it is several times the value predicted by the neoclassical theory. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is proposed. When the finite width of a banana is taken into account, there are substantial increases in the heat fluxes which stem from the important contribution of superthermal ions to the transport. If the electron diffusive flux is zero, a systematic account of the ions with E>T leads to an ion heat flux with a finite banana width which is two to four times the neoclassical prediction. The effect of the anomalous nature of the electron flux on the ion heat transport is analyzed. An expression is derived for calculating the ion heat transport over the entire range of collision rates
Ergodicity of the Stochastic Nosé-Hoover Heat Bath
Wei Chung Lo,; Baowen Li,
2010-07-01
We numerically study the ergodicity of the stochastic Nosé-Hoover heat bath whose formalism is based on the Markovian approximation for the Nosé-Hoover equation [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77 (2008) 103001]. The approximation leads to a Langevin-like equation driven by a fluctuating dissipative force and multiplicative Gaussian white noise. The steady state solution of the associated Fokker-Planck equation is the canonical distribution. We investigate the dynamics of this method for the case of (i) free particle, (ii) nonlinear oscillators and (iii) lattice chains. We derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the free particle and present approximate analytical solution for the stationary distribution in the context of the Markovian approximation. Numerical simulation results for nonlinear oscillators show that this method results in a Gaussian distribution for the particles velocity. We also employ the method as heat baths to study nonequilibrium heat flow in one-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU-β) and Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) lattices. The establishment of well-defined temperature profiles are observed only when the lattice size is large. Our results provide numerical justification for such Markovian approximation for classical single- and many-body systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, S; Turner, M M
2013-01-01
Dual-frequency capacitive discharges are widespread in the semiconductor industry and are used, for example, in etching of semiconductor materials to manufacture microchips. In low-pressure dual radio-frequency capacitive discharges, stochastic heating is an important phenomenon. Recent theoretical work on this problem using several different approaches has produced results that are broadly in agreement insofar as scaling with the discharge parameters is concerned, but there remains some disagreement in detail concerning the absolute size of the effect for the case of dual-frequency capacitive discharges. In this work, we investigate the dependence of stochastic heating on various discharge parameters with the help of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The dual-frequency analytical models are in fair agreement with PIC results for values of the low-frequency current density amplitude J lf (or dimensionless control parameter H lf ∼ 5) typical of many modern experiments. However, for higher values of J lf (or higher H lf ), new physical phenomena (like field reversal, reflection of ions, etc) appear and the simulation results deviate from existing dual-frequency analytical models. On the other hand, for lower J lf (or lower H lf ) again the simulation results deviate from analytical models. So this research work produces a relatively extensive set of simulation data that may be used to validate theories over a wide range of parameters. (paper)
Majority ion heating near the ion-ion hybrid layer in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, C.K.; Hosea, J.C.; Ignat, D.; Majeski, R.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Wilson, J.R.
1995-08-01
Efficient direct majority ion heating in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) reactor-grade plasma via absorption of fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is discussed. Majority ion heating results from resonance overlap between the cyclotron layers and the D-T ion-ion hybrid layer in hot, dense plasmas for fast waves launched with high parallel wavenumbers. Analytic and numerical models are used to explore the regime in ITER plasmas
Stochastic analysis of residential micro combined heat and power system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karami, H.; Sanjari, M.J.; Gooi, H.B.; Gharehpetian, G.B.; Guerrero, J.M.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Applying colonial competitive algorithm to the problem of optimal dispatching. • Economic modeling of the residential integrated energy system. • Investigating differences of stand-alone and system-connected modes of fuel cell operation. • Considering uncertainty on the electrical load. • The effects of battery capacity and its efficiency on the system is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper the combined heat and power functionality of a fuel-cell in a residential hybrid energy system, including a battery, is studied. The demand uncertainties are modeled by investigating the stochastic load behavior by applying Monte Carlo simulation. The colonial competitive algorithm is adopted to the hybrid energy system scheduling problem and different energy resources are optimally scheduled to have optimal operating cost of hybrid energy system. In order to show the effectiveness of the colonial competitive algorithm, the results are compared with the results of the harmony search algorithm. The optimized scheduling of different energy resources is listed in an efficient look-up table for all time intervals. The effects of time of use and the battery efficiency and its size are investigated on the operating cost of the hybrid energy system. The results of this paper are expected to be used effectively in a real hybrid energy system.
Turbulent ion heating in TCV Tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlatter, Ch.
2009-08-01
The Tokamak à configuration variable (TCV) features the highest electron cyclotron wave power density available to resonantly heat (ECRH) the electrons and to drive noninductive currents in a fusion grade plasma (ECCD). In more than 15 years of exploitation, much effort has been expended on real and velocity space engineering of the plasma electron energy distribution function and thus making electron physics a major research contribution of TCV. When a plasma was first subjected to ECCD, a surprising energisation of the ions, perpendicular to the confining magnetic field, was observed on the charge exchange spectrum measured with the vertical neutral particle analyser (VNPA). It was soon concluded that the ion acceleration was not due to power equipartition between electrons and ions, which, due to the absence of direct ion heating on TCV, has thus far been considered as the only mechanism heating the ions. However, although observed for more than ten years, little attention was paid to this phenomenon, whose cause has remained unexplained to date. The key subject of this thesis is the experimental study of this anomalous ion acceleration, the characterisation in terms of relevant parameters and the presentation of a model simulation of the potential process responsible for the appearance of fast ions. The installation of a new compact neutral particle analyser (CNPA) with an extended high energy range (≥ 50 keV) greatly improved the fast ion properties diagnosis. The CNPA was commissioned and the information derived from its measurement (ion temperature and density, isotopic plasma composition) was validated against other ion diagnostics, namely the active carbon charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system (CXRS) and a neutron counter. In ohmic plasmas, where the ion heating agrees with classical theory, the radial ion temperature profile was successfully reconstructed by vertically displacing the plasma across the horizontal CNPA line of sight. Active
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dreimann, Karsten; Linz, Stefan J.
2010-01-01
Graphical abstract: Deterministic surface pattern (left) and its stochastic counterpart (right) arising in a stochastic damped Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation that serves as a model equation for ion-beam eroded surfaces and is systematically investigated. - Abstract: Using a recently proposed field equation for the surface evolution of ion-beam eroded semiconductor target materials under normal incidence, we systematically explore the impact of additive stochastic fluctuations that are permanently present during the erosion process. Specifically, we investigate the dependence of the surface roughness, the underlying pattern forming properties and the bifurcation behavior on the strength of the fluctuations.
Quasilinear ion distribution function during first harmonic ion cyclotron heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1993-12-01
The quasilinear modification of the ion distribution function during first harmonic ion cyclotron (FHIC) heating is investigated both with a simple already well established analytic one-dimensional approach, and with a new two dimensional steady state solver of the quasilinear kinetic equation, SSFPQL. By accepting to disregard the effects of ion trapping in banana orbits, but including finite Larmor radius effects, the latter code has been made much faster than full surface-averaged codes; yet it can provide most of the relevant information on the suprathermal ion tail produced by this heating method. With SSFPQL we confirm that the one-dimensional model gives fair approximations for global properties of the distribution function, such as the average energy content of the tail and the fusion reactivity. On the other hand the tail is found to be very anisotropic, the increase of the parallel effective temperature being a small fraction of the total energy increase. Information on the anisotropy is essential to study the feedback of the fast ion tail on wave propagation and absorption, which is quite sensitive to the distribution of parallel velocities. The insight gained in the derivation and discussion of this model can be used to build a selfconsistent description of this heating scenario, whose implementation requires only a reasonable numerical effort. (orig.)
Ion beam heating of thin silicon membranes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tissot, P.E.; Hart, R.R.
1993-01-01
For silicon membranes irradiated by an ion beam in a vacuum environment, such as the masks used for ion beam lithography and the membranes used for thin film self-annealing, the heat transfer modes are radiation and limited conduction through the thin membrane. The radiation component depends on the total hemispherical emissivity which varies with the thickness and temperature of the membrane. A semiempirical correlation for the absorption coefficient of high resistivity silicon was derived and the variation of the total emissivity with temperature was computed for membranes with thicknesses between 0.1 and 10 μm. Based on this result, the temperatures reached during exposure to ion beams of varying intensities were computed. A proper modeling of the emissivity is shown to be important for beam heating of thin silicon membranes. (orig.)
Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere
Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.
2017-01-01
Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.
Study of ion exchange equilibrium and determination of heat of ion exchange by ion chromatography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Kailu; Yang Wenying
1996-01-01
Ion chromatography using pellicularia ion exchange resins and dilute solution can be devoted to the study of ion exchange thermodynamics and kinetics. Ion exchange equilibrium equation was obtained, and examined by the experiments. Based on ion exchange equilibrium, the influence of eluent concentration and resin capacity on adjusted retention volumes was examined. The effect of temperature on adjusted retention volumes was investigated and heats of ion exchange of seven anions were determined by ion chromatography. The interaction between anions and skeleton structure of resins were observed
Ion Cyclotron Heating on Proto-MPEX
Goulding, R. H.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Rapp, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Campbell, I. H.; Caneses, J. F.; Kafle, N.; Ray, H. B.; Showers, M. A.; Piotrowicz, P. A.
2016-10-01
Ion cyclotron heating will be used on Proto-MPEX (Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment) to increase heat flux to the target, to produce varying ion energies without substrate biasing, and to vary the extent of the magnetic pre-sheath for the case of a tilted target. A 25 cm long, 9 cm diameter dual half-turn helical ion cyclotron antenna has been installed in the device located at the magnetic field maximum. It couples power to ions via single pass damping of the slow wave at the fundamental resonance, and operates with ω 0.8ωci at the antenna location. It is designed to operate at power levels up to 30 kW, with a later 200 kW upgrade planned. Near term experiments include measuring RF loading at low power as a function of frequency and antenna gap. The plasma is generated by a helicon plasma source that has achieved ne > 5 ×1019m-3 operating with deuterium, as measured downstream from the ion cyclotron antenna location. Measurements will be compared with 1-D and 2-D models of RF coupling. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Two-ion ICRF heating in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tennfors, E.
1985-03-01
The practical consequences for tokamak plasma heating in the ion cyclotron frequency regime of the two-dimensional treatment of the two-ion mode conversion layer are analyzed. The problem of evaluation of the condition for fast wave resonance is analyzed, as well as the limitations imposed by warm plasma effects. Simple ways to find the mode conversion surfaces when they exist are presented. Also for large tokamaks, it is possible to obtain mode conversion conditions for realistic antenna spectra provided species concentration and frequency are chosen such that the surface Epsilon = 0 intersects the plasma midplane just outside of the magnetic axis. (Author)
Ion heat conduction losses in Extrap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tennfors, E.
1989-08-01
The classical ion heat conduction losses in Extrap discharges are calculated using polynomial magnetic field profiles and compared to the power input. For polynomials matched to magnetic field profiles measured in present experiments, these losses are small. By varying the coefficients of the polynomials, a region is found, where the power input can balance the classical heat conduction losses. Each set of coefficients corresponds to values of the parameters F and Θ used in RFP physics. The region determines a region in an F-Θ diagram, including the usual RFP region but extending to higher values of Θ and βΘ
Stochastic modelling of conjugate heat transfer in near-wall turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozorski, Jacek; Minier, Jean-Pierre
2006-01-01
The paper addresses the conjugate heat transfer in turbulent flows with temperature assumed to be a passive scalar. The Lagrangian approach is applied and the heat transfer is modelled with the use of stochastic particles. The intensity of thermal fluctuations in near-wall turbulence is determined from the scalar probability density function (PDF) with externally provided dynamical statistics. A stochastic model for the temperature field in the wall material is proposed and boundary conditions for stochastic particles at the solid-fluid interface are formulated. The heated channel flow with finite-thickness walls is considered as a validation case. Computation results for the mean temperature profiles and the variance of thermal fluctuations are presented and compared with available DNS data
Stochastic modelling of conjugate heat transfer in near-wall turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pozorski, Jacek [Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: jp@imp.gda.pl; Minier, Jean-Pierre [Research and Development Division, Electricite de France, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France)
2006-10-15
The paper addresses the conjugate heat transfer in turbulent flows with temperature assumed to be a passive scalar. The Lagrangian approach is applied and the heat transfer is modelled with the use of stochastic particles. The intensity of thermal fluctuations in near-wall turbulence is determined from the scalar probability density function (PDF) with externally provided dynamical statistics. A stochastic model for the temperature field in the wall material is proposed and boundary conditions for stochastic particles at the solid-fluid interface are formulated. The heated channel flow with finite-thickness walls is considered as a validation case. Computation results for the mean temperature profiles and the variance of thermal fluctuations are presented and compared with available DNS data.
Ion cyclotron heating in TMX-U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimonte, G.; Barter, J.; Romesser, T.; Molvik, A.W.; Cummins, W.F.; Falabella, S.; Poulsen, P.
1987-01-01
Ion cyclotron heating (ICH) is applied to TMX-U to improve the thermal barrier performance by reducing the passing ion collisionality. During its development, measurements of the antenna loading resistance, R p , and the absorption efficiency, η, were compared with calculations with the antenna design code ANTENA over a wide range of densities and frequencies. Good agreement in R p was obtained in the short wavelength slow wave regime but not for long wavelength fast waves because the experimental magnetic field gradients are not modelled in ANTENA. Similarly, η is much larger experimentally (40%) than in ANTENA (10%) due to the magnetic beach in TMX-U. In its application, ICH successfully decreased the passing ion collisionality tenfold but did not extend thermal barrier plugging to higher density, indicating that collisional barrier filling is not currently limiting TMX-U performance. (author). 23 refs, 23 figs
Plasma heating and hot ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moiseenko, V. E.; Ågren, O.
2012-01-01
Possibilities of plasma heating and sloshing ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids are briefly reviewed. Sloshing ions, i.e. energetic ions with a velocity distribution concentrated to a certain pitch-angle, play an important role in plasma confinement and generation of fusion neutrons in mirror machines. Neutral beam injection (NBI) is first discussed as a method to generate sloshing ions. Numerical results of NBI modeling for a stellarator-mirror hybrid are analyzed. The sloshing ions could alternatively be sustained by RF heating. Fast wave heating schemes, i.e. magnetic beach, minority and second harmonic heating, are addressed and their similarities and differences are described. Characteristic features of wave propagation in mirror hybrid devices including both fundamental harmonic minority and second harmonic heating are examined. Minority heating is efficient for a wide range of minority concentration and plasma densities; it allows one to place the antenna aside from the hot ion location. A simple-design strap antenna suitable for this has good performance. However, this scenario is appropriate only for light minority ions. The second harmonic heating can be applied for the heavy ion component. Arrangements are similar for minority and second harmonic heating. The efficiency of second harmonic heating is influenced by a weaker wave damping than for minority heating. Numerical calculations show that in a hybrid reactor scaled mirror machine the deuterium sloshing ions could be heated within the minority heating scheme, while the tritium ions could be sustained by second harmonic heating.
Ion beam heating for fast ignition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gus'kov, S.Yu.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The characteristics features of the formation of the spatial distribution of the energy transferred to the plasma from a beam of ions with different initial energies, masses and charges under fast ignition conditions are determined. The motion of the Bragg peak is extended with respect to the spatial distribution of the temperature of the ion-beam-heated medium. The parameters of the ion beams are determined to initiate different regimes of fast ignition of thermonuclear fuel precompressed to a density of 300-500 g/cm 3 - the edge regime, in which the ignition region is formed at the outer boundary of the fuel, and the internal regime, in which the ignition region is formed in central parts of the fuel. The conclusion on the requirements for fast ignition by light and heavy ion beams is presented. It is shown that the edge heating with negative temperature gradient is described by a self-similar solution. Such a temperature distribution is the reason of the fact that the ignited beam energy at the edge heating is larger than the minimal ignition energy by factor 1.65. The temperature Bragg peak may be produced by ion beam heating in the reactor scale targets with pR-parameter larger than 3-4 g/cm 2 . In particular, for central ignition of the targets with pR-parameters in the range of 4-8 g/cm 2 the ion beam energy should be, respectively, from 5 to 7 times larger than the minimal ignition energy. The work by S.Ye. Gus'kov, D.V. Il'in, and V.E. Sherman was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation under the program 'Development of the Scientific Potential of High Education for 2009-2010' (project no. 2.1.1/1505) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 08-02-01394 a ). The work by J. Limpouch and O. Klimo was supported by the Czech Ministry of Education (project no. LC528, MSM6840770022).
Modelling the heat dynamics of buildings using stochastic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Madsen, Henrik
2000-01-01
This paper describes the continuous time modelling of the heat dynamics of a building. The considered building is a residential like test house divided into two test rooms with a water based central heating. Each test room is divided into thermal zones in order to describe both short and long term...... variations. Besides modelling the heat transfer between thermal zones, attention is put on modelling the heat input from radiators and solar radiation. The applied modelling procedure is based on collected building performance data and statistical methods. The statistical methods are used in parameter...
Biomass Supply Planning for Combined Heat and Power Plants using Stochastic Programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guericke, Daniela; Blanco, Ignacio; Morales González, Juan Miguel
method using stochastic optimization to support the biomass supply planning for combined heat and power plants. Our two-phase approach combines mid-term decisions about biomass supply contracts with the short-term decisions regarding the optimal market participation of the producer to ensure......During the last years, the consumption of biomass to produce power and heat has increased due to the new carbon neutral policies. Nowadays, many district heating systems operate their combined heat and power (CHP) plants using different types of biomass instead of fossil fuel, especially to produce......, and heat demand and electricity prices vary drastically during the planning period. Furthermore, the optimal operation of combined heat and power plants has to consider the existing synergies between the power and heating systems while always fulfilling the heat demand of the system. We propose a solution...
On the role of ion heating in ICRF-heated discharges in Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, L.G.; Hoang, G.; Bergeaud, V.
2000-09-01
The effect of bulk ion heating in Tore Supra has been investigated by studying discharges with varying concentrations of minority ions during ICRF hydrogen minority heating in Deuterium/ 4 He plasmas. As expected, the level of bulk ion heating is found to increase with the minority concentration. Higher levels of ion heating are shown to be accompanied by two significant effects: an improved energy confinement and a strong influence on the plasma rotation. (author)
Projection scheme for a reflected stochastic heat equation with additive noise
Higa, Arturo Kohatsu; Pettersson, Roger
2005-02-01
We consider a projection scheme as a numerical solution of a reflected stochastic heat equation driven by a space-time white noise. Convergence is obtained via a discrete contraction principle and known convergence results for numerical solutions of parabolic variational inequalities.
The ion source development for neutral injection heating at JAERI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirakata, H.; Itoh, T.; Kondoh, U.; Matsuda, S.; Ohara, Y.; Ohga, T.; Shibata, T.; Sugawara, T.; Tanaka, S.
1976-01-01
The neutral beam research and development effort at JAERI has been mainly concentrated on design, construction and testing of ion sources needed for present and planned heating experiments. Fundamental characteristics of the ion sources developed are described
Model study on steady heat capacity in driven stochastic systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pešek, Jiří; Boksenbojm, E.; Netočný, Karel
2012-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 3 (2012), 692-701 ISSN 1895-1082 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonequilibrium steady state * quasistatic process * heat capacity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2012
Stochastic Programming for Fuel Supply Planning of Combined Heat and Power Plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guericke, Daniela; Blanco, Ignacio; Morales González, Juan Miguel
The consumption of biomass to produce power and heat has increased due to the carbon neutral policies. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants often combine biomass with other fuels, e.g., natural gas. The negotiation process for supply contracts involves many uncertainties due to the long planning...... horizon. The demand for biomass is uncertain, and heat demand and electricity prices vary during the planning period. We propose a method using stochastic optimization to support the biomass and natural gas supply planning for CHP plants including short-term decisions for optimal market participation....
The Ion Cyclotron, Lower Hybrid, and Alfven Wave Heating Methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, R.
2004-01-01
This lecture covers the practical features and experimental results of the three heating methods. The emphasis is on ion cyclotron heating. First, we briefly come back to the main non-collisional heating mechanisms and to the particular features of the quasilinear coefficient in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). The specific case of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is treated, as well as the polarisation issue and minority heating scheme. The various ICRF scenarios are reviewed. The experimental applications of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems are outlined. Then, the lower hybrid and Alfven wave heating and current drive experimental results are covered more briefly. Where applicable, the prospects for ITER are commented
Anomalous Ion Heating, Intrinsic and Induced Rotation in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Redd, A. J.; Thome, K. E.
2014-10-01
Pegasus plasmas are initiated through either standard, MHD stable, inductive current drive or non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive with strong reconnection activity, providing a rich environment to study ion dynamics. During LHI discharges, a large amount of anomalous impurity ion heating has been observed, with Ti ~ 800 eV but Te < 100 eV. The ion heating is hypothesized to be a result of large-scale magnetic reconnection activity, as the amount of heating scales with increasing fluctuation amplitude of the dominant, edge localized, n = 1 MHD mode. Chordal Ti spatial profiles indicate centrally peaked temperatures, suggesting a region of good confinement near the plasma core surrounded by a stochastic region. LHI plasmas are observed to rotate, perhaps due to an inward radial current generated by the stochastization of the plasma edge by the injected current streams. H-mode plasmas are initiated using a combination of high-field side fueling and Ohmic current drive. This regime shows a significant increase in rotation shear compared to L-mode plasmas. In addition, these plasmas have been observed to rotate in the counter-Ip direction without any external momentum sources. The intrinsic rotation direction is consistent with predictions from the saturated Ohmic confinement regime. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.
Ion Heating by Fast Particle Induced Alfven Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gates, D.; Gorelenkov, N.; White, R.B.
2001-01-01
A novel mechanism that directly transfers energy from Super-Alfvenic energetic ions to thermal ions in high-beta plasmas is described. The mechanism involves the excitation of compressional Alfvin eigenmodes (CAEs) in the frequency range with omega less than or approximately equal to omega(subscript ci). The broadband turbulence resulting from the large number of excited modes causes stochastic diffusion in velocity space, which transfers wave energy to thermal ions. This effect may be important on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), and may scale up to reactor scenarios. This has important implications for low aspect ratio reactor concepts, since it potentially allows for the modification of the ignition criterion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
1999-07-01
The study of the different schemes of plasma heating by radiofrequency waves is a very actual problem related with the plasma heating in different machines and the particle acceleration mechanisms. In this work, it is obtained the expression for the temporal evolution of the energy absorbed in the cyclotron resonance of electrons where it is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. It is obtained the stochastic criteria in a magnetic configuration of an Ecr type plasma source. (Author)
Ion cyclotron-resonance heating in a toroidal octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.; Sprott, J.C.
1975-01-01
rf power near the ion cyclotron-resonance frequency has been used to produce a hundredfold increase (from approximately-less-than1 to approx.100 eV) in the ion temperature in a toroidal octupole device. The heating produces no noticeable instabilities or other deleterious effects except for a high reflux of neutrals from the walls. The heating rate is consistent with theory and the limiting ion temperature is determined by charge-exchange losses
Stochastic modeling of stock price process induced from the conjugate heat equation
Paeng, Seong-Hun
2015-02-01
Currency can be considered as a ruler for values of commodities. Then the price is the measured value by the ruler. We can suppose that inflation and variation of exchange rate are caused by variation of the scale of the ruler. In geometry, variation of the scale means that the metric is time-dependent. The conjugate heat equation is the modified heat equation which satisfies the heat conservation law for the time-dependent metric space. We propose a new model of stock prices by using the stochastic process whose transition probability is determined by the kernel of the conjugate heat equation. Our model of stock prices shows how the volatility term is affected by inflation and exchange rate. This model modifies the Black-Scholes equation in light of inflation and exchange rate.
Neoclassical electron heat conduction in tokamaks performed by the ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ware, A.A.
1987-07-01
The increment to neoclassical ion heat conduction caused by electron collisions is shown to act like electron heat conduction since the energy is taken from and given back to the electrons at each diffusion step length. It can exceed electron neoclassical heat conduction by an order of magnitude
NLP model and stochastic multi-start optimization approach for heat exchanger networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Núñez-Serna, Rosa I.; Zamora, Juan M.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An NLP model for the optimal design of heat exchanger networks is proposed. • The NLP model is developed from a stage-wise grid diagram representation. • A two-phase stochastic multi-start optimization methodology is utilized. • Improved network designs are obtained with different heat load distributions. • Structural changes and reductions in the number of heat exchangers are produced. - Abstract: Heat exchanger network synthesis methodologies frequently identify good network structures, which nevertheless, might be accompanied by suboptimal values of design variables. The objective of this work is to develop a nonlinear programming (NLP) model and an optimization approach that aim at identifying the best values for intermediate temperatures, sub-stream flow rate fractions, heat loads and areas for a given heat exchanger network topology. The NLP model that minimizes the total annual cost of the network is constructed based on a stage-wise grid diagram representation. To improve the possibilities of obtaining global optimal designs, a two-phase stochastic multi-start optimization algorithm is utilized for the solution of the developed model. The effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach is illustrated with the optimization of two network designs proposed in the literature for two well-known benchmark problems. Results show that from the addressed base network topologies it is possible to achieve improved network designs, with redistributions in exchanger heat loads that lead to reductions in total annual costs. The results also show that the optimization of a given network design sometimes leads to structural simplifications and reductions in the total number of heat exchangers of the network, thereby exposing alternative viable network topologies initially not anticipated.
Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu
1995-01-01
In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.)
Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan)
1995-01-01
In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.).
Numerical simulation of plasma processes driven by transverse ion heating
Singh, Nagendra; Chan, C. B.
1993-01-01
The plasma processes driven by transverse ion heating in a diverging flux tube are investigated with numerical simulation. The heating is found to drive a host of plasma processes, in addition to the well-known phenomenon of ion conics. The downward electric field near the reverse shock generates a doublestreaming situation consisting of two upflowing ion populations with different average flow velocities. The electric field in the reverse shock region is modulated by the ion-ion instability driven by the multistreaming ions. The oscillating fields in this region have the possibility of heating electrons. These results from the simulations are compared with results from a previous study based on a hydrodynamical model. Effects of spatial resolutions provided by simulations on the evolution of the plasma are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frederick, B.deB.
1994-12-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging of 23 Na holds promise as a non-invasive method of mapping Na + distributions, and for differentiating pools of Na + ions in biological tissues. However, due to NMR relaxation properties of 23 Na in vivo, a large fraction of Na + is not visible with conventional NMR imaging methods. An alternate imaging method, based on stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients, has been developed which is well adapted to measuring nuclei with short T 2 . Contemporary NMR imaging techniques have dead times of up to several hundred microseconds between excitation and sampling, comparable to the shortest in vivo 23 Na T 2 values, causing significant signal loss. An imaging strategy based on stochastic excitation has been developed which greatly reduces experiment dead time by reducing peak radiofrequency (RF) excitation power and using a novel RF circuit to speed probe recovery. Continuously oscillating gradients are used to eliminate transient eddy currents. Stochastic 1 H and 23 Na spectroscopic imaging experiments have been performed on a small animal system with dead times as low as 25μs, permitting spectroscopic imaging with 100% visibility in vivo. As an additional benefit, the encoding time for a 32x32x32 spectroscopic image is under 30 seconds. The development and analysis of stochastic NMR imaging has been hampered by limitations of the existing phase demodulation reconstruction technique. Three dimensional imaging was impractical due to reconstruction time, and design and analysis of proposed experiments was limited by the mathematical intractability of the reconstruction method. A new reconstruction method for stochastic NMR based on Fourier interpolation has been formulated combining the advantage of a several hundredfold reduction in reconstruction time with a straightforward mathematical form
Stochastic clustering of material surface under high-heat plasma load
Budaev, Viacheslav P.
2017-11-01
The results of a study of a surface formed by high-temperature plasma loads on various materials such as tungsten, carbon and stainless steel are presented. High-temperature plasma irradiation leads to an inhomogeneous stochastic clustering of the surface with self-similar granularity - fractality on the scale from nanoscale to macroscales. Cauliflower-like structure of tungsten and carbon materials are formed under high heat plasma load in fusion devices. The statistical characteristics of hierarchical granularity and scale invariance are estimated. They differ qualitatively from the roughness of the ordinary Brownian surface, which is possibly due to the universal mechanisms of stochastic clustering of material surface under the influence of high-temperature plasma.
Solar and seasonal dependence of ion frictional heating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Davies
1999-05-01
Full Text Available Ion frictional heating constitutes one of the principal mechanisms whereby energy, originating in the solar wind, is deposited into the Earth's ionosphere and ultimately the neutral atmosphere. Common programme observations by the EISCAT UHF radar system, spanning the years 1984 to 1995, provide the basis for a comprehensive statistical study of ion frictional heating, results of which are documented in this and a previous paper by the authors. In the present work, the authors demonstrate the solar and seasonal dependence of the universal time distribution of frictional heating, and explain these results with reference to corresponding dependences of the ion velocity. Although EISCAT observes a significant increase in the occurrence of enhanced ion velocities associated with increased solar activity, the latter characterised according to the prevailing 10.7 cm solar flux, this is not reflected to such an extent in the occurrence of frictional heating. It is suggested that this is a consequence of the decreased neutral atmosphere response times associated with active solar conditions, resulting from the higher ionospheric plasma densities present. Seasonal effects on the diurnal distribution of ion frictional heating are well explained by corresponding variations in ionospheric convection, the latter principally a result of geometrical factors. It is noted that, over the entire dataset, the variations in the unperturbed F-region ion temperature, required to implement the identification criterion for ion heating, are highly correlated with model values of thermospheric temperature.Keywords. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; plasma temperature and density
Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, S.C.
2000-01-28
This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational
Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, S.C.
2000-01-01
This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational
Proton and heavy ion acceleration by stochastic fluctuations in the Earth's magnetotail
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catapano, Filomena; Zimbardo, Gaetano; Perri, Silvia; Greco, Antonella [Calabria Univ., Rende (Italy). Dept. of Physics; Artemyev, Anton V. [Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation). Space Research Inst.; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Science and Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics
2016-07-01
Spacecraft observations show that energetic ions are found in the Earth's magnetotail, with energies ranging from tens of keV to a few hundreds of keV. In this paper we carry out test particle simulations in which protons and other ion species are injected in the Vlasov magnetic field configurations obtained by Catapano et al. (2015). These configurations represent solutions of a generalized Harris model, which well describes the observed profiles in the magnetotail. In addition, three-dimensional time-dependent stochastic electromagnetic perturbations are included in the simulation box, so that the ion acceleration process is studied while varying the equilibrium magnetic field profile and the ion species. We find that proton energies of the order of 100 keV are reached with simulation parameters typical of the Earth's magnetotail. By changing the ion mass and charge, we can study the acceleration of heavy ions such as He{sup ++} and O{sup +}, and it is found that energies of the order of 100-200 keV are reached in a few seconds for He{sup ++}, and about 100 keV for O{sup +}.
Proton and heavy ion acceleration by stochastic fluctuations in the Earth's magnetotail
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Catapano
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Spacecraft observations show that energetic ions are found in the Earth's magnetotail, with energies ranging from tens of keV to a few hundreds of keV. In this paper we carry out test particle simulations in which protons and other ion species are injected in the Vlasov magnetic field configurations obtained by Catapano et al. (2015. These configurations represent solutions of a generalized Harris model, which well describes the observed profiles in the magnetotail. In addition, three-dimensional time-dependent stochastic electromagnetic perturbations are included in the simulation box, so that the ion acceleration process is studied while varying the equilibrium magnetic field profile and the ion species. We find that proton energies of the order of 100 keV are reached with simulation parameters typical of the Earth's magnetotail. By changing the ion mass and charge, we can study the acceleration of heavy ions such as He+ + and O+, and it is found that energies of the order of 100–200 keV are reached in a few seconds for He+ + , and about 100 keV for O+.
Nonlinear stochastic heat equations with cubic nonlinearities and additive Q-regular noise in R^1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henri Schurz
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Semilinear stochastic heat equations perturbed by cubic-type nonlinearities and additive space-time noise with homogeneous boundary conditions are discussed in R^1. The space-time noise is supposed to be Gaussian in time and possesses a Fourier expansion in space along the eigenfunctions of underlying Lapace operators. We follow the concept of approximate strong (classical Fourier solutions. The existence of unique continuous L^2-bounded solutions is proved. Furthermore, we present a procedure for its numerical approximation based on nonstandard methods (linear-implicit and justify their stability and consistency. The behavior of related total energy functional turns out to be crucial in the presented analysis.
Evaluation of stochastic differential equation approximation of ion channel gating models.
Bruce, Ian C
2009-04-01
Fox and Lu derived an algorithm based on stochastic differential equations for approximating the kinetics of ion channel gating that is simpler and faster than "exact" algorithms for simulating Markov process models of channel gating. However, the approximation may not be sufficiently accurate to predict statistics of action potential generation in some cases. The objective of this study was to develop a framework for analyzing the inaccuracies and determining their origin. Simulations of a patch of membrane with voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels were performed using an exact algorithm for the kinetics of channel gating and the approximate algorithm of Fox & Lu. The Fox & Lu algorithm assumes that channel gating particle dynamics have a stochastic term that is uncorrelated, zero-mean Gaussian noise, whereas the results of this study demonstrate that in many cases the stochastic term in the Fox & Lu algorithm should be correlated and non-Gaussian noise with a non-zero mean. The results indicate that: (i) the source of the inaccuracy is that the Fox & Lu algorithm does not adequately describe the combined behavior of the multiple activation particles in each sodium and potassium channel, and (ii) the accuracy does not improve with increasing numbers of channels.
Orbit losses of strongly ICRF-heated ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, A.; Dillner, Oe.; Lisak, M.
1992-01-01
An approximate analytical investigation is made to assess the importance of orbit losses of strongly ICRF-heated minority ions. Explicit expressions for the fraction of lost minority ions are derived and shown to be in good agreement with numerical simulation results. The results indicate that present day ICRF heating power density levels cannot be raised significantly without causing important particle and energy losses due to unconfined particle orbits. 6 refs., 5 figs
Ion cyclotron resonance heating in the Wisconsin supported toroidal octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.; Sprott, J.C.
1977-01-01
Ion heating at the fundamental of the cyclotron resonance (1 MHz 12 cm -3 ) with no evidence of parametric decay or enhanced particle loss other than temperature dependent losses such as thermal flow to obstacles. Ion temperatures are limited by charge exchange on the large neutral reflux at the higher rf powers. (author)
Mussenbrock, T; Brinkmann, R P; Lieberman, M A; Lichtenberg, A J; Kawamura, E
2008-08-22
In low-pressure capacitive radio frequency discharges, two mechanisms of electron heating are dominant: (i) Ohmic heating due to collisions of electrons with neutrals of the background gas and (ii) stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from the oscillating boundary sheath. In this work we show by means of a nonlinear global model that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance which arises in asymmetric capacitive discharges due to nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath significantly affects both Ohmic heating and stochastic heating. We observe that the series resonance effect increases the dissipation by factors of 2-5. We conclude that the nonlinear plasma dynamics should be taken into account in order to describe quantitatively correct electron heating in asymmetric capacitive radio frequency discharges.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasheninnikov, S. I.
2014-01-01
A simple model developed by Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)] for the study of synergistic effects of electrostatic potential well and laser radiation is extended for the case where electric field of the well is accelerating electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. It was found that in these cases, the rate of stochastic heating of energetic electrons remains virtually the same as in Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)], where electric field in electrostatic potential was slowing down electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. However, the heating of electrons with relatively low energy can be sensitive to the orientation of the electrostatic potential well with respect to the direction of the laser radiation propagation
Simulation study of two-ion hybrid resonance heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riyopoulos, S.; Tajima, T.
1986-02-01
A one-dimensional low-noise, low-frequency electromagnetic particle simulation code that is appropriate for investigation of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is developed. Retaining the hyperbolicity of the electromagnetic waves and exploiting nearly one-dimensional characteristics (perpendicular to the external magnetic field) of the ICRH, we use the guiding center electron approximation for the transverse electronic current calculation. We observe mode conversion of the incoming magnetosonic wave into the electrostatic ion-ion hybrid mode accompanied by strong ion-heating. The dependence of this heating on the different plasma parameters is examined through a series of simulations, focusing mainly on wave incidence from the high field side. Because K/sub parallel/ = 0 in our runs, the conventional Landau damping cannot explain the ion heating. Non-linear mechanisms for energy transfer are discussed. Our numerical results demonstrate the importance of the non-linear wave particle interaction for energy transfer are discussed. Our numerical results demonstrate the importance of the non-linear wave particle interaction for energy absorption during radio frequency heating in the ion cyclotron regime. 32 refs., 17 figs
ICRF heating of passing ions in TMX-U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molvik, A.W.; Dimonte, G.; Barter, J.; Campbell, R.; Cummins, W.F.; Falabella, S.; Ferguson, S.W.; Poulsen, P.
1986-04-01
By placing ion-cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) antennas on both sides of a midplane gas-feed system in the central cell of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), our results have improved in the following areas: (a) The end losses out both ends show a factor of 3 to 4 increase in passing-ion temperatures and a factor of 2 to 3 decrease in passing-ion densities. (b) The passing-ion heating is consistent with Monte Carlo predictions. (c) The plasma density can be sustained by ICRF plus gas fueling as observed on other experiments
Heating effects in a liquid metal ion source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mair, G.L.R.; Aitken, K.L.
1984-01-01
A reassessment is made of the heating occurring at the anode of a liquid metal ion source, in the light of new microscopic observations. The apex region of the cones is in the form of a cusp, or jet, even at very low currents. The calculation for ohmic heating is conclusive for low currents; no heating occurs at the anode; for high currents (approx. 50-100 μA), substantial heating is conceivable, if a long, very thin, cylindrical jet exists at the apex of the anode. The answer to the problem of external heating, in the form of electrons bombarding the anode, is not quite conclusive; this is because of the impossibility of correctly assessing the electron flux entering the anode. However, it would appear to be a definite conclusion that for reasons of self-consistency field-ionisation of thermally released atoms cannot be a significant ion emission mechanism. (author)
Ion track membranes providing heat pipe surfaces with capillary structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akapiev, G.N.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Erler, B.; Shirkova, V.V.; Schulz, A.; Pietsch, H.
2003-01-01
The microgalvanic method for metal filling of etched ion tracks in organic foils is of particular interest for the fabrication of microsized structures. Microstructures like copper whiskers with a high aspect ratio produced in ion track membranes are suitable for the generation of high-performance heat transfer surfaces. A surface with good heat transfer characteristics is defined as a surface on which a small temperature difference causes a large heat transfer from the surface material to the liquid. It is well-known that a porous surface layer transfers to an evaporating liquid a given quantity of heat at a smaller temperature difference than does a usual smooth surface. Copper whiskers with high aspect ratio and a density 10 5 per cm 2 form such a porous structure, which produces strong capillary forces and therefore a maximum of heat transfer coefficients
Ion Bernstein wave heating on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignat, D.W.; Ono, M.
1989-02-01
In the present plan, CIT is to be heated by power in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) may be used if suitable rf sources can be developed. We consider the option of ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH). The key points are that a simple vacuum waveguide launcher can be well- removed from high fluxes of heat and particles and that the development of a suitable source is straightforward. A practical point is that an IBWH waveguide launcher, including transition from coaxial power feeds, fits inside the shield wall surrounding CIT. To confirm IBWH as an option for CIT, experiments are needed on a shaped, H-mode plasma at high power. Successful experiments should be followed by a tube development program to allow CIT heating at 200 - 275 MHz. 2 refs., 3 figs
Resistive Heating and Ion Drag in Saturn's Thermosphere
Vriesema, Jess William; Koskinen, Tommi; Yelle, Roger V.
2017-10-01
One of the most puzzling observations of the jovian planets is that the thermospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are all several times hotter than solar heating can account for (Strobel and Smith 1973; Yelle and Miller 2004; Muller-Wodarg et al. 2006). On Saturn, resistive heating appears sufficient to explain these temperatures in auroral regions, but the particular mechanism(s) responsible for heating the lower latitudes remains unclear. The most commonly proposed heating mechanisms are breaking gravity waves and auroral heating at the poles followed by redistribution of energy to mid-and low latitudes. Both of these energy sources are potentially important but also come with significant problems. Wave heating would have to be continuous and global to produce consistently elevated temperatures and the strong Coriolis forces coupled with polar ion drag appear to hinder redistribution of auroral energy (see Strobel et al. 2016 for review). Here we explore an alternative: wind-driven electrodynamics that can alter circulation and produce substantial heating outside of the auroral region. Smith (2013) showed this in-situ mechanism to be potentially significant in Jupiter’s thermosphere. We present new results from an axisymmetric, steady-state model that calculates resistive (Joule) heating rates through rigorous solutions of the electrodynamic equations for the coupled neutral atmosphere and ionosphere of Saturn. At present, we assume a dipole magnetic field and neglect any contributions from the magnetosphere. We use ion mixing ratios from the model of Kim et al. (2014) and the observed temperature-pressure profile from Koskinen et al. (2015) to calculate the generalized conductivity tensor as described by Koskinen et al. (2014). We calculate the current density under the assumption that it has no divergence and use it to calculate the resistive heating rates and ion drag. Our results suggest that resistive heating and ion drag at low latitudes likely
Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.
2015-04-08
A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H{sup −} current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.
Enhanced loss of fast ions during mode conversion ion Bernstein wave heating in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darrow, D.S.; Majeski, R.; Fisch, N.J.; Heeter, R.F.; Herrmann, H.W.; Herrmann, M.C.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.
1995-12-01
A strong interaction of fast ions with ion Bernstein waves has been observed in TFTR. It results in a large increase in the fast ion loss rate, and heats the lost particles to several MeV. The lost ions are observed at the passing/trapped boundary and appear to be either DD fusion produced tritons or accelerated D neutral beam ions. Under some conditions, enhanced loss of DT alpha particles is also seen. The losses provide experimental support for some of the elements required for alpha energy channeling
Kisley, Lydia; Chen, Jixin; Mansur, Andrea P; Shuang, Bo; Kourentzi, Katerina; Poongavanam, Mohan-Vivekanandan; Chen, Wen-Hsiang; Dhamane, Sagar; Willson, Richard C; Landes, Christy F
2014-02-11
Chromatographic protein separations, immunoassays, and biosensing all typically involve the adsorption of proteins to surfaces decorated with charged, hydrophobic, or affinity ligands. Despite increasingly widespread use throughout the pharmaceutical industry, mechanistic detail about the interactions of proteins with individual chromatographic adsorbent sites is available only via inference from ensemble measurements such as binding isotherms, calorimetry, and chromatography. In this work, we present the direct superresolution mapping and kinetic characterization of functional sites on ion-exchange ligands based on agarose, a support matrix routinely used in protein chromatography. By quantifying the interactions of single proteins with individual charged ligands, we demonstrate that clusters of charges are necessary to create detectable adsorption sites and that even chemically identical ligands create adsorption sites of varying kinetic properties that depend on steric availability at the interface. Additionally, we relate experimental results to the stochastic theory of chromatography. Simulated elution profiles calculated from the molecular-scale data suggest that, if it were possible to engineer uniform optimal interactions into ion-exchange systems, separation efficiencies could be improved by as much as a factor of five by deliberately exploiting clustered interactions that currently dominate the ion-exchange process only accidentally.
A heating mechanism of ions due to large amplitude coherent ion acoustic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yajima, Nobuo; Kawai, Yoshinobu; Kogiso, Ken.
1978-05-01
Ion heating mechanism in a plasma with a coherent ion acoustic wave is studied experimentally and numerically. Ions are accelerated periodically in the electrostatic potential of the coherent wave and their oscillation energy is converted into the thermal energy of ions through the collision with the neutral atoms in plasma. The Monte Carlo calculation is applied to obtain the ion temperature. The amplitude of the electrostatic potential, the mean number of collisions and the mean life time of ions are treated as parameters in the calculation. The numerical results are compared with the experiments and both of them agree well. It is found that the ion temperature increases as the amplitude of the coherent wave increases and the high energy tail in the distribution function of ions are observed for the case of large wave-amplitude. (author)
Active ion temperature measurement with heating neutral beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, Yukitoshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Shin
1987-03-01
When the heating neutral-beam (hydrogen beam) is injected into a deuterium plasma, the density of neutral particles is increased locally. By using this increased neutral particles, the local ion temperature is measured by the active charge-exchange method. The analyzer is the E//B type mass-separated neutral particle energy analyzer and the measured position is about one third outside of the plasma radius. The deuterium energy spectrum is Maxwellian, and the temperature is increased from 350 eV to 900 eV during heating. Since the local hydrogen to deuterium density concentration and the density of the heating neutral-beam as well as the ion temperature can be obtained good S/N ratio, the usefulness of this method during neutral-beam heating is confirmed by this experiment. (author)
Hydrodynamic motion of a heavy-ion-beam-heated plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacoby, J.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Mueller, R.W.; Mahrt-Olt, K.; Arnold, R.C.; Schneider, V.; Maruhn, J.
1990-01-01
The first experimental study is reported of a plasma produced by a heavy-ion beam. Relevant parameters for heating with heavy ions are described, temperature and density of the plasma are determined, and the hydrodynamic motion in the target induced by the beam is studied. The measured temperature and the free-electron density are compared with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic-model calculation. In accordance with the model, a radial rarefaction wave reaching the center of the target was observed and the penetration velocity of the ion beam into the xenon-gas target was measured
Fundamental ion cyclotron resonance heating of JET deuterium plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasilnikov, A V; Amosov, V N; Kaschuck, Yu A; Van Eester, D; Lerche, E; Ongena, J; Bonheure, G; Biewer, T; Crombe, K; Ericsson, G; Giacomelli, L; Hellesen, C; Hjalmarsson, A; Esposito, B; Marocco, D; Jachmich, S; Kiptily, V; Leggate, H; Mailloux, J; Kallne, J
2009-01-01
Radio frequency heating of majority ions is of prime importance for understanding the basic role of auxiliary heating in the activated D-T phase of ITER. Majority deuterium ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) experiments at the fundamental cyclotron frequency were performed in JET. In spite of the poor antenna coupling at 25 MHz, this heating scheme proved promising when adopted in combination with D neutral beam injection (NBI). The effect of fundamental ICRH of a D population was clearly demonstrated in these experiments: by adding ∼25% of heating power the fusion power was increased up to 30-50%, depending on the type of NBI adopted. At this power level, the ion and electron temperatures increased from T i ∼ 4.0 keV and T e ∼ 4.5 keV (NBI-only phase) to T i ∼ 5.5 keV and T e ∼ 5.2 keV (ICRH + NBI phase), respectively. The increase in the neutron yield was stronger when 80 keV rather than 130 keV deuterons were injected in the plasma. It is shown that the neutron rate, the diamagnetic energy and the electron as well as the ion temperature scale roughly linearly with the applied RF power. A synergistic effect of the combined use of ICRF and NBI heating was observed: (i) the number of neutron counts measured by the neutron camera during the combined ICRF + NBI phases of the discharges exceeded the sum of the individual counts of the NBI-only and ICRF-only phases; (ii) a substantial increase in the number of slowing-down beam ions was detected by the time of flight neutron spectrometer when ICRF power was switched on; (iii) a small D subpopulation with energies slightly above the NBI launch energy was detected by the neutral particle analyzer and γ-ray spectroscopy.
High harmonic ion cyclotron heating in DIII-D: Beam ion absorption and sawtooth stabilization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidbrink, W.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mau, T.K.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, B.W.
1999-01-01
Combined neutral beam injection and fast wave heating at the fourth cyclotron harmonic produce an energetic deuterium beam ion tail in the DIII-D tokamak. When the concentration of thermal hydrogen exceeds ∼ 5%, the beam ion absorption is suppressed in favour of second harmonic hydrogen absorption. As theoretically expected, the beam absorption increases with beam ion gyro-radius; also, central absorption at the fifth harmonic is weaker than central absorption at the fourth harmonic. For central heating at the fourth harmonic, an energetic, perpendicular, beam population forms inside the q = 1 surface. The beam ion tail transiently stabilizes the sawtooth instability but destabilizes toroidicity induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs). Saturation of the central heating correlates with the onset of the TAEs. Continued expansion of the q = 1 radius eventually precipitates a sawtooth crash; complete magnetic reconnection is observed. (author)
Schmandt, Nicolaus T; Galán, Roberto F
2012-09-14
Markov chains provide realistic models of numerous stochastic processes in nature. We demonstrate that in any Markov chain, the change in occupation number in state A is correlated to the change in occupation number in state B if and only if A and B are directly connected. This implies that if we are only interested in state A, fluctuations in B may be replaced with their mean if state B is not directly connected to A, which shortens computing time considerably. We show the accuracy and efficacy of our approximation theoretically and in simulations of stochastic ion-channel gating in neurons.
Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
description of the rf system and experimental conditions can be found in [3]. In all the cases, the ion temperature equal to half of the electron temperature as generally observed in ohmically heated Aditya plasma [8] is considered. The parameters of the representa- tive shot # 20685 taken for the numerical simulation of fast ...
Ion heating in minority ICRH experiments on JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Start, D.F.H.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bures, M.
1991-06-01
Bulk ion heating by high power H-minority ICRH has been demonstrated in JET during both pellet enhanced performance H-mode experiments (PEP + H - mode) and in density limit studies. In the PEP + H - mode plasmas the electron and ion temperatures both reached 10 keV at an electron density of 7 x 10 19 /m 3 . According to Fokker-Planck calculations the power from the minority was transfered almost equally to the electrons and majority ions as a result of both the high electron density, n e , and the high minority density, n h , (n h /n e ≅ 0.15). For the first time with ICRH on JET a central ion temperature greater than the central electron temperature was achieved. In the density limit experiments which involved strong gas puffing into limiter discharges, there was strong evidence of a transfer from electron heating to ion heating as the electron density was ramped up to 8 x 10 19 /m 3 . (Author)
Ion heating due to rotation and collision in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderegg, F.; Stern, R.A.; Skiff, F.; Hammel, B.A.; Tran, M.Q.; Paris, P.J.; Kohler, P.
1986-01-01
The E x B rotation and associated collisional ion heating of noble-gas magnetized plasmas are investigated with high resolution by means of laser-induced fluorescence and electrical probes. Plasma rotation results from a radial potential gradient which can be controlled by biasing of the discharge electrodes. The time and space evolution of the potential, the rotation velocity v/sub t//sub h//sub e//sub t//sub a/, and the ion perpendicular temperature indicate that heating is due to the randomization of v/sub t//sub h//sub e//sub t//sub a/ by ion-neutral collisions, and leads to temperature increases as high as a factor of 50 over initial values
Stochastic Multicriteria Acceptability Analysis for Evaluation of Combined Heat and Power Units
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haichao Wang
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Combined heat and power (CHP is a promising technology that can contribute to energy efficiency and environmental protection. More CHP-based energy systems are planned for the future. This makes the evaluation and selection of CHP systems very important. In this paper, 16 CHP units representing different technologies are taken into account for multicriteria evaluation with respect to the end users’ requirements. These CHP technologies cover a wide range of power outputs and fuel types. They are evaluated from the energy, economy and environment (3E points of view, specifically including the criteria of efficiency, investment cost, electricity cost, heat cost, CO2 production and footprint. Uncertainties and imprecision are common both in criteria measurements and weights, therefore the stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA model is used in aiding this decision making problem. These uncertainties are treated better using a probability distribution function and Monte Carlo simulation in the model. Moreover, the idea of “feasible weight space (FWS” which represents the union of all preference information from decision makers (DMs is proposed. A complementary judgment matrix (CJM is introduced to determine the FWS. It can be found that the idea of FWS plus CJM is well compatible with SMAA and thus make the evaluation reliable.
ICRF heating of passing ions in a thermal barrier tandem mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molvik, A.W.; Dimonte, G.; Campbell, R.; Barter, J.; Cummins, W.F.; Falabella, S.; Poulsen, P.
1985-05-01
Ion heating is used in the central cells of tandem mirrors to reduce the collisional trapping of passing ions in the end cell thermal barriers. In this paper, we reevaluate ICRF heating of the TMX-U central cell in two limits. The first we term isotropic, because we impose the condition that ions heated in the perpendicular direction be confined for at least one 90 0 scattering time, thereby heating the passing ions. The second we call anisotropic heating. It uses higher ICRF power to mirror trap a majority of the ions near the midplane, thereby reducing the density and collisionality of passing ions. Anisotropic heating has the advantage of increasing with ICRF power, whereas isotropic heating is limited by ion collisionality. Both techniques require gas fueling near the central cell midplane, with an ion cyclotron resonance toward each end cell to heat the cold ions
Helicon plasma ion temperature measurements and observed ion cyclotron heating in proto-MPEX
Beers, C. J.; Goulding, R. H.; Isler, R. C.; Martin, E. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Caneses, J. F.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Kafle, N.; Rapp, J.
2018-01-01
The Prototype-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) linear plasma device is a test bed for exploring and developing plasma source concepts to be employed in the future steady-state linear device Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) that will study plasma-material interactions for the nuclear fusion program. The concept foresees using a helicon plasma source supplemented with electron and ion heating systems to reach necessary plasma conditions. In this paper, we discuss ion temperature measurements obtained from Doppler broadening of spectral lines from argon ion test particles. Plasmas produced with helicon heating alone have average ion temperatures downstream of the Helicon antenna in the range of 3 ± 1 eV; ion temperature increases to 10 ± 3 eV are observed with the addition of ion cyclotron heating (ICH). The temperatures are higher at the edge than the center of the plasma either with or without ICH. This type of profile is observed with electrons as well. A one-dimensional RF antenna model is used to show where heating of the plasma is expected.
Two-state ion heating at quasi-parallel shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomsen, M.F.; Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; Onsager, T.G.; Russell, C.T.
1990-01-01
In a previous study of ion heating at quasi-parallel shocks, the authors showed a case in which the ion distributions downstream from the shock alternated between a cooler, denser, core/shoulder type and a hotter, less dense, more Maxwellian type. In this paper they further document the alternating occurrence of two different ion states downstream from several quasi-parallel shocks. Three separate lines of evidence are presented to show that the two states are not related in an evolutionary sense, but rather both are produced alternately at the shock: (1) the asymptotic downstream plasma parameters (density, ion temperature, and flow speed) are intermediate between those characterizing the two different states closer to the shock, suggesting that the asymptotic state is produced by a mixing of the two initial states; (2) examples of apparently interpenetrating (i.e., mixing) distributions can be found during transitions from one state to the other; and (3) examples of both types of distributions can be found at actual crossings of the shock ramp. The alternation between the two different types of ion distribution provides direct observational support for the idea that the dissipative dynamics of at least some quasi-parallel shocks is non-stationary and cyclic in nature, as demonstrated by recent numerical simulations. Typical cycle times between intervals of similar ion heating states are ∼2 upstream ion gyroperiods. Both the simulations and the in situ observations indicate that a process of coherent ion reflection is commonly an important part of the dissipation at quasi-parallel shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.S.; Colestock, P.
1989-05-01
The highly anisotropic particle distribution function of minority tail ions driven by ion-cyclotron resonance heating at the fundamental harmonic is calculated in a two-dimensional velocity space. It is assumed that the heating is strong enough to drive most of the resonant ions above the in-electron critical slowing-down energy. Simple analytic expressions for the tail distribution are obtained fro the case when the Doppler effect is sufficiently large to flatten the sharp pitch angle dependence in the bounce averaged qualilinear heating coefficient, D/sub b/, and for the case when D/sub b/ is assumed to be constant in pitch angle and energy. It is found that a simple constant-D/sub b/ solution can be used instead of the more complicated sharp-D/sub b/ solution for many analytic purposes. 4 refs., 4 figs
Control of cluster ion sizes for efficient injection heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enjoji, Hiroshi; Be, S.H.; Yano, Katsuki; Okamoto, Kosuke
1976-01-01
For heating of plasmas by injection of hydrogen cluster ions, the specific size (N/Z) approximately 10 2 molecules/charge is believed to be most desirable. A fundamental research to develop a practical method for tailoring large cluster ions into small suitable sizes has been carried out by using nitrogen cluster ions of the initial mean specific size (N/Z) 0 approximately 10 5 . The beam of neutral large clusters of total intensity 20 mAsub(eq) was led to an ionizer and then the large cluster ions are accelerated to 8.9 keV before entering the divider which disintegrates them into small fragments by multiple ionization. The mean specific size of disintegrated cluster ions (N/Z)' becomes smaller with increase in ionizing electron current of the divider. (N/Z)' becomes 10 3 approximately 10 4 at an electron current of 140 mA and an accelerating voltage of 680 V of the divider with its efficiency of 20 approximately 60%. Thus, the original large cluster ions are divided into small fragments of which the mean specific size is 1/20 approximately 1/100 of the initial value without much decrease in total intensity of the cluster ion beam
An inductively heated hot cavity catcher laser ion source
Reponen, M; Pohjalainen, I; Rothe, S; Savonen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Voss, A
2015-01-01
An inductively heated hot cavity catcher has been constructed for the production of low-energy ion beams of exotic, neutron-deficient Agisotopes. A proof-of-principle experiment has been realized by implanting primary 107Ag21+ ions from a heavy-ion cyclotron into a graphite catcher. A variable-thickness nickel foil was used to degrade the energy of the primary beam in order to mimic the implantation depth expected from the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation recoils of N = Z94Ag. Following implantation, the silver atoms diffused out of the graphite and effused into the catcher cavity and transfer tube, where they were resonantly laser ionized using a three-step excitation and ionization scheme. Following mass separation, the ions were identified by scanning the frequency of the first resonant excitation step while recording the ion count rate. Ion release time profiles were measured for different implantation depths and cavity temperatures with the mean delay time varying from 10 to 600 ms. In addition, the diffusio...
Ion Bernstein wave heating experiments in HT-7 superconducting tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Yanping
2005-01-01
Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) experiments have been carried out in recent years in the HT-7 superconducting Tokamak. The electron heating experiment has been concentrated on deuterium plasma with an injecting RF power up to 350 kw. The globe heating and localized heating can be seen clearly by controlling the ICRF resonance layer's position. On-axis and off-axis electron heating have been realized by properly setting the target plasma parameters. Experimental results show that the maximum increment in electron temperature has been more than 1 keV, the electron temperature profile has been modified by IBW under different plasma conditions, and both energy and particle confinement improvements have been obtained. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitin, L A; Perevodchikov, V I; Shapiro, A L; Zavyalov, M A [All-Russian Electrotechnical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bliokh, Yu P; Fajnberg, Ya B [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)
1997-12-31
The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of a generator of stochastic microwave power based on a beam-plasma inertial feedback amplifier is discussed with a view to using stochastic oscillations for plasma heating. The plasma heating efficiency in the region of low-frequency resonance in the geometry of the Tokamak is considered theoretically. It is shown that the temperature of heating is proportional to the power multiplied by the spectra width of the noiselike signal. The creation and heating of plasma by stochastic microwave power in an oversized waveguide without external magnetic field is discussed with a view to plasma-chemistry applications. It is shown that the efficiency of heating are defined by the time of phase instability of the stochastic power. (author). 3 figs., 13 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soeldner, F.X.; Pereverzev, G.V.; Bartiromo, R.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Leuterer, F.; Murmann, H.D.; Staebler, A.; Steuer, K.H.
1993-01-01
Transport code calculations were made for experiments with the combined operation of lower hybrid current drive and heating and of neutral beam injection heating on ASDEX. Peaking or flattening of the electron temperature profile are mainly explained by modifications of the MHD induced electron heat transport. They originate from current profile changes due to lower hybrid and neutral beam current drive and to contributions from the bootstrap current. Ion heat transport cannot be described by one single model for all heating scenarios. The ion heat conductivity is reduced during lower hybrid heated phases with respect to Ohmic and neutral beam heating. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianxun Zhang
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A lithium-Ion battery is a typical degradation product, and its performance will deteriorate over time. In its degradation process, regeneration phenomena have been frequently encountered, which affect both the degradation state and rate. In this paper, we focus on how to build the degradation model and estimate the lifetime. Toward this end, we first propose a multi-phase stochastic degradation model with random jumps based on the Wiener process, where the multi-phase model and random jumps at the changing point are used to describe the variation of degradation rate and state caused by regeneration phenomena accordingly. Owing to the complex structure and random variables, the traditional Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE is not suitable for the proposed model. In this case, we treat these random variables as latent parameters, and then develop an approach for model identification based on expectation conditional maximum (ECM algorithm. Moreover, depending on the proposed model, how to estimate the lifetime with fixed changing point is presented via the time-space transformation technique, and the approximate analytical solution is derived. Finally, a numerical simulation and a practical case are provided for illustration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira
2009-01-01
Since various uncertainties of input variables are involved and nonlinearly-correlated in the Best Estimate (BE) plant dynamics code, it is of importance to evaluate the importance of input uncertainty to the computational results and to estimate the accuracy of the confidence level of the results. In order to estimate the importance and the accuracy, the authors have applied the stochastic safety analysis procedure using the Latin Hypercube sampling method to Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) natural circulation Decay Heat Removal (DHR) phenomenon in the present paper. 17 input variables are chosen for the analyses and 5 influential variables, which affect the maximum coolant temperature at the core in a short period of time (several tens seconds), are selected to investigate the importance by comparing with the full-scope parametric analysis. As a result, it has been demonstrated that a comparative small number of samples is sufficient enough to estimate the dominant input variable and the confidence level. Furthermore, the influence of the sampling method on the accuracy of the upper tolerance limit (confidence level of 95%) has been examined based on the Wilks' formula. (author)
Bulk Ion Heating with ICRF Waves in Tokamaks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mantsinen, M. J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.
2015-01-01
Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER...... when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central 3He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the Ti profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LTi of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG...
Solar wind heating by an embedded quasi-isothermal pick-up ion fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. Fahr
Full Text Available It is well known that the solar wind plasma consists of primary ions of solar coronal origin and secondary ions of interstellar origin. Interstellar H-atoms penetrate into the inner heliosphere and when ionized there are converted into secondary ions. These are implanted into the magnetized solar wind flow and are essentially enforced to co-move with this flow. By nonlinear interactions with wind-entrained Alfvén waves the latter are processed in the co-moving velocity space. This pick-up process, however, also causes actions back upon the original solar wind flow, leading to a deceleration, as well as a heating of the solar wind plasma. The resulting deceleration is not only due to the loading effect, but also due to the action of the pressure gradient. To calculate the latter, it is important to take into account the stochastic acceleration that suffers at their convection out of the inner heliosphere by the quasi-linear interactions with MHD turbulences. Only then can the presently reported VOYAGER observations of solar wind decelerations and heatings in the outer heliosphere be understood in terms of the current, most likely values of interstellar gas parameters. In a consistent view of the thermodynamics of the solar wind plasma, which is composed of secondary ions and solar wind protons, we also derive that the latter are globally heated at their motion to larger solar distances. The arising heat transfer is due to the action of suprathermal ions which drive MHD waves that are partially absorbed by solar wind protons and thereby establish their observed quasi-polytropy. We obtain a quantitative expression for the solar wind proton pressure as a function of solar distance. This expression clearly shows the change from an adiabatic to a quasi-polytropic behaviour with a decreasing polytropic index at increasing distances, as has been observed by the VOYAGERS. This also allows one to calculate the average percentage of the intitial energy
Solar wind heating by an embedded quasi-isothermal pick-up ion fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. Fahr
2002-10-01
Full Text Available It is well known that the solar wind plasma consists of primary ions of solar coronal origin and secondary ions of interstellar origin. Interstellar H-atoms penetrate into the inner heliosphere and when ionized there are converted into secondary ions. These are implanted into the magnetized solar wind flow and are essentially enforced to co-move with this flow. By nonlinear interactions with wind-entrained Alfvén waves the latter are processed in the co-moving velocity space. This pick-up process, however, also causes actions back upon the original solar wind flow, leading to a deceleration, as well as a heating of the solar wind plasma. The resulting deceleration is not only due to the loading effect, but also due to the action of the pressure gradient. To calculate the latter, it is important to take into account the stochastic acceleration that suffers at their convection out of the inner heliosphere by the quasi-linear interactions with MHD turbulences. Only then can the presently reported VOYAGER observations of solar wind decelerations and heatings in the outer heliosphere be understood in terms of the current, most likely values of interstellar gas parameters. In a consistent view of the thermodynamics of the solar wind plasma, which is composed of secondary ions and solar wind protons, we also derive that the latter are globally heated at their motion to larger solar distances. The arising heat transfer is due to the action of suprathermal ions which drive MHD waves that are partially absorbed by solar wind protons and thereby establish their observed quasi-polytropy. We obtain a quantitative expression for the solar wind proton pressure as a function of solar distance. This expression clearly shows the change from an adiabatic to a quasi-polytropic behaviour with a decreasing polytropic index at increasing distances, as has been observed by the VOYAGERS. This also allows one to calculate the average percentage of the intitial energy
Ion Bernstein wave heating in a multi-component plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puri, S.
1980-10-01
Conditions for the coupling and absorption of Gross-Bernstein ion-cyclotron waves in a multi-component plasma are examined. Two cases are distinguished depending upon whether, the antenna initially launches, (i) the quasi-torsional slow electromagnetic wave with azimuthal magnetic field (TM) polarization, or (ii) the quasi-compressional fast wave with the electric field oriented azimuthally (TE). Analytic expressions for the plasma surface impedance are derived taking into account the pertinent warm plasma modifications near the vacuum-plasma interface. Antenna configurations capable of efficient coupling of the radio frequency energy to these modes are studied. A method for simulating waveguide like launching using transmission lines is pointed out. It is found that impurity concentrations exceeding a few parts in a thousand are capable of competing with the bulk ions in the energy absorption processes; this could lead to energy deposition near the plasma edge. Measures for avoiding edge heating problems by a careful choice of parameters e.g. restricting the heating frequency to the fundamental ion gyrofrequency are outlined. Equal care is to be exercised in limiting the nsub(z) spectrum to low discrete values in order to avoid the potentially dangerous problem of runaway electron heating. (orig.)
Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortgang, C.M.; Sprott, J.C.; Strait, E.J.
1983-06-01
Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two-component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with 500 kW of rf power coupled into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun-injected plasmas. Most of the theortical work presented deals with a calculation that predicts the plasma loading. A slab model is used, and the questions of accessibility, polarization, and damping of the radio-frequency electromagnetic fields are addressed. It is found that cold-plasma theory cannot account for the heating and, therefore, hot-plasma theory is invoked to explain the results. The loading measurements and theoretical predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement
Lithium droplet divertor collector for ions and heat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wells, W.M.
1979-01-01
Coping with the ion and energy fluxes which must be collected with a tokamak divertor is one of the more difficult technological challenges for a power producing reactor. Use of stationary solid surfaces to collect ions and the attendant heat flux faces technology feasibility questions. Calculations indicate that gravity-driven flow of liquid metals having a free surface will not move adequately fast. It is proposed to circumvent these problems by having high velocity lithium droplets perform the collection functions. Droplets which are not in contact with a wall encounter only very small retardation effects in a magnetic field, and these droplets can be formed by nozzles outside of the magnetic field. If they travel at about 150 m/s, they can absorb in excess of 1 kW/cm 2 of projected area. The hydrogen isotope ion fluence is well below the saturation dose which has been achieved with lithium
Heating of Solar Wind Ions via Cyclotron Resonance
Navarro, R.; Moya, P. S.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Munoz, V.; Valdivia, J. A.
2017-12-01
Remote and in situ observations in the solar wind show that ion and electron velocity distributions persistently deviate from thermal equilibrium in the form of relative streaming between species components, temperature anisotropy, etc. These non-thermal features represent a source of free energy for the excitation of kinetic instabilities and fluctuations in the plasma. In this regard, it is believed that plasma particles can be heated, through a second order Fermi acceleration process, by multiple resonances with unstable counter-propagating field-aligned Ion-cyclotron waves. For multi-species plasmas, several collective wave modes participate in this process. In this work, we test this model by studying the percentage of ions that resonate with the waves modes described by the proper kinetic multi-species dispersion relation in a solar-wind-like plasma composed of electrons, protons, and alpha particles. Numerical results are compared with WIND spacecraft data to test its relevance for the existence of thresholds for the preferential perpendicular heating of He+2 ions as observed in the solar wind fast streams.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becoulet, A.
1990-06-01
The role of additional Heatings, such as the Ion Cyclotron Heating, is to raise magnetic fusion plasmas to higher temperatures, to satisfy the ignition condition. The understanding of the wave absorption mechanisms by the plasma first requires a precise description of the particle individual trajectories. The Hamiltonian mechanics, through action-angle variables, allows this description, and makes the computation of the wave-particle interaction easier. We then derive a quantitative evaluation of the intrinsic stochasticity for ionic trajectories perturbated by the fast wave. This stochasticity, combinated to the collisional effects, gives the validity domain for a quasilinear approximation of the evolution equation. This equation is then written under a variational formulation, and solved semi-analytically. Results conclude to the importance of the Hamiltonian chaos in the formation of the deeply anisotropic distribution tails, encountered in minority heating scenarios. Direct interaction of the electrons and the fast wave is similarly analysed. The influence of the various parameters (wave spectrum, magnetic configuration, frequency,...) is then examined in order to optimize this scenario of fast wave current drive in tokamaks [fr
Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazzaro, E., E-mail: lazzaro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR (Italy)
2016-05-15
In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co-I{sub p} direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P{sub RF} absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.
Hamiltonian theory of the ion cyclotron minority heating dynamics in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becoulet, A.; Gambier, D.J.; Samain, A.
1990-03-01
The question of heating a tokamak plasma by means of electromagnetic waves in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) is considered in the perspective of large RF powers and in the low collisionality regime. In such case the Quasi Linear Theory (QLT) is validated by the Hamiltonian dynamics of the wave particle interaction which exceeds the threshold of the intrinsic stochasticity. The Hamiltonian dynamics is represented by the evolution of a set of three canonical action angle variables well adapted to the tokamak magnetic configuration. This approach allows to derive the RF diffusion coefficient with very few assumptions. The distribution function of the resonant ions is written as a Fokker Planck equation but the emphasis is put on the QL diffusion instead of on the usual diffusion induced by collisions. Then the Fokker Planck equation is given a variational from which a solution is derived in the form of a semi analytical trial function of three parameters: the percentage of resonant particle contained in the tail; an isotropic width ΔT and an anisotropic one ΔP. This solution is successfully tested against real experimental observations. Practically it is shown that in the case of JET the distribution function is influenced by adiabatic barriers which in turn limit the Hamiltonian stochasticity domain within energy values typically in the MeV range. Consequently and for a given ICRF power, the tail energy excursion is lower and its concentration higher than that of a bounce averaged prediction. This may actually be an advantage for machines like JET considering the energy range required to simulate the α-particle behaviour in a relevant fusion reactor
High-frequency heating of plasma with two ion species
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klima, R.; Longinov, A.V.; Stepanov, K.N.
1975-01-01
The authors consider the penetration of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of the order of the ion cyclotron frequencies and with a fixed longitudinal wave number ksub(long), so that Nsub(long)=ksub(long)c/ω>>1 deep into an inhomogeneous plasma with two ion species. The propagation of two kinds of waves (fast and slow) with widely differing polarization and transverse refraction index is possible. For both types of waves there is an evanescence region at the plasma periphery. The evanescence region is narrow for slow waves and they easily penetrate the plasma. In a dense plasma they become electrostatic and can reach the ion-ion hybrid resonance region. However, the damping of these waves due to Cherenkov interaction with electrons in a high-temperature plasma is strong and therefore they are not suitable for heating plasma of large dimensions, as they are absorbed at the plasma periphery. The fast waves have a wider evanescence region and can be excited effectively only if N 2 is not too high. These waves can be completely absorbed in the plasma (due to Cherenkov interaction with electrons) if xi approximately (v 2 sub(Ti)/v 2 sub(A))Zsub(e)(ωsub(pi)a/c)exp(-Zsub(e) 2 ) > 1, where a is the plasma radius and Zsub(e) = ω/(√2 ksub(long)vsub(Te)). Fast waves can also reach the region where they are transformed into slow waves. In this region their damping increases considerably. It is shown that the transformation region in an inhomogeneous plasma with two ion species in a non-uniform magnetic field may be at the centre of the plasma. Fast waves can be used effectively for heating plasma of large dimensions. (author)
Kuchler, Klaus; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Mitsch, Tim; Manke, Ingo; Schmidt, Volker
2018-04-01
It is well-known that the microstructure of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries strongly affects their performance. Vice versa, the microstructure can exhibit strong changes during the usage of the battery due to aging effects. For a better understanding of these effects, mathematical analysis and modeling has turned out to be of great help. In particular, stochastic 3D microstructure models have proven to be a powerful and very flexible tool to generate various kinds of particle-based structures. Recently, such models have been proposed for the microstructure of anodes in lithium-ion energy and power cells. In the present paper, we describe a stochastic modeling approach for the 3D microstructure of cathodes in a lithium-ion energy cell, which differs significantly from the one observed in anodes. The model for the cathode data enhances the ideas of the anode models, which have been developed so far. It is calibrated using 3D tomographic image data from pristine as well as two aged cathodes. A validation based on morphological image characteristics shows that the model is able to realistically describe both, the microstructure of pristine and aged cathodes. Thus, we conclude that the model is suitable to generate virtual, but realistic microstructures of lithium-ion cathodes.
Diffusion approximation-based simulation of stochastic ion channels: which method to use?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danilo ePezo
2014-11-01
Full Text Available To study the effects of stochastic ion channel fluctuations on neural dynamics, several numerical implementation methods have been proposed. Gillespie’s method for Markov Chains (MC simulation is highly accurate, yet it becomes computationally intensive in the regime of high channel numbers. Many recent works aim to speed simulation time using the Langevin-based Diffusion Approximation (DA. Under this common theoretical approach, each implementation differs in how it handles various numerical difficulties – such as bounding of state variables to [0,1]. Here we review and test a set of the most recently published DA implementations (Dangerfield et al., 2012; Linaro et al., 2011; Huang et al., 2013a; Orio and Soudry, 2012; Schmandt and Galán, 2012; Goldwyn et al., 2011; Güler, 2013, comparing all of them in a set of numerical simulations that asses numerical accuracy and computational efficiency on three different models: the original Hodgkin and Huxley model, a model with faster sodium channels, and a multi-compartmental model inspired in granular cells. We conclude that for low channel numbers (usually below 1000 per simulated compartment one should use MC – which is both the most accurate and fastest method. For higher channel numbers, we recommend using the method by Orio and Soudry (2012, possibly combined with the method by Schmandt and Galán (2012 for increased speed and slightly reduced accuracy. Consequently, MC modelling may be the best method for detailed multicompartment neuron models – in which a model neuron with many thousands of channels is segmented into many compartments with a few hundred channels.
Diffusion approximation-based simulation of stochastic ion channels: which method to use?
Pezo, Danilo; Soudry, Daniel; Orio, Patricio
2014-01-01
To study the effects of stochastic ion channel fluctuations on neural dynamics, several numerical implementation methods have been proposed. Gillespie's method for Markov Chains (MC) simulation is highly accurate, yet it becomes computationally intensive in the regime of a high number of channels. Many recent works aim to speed simulation time using the Langevin-based Diffusion Approximation (DA). Under this common theoretical approach, each implementation differs in how it handles various numerical difficulties—such as bounding of state variables to [0,1]. Here we review and test a set of the most recently published DA implementations (Goldwyn et al., 2011; Linaro et al., 2011; Dangerfield et al., 2012; Orio and Soudry, 2012; Schmandt and Galán, 2012; Güler, 2013; Huang et al., 2013a), comparing all of them in a set of numerical simulations that assess numerical accuracy and computational efficiency on three different models: (1) the original Hodgkin and Huxley model, (2) a model with faster sodium channels, and (3) a multi-compartmental model inspired in granular cells. We conclude that for a low number of channels (usually below 1000 per simulated compartment) one should use MC—which is the fastest and most accurate method. For a high number of channels, we recommend using the method by Orio and Soudry (2012), possibly combined with the method by Schmandt and Galán (2012) for increased speed and slightly reduced accuracy. Consequently, MC modeling may be the best method for detailed multicompartment neuron models—in which a model neuron with many thousands of channels is segmented into many compartments with a few hundred channels. PMID:25404914
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piperagkas, G.S.; Anastasiadis, A.G.; Hatziargyriou, N.D. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Electric Power Division, 9, Iroon Polytechneiou Str., GR-15773 Zografou, Athens (Greece)
2011-01-15
In this paper an extended stochastic multi-objective model for economic dispatch (ED) is proposed, that incorporates in the optimization process heat and power from CHP units and expected wind power. Stochastic restrictions for the CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions are used as inequality constraints. The ED problem is solved using a multi-objective particle swarm optimization technique. The available wind power is estimated from a transformation of the wind speed considered as a random variable to wind power. Simulations are performed on the modified IEEE 30 bus network with 2 cogeneration units and actual wind data. Results concerning minimum cost and emissions reduction options are finally drawn. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marmolino, Ciro [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie dell' Ambiente e del Territorio-DiSTAT, Universita del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, I-86090 Pesche (Italy)
2011-10-15
The paper describes the occurrence of stochastic heating of dust particles in dusty plasmas as an energy instability due to the correlations between dust grain charge and electric field fluctuations. The possibility that the mean energy (''temperature'') of dust particles can grow in time has been found both from the self-consistent kinetic description of dusty plasmas taking into account charge fluctuations [U. de Angelis, A. V. Ivlev, V. N. Tsytovich, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 052301 (2005)] and from a Fokker-Planck approach to systems with variable charge [A. V. Ivlev, S. K. Zhdanov, B. A. Klumov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Plasmas 12(9), 092104 (2005)]. Here, a different derivation is given by using the mathematical techniques of the so called multiplicative stochastic differential equations. Both cases of ''fast'' and ''slow'' fluctuations are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Shi, E-mail: sjin@wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Institute of Natural Sciences, Department of Mathematics, MOE-LSEC and SHL-MAC, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing@math.wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2017-04-01
In this paper, we develop an Asymptotic-Preserving (AP) stochastic Galerkin scheme for the radiative heat transfer equations with random inputs and diffusive scalings. In this problem the random inputs arise due to uncertainties in cross section, initial data or boundary data. We use the generalized polynomial chaos based stochastic Galerkin (gPC-SG) method, which is combined with the micro–macro decomposition based deterministic AP framework in order to handle efficiently the diffusive regime. For linearized problem we prove the regularity of the solution in the random space and consequently the spectral accuracy of the gPC-SG method. We also prove the uniform (in the mean free path) linear stability for the space-time discretizations. Several numerical tests are presented to show the efficiency and accuracy of proposed scheme, especially in the diffusive regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wade, M.R.; Kwon, M.; Thomas, C.E.; Colchin, R.J.; England, A.C.; Gossett, J.M.; Horton, L.D.; Isler, R.C.; Lyon, J.F.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Rayburn, T.M.; Shepard, T.D.; Bell, G.L.; Fowler, R.H.; Morris, R.N.
1990-01-01
A neutral particle analyzer (NPA) with horizontal and vertical scanning capability has been used to make initial measurements of the fast ion distribution during neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron heating (ICH) on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). These measurements are presented and compared with the results of modeling codes that predict the analyzer signals during these heating processes. 6 refs., 5 figs
Perturbation analysis of spontaneous action potential initiation by stochastic ion channels
Keener, James P.; Newby, Jay M.
2011-01-01
A stochastic interpretation of spontaneous action potential initiation is developed for the Morris-Lecar equations. Initiation of a spontaneous action potential can be interpreted as the escape from one of the wells of a double well potential
Relaxation of ion energy spectrum just after turbulent heating pulse in TRIAM-1 tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Yukio; Itoh, Satoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1982-07-01
The temporal evolution and spatial profile of the ion energy spectrum just after the application of a toroidal current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in the TRIAM-1 tokamak and also numerically using the Fokker-Planck equation. The two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to a single one within tausub(i) (the ion collision time).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lodi, C.; Bacher, Peder; Cipriano, J.
2012-01-01
reduce the ventilation thermal losses of the building by pre-heating the fresh air. Furthermore, by decreasing PV module temperature, the ventilation air heat extraction can simultaneously increase electrical and thermal energy production of the building. A correct prediction of the PV module temperature...... and heat transfer coefficients is fundamental in order to improve the thermo-electrical production.The considered grey-box models are composed of a set of continuous time stochastic differential equations, holding the physical description of the system, combined with a set of discrete time measurement......This paper deals with grey-box modelling of the energy transfer of a double skin Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system. Grey-box models are based on a combination of prior physical knowledge and statistics, which enable identification of the unknown parameters in the system and accurate...
Characteristics of ion Bernstein wave heating in JIPPT-II-U tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okamoto, M.; Ono, M.
1985-11-01
Using a transport code combined with an ion Bernstein wave tokamak ray tracing code, a modelling code for the ion Bernstein wave heating has been developed. Using this code, the ion Bernstein wave heating experiment on the JIPPT-II-U tokamak has been analyzed. It is assumed that the resonance layer is formed by the third harmonic of deuterium-like ions, such as fully ionized carbon, and oxygen ions near the plasma center. For wave absorption mechanisms, electron Landau damping, ion cyclotron harmonic damping, and collisional damping are considered. The characteristics of the ion Bernstein wave heating experiment, such as the ion temperature increase, the strong dependence of the quality factor on the magnetic field strength, and the dependence of the ion temperature increment on the input power, are well reproduced
Technological issues of ion cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, D.Q.; Fortgang, C.M.
1985-01-01
With the recent promising results of plasma heating using electromagnetic waves (EM waves) in the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak the feasibility of employing ICRF heating to a reactor-like magnetic confinement device is increasing. The high power ICRF experiments funded on JET (Joint European Torus in England) and JT-60 (in Japan) will have rf source power in the range of 10-30 MW. The time scale for the duration of the RF pulse will range from seconds up to steady-state. The development of new RF components that can transmit and launch such high power, long pulse length, EM waves in a plasma environment is a major technological task. In general, the technology issues may be divided into two categories. The first category concerns the region where the plasma comes in contact with the wave launchers. The problems here are dominated by plasmamaterial interaction, heat deposition by the plasma onto the wave launcher, and erosion of the launcher material. It is necessary to minimize the heat deposition from the plasma, the losses of the RF wave energy in the structure, and to prevent sputtering of the antenna components. A solution involves a combined design using special materials and optimal shaping of the Faraday shield (the electrostatic shields which can be used both for an EM wave polarization adjustment and as a particle shield for the launcher). Recent studies by PPPL and McDonnell Douglas Corp. on the Faraday shield designs will be discussed. The second important area where technology development will be necessary is the transmission of high power RF waves through a gas/vacuum interface region. In the past, the vacuum feedthrough has been the bottle neck which prevented high power operation of the PLT antenna
Davies, I M; Zhao, H
2004-01-01
We study the inviscid limit, $\\mu\\to 0$, of the stochastic viscous Burgers equation, for the velocity field $v^{\\mu}(x,t)$, $t>0$, $x\\in\\mathbb R^d$,\\frac{\\partial{v^{\\mu}}}{\\partial{t}} + (v^{\\mu}\\cdot\
Modelling the heat dynamics of a building using stochastic differential equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Madsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lars Henrik
2000-01-01
estimation and model validation, while physical knowledge is used in forming the model structure. The suggested lumped parameter model is thus based on thermodynamics and formulated as a system of stochastic differential equations. Due to the continuous time formulation the parameters of the model...
Market Potential for Residential Biomass Heating Equipment: Stochastic and Econometric Assessments
Adee Athiyaman
2015-01-01
This paper provides estimates of market potential for biomass-residential-heating equipment in the US: that is, the greatest amount of biomass-residential-heating equipment that can be sold by the industry. The author's analysis is limited to biomass equipment used most to heat the housing unit. Assuming that households equipped with 10+ year old primary heating devices will replace rather than repair the devices he predicts that approximately 1.4 million units of residential home heating equ...
Schmidt, Christian; Piel, Alexander
2015-10-01
The Brownian motion of a single particle in the plasma sheath is studied to separate the effect of stochastic heating by charge fluctuations from heating by collective effects. By measuring the particle velocities in the ballistic regime and by carefully determining the particle mass from the Epstein drag it is shown that for a pressure of 10 Pa, which is typical of many experiments, the proper kinetic temperature of the Brownian particle remains close to the gas temperature and rises only slightly with particle size. This weak effect is confirmed by a detailed model for charging and charge fluctuations in the sheath. A substantial temperature rise is found for decreasing pressure, which approximately shows the expected scaling with p-2. The system under study is an example for non-equilibrium Brownian motion under the influence of white noise without corresponding dissipation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Brida
2017-08-01
Full Text Available A heat pulse experiment was carried out in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade to estimate the stochastic layer width of a deuterium L-mode discharge with externally applied Magnetic Perturbations. The method relies on the deposition of ECRH pulses in the plasma edge while measuring the divertor target heat flux with high temporal resolution IR thermography and Langmuir probes. The experimental results were compared to simulations of the time dependent heat pulse propagation on a constant plasma background with the EMC3-EIRENE code package, using an ad-hoc screening model. If no screening was taken into account in the simulations a decrease in the characteristic heat pulse propagation time was observed, which shows that the heat transport is enhanced compared to the screened cases. No such enhancement was found in the experiment, indicating strong screening. In further simulations the effect of screening on the target fluxes was investigated for varying densities. For low densities it was found that screening reduces the strike line splitting strongly, while for higher densities no strong strike line splitting was found, independent of the screening degree. For strongly detached L-mode conditions with MPs experiments at AUG indicate that the lobe structures vanish completely.
Heat and momentum transport of ion internal transport barrier plasmas on Large Helical Device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagaoka, K.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.
2010-11-01
The peaked ion-temperature profile with steep gradient so called ion internal transport barrier (ion ITB) was formed in the neutral beam heated plasmas on the Large Helical Device (LHD) and the high-ion-temperature regime of helical plasmas has been significantly extended. The ion thermal diffusivity in the ion ITB plasma decreases down to the neoclassical transport level. The heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) observed the smooth potential profile with negative radial electric field (ion root) in the core region where the ion thermal diffusivity decreases significantly. The large toroidal rotation was also observed in the ion ITB core and the transport of toroidal momentum was analyzed qualitatively. The decrease of momentum diffusivity with ion temperature increase was observed in the ion ITB core. The toroidal rotation driven by ion temperature gradient so called intrinsic rotation is also identified. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhajlenko, V.S.; Stepanov, K.N.
1981-01-01
Ion cyclotron instability saturation is considered in terms of the turbulence theory when there is a beam of heavy ions with large thermal longitudinal velocity spread. The instability excitation is due to a cyclotron interaction with ions of the beam under the anomalous Doppler effect. The instability is shown to be saturated due to an induced plasma ion scattering of ion cyclotron waves when the beam ion charge number Zsub(b) is approximately 1. Decay processes, wave scattering by virtual wave polarization clouds and resonance broadening due to random walk of plasma ions in turbulent instability fields appear to be unimportant. For Zsub(b)>>1 the induced wave scattering by the beam ions is the main process determining the nonlinear stage of the instability. Estimates are given for the oscillation energy density in the instability saturation state and for the turbulent heating rate of plasma and beam ions [ru
Power deposition for ion cyclotron heating in large tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsten, T.; Villard, L.
1988-01-01
The power deposition profiles during minority ion cyclotron heating are analysed in large tokamaks by using the global, toroidal wave code LION. For tokamaks with large aspect ratio and with circular cross-section, the wave is focused on the magnetic axis and can be absorbed there by cyclotron absorption when the cyclotron resonance passes through the magnetic axis. The power deposition profile is then essentially determined by the Doppler broadening of the ion cyclotron resonance. For equilibria either non-circular or with a small aspect ratio the power deposition profile depends also on the strength of the damping. In this case the power deposition profile can be expressed as a sum of two power deposition profiles. One is related to the power absorbed in a single pass, and its shape is similar to that obtained for large aspect ratio and circular cross-section. The other profile is obtained by calculating the power deposition in the limit of weak damping, in which case the wave electric field is almost constant along the cyclotron resonance layer. A heuristic formula for the power deposition is given. The formula includes a number of calibration curves and functions which has been calculated with the LION code for JET relevant equilibria. The formula enables calculation of the power deposition profile in a simple way when the launched wave spectrum and damping coefficients are known. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs
Observations of rotation in JET plasmas with electron heating by ion cyclotron resonance heating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T. J.; Van Eester, D.
2012-01-01
The rotation of L-mode plasmas in the JET tokamak heated by waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) damped on electrons, is reported. The plasma in the core is found to rotate in the counter-current direction with a high shear and in the outer part of the plasma with an almost......, electron absorption of the fast magnetosonic wave by transit time magnetic pumping and electron Landau damping (TTMP/ELD) is the dominating absorption mechanism. Inverted mode conversion is done in (He-3)-H plasmas where the mode converted waves are essentially absorbed by electron Landau damping. Similar...... rotation profiles are seen when heating at the second harmonic cyclotron frequency of He-3 and with mode conversion at high concentrations of He-3. The magnitude of the counter-rotation is found to decrease with an increasing plasma current. The correlation of the rotation with the electron temperature...
Ion heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies in the Wisconsin Tokapole II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biddle, A.P.
1980-06-01
Ion temperatures of 75 eV, a doubling of the ohmic heating temperature in a normal discharge, have been achieved using the fast magnetosonic wave heating at the second, third, and fourth harmonics of the cyclotron frequency in a single component hydrogen plasma. The wave launching structure is a single turn, shielded, insulated loop which constitutes the inductor of the rf source tank circuit. Power levels of 800 kW have been applied to the plasma for periods of up to 1.1 milliseconds. Good agreement has been found between theory and experiment for loading and wave propagation in the plasma for m = 0 and m = +1 modes. Eigenmodes have been observed by peaking of both the rf wave amplitude and the loading of the oscillator, as well as by oscillator frequency shifts imposed by their passage
Ion heating and MHD dynamo fluctuations in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scime, E.E.
1992-05-01
Ion temperature measurements, time resolved to 10 μs, have been made in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) with a five channel charge exchange analyzer. The characteristic anomalously high ion temperature of RFP discharges has been observed in the MST. The evolution of the ion and electron temperature, as well as density and charge exchange power loss, were measured for a series of reproducible discharges. The ion heating expected from collisional processes with the electrons is calculated and shown too small to explain the measured ion temperatures. The charge exchange determined ion temperature is also compared to measurements of the thermally broadened CV 227.1 nm line. The ion temperature, T i ∼ 250 eV for I = 360 kA, increases by more than 100% during discrete dynamo bursts in MST discharges. Magnetic field fluctuations in the range 0.5 endash 5 MHz were also measured during the dynamo bursts. Structure in the fluctuation frequency spectrum at the ion cyclotron frequency appears as the bursts terminate, suggesting that the mechanism of ion heating involves the dissipation of dynamo fluctuations at ion cyclotron frequencies. Theoretical models for ion heating are reviewed and discussed in light of the experimental results. Similar electron heating mechanisms may be responsible for the discrepancy between measured and expected loop voltages in the RFP. The electrons, as well as the ions, may be heated by turbulent mechanisms, and a RFP energy budget including such phenomena is described
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ritz, G., E-mail: Guillaume.ritz@gmail.com [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Corre, Y., E-mail: Yann.corre@cea.fr [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Rault, M.; Missirlian, M. [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Portafaix, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Martinez, A.; Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.; Guilhem, D.; Salami, M.; Loarer, T. [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)
2013-10-15
Highlights: ► The heat flux generated by radiofrequency (RF) heating was calculated using Tore Supra's heating antennas. ► The highest heat flux value, generated by ions accelerated in RF-rectified sheath potentials, was 5 MW/m{sup 2}. ► The heat flux on the limiters of antennas was in the same order of magnitude as that on the toroidal pumping limiter. -- Abstract: Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are recognized as important auxiliary heating and current drive methods for present and next step fusion devices. However, these radio frequency (RF) systems generate a heat flux up to several MW/m{sup 2} on the RF antennas during plasma operation. This paper focuses on the determination of the heat flux deposited on the lateral protections of the RF antennas in Tore Supra. The heat flux was calculated by finite element method (FEM) using a model of the lateral protection. The FEM calculation was based on surface temperature measurements using infrared cameras monitoring the RF antennas. The heat flux related to the acceleration of electrons in front of the LHCD grills (LHCD active) and to the acceleration of ions in RF-rectified sheath potentials (ICRH active) were calculated. Complementary results on the heat flux related to fast ions (ICRH active with a relatively low magnetic field) are also reported in this paper.
Experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions in a tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gahl, J.; Ishihara, O.; Wong, K.L.; Kristiansen, M.; Hagler, M.
1986-01-01
The first experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions is reported. Ions were asymmetrically heated by a unidirectional fast Alfven wave launched by a slow wave antenna inside a tokamak. Current generation was detected by measuring the asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current with probes at the top and bottom of the toroidal plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars
2014-01-01
We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form −log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ 2 for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation
Relaxation of ion energy spectrum just after turbulent heating pulse in TRIAM-1 tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Yukio; Itoh, Satoshi
1982-01-01
The temporal evolution and spatial profile of the ion energy spectrum just after the application of a toroidal current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in the TRIAM-1 tokamak and also numerically using the Fokker-Planck equation. The two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to a single one within tausub(i) (the ion collision time). (author)
Ion heating at the disruptive instability in the LT-3 Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, M.G.; Hutchinson, I.H.
1976-01-01
Measurements of the ion temperature and the toroidal current density and electric field during the disruptive instability in LT-3 are presented. Rapid ion heating and strong current inhibition have been observed. Fluctuation measurements suggest that these effects may be attributable to the excitation of ion cyclotron drift waves in the plasma
Diffusive heat transport across magnetic islands and stochastic layers in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoelzl, Matthias
2010-01-01
Heat transport in tokamak plasmas with magnetic islands and ergodic field lines was simulated at realistic plasma parameters in realistic tokamak geometries. This requires the treatment of anisotropic heat diffusion, which is more efficient along magnetic field lines by up to ten orders of magnitude than perpendicular to them. Comparisons with analytical predictions and experimental measurements allow to determine the stability properties of neoclassical tearing modes as well as the experimental heat diffusion anisotropy.
Study of high energy ion loss during hydrogen minority heating in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, J.; Zweben, S.J.
1994-03-01
High energy ion loss during hydrogen minority ICRF heating is measured and compared with the loss of the D-D fusion products. During H minority heating a relatively large loss of high energy ions is observed at 45 degrees below the outer midplane, with or without simultaneous NBI heating. This increase is most likely due to a loss of the minority tail protons, a possible model for this process is described
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wickart, Marcel; Madlener, Reinhard
2007-01-01
In this paper we develop an economic model that explains the decision-making problem under uncertainty of an industrial firm that wants to invest in a process technology. More specifically, the decision is between making an irreversible investment in a combined heat-and-power production (cogeneration) system, or to invest in a conventional heat-only generation system (steam boiler) and to purchase all electricity from the grid. In our model we include the main economic and technical variables of the investment decision process. We also account for the risk and uncertainty inherent in volatile energy prices that can greatly affect the valuation of the investment project. The dynamic stochastic model presented allows us to simultaneously determine the optimal technology choice and investment timing. We apply the theoretical model and illustrate our main findings with a numerical example that is based on realistic cost values for industrial oil- or gas-fired cogeneration and heat-only generation in Switzerland. We also briefly discuss expected effects of a CO 2 tax on the investment decision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein
2017-01-01
Highlights: •Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. •The effect of combined heat and power is considered. •Hydrogen storage is considered for fuel cells. •Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. •Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. -- Abstract: Nowadays, renewable energy sources and combined heat and power units are extremely used in micro grids, so it is necessary to schedule these units to improve the performance of the system. In this regard, a stochastic model is proposed in this paper to schedule proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind turbines, and photovoltaic units coordinately in a micro grid while considering hydrogen storage. Hydrogen storage strategy is considered for the operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power units. To consider stochastic generation of renewable energy source units in this paper, a scenario-based method is used. In this method, the uncertainties of electrical market price, the wind speed, and solar irradiance are considered. This stochastic scheduling problem is a mixed integer- nonlinear programming which considers the proposed objective function and variables of coordinated scheduling of PEMFC-CHP, wind turbines and photovoltaic units. It also considers hydrogen storage strategy and converts it to a mixed integer nonlinear problem. In this study a modified firefly algorithm is used to solve the problem. This method is examined on modified 33-bus distributed network as a MG for its performance.
Hall and ion slip effects on peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with Joule heating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shafique, Maryam [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Tanveer, A., E-mail: anum@math.qau.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-06-01
This paper addresses mixed convective peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with complaint walls. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Hall and ion slip effects are also taken into account. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating, Hall and ion slip parameters are investigated in detail. It is observed that velocity increases and temperature decreases with Hall and ion slip parameters. Further the thermal radiation on temperature has qualitatively similar role to that of Hall and ion slip effects. - Highlights: • Peristalsis in the presence of Jeffery nanofluid is formulated. • Compliant properties of channel walls are addressed. • Impact of Hall and ion slip effects is outlined. • Influence of Joule heating and radiation is investigated. • Mixed convection for both heat and mass transfer is present.
High power heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies in the Wisconsin Tokapole II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biddle, A.P.; Sprott, J.C.
1981-01-01
Fast wave heating at the second, third and fourth harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance, and slow wave heating at the fundamental in a single ion species hydrogen plasma, are found to be in good agreement with warm plasma theory at rf power levels <= 130 kW. Ion heating is negligible off an eigenmode. Ion body temperatures are more than doubled to 75 eV from the 35 eV ohmically heated case with tails comprising 8% of the plasma at 320 eV. No deleterious effects except a non-disruptive 10% shortening of the discharge length caused by impurity influx are noted. A passive mode tracking technique allows approximately equal to 40% increase in power deposition in a passing eigenmode over that of a fixed frequency rf source. Ion temperatures are limited by charge exchange due to the < 50 eV central temperature and the small 13 cm radius current channel. (author)
Effect of energetic ion loss on ICRF heating efficiency and energy confinement time in heliotrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M.; Nuehrenberg, J.
1999-06-01
ICRF heating efficiency and the global energy confinement time during ICRF heating are investigated including the effect of energetic ion loss in heliotrons. The approximate formula of ICRF heating efficiency is derived using the results based on Monte Carlo simulations. The global energy confinement time including energetic ion effect can be expressed in terms of ICRF heating power, plasma density, and magnetic field strength in heliotrons. Our results in the CHS plasma show the systematic decrement of the global energy confinement time due to the energetic ion loss from the assumed energy confinement scaling law, which is consistent with the experimental observations. Also we apply our model to the ICRF minority heating in the LHD plasma in two cases of typical magnetic configurations. The clear increment of the global energy confinement time due to the stored energy of energetic tail ions is obtained in the 'orbit improved' configuration, while the decrement is observed in the 'standard' configuration. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ofman, Leon, E-mail: Leon.Ofman@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Visiting, Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ozak, Nataly [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
2016-03-25
Near the Sun (< 10R{sub s}) the acceleration, heating, and propagation of the solar wind are likely affected by the background inhomogeneities of the magnetized plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super-Alfvénic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.
Negative ion based neutral beams for plasma heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prelec, K.
1978-01-01
Neutral beam systems based on negative ions have been considered because of a high expected power efficiency. Methods for the production, acceleration and neutralization of negative ions will be reviewed and possibilities for an application in neutral beam lines explored
Simulation study of energetic ion distribution during combined NBI and ICRF heating in LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Kasilov, V.
2006-01-01
In the LHD, significant performances of ICRF heating (fundamental, minority heating regime) have been demonstrated and up to 500keV of energetic tail ions have been observed by fast neutral particle analysis (NPA). These measured results indicate a good property of energetic ion confinement in helical systems. From the 9th campaign of LHD experiment (FY2005) a new perpendicular NBI heating system (P<3MW) has been installed and an effective heating of perpendicularly injected beam ions by the higher harmonics ICRF heating is expected. ICRF heating generates highly energetic tail ions, which drift around the torus for a long time (typically on a collisional time scale). Thus, the behavior of these energetic ions is strongly affected by the characteristics of the drift motions, which depend on the magnetic field configuration. In particular, in a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic configuration, complicated drift motions of trapped particles would play an important role in the confinement of the energetic ions and the ICRF heating process. Therefore a global simulation of ICRF heating is necessary for the accurate modeling of the plasma heating process in a 3D magnetic configuration. In this paper we study the energetic ion distribution during combined NBI and 2nd harmonics ICRF heating in LHD using two global simulation codes: a full wave field solver TASK/WK and a drift kinetic equation solver GNET. GNET solves a linearized drift kinetic equation for energetic ions including complicated behavior of trapped particles in 5-D phase space. TASK/WM solves Maxwell's equation for RF wave electric field with complex frequency as a boundary value problem in the 3D magnetic configuration. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozak, N.; Ofman, L.; Viñas, A.-F.
2015-01-01
Remote sensing observations of coronal holes show that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic. In-situ observations of fast solar wind streams provide direct evidence for turbulent Alfvén wave spectrum, left-hand polarized ion-cyclotron waves, and He ++ - proton drift in the solar wind plasma, which can produce temperature anisotropies by resonant absorption and perpendicular heating of the ions. Furthermore, the solar wind is expected to be inhomogeneous on decreasing scales approaching the Sun. We study the heating of solar wind ions in inhomogeneous plasma with a 2.5D hybrid code. We include the expansion of the solar wind in an inhomogeneous plasma background, combined with the effects of a turbulent wave spectrum of Alfvénic fluctuations and initial ion-proton drifts. We study the influence of these effects on the perpendicular ion heating and cooling and on the spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations in the inhomogeneous background wind. We find that inhomogeneities in the plasma lead to enhanced heating compared to the homogenous solar wind, and the generation of significant power of oblique waves in the solar wind plasma. The cooling effect due to the expansion is not significant for super-Alfvénic drifts, and is diminished further when we include an inhomogeneous background density. We reproduce the ion temperature anisotropy seen in observations and previous models, which is present regardless of the perpendicular cooling due to solar wind expansion. We conclude that small scale inhomogeneities in the inner heliosphere can significantly affect resonant wave ion heating
Bulk ion acceleration and particle heating during magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Myers, Clayton E. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2014-05-15
Bulk ion acceleration and particle heating during magnetic reconnection are studied in the collisionless plasma of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). The plasma is in the two-fluid regime, where the motion of the ions is decoupled from that of the electrons within the ion diffusion region. The reconnection process studied here is quasi-symmetric since plasma parameters such as the magnitude of the reconnecting magnetic field, the plasma density, and temperature are compatible on each side of the current sheet. Our experimental data show that the in-plane (Hall) electric field plays a key role in ion heating and acceleration. The electrostatic potential that produces the in-plane electric field is established by electrons that are accelerated near the electron diffusion region. The in-plane profile of this electrostatic potential shows a “well” structure along the direction normal to the reconnection current sheet. This well becomes deeper and wider downstream as its boundary expands along the separatrices where the in-plane electric field is strongest. Since the in-plane electric field is 3–4 times larger than the out-of-plane reconnection electric field, it is the primary source of energy for the unmagnetized ions. With regard to ion acceleration, the Hall electric field causes ions near separatrices to be ballistically accelerated toward the outflow direction. Ion heating occurs as the accelerated ions travel into the high pressure downstream region. This downstream ion heating cannot be explained by classical, unmagnetized transport theory; instead, we conclude that ions are heated by re-magnetization of ions in the reconnection exhaust and collisions. Two-dimensional (2-D) simulations with the global geometry similar to MRX demonstrate downstream ion thermalization by the above mechanisms. Electrons are also significantly heated during reconnection. The electron temperature sharply increases across the separatrices and peaks just outside of the
Perturbation analysis of spontaneous action potential initiation by stochastic ion channels
Keener, James P.
2011-07-01
A stochastic interpretation of spontaneous action potential initiation is developed for the Morris-Lecar equations. Initiation of a spontaneous action potential can be interpreted as the escape from one of the wells of a double well potential, and we develop an asymptotic approximation of the mean exit time using a recently developed quasistationary perturbation method. Using the fact that the activating ionic channel\\'s random openings and closings are fast relative to other processes, we derive an accurate estimate for the mean time to fire an action potential (MFT), which is valid for a below-threshold applied current. Previous studies have found that for above-threshold applied current, where there is only a single stable fixed point, a diffusion approximation can be used. We also explore why different diffusion approximation techniques fail to estimate the MFT. © 2011 American Physical Society.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.
2015-01-01
Multiple frequency heating is one of the most effective techniques to improve the performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources. The method increases the beam current and average charge state of the extracted ions and enhances the temporal stability of the ion beams. It is demonstrated in this paper that the stabilizing effect of two-frequency heating is connected with the suppression of electron cyclotron instability. Experimental data show that the interaction between the secondary microwave radiation and the hot electron component of ECR ion source plasmas plays a crucial role in mitigation of the instabilities
Mechanism of negative hydrogen ion emission from heated saline hydrides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawano, Hiroyuki; Serizawa, Naoshi; Takeda, Makiko; Hasegawa, Seiji [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). Faculty of Science
1997-02-01
To find a clue to the mechanism of negative hydrogen ion emission from a heated sample ({approx}10 mg) of powdery saline hydride (LiH or CaH{sub 2}) deposited on a molybdenum ribbon ({approx}0.1 cm{sup 2}), both the ionic and electronic emission currents were measured as a function of sample temperature ({approx}700 - 800 K), thereby yielding {approx}10{sup -15} - 10{sup -12} A of H{sup -} after mass analysis and {approx}10{sup -7} - 10{sup -5} A of thermal electron. Thermophysical analysis of these data indicates that the desorption energy (E{sup -}) of H{sup -} and work function ({phi}) of the emitting sample surface are 5.1 {+-} 0.3 and 3.1 {+-} 0.2 eV for LiH, respectively, while E{sup -} is 7.7 {+-} 0.3 eV and {phi} is 5.0 {+-} 0.2 eV for CaH{sub 2}. Thermochemical analysis based on our simple model on the emissions indicates that the values of E{sup -} - {phi} are 2.35 and 2.31 eV for LiH and CaH{sub 2}, respectively, which are in fair agreement with the respective values (2.1 {+-} 0.3 and 2.6 {+-} 0.3 eV) determined experimentally. This agreement indicates that the emission of H{sup -} is reasonably explained by our model from the viewpoint of reaction energy. (author)
Paraffin Nanocomposites for Heat Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Computational Investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. H. N. Shirazi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are currently considered as vital components for advances in mobile technologies such as those in communications and transport. Nonetheless, Li-ion batteries suffer from temperature rises which sometimes lead to operational damages or may even cause fire. An appropriate solution to control the temperature changes during the operation of Li-ion batteries is to embed batteries inside a paraffin matrix to absorb and dissipate heat. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the possibility of making paraffin nanocomposites for better heat management of a Li-ion battery pack. To fulfill this aim, heat generation during a battery charging/discharging cycles was simulated using Newman’s well established electrochemical pseudo-2D model. We couple this model to a 3D heat transfer model to predict the temperature evolution during the battery operation. In the later model, we considered different paraffin nanocomposites structures made by the addition of graphene, carbon nanotubes, and fullerene by assuming the same thermal conductivity for all fillers. This way, our results mainly correlate with the geometry of the fillers. Our results assess the degree of enhancement in heat dissipation of Li-ion batteries through the use of paraffin nanocomposites. Our results may be used as a guide for experimental set-ups to improve the heat management of Li-ion batteries.
Ion Heating During Local Helicity Injection Plasma Startup in the Pegasus ST
Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.
2015-11-01
Plasmas in the Pegasus ST are initiated either through standard, MHD stable, inductive current drive or non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive with strong reconnection activity, providing a rich environment to study ion dynamics. During LHI discharges, a large amount of impurity ion heating has been observed, with the passively measured impurity Ti as high as 800 eV compared to Ti ~ 60 eV and Te ~ 175 eV during standard inductive current drive discharges. In addition, non-thermal ion velocity distributions are observed and appear to be strongest near the helicity injectors. The ion heating is hypothesized to be a result of large-scale magnetic reconnection activity, as the amount of heating scales with increasing fluctuation amplitude of the dominant, edge localized, n =1 MHD mode. An approximate temporal scaling of the heating with the amplitude of higher frequency magnetic fluctuations has also been observed, with large amounts of power spectral density present at several impurity ion cyclotron frequencies. Recent experiments have focused on investigating the impurity ion heating scaling with the ion charge to mass ratio as well as the reconnecting field strength. The ion charge to mass ratio was modified by observing different impurity charge states in similar LHI plasmas while the reconnecting field strength was modified by changing the amount of injected edge current. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.
Optimal coupling of heat and electricity systems: A stochastic hierarchical approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mitridati, Lesia Marie-Jeanne Mariane; Pinson, Pierre
2016-01-01
modelled using a finite set of scenarios. This model takes advantage of existing market structures and provides a decision-making tool for heat system operators. The proposed model is implemented in a case study and results are discussed to show the benefits and applicability of this approach....... penetration of CHPs and wind. The objective of this optimization problem is to minimize the heat production cost, subject to constraints describing day-ahead electricity market clearing scenarios. Uncertainties concerning wind power production, electricity demand and rival participants offers are efficiently...
Identifcation of a Linear COntinuous Time Stochastic Model of the Heat Dynamics of a Greenhouse
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Bjarne; Madsen, Henrik
1998-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe the basis for improving the control of air temperature and heat supply in greenhouses using a method which controls the energy supply by a model-based prediction of the air temperature in the greenhouse. Controllers of this type are the minimum variance co...... controller, the generalized predictive controller and the proportional-integral-plus(PIP) controller. Prediction-based controllers have proved to be powerful in controlling the supply temperature in a distinct heating system....
Ofman, Leon; Ozak, Nataly; Vinas, Adolfo F.
2016-01-01
Near the Sun (plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super- Alfvenic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.
Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vega Reyes, Francisco, E-mail: fvega@unex.es; Santos, Andrés, E-mail: andres@unex.es [Departamento de Física and Instituto de Computación Científica Avanzada (ICCAEx), Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
2015-11-15
We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method), we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called “lifted-tennis-ball” behavior)
Electron and ion heating by whistler turbulence: Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, R. Scott; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph
2014-01-01
Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence are carried out on a collisionless, homogeneous, magnetized, electron-ion plasma model. In addition, the simulations use an initial ensemble of relatively long wavelength whistler modes with a broad range of initial propagation directions with an initial electron beta β e = 0.05. The computations follow the temporal evolution of the fluctuations as they cascade into broadband turbulent spectra at shorter wavelengths. Three simulations correspond to successively larger simulation boxes and successively longer wavelengths of the initial fluctuations. The computations confirm previous results showing electron heating is preferentially parallel to the background magnetic field B o , and ion heating is preferentially perpendicular to B o . The new results here are that larger simulation boxes and longer initial whistler wavelengths yield weaker overall dissipation, consistent with linear dispersion theory predictions of decreased damping, stronger ion heating, consistent with a stronger ion Landau resonance, and weaker electron heating
Ion cyclotron resonant heating 2 x 1700 loop antenna for the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brooksby, C.A.; Ferguson, S.W.; Molvik, A.W.; Barter, J.
1985-01-01
This paper reviews the mechanical design and improvements that have taken place on the loop type ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas that are located in the center cell region of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)
Electron Currents and Heating in the Ion Diffusion Region of Asymmetric Reconnection
Graham, D. B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Norgren, C.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Ergun, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Gershman, D. J.;
2016-01-01
In this letter the structure of the ion diffusion region of magnetic reconnection at Earths magnetopause is investigated using the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft. The ion diffusion region is characterized by a strong DC electric field, approximately equal to the Hall electric field, intense currents, and electron heating parallel to the background magnetic field. Current structures well below ion spatial scales are resolved, and the electron motion associated with lower hybrid drift waves is shown to contribute significantly to the total current density. The electron heating is shown to be consistent with large-scale parallel electric fields trapping and accelerating electrons, rather than wave-particle interactions. These results show that sub-ion scale processes occur in the ion diffusion region and are important for understanding electron heating and acceleration.
Ion heating and MHD dynamo fluctuations in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scime, E.; Hokin, S.; Watts, C.; Mattor, N.
1992-01-01
Ion temperature measurements, time resolved to 10 μs, have been made in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a five channel charge exchange analyzer. The ion temperature, T i ∼ 200 eV for I = 350 kA, increases by as much as 100% during discrete dynamo bursts in MST discharges. Magnetic field fluctuations in the range 0.5--5 MHz were also measured. Structure in the fluctuation frequency spectrum at the ion cyclotron frequency appears as the bursts terminate, suggesting that the mechanism of ion heating involves the dissipation of dynamo fluctuations at ion gyro-orbit scales
Stochastic approaches to dynamics of heavy ion collisions, the case of thermal fission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boilley, D.; Abe, Y.
1994-01-01
In order to study the influence of fluctuations on various phenomena linked to heavy ion collisions, a Langevin equation has been derived from a microscopic model. Parameters entering this equation are completely determined from microscopic quantities characterizing nuclear matter. This equation has been applied to various phenomena at intermediate energies. This paper focuses on large amplitude motions and especially thermal fission. Fission rate is calculated and compared to experimental results
Gaspard, Pierre; Gilbert, Thomas
2017-04-01
We present a systematic computation of the heat conductivity of the Markov jump process modeling the energy exchanges in an array of locally confined hard spheres at the conduction threshold. Based on a variational formula (Sasada 2016 (arXiv:1611.08866)), explicit upper bounds on the conductivity are derived, which exhibit a rapid power-law convergence towards an asymptotic value. We thereby conclude that the ratio of the heat conductivity to the energy exchange frequency deviates from its static contribution by a small negative correction, its dynamic contribution, evaluated to be -0.000 373 in dimensionless units. This prediction is corroborated by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations which were substantially improved compared to earlier results.
High frequency ion Bernstein wave heating experiment on JIPP T-IIU tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seki, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Watari, T.
1992-08-01
An experiment in a new regime of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) heating has been carried out using 130 MHz high power transmitters in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The heating regime utilized the IBW branch between the 3rd and 4th harmonics of the hydrogen ion cyclotron frequencies. This harmonic number is the highest among those used in the IBW experiments ever conducted. The net radio-frequency (RF) power injected into the plasma is around 400 kW, limited by the transmitter output power. Core heating of ions and electrons was confirmed in the experiment and density profile peaking was found to feature the IBW heating (IBWH). The peaking of the density profile was also found when IBW was applied to the neutral beam injection heated discharges. An analysis by use of a transport code with these experimental data indicates that the particle confinement should be improved in the plasma core region on the application of IBWH. It is also found that the ion energy distribution function observed during IBWH has less high energy tail than those in conventional ion cyclotron range of frequency heating regimes. The observed IBWH-produced ion energy distribution function is in a reasonable agreement with the calculation based on the quasi-linear RF diffusion / Fokker-Planck model. (author)
Specific power reduction of an ion source due to heating and cathode sputtering of electrodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, G.U.; Semashko, N.N.
The potentialities and limitations of the water-cooled ion-optical system of the ion source designed for continuous operation of the high-power neutral beam injector are determined. The following problems are analyzed: thermal expansion and deformation of electrodes, electrode sputtering as a result of bombardment, and heat transfer to turbulent flow of water
Edge Ion Heating by Launched High Harmonic Fast Waves in NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biewer, T.M.; Bell, R.E.; Diem, S.J.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Ryan, P.M.
2004-01-01
A new spectroscopic diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) measures the velocity distribution of ions in the plasma edge simultaneously along both poloidal and toroidal views. An anisotropic ion temperature is measured during high-power high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) radio-frequency (rf) heating in helium plasmas, with the poloidal ion temperature roughly twice the toroidal ion temperature. Moreover, the measured spectral distribution suggests that two populations of ions are present and have temperatures of typically 500 eV and 50 eV with rotation velocities of -50 km/s and -10 km/s, respectively (predominantly perpendicular to the local magnetic field). This bi-modal distribution is observed in both the toroidal and poloidal views (for both He + and C 2+ ions), and is well correlated with the period of rf power application to the plasma. The temperature of the hot component is observed to increase with the applied rf power, which was scanned between 0 and 4.3 MW . The 30 MHz HHFW launched by the NSTX antenna is expected and observed to heat core electrons, but plasma ions do not resonate with the launched wave, which is typically at >10th harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency in the region of observation. A likely ion heating mechanism is parametric decay of the launched HHFW into an Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW). The presence of the IBW in NSTX plasmas during HHFW application has been directly confirmed with probe measurements. IBW heating occurs in the perpendicular ion distribution, consistent with the toroidal and poloidal observations. Calculations of IBW propagation indicate that multiple waves could be created in the parametric decay process, and that most of the IBW power would be absorbed in the outer 10 to 20 cm of the plasma, predominantly on fully stripped ions. These predictions are in qualitative agreement with the observations, and must be accounted for when calculating the energy budget of the plasma
Modeling heat dominated electric breakdown in air, with adaptivity to electron or ion time scales
Agnihotri, A.; Hundsdorfer, W.; Ebert, U.
2017-01-01
We model heat dominated electrical breakdown in air in a short planar gap. We couple the discharge dynamics in fluid approximation with the hydrodynamic motion of the air heated by the discharge. To be computationally efficient, we derive a reduced model on the ion time scale, and we switch between
Electron and ion cyclotron heating calculations in the tandem-mirror modeling code MERTH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, G.R.
1985-01-01
To better understand and predict tandem-mirror experiments, we are building a comprehensive Mirror Equilibrium Radial Transport and Heating (MERTH) code. In this paper we first describe our method for developing the code. Then we report our plans for the installation of physics packages for electron- and ion-cyclotron heating of the plasma
A robust stochastic approach for design optimization of air cooled heat exchangers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doodman, A.R.; Fesanghary, M.; Hosseini, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424-Hafez Avenue, 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran)
2009-07-15
This study investigates the use of global sensitivity analysis (GSA) and harmony search (HS) algorithm for design optimization of air cooled heat exchangers (ACHEs) from the economic viewpoint. In order to reduce the size of the optimization problem, GSA is performed to examine the effect of the design parameters and to identify the non-influential parameters. Then HS is applied to optimize influential parameters. To demonstrate the ability of the HS algorithm a case study is considered and for validation purpose, genetic algorithm (GA) is also applied to this case study. Results reveal that the HS algorithm converges to optimum solution with higher accuracy in comparison with GA. (author)
A robust stochastic approach for design optimization of air cooled heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doodman, A.R.; Fesanghary, M.; Hosseini, R.
2009-01-01
This study investigates the use of global sensitivity analysis (GSA) and harmony search (HS) algorithm for design optimization of air cooled heat exchangers (ACHEs) from the economic viewpoint. In order to reduce the size of the optimization problem, GSA is performed to examine the effect of the design parameters and to identify the non-influential parameters. Then HS is applied to optimize influential parameters. To demonstrate the ability of the HS algorithm a case study is considered and for validation purpose, genetic algorithm (GA) is also applied to this case study. Results reveal that the HS algorithm converges to optimum solution with higher accuracy in comparison with GA
Stochastic Impact Assessment of the Heating and Transportation Systems Electrification on LV grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe
2014-01-01
According to the new energy policy agreements, a conceptual and technological re-structuration of the Danish energy sector is expected. One of the key points for its successful implementation is the partial electrification of the heating and transportation systems. This fact, which reflects an en....... As a case study, a typical Danish low voltage grid is considered. The results obtained, using DIgSILENT PowerFactory, show that sometimes the hosting capability of these networks may be poor for the integration levels expected....
Paralysis and heart failure precede ion balance disruption in heat-stressed European green crabs.
Jørgensen, Lisa B; Overgaard, Johannes; MacMillan, Heath A
2017-08-01
Acute exposure of ectotherms to critically high temperatures causes injury and death, and this mortality has been associated with a number of physiological perturbations including impaired oxygen transport, loss of ion and water homeostasis, and neuronal failure. It is difficult to discern which of these factors, if any, is the proximate cause of heat injury because, for example, loss of ion homeostasis can impair neuromuscular function (including cardiac function), and conversely impaired oxygen transport reduces ATP supply and can thus reduce ion transport capacity. In this study we investigated if heat stress causes a loss of ion homeostasis in marine crabs and examined if such loss is related to heart failure. We held crabs (Carcinus maenas) at temperatures just below their critical thermal maximum and measured extracellular (hemolymph) and intracellular (muscle) ion concentrations over time. Analysis of Arrhenius plots for heart rates during heating ramps revealed a breakpoint temperature below which heart rate increased with temperature, and above which heart rate declined until complete cardiac failure. As hypothesised, heat stress reduced the Nernst equilibrium potentials of both K + and Na + , likely causing a depolarization of the membrane potential. To examine whether this loss of ion balance was likely to cause disruption of neuromuscular function, we exposed crabs to the same temperatures, but this time measured ion concentrations at the individual-specific times of complete paralysis (from which the crabs never recovered), and at the time of cardiac failure. Loss of ion balance was observed only after both paralysis and complete heart failure had occurred; indicating that the loss of neuromuscular function is not caused by a loss of ion homeostasis. Instead we suggest that the observed loss of ion balance may be linked to tissue damage related to heat death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Milne, R K; Yeo, G F; Edeson, R O; Madsen, B W
1988-04-22
Stochastic models of ion channels have been based largely on Markov theory where individual states and transition rates must be specified, and sojourn-time densities for each state are constrained to be exponential. This study presents an approach based on random-sum methods and alternating-renewal theory, allowing individual states to be grouped into classes provided the successive sojourn times in a given class are independent and identically distributed. Under these conditions Markov models form a special case. The utility of the approach is illustrated by considering the effects of limited time resolution (modelled by using a discrete detection limit, xi) on the properties of observable events, with emphasis on the observed open-time (xi-open-time). The cumulants and Laplace transform for a xi-open-time are derived for a range of Markov and non-Markov models; several useful approximations to the xi-open-time density function are presented. Numerical studies show that the effects of limited time resolution can be extreme, and also highlight the relative importance of the various model parameters. The theory could form a basis for future inferential studies in which parameter estimation takes account of limited time resolution in single channel records. Appendixes include relevant results concerning random sums and a discussion of the role of exponential distributions in Markov models.
On the Heating of Ions in Noncylindrical Z-Pinches
Svirsky, E. B.
2018-01-01
The method proposed here for analyzing processes in a hot plasma of noncylindrical Z-pinches is based on separation of the group of high-energy ions into a special fraction. Such ions constitute an insignificant fraction ( 10%) of the total volume of the Z-pinch plasma, but these ions contribute the most to the formation of conditions in which the pinch becomes a source of nuclear fusion products and X-ray radiation. The method allows a quite correct approach to obtaining quantitative estimates of the plasma parameters, the nuclear fusion energy yield, and the features of neutron fluxes in experiments with Z-pinches.
High-power ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortgang, C.M.
1983-05-01
Ion cyclotron resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with the application of 500 kW of rf power into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 density plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun injected plasmas
Performance evaluation of citric ion-stabilized magnetic fluid heat pipe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeyadevan, B. [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Department of Geoscience and Technology, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba 01, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-7589 (Japan)]. E-mail: jeya@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Koganezawa, H. [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Department of Geoscience and Technology, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba 01, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-7589 (Japan); Nakatsuka, K. [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Department of Geoscience and Technology, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba 01, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-7589 (Japan)
2005-03-15
The performance of heat pipe (HP) using citric ion-stabilized magnetic fluid (CMF) as working fluid (WF) was evaluated. The heat transferred was influenced by the application of magnetic field and was enhanced by a maximum of 30% compared to the field-free case. Furthermore, under the optimum magnetic field configuration, the heat transferred by CMF HP was 10% higher than that with water as WF.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mantsinen, M.
1999-01-01
Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mantsinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics
1999-06-01
Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in
Testa, D.; Albergante, M.
2012-08-01
In the so-called ‘alpha-heating’ experiment performed on the JET tokamak during the deuterium-tritium campaign of 1997, the ion temperature was found to be far exceeding (both in absolute value and in its rise time) the level that could have been expected from direct collisional heating by the fusion-born alpha particles themselves and energy equipartition with the electrons. To date, no explanation has been put forward for this long standing puzzle, despite much work having been performed on this subject in the early 2000s. Two analysis methods that have recently become available have been employed to re-analyse these observations of an anomalous ion heating. First, an algorithm based on the sparse representation of signals has been used to analyse magnetic, reflectometry and electron-cyclotron emission measurements of the turbulence spectra in the drift-wave range of frequencies. This analysis has then been complemented with turbulence simulations performed with the GENE code. We find, both experimentally and in the simulations, that the presence of a minority, but sufficiently large, population of fusion-born alpha particles that have not yet fully thermalized stabilizes the turbulence in the ion-drift direction, but practically does not affect the turbulence in the electron-drift direction. We link such stabilization of the ion-drift-wave turbulence to the increase in the ion temperature above the level achieved in similar discharges that did not have (at all or enough) alpha particles. When the fusion-born alpha particles have fully thermalized, the turbulence spectrum in the ion-drift direction reappears at somewhat larger amplitudes, which we link to the ensuing reduction in the ion temperature. This phenomenological dynamics fully corresponds to the actual experimental observations. By taking into account an effect of the alpha particles that had not been previously considered, our new analysis finally presents a phenomenological explanation for the so
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Testa, D.; Albergante, M.
2012-01-01
In the so-called ‘alpha-heating’ experiment performed on the JET tokamak during the deuterium–tritium campaign of 1997, the ion temperature was found to be far exceeding (both in absolute value and in its rise time) the level that could have been expected from direct collisional heating by the fusion-born alpha particles themselves and energy equipartition with the electrons. To date, no explanation has been put forward for this long standing puzzle, despite much work having been performed on this subject in the early 2000s. Two analysis methods that have recently become available have been employed to re-analyse these observations of an anomalous ion heating. First, an algorithm based on the sparse representation of signals has been used to analyse magnetic, reflectometry and electron-cyclotron emission measurements of the turbulence spectra in the drift-wave range of frequencies. This analysis has then been complemented with turbulence simulations performed with the GENE code. We find, both experimentally and in the simulations, that the presence of a minority, but sufficiently large, population of fusion-born alpha particles that have not yet fully thermalized stabilizes the turbulence in the ion-drift direction, but practically does not affect the turbulence in the electron-drift direction. We link such stabilization of the ion-drift-wave turbulence to the increase in the ion temperature above the level achieved in similar discharges that did not have (at all or enough) alpha particles. When the fusion-born alpha particles have fully thermalized, the turbulence spectrum in the ion-drift direction reappears at somewhat larger amplitudes, which we link to the ensuing reduction in the ion temperature. This phenomenological dynamics fully corresponds to the actual experimental observations. By taking into account an effect of the alpha particles that had not been previously considered, our new analysis finally presents a phenomenological explanation for the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoji; Itoh, Satoshi
1981-01-01
Temporal evolution and spatial profile of ion energy spectrum just after the application of current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in TRIAM-1 and numerically with a Fokker-Planck equation. Two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to single one within tau sub(i) (ion collision time). (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Hiraki, N; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1981-07-01
Temporal evolution and spatial profile of ion energy spectrum just after the application of current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in TRIAM-1 and numerically with a Fokker-Planck equation. Two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to single one within tau sub(i) (ion collision time).
Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2014-04-01
'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response
Microwave chemistry: Effect of ions on dielectric heating in microwave ovens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamil Anwar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available To understand the interactions of microwaves with dielectric materials and their conversion to thermal energy in aqueous systems, the effect of ionic concentration has been studied. Aqueous solutions of inorganic ions were exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz in a modified oven under identical conditions. Difference in solution temperatures with reference to pure (deionized water was monitored in each case. A significant decrease in the temperature was observed with an increase in the quantity of ions. Experiments were repeated with several inorganic ions varying in size and charge. The information can be helpful in understanding the role of ions during dielectric heating.
Markov Chain-Based Stochastic Modeling of Chloride Ion Transport in Concrete Bridges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zhang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in models for the evaluation and prediction of the condition of bridges in Canada due to their large number in an advanced state of deterioration. The models are used to develop optimal maintenance and replacement strategies to extend service life and optimally allocate financial and technical resources. The main process of deterioration of concrete bridges in Canada is corrosion of the reinforcing steel due to the widespread use of de-icing salts. In this article, numerical models of the diffusion process and chemical reactions of chloride ions in concrete are used to estimate the time to initiation of corrosion and for the progression of corrosion. The analyses are performed for a range of typical concrete properties, exposure and climatic conditions. The results from these simulations are used to develop parametric surrogate Markov chain models of increasing states of deterioration. The surrogate models are more efficient than physical models for the portfolio analysis of a large number of structures. The procedure provides an alternative to Markov models derived from condition ratings when historical inspection data is limited.
Bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Qianhong; Gong Xueyu; Li Xinxia; Yu Jun
2012-01-01
The bootstrap current of fast ions produced by neutral beam injection (NBI) is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. The bootstrap current density distribution and the total bootstrap current are reported. In addition, the beam bootstrap current always accompanies the electron return current due to the parallel momentum transfer from fast ions. With the electron return current taken into consideration, the net current density obviously decreases; at the same time, the peak of the current moves towards the central plasma. Numerical results show that the value of the net current depends sensitively not only on the angle of the NBI but also on the ratio of the velocity of fast ions to the critical velocity: the value of the net current is small for neutral beam parallel injection, but increases severalfold for perpendicular injection, and increases with increasing beam energy. (paper)
Bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Qianhong; Gong Xueyu; Yang Lei; Li Xinxia; Lu Xingqiang; Yu Jun
2012-01-01
The bootstrap current of fast ions produced by the neutral beam injection is investigated in a large aspect ratio tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. The bootstrap current density distribution and the total bootstrap current are figured out. In addition, the beam bootstrap current always accompanies the electron return current due to the parallel momentum transfer from fast ions. With the electron return current considered, the net current density obviously decreases due to electron return current, at the same time the peak of current moves towards the centre plasma. Numerical results show that the value of the net current depends sensitively not only on the angle of the neutral beam injection but also on the ratio of the velocity of fast ions to the critical velocity: the value of net current is small for the neutral beam parallel injection but increases multipliedly for perpendicular injection, and increases with beam energy increasing. (authors)
Frictional Heating of Ions In The F2-region of The Ionosphere
Zhizhko, G. O.; Vlasov, V. G.
Auroral electron beams unstable on the Cherenkov resonance are stabilized by large- scale inhomogeneity of the plasma density during all their way from the acceleration region to the E-region of the ionosphere. The generation of plasma waves by beam is possible only in the region of small plasma density gradients, that always is the area of the F2-region maximum. Thus, collective dissipation of the electron beam energy occurs in the local region with the length about several tens of kilometers. This leads to the intensive heating of the electrons(up to temperatures about 10000 K) and will give origin to the ion upflows with velocity about 1 km/s and density about 109 cm-2 s-1. These flows can result in the ion frictional heating. At the same time ion temperatures reach the values about 5000 K. A numerical simulation of the ion frictional heating in the presence of collective elec- tron heating in the high-latitude F2-region of the ionosphere was performed. The sim- ulation has shown that the most critical parameter for the occurence of the ion fric- tional heating was the the steepness of the plasma density profile above the F2-region maximum.
Integrated heat transport simulation of high ion temperature plasma of LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Sakai, A.
2014-10-01
A first dynamical simulation of high ion temperature plasma with carbon pellet injection of LHD is performed by the integrated simulation GNET-TD + TASK3D. NBI heating deposition of time evolving plasma is evaluated by the 5D drift kinetic equation solver, GNET-TD and the heat transport of multi-ion species plasma (e, H, He, C) is studied by the integrated transport simulation code, TASK3D. Achievement of high ion temperature plasma is attributed to the 1) increase of heating power per ion due to the temporal increase of effective charge, 2) reduction of effective neoclassical transport with impurities, 3) reduction of turbulence transport. The reduction of turbulence transport is most significant contribution to achieve the high ion temperature and the reduction of the turbulent transport from the L-mode plasma (normal hydrogen plasma) is evaluated to be a factor about five by using integrated heat transport simulation code. Applying the Z effective dependent turbulent reduction model we obtain a similar time behavior of ion temperature after the C pellet injection with the experimental results. (author)
Chen, L. J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Wang, S.; Bessho, N.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Schwartz, S. J.; Hesse, M.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Paterson, W. R.; Lavraud, B.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
2017-12-01
Collisionless shocks often involve intense plasma heating in space and astrophysical systems. Despite decades of research, a number of key questions concerning electron and ion heating across collisionless shocks remain unanswered. We `image' 20 supercritical quasi-perpendicular bow shocks encountered by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft with electron and ion distribution functions to address how ions are thermalized and how electrons are heated. The continuous burst measurements of 3D plasma distribution functions from MMS reveal that the primary thermalization phase of ions occurs concurrently with the main temperature increase of electrons as well as large-amplitude wave fluctuations. Approaching the shock from upstream, the ion temperature (Ti) increases due to the reflected ions joining the incoming solar wind population, as recognized by prior studies, and the increase of Ti precedes that of the electrons. Thermalization in the form of merging between the decelerated solar wind ions and the reflected component often results in a decrease in Ti. In most cases, the Ti decrease is followed by a gradual increase further downstream. Anisotropic, energy-dependent, and/or nongyrotropic electron energization are observed in association with large electric field fluctuations in the main electron temperature (Te) gradient, motivating a renewed scrutiny of the effects from the electrostatic cross-shock potential and wave fluctuations on electron heating. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out to assist interpretations of the MMS observations. We assess the roles of instabilities and the cross-shock potential in thermalizing ions and heating electrons based on the MMS measurements and PIC simulation results. Challenges will be posted for future computational studies and laboratory experiments on collisionless shocks.
Influence of RF heating and MHD instabilities on the fast-ion distribution in ASDEX upgrade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weiland, Markus
2016-06-07
Fast, supra-thermal ions provide a powerful mechanism to heat fusion plasmas. Through Coulomb collisions with the thermal bulk plasma, they slow down and transfer their energy to the plasma. In present-day devices, fast ions are generated by neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). In future fusion reactors, the dominant heating source, which allows the ignition of a burning plasma, will be fast a-particles resulting from fusion reactions. In addition to plasma heating, fast ions can be utilized to drive plasma currents and rotation. It is therefore crucial for the success of future fusion devices (such as ITER and DEMO) to understand the physics of fast ions and ensure their safe confinement. This thesis focuses both on modeling and experimental aspects. A model to calculate the NBI fast-ion distribution rapidly has been developed. It is based on a combination of existing codes and analytic solutions. Due to the comparably low numerical effort, it can be used to calculate the fast-ion distribution in a large set of discharges, which is used to e.g. improve plasma equilibrium reconstructions. Experimentally, the physics of fast ions is investigated at the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade, using a FIDA (Fast-Ion D-Alpha) spectroscopy diagnostic. This diagnostic technique is based on charge-exchange reactions, that convert the ions into neutral atoms (keeping their momenta). The light emission from these neutral atoms can be collected by optics in the machine and analyzed with spectrometers. Here, the fast-ion contribution can be identified due to large Doppler shifts, and the shape of the spectrum yields information about the velocity distribution. The Doppler shift is given by a projection of the ion velocity vector onto the line of sight, such that observation from different viewing angles is needed to cover the entire velocity space. Therefore, the FIDA diagnostic has been upgraded from three viewing arrays to five, and the spectrometer has
Influence of RF heating and MHD instabilities on the fast-ion distribution in ASDEX upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiland, Markus
2016-01-01
Fast, supra-thermal ions provide a powerful mechanism to heat fusion plasmas. Through Coulomb collisions with the thermal bulk plasma, they slow down and transfer their energy to the plasma. In present-day devices, fast ions are generated by neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). In future fusion reactors, the dominant heating source, which allows the ignition of a burning plasma, will be fast a-particles resulting from fusion reactions. In addition to plasma heating, fast ions can be utilized to drive plasma currents and rotation. It is therefore crucial for the success of future fusion devices (such as ITER and DEMO) to understand the physics of fast ions and ensure their safe confinement. This thesis focuses both on modeling and experimental aspects. A model to calculate the NBI fast-ion distribution rapidly has been developed. It is based on a combination of existing codes and analytic solutions. Due to the comparably low numerical effort, it can be used to calculate the fast-ion distribution in a large set of discharges, which is used to e.g. improve plasma equilibrium reconstructions. Experimentally, the physics of fast ions is investigated at the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade, using a FIDA (Fast-Ion D-Alpha) spectroscopy diagnostic. This diagnostic technique is based on charge-exchange reactions, that convert the ions into neutral atoms (keeping their momenta). The light emission from these neutral atoms can be collected by optics in the machine and analyzed with spectrometers. Here, the fast-ion contribution can be identified due to large Doppler shifts, and the shape of the spectrum yields information about the velocity distribution. The Doppler shift is given by a projection of the ion velocity vector onto the line of sight, such that observation from different viewing angles is needed to cover the entire velocity space. Therefore, the FIDA diagnostic has been upgraded from three viewing arrays to five, and the spectrometer has
Yifat, Jonathan; Gannot, Israel
2015-03-01
Early detection of malignant tumors plays a crucial role in the survivability chances of the patient. Therefore, new and innovative tumor detection methods are constantly searched for. Tumor-specific magnetic-core nano-particles can be used with an alternating magnetic field to detect and treat tumors by hyperthermia. For the analysis of the method effectiveness, the bio-heat transfer between the nanoparticles and the tissue must be carefully studied. Heat diffusion in biological tissue is usually analyzed using the Pennes Bio-Heat Equation, where blood perfusion plays an important role. Malignant tumors are known to initiate an angiogenesis process, where endothelial cell migration from neighboring vasculature eventually leads to the formation of a thick blood capillary network around them. This process allows the tumor to receive its extensive nutrition demands and evolve into a more progressive and potentially fatal tumor. In order to assess the effect of angiogenesis on the bio-heat transfer problem, we have developed a discrete stochastic 3D model & simulation of tumor-induced angiogenesis. The model elaborates other angiogenesis models by providing high resolution 3D stochastic simulation, capturing of fine angiogenesis morphological features, effects of dynamic sprout thickness functions, and stochastic parent vessel generator. We show that the angiogenesis realizations produced are well suited for numerical bio-heat transfer analysis. Statistical study on the angiogenesis characteristics was derived using Monte Carlo simulations. According to the statistical analysis, we provide analytical expression for the blood perfusion coefficient in the Pennes equation, as a function of several parameters. This updated form of the Pennes equation could be used for numerical and analytical analyses of the proposed detection and treatment method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rapid self-heating and internal temperature sensing of lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Tian, Hua; Wang, Chao-Yang
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Self-heating lithium-ion battery (SHLB) structure provided a practical solution to the poor performance at subzero temperatures. • We report an improved SHLB that heats from −20 °C to 0 °C in 12.5 seconds, or 56% more rapidly, while consuming 24% less energy than previously reported. • The nickel foil heating element embedded inside a SHLB cell plays a dominant role in rapid self-heating. • The embedded nickel foil can simultaneously perform as an internal temperature sensor (ITS). • 2-sheet design self-heats faster than 1-sheet design due to more uniform internal temperature distribution. - Abstract: The recently discovered self-heating lithium-ion battery structure provided a practical solution to the poor performance at subzero temperatures that has hampered battery technology for decades. Here we report an improved self-heating lithium-ion battery (SHLB) that heats from −20 °C to 0 °C in 12.5 seconds, or 56% more rapidly, while consuming 24% less energy than that reported previously. We reveal that a nickel foil heating element embedded inside a SHLB cell plays a dominant role in self-heating and we experimentally demonstrate that a 2-sheet design can achieve dramatically accelerated self-heating due to more uniform internal temperature distribution. We also report, for the first time, that this embedded nickel foil can simultaneously perform as an internal temperature sensor (ITS) due to the perfectly linear relationship between the foil’s electrical resistance and temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ri-Guang Chi
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The heat generation of lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs leads to a degradation of energy capacity and lifetime. To solve this problem, a new cooling concept using an oscillating heat pipe (OHP is proposed. In the present study, an OHP has been adopted for Li-ion battery cooling. Due to the limited space in EVs, the cooling channel is installed on the bottom of the battery module. In the bottom cooling method with an OHP, generated heat can be dissipated easily and conveniently. However, most studies on heat pipes have used bottom heating and top or side cooling methods, so we investigate the various effects of parameters with a top heating/bottom cooling mode with the OHP, i.e., the inclination angle of the system, amount of working fluid charged, the heating amount, and the cold plate temperature with ethanol as a working fluid. The experimental results show that the thermal resistance (0.6 °C/W and uneven pulsating features influence the heat transfer performance. A heater used as a simulated battery was sustained under 60 °C under 10 W and 14 W heating conditions. This indicates that the proposed cooling system with the bottom cooling is feasible for use as an EV’s battery cooling system.
Ion-cyclotron heating with low dissipation in T-10 tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alikaev, V.V.; Vdovin, V.L.; Lisenko, S.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Shapotkovskii, N.V.
1979-02-01
This paper examines the problem of plasma heating in the T-10 tokamak using the second harmonic of ion-cyclotron frequency ω = 2ω/sub Bi/. There are several promising methods for heating in this frequency range, for example ion-ion hybrid resonance. We will, however, concentrate our attention in this paper on the study of fast wave heating methods under conditions of low dissipation using resonance pumping. Multi-mode character of plasma resonator is a characteristic feature of such a large machine with a dense plasma. It will be shown, therefore, that a comparatively small absorption spans over a majority of modes; this simplifies considerably the matching of the excitation device to the generator under the conditions of changing electron density. An important consequence of mode spanning at low dissipation is the localization of electromagnetic energy under the exciter
Fast ion profiles during neutral beam and lower hybrid heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidbrink, W.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Bell, R.E.; Cavallo, A.; Motley, R.; Schilling, G.; Stevens, J.; Wilson, J.R.
1985-07-01
Profiles of the d(d,p)t fusion reaction are measured in the PLT tokamak using an array of collimated 3 MeV proton detectors. During deuterium neutral beam injection, the emission profile indicates that the beam deposition is at least as narrow as predicted by a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code. The fast ion tail formed by lower hybrid waves (at densities above the critical density for current drive) also peaks strongly near the magnetic axis
A pre-heating method based on sinusoidal alternating current for lithium-ion battery
Fan, Wentao; Sun, Fengchun; Guo, Shanshan
2018-04-01
In this paper, a method of low temperature pre-heating of sinusoidal alternating current (SAC) is proposed. Generally, the lower the frequency of the AC current, the higher the heat generation rate. Yet at low frequency, there is a risk of lithium-ion deposition during the half cycle of charging. This study develops a temperature-adaptive, deposition-free AC pre-heating method. a equivalent electric circuit(EEC) model is established to predict the heat generation rate and temperature status, whose parameters are calibrated from the EIS impedance measurements. The effects of current frequency and amplitude on the heating effect are investigated respectively. A multistep temperature-adaptive amplitude strategy is proposed and the cell can be heated from -20°C to 5°C within 509s at 100Hz frequency with this method.
Effect of energetic ion loss on ICRF heating efficiency and energy confinement time in heliotrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M.; Nuehrenberg, J.
1999-01-01
The ICRF heating efficiency and the global energy confinement time during ICRF heating are investigated, including the effect of energetic ion loss in heliotrons. The approximate formula of ICRF heating efficiency is derived using results based on Monte Carlo simulations (Murakami, S., et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 26 (1995) 209). The global energy confinement time including the energetic ion effect can be expressed in heliotrons in terms of ICRF heating power, plasma density and magnetic field strength. Results in plasmas at CHS show a systematic decrease of the global energy confinement time due to energetic ion loss from the assumed energy confinement scaling law, which is consistent with the experimental observations. The model is also applied to ICRF minority heating in LHD plasmas in two cases of typical magnetic configurations. A clear increase of the global energy confinement time due to the stored energy of energetic tail ions is obtained in the 'orbit improved' configuration, while a decrease is observed in the 'standard' configuration. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergkvist, T.; Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.
2006-01-01
Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) excited by fusion born α particles can degrade the heating efficiency of a burning plasma and throw out αs. To experimentally study the effects of excitation of AEs and the redistribution of the fast ions, ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is often used. The distribution function of thermonuclear αs in a reactor is expected to be isotropic and constantly renewed through DT reactions. The distribution function of cyclotron heated ions is strongly anisotropic, and the ICRH do not only renew the distribution function but also provide a strong decorrelation mechanism between the fast ions and the AE. Because of the sensitivity of the AE dynamics on the details of the distribution function, the location of the resonance surfaces in phase space and the extent of the overlapping resonant regions for different AEs, a self-consistent treatment of the AE excitation and the ICRH is necessary. Interactions of fast ions with AEs during ICRH has been implemented in the SELFO code. Simulations are in good agreement with the experimentally observer pitch-fork splitting and rapid damping of the AE as ICRH is turned off. The redistribution of fast ions have been studied in the presence of several driven AEs. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gary, S Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Pin [BOSTON UNIV.; Schwadron, N A [BOSTON UNIV.; Lee, M [UNIV OF NEW HAMPSHIRE
2009-01-01
The Los Alamos hybrid simulation code is used to examine heating and the partition of dissipation energy at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock in the presence of pickup ions. The simulations are one-dimensional in space but three-dimensional in field and velocity components, and are carried out for a range of values of pickup ion relative density. Results from the simulations show that because the solar wind ions are relatively cold upstream, the temperature of these ions is raised by a relatively larger factor than the temperature of the pickup ions. An analytic model for energy partition is developed on the basis of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and a polytropic energy equation. The polytropic index {gamma} used in the Rankine-Hugoniot relations is varied to improve agreement between the model and the simulations concerning the fraction of downstream heating in the pickup ions as well as the compression ratio at the shock. When the pickup ion density is less than 20%, the polytropic index is about 5/3, whereas for pickup ion densities greater than 20%, the polytropic index tends toward 2.2, suggesting a fundamental change in the character of the shock, as seen in the simulations, when the pickup ion density is large. The model and the simulations both indicate for the upstream parameters chosen for Voyager 2 conditions that the pickup ion density is about 25% and the pickup ions gain the larger share (approximately 90%) of the downstream thermal pressure, consistent with Voyager 2 observations near the shock.
Improved confinement with ion cyclotron hydrogen minority heating on Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang, G.T.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Aniel, T.; Bourdelle, C.; Eriksson, L.G.; Garbet, X.; Grisolia, C.; Platz, P.; Budny, R.V.
1999-02-01
Tore Supra experiments are presently devoted to study the high density and high radiation regimes with radio frequency heating. Recent results of ion cyclotron minority heating have been obtained with an improved L-mode confinement, close to ELMy H-mode, at relatively high density (up to 80% of Greenwald limit). Such a regime is very promising as possible scenario in a next step tokamak. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommer, Fabian H.D.
2013-01-01
The ratio of heating power going to electrons and ions will undergo a transition from mixed electron and ion heating as it is in current fusion experiments to dominant electron heating in future experiments and reactors. In order to make valid projections towards future devices the connected changes in plasma response and performance are important to be study and understand: Do electron heated plasmas behave systematically different or is the change of heated species fully compensated by heat exchange from electrons to ions? How does particle transport influence the density profile? Is the energy confinement and the H-mode pedestal reduced with reduced torque input? Does the turbulent transport regime change fundamentally? The unique capabilities of the ECRH system at ASDEX Upgrade enable this change of heated species by replacing NBI with ECRH power and thereby offer the possibility to discuss these and other questions. For low heating powers corresponding to high collisionalities the transition from mixed electron and ion heating to pure electron heating showed next to no degradation of the global plasma parameters and no change of the edge values of kinetic profiles. The electron density shows an increased central peaking with increased ECRH power. The central electron temperature stays constant while the ion temperature decreases slightly. The toroidal rotation decreases with reduced NBI fraction, but does not influence the profile stability. The power balance analysis shows a large energy transfer from electrons to ions, so that the electron heat flux approaches zero at the edge whereas the ion heat flux is independent of heating mix. The ion heat diffusivity exceeds the electron one. For high power, low collisionality discharges global plasma parameters show a slight degradation with increasing electron heating. The density profile shows a strong peaking which remains unchanged when modifying the heating mix. The electron temperature profile is unchanged
MeV ion loss during 3He minority heating in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zweben, S.J.; Hammett, G.; Boivin, R.; Phillips, C.; Wilson, R.
1992-01-01
The loss of MeV ions during 3 He ICRH minority heating experiments has been measured using scintillator detectors near the wall of TFTR. The observed MeV ion losses to the bottom (90 degrees poloidal) detector are generally consistent with the expected first-orbit loss of D- 3 He alpha particle fusion products, with an inferred global reaction rate up to ∼10 16 reactions/sec. A qualitatively similar but unexpectedly large loss occurs 45 degrees poloidally below the outer midplane. This additional loss might be due to ICRH tail ions or to ICRH wave-induced loss of previously confined fusion products
Electron heating caused by the ion-acoustic decay instability in a finite-length system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rambo, P.W.; Woo, W.; DeGroot, J.S.; Mizuno, K.
1984-01-01
The ion-acoustic decay instability is investigated for a finite-length plasma with density somewhat below the cutoff density of the electromagnetic driver (napprox.0.7n/sub c/). For this regime, the heating in a very long system can overpopulate the electron tail and cause linear saturation of the low phase velocity electron plasma waves. For a short system, the instability is nonlinearly saturated at larger amplitude by ion trapping. Absorption can be significantly increased by the large-amplitude ion waves. These results compare favorably with microwave experiments
Ion heat pulse after sawtooth crash in the JFT-2M tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, Y.; Okano, F.; Suzuki, N.; Mori, M.; Hoshino, K.; Maeda, H.; Takizuka, T.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.
1993-08-01
The ion heat pulse after sawtooth crash is studied with the time-of-flight neutral measurement on the JFT-2M tokamak. The rapid change of the bulk ion energy distribution near the edge is observed after sawtooth crash. The delay time is measured and the effective measuring position is estimated by a neutral transport code, then the thermal conductivity, χ i HP , of about 15±10m 2 /sec is evaluated for the L-mode plasma. The simple diffusive model with constant χ i HP , however, does not explain the amplitude of the pulse in the ion energy distribution. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stepanov, K.N.
1996-01-01
Parametric phenomena in plasma which occur due to varying electric fields with the ion cyclotron frequency are reviewed. Beam-like lower hybrid instability emerges in strong pumping fields provided that the transverse relative velocity of particles is larger than the ion thermal speed (υ Ti ). The resulting turbulence and the following numerous manifestations observed experimentally are addressed. The turbulence may prove important for experiments aimed at plasma production or radio frequency (RF) cleaning of metallic surfaces of vacuum chambers in stellarators, tokamaks and helicon devices. In contrast, for a weak field (U Ti ) the kinetic parametric instabilities of ion cyclotron oscillations arise due to electrons. The issues of the turbulence, mathematical modelling, its role in turbulent heating observed on the torsatron Uragan-3M, decay instabilities associated with ion cyclotron oscillations and the triggering of ion quasimodes are considered. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bouhram
2003-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider major ion energization mechanisms in the dayside cusp/cleft region. This includes transverse ion heating by ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, ion energization through structures of field-aligned electric potential drops, and transverse heating by lower hybrid (LH waves. First, we present and discuss three typical cusp/cleft crossings associated with one of the first two mechanisms mentioned above. Then, we develop a procedure for finding the altitude dependence of ICR heating for any data set in the high-altitude cusp/cleft under the absence of field-aligned potential drops. This has been accomplished using a large set of numerical simulations from a two-dimensional, steady-state, Monte Carlo, trajectory-based code, as discussed in detail in the first companion paper (Bouhram et al., 2003. The procedure is applied and tested successfully for the first two events, by using patterns of ion moments along the satellite track as constraints. Then, we present a statistical study that uses 25 cusp/cleft crossings associated with steady IMF conditions, where ICR heating is expected to occur alone. It is pointed out that the ICR heating increases gradually versus geocentric distance as s 3.3 ± 1.8 . The inferred values of the wave power and the spectral index associated with the component responsible for ICR heating are lower than those characterizing the broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence usually observed in the cusp/cleft. This strengthens the idea that more than one wave-mode is contained in the BBELF turbulence, and only a small fraction of the observed turbulence is responsible for ICR heating. Then, we study the occurrence versus magnetic local time (MLT of field-aligned potential drops. According to previous statistical studies, such structures are not common in the cusp and tend to be associated with the cleft region. We also discuss the effects of LH heating in the cusp on the observed ion distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.S.; Hammett, G.W.; Goldston, R.J.
1990-01-01
Neoclassical transport of energetic minority tail ions, which are generated by high powered electromagnetic waves of the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) at the fundamental harmonic resonance, is studied analytically in tokamak geometry. The effect of Coulomb collisions on the tail ion transport is investigated in the present work. The total tail ion transport will be the sum of the present collision-driven transport and the wave-driven transport, which is due to the ICRF-wave scattering of the tail particles as reported in the literature. The transport coefficients have been calculated kinetically, and it is found that the large tail ion viscosity, driven by the localized ICRF-heating and Coulomb slowing-down collisions, induces purely convective particle transport of the tail species, while the energy transport is both convective and diffusive. The rate of radial particle transport is shown to be usually small, but the rate of radial energy transport is larger and may not be negligible compared to the Coulomb slowing-down rate. 18 refs., 2 figs
Critical energy in the cyclotron heating of ions in a mirror machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.
2002-01-01
The problem of heating in the plasma sources where the geometry of the magnetic field forms a magnetic mirror as it is the case of the Ecr sources type, for maintaining the reload, it continues being an actual important problem. There are two methods for the analysis of this problem. The first of these methods is the stochastic mechanism of a particle where it is considered the existence of three characteristic frequencies as the cyclotron frequency, the electromagnetic field frequency and the transit frequency. The second method is that related with the non linear interaction of waves where the collective effects of the particles are the most important. In this work, in the Hamiltonian formalism, the stochastic mechanism in the cyclotron heating is analysed. It is considered the particular case of a plasma source with an external magnetic field, type mirror where a TE 11 electromagnetic wave is injected. The critical energy in the resonance mixing is calculated by the Poincare mapping method. The heterogeneity of the magnetic field is analysed. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaita, R.; Hammett, G.W.; Gammel, G.; Goldston, R.J.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.; Young, K.M.
1988-01-01
The utility of charge exchange neutral particle analyzers for studying energetic ion distributions in high-temperature plasmas has been demonstrated in a variety of tokamak experiments. Power deposition profiles have been estimated in the Princeton large torus (PLT) from particle measurements as a function of energy and angle during heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and extensive studies of this heating mode are planned for the upcoming operational period in the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). Unlike the horizontally scanning analyzer on PLT, the TFTR system consists of vertical sightlines intersecting a poloidal cross section of the plasma. A bounce-averaged Fokker--Planck program, which includes a quasilinear operator to calculate ICRF-generated energetic ions, is used to simulate the charge exchange flux expected during fundamental hydrogen heating. These sightlines also cross the trajectory of a diagnostic neutral beam (DNB), and it may be possible to observe the fast ion tail during 3 He minority heating, if the DNB is operated in helium for double charge exchange neutralization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, A.; Eriksson, L.G.; Lisak, M.
1986-01-01
The present report summarizes the work performed within the contract JT4/9008, the aim of which is to derive analytical models for ion velocity distributions resulting from ICRF heating on JET. The work has been performed over a two-year-period ending in August 1986 and has involved a total effort of 2.4 man years. (author)
Second harmonic ion cylotron resonance heating by the fast magnetosonic wave on the PLT tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, H.R. Jr.
1984-01-01
Second harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating by the fast magnetosonic wave, and the propagation of the fast wave from the fundamental of the ion cyclotron frequency to its second harmonic was investigated in a hydrogen plasma on the PLT tokamak. The theory of fast magnetosonic wave propagation was extended to include the effects of density gradients, plasma current, and impurity ion species. The damping of the fast wave at the second harmonic is calculated, where the theory has been extended to include the full radial dependence of the fast wave fields. Power deposition profiles and eigenmode Q's are calculated using this theory. The effects of the interaction between the ion Bernstein wave and the fast magnetosonic wave are calculated, and enhanced fast wave damping is predicted. The antenna loading is calculated including the effects of overlap of the fast wave eigenmodes. During the second harmonic heating experiments, the antenna loading was characterized as a function of the plasma parameters, and efficient coupling of the RF power to the plasma at high density was observed. At very low densities, fast wave eigenmodes were identified on PLT, and their Q's are measured. Eigenmodes with different toroidal directions of propagation were observed to exhibit large splitting in density due to the plasma current. Efficient bulk heating, with centrally peaked profiles, is observed at the second harmonic, and a tail, which decreases monotonically with energy, is observed on the ion distribution
Confinement characteristics of high-energy ions produced by ICRF heating in the large helical device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumazawa, R; Saito, K; Torii, Y; Mutoh, T; Seki, T; Watari, T; Osakabe, M; Murakami, S; Sasao, M; Watanabe, T; Yamamoto, T; Notake, T; Takeuchi, N; Saida, T; Shimpo, F; Nomura, G; Yokota, M; Kato, A; Zao, Y; Okada, H; Isobe, M; Ozaki, T; Narihara, K; Nagayama, Y; Inagaki, S; Morita, S; Krasilnikov, A V; Idei, H; Kubo, S; Ohkubo, K; Sato, M; Shimozuma, T; Yoshimura, Y; Ikeda, K; Nagaoka, K; Oka, Y; Takeiri, Y; Tsumori, K; Ashikawa, N; Emoto, M; Funaba, H; Goto, M; Ida, K; Kobuchi, T; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Miyazawa, J; Morisaki, T; Muto, S; Nakamura, Y; Nakanishi, H; Nishimura, K; Noda, N; Ohdachi, S; Peterson, B J; Sagara, A; Sakakibara, S; Sakamoto, R; Sato, K; Shoji, M; Suzuki, H; Tanaka, K; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K Y; Yamada, I; Yamamoto, S; Yoshinuma, M; Yokoyama, M; Watanabe, K-Y; Kaneko, O; Kawahata, K; Komori, A; Ohyabu, N; Yamada, H; Yamazaki, K; Sudo, S; Matsuoka, K; Hamada, Y; Motojima, O; Fujiwara, M
2003-01-01
The behaviour of high-energy ions accelerated by an ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) electric field in the large helical device (LHD) is discussed. A better confinement performance of high-energy ions in the inward-shifted magnetic axis configuration was experimentally verified by measuring their energy spectrum and comparing it with the effective temperature determined by an electron slowing down process. In the standard magnetic axis configuration a saturation of the measured tail temperature was observed as the effective temperature was increased. The ratio between these two quantities is a measure of the quality of transfer efficiency from high-energy ions to a bulk plasma; when this efficiency was compared with Monte Carlo simulations the results agreed fairly well. The ratio of the stored energy of the high-energy ions to that of the bulk plasma was measured using an ICRF heating power modulation method; it was deduced from phase differences between total and bulk plasma stored energies and the modulated ICRF heating power. The measured high energy fraction agreed with that calculated using the injected ICRF heating power, the transfer efficiency determined in the experiment and the confinement scaling of the LHD plasma
Ion heating at the cyclotron resonance in plasmas magnetically confined in a toroidal octupole field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.
1976-01-01
Ion temperatures as high as 600 eV have been produced using rf wave heating at the ion cyclotron resonance frequency in a toroidal octupole magnetic field. Rf is coupled to the plasma with an externally driven ''fifth'' hoop which forms the inductive leg of an oscillator tank circuit. Power levels up to 1 MW at 1 to 3 MHz have been applied for periods up to 2 msec. Plasmas produced either by ECRH or by gun injection are simulated with a computer program in which known particle and energy production and loss mechanisms are used to predict the spatially averaged time behaviour of the plasma in the presence of the applied ion heating. The program can be used to calculate the consequences of the heating model in the presence of many cooling mechanisms which may each have a separate dependence on instantaneous plasma parameters. Experimental quantities compared to computer predictions include density, ion temperature, and loading of the hoop by the plasma, both resistive and reactive, and neutral reflux from the wall by electron and ion impact. Wave penetration to the resonance zone is good up to the highest densities available (6 x 10 12 cm -3 by gun injection) in good agreement with theory. Neutral reflux from the walls and the large charge exchange cooling which results is the dominant loss mechanism at the higher hoop voltages
A model for the numerical simulations of ion cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1986-05-01
We present a complete set of equations for the numerical simulation of ion cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas. The model includes the full geometry of the tokamak equilibrium, full parallel dispersion, and perpendicular dispersion to second order in the Larmor radius. It is therefore capable of describing correctly ion cyclotron damping at the fundamental and first harmonic, as well as mode conversion to the ion Bernstein wave and/or the shear Alfven wave, depending on the heating scenario. It includes also electron magnitude pumping and Landau damping, the latter to lowest order in msub(e)/msub(i). Relying on the knowledge gained from slab and ray tracing analysis, we also situate with respect to this standard model some of the further approximations which are commonly encountered in the literature. Finally, two procedures for the numerical solution of the standard model are proposed. (orig.)
Localized Beampipe Heating due to $e^{-}$ Capture and Nuclear Excitation in Heavy Ion Colliders
Klein, S R
2001-01-01
At heavy ion colliders, two major sources of beam loss are expected to be $e^+e^-$ production, where the $e^-$ is bound to one of the nuclei, and photonuclear excitation and decay via neutron emission. Both processes alter the ions charged to mass ratio by well defined amounts, creating beams of particles with altered magnetic rigidity. These beams will deposit their energy in a localized region of the accelerator, causing localized heating, The size of the target region depends on the collider optics. For medium and heavy ions, at design luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider, local heating may be more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. This could cause magnet quenches if the local cooling is inadequate. The altered-rigidity beams will also produce localized radiation damage. The beams could also be extracted and used for fixed target experiments.
Fast-wave ion cyclotron heating in the Princeton Large Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosea, J.; Boyd, D.; Bretz, N.
1981-01-01
Recent experimental results for ICRF heating in PLT are presented. For the two-ion regime in D-H or D- 3 He plasmas minority H and 3 He ions are found to absorb the RF power and transfer it to the deuterons and electrons in accordance with Fokker-Planck theory. The deuteron heating rate is approximately 3eVx10 13 cm -3 .kW for H and approximately 6eVx10 13 cm -3 .kW for 3 He minorities. Neutron fluxes of approximately 3x10 11 s -1 corresponding to a Tsub(d) approximately 2keV (ΔTsub(d) approximately 1.2keV) have been produced with Psub(RF) approximately 620kW at anti nsub(e) approximately 2.9x10 13 cm -3 . Neutron energy spectra and mass-sensitive charge-exchange spectra indicate Maxwellian deuteron distributions. In addition, D- 3 He fusion reaction rates approximately >10 12 s -1 have been produced by the energetic 3 He ions. For the second-harmonic regime, initial heating results for an H plasma at Psub(RF) approximately 140kW are consistent with the Fokker-Planck theory, and the bulk heating rate is comparable with that of D-heating in the D-H minority regime. (author)
Fast-wave ion-cyclotron heating in the Princeton Large Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosea, J.; Boyd, D.; Bretz, N.
1981-02-01
Recent experimental results for ICRF heating in PLT are presented. For the two-ion regime in D-H or D- 3 He plasmas minority H and 3 He ions are found to absorb the rf power and transfer it to the deuterons and electrons in accordance with Fokker-Planck theory. The deuteron heating rate is approx. 3 eV x 10 13 cm -3 /kW for H and approx. 6 eV x 10 13 cm -3 /kW for 3 He minorities. Neutron fluxes of approx. 3 x 10 11 sec -1 corresponding to a T/sub d/ approx. 2 keV (ΔT/sub d/ approx. 1.2 keV) have been produced with P/sub rf/ approx. = 620 kW at anti n/sub e/ approx. = 2.9 x 10 13 cm -3 . Neutron energy spectra and mass sensitive charge exchange spectra indicate Maxwellian deuteron distributions. In addition, D- 3 He fusion reaction rates greater than or equal to 10 12 sec -1 have been produced by the energetic 3 He ions. For the second harmonic regime, initial heating results for an H plasma at P/sub rf/ approx. = 140 kW are consistent with the Fokker-Planck theory and the bulk heating rate is comparable to that of D heating in the D-H minority regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1981-01-01
In the turbulent heating experiment of the high-field tokamak TRIAM-1, the bulk ion heating shown by the neutral energy analyzer measurement is confirmed by the Doppler broadening measurement of visible lines. The increasing rate and decay time of the Doppler ion temperature are almost the same as those derived from the neutral energy analyzer measurement. From both methods of ion temperature measurements, it is shown that the ion temperature has a parabolic profile within 50 ..mu..s after the application of the heating pulse.
Characterization of ion fluxes and heat fluxes for PMI relevant conditions on Proto-MPEX
Beers, Clyde; Shaw, Guinevere; Biewer, Theodore; Rapp, Juergen
2016-10-01
Plasma characterization, in particular, particle flux and electron and ion temperature distributions nearest to an exposed target, are critical to quantifying Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI). In the Proto-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX), the ion fluxes and heat fluxes are derived from double Langmuir Probes (DLP) and Thomson Scattering in front of the target assuming Bohm conditions at the sheath entrance. Power fluxes derived from ne and Te measurements are compared to heat fluxes measured with IR thermography. The comparison will allow conclusions on the sheath heat transmission coefficient to be made experimentally. Different experimental conditions (low and high density plasmas (0.5 - 6 x 1019 m-3) with different magnetic configuration are compared. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.
TRANSP modeling of minority ion sawtooth mixing in ICRF + NBI heated discharges in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldfinger, R.C.; Batchelor, D.B.; Murakami, M.; Phillips, C.K.; Budny, R.; Hammett, G.W.; McCune, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.
1995-01-01
Time independent code analysis indicates that the sawtooth relaxation phenomenon affects RF power deposition profiles through the mixing of fast ions. Predicted central electron heating rates are substantially above experimental values unless sawtooth relaxation is included. The PPPL time dependent transport analysis code, TRANSP, currently has a model to redistribute thermal electron and ion species, energy densities, plasma current density, and fast ions from neutral beam injection at each sawtooth event using the Kadomtsev (3) prescription. Results are presented here in which the set of models is extended to include sawtooth mixing effects on the hot ion population generated from ICRF heating. The ICRF generated hot ion distribution function, line-integral(ν parallel , ν perpendicular ), which is strongly peaked at the center before each sawtooth, is replaced throughout the sawtooth mixing volume by its volume averaged value at each sawtooth. The modified line-integral(ν parallel ,ν perpendicular ) is then used to recalculate the collisional transfer of power from the minority species to the background species. Results demonstrate that neglect of sawtooth mixing of ICRF-induced fast ions leads to prediction of faster central electron reheat rates than are measured experimentally
Identification of minority ion cyclotron emission during radio frequency heating in the JET tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cottrell, G.A.
1999-11-01
First measurements and identification of Minority Ion Cyclotron Emission (MICE) during ICRF (H)D minority heating in the JET tokamak are presented. An inner wall radiofrequency (rf) probe shows the new single MICE spectral line, downshifted from the heating, frequency and appearing ∼ 400 ms after the ICRH switch-on. The line is narrow (Δω / ω) ∼ 0.04), characterised by the ion cyclotron frequency of minority protons in the outer edge mid-plane plasma and is observed irrespective of whether single or multi-frequency ICRH is applied. Threshold conditions for MICE are: coupled RF power to the plasma P rf ≥ 4.5 MW; total fast ion energy content W fast ≥ 0.6 MJ. At the time of the rapid switch-on of MICE, the measured power loss from the energetic minority ions is ∼ 0.1 ± 0.1 MW, constituting rf . The observations are consistent with the classical evolution and population of the plasma edge with ∼ 3 MeV ICRH protons on orbits near the outboard limiters. Particle loss and energy filtering contribute to a local non-Maxwellian energetic ion distribution which is susceptible to ion cyclotron instability
Walkden, N. R.; Wynn, A.; Militello, F.; Lipschultz, B.; Matthews, G.; Guillemaut, C.; Harrison, J.; Moulton, D.; Contributors, JET
2017-08-01
This paper presents the use of a novel modelling technique based around intermittent transport due to filament motion, to interpret experimental profile and fluctuation data in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of JET during the onset and evolution of a density profile shoulder. A baseline case is established, prior to shoulder formation, and the stochastic model is shown to be capable of simultaneously matching the time averaged profile measurement as well as the PDF shape and autocorrelation function from the ion-saturation current time series at the outer wall. Aspects of the stochastic model are then varied with the aim of producing a profile shoulder with statistical measurements consistent with experiment. This is achieved through a strong localised reduction in the density sink acting on the filaments within the model. The required reduction of the density sink occurs over a highly localised region with the timescale of the density sink increased by a factor of 25. This alone is found to be insufficient to model the expansion and flattening of the shoulder region as the density increases, which requires additional changes within the stochastic model. An example is found which includes both a reduction in the density sink and filament acceleration and provides a consistent match to the experimental data as the shoulder expands, though the uniqueness of this solution can not be guaranteed. Within the context of the stochastic model, this implies that the localised reduction in the density sink can trigger shoulder formation, but additional physics is required to explain the subsequent evolution of the profile.
Ion cyclotron heating of JET D-D and D-T optimised shear plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cottrell, G.; Baranov, Y.; Bartlett, D.
1998-12-01
This paper discusses the unique roles played by Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) in the preparation, formation and sustainment of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in high fusion performance JET optimised shear experiments using the Mk. H poloidal divertor. Together with Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD), low power ICRH is applied during the early ramp-up phase of the plasma current, 'freezing in' a hollow or flat current density profile with q(0)>1. In combination with up to ∼ 20 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), the ICRH power is stepped up to ∼ 6 MW during the main low confinement (L-mode) heating phase. An ITB forms promptly after the power step, revealed by a region of reduced central energy transport and peaked profiles, with the ion thermal diffusivity falling to values close to the standard neo-classical level near the centre of both D-D and D-T plasmas. At the critical time of ITB formation, the plasma contains an energetic ICRF hydrogen minority ion population, contributing ∼ 50% to the total plasma pressure and heating mainly electrons. As both the NBI population and the thermal ion pressure develop, a substantial part of the ICRF power is damped resonantly on core ions (ω = 2 ω cD = 3 ω cT ) contributing to the ion heating. In NBI step-down experiments, high performance has been sustained by maintaining central ICRH heating; analysis shows the efficiency of central ICRH ion heating to be comparable with that of NBI. The highest D-D fusion neutron rates (R NT = 5.6 x 10 16 s -1 ) yet achieved in JET plasmas have been produced by combining a low magnetic shear core with a high confinement (H-mode) edge. In D-T, a fusion triple product n i T i τ E = (1.2 ± 0.2) x 10 21 m -3 keVs was achieved with 7.2 MW of fusion power obtained in the L-mode and up to 8.2 MW of fusion power in the H-mode phase. (author)
Fast wave heating experiments in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies on ATF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, M; Shepard, T D; Goulding, R H [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); and others
1992-07-01
Fast wave heating experiments in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) were performed on target plasmas produced by 350 kW of electron cyclotron heating at 53 GHz and also by neutral beam injection in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). Various heating regimes were investigated in the frequency range between 9.2 MHz and 28.8 MHz with magnetic fields of 0.95 T and 1.9 T on axis. The nominal pulse lengths of up to 200 kW RF power were in the range between 100 and 400 ms. Data from spectroscopy, loading measurements, and edge RF and Langmuir probes were used to characterize the RF induced effects on the ATF plasma. In the hydrogen minority regime at low plasma density, large suprathermal ion tails were observed with a neutral particle analyser. At high density (n-bar{sub e} {>=} 5.0 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}) substantial increases in antenna loading were observed, but ICRF power was insufficient to produce definitive heating results. A two-dimensional RF heating code, ORION, and a Fokker-Planck code, RFTRANS, were used to simulate these experiments. A simulation of future high power, higher density experiments in ATF indicates improved bulk heating results due to the improved loading and more efficient thermalization of the minority tail. (author). 29 refs, 16 figs, 3 tabs.
TRPV3 and TRPV4 ion channels are not major contributors to mouse heat sensation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Juan
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV ion channels provided a potential molecular explanation for the perception of innocuous and noxious heat stimuli. TRPV1 has a significant role in acute heat nociception and inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. Yet, substantial innocuous and noxious heat sensitivity remains in TRPV1 knockout animals. Here we investigated the role of two related channels, TRPV3 and TRPV4, in these capacities. We studied TRPV3 knockout animals on both C57BL6 and 129S6 backgrounds, as well as animals deficient in both TRPV3 and TRPV4 on a C57BL6 background. Additionally, we assessed the contributions of TRPV3 and TRPV4 to acute heat nociception and inflammatory heat hyperalgesia during inhibition of TRPV1. Results TRPV3 knockout mice on the C57BL6 background exhibited no obvious alterations in thermal preference behavior. On the 129S6 background, absence of TRPV3 resulted in a more restrictive range of occupancy centered around cooler floor temperatures. TRPV3 knockout mice showed no deficits in acute heat nociception on either background. Mice deficient in both TRPV3 and TRPV4 on a C57BL6 background showed thermal preference behavior similar to wild-type controls on the thermal gradient, and little or no change in acute heat nociception or inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. Masking of TRPV1 by the TRPV1 antagonist JNJ-17203212 did not reveal differences between C57BL6 animals deficient in TRPV3 and TRPV4, compared to their wild-type counterparts. Conclusions Our results support the notion that TRPV3 and TRPV4 likely make limited and strain-dependent contributions to innocuous warm temperature perception or noxious heat sensation, even when TRPV1 is masked. These findings imply the existence of other significant mechanisms for heat perception.
An improved routine for the fast estimate of ion cyclotron heating efficiency in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1992-02-01
The subroutine ICEVAL for the rapid simulation of Ion Cyclotron Heating in tokamak plasmas is based on analytic estimates of the wave behaviour near resonances, and on drastic but reasonable simplifications of the real geometry. The subroutine has been rewritten to improve the model and to facilitate its use as input in transport codes. In the new version the influence of quasilinear minority heating on the damping efficiency is taken into account using the well-known Stix analytic approximation. Among other improvements are: a) the possibility of considering plasmas with more than two ion species; b) inclusion of Landau, Transit Time and collisional damping on the electrons non localised at resonances; c) better models for the antenna spectrum and for the construction of the power deposition profiles. The results of ICEVAL are compared in detail with those of the full-wave code FELICE for the case of Hydrogen minority heating in a Deuterium plasma; except for details which depend on the excitation of global eigenmodes, agreement is excellent. ICEVAL is also used to investigate the enhancement of the absorption efficiency due to quasilinear heating of the minority ions. The effect is a strongly non-linear function of the available power, and decreases rapidly with increasing concentration. For parameters typical of Asdex Upgrade plasmas, about 4 MW are required to produce a significant increase of the single-pass absorption at concentrations between 10 and 20%. (orig.)
Role of lower hybrid waves in ion heating at dipolarization fronts
Greco, A.; Artemyev, A.; Zimbardo, G.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.
2017-05-01
One of the important sources of hot ions in the magnetotail is the bursty bulk flows propagating away from the reconnection region and heating the ambient plasma. Charged particles interact with nonlinear magnetic field pulses (dipolarization fronts, DFs) embedded into these flows. The convection electric fields associated with DF propagation are known to reflect and accelerate ambient ions. Moreover, a wide range of waves is observed within/near these fronts, the electric field fluctuations being dominated by the lower hybrid drift (LHD) instability. Here we investigate the potential role of these waves in the further acceleration of ambient ions. We use a LHD wave emission profile superimposed on the leading edge of a two-dimensional model profile of a DF and a test particle approach. We show that LHD waves with realistic amplitudes can significantly increase the upper limit of energies gained by ions. Wave-particle interaction near the front is more effective in producing superthermal ions than in increasing the flux of thermal ions. Comparison of test particle simulations and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations show that ion acceleration by LHD waves is more important for slower DFs.
Ion cyclotron resonance heating for tungsten control in various JET H-mode scenarios
Goniche, M.; Dumont, R. J.; Bobkov, V.; Buratti, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Challis, C.; Colas, L.; Czarnecka, A.; Drewelow, P.; Fedorczak, N.; Garcia, J.; Giroud, C.; Graham, M.; Graves, J. P.; Hobirk, J.; Jacquet, P.; Lerche, E.; Mantica, P.; Monakhov, I.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Nave, M. F. F.; Noble, C.; Nunes, I.; Pütterich, T.; Rimini, F.; Sertoli, M.; Valisa, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET
2017-05-01
Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in the hydrogen minority scheme provides central ion heating and acts favorably on the core tungsten transport. Full wave modeling shows that, at medium power level (4 MW), after collisional redistribution, the ratio of power transferred to the ions and the electrons vary little with the minority (hydrogen) concentration n H/n e but the high-Z impurity screening provided by the fast ions temperature increases with the concentration. The power radiated by tungsten in the core of the JET discharges has been analyzed on a large database covering the 2013-2014 campaign. In the baseline scenario with moderate plasma current (I p = 2.5 MA) ICRH modifies efficiently tungsten transport to avoid its accumulation in the plasma centre and, when the ICRH power is increased, the tungsten radiation peaking evolves as predicted by the neo-classical theory. At higher current (3-4 MA), tungsten accumulation can be only avoided with 5 MW of ICRH power with high gas injection rate. For discharges in the hybrid scenario, the strong initial peaking of the density leads to strong tungsten accumulation. When this initial density peaking is slightly reduced, with an ICRH power in excess of 4 MW,very low tungsten concentration in the core (˜10-5) is maintained for 3 s. MHD activity plays a key role in tungsten transport and modulation of the tungsten radiation during a sawtooth cycle is correlated to the fishbone activity triggered by the fast ion pressure gradient.
Mass and Heat Transfer in Ion-Exchange Membranes Applicable to Solid Polymer Fuel Cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otteroey, M
1996-04-01
In this doctoral thesis, an improved emf method for determination of transference numbers of two counter ions in ion-exchange membranes is presented. Transference numbers were obtained as a continuous function of the composition. The method avoids problems with diffusion by using a stack of membranes. Water transference coefficients in ion-exchange membranes is discussed and reversible and irreversible water transfer is studied by emf methods. Efforts were made to get data relevant to the solid polymer fuel cell. The results support the findings of other researchers that the reversible water transfer is lower than earlier predicted. A chapter on the conductivity of ion-exchange membranes establishes a method to separate the very thin liquid layers surrounding the membranes in a stack. Using the method it was found that the conductivity is obtained with high accuracy and that the liquid layer in a membrane stack can contribute significantly to the total measured resistance. A four point impedance method was tested to measure the conductivity of membranes under fuel cell conditions. Finally, there is a discussion of reversible heat effects and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes. 155 refs., 45 figs., 13 tabs.
Influence of resonant magnetic perturbations on transient heat load deposition and fast ion losses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rack, Michael Thomas
2014-01-01
Thermonuclear fusion is the energy conversion process which keeps the sun shining. For the last six decades, researchers have been investigating the physics involved in order to enable the usage of this energy supply on Earth. The most promising candidates for fusion power plants are based on magnetic confinement of plasma to provide the ideal conditions for efficient thermonuclear fusion in well controlled surroundings. One important aspect is the control of instabilities that occur in the edge region of the plasma and lead to an ejection of huge amounts of energy. Magnetic perturbation fields which are resonant in the plasma edge are found to modify the plasma favourably and reduce the impact of these instabilities. This dissertation focuses on the effects of resonant magnetic perturbation fields on the ejected energy as well as on the drawbacks of these perturbation fields. The transient energy ejection which is triggered by the instabilities causes extreme heat loads on the wall components in fusion devices. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how resonant magnetic perturbation fields affect the heat load deposition. Furthermore, the impact of resonant magnetic perturbation fields on the confinement of fast ions is an important aspect as fast ions are still required to be well confined in order to avoid additional wall loads and increase the fusion efficiency. Recent upgrades on the Joint European Torus allow for a detailed study of the heat load deposition profiles caused by transient events. Throughout this work, the new features are used for the study of the modifications of the transient heat load depositions that occur if resonant magnetic perturbation fields are applied. This leads to a further understanding of the processes involved during the plasma edge instabilities. Additionally, an alternative method using lower hybrid waves for applying resonant magnetic perturbations is investigated. Furthermore, a new diagnostic, capable of detecting fast ion
Influence of resonant magnetic perturbations on transient heat load deposition and fast ion losses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rack, Michael Thomas
2014-07-11
Thermonuclear fusion is the energy conversion process which keeps the sun shining. For the last six decades, researchers have been investigating the physics involved in order to enable the usage of this energy supply on Earth. The most promising candidates for fusion power plants are based on magnetic confinement of plasma to provide the ideal conditions for efficient thermonuclear fusion in well controlled surroundings. One important aspect is the control of instabilities that occur in the edge region of the plasma and lead to an ejection of huge amounts of energy. Magnetic perturbation fields which are resonant in the plasma edge are found to modify the plasma favourably and reduce the impact of these instabilities. This dissertation focuses on the effects of resonant magnetic perturbation fields on the ejected energy as well as on the drawbacks of these perturbation fields. The transient energy ejection which is triggered by the instabilities causes extreme heat loads on the wall components in fusion devices. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how resonant magnetic perturbation fields affect the heat load deposition. Furthermore, the impact of resonant magnetic perturbation fields on the confinement of fast ions is an important aspect as fast ions are still required to be well confined in order to avoid additional wall loads and increase the fusion efficiency. Recent upgrades on the Joint European Torus allow for a detailed study of the heat load deposition profiles caused by transient events. Throughout this work, the new features are used for the study of the modifications of the transient heat load depositions that occur if resonant magnetic perturbation fields are applied. This leads to a further understanding of the processes involved during the plasma edge instabilities. Additionally, an alternative method using lower hybrid waves for applying resonant magnetic perturbations is investigated. Furthermore, a new diagnostic, capable of detecting fast ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksandrov, L.N.
1985-01-01
Numerical simulation of the effect of stressed in ion-implanted layers on kinetics of amorphous phase transformations is performed. The suggested model of accounting stresses including concentration ones is based on the locality of action of interstitial addition atoms and on general structural inhomogeneity of amorphous semiconductor leading to the formation of areas of the facilitated phase transition. Accounting of effect of energy variation of silicon atoms interaction on probability of displacement events and atoms building in lattice points or atomic bonds disintegration allows one to trace the accelerating action of introduced by ion implantation stresses on the kinetics of layer crystallization during pulsed heating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weiland, M.; Bilato, R.; Geiger, B.
2017-01-01
Recent upgrades to the FIDA (fast-ion D-alpha) diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade allow to reconstruct the fast-ion phase space at several radial positions with decent energy and pitch resolution. These new diagnostic capabilities are applied to study the physics of 2nd harmonic ion cyclotron heating, w....... Furthermore, comparisons to other fast-ion diagnostics (neutron yield and neutral particle analyzers) are discussed....
Temperature-dependent electrochemical heat generation in a commercial lithium-ion battery
Bandhauer, Todd M.; Garimella, Srinivas; Fuller, Thomas F.
2014-02-01
Lithium-ion batteries suffer from inherent thermal limitations (i.e., capacity fade and thermal runaway); thus, it is critical to understand heat generation experienced in the batteries under normal operation. In the current study, reversible and irreversible electrochemical heat generation rates were measured experimentally on a small commercially available C/LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery designed for high-rate applications. The battery was tested over a wide range of temperatures (10-60 °C) and discharge and charge rates (∼C/4-5C) to elucidate their effects. Two samples were tested in a specially designed wind tunnel to maintain constant battery surface temperature within a maximum variation of ±0.88 °C. A data normalization technique was employed to account for the observed capacity fade, which was largest at the highest rates. The heat rate was shown to increase with both increasing rate and decreasing temperature, and the reversible heat rate was shown to be significant even at the highest rate and temperature (7.4% at 5C and 55 °C). Results from cycling the battery using a dynamic power profile also showed that constant-current data predict the dynamic performance data well. In addition, the reversible heat rate in the dynamic simulation was shown to be significant, especially for charge-depleting HEV applications.
Experimental characteristics of ion Bernstein wave heating on JIPP T-IIU tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Ando, R.
1986-03-01
The directly launched Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating experiments have been carried out on JIPP T-IIU tokamak for two experimental conditions; (a) the ''3rd-branch'' of the IBW between 3rd- and 4th-cyclotron harmonics of the deuterium, and (b) the ''2nd-branch'' of the IBW between 2nd- and 3rd-cyclotron harmonics. In the case (a), the direct hydrogen heating at ω = 1.5 Ω H has been found in previous experiments. Here we present additional data to support this subharmonics heating, i.e., the spectroscopic measurement of Fe XVIII lines and mass separated analysis of charge-exchange neutrals. While, in the case (b), the remarkable increase of the electron temperature has been observed, especially at the central region of the plasma, and it has been estimated from the global energy balance that almost all of IBW power is delivered to the electron. To investigate this difference of the heating mode, the power absorption has been calculated with the ray tracing code, taking into account of the effect of the plasma/antenna coupling. It is concluded from the consideration of the electron Landau damping that the transition from the ion heating mode to the electron one would be explained by the difference of the electron temperature at the ohmic phase; i.e., T e (0) = 0.7 keV for the case (a) and T e (0) = 1.3 keV for the case (b). (author)
Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.
This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...
Design of an ion cyclotron resonance heating system for the Compact Ignition Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yugo, J.J.; Goranson, P.L.; Swain, D.W.; Baity, F.W.; Vesey, R.
1987-01-01
The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) requires 10-20 MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) power to raise the plasma temperature to ignition. The initial ICRH system will provide 10 MW of power to the plasma, utilizing a total of six rf power units feeding six current straps in three ports. The systems may be expanded to 20 MW with additional rf power units, antennas, and ports. Plasma heating will be achieved through coupling to the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance of a 3 He minority species (also the second harmonic of tritium). The proposed antenna is a resonant double loop (RDL) structure with vacuum, shorted stubs at each end for tuning and impedance matching. The antennas are of modular, compact construction for installation and removal through the midplane port. Remote maintainability and the reactorlike operating environment have a major impact on the design of the launcher for this machine. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs
Multi-megajoule heating of large tokamaks with high energy heavy ion beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dei-Cas, R.
1981-07-01
The fast neutral injection heating and RF heating for tokamak like plasmas are now well established. We consider in this paper the use of high energy (approximately 1 GeV) heavy ions (Xe 132 ) to reach ignition in JET or INTOR like tokamaks. The main advantages of such a method will be outlined. The capture and the confinement of heavy ions have been analysed in a particular case and with the described RF linac it seems possible to inject in the order of 50 MJ in 1 sec with a modest increase of the effective charge Zsub(eff)<1.05 in a JET-like plasma for a particle life time of 1 sec and then the additional radiated power should be maintained at a relatively low level in comparison to the injected power
RF-heating of plasma in the frequency domain of the ion cyclotron harmonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahnekamp, H.G.; Stampa, A.; Tuczek, H.; Laeuter, R.; Wulf, H.O.
1976-01-01
Experiments on rf-heating of plasmas in the frequency domain of the ion cyclotron harmonics are reported. The rf-power is coupled to the magneto-acoustic wave for frequencies between ωsub(ci) and 5ωsub(ci). The measurements indicate that the damping of the pump wave is mainly due to the excitation of turbulence, whereas direct resonance at 2ωsub(ci) seems to be of minor importance
Slow wave antenna coupling to ion Bernstein waves for plasma heating in ICRF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sy, W.N-C.; Amano, T.; Ando, R.; Fukuyama, A.; Watari, T.
1984-10-01
The coupling of ICRF power from a slow wave antenna to a plasma with finite temperature is examined theoretically and compared to an independent computer calculation. It is shown that such antennas can be highly efficient in trasferring most of the antenna power directly to ion Bernstein waves, with only a very small fraction going into fast waves. The potentiality of this coupling scheme for plasma heating in ICRF is briefly discussed. (author)
Numerical modeling of the EBT-S ion-cyclotron heating experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sperling, J.L.; Hamasaki, S.; Klein, H.H.; Krall, N.A.
1980-01-01
To determine the effect of ion-cyclotron heating on EBT-S plasma parameters, a one-dimensional, time dependent neoclassical model of plasma particle and energy transport was used. For EBT-S the code was run with the following parameters: B/sub O/ = 0.7 tesla (axial field at the midplane), B/sub O/ = 1.4 tesla (axial field at the throat), R/sub T/ = 150 cm (major radius), a = 15 cm
Stochastic processes in cell biology
Bressloff, Paul C
2014-01-01
This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology. A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods. This text is primarily...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falabella, S.
1988-05-11
A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10/sup 12/cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falabella, S.
1988-01-01
A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10 12 cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs
Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process
Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V. G.
1995-12-01
The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Saclay and Cité Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number kz is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the kz spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge-Kutta method. The influence of ion-ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B0, and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer.
Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.
1995-01-01
The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and Cite Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number k z is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the k z spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge--Kutta method. The influence of ion--ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B 0 , and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44 Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the tandem mirror experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falabella, S.
1988-01-01
A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). This analyzer indicates an increase in ion temperature from ∼20 eV before ICRH to ∼150 eV during ICRH, with ∼60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial integral of n i T i as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma potential is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat, as the plasma conditions varied over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U
Effects of D-region RF heating studied with the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.-F. Enell
2005-07-01
Full Text Available The upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, or ionospheric D region, is an atmospheric layer which is difficult to access experimentally. A useful method that also has a large potential for further studies is artificial heating of electrons by means of powerful radio transmitters. Here we estimate the effect of D-region heating for a few typical cases of high electron density – daylight, typical auroral electron precipitation, and a solar proton event – by coupling a model of RF electron heating to the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC model. The predicted effects are among others an increase in the ratio of the concentration of negative ions to that of free electrons, and an increase in the absorption of cosmic noise as measured by riometers. For the model runs presented in this paper we have calculated the absorption for the frequency (38.2MHz of the IRIS imaging riometer in Kilpisjärvi, Finland, as observing the ionosphere above the EISCAT Heater in Tromsø, Norway. The predicted enhancements of the absorption are 0.2–0.8dB, an effect which is clearly detectable.
Keywords. Ionosphere (Active experiments; Ion chemistry and composition; Wave propagation
Effects of D-region RF heating studied with the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.-F. Enell
2005-07-01
Full Text Available The upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, or ionospheric D region, is an atmospheric layer which is difficult to access experimentally. A useful method that also has a large potential for further studies is artificial heating of electrons by means of powerful radio transmitters. Here we estimate the effect of D-region heating for a few typical cases of high electron density – daylight, typical auroral electron precipitation, and a solar proton event – by coupling a model of RF electron heating to the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC model. The predicted effects are among others an increase in the ratio of the concentration of negative ions to that of free electrons, and an increase in the absorption of cosmic noise as measured by riometers. For the model runs presented in this paper we have calculated the absorption for the frequency (38.2MHz of the IRIS imaging riometer in Kilpisjärvi, Finland, as observing the ionosphere above the EISCAT Heater in Tromsø, Norway. The predicted enhancements of the absorption are 0.2–0.8dB, an effect which is clearly detectable. Keywords. Ionosphere (Active experiments; Ion chemistry and composition; Wave propagation
Cooling and heating of the ion flux on the transmission through crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karamyan, S.A.; Gruener, F.; Assmann, W.
2003-01-01
Transmission of charged particles through a monocrystalline medium is accompanied by many interesting phenomena, and a new one - redistribution of the isotropic flux - is now studied experimentally and described. The cooling or heating in the transverse momentum coordinate arises as a result of crystal-induced modification of the transmission trajectories. This indicates the violation of the reversibility rule, and cannot be explained within prevailing theory of channeling. The type of image (enhancement or reduction) and its intensity are dependent on the ion and crystal species, on the energy of ions and on the crystal thickness. Such dependencies have been studied experimentally and the mechanism involving the regular sequence of charge-exchange events with the transverse-energy non-conservation is attracted for understanding. The crystal response to ion flux transmission is also reviewed and characterized by the original results
Radio frequency heating in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swanson, D.G.
1985-01-01
Both the theory of the absorption process in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies and some of the experiments which slow the promise and problems with radio frequency plasma heating in this range are discussed. It is shown that mode conversion is invariably involved in the process and so an extensive review of mode conversion theory, expecially as it applies to problems with back-to-back cutoff-resonance pairs, is included. This includes a discussion of the tunneling equation with and without absorption effects and with and without energy conservation. The general theory is applied to various ion-cyclotron harmonics, the two-ion hybrid resonance, and to a case where a wave converts to a Bernstein mode at the plasma edge. The results are given analytically for a variety of cases without absorption, and empirical formulas are given for the second and third harmonics of the ion-cyclotron frequency, which include effects of absorption. Various problem areas in the theory are also discussed with some of the limitations caused by the approximations involved. A number of experiments are also discussed which show effective heating, and some show the features of the mode conversion process, indicating that the general processes of absorption are reasonably well understood. Areas where further work is necessary, both in fundamental theory and in comparing theory with experiment, are also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolf, R C [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM/FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Baranov, Y [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Garbet, X [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Hawkes, N [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Peeters, A G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Challis, C [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Baar, M de [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafyisica Rijnhuizen, Association EURATO-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Giroud, C [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafyisica Rijnhuizen, Association EURATO-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Joffrin, E [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Mantsinen, M [Helsinki University of Technology, Association-EURATOM Tekes, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Mazon, D [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Meister, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Suttrop, W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zastrow, K-D [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)
2003-09-01
In ASDEX Upgrade and JET, the ion temperature profiles can be described by R/L{sub Ti} which exhibits only little variations, both locally, when comparing different discharges, and radially over a wide range of the poloidal cross-section. Considering a change of the local ion heat flux of more than a factor of two, this behaviour indicates some degree of profile stiffness. In JET, covering a large ion temperature range from 1 to 25 keV, the normalized ion temperature gradient, R/L{sub Ti}, shows a dependence on the electron to ion temperature ratio or toroidal rotational shear. In particular, in hot ion plasmas, produced predominantly by neutral beam heating at low densities, in which large T{sub i}/T{sub e} is coupled to strong toroidal rotation, the effect of the two quantities cannot be distinguished. Both in ASDEX Upgrade and JET, plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs), including the PEP mode in JET, are characterized by a significant increase of R/L{sub Ti} above the value of L- and H-mode plasmas. In agreement with previous ASDEX Upgrade results, no increase of the ion heat transport in reversed magnetic shear ITB plasmas is found in JET when raising the electron heating. Evidence is presented that magnetic shear directly influences R/L{sub Ti}, namely decreasing the ion heat transport when going from weakly positive to negative magnetic shear.
High heat load experiments for first wall materials by high power ion beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuroda, Tsutomu; Kaneko, Osamu; Sakurai, Keiichi; Oka, Yoshihide; Shibui, Masanao; Ohmori, Junji
1985-09-01
Preliminary results are presented with some analytical calculations for thermal shock fractures of first-wall material candidates under plasma disruption heating conditions. A 120 keV - 90 A ion source has been used as an energy source to heat large specimens with heat fluxes of about 9 kW/cm/sup 2/ for pulse length of about 57 msec. Materials examined here are graphite (POCO), SiC, AlN, TiC-coated graphite, and sus 304. The SiC and AlN specimens were completely broken by only one thermal shock. The web-like surface cracks with a depth of about 0.6 mm were created in the tungsten specimen during five shots. No apparent destructive changes were observed in the graphite specimen.
Fast wave ion cyclotron resonance heating experiments on the Alcator C tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shepard, T.D.
1988-09-01
Minority regime fast wave ICRF heating experiments have been conducted on the Alcator C tokamak at rf power levels sufficient to produce significant changes in plasma properties, and in particular to investigate the scaling to high density of the rf heating efficiency. Up to 450 kW of rf power at frequency f = 180 MHz, was injected into plasmas composed of deuterium majority and hydrogen minority ion species at magnetic field B 0 = 12 T, density 0.8 ≤ /bar n/sub e// ≤ 5 /times/ 10 20 m -3 , ion temperature T/sub D/(0) /approximately/ 1 keV, electron temperature T/sub e/(0) /approximately/ 1.5--2.5 keV, and minority concentration 0.25 /approx lt/ /eta/sub H// ≤ 8%. Deuterium heating ΔT/sub D/(0) = 400 eV was observed at /bar n/sub e// = 1 /times/ 10 20 m -3 , with smaller temperature increases at higher density. However, there was no significant change in electron temperature and the minority temperatures were insufficient to account for the launched rf power. Minority concentration scans indicated most efficient deuterium heating at the lowest possible concentration, in apparent contradiction with theory. Incremental heating /tau/sub inc// /equivalent to/ ΔW/ΔP up to 5 ms was independent of density, in spite of theoretical predictions of favorable density scaling of rf absorption and in stark contrast to Ohmic confinement times /tau/sub E// /equivalent to/ W/P. After accounting for mode conversion and minority losses due to toroidal field ripple, unconfined orbits, asymmetric drag, neoclassical and sawtooth transport, and charge-exchange, it was found that the losses as well as the net power deposition on deuterium do scale very favorably with density. Nevertheless, when the net rf and Ohmic powers deposited on deuterium are compared, they are found to be equally efficient at heating the deuterium. 139 refs
Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures
Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Ji, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun
2016-01-01
Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the ‘all-climate battery’ cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4-12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop-start technology capable of saving 5-10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications.
Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures.
Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Ji, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun
2016-01-28
Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the 'all-climate battery' cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4-12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop-start technology capable of saving 5-10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications.
Heat deposition on the first wall due to ICRF-induced loss of fast ions in JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusama, Y.; Tobita, K.; Kimura, H.; Hamamatsu, K.; Fujii, T.; Nemoto, M.; Saigusa, M.; Moriyama, S.; Tani, K.; Koide, Y.; Sakasai, A.; Nishitani, T.; Ushigusa, K.
1995-01-01
In JT-60U, the heat deposition on the first wall due to the ICRF-induced loss of fast ions was investigated by changing the position of the resonance layer in the ripple-trapping region. A heat spot appears on the first wall of the same major radius as the resonance layer of the ICRF waves. The broadening of the heat spot in the major radius direction is consistent with that of the resonance layer due to the Doppler broadening. The heat spot is considered to be formed by the ICRF-induced ripple-trapped loss of fast ions. Although the total ICRF-induced loss power to the heat spot is as low as 2% of the total ICRF power, the additional heat flux will become a new issue because of the localized heat deposition on the first wall. ((orig.))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Cheng; Zhu Sizheng; Zhang Xinjun
2010-01-01
Simulation on the heating scenarios in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) was performed by using a full wave code TORIC. The locations of resonance layers for these heating schemes are predicted and the simulations for different schemes in ICRF experiments in EAST, for example, ion heating (both fundamental and harmonic frequency) or electron heating (by direct fast waves or by mode conversion waves), on-axis or off-axis heating, and high-field-side (HFS) launching or low-field-side (LFS) launching, etc, were conducted. For the on-axis minority ion heating of 3 He in D( 3 He) plasma, the impacts of both density and temperature on heating were discussed in the EAST parameter ranges.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salewski, Mirko; Asunta, O.; Eriksson, L.-G.
2009-01-01
Auxiliary heating such as neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) will accelerate ions in ITER up to energies in the MeV range, i.e. energies which are also typical for alpha particles. Fast ions of any of these populations will elevate the collective Thomson...... functions of fast ions generated by NBI and ICRH are calculated for a steady-state ITER burning plasma equilibrium with the ASCOT and PION codes, respectively. The parameters for the auxiliary heating systems correspond to the design currently foreseen for ITER. The geometry of the CTS system for ITER...... is chosen such that near perpendicular and near parallel velocity components are resolved. In the investigated ICRH scenario, waves at 50MHz resonate with tritium at the second harmonic off-axis on the low field side. Effects of a minority heating scheme with He-3 are also considered. CTS scattering...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toi, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Kazuo; Mitarai, Osamu; Kawai, Yoshinobu
1980-01-01
The efficient heating of bulk ions of tokamak plasma is observed by application of the pulsed toroidal electric field much higher than the Dreicer field with the positive and negative polarities for the ohmic heating field. No deleterious effect on the confinement properties of tokamak plasma appears by the heating. The decay time of ion temperature raised by the heating pulse agrees well with the prediction by the neoclassical transport theory. The magnitude of the current induced by the pulsed electric field with the positive polarity is limited by the violent current disruption. In the case of the negative polarity, this is limited by lack of the MHD equilibrium due to vanishing the total plasma current. The ratio of drift velocity to electron thermal one / attains around 0.5, which suggests that the efficient ion heating may be due to the current-driven turbulence. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toi, K; Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Mitarai, O; Kawai, Y [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1980-02-01
The efficient heating of bulk ions of tokamak plasma is observed by application of the pulsed toroidal electric field much higher than the Dreicer field with the positive and negative polarities for the ohmic heating field. No deleterious effect on the confinement properties of tokamak plasma appears by the heating. The decay time of ion temperature raised by the heating pulse agrees well with the prediction by the neoclassical transport theory. The magnitude of the current induced by the pulsed electric field with the positive polarity is limited by the violent current disruption. In the case of the negative polarity, this is limited by lack of the MHD equilibrium due to vanishing the total plasma current. The ratio of drift velocity to electron thermal one /
Re-entering fast ion effects on NBI heating power in high-beta plasmas of the Large Helical Device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seki, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Funaba, Hisamichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sakakibara, Satoru; Ohdachi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka
2011-10-01
We calculate the heating power of the neutral beam injection (NBI) in the = 4.8% high-beta discharge achieved in the Large Helical Device (LHD). We investigate the difference of the heating efficiency and the heating power profile between with and without the re-entering fast ion effects. When the re-entering fast ion effects are taken into account, the heating efficiency in the co injection of the NBI (co-NBI case) is improved and it is about 1.8 times larger than that without the re-entering effects. In contrast, the heating efficiency with the re-entering effects in the counter injection of the NBI (ctr-NBI case) rarely differs from that without the re-entering ones. We also study the re-entering fast ion effects on the transport properties in the LHD high beta discharges. It is found that the tendency of the thermal conductivities on the beta value is not so much sensitive with and without the re-entering effects. In addition, we investigate the difference in the re-entering fast ion effects caused by the field strength and the magnetic configuration. In the co-NBI case, the re-entering fast ion effects on the heating efficiency increases with the decrease of the field strength. In the contrast, the re-entering fast ion effects in the ctr-NBI case rarely differs by changing the field strength. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosea, J.; Bernabei, S.; Colestock, P.
1979-07-01
Strong minority proton heating is produced in PLT through ion cyclotron resonance damping of fast waves at moderate rf power levels. In addition to demonstrating good proton confinement, the proton energy distribution is consistent with Fokker--Planck theory which provides the prescription for extrapolation of this heating regime to higher rf power levels
Stochastic acceleration by a single wave in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, R.
1977-01-01
A particularly simple problem exhibiting stochasticity is the motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field and a single wave. Detailed studies of this wave-particle interaction show the following features. An electrostatic wave propagating obliquely to the magnetic field causes stochastic motion if the wave amplitude exceeds a certain threshold. The overlap of cyclotron resonances then destroys a constant of the motion, allowing strong particle acceleration. A wave of large enough amplitude would thus suffer severe damping and lead to rapid heating of a particle distribution. The stochastic motion resembles a diffusion process even though the wave spectrum contains only a single wave. The motion of ions in a nonuniform magnetic field and a single electrostatic wave is treated in our study of a possible saturation mechanism of the dissipative trapped-ion instability in a tokamak. A theory involving the overlap of bounce resonances predicts the main features found in the numerical integration of the equations of motion. Ions in a layer near the trapped-circulating boundary move stochastically. This motion leads to nonlinear stabilization mechanisms which are described qualitatively
Modeling of intense pulsed ion beam heated masked targets for extreme materials characterization
Barnard, John J.; Schenkel, Thomas
2017-11-01
Intense, pulsed ion beams locally heat materials and deliver dense electronic excitations that can induce material modifications and phase transitions. Material properties can potentially be stabilized by rapid quenching. Pulsed ion beams with pulse lengths of order ns have recently become available for materials processing. Here, we optimize mask geometries for local modification of materials by intense ion pulses. The goal is to rapidly excite targets volumetrically to the point where a phase transition or local lattice reconstruction is induced followed by rapid cooling that stabilizes desired material's properties fast enough before the target is altered or damaged by, e.g., hydrodynamic expansion. By using a mask, the longitudinal dimension can be large compared to the transverse dimension, allowing the possibility of rapid transverse cooling. We performed HYDRA simulations that calculate peak temperatures for a series of excitation conditions and cooling rates of silicon targets with micro-structured masks and compare these to a simple analytical model. The model gives scaling laws that can guide the design of targets over a wide range of pulsed ion beam parameters.
On ion-cyclotron-resonance heating of the corona and solar wind
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Marsch
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper concisely summarizes and critically reviews recent work by the authors on models of the heating of the solar corona by resonance of ions with high-frequency waves (up to the proton cyclotron frequency. The quasi-linear theory of pitch angle diffusion is presented in connection with relevant solar wind proton observations. Hybrid fluid-kinetic model equations, which include wave-particle interactions and collisions, are derived. Numerical solutions are discussed, representative of the inner corona and near-Sun solar wind. A semi-kinetic model for reduced velocity distributions is presented, yielding kinetic results for heavy ions in the solar corona. It is concluded that a self-consistent treatment of particle distributions and wave spectra is required, in order to adequately describe coronal physics and to obtain agreement with observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, D; LaBombard, B; Churchill, R M; Hughes, J; Lipschultz, B; Ochoukov, R; Theiler, C; Walk, J; Rognlien, T D; Umansky, M V; Whyte, D
2013-01-01
The ion temperature is not frequently measured in the boundary of magnetic fusion devices. Comparisons among different ion temperature techniques and simulations are even rarer. Here we present a comparison of ion temperature measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak from three different diagnostics: charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS), an ion sensitive probe (ISP), and a retarding field analyzer (RFA). Comparison between CXRS and the ISP along with close examination of the ISP measurements reveals that the ISP is space charge limited. It is thus unable to measure ion temperature in the high density (>10 19 m −3 ) boundary plasma of C-Mod with its present geometry. Comparison of ion temperatures measured by CXRS and the RFA shows fair agreement. Ion and electron parallel heat flow is analyzed with a simple 1D fluid code. The code takes divertor measurements as input and results are compared to the measured ratios of upstream ion to electron temperature, as inferred respectively by CXRS and a Langmuir probe. The analysis reveals the limits of the fluid model at high Knudsen number. The upstream temperature ratio is under predicted by a factor of 2. Heat flux limiters (kinetic corrections) to the fluid model are necessary to match experimental data. The values required are found to be close to those reported in kinetic simulations. The 1D code is benchmarked against the 2D plasma fluid code UEDGE with good agreement. (paper)
Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Churchill, R. M.; Hughes, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Ochoukov, R.; Rognlien, T. D.; Theiler, C.; Walk, J.; Umansky, M. V.; Whyte, D.
2013-09-01
The ion temperature is not frequently measured in the boundary of magnetic fusion devices. Comparisons among different ion temperature techniques and simulations are even rarer. Here we present a comparison of ion temperature measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak from three different diagnostics: charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS), an ion sensitive probe (ISP), and a retarding field analyzer (RFA). Comparison between CXRS and the ISP along with close examination of the ISP measurements reveals that the ISP is space charge limited. It is thus unable to measure ion temperature in the high density (>1019 m-3) boundary plasma of C-Mod with its present geometry. Comparison of ion temperatures measured by CXRS and the RFA shows fair agreement. Ion and electron parallel heat flow is analyzed with a simple 1D fluid code. The code takes divertor measurements as input and results are compared to the measured ratios of upstream ion to electron temperature, as inferred respectively by CXRS and a Langmuir probe. The analysis reveals the limits of the fluid model at high Knudsen number. The upstream temperature ratio is under predicted by a factor of 2. Heat flux limiters (kinetic corrections) to the fluid model are necessary to match experimental data. The values required are found to be close to those reported in kinetic simulations. The 1D code is benchmarked against the 2D plasma fluid code UEDGE with good agreement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeeshan Nawaz
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The present research focuses to develop mathematical model for the removal of iron (magnetite by ion-exchange resin from primary heat transfer loop of process industries. This mathematical model is based on operating capacities (that’s provide more effective design as compared to loading capacity from static laboratory tests. Results showed non-steady state distribution of external Fe2+ and limitations imposed on operating conditions, these conditions includes; loading and elution cycle time, flow rate, concentration of both loading and removal, volume of resin required. Number of generalized assumptions was made under shortcut modeling techniques to overcome the gap of theoretical and actual process design.
Grids heat loading of an ion source in two-stage acceleration system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okumura, Yoshikazu; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Ohga, Tokumichi
1978-05-01
Heat loading of the extraction grids, which is one of the critical problems limiting the beam pulse duration at high power level, has been investigated experimentally, with an ion source in a two-stage acceleration system of four multi-aperture grids. The loading of each grid depends largely on extraction current and grid gap pressures; it decreases with improvement of the beam optics and with decrease of the pressures. In optimum operating modes, its level is typically less than -- 2% of the total beam power or -- 200 W/cm 2 at beam energies of 50 - 70 kV. (auth.)
Effects of ion beam heating on Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hulman, Martin; Skakalova, Viera; Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Roth, S.
2009-01-01
Free standing films of single-wall carbon nanotubes were irradiated with energetic N + and C 4+ ions. The observed changes in the Raman line shape of the radial breathing mode and the G band of the C 4+ irradiated samples were similar to those found for a thermally annealed sample. We ascribe these changes to thermal desorption of volatile dopants from the initially doped nanotubes. A simple geometry of the experiment allows us to estimate the temperature rise by one-dimensional heat conductance equation. The calculation indicates that irradiation-mediated increase in temperature may account for the observed Raman spectra changes
Parallel gradient effects on ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smithe, D.N.
1987-01-01
This dissertation examines the effects on Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating of parallel nonuniformity in the magnetic field which arises from the poloidal field in a tokamak and the universal (major radius)/sup /minus/1/ scaling of the cyclotron frequency. The goal of the analysis is the macroscopic warm plasma current including temperature in the sense of the finite Larmor radius expansion and the quasilocal approximation of the parallel guiding center motion. A 1-D numerical application of the fully nonlocal integral dielectric is performed. Parallel gradient effects are studied for He-3 minority, 2nd harmonic deuterium, and hydrogen minority heating in tokamaks. The results show quite significant alteration of the toroidal wavenumber absorption spectrum, and a wealth of new behavior on the local propagation scale. 95 refs., 37 figs
Plante, I; Wu, H
2014-01-01
The code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) has been developed over the last few years at the NASA Johnson Space Center to simulate the effects of ionizing radiations at the microscopic scale, to understand the effects of space radiation at the biological level. The fundamental part of this code is the stochastic simulation of radiation track structure of heavy ions, an important component of space radiations. The code can calculate many relevant quantities such as the radial dose, voxel dose, and may also be used to calculate the dose in spherical and cylindrical targets of various sizes. Recently, we have incorporated DNA structure and damage simulations at the molecular scale in RITRACKS. The direct effect of radiations is simulated by introducing a slight modification of the existing particle transport algorithms, using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe model of ionization cross sections for each molecular orbitals of DNA. The simulation of radiation chemistry is done by a step-by-step diffusion-reaction program based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation]. This approach is also used to simulate the indirect effect of ionizing radiation on DNA. The software can be installed independently on PC and tablets using the Windows operating system and does not require any coding from the user. It includes a Graphic User Interface (GUI) and a 3D OpenGL visualization interface. The calculations are executed simultaneously (in parallel) on multiple CPUs. The main features of the software will be presented.
Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.
2017-07-01
Plasmas in the Pegasus spherical tokamak are initiated and grown by the non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive technique. The LHI system consists of three adjacent electron current sources that inject multiple helical current filaments that can reconnect with each other. Anomalously high impurity ion temperatures are observed during LHI with T i,OV ⩽ 650 eV, which is in contrast to T i,OV ⩽ 70 eV from Ohmic heating alone. Spatial profiles of T i,OV indicate an edge localized heating source, with T i,OV ~ 650 eV near the outboard major radius of the injectors and dropping to ~150 eV near the plasma magnetic axis. Experiments without a background tokamak plasma indicate the ion heating results from magnetic reconnection between adjacent injected current filaments. In these experiments, the HeII T i perpendicular to the magnetic field is found to scale with the reconnecting field strength, local density, and guide field, while {{T}\\text{i,\\parallel}} experiences little change, in agreement with two-fluid reconnection theory. This ion heating is not expected to significantly impact the LHI plasma performance in Pegasus, as it does not contribute significantly to the electron heating. However, estimates of the power transfer to the bulk ion are quite large, and thus LHI current drive provides an auxiliary ion heating mechanism to the tokamak plasma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shurygin, R. V.; Morozov, D. Kh.
2014-01-01
Turbulent dynamics of the near-wall tokamak plasma is simulated by numerically solving the nonlinear reduced Braginskii magnetohydrodynamic equations with allowance for a lithium ion admixture. The effects of turbulence and radiation of the admixture are analyzed in the framework of a self-consistent approach. The radial distributions of the radiative loss power and the density of Li 0 atoms and Li +1 ions are obtained as functions of the electron and ion temperatures of the main plasma in the near-wall layer. The results of numerical simulations show that supply of lithium ions into the low-temperature near-wall plasma substantially depends on whether the additional power is deposited into the electron or ion component of the main plasma. If the electron temperature in the layer increases (ECR heating), then the ion density drops. At the same time, an increase in the temperature of the main ions (ICR heating) leads to an increase in the density of Li +1 ions. The results of numerical simulations are explained by the different influence of the electron and ion temperatures on the atomic processes governing the accumulation and loss of particles in the balance equations for neutral Li 0 atoms and Li +1 ions in the admixture. The radial profile of the electron temperature and the corresponding distribution of the radiative loss power for different densities of neutral Li 0 atoms on the wall are obtained. The calculations show that the presence of Li +1 ions affects turbulent transport of the main ions. In this case, the electron heat flux increases by 20–30% with increasing Li +1 density, whereas the flux of the main ions drops by nearly the same amount. The radial profile of the turbulent flux of lithium ions is obtained. It is demonstrated that the appearance of the pinch effect is related to the positive density gradient of lithium ions across the calculation layer. For the parameters of the T-10 tokamak, the effect of radiative cooling of the near-wall plasma
Modification of boundary plasma behavior by Ion Bernstein Wave heating on HT-7 tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Guoshen
2002-01-01
Cooperated with Fusion Research Center, the University of Texas at Austin, U.S.A. The boundary plasma behavior during Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating was investigated using Langmuir probe arrays on HT-7 tokamak. The particle confinement improvement of over a factor of 2 was observed in 30 MHz IBW heated plasma with RF power > 120 kW. The strong de-correlation effect of fluctuations resulted in that the turbulent particle flux dropped more than an order of magnitude. In IBW heated plasma, an additional inward E r and associated poloidal ExB flows were produced, which could account for the additional poloidal velocity in the electron diamagnetic direction in the scrape-of layer (SOL). Three-wave nonlinear phase coupling increased evidently and low frequency fluctuations (about 5 kHz) were generated, which dominated the boundary turbulence during IBW heating. The 5/2-D resonant layer was located in the plasma edge region, which is found to be the mechanism underlying these phenomena. (author)
Hoang, Tuan L.; Nazarov, Roman; Kang, Changwoo; Fan, Jiangyuan
2018-07-01
Under the multi-ion irradiation conditions present in accelerated material-testing facilities or fission/fusion nuclear reactors, the combined effects of atomic displacements with radiation products may induce complex synergies in the structural materials. However, limited access to multi-ion irradiation facilities and the lack of computational models capable of simulating the evolution of complex defects and their synergies make it difficult to understand the actual physical processes taking place in the materials under these extreme conditions. In this paper, we propose the application of pulsed single/dual-beam irradiation as replacements for the expensive steady triple-beam irradiation to study radiation damages in materials under multi-ion irradiation.
Status of the Negative Ion Based Heating and Diagnostic Neutral Beams for ITER
Schunke, B.; Bora, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Tanga, A.
2009-03-01
The current baseline of ITER foresees 2 Heating Neutral Beam (HNB's) systems based on negative ion technology, each accelerating to 1 MeV 40 A of D- and capable of delivering 16.5 MW of D0 to the ITER plasma, with a 3rd HNB injector foreseen as an upgrade option [1]. In addition a dedicated Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) accelerating 60 A of H- to 100 keV will inject ≈15 A equivalent of H0 for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy and other diagnostics. Recently the RF driven negative ion source developed by IPP Garching has replaced the filamented ion source as the reference ITER design. The RF source developed at IPP, which is approximately a quarter scale of the source needed for ITER, is expected to have reduced caesium consumption compared to the filamented arc driven ion source. The RF driven source has demonstrated adequate accelerated D- and H- current densities as well as long-pulse operation [2, 3]. It is foreseen that the HNB's and the DNB will use the same negative ion source. Experiments with a half ITER-size ion source are on-going at IPP and the operation of a full-scale ion source will be demonstrated, at full power and pulse length, in the dedicated Ion Source Test Bed (ISTF), which will be part of the Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF), in Padua, Italy. This facility will carry out the necessary R&D for the HNB's for ITER and demonstrate operation of the full-scale HNB beamline. An overview of the current status of the neutral beam (NB) systems and the chosen configuration will be given and the ongoing integration effort into the ITER plant will be highlighted. It will be demonstrated how installation and maintenance logistics have influenced the design, notably the top access scheme facilitating access for maintenance and installation. The impact of the ITER Design Review and recent design change requests (DCRs) will be briefly discussed, including start-up and commissioning issues. The low current hydrogen phase now envisaged for start
Status of the Negative Ion Based Heating and Diagnostic Neutral Beams for ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schunke, B.; Bora, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Tanga, A.
2009-01-01
The current baseline of ITER foresees 2 Heating Neutral Beam (HNB's) systems based on negative ion technology, each accelerating to 1 MeV 40 A of D - and capable of delivering 16.5 MW of D 0 to the ITER plasma, with a 3rd HNB injector foreseen as an upgrade option. In addition a dedicated Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) accelerating 60 A of H - to 100 keV will inject ≅15 A equivalent of H 0 for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy and other diagnostics. Recently the RF driven negative ion source developed by IPP Garching has replaced the filamented ion source as the reference ITER design. The RF source developed at IPP, which is approximately a quarter scale of the source needed for ITER, is expected to have reduced caesium consumption compared to the filamented arc driven ion source. The RF driven source has demonstrated adequate accelerated D - and H - current densities as well as long-pulse operation. It is foreseen that the HNB's and the DNB will use the same negative ion source. Experiments with a half ITER-size ion source are on-going at IPP and the operation of a full-scale ion source will be demonstrated, at full power and pulse length, in the dedicated Ion Source Test Bed (ISTF), which will be part of the Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF), in Padua, Italy. This facility will carry out the necessary R and D for the HNB's for ITER and demonstrate operation of the full-scale HNB beamline. An overview of the current status of the neutral beam (NB) systems and the chosen configuration will be given and the ongoing integration effort into the ITER plant will be highlighted. It will be demonstrated how installation and maintenance logistics have influenced the design, notably the top access scheme facilitating access for maintenance and installation. The impact of the ITER Design Review and recent design change requests (DCRs) will be briefly discussed, including start-up and commissioning issues. The low current hydrogen phase now envisaged for start
Confinement improvement in high-ion temperature plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI in LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Ikeda, K.
2006-10-01
The increase in the ion temperature due to transport improvement has been observed in plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI, in which electrons are dominantly heated, in Large Helical Device (LHD). When the centrally focused ECRH is superposed on the NBI plasma, the ion temperature is observed to rise, accompanied by formation of the electron-ITB. This is ascribed to the ion transport improvement with the transition to the neoclassical electron root with a positive radial electric field. In high-Z plasmas, the ion temperature is increased with an increase in the ion heating power, and reaches 13.5keV. The central ion temperature increases with an increase in a gradient of the electron temperature in an outer plasma region of ρ=0.8, suggesting the ion transport improvement in the outer plasma region induced by the neoclassical electron root. These results indicate the effectiveness of the electron-root scenario for obtaining high-ion temperature plasmas in helical systems. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pailloux, A.
1997-01-01
This work has been achieved in the frame of isotopic separation studies by in cyclotron resonance. For this purpose, in a highly magnetized (2 to 3 Tesla) and non-collisional (10 12 ions/cm 3 ) plasma, composed of metallic ions, a wave near the ion cyclotron frequency is thrown in order to heat selectively a given species. A laser induced fluorescence (LIP) has been developed on barium and gadolinium plasmas. The Larmor gyration of ions greatly modifies the interaction, which has been modelled through the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The obtained excitation probably has been integrated over all the ions excited in the measurement volume in order to check that the LIF still leads to the distribution function of ion velocities. The influence of the Larmor motion of ions on the spectral distribution of LIF has been derived both theoretically and experimentally. The LIF diagnostics has been achieved with a dye O'ring laser. The barium ion has been excited on the transition 6142 angstrom, using rhodamine 6G dye, and the gadolinium ion on the pseudo-triplet 3861 angstrom, using exalite dye. Data treatment has been developed taking into account the Zeeman effect and the different heating of isotopes. The ionic temperature (from 1 eV to some hundreds eV) has been measured as a function of radiofrequency heating. Our experimental results are in good agreement with the selective heating theory. Also, the ion velocity distribution function has been found locally Maxwellian. And the behaviour of the plasma has been studied as a function of control parameters of the plasma source. (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brida, D.; Lunt, T.; Wischmeier, M.; Birkenmeier, G.; Cahyna, Pavel; Carralero, D.; Faitsch, M.; Feng, Y.; Kurzan, B.; Schubert, M.; Sieglin, B.; Suttrop, W.; Wolfrum, E.
2017-01-01
Roč. 12, August (2017), s. 831-837 ISSN 2352-1791 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ASDEX upgrade * Magnetic perturbations * Divertor heat flux Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352179116302150
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Zhu
2005-11-01
Full Text Available The thermosphere is subject to additional electric and magnetic forces, not important in the middle and lower atmosphere, due to its partially ionized atmosphere. The effects of charged particles on the neutral atmospheric dynamics are often parameterized by ion drag in the momentum equations and Joule heating in the energy equation. Presented in this paper are a set of more accurate parameterizations for the ion drag and Joule heating for the neutral atmosphere that are functions of the difference between bulk ion velocity and neutral wind. The parameterized expressions also depend on the magnetic field, the Pedersen and Hall conductivities, and the ratio of the ion cyclotron frequency to the ion-neutral collision frequency. The formal relationship between the electromagnetic energy, atmospheric kinetic energy, and Joule heating is illustrated through the conversion terms between these three types of energy. It is shown that there will always be an accompanying conversion of kinetic energy into Joule heating when electromagnetic energy is generated through the dynamo mechanism of the atmospheric neutral wind. Likewise, electromagnetic energy cannot be fully converted into kinetic energy without producing Joule heating in the thermosphere.
Variable eigenmode excitation in the beach heating of two-ion-species mirror plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, D.R.
1990-01-01
Variable eigenmode excitation scans of the ion species ratio of hydrogen-helium and hydrogen-deuterium plasmas has been examined in the bench-heating configuration of the Phaedrus-B central cell. m = -1 fields were selectively excited by a ''rotating-field'' antenna array at ω/Ω H = 0.8. The coupled wave energy propagates through a steep axial magnetic gradient into a region of strong ion-cyclotron resonance absorption which is located triangle z = 50cm from the antenna. Evidence of varied fast- and slow-wave eigenmode excitation and absorption, including variations in the radial profiles of waves magnetic field and plasma parameters, was observed during the scans. Optimal peak parameters in the plasma core, n e = 1.0 x 10 13 cm -3 , T eparallel = 20eV, T iparallel = 140eV, T iperpendicular = 450eV, and β = 0.2, were obtained for moderate helium or deuterium ion fractions (puffed n He /n e = n D /n e ∼ 0.25). These parameters exceed those obtained under the same conditions with ''pure'' hydrogen plasmas: n e = 7.0 x 10 12 cm -3 , T eparallel = 25eV, T iparallel = 80eV, T iperpendicular = 300eV, and β = 0.1. These variations are in agreement with those expected from antenna-eigenmode coupling considerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2002-07-01
The problem of heating in the plasma sources where the geometry of the magnetic field forms a magnetic mirror as it is the case of the Ecr sources type, for maintaining the reload, it continues being an actual important problem. There are two methods for the analysis of this problem. The first of these methods is the stochastic mechanism of a particle where it is considered the existence of three characteristic frequencies as the cyclotron frequency, the electromagnetic field frequency and the transit frequency. The second method is that related with the non linear interaction of waves where the collective effects of the particles are the most important. In this work, in the Hamiltonian formalism, the stochastic mechanism in the cyclotron heating is analysed. It is considered the particular case of a plasma source with an external magnetic field, type mirror where a TE{sub 11} electromagnetic wave is injected. The critical energy in the resonance mixing is calculated by the Poincare mapping method. The heterogeneity of the magnetic field is analysed. (Author)
Modification of boundary plasma behavior by Ion Bernstein Wave heating on the HT-7 tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Song, M.; Ling, B.L.; Li, C.F.; Li, J.
2003-01-01
The boundary plasma behavior during Ion Bernstein Wave heating was investigated using Langmuir probe arrays on the HT-7 tokamak. A distinct weak turbulence regime was reproducibly observed in the 30 MHz IBW heated plasmas with RF power larger than 120 kW, which resulted in a particle confinement improvement of a factor of 2. The strong suppression and decorrelation effect of fluctuations resulted in the turbulent particle flux dropping by more than an order of magnitude in the plasma boundary region. An additional inward radial electric field and associated poloidal ExB flows were produced, which could account for the additional poloidal velocity in the electron diamagnetic direction at some radial locations of the boundary plasma. The electrostatic fluctuations were nearly completely decorrelated in the high frequency region and only low frequency fluctuations remained. The poloidal correlation was considerably reduced in the high poloidal wave number region and only the fluctuations with long poloidal wavelength remained. Three-wave nonlinear phase coupling between the whole frequency domain and the very low frequency region increased significantly in both the plasma edge and the SOL. Quite low frequency fluctuations (about 5 kHz) were generated, which dominated the boundary turbulence during IBW heating. Detailed analyses suggested that, when an IBW with a frequency of 30 MHz was launched into a plasma with the toroidal magnetic field between 1.75 T and 2.0 T, the ion cyclotron resonant layer of 5/2.D was located in the plasma edge region. The poloidal ExB sheared flows generated by IBW near this layer due to a ponderomotive interaction were found to be the mechanism underlying these phenomena. (author)
Amylase for Apple Juice Processing: Effects of pH, Heat, and Ca2+ Ions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liliana N. Ceci
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of pH, heat, and Ca2+ ions on the α-amylase activities in a commercial amylolytic enzyme (Tyazyme L300, used for apple juice processing. Kinetics of thermal inactivation was studied in acetate and citrate/phosphate buffers at different temperatures (55–70 °C and enzyme concentrations (0.276 and 0.552 mL/100 mL. Maximum α-amylase activity was observed at pH=3.4 in both buffers. Effects of the addition of calcium chloride during and after thermal treatments were also investigated. α-amylase activities were measured by an iodometric method and thermal inactivation constants and D values (time for reducing 90 % of the enzymatic activity were estimated. The enzyme was more sensible to pH changes and heat when citrate ions were present in the reaction medium. If Ca2+ in the enzyme structure is bound to citrate then the resistance of the enzyme to pH changes and heat is lowered. Kinetics obtained according to Arrhenius equation and two enzymatic fractions (thermo-labile and thermoresistant were observed too. In citrate buffer the following relation was observed for thermo-labile fraction: log (D value = -0.144 t/°C + 12.992. The level of thermal inactivation also depended on the enzyme concentration. Higher thermal inactivation rates were obtained by increasing the enzyme concentration in the case when citrate was present. It was also found that the addition of calcium chloride (1 g/L after thermal treatment in median containing citrate reactivated the enzyme treated at 60 and 65 °C. The possible implications of these findings in apple juice processing were discussed.
ICRF [Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies] heating and antenna coupling in a high beta tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elet, R.S.
1988-01-01
Maxwell's Equations are solved in two-dimensions for the electromagnetic fields in a toroidal cavity using the cold plasma fluid dielectric tensor in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF). The Vector Wave Equation is transformed to a set of two, coupled second-order partial differential equations with inhomogeneous forcing functions which model a wave launcher. The resulting equations are finite differenced and solved numerically with a complex banded matrix algorithm on a Cray-2 computer using a code described in this report. This code is used to study power coupling characteristics of a wave launcher for low and high beta tokamaks. The low and high beta equilibrium tokamak magnetic fields applied in this model are determined from analytic solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation. The code shows good correspondence with the results of low field side ICRF heating experiments performed on the Tokamak of Fontenay-Aux-Roses (TFR). Low field side and high field side antenna coupling properties for ICRF heating in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT) experiment are calculated with this code. Variations of antenna position in the tokamak, ionic concentration and plasma density, and volume-averaged beta have been analyzed for HBT. It is found that the location of the antenna with respect to the plasma has the dominant role in the design of an ICRF heating experiment in HBT. 10 refs., 52 figs., 13 tabs
Neutron generator for BNCT based on high current ECR ion source with gyrotron plasma heating.
Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Golubev, S; Razin, S; Sidorov, A; Maslennikova, A; Volovecky, A; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O
2015-12-01
BNCT development nowadays is constrained by a progress in neutron sources design. Creation of a cheap and compact intense neutron source would significantly simplify trial treatments avoiding use of expensive and complicated nuclear reactors and accelerators. D-D or D-T neutron generator is one of alternative types of such sources for. A so-called high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source with plasma heating by millimeter wave gyrotron radiation is suggested to be used in a scheme of D-D neutron generator in the present work. Ion source of that type was developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). It can produce deuteron ion beams with current density up to 700-800 mA/cm(2). Generation of the neutron flux with density at the level of 7-8·10(10) s(-1) cm(-2) at the target surface could be obtained in case of TiD2 target bombardment with deuteron beam accelerated to 100 keV. Estimations show that it is enough for formation of epithermal neutron flux with density higher than 10(9) s(-1) cm(-2) suitable for BNCT. Important advantage of described approach is absence of Tritium in the scheme. First experiments performed in pulsed regime with 300 mA, 45 kV deuteron beam directed to D2O target demonstrated 10(9) s(-1) neutron flux. This value corresponds to theoretical estimations and proofs prospects of neutron generator development based on high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rapid heating evaporation of Pb(NO3)2. Evidence for heterogeneous ion-molecule reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radus, T.P.; Udseth, H.R.; Friedman, L.
1979-01-01
A mass spectrometric investigation of the lead nitrate system is reported in which the lead nitrate was evaporated from a probe filament that was heated as rapidly as 5000 0 C/s. Both electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) source techniques were used in this study. Fragment ions and decomposition products were observed under EI conditions. Under CI conditions solvated fragment ions and protonated solvated molecular ions were detected. Temperature measurements of rates of evaporation were made by monitoring the resistance of the probe filament as it was heated. Activation energies calculated by using these temperature coefficients of evaporation rates indicate that evaporations under CI conditions are assisted by heterogeneous ion-molecule reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao, Laifa; Cheng, Yujie; Lu, Chen; Su, Yuzhuan; Chong, Jin; Jin, Haizu; Lin, Yongshou; Noktehdan, Azadeh
2017-01-01
Highlights: •The model is linked to known physicochemical degradation processes and material properties. •Aging dynamics of various battery formulations can be understood by the proposed model. •Large number of experiments will be reduced to accelerate the battery design process. •This approach can describe batteries under various operating conditions. •The proposed model is simple and easily implemented. -- Abstract: A five-state nonhomogeneous Markov chain model, which is an effective and promising way to accelerate the Li-ion battery design process by investigating the capacity fading dynamics of different formulations during the battery design phase, is reported. The parameters of this model are linked to known physicochemical degradation dynamics and material properties. Herein, the states and behaviors of the active materials in Li-ion batteries are modelled. To verify the efficiency of the proposed model, a dataset from approximately 3 years of cycling capacity fading experiments of various formulations using several different materials provided by Contemporary Amperex Technology Limited (CATL), as well as a NASA dataset, are employed. The capabilities of the proposed model for different amounts (50%, 70%, and 90%) of available experimental capacity data are tested and analyzed to assist with the final design determination for manufacturers. The average relative errors of life cycling prediction acquired from these tests are less than 2.4%, 0.8%, and 0.3%, even when only 50%, 70%, and 90% of the data, respectively, is available for different anode materials, electrolyte materials, and individual batteries. Furthermore, the variance is 0.518% when only 50% of the data are available; i.e., one can save at least 50% of the total experimental time and cost with an accuracy greater than 97% in the design phase, which demonstrates an effective and promising way to accelerate the Li-ion battery design process. The qualitative and quantitative analyses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondrik, Nicholas; Gigax, Jonathan; Wang, Xuemei; Price, Lloyd [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Wei, Chaochen [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Shao, Lin, E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)
2014-08-01
We propose a method to characterize thermal properties of ion irradiated materials. This method uses an ion beam as a heating source to create a hot spot on sample surface. Infrared imaging is used as a surface temperature mapping tool to record hot zone spreading. Since ion energy, ion flux, and ion penetration depth can be precisely controlled, the beam heating data is highly reliable and repeatable. Using a high speed infrared camera to capture lateral spreading of the hot zone, thermal diffusivity can be readily extracted. The proposed method has advantages in studying radiation induced thermal property changes, for which radiation damage can be introduced by using an irradiating beam over a relatively large beam spot and beam heating can be introduced by using a focused testing beam over a relatively small beam spot. These two beams can be switched without breaking vacuum. Thus thermal conductivity changes can be characterized in situ with ion irradiation. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated on a single crystal quartz substrate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondrik, Nicholas; Gigax, Jonathan; Wang, Xuemei; Price, Lloyd; Wei, Chaochen; Shao, Lin
2014-01-01
We propose a method to characterize thermal properties of ion irradiated materials. This method uses an ion beam as a heating source to create a hot spot on sample surface. Infrared imaging is used as a surface temperature mapping tool to record hot zone spreading. Since ion energy, ion flux, and ion penetration depth can be precisely controlled, the beam heating data is highly reliable and repeatable. Using a high speed infrared camera to capture lateral spreading of the hot zone, thermal diffusivity can be readily extracted. The proposed method has advantages in studying radiation induced thermal property changes, for which radiation damage can be introduced by using an irradiating beam over a relatively large beam spot and beam heating can be introduced by using a focused testing beam over a relatively small beam spot. These two beams can be switched without breaking vacuum. Thus thermal conductivity changes can be characterized in situ with ion irradiation. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated on a single crystal quartz substrate
Preferential heating of oxygen 5{sup +} ions by finite-amplitude oblique Alfvén waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maneva, Yana G.; Poedts, Stefaan [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Viñas, Adolfo [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Greenbelt, 20771 MD (United States); Araneda, Jaime [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160 - C, Concepción (Chile)
2016-03-25
Minor ions in the fast solar wind are known to have higher temperatures and to flow faster than protons in the interplanetary space. In this study we combine previous research on parametric instability theory and 2.5D hybrid simulations to study the onset of preferential heating of Oxygen 5{sup +} ions by large-scale finite-amplitude Alfvén waves in the collisionless fast solar wind. We consider initially non-drifting isotropic multi-species plasma, consisting of isothermal massless fluid electrons, kinetic protons and kinetic Oxygen 5{sup +} ions. The external energy source for the plasma heating and energization are oblique monochromatic Alfvén-cyclotron waves. The waves have been created by rotating the direction of initial parallel pump, which is a solution of the multi-fluid plasma dispersion relation. We consider propagation angles θ ≤ 30°. The obliquely propagating Alfvén pump waves lead to strong diffusion in the ion phase space, resulting in highly anisotropic heavy ion velocity distribution functions and proton beams. We discuss the application of the model to the problems of preferential heating of minor ions in the solar corona and the fast solar wind.
Loges, André; Herberger, Sabrina; Seegert, Philipp; Wetzel, Thomas
2016-12-01
Thermal models of Li-ion cells on various geometrical scales and with various complexity have been developed in the past to account for the temperature dependent behaviour of Li-ion cells. These models require accurate data on thermal material properties to offer reliable validation and interpretation of the results. In this context a thorough study on the specific heat capacities of Li-ion cells starting from raw materials and electrode coatings to representative unit cells of jelly rolls/electrode stacks with lumped values was conducted. The specific heat capacity is reported as a function of temperature and state of charge (SOC). Seven Li-ion cells from different manufactures with different cell chemistry, application and design were considered and generally applicable correlations were developed. A 2D thermal model of an automotive Li-ion cell for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) application illustrates the influence of specific heat capacity on the effectivity of cooling concepts and the temperature development of Li-ion cells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Planeta, R.
1990-04-01
We discuss several problems of nuclear physics with heavy ions. Special attention is paid to close collisions, where impact parameters are considerably smaller than the corresponding grazing values. Such collisions can lead to a formation of a compound nucleus (fusion) or to two body exit channels with a sizable loss of kinetic energy and large transfer of mass and charge between interacting nuclei (damped collisions). A short survey of experimental works done with my participation and devoted to fusion reactions is presented. This is followed by presentation of new experimental results in the field of damped collisions. The data demonstrate that the N/Z equilibration and temperature equilibration are not rapid processes. A distinct correlation between the net nucleon transfer and the heating of the acceptor nucleus is observed. Experimental data are compared with the transport model. Disagreement between model and experiment is discussed. 113 refs. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh
2017-01-01
We demonstrate measurements of spectra of O-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) waves scattered collectively from microscopic plasma fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade discharges with an ITER-like ECRH scenario. The measured spectra are shown to allow determination of the main ion...... temperature and plasma rotation velocity. This demonstrates that ECRH systems can be exploited for diagnostic purposes alongside their primary heating purpose in a reactor relevant scenario....
Sepka, Steve; Vander Kam, Jeremy; McGuire, Kathy
2018-01-01
The Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) margin process uses a root-sum-square approach with branches addressing trajectory, aerothermodynamics, and material response uncertainties in ablator thickness design. The material response branch applies a bond line temperature reduction between the Avcoat ablator and EA9394 adhesive by 60 C (108 F) from its peak allowed value of 260 C (500 F). This process is known as the Bond Line Temperature Material Margin (BTMM) and is intended to cover material property and performance uncertainties. The value of 60 C (108 F) is a constant, applied at any spacecraft body location and for any trajectory. By varying only material properties in a random (monte carlo) manner, the perl-based script mcCHAR is used to investigate the confidence interval provided by the BTMM. In particular, this study will look at various locations on the Orion heat shield forebody for a guided and an abort (ballistic) trajectory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1980-07-01
The ion temperature of the turbulently heated TRIAM-1 plasma is obtained from the Doppler-broadening of visible lines. The radial profiles of the volume emission of visible lines are measured beforehand to examine whether the volume emissions are localized at a specified position of the minor cross-section of the plasma or not. The ion temperature of the specified position is determined from these profiles. The time behaviour of thus obtained Doppler ion temperature shows a good agreement with that of the one derived from the Neutral Energy Analyzer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammett, G.W.; Kaita, R.; Wilson, J.R.
1988-01-01
Ion cyclotron radiofrequency heating experiments were performed with a 3 He minority ion species in a 4 He majority plasma in the Princeton Large Torus. The energetic 3 He ion 'tail' was measured directly with a charge exchange neutral analyser for the first time. Comparisons with bounce averaged quasi-linear calculations suggest a modestly peaked radiofrequency power deposition profile. The double charge exchange process 3 He ++ + 4 He o -> 3 He o + 4 He ++ demonstrated in these measurements may be useful as part of an alpha particle diagnostic in a fusion reactor experiment. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hug, Alexander
2011-05-04
Knowledge of basic physical properties of matter in high-energy-density (HED) states such as the equation-of-state (EOS) is of fundamental importance for various branches of basic and applied physics. However, such matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure - also called ''warm dense matter'' (WDM) - can only be generated in dynamic experiments employing the most powerful drivers. At the high temperature experimental area HHT of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany), intense beams of energetic heavy ions are used for this purpose. The aim of this work is to study thermophysical properties of refractory metals in hot solid and liquid states by precise temperature measurements. In order to identify the melting plateau and to limit the maximum target temperature to the region of interest, relatively long (one microsecond) bunches of uranium and xenon ions have been used to heat initially solid samples. The intense ion beams were focused on a millimetre spot at the target in order to achieve uniform conditions. The temperature on the target surface was determined by analysing thermal radiation emitted from a 0.03 mm{sup 2} area at five different wavelengths. In order to obtain the physical temperature, one has to measure not only the thermal radiation but also the emissivity, ε(T,λ) of the target surface which is not known ab initio. For this purpose, a set-up for direct target reflection measurement was designed and embedded into the fast multichannel pyrometer system. The reflection signal provides the necessary information about modifications of the target surface properties during the interaction with the ion beam. Beside the pyrometric and reflection measurement set-ups, various hardware and software components of the data acquisition system for the heavy-ion beam driven experiments were substantially enhanced. The emissivity was also obtained by identifying the melting plateau and using the
Parzen, Emanuel
1962-01-01
Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine
Transmission line component testing for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System
Goulding, Richard; Bell, G. L.; Deibele, C. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.
2014-10-01
High power RF testing is underway to evaluate transmission line components for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System. The transmission line has a characteristic impedance Z0 = 50 Ω and a nominal outer diameter of 305 mm. It is specified to carry up to 6 MW at VSWR = 1.5 for 3600 s pulses, with transient voltages up to 40 kV. The transmission line is actively cooled, with turbulent gas flow (N2) used to transfer heat from the inner to outer conductor, which is water cooled. High voltage and high current testing of components has been performed using resonant lines generating steady state voltages of 35 kV and transient voltages up to 60 kV. A resonant ring, which has operated with circulating power of 6 MW for 1 hr pulses, is being used to test high power, low VSWR operation. Components tested to date include gas barriers, straight sections of various lengths, and 90 degree elbows. Designs tested include gas barriers fabricated from quartz and aluminum nitride, and transmission lines with quartz and alumina inner conductor supports. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
High heat flux (HHF) elements for negative ion systems on ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milnes, J.; Chuilon, B.; Xue, Y.; Martin, D.; Waldon, C.
2007-01-01
Negative Ion Neutral Beam systems on ITER will require actively cooled scrapers and dumps to process and shape the beam before injection into the tokamak. The scale of the systems is much larger than any presently operating, bringing challenges for designers in terms of available sub cooling, total pressure drop, deflection and mandatory remote maintenance. High heat fluxes (∼15-20 MW/m 2 ), pulse lengths in excess of 3000 s and high number of cycles pose new challenges in terms of stress and fatigue life. The designs outlined in the Design Description Document for the ITER Neutral Beam System [N53 DDD 29 01-07-03 R 0.1. ITER Design Description Document, DDD 5.3, Neutral Beam H and CD system (including Appendices).], based on swirl tubes, have been reviewed as part of the design process and recommendations made. Additionally, alternative designs have been proposed based on the Hypervapotron high heat flux elements with modified geometry and drawing upon a vast background knowledge of large scale equipment procurement and integration. A full thermo-mechanical analysis of all HHF components has also been undertaken based on ITER design criteria and the limited material data available. The advantages and disadvantages of all designs are presented and recommendations for improvements discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klauder, J.R.
1983-01-01
The author provides an introductory survey to stochastic quantization in which he outlines this new approach for scalar fields, gauge fields, fermion fields, and condensed matter problems such as electrons in solids and the statistical mechanics of quantum spins. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Yonghuang; Saw, Lip Huat; Shi, Yixiang; Tay, Andrew A.O.
2015-01-01
Thermal management is crucial for the operation of electric vehicles because lithium ion batteries are vulnerable to excessive heat generation during fast charging or other severe scenarios. In this work, an optimized heat pipe thermal management system (HPTMS) is proposed for fast charging lithium ion battery cell/pack. A numerical model is developed and comprehensively validated with experimental results. This model is then employed to investigate the thermal performance of the HPTMS under steady state and transient conditions. It is found that a cylinder vortex generator placed in front of the heat pipe condensers in the coolant stream improves the temperature uniformity. The uses of cooper heat spreaders and cooling fins greatly improve the performance of the thermal management system. Experiments and transient simulations of heat pipe thermal management system integrated with batteries prove that the improved HPTMS is capable for thermal management of batteries during fast charging. The air-cooled HPTMS is infeasible for thermal management of batteries during fast charging at the pack level due to the limitation of low specific heat capacity. - Highlights: • We develop a numerical model for optimizing a heat pipe thermal management system for fast charging batteries. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • A cylinder vortex generator is placed at the inlet of the cooling stream to improve the temperature uniformity. • We validate the effectiveness of the optimized system with integration of prismatic batteries
Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D.; Johnson, T. J.; Hellsten, T.; Ongena, J.; Mayoral, M. L.; Frigione, D.; Sozzi, C.; Calabro, G.; Lennholm, M.; Beaumont, P.; Blackman, T.; Brennan, D.; Brett, A.; Cecconello, M.; Coffey, I.; Coyne, A.; Crombe, K.; Czarnecka, A.; Felton, R.; Giroud, C.; Gorini, G.; Hellesen, C.; Jacquet, P.; Kiptily, V.; Knipe, S.; Krasilnikov, A.; Maslov, M.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Nocente, M.; Pangioni, L.; Proverbio, I.; Sergienko, G.; Stamp, M.; Studholme, W.; Tardocchi, M.; Vdovin, V.; Versloot, T.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Whitehurst, A.; Wooldridge, E.; Zoita, V.; JET-EFDA Contributors,
2012-01-01
Two ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating schemes proposed for the half-field operation phase of ITER in hydrogen plasmas—fundamental H majority and second harmonic 3 He ICRF heating—were recently investigated in JET. Although the same magnetic field and RF frequencies ( f ≈ 42 MHz and f
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitarai, O; Watanabe, T; Nakamura, Y; Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K; Kawai, Y; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1980-12-01
Density fluctuations in the frequency range of several MHz are observed in the turbulently heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma by means of a 4 mm microwave scattering method. It is found from the measurement of the dispersion relation that this instability is considered to be the low-frequency ion acoustic instability propagating nearly perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dieckmann, M E; Sarri, G; Kourakis, I; Borghesi, M; Bret, A; Perez Alvaro, E
2012-01-01
The growth and saturation of Buneman-type instabilities is examined with a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation for parameters that are representative for the foreshock region of fast supernova remnant shocks. A dense ion beam and the electrons correspond to the upstream plasma and a fast ion beam to the shock-reflected ions. The purpose of the 2D simulation is to identify the nonlinear saturation mechanisms, the electron heating and potential secondary instabilities that arise from anisotropic electron heating and result in the growth of magnetic fields. We confirm that the instabilities between both ion beams and the electrons saturate by the formation of phase space holes by the beam-aligned modes. The slower oblique modes accelerate some electrons, but they cannot heat up the electrons significantly before they are trapped by the faster beam-aligned modes. Two circular electron velocity distributions develop, which are centred around the velocity of each ion beam. They develop due to the scattering of the electrons by the electrostatic wave potentials. The growth of magnetic fields is observed, but their amplitude remains low. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, G.; Di Giugno, R.; Miracoli, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IBAM Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Lanaia, D.; Ciavola, G. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serafino, T. [CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Bartolo, F. [Universita di Messina, Ctr. da Papardo-Sperone, 98100 Messina (Italy); Gambino, N. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); IET-Institute of Energy Technology, LEC-Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)
2012-02-15
A microwave discharge ion source (MDIS) operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania has been used to compare the traditional electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating with an innovative mechanisms of plasma ignition based on the electrostatic Bernstein waves (EBW). EBW are obtained via the inner plasma electromagnetic-to-electrostatic wave conversion and they are absorbed by the plasma at cyclotron resonance harmonics. The heating of plasma by means of EBW at particular frequencies enabled us to reach densities much larger than the cutoff ones. Evidences of EBW generation and absorption together with X-ray emissions due to high energy electrons will be shown. A characterization of the discharge heating process in MDISs as a generalization of the ECR heating mechanism by means of ray tracing will be shown in order to highlight the fundamental physical differences between ECR and EBW heating.
Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) start-up antenna for the mirror fusion test facility (MFTF-B)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCarville, T.M.; Romesser, T.E.
1985-01-01
The purpose of the ICRH start-up antenna on MFTF-B is to heat the plasma and control the ion distribution as the density increases during start-up. The antenna, consisting of two center fed half turn loops phased 180 0 apart, has been designed for 1 MW of input power, with a goal of coupling 400 kW into the ions. To vary the heating frequency relative to the local ion cyclotron frequency, the antenna is tunable over a range from 7.5 to 12.5 MHz. The thermal requirements common to low duty cycle ICRH antennas are especially severe for the MFTF-B antenna. The stress requirements are also unique, deriving from the possibility of seismic activity or JxB forces if the magnets unexpectedly quench. Considerable attention has been paid to contact control at high current bolt-up joints, and arranging geometries so as to minimize the possibility of voltage breakdown
Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator.
Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki
2016-02-01
To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.
Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiratsuka, Junichi, E-mail: hiratsuka.junichi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Miyamoto, Kenji [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)
2016-02-15
To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.
Hellesen, C.; Mantsinen, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Eriksson, J.; Kiptily, V. G.; Nabais, F.; Contributors, JET
2018-05-01
ICRF heating at the fundamental cyclotron frequency of a hydrogen minority ion species also gives rise to a partial power absorption by deuterium ions at their second harmonic resonance. This paper studies the deuterium distributions resulting from such 2nd harmonic heating at JET using neutron emission spectroscopy data from the time of flight spectrometer TOFOR. The fast deuterium distributions are obtained over the energy range 100 keV to 2 MeV. Specifically, we study how the fast deuterium distributions vary as ICRF heating is used alone as well as in combination with NBI heating. When comparing the different heating scenarios, we observed both a difference in the shapes of the distributions as well as in their absolute level. The differences are most pronounced below 0.5 MeV. Comparisons are made with corresponding distributions calculated with the code PION. We find a good agreement between the measured distributions and those calculated with PION, both in terms of their shapes as well as their amplitudes. However, we also identified a period with signs of an inverted fast ion distribution, which showed large disagreements between the modeled and measured results. Resonant interactions with tornado modes, i.e. core localized toroidal alfven eigenmodes (TAEs), are put forward as a possible explanation for the inverted distribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosmej, O.N.; Blazevic, A.; Suslov, N.; Kunin, A.; Pinegin, A.; Schaefer, D.; Nisius, Th.; Zhao, Y.; Rinecker, T.; Wiechula, J.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The unique combination of a Petawatt High-Energy Laser System for Ion beam eXperiments - 'Phelix' (Nd:glass, 1053 nm, 300-500 J, 1-15 ns) and intense heavy ion beams of the UNILAC accelerator at GSI-Darmstadt allow creating and probing of hot plasma with a density of some percentage of solid-state density. The experimental program aims at the investigation of fundamental features of heavy ion stopping in ionized matter in view of promising applications for the Heavy Ion Fusion and astrophysics. For combined experiments on the interaction of heavy ion beams with ionized matter (GSI) a high density plasma target with homogeneous in time (∼ 5 ns) and space (∼ 1 mm) plasma parameters in required. For these purposes we are developing the combined target which consists on the Gold hohlraum (converter) and low Z foam target heated by the hohlraum radiation before probed by an ion bunch. Foam targets are rather promising due to the effective conversion of the deposited radiation energy into the internal plasma energy and slow hydrodynamic response on the heating. Direct irradiation of the Gold converter walls with a nanosecond pulse delivered by the PHELIX-laser system (GSI) leads to hohlraum radiation spectra in the photon energy range of 50-500 eV. Expected temperatures of the foam targets heated by this radiation amount to 20-30 eV at electron densities of 10 21 cm -3 . The results of the last hohlraum experiments carried out at PHELIX-laser energies of 200-250 J will be presented. In experiments the hohlraum radiation field, the conversion efficiency of the laser energy into soft X-rays, duration of the soft X-ray pulse, and parameters of the heated with X-rays foam targets have been measured. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by ISTC 2264 grant.
Dynamics of fast ions in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helander, P.
1994-01-01
Fast ions play a prominent role in the heating of tokamak plasmas by, e.g. neutral-beam injection, ion-cyclotron-resonance heating, and alpha-particle heating. In this thesis, a number of physical and mathematical problems concerning the dynamics of fast ions in tokamaks are addressed. First, the motion under adiabatic perturbations is studied. The frequencies of instabilities excited in tokamaks sometimes vary slowly with time. The existence of an adiabatic invariant of particle motion in such circumstances is shown to lead to a rapid convection of particles in the radial direction. Generalized adiabatic invariants are constructed for systems where the slowly varying parameter is subjected to small, but rapidly varying, fluctuations. Second, the onset of stochastic motion under resonant perturbations is considered. It is shown that the finite width of fast-ion drift orbits significantly affects the threshold for stochastic motion caused by magnetic field ripple or ion-cyclotron-resonance heating. Finite-orbit-width effects are also shown to reduce the strength of resonant interaction between alpha particles and internal kink modes. Third, the diffusive motion in the stochastic regime is analysed mathematically. Monte Carlo operators for the motion on long time-scales are constructed, and the validity of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient is examined. Finally, the effects of close ion collisions are investigated. It is demonstrated that close encounters with fast ions produce a high-energy tail in the distribution functions of impurity ions, and that close collisions between fusion-generated alpha particles give rise to a population of such particles with energies extending up to twice the birth energy. 44 refs
STOCHASTIC ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN STOCHASTIC ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
STOCHASTIC ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN WOOD FOR BRIDGE DECKS ... abandoned bridges with defects only in their decks in both rural and urban locations can be effectively .... which can be seen as the detection of rare physical.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bouhram
2003-08-01
Full Text Available The transport patterns of non-thermal H + and O + field-aligned flows from the dayside cusp/cleft, associated with transverse heating by means of wave-particle interactions and in combination with the poleward motion due to the magnetospheric convection are investigated. This has been accomplished by developing a steady-state, two-dimensional, trajectory-based code. The ion heating is modelled by means of a Monte Carlo technique, via the process of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, with the electromagnetic left-hand circular polarized component of a broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence. The altitude dependence of ICR heating from 1000 km to 3 Earth radii (RE is modelled by a power law spectrum, with an index a, and a parameter w0 that is proportional to the spectral density at a referenced gyrofrequency. Because of the finite latitudinal extent of the cusp/cleft, the incorporation of the horizontal convection drift leads to a maximum residence time tD of the ions when being energized. A large set of simulations has been computed so as to study the transport patterns of the H + and O + bulk parameters as a function of tD , a, and w0. Residence time effects are significant in O + density patterns while negligible for H +. When comparing the results with analytical one-dimensional theories (Chang et al., 1986; Crew et al., 1990, we find that mean ion energies and pitch angles at the poleward edge of the heating region are slightly influenced by tD and may be used as a probe of ICR parameters ( a, w0. Conversely, poleward of the heating region, upward velocity and mean energy dispersive patterns depend mainly on tD (e.g. the magnitude of the convection drift with latitudinal profiles varying versus tD . In short, the main conclusion of the paper is that any triplet (tD , a, w0 leads to a unique transport-pattern feature of ion flows associated with a cusp/cleft ionospheric source. In a companion paper, by using high-altitude (1.5–3 RE
High Heat flux (HHF) elements for Negative Ion Systems on ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milnes, J.; Chuilon, B.; Martin, D.; Waldon, Ch.; Yong Xue
2006-01-01
Negative Ion Neutral Beam systems on ITER will require actively cooled scrapers and dumps to process and shape the beam before injection into the tokamak. The scale of the systems is much larger than any presently operating, bringing challenges for designers in terms of available sub cooling, total pressure drop, deflection and mandatory remote maintenance. In common with Positive Ion systems, flux densities in the order of 15-20 MW/m 2 are commonplace but with much longer pulses. A pulse length in excess of 3000 seconds and the anticipated beam breakdown rate pose new challenges in terms of stress and fatigue life. The cooling system specification (up to 26 bar, 80 o C) adds further constraints impacting the material choice and operating temperature. The DDD designs, based on swirl tubes, have been reviewed as part of the design process and recommendations made. Additionally, alternative designs have been proposed based on the Hypervapotron high heat flux elements with modified geometry and drawing upon a vast background knowledge of large scale equipment procurement and integration. Existing operational and design experience has been applied to give a simple, robust and low maintenance alternative. A full thermomechanical analysis of all HHF components has been undertaken based on ITER design criteria and the limited material data available. The results of this analysis will be presented, highlighting areas where further R(and)D is necessary to reach the operating limits set out in the functional specification. Extensive comparison of these analyses is made with the large operational database of existing JET beamline components for benchmarking purposes. A particular feature of the thermo-mechanical analyses is a fully self-consistent description in which ageing characteristics are related to the local temperature, and the components' power loading takes into account the thermal distortion. The advantages and disadvantages of all designs will be presented and
Formation of core transport barrier and CH-Mode by ion Bernstein wave heating in PBX-M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, M.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Gettelfinger, G.; Hatcher, R.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.
1995-01-01
Observation of core transport barrier formation (for particles, ion and electron energies, and toroidal momentum) by ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) in PBX-M plasma is reported. The formation of a transport barrier leads to a strong peaking and significant increase of the core pressure (70%) and toroidal momentum (20%), and has been termed the core-high confinement mode (CH-Mode). This formation of a transport barrier is consistent, in terms of the expected barrier location as well as the required threshold power, with a theoretical model based on the poloidal sheared flow generation by the ion Bernstein wave power. The use of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) induced sheared flow as a tool to control plasma pressure and bootstrap current profiles shows a favorable scaling for the use in future reactor grade tokamak plasmas
The effect of heat on DNA degradation by the 1, 10-phenanthroline-cuprous ion complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagle, W.A.; Henle, K.J.; Willingham, W.M.; Sorenson, J.R.J.; McClellan, J.L.; Moss, A.J.
1987-01-01
The 1, 10-phenanthroline-cuprous ion complex (OP)/sub 2/Cu/sup +/ exhibits artificial DNase activity which closely parallels micrococcal nuclease. Using cell-free systems and in situ generated (OP)/sub 2/Cu/sup +/, other studies have shown a requirement for a reducing agent as well as O/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ to degrade DNA to acid-soluble fragments. The authors investigated the influence of hyperthermia on the degradation of V79 cell DNA using the (OP)/sub 2/Cu/sup +/-ascorbate system. The (OP)/sub 2/Cu/sup +/ complex was synthesized and characterized prior to cell treatment. Cells were prelabeled with /sup 3/H-TdR (control) or /sup 14/C-TdR (treated) and exposed 10 minutes at 45 0 C, followed by a 30 minute incubation with lμM (OP)/sub 2/Cu/sup +/ and 10μM as corbate in balanced salts solution. Cellular DNA was assayed using the alkaline elution technique. Heated cells incubated with lμM (OP)/sub 2/Cu/sup +/ or 10μM ascorbate exhibited a 300 rad equivalent increase in strand breaks over the unheated control. Incubation of cells with either lμM (OP)/sub 2/Cu/sup +/ or 10μM ascorbate alone did not induce strand breaks. These results suggests that heating initially increases the susceptibility of DNA to attack by the (OP)/sub 2/Cu/sup +/-ascorbate system
Experimental study of intrinsic stochasticity in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderegg, F.
1988-12-01
We present experimental results testing the application of the use of single particle hamiltonian theory to describe wave-particle interactions in a magnetized plasma. This work has been performed in a magnetized column of argon and barium. Neutralized ion Bernstein waves and electrostatic ion cyclotron waves are excited by external antenna and are obliquely propagating. Laser induced fluorescence and optical tagging are used to measure directly the ion distribution function and to track the ion motion. The linear ion response to electrostatic waves creates a perturbation of the ion distribution function. This perturbation is directly measured by the laser induced fluorescence technique allowing a direct measurement of the wave electric field, with the resonable assumption that the Vlasov theory is applicable. The nonlinear ion response to electrostatic waves, which occurs if the wave amplitude exceeds a threshold, is observed through a broadening of the ion distribution function and a fast diffusion in p z and in azimutal direction. Many predictions of the single particle theory are observed in the experiment. We have reported the first observation of a stochastic ion heating in a plasma. The threshold, the final form of the distribution function and the time scale are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover the existence of three constants of motion has been experimentally observed. Although many observations of particles nonlinear response agree with the nonselfconsistent theory, we have observed evidence for selfconsistent effects. The wavelength and the coupling of the excited wave change when the particles response is stochastic. One would have expected that the linear wave could be destructed by the particle chaotic motion nevertheless linear waves still exist in the plasma when particles follow chaotic trajectories. (author) 65 figs., 13 tabs., 77 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Grisolia, C.; Hutter, T.; Mayaux, G.; Martin, G.; Saoutic, B.; Vartanian, S.
1995-01-01
Direct losses of ions trapped in the toroidal field ripple of Tore Supra using two techniques were made. The first (DRIPPLE I) correlates the ion loss current measured by an electric probe with the ion loss power measured by a calorimeter. As the calorimeter integrates over all particle energies and time, it yields only the averaged lost ion energy. The second technique (DRIPPLE II), still under development, is a Faraday cup positioned and filtered so as to select ions by their Larmor radius. The currents measured are small (1-100 nA), and improvements in instrumentation are needed to take full advantage of the data, but the preliminary results are still useful. During ICRH (hydrogen minority regime, resonance on axis) a direct correlation between the lost ion mean energy and the density of hydrogen was seen. The energy increased when the hydrogen minority density decreased. Moreover, the line averaged density and the lower hybrid heating (LH) had also an effect on fast ion losses. (authors). 3 refs., 7 figs
Chang, Mou-Hsiung
2015-01-01
The classical probability theory initiated by Kolmogorov and its quantum counterpart, pioneered by von Neumann, were created at about the same time in the 1930s, but development of the quantum theory has trailed far behind. Although highly appealing, the quantum theory has a steep learning curve, requiring tools from both probability and analysis and a facility for combining the two viewpoints. This book is a systematic, self-contained account of the core of quantum probability and quantum stochastic processes for graduate students and researchers. The only assumed background is knowledge of the basic theory of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, and classical Markov processes. From there, the book introduces additional tools from analysis, and then builds the quantum probability framework needed to support applications to quantum control and quantum information and communication. These include quantum noise, quantum stochastic calculus, stochastic quantum differential equations, quantum Markov semigrou...
Entropy Production in Stochastics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Demetris Koutsoyiannis
2017-10-01
Full Text Available While the modern definition of entropy is genuinely probabilistic, in entropy production the classical thermodynamic definition, as in heat transfer, is typically used. Here we explore the concept of entropy production within stochastics and, particularly, two forms of entropy production in logarithmic time, unconditionally (EPLT or conditionally on the past and present having been observed (CEPLT. We study the theoretical properties of both forms, in general and in application to a broad set of stochastic processes. A main question investigated, related to model identification and fitting from data, is how to estimate the entropy production from a time series. It turns out that there is a link of the EPLT with the climacogram, and of the CEPLT with two additional tools introduced here, namely the differenced climacogram and the climacospectrum. In particular, EPLT and CEPLT are related to slopes of log-log plots of these tools, with the asymptotic slopes at the tails being most important as they justify the emergence of scaling laws of second-order characteristics of stochastic processes. As a real-world application, we use an extraordinary long time series of turbulent velocity and show how a parsimonious stochastic model can be identified and fitted using the tools developed.
The wire array Z-pinch: an efficient x-ray source for ICF and a new ion heating mechanism
Haines, M. G.
2008-10-01
The Z-pinch provides an efficient x-ray source for driving a hohlraum for inertial confinement fusion. The basic physics of wire-array implosions is reviewed. It can be understood in several sequential stages. Firstly, the wires heat and form a surrounding vapour which ionizes, causing the current to transfer to this lower resistance. The J×B global force leads to ejection of this plasma towards the axis to form a precursor plasma. The wire cores continue to ablate due to the heat flux from the Joule-heated nearby plasma. The cooling of this plasma by the wire-cores leads to a low magnetic Reynolds number so that the precursor plasma carries little or no current. When gaps appear in the liquid/vapour cores the plasma temperature and Reynolds number rise and this plasma accelerates in towards the axis carrying the current. This is the main implosion, and it sweeps up earlier ablated plasma, which acts to reduce Rayleigh-Taylor growth. At stagnation, the ion kinetic energy is thermalized and equipartition heats the electrons, which then radiate in a 5 ns pulse. In some conditions the energy radiated by soft x-rays exceeds the ion kinetic energy by a factor of 3 or 4. A theory has been developed to explain this in which fine-scale, fast growing m= 0 MHD instabilities grow to saturation, viscous dissipation of which leads to ion heating, followed by equipartition. World record ion temperatures of 2-3 billion Kelvin were predicted, and measured at Sandia National Laboratory. Lastly, progress in capsule implosions and in application to inertial fusion energy is reported.
Impurity behavior during ion-Bernstein wave heating in PBX-M
Isler, R. C.; Post-Zwicker, A. P.; Paul, S. F.; Tighe, W.; Ono, M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Bell, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Kaita, R.
1994-07-01
Ion-Bernstein-wave heating (IBWH) has been tested in several tokamaks. In some cases the results have been quite positive, producing temperature increases and also improving both energy and particle confinement times, whereas in others, no distinctive changes were observed. Most recently, IBWH has been utilized in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified (PBX-M) where the long-range goal is the achievement of operation in the second stable region by current and pressure profile control. Investigations have been performed in this machine using IBWH as the sole source of auxiliary power or using IBWH in conjunction with neutral-beam injection (NBI) or with lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD). Impurity studies seem particularly important for IBWH since not only have influxes often been observed to increase, but the global impurity confinement time has also been shown to lengthen as the confinement of the working gas improved. The authors present here a set of characteristic experimental results regarding the impurity behavior in PBX-M; in general, these are consonant with previous observations in other tokamaks.
Ion cyclotron resonance heating systems upgrade toward high power and CW operations in WEST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hillairet, Julien, E-mail: julien.hillairet@cea.fr; Mollard, Patrick; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Argouarch, Arnaud; Berger-By, Gilles; Charabot, Nicolas; Colas, Laurent; Delaplanche, Jean-Marc; Ekedahl, Annika; Fedorczak, Nicolas; Ferlay, Fabien; Goniche, Marc; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Helou, Walid; Jacquot, Jonathan; Joffrin, Emmanuel; Litaudon, Xavier; Lombard, Gilles; Magne, Roland; Patterlini, Jean-Claude [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others
2015-12-10
The design of the WEST (Tungsten-W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) Ion cyclotron resonance heating antennas is based on a previously tested conjugate-T Resonant Double Loops prototype equipped with internal vacuum matching capacitors. The design and construction of three new WEST ICRH antennas are being carried out in close collaboration with ASIPP, within the framework of the Associated Laboratory in the fusion field between IRFM and ASIPP. The coupling performance to the plasma and the load-tolerance have been improved, while adding Continuous Wave operation capability by introducing water cooling in the entire antenna. On the generator side, the operation class of the high power tetrodes is changed from AB to B in order to allow high power operation (up to 3 MW per antenna) under higher VSWR (up to 2:1). Reliability of the generators is also improved by increasing the cavity breakdown voltage. The control and data acquisition system is also upgraded in order to resolve and react on fast events, such as ELMs. A new optical arc detection system comes in reinforcement of the V{sub r}/V{sub f} and SHAD systems.
Science Court on ICRH [ion cyclotron resonance heating] modeling of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hively, L.M.; Sadowski, W.L.
1987-10-01
The Applied Plasma Physics (APP) Theory program in the Office of Fusion Energy is charged with supporting the development of advanced physics models for fusion research. One such effort is ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), which has seen substantial progress recently. However, due to serious questions about the adequacy of present models for CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak), a Science Court was formed to assess ICRH models, including: validity of theoretical and computational approximations; underlying physics assumptions and corresponding limits on the results; self-consistency; any subsidiary issues needing resolution (e.g., new computer tools); adequacy of the models in simulating experiments (especially CIT); and new or improved experiments to validate and refine the models. The Court did not review work by specific individuals, institutions, or programs, thereby avoiding any biases along these lines. Rather, the Science Court was carefully structured as a technical review of ICRH theory and modeling in the US. This paper discusses the Science Court process, findings, and conclusions
Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating 2 X 1700 loop antenna for the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brooksby, C.A.; Ferguson, S.W.; Molvik, A.W.; Barter, J.
1986-01-01
This paper reviews the mechanical design and improvements that have taken place on the loop type ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas that are located in the center cell region of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). A computer code (JASON) was used to design getter-shielded antenna supports that will hold off very high voltages (83 kV, DC) over a small insulator distance (2.25 inches) in a vacuum of 10/sup -5/ Torr. The authors also added corona shields on the ceramic-to-metal joints of the matching network capacitors. The system now operates reliably with peak radio frequency (RF) voltages of 40 kV at 2-to-4- MHz frequency and power levels up to 200 kW. The authors have just installed a new loop antenna in the east part of the central cell where the slot antenna was located. This antenna uses two of the slot's internal coax lines and the external matching network. The feedthroughs designed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were replaced with two high-voltage RF feedthroughs designed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
Fast wave absorption at the Alfven resonance during ion cyclotron resonance heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heikkinen, J.A.; Hellsten, T.; Alava, M.J.
1991-01-01
For ICRH scenarii where the majority cyclotron resonance intersects the plasma core, mode conversion of the fast magnetosonic wave to an Alfven wave takes place at the plasma boundary on the high field side. Simple analytical estimates of the converted power for this mode conversion process are derived and compared with numerical calculations including finite electron inertia and kinetic effects. The converted power is found to depend on the local value of the wave field as well as on plasma parameters at the Alfven wave resonance. The interference with the reflected wave will therefore modify the mode conversion. If the conversion layer is localized near the wall, the conversion will be strongly reduced. The conversion coefficient is found to be strongest for small density gradients and high density and it is sensitive to the value of the parallel wave number. Whether it increases or decreases with the latter depends on the ion composition. Analysis of this problem for ICRH in JET predicts that a large fraction of the power is mode converted at the plasma boundary for first harmonic heating of tritium in a deuterium-tritium plasma. (author). 13 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Start, D F.H. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Righi, E [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom); Warrick, C [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom)
1994-07-01
A model is presented that can simulate the {gamma} emissivity in the poloidal cross-section during ({sup 3}He)D ICRF heated discharges in JET plasmas, by merging information obtained from the fast ion distribution and from nuclear reactions producing the observed {gamma} emissivity (production of {gamma} photons during {sup 3}He-{sup 9}Be reactions). This technique can play an important role in the identification of plasma instabilities that affect the redistribution of the fast ions in the plasma, like the TAE modes and the ripple in the tokamak magnetic field. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shibata, T., E-mail: shibat@post.j-parc.jp; Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Naito, F. [J-PARC Center, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Nishida, K.; Mochizuki, S.; Hatayama, A. [Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2016-02-15
A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30–120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.
The role of RF in ion heating on the H-1 heliac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miljak, D.G.; Borg, G.G.
1999-01-01
In H-1 heliac, all power (total 80kW) is coupled to the plasma by a pair of saddle coil antennas positioned at the top and bottom of the plasma. Each antenna is made of unshielded solid copper bar of 12.5mm diameter, with approximate loop dimension of 400mm x 200mm. The antennas make direct contact with the plasma near the last closed flux surface, or under certain circumstances, define a scrape off layer themselves. One side of each antenna is connected directly to machine earth, thus precluding the possibility of DC self biasing. The antenna voltage can therefore swing very positive with respect to the plasma potential. Typical measurements reveal an antenna RF peak voltage of 6-7kV (DC voltage is zero) and an antenna sheath current of 20-30A peak. Since the bulk (RF and DC) plasma potential near the edge downstream from the antenna are measured to be near zero potential, a transition must occur between high positive antenna voltages and the low bulk potential. The results show that if the scale length for an evanescent transition is of the order of a few centimetres then ion heating effects may occur for the antenna voltages and conditions found on H-1 heliac. In this analysis, collisions are ignored in the sheath region and particles are assumed to be unmagnetized. The model is one dimensional, with the energized electrode constituting a wall at x = 0. Any particles reaching the electrode are assumed to be fully absorbed, with no secondary emission occurring. The major conceptual component of the model is the existence of a layer separated a distance x = s max from the antenna in the bulk plasma where the electrode voltage is screened completely from the plasma. At this layer a 1-D Maxwellian ion (or electron) distribution f B , stationary in time, is directed towards the electrode. A functional form for the electric field E(x,t) is imposed non-self consistently throughout the sheath between x = 0 and x = s max
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.
1982-03-01
Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng, Fanyan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hou, Zhaohui, E-mail: zhqh96@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); He, Binhong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Ge, Chongyong; Cao, Jianguo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Kuang, Yafei, E-mail: yafeik@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)
2012-08-15
Highlights: ► Mesoporous carbons possess unique nanosheet-like pore walls which can be changed by heat treatment. ► Lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons could be influenced by the nanosheet-like walls. ► Mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties LIBs. -- Abstract: Mesoporous carbons (MCs) with nanosheet-like walls have been prepared as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries by a simple one-step infiltrating method under the action of capillary flow. The influence of heat treatment temperature on the surface topography, pore/phase structure and anode performances of as-prepared materials has been investigated. The results reveal that melted liquid-crystal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be anchored on liquid/silica interfaces by molecule engineering. After carbonization, the nanosheets are formed as the pore walls of MCs and are perpendicular to the long axis of pores. The anode properties demonstrate that C-1200 displays higher reversible capacitance than those treated in higher temperature. The rate performances of C-1200 and C-1800 are similar and more excellent than that of C-2400. These improved lithium ion anode properties could be attributed to the nanosheet-like walls of MCs which can be influenced by the heat treatment temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bertelli Nicola
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A critical question for the use of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF heating in the ITER device and beyond is interaction of fast waves with energetic ion populations from neutral beam injection (NBI, fusion reactions, and minority ions accelerated by the RF waves themselves. Several experiments have demonstrated that the interaction between fast waves and fast ions can indeed be strong enough to significantly modify the NB ion population. To model the RF/fast ion interaction and the resulting fast ion distribution, a recent extension of the full wave solver TORIC v.5 that includes non-Maxwellian effects has been combined with the Monte Carlo NUBEAM code through an RF “kick” operator. In this work, we present an initial verification of the NUBEAM RF “kick” operator for high harmonic fast wave (HHFW heating regime in NSTX plasma.
Crisan, Dan
2011-01-01
"Stochastic Analysis" aims to provide mathematical tools to describe and model high dimensional random systems. Such tools arise in the study of Stochastic Differential Equations and Stochastic Partial Differential Equations, Infinite Dimensional Stochastic Geometry, Random Media and Interacting Particle Systems, Super-processes, Stochastic Filtering, Mathematical Finance, etc. Stochastic Analysis has emerged as a core area of late 20th century Mathematics and is currently undergoing a rapid scientific development. The special volume "Stochastic Analysis 2010" provides a sa
Borodin, Andrei N
2017-01-01
This book provides a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the theory of stochastic processes. A significant part of the book is devoted to the classic theory of stochastic processes. In turn, it also presents proofs of well-known results, sometimes together with new approaches. Moreover, the book explores topics not previously covered elsewhere, such as distributions of functionals of diffusions stopped at different random times, the Brownian local time, diffusions with jumps, and an invariance principle for random walks and local times. Supported by carefully selected material, the book showcases a wealth of examples that demonstrate how to solve concrete problems by applying theoretical results. It addresses a broad range of applications, focusing on concrete computational techniques rather than on abstract theory. The content presented here is largely self-contained, making it suitable for researchers and graduate students alike.
Stochastic processes in mechanical engineering
Brouwers, J.J.H.
2006-01-01
Stochastic or random vibrations occur in a variety of applications of mechanicalengineering. Examples are: the dynamics of a vehicle on an irregular roadsurface; the variation in time of thermodynamic variables in municipal wasteincinerators due to fluctuations in heating value of the waste; the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; Zhang, Yuwen
2017-01-01
Highlights: • 3D transient thermal analysis of a pouch Li-ion cell has been carried out. • Using pin fin heat sink improves the temperature reduction at low pumping powers. • Using pin fin heat sink enhances the temperature uniformity at low air flow rates. • Porous aluminum foam insertion with pin fins improves temperature reduction. • Porous aluminum foam insertion with pin fins enhances temperature uniformity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled module was carried out to investigate cumulative effects of using pin fin heat sink and porous metal foam on thermal management of a Li-ion (lithium-ion) battery pack. Five different cases were designed as Case 1: flow channel without any pin fin or porous metal foam insertion, Case 2: flow channel with aluminum pin fins, Case 3: flow channel with porous aluminum foam pin fins, Case 4: fully inserted flow channel with porous aluminum foam, and Case 5: fully inserted flow channel with porous aluminum foam and aluminum pin fins. The effects of porous aluminum insertions, pin fin types, air flow inlet temperature, and air flow inlet velocity on the temperature uniformity and maximum temperature inside the battery pack were systematically investigated. The results showed that using pin fin heat sink (Case 2) is appropriate only for low air flow velocities. In addition, the use of porous aluminum pin fins or embedding porous aluminum foam inside the air flow channel (Cases 3 and 4) are not beneficial for thermal management improvement. The combination of aluminum pin fins and porous aluminum foam insertion inside the air flow channel (Case 5) is a proper option that improves both temperature reduction and temperature uniformity inside the battery cell.
Ida, K; Funaba, H; Kado, S; Narihara, K; Tanaka, K; Takeiri, Y; Nakamura, Y; Ohyabu, N; Yamazaki, K; Yokoyama, M; Murakami, S; Ashikawa, N; deVries, P C; Emoto, M; Goto, M; Idei, H; Ikeda, K; Inagaki, S; Inoue, N; Isobe, M; Itoh, K; Kaneko, O; Kawahata, K; Khlopenkov, K; Komori, A; Kubo, S; Kumazawa, R; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Miyazawa, J; Morisaki, T; Morita, S; Mutoh, T; Muto, S; Nagayama, Y; Nakanishi, H; Nishimura, K; Noda, N; Notake, T; Kobuchi, T; Ohdachi, S; Ohkubo, K; Oka, Y; Osakabe, M; Ozaki, T; Pavlichenko, R O; Peterson, B J; Sagara, A; Saito, K; Sakakibara, S; Sakamoto, R; Sanuki, H; Sasao, H; Sasao, M; Sato, K; Sato, M; Seki, T; Shimozuma, T; Shoji, M; Suzuki, H; Sudo, S; Tamura, N; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Torii, Y; Tsumori, K; Yamamoto, T; Yamada, H; Yamada, I; Yamaguchi, S; Yamamoto, S; Yoshimura, Y; Watanabe, K Y; Watari, T; Hamada, Y; Motojima, O; Fujiwara, M
2001-06-04
Recent large helical device experiments revealed that the transition from ion root to electron root occurred for the first time in neutral-beam-heated discharges, where no nonthermal electrons exist. The measured values of the radial electric field were found to be in qualitative agreement with those estimated by neoclassical theory. A clear reduction of ion thermal diffusivity was observed after the mode transition from ion root to electron root as predicted by neoclassical theory when the neoclassical ion loss is more dominant than the anomalous ion loss.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bouhram
Full Text Available The transport patterns of non-thermal H + and O + field-aligned flows from the dayside cusp/cleft, associated with transverse heating by means of wave-particle interactions and in combination with the poleward motion due to the magnetospheric convection are investigated. This has been accomplished by developing a steady-state, two-dimensional, trajectory-based code. The ion heating is modelled by means of a Monte Carlo technique, via the process of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, with the electromagnetic left-hand circular polarized component of a broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence. The altitude dependence of ICR heating from 1000 km to 3 Earth radii (R_{E} is modelled by a power law spectrum, with an index a, and a parameter w_{0} that is proportional to the spectral density at a referenced gyrofrequency. Because of the finite latitudinal extent of the cusp/cleft, the incorporation of the horizontal convection drift leads to a maximum residence time t_{D} of the ions when being energized. A large set of simulations has been computed so as to study the transport patterns of the H + and O + bulk parameters as a function of t_{D} , a, and w_{0}. Residence time effects are significant in O + density patterns while negligible for H +. When comparing the results with analytical one-dimensional theories (Chang et al., 1986; Crew et al., 1990, we find that mean ion energies and pitch angles at the poleward edge of the heating region are slightly influenced by t_{D} and may be used as a probe of ICR parameters ( a, w_{0}. Conversely, poleward of the heating region, upward velocity and mean energy dispersive patterns depend mainly on t_{D} (e.g. the magnitude of the convection drift with latitudinal profiles varying versus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Crombé, K.; Jachmich, S. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Euratom-Belgian State, TEC Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Jacquet, P.; Graham, M.; Kiptily, V.; Matthews, G.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Mc Cormick, K.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Rimini, F.; Solano, E. R. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V.; Maggi, C.; Neu, R.; Pütterich, T. [MPI für Plasmaphysik Euratom Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Czarnecka, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Coenen, J. W. [IEK-4, EURATOM-FZJ, TEC Partner, Jülich (Germany); and others
2014-02-12
The most recent JET campaign has focused on characterizing operation with the 'ITER-like' wall. One of the questions that needed to be answered is whether the auxiliary heating methods do not lead to unacceptably high levels of impurity influx, preventing fusion-relevant operation. In view of its high single pass absorption, hydrogen minority fundamental cyclotron heating in a deuterium plasma was chosen as the reference wave heating scheme in the ion cyclotron domain of frequencies. The present paper discusses the plasma behavior as a function of the minority concentration X[H] in L-mode with up to 4MW of RF power. It was found that the tungsten concentration decreases by a factor of 4 when the minority concentration is increased from X[H] ≈ 5% to X[H] % 20% and that it remains at a similar level when X[H] is further increased to 30%; a monotonic decrease in Beryllium emission is simultaneously observed. The radiated power drops by a factor of 2 and reaches a minimum at X[H] ≈ 20%. It is discussed that poor single pass absorption at too high minority concentrations ultimately tailors the avoidance of the RF induced impurity influx. The edge density being different for different minority concentrations, it is argued that the impact ICRH has on the fate of heavy ions is not only a result of core (wave and transport) physics but also of edge dynamics and fueling.
Temperature fluctuation and heat capacity in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Ma, Guo Liang; Chen Jin Gen; He Ze-Jun; Long Jia-Li; Lu Zhao-Hui; Ma Yu-Gang; Sá Ben-Hao; Shen Wen-Qing; Wang Kun; Wei Yi-Bin; Zhang Hu-Yong; Zhong Chen
2004-01-01
We used LUCIAE3.0 model to simulate the Pb+Pb and C+C in SPS energy. The heat capacity was then extracted from event-by-event temperature fluctuation. It is found that the heat capacity per hadron multiplicity decreases with the increasing of beam energy and impact parameter for a given reaction system. While the hadron mass increases, the heat capacity per hadron multiplicity rises. In addition, we found that, for a given hadron, the heat capacity per hadron multiplicity is almost the same regardless of the reaction system. Some discussions were also given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colombino, A.; Mosiello, R.; Norelli, F.; Jorio, V.M.; Pacilio, N.
1975-01-01
A nuclear system kinetics is formulated according to a stochastic approach. The detailed probability balance equations are written for the probability of finding the mixed population of neutrons and detected neutrons, i.e. detectrons, at a given level for a given instant of time. Equations are integrated in search of a probability profile: a series of cases is analyzed through a progressive criterium. It tends to take into account an increasing number of physical processes within the chosen model. The most important contribution is that solutions interpret analytically experimental conditions of equilibrium (moise analysis) and non equilibrium (pulsed neutron measurements, source drop technique, start up procedures)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romanu Ekaterini
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This article shows the similarities between Claude Debussy’s and Iannis Xenakis’ philosophy of music and work, in particular the formers Jeux and the latter’s Metastasis and the stochastic works succeeding it, which seem to proceed parallel (with no personal contact to what is perceived as the evolution of 20th century Western music. Those two composers observed the dominant (German tradition as outsiders, and negated some of its elements considered as constant or natural by "traditional" innovators (i.e. serialists: the linearity of musical texture, its form and rhythm.
Recent progress of high-power negative ion beam development for fusion plasma heating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Aoyagi, Tetsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; and others
1997-03-01
A negative-ion-based neutral beam injector (N-NBI) has been constructed for JT-60U. The N-NBI is designed to inject 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beams using two ion sources, each producing a 500 keV, 22 A D{sup -} ion beam. Beam acceleration test started in July, 1995 using one ion source. In the preliminary experiment, D{sup -} ion beam of 13.5 A has been successfully accelerated with an energy of 400 keV (5.4 MW) for 0.12 s at an operating pressure of 0.22 Pa. This is the highest D{sup -} beam current and power in the world. Co-extracted electron current was effectively suppressed to the ratio of Ie/I{sub D}- <1. The highest energy beam of 460 keV, 2.4 A, 0.44 s has also been obtained. Neutral beam injection starts in March, 1996 using two ion sources. To realize 1 MeV class NBI system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), demonstration of ampere class negative ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV is an important mile stone. To achieve the mile stone, a high energy test facility called MeV Test Facility (MTF) was constructed. The system consists of a 1 MV, 1 A acceleration power supply and a 100 kW power supply system for negative ion production. Up to now, an H{sup -} ion beam was accelerated up to the energy of 805 keV with an acceleration drain current of 150 mA for 1 s in a five stage electrostatic multi-aperture accelerator. (author)
Borodin, Oleg
2009-09-10
A number of correlations between heat of vaporization (H(vap)), cation-anion binding energy (E(+/-)), molar volume (V(m)), self-diffusion coefficient (D), and ionic conductivity for 29 ionic liquids have been investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that employed accurate and validated many-body polarizable force fields. A significant correlation between D and H(vap) has been found, while the best correlation was found for -log(DV(m)) vs H(vap) + 0.28E(+/-). A combination of enthalpy of vaporization and a fraction of the cation-anion binding energy was suggested as a measure of the effective cohesive energy for ionic liquids. A deviation of some ILs from the reported master curve is explained based upon ion packing and proposed diffusion pathways. No general correlations were found between the ion diffusion coefficient and molecular volume or the diffusion coefficient and cation/anion binding energy.
Analysis and Modeling of Heat Generation in Overcharged Li-Ion Battery with Passive Cooling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian
2013-01-01
This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat generation in Lithium batteries and an investigation of the heat transfer as well as the capacity of Phase Change Materials (PCM’s) to store energy inside a battery cell module when the battery is overcharged. The study is performed...... by coupling a one-dimensional model of the electrochemical processes with a two-dimensional model for the heat transfer in a cross section of a battery pack. The heat generation and subsequent temperature rise is analyzed for different charging currents for the two cases where the cell is air......-cooled and passively cooled using a PCM, respectively. As expected, the results show that for high currents, the heat generation and implicitly the temperature increases. However, using a PCM the temperature increase is found to be limited allowing the battery to be overcharged to a certain degree. It is found...
Anomalous electron heating and energy balance in an ion beam generated plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guethlein, G.
1987-04-01
The plasma described in this report is generated by a 15 to 34 kV ion beam, consisting primarily of protons, passing through an H/sub 2/ gas cell neutralizer. Plasma ions (or ion-electron pairs) are produced by electron capture from (or ionization of) gas molecules by beam ions and atoms. An explanation is provided for the observed anomalous behavior of the electron temperature (T/sub e/): a step-lite, nearly two-fold jump in T/sub e/ as the beam current approaches that which minimizes beam angular divergence; insensitivity of T/sub e/ to gas pressure; and the linear relation of T/sub e/ to beam energy.
Analysis and Modeling of Heat Generation in Overcharged Li-Ion Battery with Passive Cooling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian
2013-01-01
This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat generation in Lithium batteries and an investigation of the heat transfer as well as the capacity of Phase Change Materials (PCM’s) to store energy inside a battery cell module when the battery is overcharged. The study is performed......-cooled and passively cooled using a PCM, respectively. As expected, the results show that for high currents, the heat generation and implicitly the temperature increases. However, using a PCM the temperature increase is found to be limited allowing the battery to be overcharged to a certain degree. It is found...
Results of measurements of the ion temperature profile of ECR heated plasmas in the L-2M stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voronov, G.S.; Voronova, E.V.; Grebenshchikov, S.E.
2005-01-01
After boronization of the vacuum chamber of the L-2M stellarator, the confinement characteristics and the electron temperature profile changed markedly. In this connection, our immediate task was to carry out studies of the behavior of the ion temperature under these conditions. Previous measurements of Ti were performed by analyzing the energy distribution of fast hydrogen ions produced by charge exchange. In recent studies, the ion temperature was determined from Doppler broadening of spectral lines of impurity ions. With the help of a set of mirrors, the plasma radiation was focused on the entrance slit of a VMS-1 monochromator (D/F=1:6.5, F=600 mm, 1200 lines/mm,1.3 nm/mm, 200 - 800 nm). The detector was a CCD plate (1040 1 140 pixels of size 16 1 6 ∝ m) covered in part with an opaque screen. The plasma spectrum produced in the uncovered area was rapidly scanned and copied into the covered region. With this partial exposition method, the rate of recording was successfully increased up to 1000 frames per second. The instrument function of the whole system was 0.04 nm, which corresponds to Ti ∼1 eV for hydrogen and ∼17 eV for boron ions. The plasma ion temperature is considerably higher, so the accuracy of measurements of Ti is limited primarily by a low intensity of signals from the plasma with a low impurity concentration. The results of measurements of the evolution of HeII, BII, and BIV ions temperature during the ECR heating of a helium plasma are shown in the figure. The plasma density in these experiments was ∼2.10 19 m -3 , and the gyrotron pulse power was ∼200 kW. The results of measurements of Ti were compared with the time evolution of the ion temperature calculated by using the TRANSZ code. The latter includes a complete set of neoclassical equations and involves additional anomalous fluxes corresponding to accepted empirical scalings. The calculated values of Ti are in fair agreement with the measured ones
Lanchier, Nicolas
2017-01-01
Three coherent parts form the material covered in this text, portions of which have not been widely covered in traditional textbooks. In this coverage the reader is quickly introduced to several different topics enriched with 175 exercises which focus on real-world problems. Exercises range from the classics of probability theory to more exotic research-oriented problems based on numerical simulations. Intended for graduate students in mathematics and applied sciences, the text provides the tools and training needed to write and use programs for research purposes. The first part of the text begins with a brief review of measure theory and revisits the main concepts of probability theory, from random variables to the standard limit theorems. The second part covers traditional material on stochastic processes, including martingales, discrete-time Markov chains, Poisson processes, and continuous-time Markov chains. The theory developed is illustrated by a variety of examples surrounding applications such as the ...
Martínez, M.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.; Jiménez-Rey, D.; Tribaldos, V.
2018-02-01
Numerous observation exist of a population of high energetic ions with energies well above the corresponding thermal values in plasmas generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating in TJ-II stellarator and in other magnetically confined plasmas devices. In this work we study the impact of ECR heating different conditions (positions and powers) on fast ions escaping from plasmas in the TJ-II stellarator. For this study, an ion luminescent probe operated in counting mode is used to measure the energy distribution of suprathermal ions, in the range from 1 to 30 keV. It is observed that some suprathermal ions characteristics (such as temperature, particle and energy fluxes) are related directly with the gyrotron power and focus position of the heating beam in the plasma. Moreover, it is found that suprathermal ion characteristics vary during a magnetic configuration scan (performed along a single discharge). By investigating the suprathermal ions escaping from plasmas generated using two gyrotrons, one with fixed power and the other modulated (on/off) at low frequency (10 Hz), the de-confinement time of the suprathermal ions can be measured, which is of the order of a few milliseconds (power balance is used to understand the de-confinement times in terms of the interaction of suprathermal ions and plasma components. This model also can be used to interpret experimental results of energy loss due to suprathermal ions. Finally, observations of increases (peaks) in the population of escaping suprathermal ions, which are well localized at discrete energies, is documented, these peaks being observed in the energy distributions along a discharge.
Dynamics of a reconnection-driven runaway ion tail in a reversed field pinch plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, J. K., E-mail: jkanders@wisc.edu; Kim, J.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Sears, S. H. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2016-05-15
While reconnection-driven ion heating is common in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, the underlying mechanisms for converting magnetic to kinetic energy remain not fully understood. Reversed field pinch discharges are often characterized by rapid ion heating during impulsive reconnection, generating an ion distribution with an enhanced bulk temperature, mainly perpendicular to magnetic field. In the Madison Symmetric Torus, a subset of discharges with the strongest reconnection events develop a very anisotropic, high energy tail parallel to magnetic field in addition to bulk perpendicular heating, which produces a fusion neutron flux orders of magnitude higher than that expected from a Maxwellian distribution. Here, we demonstrate that two factors in addition to a perpendicular bulk heating mechanism must be considered to explain this distribution. First, ion runaway can occur in the strong parallel-to-B electric field induced by a rapid equilibrium change triggered by reconnection-based relaxation; this effect is particularly strong on perpendicularly heated ions which experience a reduced frictional drag relative to bulk ions. Second, the confinement of ions varies dramatically as a function of velocity. Whereas thermal ions are governed by stochastic diffusion along tearing-altered field lines (and radial diffusion increases with parallel speed), sufficiently energetic ions are well confined, only weakly affected by a stochastic magnetic field. High energy ions traveling mainly in the direction of toroidal plasma current are nearly classically confined, while counter-propagating ions experience an intermediate confinement, greater than that of thermal ions but significantly less than classical expectations. The details of ion confinement tend to reinforce the asymmetric drive of the parallel electric field, resulting in a very asymmetric, anisotropic distribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winske, D.; Giacalone, J.; Thomsen, M.F.; Mellott, M.M.
1987-01-01
Plasma heating due to the ion instability and the modified two-stream instability is examined for quasi-perpendicular subcritical shocks. Electron and ion heating is investigated as a function of upstream electron to ion temperature ratio and plasma beta using second-order heating rates. A simple shock model is employed in which the cross-field electron-ion drift speed is adjusted until the total (adiabatic plus anomalous) heating matches that required by the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. Quantities such as the width of the shock and the maximum electric field fluctuations are also calculated, and the results are compared with the ISEE data set of subcritical box shock crossings. The observed width of the shock, the amount of plasma heating, and the low-frequency electric field intensity are in reasonably good agreement with the calculations for the modified two-stream instability. On the other hand, the wave intensities at higher frequency are about 4 orders of magnitude smaller than those predicted for the ion acoustic instability at saturation, consistent with the fact that the measured shock widths imply cross-field drift speeds that are below threshold for this instability. It is therefore concluded that the dissipation at these shocks is most likely due to the lower frequency, modified two-stream instability
Schmidtmayr, M.; Hughes, J. W.; Ryter, F.; Wolfrum, E.; Cao, N.; Creely, A. J.; Howard, N.; Hubbard, A. E.; Lin, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J. E.; Tolman, E. A.; Wukitch, S.; Ma, Y.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Alcator C-Mod Team
2018-05-01
This paper presents investigations on the role of the edge ion heat flux for transitions from L-mode to H-mode in Alcator C-Mod. Previous results from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak indicated that a critical value of edge ion heat flux per particle is needed for the transition. Analysis of C-Mod data confirms this result. The edge ion heat flux is indeed found to increase linearly with density at given magnetic field and plasma current. Furthermore, the Alcator C-Mod data indicate that the edge ion heat flux at the L-H transition also increases with magnetic field. Combining the data from Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade yields a general expression for the edge ion heat flux at the L-H transition. These results are discussed from the point of view of the possible physics mechanism of the L-H transition. They are also compared to the L-H power threshold scaling and an extrapolation for ITER is given.
Ion heating up to 1 MeV range with higher harmonic ICRF wave on JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemoto, M.; Kusama, Y.; Hamamatsu, K.; Kimura, H.; Fujii, T.; Moriyama, S.; Saigusa, M.; Afanassiev, V.I.
1997-01-01
The properties of protons under accleration by an ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves with the second to fourth hydrogen harmonics have been investigated in the JT-60U tokamak at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Protons have been accelerated up to 1 MeV in the presence of an ICRF wave of fixed frequency, neutral beams (NB), and a fixed toroidal magnetic field which is scanned through several plasma discharges. The tail temperature of the protons, which is evaluated in the range 0.32-0.86 MeV, has been observed to increase in the second to third harmonics, however increase of the tail temperature in the third to fourth harmonics has not been observed clearly. Furthermore, the dependence of tail temperature on the harmonic number has been found to be in qualitative agreement with results from a simulation code analysis based upon the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation coupled with the kinetic wave equation. Experimental values for the stored energy of the accelerated ions have shown, however, that the response of stored energy to changes in absorbed ICRF power is much stronger than the response to changes in harmonic number. Also, the incremental energy confinement times for heating discharges matching the third and fourth harmonics (3 ω CH) and 4 ω CH) of hydrogen have been observed to be less than half that for those matching the second harmonic. It has been found that suppression of the absorbed ICRF power accompanied with the occurence of cavity resonance in the 3ω CH and 4ω CH heating discharges reduces the stored energy of the accelerated ions and the incremental energy confinement time. (Author)
The influence of multiple ion species on Alfven wave dispersion and Alfven wave plasma heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elfimov, A.G.; Tataronis, J.A.; Hershkowitz, N.
1994-01-01
In this paper, the effects of light impurities, such as deuterium, helium, or carbon, on Alfven wave dispersion characteristics are explored. It is shown that a small population of light impurities in a hydrogen plasma modify the dispersion of the global Alfven waves and the Alfven continuum in such a way that the wave frequency depends weakly on the toroidal wave number. It is also shown that the global Alfven wave enters into the Alfven continuum. Under these conditions, it is possible to heat plasma efficiently by employing an antenna with a broad toroidal wavelength spectrum. The relationship between impurity concentration and the efficiency of Alfven wave heating is explored. Under appropriate conditions, the results indicate that in the presence of impurities, Alfven waves can heat electrons predominantly in the central part of the plasma. This effect is explored via a series of numerical calculations of the heating specifically for the Phaedrus-T Alfven wave heating experiment [Phys. Fluids B 5, 2506 (1993)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this paper, the stochastic flow of mappings generated by a Feller convolution semigroup on a compact metric space is studied. This kind of flow is the generalization of superprocesses of stochastic flows and stochastic diffeomorphism induced by the strong solutions of stochastic differential equations.
Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking
Liu, Shu-Jun
2012-01-01
Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering and analysis of bacterial convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, J.J.; Qian, Y.H.; Niu, D.; Zhang, M.M.; Liu, Z.M.; Li, M.S.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Cr 2 AlC coating was prepared by arc ion plating combined with post annealing. ► The coating deposited by arc ion plating without heating was amorphous. ► Amorphous coating transformed to crystalline Cr 2 AlC after annealing at 620 °C in Ar. - Abstract: Due to the excellent oxidation and hot corrosion resistance and matched thermal expansion coefficient to normal alloys, Cr 2 AlC has potential applications as high-temperature protective coating. In the present work, the preparation of Cr 2 AlC coating has been achieved through cathodic arc deposition method combined with heat post-treatment. It was found that the coating, deposited from Cr 2 AlC compound target in the unintentional heating condition, was amorphous. After annealing at 620 °C in Ar for 20 h, the amorphous Cr–Al–C coating happened to crystallize and transformed to crystalline Cr 2 AlC as the major phase. It is obvious that the formation temperature of Cr 2 AlC was decreased from about 1050 °C for sintered bulk to around 620 °C for the as-deposited coating, resulting from the homogeneous mixture of the Cr, Al and C at atomic level in the Cr–Al–C coating. Apart from crystalline Cr 2 AlC, the annealed coating also contained AlCr 2 and little Cr 7 C 3 . AlCr 2 formed due to the loss of C during deposition, and little Cr 7 C 3 always existed in the sintered Cr 2 AlC compound target as impurity phase.
Beam Energy Scan of Specific Heat Through Temperature Fluctuations in Heavy Ion Collisions
Basu, Sumit; Nandi, Basanta K.; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rupa; Nayak, Tapan
2016-01-01
Temperature fluctuations may have two distinct origins, first, quantum fluctuations that are initial state fluctuations, and second, thermodynamical fluctuations. We discuss a method of extracting the thermodynamic temperature from the mean transverse momentum of pions, by using controllable parameters such as centrality of the system, and range of the transverse momenta. Event-by-event fluctuations in global temperature over a large phase space provide the specific heat of the system. We present Beam Energy Scan of specific heat from data, AMPT and HRG model prediction. Experimental results from NA49, STAR, PHENIX, PHOBOS and ALICE are combined to obtain the specific heat as a function of beam energy. These results are compared to calculations from AMPT event generator, HRG model and lattice calculations, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mello, C.B.; Ueda, M.; Lepienski, C.M.; Reuther, H.
2009-01-01
In order to achieve quite thick treated layers with reasonable thickness uniformity in SS304 steel, the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process was run in high-temperature, up to 350 deg. C, to induce high thermal diffusion but avoid the white layer formation. In these experiments, we heated the sample-holder with a shielded resistive wire properly wound around it and subjected the SS samples to nitrogen glow discharge PIII with relatively low voltages (10 kV) in different temperatures. We also treated the SS samples by the traditional PIII method, slowly increasing the high voltage pulse intensities, until 14 kV at the end of processing, reaching temperatures of up to 350 deg. C. These modes of treatments were compared with respect to nitrogen implantation profiles, X-ray diffraction, tribology and mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction results indicated a much higher efficiency of auxiliary heated PIII mode compared to the ordinary PIII. Very prominent γ N peaks were observed for the first mode, indicating large concentration of nitrogen in thick layers, confirmed by the nitrogen profiles measured by GDOS and AES. Improved mechanical and tribological properties were obtained for SS304 samples treated by the PIII with auxiliary heating, more than for ordinary PIII. Hardness was enhanced by up to 2.77 times, as seen by nanoindentation tests.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Lammer
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A method for thermal ramp experiments on cylindrical 18650 Li-ion cells has been established. The method was applied on pristine cells as well as on devices aged by cyclisation or by storage at elevated temperature respectively. The tested cells comprise three types of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cells for either high power or high energy applications. The heat flux to and from the cell was investigated. Degradation and exothermic breakdown released large amounts of heat and gas. The total gas and heat emission from cycled cells was significantly larger than emission from cells aged by storage. After aging, the low energy cell ICR18650HE4 did not transgress into thermal runaway. Gas composition changed mainly in the early stage of the experiment. The composition of the initial gas release changed from predominantly CO2 towards hydrocarbons. The thermal runaway emitted for all tests a comparable mixture of H2, CO and CO2.
Alfvén wave heating of heavy ions in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid simulations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Velli, M.; Trávníček, Pavel; Gary, S. P.; Goldstein, B. E.; Liewer, P. C.
2005-01-01
Roč. 110, - (2005), A12109/1-A12109/11 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Alfvén waves * solar wind heating * microinstabilities Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.784, year: 2005
FISIC - a full-wave code to model ion cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruecken, T.
1988-08-01
We present a user manual for the FISIC code which solves the integrodifferential wave equation in the finite Larmor radius approximation in fully toroidal geometry to simulate ICRF heating experiments. The code models the electromagnetic wave field as well as antenna coupling and power deposition profiles in axisymmetric plasmas. (orig.)
Theoretical and experimental study of modes associated to ion cyclotron heating on TFR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pignol, L.
1985-05-01
In this work, the ion cyclotron wave evolution is followed thanks to a coherent scattering device using carbon dioxide laser radiation. A theoretical part presents the dispersion equation that obey the waves excited in the plasma by antenna emitting ion cyclotron frequency. Then measurements given by the diagnostic are given. Fast and slow waves evidenced theoretically, are experimentally observed. Two simple theoretical models allow to extract physical quantities characteristics of the two modes. These two modes are followed along the radial coordinate of the tore and their behavior through the hybrid curve is studied. measured spectra shape is shown to confirm the described numerical code validity. Time study of the slow wave shows of internal relaxation phenomenon of plasma [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laeuter, R.
1976-05-01
Experiments on the HF heating of a plasma in a cylindrical arrangement with pump frequencies ω 0 in the ion cyclotron harmonics nωsub(ci) are described. A magnetized plasma of relativily high density (approximately 10 14 cm -3 ) is generated in a pinch-like source with pulsated gas inlet, and said plasma then expands along diverging magnetic-field lines in a quasi-static homogeneous guide field B 0 = 330 G. This results in a practically fully ionized, low-impurity and more or less homogeneous plasma column of a diameter of approximately 20 cm at a variable density between 5 x 10 11 and 5 x 10 12 cm -3 and at electron temperatures of 5 to 8 eV. A standing magneto-hydrodynamic wave is excited in this plasma by means of a 1.8 m Stix coil which is part of the anode resonant circuit of a pulsated 1 MHz 500-kW transmitter. The axial wavelength is lambdasub(z) = 45 cm, the pulse duration amounts to tau = 200 μs. The degree of modulation B tilde/B 0 of the quasi-static magnetic field by the HF field is adjustable and ranges between 0.015 and 0.06. The heating at 2ωsub(ci) and 4ωsub(ci) is investigated within this study. Efficiency measurements show that a very effective energy transfer to the plasma occurs with both frequencies. Ion temperatures between 70 and 100 eV are ascertained by means of a retarding-potential spectrometer. For plasma heating, similar turbulent mechanisms seem to be responsible in both cases whereas the linear wave-particle resonance at 2ωsub(ci) seems to be of subordinated importance. The theoretically assumed parametric decay into ion-Bernstein waves, which should be possible at 4 ωsub(ci), is not observed. Measurements with compensated magnetic loops and electrostatic probes make a disturbance of the radial plasma confinement obvious, by which an anormally high pulse frequency might be explained. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Tao; Tseng, K.J.; Zhao, Jiyun
2015-01-01
Thermal modeling is the key issue in thermal management of lithium-ion battery system, and cooling strategies need to be carefully investigated to guarantee the temperature of batteries in operation within a narrow optimal range as well as provide cost effective and energy saving solutions for cooling system. This article reviews and summarizes the past cooling methods especially forced air cooling and introduces an empirical heat source model which can be widely applied in the battery module/pack thermal modeling. In the development of empirical heat source model, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is employed, and thermal insulation experiments are conducted to provide the key parameters. A transient thermal model of 5 × 5 battery module with forced air cooling is then developed based on the empirical heat source model. Thermal behaviors of battery module under different air cooling conditions, discharge rates and ambient temperatures are characterized and summarized. Varies cooling strategies are simulated and compared in order to obtain an optimal cooling method. Besides, the battery fault conditions are predicted from transient simulation scenarios. The temperature distributions and variations during discharge process are quantitatively described, and it is found that the upper limit of ambient temperature for forced air cooling is 35 °C, and when ambient temperature is lower than 20 °C, forced air-cooling is not necessary. - Highlights: • An empirical heat source model is developed for battery thermal modeling. • Different air-cooling strategies on module thermal characteristics are investigated. • Impact of different discharge rates on module thermal responses are investigated. • Impact of ambient temperatures on module thermal behaviors are investigated. • Locations of maximum temperatures under different operation conditions are studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ch.Ram Reddy
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the heat and mass transfer characteristics on mixed convective fully developed flow in an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid between vertical parallel plates. The chemical reaction, heat generation, Hall and ion-slip effects are taken into consideration. By using similarity transformations the nonlinear governing equations are reduced into dimensionless form and hence solved using Adomian decomposition method (ADM. The influence of magnetic parameter, Hall parameter, ion-slip parameter, chemical reaction parameter, and heat generation/absorption parameter on non-dimensional velocities, temperature and concentration profiles are exhibited graphically. In addition, the numerical data for skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates are shown in tabular form.
1-D Van der Waals Foams Heated by Ion Beam Energy Deposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zylstra, A.B.; Barnard, J.J.; More, R.M.
2009-01-01
One dimensional simulations of various initial average density aluminum foams (modeled as slabs of solid metal separated by low density regions) heated by volumetric energy deposition are conducted with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code using a van der Waals equation of tate (EOS). The resulting behavior is studied to facilitate the design of future warm dense matter (WDM) experiments at LBNL. In the simulations the energy deposition ranges from 10 to 30 kJ/g and from 0.075 to 4.0 ns total pulse length, resulting in temperatures from approximately 1 o 4 eV. We study peak pressures and temperatures in the foams, expansion velocity, and the phase evolution. Five relevant time scales in the problem are identified. Additionally, we present a method for characterizing the level of inhomogeneity in a foam target as it is heated and the time it takes for a foam to homogenize.
A study of the ion species dependence of [chi][sub e] by heat pulse propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giannone, L.; Mertens, V; Wagner, F [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kraemer-Flecken, A; Waidmann, G [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Riedel, K [New York Univ., NY (United States). Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences
1991-01-01
An investigation of the isotope dependence of [chi][sub e] on Asdex revealed that the values of [chi][sub e] in hydrogen and deuterium were the same within the limits of experimental accuracy. This study in hydrogen, deuterium and helium has been continued on Textor. The 11 channel ECE diagnostic measures the temperature perturbations generated by sawtooth crashes in an ohmically heated plasma. Averaging over the one second flat top phase improves the signal to noise ratio to the extent that differences in the radial profile of [chi][sub e] are able to be inferred. Even though the values of [chi][sub e] found in each of the three gases are greater than the values calculated from power balance, the basic relationship between the energy confinement time and the value of [chi][sub e] deduced by heat pulse propagation can still be explored. (author) 7 refs. 4 figs.
A study of the ion species dependence of χe by heat pulse propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannone, L.; Mertens, V.; Wagner, F.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Waidmann, G.; Riedel, K.
1991-01-01
An investigation of the isotope dependence of χ ε on ASDEX revealed that the values of χ ε in hydrogen and deuterium were the same within the limits of experimental accuracy. This study in hydrogen, deuterium and helium has been continued on TEXTOR. The 11 channel ECE diagnostic measures the temperature perturbations generated by sawtooth crashes in an ohmically heated plasma. Averaging over the one second flat top phase improves the signal to noise ratio to the extent that differences in the radial profile of χ ε are able to be inferred. Even though the values of χ ε found in each of the three gases are greater than the values calculated from power balance, the basic relationship between the energy confinement time and the value of χ ε deduced by heat pulse propagation can still be explored. (orig.)
A study of the ion species dependence of χe by heat pulse propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannone, L.; Mertens, V.; Wagner, F.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Waidmann, G.; Riedel, K.
1991-01-01
An investigation of the isotope dependence of χ e on Asdex revealed that the values of χ e in hydrogen and deuterium were the same within the limits of experimental accuracy. This study in hydrogen, deuterium and helium has been continued on Textor. The 11 channel ECE diagnostic measures the temperature perturbations generated by sawtooth crashes in an ohmically heated plasma. Averaging over the one second flat top phase improves the signal to noise ratio to the extent that differences in the radial profile of χ e are able to be inferred. Even though the values of χ e found in each of the three gases are greater than the values calculated from power balance, the basic relationship between the energy confinement time and the value of χ e deduced by heat pulse propagation can still be explored. (author) 7 refs. 4 figs
Ion orbit modelling of ELM heat loads on ITER divertor vertical targets.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gunn, J. P.; Carpentier-Chouchana, S.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Escourbiac, F.; Hirai, T.; Komm, Michael; Kukushkin, A.; Panayotis, S.; Pitts, R.A.
2017-01-01
Roč. 12, August (2017), s. 75-83 ISSN 2352-1791. [International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions 2016, PSI2016 /22./. Roma, 30.05.2016-03.06.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ITER * Divertor * ELM heat loads Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352179116302745
Ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating in JET during initial operations with the ITER-like wall
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jacquet, P.; Bobkov, V.; Colas, L.; Czarnecka, A.; Lerche, E.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Monakhov, I.; Van-Eester, D.; Arnoux, G.; Brezinsek, S.; Brix, M.; Campergue, A.-L.; Devaux, S.; Drewelow, P.; Graham, M.; Klepper, C.C.; Meigs, A.; Milanesio, D.; Mlynář, Jan; Pütterich, T.; Sirinelli, A.
2014-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 6 (2014), 061510-061510 ISSN 1070-664X. [Topical conference on radio frequency power in plasmas/20./. Sorrento, 25.06.2013-28.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : JET * ITER-like wall * ICRF heating * impurities * sawtooth * simulation * transport Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/21/6/10.1063/1.4884354
RF plasma production and heating below ion-cyclotron frequencies in Uragan torsatrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moiseenko, V.E.; Berezhnyj, V.L.; Bondarenko, V.N.; Burchenko, P.Ya.; Chechkin, V.V.; Chernyshenko, V.Ya.; Dreval, M.B.; Garkusha, I.E.; Glazunov, G.P.; Grigor'eva, L.I.; Konovalov, V.G.; Kotsubanov, V.D.; Kramskoi, Ye.D.; Kulaga, A.E.; Lozin, A.V.; Castejon, F.; Hidalgo, C.; Hartmann, D.; Koch, R.; Lyssoivan, A.I.
2011-01-01
In the IPP-Kharkiv there are two torsatrons (stellarators) in operation, and in both of them Alfven resonance heating under high-k || conditions is used. This method of heating is advantageous for small-size devices, since in contrast to the minority and second-harmonic heating it can be realized at lower plasma densities. A series of experiments has been performed at the Uragan-3M torsatron with an aim to investigate the features of the discharge with a three-half-turn antenna. Electron temperatures in the T-bar = 0.2-0.5 keV range are achieved at plasma densities n-bar e approx. (0.5-1.5) x 10 13 cm -3 . The plasma energy content has increased by a factor of 2 with respect to the plasma produced with the frame antenna. A new four-strap shielded antenna has been manufactured and installed in the Uragan-2M. A high-frequency discharge for wall conditioning is introduced in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The discharge is sustained by a specially designed small frame antenna, and efficient hydrogen dissociation is achieved. A self-consistent model has been developed for simulation of plasma production in ICRF. The model includes a set of particle and energy-balance equations for the electrons, and the boundary problem for the Maxwell equations. The first calculation results on RF plasma production in the Uragan-2M stellarator with the frame-type antenna are presented.
Role of Ca ions in the induction of heat-resistance of wheat coleoptiles by brassinosteroids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. E. Kolupaev
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The involvement of Ca2+ into the signal transduction of exogenous brassinosteroids (BS (24-epibrassinolide – 24-EBL and 24-epicastasterone – 24 ECS causing the increase of heat resistance of the cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. coleoptiles was investigated using calcium chelator EGTA and inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C – neomycin. Twenty-four-hour treatment of coleoptile segments with 10 nM solutions of 24-EBL and 24-ECS led to a transient increase in the generation of superoxide anion radical by cell surface and the subsequent activation of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Pretreatment of coleoptiles with EGTA and neomycin depressed to a considerable extent these effects and leveled the increase in heat resistance of wheat coleoptiles that were caused by BS. Possible mechanisms of involvement of calcium signaling into the formation of reactive oxygen species in plant cells and induction of heat resistance of plant cells by the action of exogenous BS have been discussed.
The rate of plasma heating by harmonic ion cyclotron waves in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moslehi-Fard, M.; Sobhanian, S.; Solati-Kia, F.
2002-01-01
In tokamaks, the toroidal magnetic field, B φ , is due to the current in coils around plasma, and the poloidal magnetic field B p results from the plasma itself. Usually B φ p , and the combination of these two fields forms a nested set of toroidal magnetic surfaces. The equilibrium Grad-Shafranov equation is investigated and it is shown that the particle products of fusion with different pitch angles on these surfaces have different orbital shapes. In the JET tokamak, the α particles with pitch angle θ smaller than 54.8 deg are passing, those with θ between 54.8 deg and 65.1 deg have trapping-passing orbits but for θ greater than 65.1 deg the orbit has a banana form. Other tokamaks such as Alcator and ITER are also considered. The passing, trapping-passing and banana orbits in these tokamaks are traced. The results obtained from this calculation are analyzed. The wave damping has been investigated produced from interaction with particles, particularly α particles, and the rate of heating for l = 1 to 8 harmonics is plotted. The results of calculation show that heating at the fourth harmonic reaches a maximum. For higher harmonics, the heating does not change much from the fourth harmonic. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasahara, H.; Seki, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Saito, K.; Mutoh, T.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Yamada, I.; Tokuzawa, T.; Ohdachi, S.; Morita, S.; Nomura, G.; Shimpo, F.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.; Oosako, T.; Takase, Y.
2008-01-01
A wave detector, a newly designed magnetic probe, is installed in the large helical device (LHD). This wave detector is a 100-turn loop coil with electrostatic shield. Comparing a one-loop coil to this detector, this detector has roughly constant power coupling in the lower frequency range of 40 MHz, and it can easily detect magnetic wave in the frequency of a few megahertz. During high-harmonic fast wave heating, lower frequency waves (<10 MHz) were observed in the LHD for the first time, and for the power density threshold of lower frequency wave excitation (7.5 MHz) the power density of excited pumped wave (38.47 MHz) was approximately -46 dBm/Hz. These lower frequencies are kept constant for electron density and high energy particle distribution, and these lower frequency waves seem to be ion cyclotron waves caused by nonlinear wave-particle interaction, for example, parametric decay instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skuratov, V.A. [FLNR, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, Dubna (Russian Federation); Sohatsky, A.S.; Kornieieva, K. [FLNR, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); O' Connell, J.H.; Neethling, J.H. [CHRTEM, NMMU, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Nikitina, A.A.; Ageev, V.S. [JSC VNIINM, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zdorovets, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Volkov, A.D. [Nazarbayev University, Astana (Kazakhstan)
2016-12-15
Aim of this report is to compare the morphology of swift (167 and 220 MeV) Xe ion induced latent tracks in Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles during post-irradiation heat treatment and after irradiation at different temperatures in pre-thinned TEM foils and TEM targets prepared from hundreds microns thick irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel. No difference in track parameters was found in room temperature irradiated nanoparticles in pre-thinned and conventional samples. Microstructural data gathered from pre-thinned foils irradiated in the temperature range 350-650 C or annealed at similar temperatures demonstrate that amorphous latent tracks interact with the surrounding matrix, changing the track and nanoparticle morphology, while such effect is not observed in conventional ODS material treated at the same conditions. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wellens, Thomas; Shatokhin, Vyacheslav; Buchleitner, Andreas
2004-01-01
We are taught by conventional wisdom that the transmission and detection of signals is hindered by noise. However, during the last two decades, the paradigm of stochastic resonance (SR) proved this assertion wrong: indeed, addition of the appropriate amount of noise can boost a signal and hence facilitate its detection in a noisy environment. Due to its simplicity and robustness, SR has been implemented by mother nature on almost every scale, thus attracting interdisciplinary interest from physicists, geologists, engineers, biologists and medical doctors, who nowadays use it as an instrument for their specific purposes. At the present time, there exist a lot of diversified models of SR. Taking into account the progress achieved in both theoretical understanding and practical application of this phenomenon, we put the focus of the present review not on discussing in depth technical details of different models and approaches but rather on presenting a general and clear physical picture of SR on a pedagogical level. Particular emphasis will be given to the implementation of SR in generic quantum systems-an issue that has received limited attention in earlier review papers on the topic. The major part of our presentation relies on the two-state model of SR (or on simple variants thereof), which is general enough to exhibit the main features of SR and, in fact, covers many (if not most) of the examples of SR published so far. In order to highlight the diversity of the two-state model, we shall discuss several examples from such different fields as condensed matter, nonlinear and quantum optics and biophysics. Finally, we also discuss some situations that go beyond the generic SR scenario but are still characterized by a constructive role of noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Putra, Nandy; Ariantara, Bambang; Pamungkas, Rangga Aji
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) is studied in the thermal management system for electric vehicle. • Distilled water, alcohol, and acetone on thermal performances of FPLHP were tested. • The FPLHP can start up at fairly low heat load. • Temperature overshoot phenomena were observed during the start-up period. - Abstract: The development of electric vehicle batteries has resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, this growth is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which can cause serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal management for their lightweight and compact size, and they do not require external power supply. This study examined experimentally a flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger in the thermal management system of the lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol, and acetone were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone gave the best performance that produces a thermal resistance of 0.22 W/°C with 50 °C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61 W/cm"2.
Solving Langevin equation with the stochastic algebraically correlated noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ploszajczak, M.; Srokowski, T.
1996-01-01
Long time tail in the velocity and force autocorrelation function has been found recently in the molecular dynamics simulations of the peripheral collisions of ions. Simulation of those slowly decaying correlations in the stochastic transport theory requires the development of new methods of generating stochastic force of arbitrarily long correlation times. The Markovian process and the multidimensional Kangaroo process which permit describing various algebraic correlated stochastic processes are proposed. (author)
RAYIC - a numerical code for the study of ion cyclotron heating of large Tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1984-02-01
The code RAYIC models coupling, propagation and absorption of e.m. waves in large axisymmetric plasmas in the ion cyclotron frequency domain. It can be used both to investigate the waves behaviour, and as a source of the power deposition profiles for use in transport codes. The present user manual, after a brief summary of the physical model, presents the structure of RAYIC, the complete list of input-output variables (calling sequence), and some examples of the output which can be obtained from the code. (orig.)
Fast ion generation in femto- and picosecond laser plasma at low fluxes of heating radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Magunov, A.I.
2006-01-01
X-ray spectra from fluoroplastic targets irradiated by laser pulses with duration of 60 fs to 1 ps have been investigated experimentally. It is shown that, when the contrast of the laser pulse is sufficiently low, the effect of self-focusing of the main laser pulse in the plasma produced by the prepulse can significantly enhance the generation efficiency of fast particles. In this case, ions with energies as high as ∼1 MeV are observed at relatively low laser intensities [ru
Structural Transformations in Nickel at the Irradiation Ions N+ and Post-Irradiation Heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neklyudov, I.M.; Morozov, A.N.; Kulish, V.G.
2006-01-01
Structural transformations in nickel films exposed to N + ions were investigated through the use of electron diffraction, electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering (RBS) of He + ions, thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). With an increasing exposure dose, there occurred a smooth transition of the fcc structure of Ni to the hcp phase α-Ni 3 N with the lattice parameters a=0.266 nm and c=0.430 nm. The completion of the transition was observed once the implanted nitrogen concentration corresponding to the stoichiometric ratio of Ni 3 N was attained, this giving evidence for the chemical nature of the structural change observed. During annealing, structure variations were traced, enabling one to observe the following four nickel nitrides: 1) α-Ni 3 N with a disordered arrangement of nitrogen atoms (hcp-phase with a=0.266 nm and c=0.430 nm); 2)β-Ni 3 N with an ordered arrangement of nitrogen atoms (two hexagonal lattices: one with a=0.266 nm, c=0.430 nm, and the other with a=0.466 nm and c=0.43 nm); 3) Ni 4 N having a primitive cubic lattice structure with a=0.377 nm; 4) Ni 8 N having the fcc structure with a=0.725 nm
Experiments Towards Mitigation of Motional Heating in Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing
2016-02-27
books and music recommendations. Maybe I’ll try watching The Wire now that I’ll have a bit of spare time. I cannot thank Robert McConnell enough for...means that it has two valence electrons. After we pop off an electron to create Sr+, we are left with a particle that has a hydrogen-like structure...distinct trends , then there is excess micromotion. If the histogram is randomized, then the micromotion present is negligible. 58 Chapter 6 Heating Rate
High-power ion-cyclotron heating on the levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dexter, R.N.; Fortgang, C.M.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.; Strait, E.J.; Twichell, J.C.
1982-03-01
Experiments are underway in the Wisconsin Levitated Toroidal Octupole to create hot, dense plasmas to facilitate the study of β limits and related phenomena such as Pfirsch-Schlueter and bootstrap currents. The question of ballooning mode instability limits on β = 8 πnk(T/sub i/+T/sub e/)/B 2 is of general importance for all toroidal systems, and ICRF heating should permit study of high β plasmas with lower collisionality and smaller gyroradii than those of the high β gun-injected plasmas currently under study in the Octupole. To these ends we are developing sources capable of delivering 4 MW to the plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Homa, Joanna; Olchawa, Ewa; Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R.; John Morgan, A.; Plytycz, Barbara
2005-01-01
This paper provides direct evidence that earthworm immune cells, coelomocytes, are exposed to bio-reactive quantities of metals within 3 days after dermal exposure, and that they respond by upregulating metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein (HSP70, HSP72) expression. Indirect support for the hypothesis that coelomocytes are capable of trafficking metals was also obtained. Coelomocytes were expelled from adult individuals of Eisenia fetida after 3-day exposure either to metal ions (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) or to distilled water (controls) via filter papers. The number of coelomocytes was significantly decreased after Cu, Pb, or Cd treatment. Cytospin preparations of coelomocytes were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies against human heat shock proteins (HSP70 or HSP72), or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against metallothionein 2 (w-MT2) of Lumbricus rubellus. Applied antibodies detected the respective proteins of E. fetida and revealed that the expression of HSP70, HSP72 and w-MT2 proteins was either induced or significantly enhanced in coelomocytes from metal-exposed animals. In conclusion, stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes may be used as sensitive biomarkers of metal contaminations. Further experimentation is needed for quantitative analysis of kinetics of metal-induced stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes. - Metals upregulate stress response proteins in earthworm coelomocytes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Homa, Joanna [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Olchawa, Ewa [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, PO Box 915, Cardiff Wales CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); John Morgan, A. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, PO Box 915, Cardiff Wales CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Plytycz, Barbara [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: plyt@zuk.iz.uj.edu.pl
2005-05-01
This paper provides direct evidence that earthworm immune cells, coelomocytes, are exposed to bio-reactive quantities of metals within 3 days after dermal exposure, and that they respond by upregulating metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein (HSP70, HSP72) expression. Indirect support for the hypothesis that coelomocytes are capable of trafficking metals was also obtained. Coelomocytes were expelled from adult individuals of Eisenia fetida after 3-day exposure either to metal ions (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) or to distilled water (controls) via filter papers. The number of coelomocytes was significantly decreased after Cu, Pb, or Cd treatment. Cytospin preparations of coelomocytes were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies against human heat shock proteins (HSP70 or HSP72), or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against metallothionein 2 (w-MT2) of Lumbricus rubellus. Applied antibodies detected the respective proteins of E. fetida and revealed that the expression of HSP70, HSP72 and w-MT2 proteins was either induced or significantly enhanced in coelomocytes from metal-exposed animals. In conclusion, stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes may be used as sensitive biomarkers of metal contaminations. Further experimentation is needed for quantitative analysis of kinetics of metal-induced stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes. - Metals upregulate stress response proteins in earthworm coelomocytes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groebner, R.J.
1986-04-01
The study of ion transport in neutral beam-heated discharges in tokamaks is necessary to determine if neoclassical theory can reliably be used to predict the performance of future machines. Previous studies of ion tranport have generally been difficult due to the lack of information regarding the ion temperature profile. The standard procedure used to study ion transport has been to model the T/sub i/ profile with the assumption that the ion thermal diffusivity profile chi/sub i/(r) was equal to a multiplier times chi/sub i//sup neo/(r), the ion thermal diffusivity calculated from neoclassical theory. The multiplier was varied until the calculated T/sub i/ profile agreed with the available ion temperature data, usually T/sub i/(0) or the measured neutron rate. Values of the multiplier in the range of 1 to 10 have generally been obtained with few estimates of the uncertainties in these values. Furthermore, there have been few, if any, attempts to calculate chi/sub i/ by modeling the ion temperature profiles in other ways. As a result, the issue as to whether or not the ion transport in tokamaks is in agreement with neoclassical theory has not been definitively answered
Effect of aluminate ions on the heat of hydration of cementitious waste forms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lokken, R.O.
1993-11-01
During the hydration and setting of high-salt content liquid waste grouts, considerable heat is generated by exothermic reactions within the grout. These reactions include hydration reactions of cementitious solids and reactions between waste constituents and the solids. Adiabatic temperature rises exceeding 80 degrees C have been estimated for grouts prepared with a dry blend of 47 wt % fly ash, 47 wt % blast furnace slag, and 6 wt % type I/II Portland cement (1) Performance criteria for grout disposal specify that the temperature of the grout waste form must not exceed 90 degrees C (2) To counter the increase in temperature, inert solids were added to the ''47/47/6'' dry blend to reduce the amount of heat-generating solids, thereby decreasing the temperature rise. Based on preliminary results from adiabatic calorimetry, a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % class F fly ash, 28 wt % ground blast furnace slag, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement was selected for further testing
Chapman, I. T.; Graves, J. P.; Sauter, O.; Zucca, C.; Asunta, O.; Buttery, R. J.; Coda, S.; Goodman, T.; Igochine, V.; Johnson, T.; Jucker, M.; La Haye, R. J.; Lennholm, M.; Contributors, JET-EFDA
2013-06-01
13 MW of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) power deposited inside the q = 1 surface is likely to reduce the sawtooth period in ITER baseline scenario below the level empirically predicted to trigger neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). However, since the ECCD control scheme is solely predicated upon changing the local magnetic shear, it is prudent to plan to use a complementary scheme which directly decreases the potential energy of the kink mode in order to reduce the sawtooth period. In the event that the natural sawtooth period is longer than expected, due to enhanced α particle stabilization for instance, this ancillary sawtooth control can be provided from >10MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) power with a resonance just inside the q = 1 surface. Both ECCD and ICRH control schemes would benefit greatly from active feedback of the deposition with respect to the rational surface. If the q = 1 surface can be maintained closer to the magnetic axis, the efficacy of ECCD and ICRH schemes significantly increases, the negative effect on the fusion gain is reduced, and off-axis negative-ion neutral beam injection (NNBI) can also be considered for sawtooth control. Consequently, schemes to reduce the q = 1 radius are highly desirable, such as early heating to delay the current penetration and, of course, active sawtooth destabilization to mediate small frequent sawteeth and retain a small q = 1 radius. Finally, there remains a residual risk that the ECCD + ICRH control actuators cannot keep the sawtooth period below the threshold for triggering NTMs (since this is derived only from empirical scaling and the control modelling has numerous caveats). If this is the case, a secondary control scheme of sawtooth stabilization via ECCD + ICRH + NNBI, interspersed with deliberate triggering of a crash through auxiliary power reduction and simultaneous pre-emptive NTM control by off-axis ECCD has been considered, permitting long transient periods with high fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grekov, D.; Kasilov, S.; Kernbichler, W.
2016-01-01
A two dimensional numerical code for computation of the electromagnetic field of a fast magnetosonic wave in a tokamak at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency has been developed. The code computes the finite difference solution of Maxwell equations for separate toroidal harmonics making use of the toroidal symmetry of tokamak plasmas. The proper boundary conditions are prescribed at the realistic tokamak vessel. The currents in the RF antenna are specified externally and then used in Ampere law. The main poloidal tokamak magnetic field and the ''kinetic'' part of the dielectric permeability tensor are treated iteratively. The code has been verified against known analytical solutions and first calculations of current drive in the spherical torus are presented.
Neutron spectroscopy measurements and modeling of neutral beam heating fast ion dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellesen, C; Sunden, E Andersson; Conroy, S; Ericsson, G; Johnson, M Gatu; Hjalmarsson, A; Kaellne, J; Ronchi, E; Sjoestrand, H; Weiszflog, M; Albergante, M; Ballabio, L; Gorini, G; Tardocchi, M; Giacomelli, L; Jenkins, I; Voitsekhovitch, I
2010-01-01
The energy spectrum of the neutron emission from beam-target reactions in fusion plasmas at the Joint European Torus (JET) has been investigated. Different beam energies as well as injection angles were used. Both measurements and simulations of the energy spectrum were done. The measurements were made with the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFOR. Simulations of the neutron spectrum were based on first-principle calculations of neutral beam deposition profiles and the fast ion slowing down in the plasma using the code NUBEAM, which is a module of the TRANSP package. The shape of the neutron energy spectrum was seen to vary significantly depending on the energy of the beams as well as the injection angle and the deposition profile in the plasma. Cross validations of the measured and modeled neutron energy spectra were made, showing a good agreement for all investigated scenarios.
Control of alpha-particle transport by ion cyclotron resonance heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P.
1990-01-01
In this paper control of radial alpha-particle transport by using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. Spatially inhomogeneous ICRF wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transports of alpha particles at the speed of order v α ∼ (P RF /n α ε 0 )ρ p , where R RF is the ICRF wave power density, n α is the alpha-particle density, ε 0 is the alpha-particle birth energy, and ρ p is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha-particle flux are discussed
Poloidal field effects on fundamental minority ion cyclotron resonance heating in a tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jun, S. C.; Imre, Kaya; Stevens, D. C.; Weitzner, Harold; Chang, C. S.
2000-01-01
Minority ion fundamental cyclotron resonance is studied in a large tokamak in which the geometrical optics approximation applies off resonance and the minority average speed is less than the wave phase speeds. Poloidal equilibrium magnetic field effects are included, which lead to nontrivially nonlocal integrodifferential equations for the wave fields. Exact reciprocity relation is given as well as explicit analytic solutions for the transmission coefficients for both the high and low field side incidences. Numerical solutions are needed only for the high field side incident reflection coefficient. Numerical schemes are described and numerical results are presented together with a reliable error bound. Typically, energy absorption increases with poloidal field. The energy absorption increases with minority density at low values of minority density. However, it decreases at high minority density. Poloidal field effects weaken the dependence of energy absorption on the toroidal wave number. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
New Colloidal Lithographic Nanopatterns Fabricated by Combining Pre-Heating and Reactive Ion Etching
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cong Chunxiao
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We report a low-cost and simple method for fabrication of nonspherical colloidal lithographic nanopatterns with a long-range order by preheating and oxygen reactive ion etching of monolayer and double-layer polystyrene spheres. This strategy allows excellent control of size and morphology of the colloidal particles and expands the applications of the colloidal patterns as templates for preparing ordered functional nanostructure arrays. For the first time, various unique nanostructures with long-range order, including network structures with tunable neck length and width, hexagonal-shaped, and rectangular-shaped arrays as well as size tunable nanohole arrays, were fabricated by this route. Promising potentials of such unique periodic nanostructures in various fields, such as photonic crystals, catalysts, templates for deposition, and masks for etching, are naturally expected.
Mechanical design of the ITER ion cyclotron heating launcher based on in-vessel tuning system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vulliez, K. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: karl.vulliez@cea.fr; Bosia, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Universita di Torino (Italy); Agarici, G.; Beaumont, B.; Argouarch, A.; Mollard, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Testoni, P. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, University of Cagliari (Italy); Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D. [Dipartimento di Elettronica Politecnico di Torino (Italy)
2007-10-15
Since the release of the ITER ICRH system reference design report [ITER Final Design Report: DDD 5.1 -Ion Cyclotron and Current Drive System, July 2001], further design studies have been conducted. If the base of the reference design [Final Report on EFDA contract 04/1129, ITER ICRF antenna and Matching system design (Internalmatching), April 2005] is kept unchanged, several significant modifications have been proposed for a better efficiency and reliability. The increase of the poloidal order of the array and strong modifications of the matching system concept are the main changes. Technical aspects insufficiently covered in previous studies are also now worked out in detail, like the integration on a mid-plane port satisfying the constraints of the ITER environment.
Control of alpha particle transport by spatially inhomogeneous ion cyclotron resonance heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P.
1990-02-01
Control of the radial alpha particle transport by using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. It is shown that spatially inhomogeneous ICRF-wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transport of alpha particles at the speed of order υ alpha ∼ (P RF /n α ε 0 ) ρ p , where P RF is the ICRF-wave power density, n α is the alpha density, ε 0 is the alpha birth energy, and ρ p is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to ITER plasmas is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha particle flux are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krasnoshlykov Alexander
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical analysis of thermal conditions of a lithium-ion battery using the software package ANSYS Electric and ANSYS Fluent has been carried out. Time dependence of the electrolyte temperature on the various heat exchange conditions on the outer surface has been obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maneva, Y. G. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, 20064 (United States) and Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ofman, L. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Vinas, A. F. [Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2013-06-13
In anticipation of results from inner heliospheric missions such as the Solar Orbiter and the Solar Probe we present the results from 1.5D hybrid simulations to study the role of magnetic fluctuations for the heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind. We consider the effects of nonlinear Alfven-cyclotron waves at different frequency regimes. Monochromatic nonlinear Alfven-alpha-cyclotron waves are known to preferentially heat and accelerate He{sup ++} ions in collisionless low beta plasma. In this study we demonstrate that these effects are preserved when higherfrequency monochromatic and broad-band spectra of Alfven-proton-cyclotron waves are considered. Comparison between several nonlinear monochromatic waves shows that the ion temperatures, anisotropies and relative drift are quantitatively affected by the shift in frequency. Including a broad-band wave-spectrum results in a significant reduction of both the parallel and the perpendicular temperature components for the He{sup ++} ions, whereas the proton heating is barely influenced, with the parallel proton temperature only slightly enhanced. The differential streaming is strongly affected by the available wave power in the resonant daughter ion-acoustic waves. Therefore for the same initial wave energy, the relative drift is significantly reduced in the case of initial wave-spectra in comparison to the simulations with monochromatic waves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burany, R.; Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A. [Kinectrics, Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)
2015-07-01
Radiation fields around the CANDU heat transport system are a major contributor to worker dose during inspection, maintenance and refurbishment activities. While Co-60 is typically the dominant contributor to radiation fields in CANDU reactors, Sb-124, an activation product of antimony, is also a significant contributor, accounting for 5-20% of the radiation fields. The goal of this research project was to investigate resins for improved removal of antimony under both oxidizing and reducing conditions.Several candidate resins were tested and short-listed through a sequence of iterative testing. The results of the laboratory testing have identified potential candidates for improved antimony removal. Further testing is required to ensure compatibility with existing station resin specifications. (author)
Variability of Jovian ion winds: an upper limit for enhanced Joule heating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. B. Lystrup
2007-05-01
Full Text Available It has been proposed that short-timescale fluctuations about the mean electric field can significantly increase the upper atmospheric energy inputs at Jupiter, which may help to explain the high observed thermospheric temperatures. We present data from the first attempt to detect such variations in the Jovian ionosphere. Line-of-sight ionospheric velocity profiles in the Southern Jovian auroral/polar region are shown, derived from the Doppler shifting of H_{3}^{+} infrared emission spectra. These data were recently obtained from the high-resolution CSHELL spectrometer at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We find that there is no variability within this data set on timescales of the order of one minute and spatial scales of 640 km, putting upper limits on the timescales of fluctuations that would be needed to enhance Joule heating.
Stochastic tools in turbulence
Lumey, John L
2012-01-01
Stochastic Tools in Turbulence discusses the available mathematical tools to describe stochastic vector fields to solve problems related to these fields. The book deals with the needs of turbulence in relation to stochastic vector fields, particularly, on three-dimensional aspects, linear problems, and stochastic model building. The text describes probability distributions and densities, including Lebesgue integration, conditional probabilities, conditional expectations, statistical independence, lack of correlation. The book also explains the significance of the moments, the properties of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coleman, Brittany; Ostanek, Jason; Heinzel, John
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Finite element analysis to evaluate heat sinks for large format li-ion batteries. • Solid metal heat sink and composite heat sink (metal filler and wax). • Transient simulations show response from rest to steady-state with normal load. • Transient simulations of two different failure modes were considered. • Significance of spacing, material properties, interface quality, and phase change. - Abstract: Thermal management is critical for large-scale, shipboard energy storage systems utilizing lithium-ion batteries. In recent years, there has been growing research in thermal management of lithium-ion battery modules. However, there is little information available on the minimum cell-to-cell spacing limits for indirect, liquid cooled modules when considering heat release during a single cell failure. For this purpose, a generic four-cell module was modeled using finite element analysis to determine the sensitivity of module temperatures to cell spacing. Additionally, the effects of different heat sink materials and interface qualities were investigated. Two materials were considered, a solid aluminum block and a metal/wax composite block. Simulations were run for three different transient load profiles. The first profile simulates sustained high rate operation where the system begins at rest and generates heat continuously until it reaches steady state. And, two failure mode simulations were conducted to investigate block performance during a slow and a fast exothermic reaction, respectively. Results indicate that composite materials can perform well under normal operation and provide some protection against single cell failure; although, for very compact designs, the amount of wax available to absorb heat is reduced and the effectiveness of the phase change material is diminished. The aluminum block design performed well under all conditions, and showed that heat generated during a failure is quickly dissipated to the coolant, even under the
Material and electromagnetic properties of Faraday shields for ion cyclotron heating antennas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Becraft, W.R.; Caughman, J.B.O.; Tsai, C.C.
1985-01-01
The Faraday shields for ion cyclotron antennas must transmit magnetic waves and absorb little RF power. To investigate these properties, we have constructed 27 Faraday shields in many configurations, including chevrons, tubes, straps, concentric rings, various layered shields, conventionally leafed straps, and replicas of the Faraday shields for ASDEX, the Joint European Torus (JET), TEXTOR, and Alcator-C. We have measured the magnetic flux and observed loading at various operating resistances by using dielectric sheets or magnetic-coupled loads. Each Faraday shield effects a net change in the characteristic inductance of the antenna, resulting in a reduction of wave coupling. However, the load experienced by the antenna is not always reduced because the Faraday shield itself acts as a load. We differentiate between these effects experimentally. The net result of the study is that the Faraday shields now in use cost up to a factor of 50% of coupling. This, of course, reduces the power handling capability by 50% as well. However, configurations exist that are easily cooled and result in a reduction of less than 5% in loading
Material and electromagnetic properties of Faraday shields for ion cyclotron heating antennas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, D.J.; Becraft, W.R.; Baity, F.W.; Caughman, J.B.O.; Tsai, C.C.
1985-01-01
The Faraday shields for ion cyclotron antennas must transmit magnetic waves and adsorb little rf power. To investigate these properties, we have constructed 27 Faraday shields in many configurations, including chevrons, tubes, straps, concentric rings, various layered shields, conventionally leafed straps, and replicas of the Faraday shields for ASDEX, the Joint European Torus (JET), TEXTOR, and Alcator-C. We have measured the magnetic flux and observed loading at various operating resistances by using dielectric sheets or magnetic-coupled loads. Each Faraday shield effects a net change in the characteristic inductance of the antenna, resulting in a reduction of wave coupling. However, the load experienced by the antenna is not always reduced because the Faraday shield itself acts as a load. We differentiate between these effects experimentally. The net result of the study is that the Faraday shields now in use cost up to a factor of 50% of coupling. This, of course, reduces the power handling capability by 50% as well. However, configurations exist that are easily cooled and result in a reduction of less than 5% in loading
Double diffusivity model under stochastic forcing
Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Aifantis, Elias C.
2017-05-01
The "double diffusivity" model was proposed in the late 1970s, and reworked in the early 1980s, as a continuum counterpart to existing discrete models of diffusion corresponding to high diffusivity paths, such as grain boundaries and dislocation lines. It was later rejuvenated in the 1990s to interpret experimental results on diffusion in polycrystalline and nanocrystalline specimens where grain boundaries and triple grain boundary junctions act as high diffusivity paths. Technically, the model pans out as a system of coupled Fick-type diffusion equations to represent "regular" and "high" diffusivity paths with "source terms" accounting for the mass exchange between the two paths. The model remit was extended by analogy to describe flow in porous media with double porosity, as well as to model heat conduction in media with two nonequilibrium local temperature baths, e.g., ion and electron baths. Uncoupling of the two partial differential equations leads to a higher-ordered diffusion equation, solutions of which could be obtained in terms of classical diffusion equation solutions. Similar equations could also be derived within an "internal length" gradient (ILG) mechanics formulation applied to diffusion problems, i.e., by introducing nonlocal effects, together with inertia and viscosity, in a mechanics based formulation of diffusion theory. While being remarkably successful in studies related to various aspects of transport in inhomogeneous media with deterministic microstructures and nanostructures, its implications in the presence of stochasticity have not yet been considered. This issue becomes particularly important in the case of diffusion in nanopolycrystals whose deterministic ILG-based theoretical calculations predict a relaxation time that is only about one-tenth of the actual experimentally verified time scale. This article provides the "missing link" in this estimation by adding a vital element in the ILG structure, that of stochasticity, that takes into
Transport stochastic multi-dimensional media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haran, O.; Shvarts, D.
1996-01-01
Many physical phenomena evolve according to known deterministic rules, but in a stochastic media in which the composition changes in space and time. Examples to such phenomena are heat transfer in turbulent atmosphere with non uniform diffraction coefficients, neutron transfer in boiling coolant of a nuclear reactor and radiation transfer through concrete shields. The results of measurements conducted upon such a media are stochastic by nature, and depend on the specific realization of the media. In the last decade there has been a considerable efforts to describe linear particle transport in one dimensional stochastic media composed of several immiscible materials. However, transport in two or three dimensional stochastic media has been rarely addressed. The important effect in multi-dimensional transport that does not appear in one dimension is the ability to bypass obstacles. The current work is an attempt to quantify this effect. (authors)
Transport stochastic multi-dimensional media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haran, O; Shvarts, D [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev; Thiberger, R [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel)
1996-12-01
Many physical phenomena evolve according to known deterministic rules, but in a stochastic media in which the composition changes in space and time. Examples to such phenomena are heat transfer in turbulent atmosphere with non uniform diffraction coefficients, neutron transfer in boiling coolant of a nuclear reactor and radiation transfer through concrete shields. The results of measurements conducted upon such a media are stochastic by nature, and depend on the specific realization of the media. In the last decade there has been a considerable efforts to describe linear particle transport in one dimensional stochastic media composed of several immiscible materials. However, transport in two or three dimensional stochastic media has been rarely addressed. The important effect in multi-dimensional transport that does not appear in one dimension is the ability to bypass obstacles. The current work is an attempt to quantify this effect. (authors).
Ogawa, Shigeyoshi
2017-01-01
This book presents an elementary introduction to the theory of noncausal stochastic calculus that arises as a natural alternative to the standard theory of stochastic calculus founded in 1944 by Professor Kiyoshi Itô. As is generally known, Itô Calculus is essentially based on the "hypothesis of causality", asking random functions to be adapted to a natural filtration generated by Brownian motion or more generally by square integrable martingale. The intention in this book is to establish a stochastic calculus that is free from this "hypothesis of causality". To be more precise, a noncausal theory of stochastic calculus is developed in this book, based on the noncausal integral introduced by the author in 1979. After studying basic properties of the noncausal stochastic integral, various concrete problems of noncausal nature are considered, mostly concerning stochastic functional equations such as SDE, SIE, SPDE, and others, to show not only the necessity of such theory of noncausal stochastic calculus but ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou, Y.; Wang, L.W.; Huang, N.K.
2007-01-01
C-TiC films with a content of 75% TiC were prepared with magnetron sputtering deposition followed by Ar + ion bombardment. Effect of heating on the behaviors of hydrogen in C-TiC films before and after heating was studied with Auger Electron Spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) analyses. SIMS depth profiles of hydrogen after H + ion implantation and thermal treatment show different hydrogen concentrations in C-TiC coatings and stainless steel. SIMS measurements show the existence of TiH, TiH 2 , CH 3 , CH 4 , C 2 H 2 bonds in the films after H + ion irradiation and the changes in the Ti LMM, Ti LMV and C KLL Auger line shape reveal that they have a good hydrogen retention ability after heating up to the temperature 393 K. All the results show that C-TiC coatings can be used as a hydrogen retainer or hydrogen permeable barrier on stainless steel to protect it from hydrogen brittleness
Infinite stochastic acceleration of charged particles from non-relativistic initial energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buts, V.A.; Manujlenko, O.V.; Turkin, Yu.A.
1997-01-01
Stochastic charged particle acceleration by electro-magnetic field due to overlapping of non-linear cyclotron resonances is considered. It was shown that non-relativistic charged particles are involved in infinitive stochastic acceleration regime. This effect can be used for stochastic acceleration or for plasma heating by regular electro-magnetic fields
Effect of heat treatment on properties of HfO2 film deposited by ion-beam sputtering
Liu, Huasong; Jiang, Yugang; Wang, Lishuan; Li, Shida; Yang, Xiao; Jiang, Chenghui; Liu, Dandan; Ji, Yiqin; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Deying
2017-11-01
The effects of atmosphere heat treatment on optical, stress, and microstructure properties of an HfO2 film deposited by ion-beam sputtering were systematically researched. The relationships among annealing temperature and refractive index, extinction coefficient, physical thickness, forbidden-band width, tape trailer width, Urbach energy, crystal phase structure, and stress were assessed. The results showed that 400 °C is the transformation point, and the microstructure of the HfO2 film changed from an amorphous into mixed-phase structure. Multistage phonons appeared on the HfO2 film, and the trends of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, forbidden-band width change, and Urbach energy shifted from decrease to increase. With the elevation of the annealing temperature, the film thickness increased monotonously, the compressive stress gradually turned to tensile stress, and the transformation temperature point for the stress was between 200 °C and 300 °C. Therefore, the change in the stress is the primary cause for the shifts in thin-film thickness.
Graphite|LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery working at the heat engine coolant temperature
Lewandowski, Andrzej; Kurc, Beata; Swiderska-Mocek, Agnieszka; Kusa, Natalia
2014-11-01
Electrochemical properties of the graphite anode and the LiFePO4 cathode, working together with the 1 M LiPF6 in TMS (sulpholane) at 90 °C have been studied. The general aim of the investigation was to demonstrate a potential application for a Li-ion cell working in the cooling system of a car heat engine (90 °C). Electrodes were characterized with the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as galvanostatic charging/discharging tests. SEM images of both electrodes after charging/discharging processes were covered with a film (electrochemical SEI formation). The charge transfer resistance at 90 °C, Rct, of the C6Li|Li+ anode and the LiFePO4 cathode was 24 Ω and 110 Ω, respectively. Reversible capacity of the LiC6 anode after 10-20 cycles, at a low current rate was close to the theoretical value of 370 mAh g-1 however an increasing current rate decreased to ca. 200 mAh g-1 (for 1C). The reversibility of the process was close to 95%. The capacity of the LiFePO4 cathode was ca. 150 mAh g-1, almost independent of the current rate and close to the theoretical value of 170 mAh g-1.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheshire, D.L.; Thomas, R.A.
1985-01-01
The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) large Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will employ an Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) system for plasma startup. As the MFTF-B Industrial Participant, TRW has responsibility for the ICRH system, including development of the data acquisition and control system. During the MFTF-B Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS). For subsystem development and checkout at TRW, and for verification and acceptance testing at LLNL, the system will be run from a stand-alone computer system designed to simulate the functions of SCDS. The ''SCDS Simulator'' was developed originally for the MFTF-B ECRH System; descriptions of the hardware and software are updated in this paper. The computer control and data acquisition functions implemented for ICRH are described, including development status, and test schedule at TRW and at LLNL. The application software is written for the SCDS Simulator, but it is programmed in PASCAL and designed to facilitate conversion for use on the SCDS computers
AA, vacuum tank for stochastic precooling
CERN PhotoLab
1979-01-01
The vaccum tank in which the fast stochastic precooling kicker was installed. It is clad with heating jackets for bake-out to 200 deg C, indispensable for reaching the operational vacuum of 7E-11 Torr. Alain Poncet, responsible for AA vacuum, is looking on. See also 7910268, 8002234.
Distribution of particles in stochastic electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolland, Paul.
1979-11-01
The distribution of one particle as well as an ensemble of particles submitted to a stochastic electric field obeying different kinds of laws is studied. A particular attention is devoted to the deviation from the gaussian distribution and to the consequences of this effect on diffusion and heating [fr
Marinoni, A.; Pinsker, R. I.; Porkolab, M.; Rost, J. C.; Davis, E. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Candy, J.; Staebler, G. M.; Grierson, B. A.; McKee, G. R.; Rhodes, T. L.; The DIII-D Team
2017-12-01
Experiments simulating the ITER baseline scenario on the DIII-D tokamak show that torque-free pure electron heating, when coupled to plasmas subject to a net co-current beam torque, affects density fluctuations at electron scales on a sub-confinement time scale, whereas fluctuations at ion scales change only after profiles have evolved to a new stationary state. Modifications to the density fluctuations measured by the phase contrast imaging diagnostic (PCI) are assessed by analyzing the time evolution following the switch-off of electron cyclotron heating (ECH), thus going from mixed beam/ECH to pure neutral beam heating at fixed βN . Within 20 ms after turning off ECH, the intensity of fluctuations is observed to increase at frequencies higher than 200 kHz in contrast, fluctuations at lower frequency are seen to decrease in intensity on a longer time scale, after other equilibrium quantities have evolved. Non-linear gyro-kinetic modeling at ion and electron scales scales suggest that, while the low frequency response of the diagnostic is consistent with the dominant ITG modes being weakened by the slow-time increase in flow shear, the high frequency response is due to prompt changes to the electron temperature profile that enhance electron modes and generate a larger heat flux and an inward particle pinch. These results suggest that electron heated regimes in ITER will feature multi-scale fluctuations that might affect fusion performance via modifications to profiles.
Bahadoran, Shahab; Dehghani Samani, Amir; Hassanpour, Hossein
2018-01-01
Heat stress is a problem in laying hens as it decreases egg quality by decreasing eggshell mineralization. Heat stress alters gene expression, hence our aim was to investigate effects of heat stress on gene expression of ion transport elements involving in uterine mineralization (TRPV6, CALB1, ITPR3, SCNN1G, SLC4A4, KCNJ15, SLC4A9, and CLCN2) by real time quantitative PCR. Forty 23-week-old White Leghorn laying hens were housed in two rooms. The control group (n = 20) was maintained at 21-23 °C, and the heat stress group (n = 20) was exposed to 36-38 °C for 8 weeks. All parameters of egg quality including egg weight, surface area, volume, and eggshell weight, thickness, ash weight, and calcium content were decreased in the heat stress group compared to the control group (by 26.9%, 32.7%, 44.1%, 38.4%, 31.7%, 39.4%, and 11.1%, respectively). Total plasma calcium was decreased by 13.4%. Levels of ITPR3, SLC4A4, and SLC4A9 transcripts in the uterine lining were decreased in the heat stress group compared to the control group (by 61.4%, 66.1%, and 66.1%, respectively). CALB1 transcript level was increased (by 34.2 fold) in the heat stress group of hens compared to controls. TRPV6, SCNN1G, KCNJ15, and CLCN2 transcript levels did not significantly differ between control and heat stress groups of laying hens. It is concluded that the down-expression of ITPR3, SLC4A4, and SLC4A9 genes may impair transportation of Cl - , HCO 3 - , and Na + in eggshell mineralization during heat stress. Increased CALB1 gene expression may increase resistance of uterine cells to detrimental effects of heat stress.
Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems
Frehland, Eckart
1982-01-01
These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...
The role of stochasticity in sawtooth oscillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichtenberg, A.J.; Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.
1991-08-01
In this paper we have demonstrated that stochastization of field lines, resulting from the interaction of the fundamental m/n=1/1 helical mode with other periodicities, plays an important role in sawtooth oscillations. The time scale for the stochastic temperature diffusion has been determined. It was shown to be sufficiently fast to account for the fast sawtooth crash, and is generally shorter than the time scales for the redistribution of current. The enhancement of the electron and ion viscosity, arising from the stochastic field lines, has been calculated. The enhanced electron viscosity always leads to an initial increase in the growth rate of the mode; the enhanced ion viscosity can ultimately lead to mode stabilization before a complete temperature redistribution or flux reconnection has occurred. A dynamical model has been introduced to calculate the path of the sawtooth oscillation through a parameter space of shear and amplitude of the helical perturbation. The stochastic trigger to the enhanced growth rate and the stabilization by the ion viscosity are also included in the mode. A reasonable prescription for the flux reconnection at the end of the growth phase allows us to determine the initial q-value for the successive sawtooth ramps. (J.P.N.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toi, K; Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Mitarai, O; Kawai, Y; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1980-09-01
A positive of negative current pulse induced by a pulsed toroidal electric field much higher than the Dreicer field increases the bulk-ion temperature of the plasma centre two to three times, without macroscopic plasma destruction. The decay time of the raised ion temperature agrees well with the prediction from neoclassical transport theory. The magnitude of the positive current pulse is limited by violent current disruption, and that of the negative current by a lack of MHD equilibrium which is due to a marked reduction of the total plasma current. The relevant current-driven instabilities in the turbulent heating of a tokamak plasma, skin heating and inward transfer of the energy deposition in the skin layer are briefly discussed.
Elitism and Stochastic Dominance
Bazen, Stephen; Moyes, Patrick
2011-01-01
Stochastic dominance has typically been used with a special emphasis on risk and inequality reduction something captured by the concavity of the utility function in the expected utility model. We claim that the applicability of the stochastic dominance approach goes far beyond risk and inequality measurement provided suitable adpations be made. We apply in the paper the stochastic dominance approach to the measurment of elitism which may be considered the opposite of egalitarianism. While the...
Experimental investigation on the feasibility of heat pipe cooling for HEV/EV lithium-ion battery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran, Thanh-Ha; Harmand, Souad; Desmet, Bernard; Filangi, Sebastien
2014-01-01
In this paper, the use of flat heat pipe as an effective and low-energy device to mitigate the temperature of a battery module designed for a HEV application was investigated. For this purpose, nominal heat flux generated by a battery module was reproduced and applied to a flat heat pipe cooling system. The thermal performance of the flat heat pipe cooling system was compared with that of a conventional heat sink under various cooling conditions and under several inclined positions. The results show that adding heat pipe reduced the thermal resistance of a common heat sink of 30% under natural convection and 20% under low air velocity cooling. Consequently, the cell temperature was kept below 50 °C, which cannot be achieved using heat sink. According to the space allocated for the battery pack in the vehicle, flat heat pipe can be used in vertical or horizontal position. Furthermore, flat heat pipe works efficiently under different grade road conditions. The transient behaviour of the flat heat pipe was also studied under high frequency and large amplitude variable input power. The flat heat pipe was found to handle more efficiently instant increases of the heat flux than the conventional heat sink. -- Highlights: • Constant heat flux was applied to a flat heat pipe cooling system. • Its thermal performance was compared with that of a heat sink under several cooling conditions. • The influence of the inclination was evaluated. • The heat pipe transient behaviour was also studied under variable input power. • Heat pipe was found to be an effective and low-energy solution for HEV/EV battery cooling
Singular stochastic differential equations
Cherny, Alexander S
2005-01-01
The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.
Hinoue, Teruo; Ikeda, Eiji; Watariguchi, Shigeru; Kibune, Yasuyuki
2007-01-01
Thermal modulation voltammetry (TMV) with laser heating was successfully performed at an aqueous|nitrobenzene (NB) solution microinterface, by taking advantage of the fact that laser light with a wavelength of 325.0 nm is optically transparent to the aqueous solution but opaque to the NB solution. When the laser beam impinges upon the interface from the aqueous solution side, a temperature is raised around the interface through the thermal diffusion subsequent to the light-to-heat conversion following the optical absorption by the NB solution near the interface. Based on such a principle, we achieved a fluctuating temperature perturbation around the interface for TMV by periodically irradiating the interface with the laser beam. On the other hand, the fluctuating temperature perturbation has influence on currents for transfer of an ion across the interface to produce fluctuating currents synchronized with the perturbation through temperature coefficients of several variables concerning the transfer, such as the standard transfer potential and the diffusion coefficient of the ion. Consequently, TMV has the possibility of providing information about the standard entropy change of transfer corresponding to a temperature coefficient of the standard transfer potential and a temperature coefficient of the diffusion coefficient. In this work, the aqueous|NB solution interface of 30 microm in diameter was irradiated with the laser beam at 10 Hz, and the currents synchronized with the periodical irradiation were recorded as a function of the potential difference across the interface in order to construct a TM voltammogram. TM voltammograms were measured for transfer of tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, tetrapropylammonium, and tetra-n-butylammonium ions from the aqueous solution to the NB solution, and the standard entropy change of transfer was determined for each ion, according to an analytical procedure based on a mathematical expression of the TM voltammogram
Kirichok, A. V.; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.
2015-09-01
The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirichok, A. V., E-mail: sandyrcs@gmail.com; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V. [Institute for High Technologies, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4 Svobody Sq., Kharkiv 61022 (Ukraine); Zagorodny, A. G. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)
2015-09-15
The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Phil Kook; Kim, Tae Hyung; Choi, Suk Won; Gwag, Jin Seog
2012-01-01
The combined treatment effects of an ion beam with directionality and heat of a low temperature on a plastic substrate was investigated as a method to increase the electrical conductivity of indium tinoxide (ITO) films deposited on plastic substrate surfaces at low temperatures. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface treatment by using an ion beam at low temperature (120 .deg. C), which can be applied to plastic substrates, improves the conductivity of ITO films. X-ray diffraction indicates that ITO films deposited on PET surfaces treated simultaneously by using an ion beam and heat of a low temperature have an almost polycrystalline structure even though they have small amorphous party on. As a supplementary measurement, the contact angle showed that the polycrystalline structure was due to a self-assembly effect at the PET surfaces. Consequently, the electrical conductivity of an ITO film deposited by using the proposed technique is three times higher than that of an ITO film treated only with heat of low temperature due to the improved polycrystalline structure.
Son, Phil Kook; Kim, Taehyung; Choi, Suk-Won; Gwag, Jin Seog
2012-08-01
The combined treatment effects of an ion beam with directionality and heat of a low temperature on a plastic substrate was investigated as a method to increase the electrical conductivity of indiumtin-oxide (ITO) films deposited on plastic substrate surfaces at low temperatures. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface treatment by using an ion beam at low temperature (120 °C), which can be applied to plastic substrates, improves the conductivity of ITO films. X-ray diffraction indicates that ITO films deposited on PET surfaces treated simultaneously by using an ion beam and heat of a low temperature have an almost polycrystalline structure even though they have small amorphous party on. As a supplementary measurement, the contact angle showed that the polycrystalline structure was due to a self-assembly effect at the PET surfaces. Consequently, the electrical conductivity of an ITO film deposited by using the proposed technique is three times higher than that of an ITO film treated only with heat of low temperature due to the improved polycrystalline structure.
Asymptotic problems for stochastic partial differential equations
Salins, Michael
Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) can be used to model systems in a wide variety of fields including physics, chemistry, and engineering. The main SPDEs of interest in this dissertation are the semilinear stochastic wave equations which model the movement of a material with constant mass density that is exposed to both determinstic and random forcing. Cerrai and Freidlin have shown that on fixed time intervals, as the mass density of the material approaches zero, the solutions of the stochastic wave equation converge uniformly to the solutions of a stochastic heat equation, in probability. This is called the Smoluchowski-Kramers approximation. In Chapter 2, we investigate some of the multi-scale behaviors that these wave equations exhibit. In particular, we show that the Freidlin-Wentzell exit place and exit time asymptotics for the stochastic wave equation in the small noise regime can be approximated by the exit place and exit time asymptotics for the stochastic heat equation. We prove that the exit time and exit place asymptotics are characterized by quantities called quasipotentials and we prove that the quasipotentials converge. We then investigate the special case where the equation has a gradient structure and show that we can explicitly solve for the quasipotentials, and that the quasipotentials for the heat equation and wave equation are equal. In Chapter 3, we study the Smoluchowski-Kramers approximation in the case where the material is electrically charged and exposed to a magnetic field. Interestingly, if the system is frictionless, then the Smoluchowski-Kramers approximation does not hold. We prove that the Smoluchowski-Kramers approximation is valid for systems exposed to both a magnetic field and friction. Notably, we prove that the solutions to the second-order equations converge to the solutions of the first-order equation in an Lp sense. This strengthens previous results where convergence was proved in probability.
Weather Derivatives and Stochastic Modelling of Temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fred Espen Benth
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a continuous-time autoregressive model for the temperature dynamics with volatility being the product of a seasonal function and a stochastic process. We use the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard model for the stochastic volatility. The proposed temperature dynamics is flexible enough to model temperature data accurately, and at the same time being analytically tractable. Futures prices for commonly traded contracts at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange on indices like cooling- and heating-degree days and cumulative average temperatures are computed, as well as option prices on them.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Fujiwara
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of the polar ionosphere with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT ultra high frequency (UHF radar at Tromsø and the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR at Longyearbyen were made during 07:00–12:00 UT on 12 March 2012. During the period, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft observed changes in the solar wind which were due to the arrival of coronal mass ejection (CME effects associated with the 10 March M8.4 X-ray event. The solar wind showed two-step variations which caused strong ionospheric heating. First, the arrival of shock structures in the solar wind with enhancements of density and velocity, and a negative interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz component caused strong ionospheric heating around Longyearbyen; the ion temperature at about 300 km increased from about 1100 to 3400 K over Longyearbyen while that over Tromsø increased from about 1050 to 1200 K. After the passage of the shock structures, the IMF-Bz component showed positive values and the solar wind speed and density also decreased. The second strong ionospheric heating occurred after the IMF-Bz component showed negative values again; the negative values lasted for more than 1.5 h. This solar wind variation caused stronger heating of the ionosphere in the lower latitudes than higher latitudes, suggesting expansion of the auroral oval/heating region to the lower latitude region. This study shows an example of the CME-induced dayside ionospheric heating: a short-duration and very large rise in the ion temperature which was closely related to the polar cap size and polar cap potential variations as a result of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.
Stochastic analytic regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, J.
1984-07-01
Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)
Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lüscher, Martin
2015-01-01
A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.
Gottwald, G.A.; Crommelin, D.T.; Franzke, C.L.E.; Franzke, C.L.E.; O'Kane, T.J.
2017-01-01
In this chapter we review stochastic modelling methods in climate science. First we provide a conceptual framework for stochastic modelling of deterministic dynamical systems based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism. The Mori-Zwanzig equations contain a Markov term, a memory term and a term suggestive of
Meyer, Joerg M.
2018-01-01
The contrary of stochastic independence splits up into two cases: pairs of events being favourable or being unfavourable. Examples show that both notions have quite unexpected properties, some of them being opposite to intuition. For example, transitivity does not hold. Stochastic dependence is also useful to explain cases of Simpson's paradox.
Stochastic quantization and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumpf, H.
1984-01-01
We give a preliminary account of the application of stochastic quantization to the gravitational field. We start in Section I from Nelson's formulation of quantum mechanics as Newtonian stochastic mechanics and only then introduce the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme on which all the later discussion will be based. In Section II we present a generalization of the scheme that is applicable to fields in physical (i.e. Lorentzian) space-time and treat the free linearized gravitational field in this manner. The most remarkable result of this is the noncausal propagation of conformal gravitons. Moreover the concept of stochastic gauge-fixing is introduced and a complete discussion of all the covariant gauges is given. A special symmetry relating two classes of covariant gauges is exhibited. Finally Section III contains some preliminary remarks on full nonlinear gravity. In particular we argue that in contrast to gauge fields the stochastic gravitational field cannot be transformed to a Gaussian process. (Author)
Greenwood, Priscilla E
2016-01-01
This book describes a large number of open problems in the theory of stochastic neural systems, with the aim of enticing probabilists to work on them. This includes problems arising from stochastic models of individual neurons as well as those arising from stochastic models of the activities of small and large networks of interconnected neurons. The necessary neuroscience background to these problems is outlined within the text, so readers can grasp the context in which they arise. This book will be useful for graduate students and instructors providing material and references for applying probability to stochastic neuron modeling. Methods and results are presented, but the emphasis is on questions where additional stochastic analysis may contribute neuroscience insight. An extensive bibliography is included. Dr. Priscilla E. Greenwood is a Professor Emerita in the Department of Mathematics at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Lawrence M. Ward is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Brain...
Plasma Heating and Losses in Toroidal Multipole Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armentrout, C. J.; Barter, J. D.; Breun, R. A.; Cavallo, A. J.; Drake, J. R.; Etzweiler,; Greenwood, J. R.
1974-01-01
The heating and loss of plasmas have been studied in three pulsed, toroidal multipole devices: a large levitated octupole, a small supported octupole and a very small supported quadrupole. Plasmas are produced by gun injection and heated by electron and ion cyclotron resonance heating and ohmic heating. Electron cyclotron heating rates have been measured over a wide range of parameters, and the results are in quantitative agreement with stochastic heating theory. Electron cyclotron resonance heating produces ions with energies larger than predicted by theory. With the addition of a toroidal field, ohmic heating gives densities as high as 10 13 cm -3 in the toroidal quadrupole and 10 12 cm -3 in the small octupole. Plasma losses for n=5 x 10 9 cm -3 plasmas are inferred from Langmuir probe and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements, and measured with special striped collectors on the wall and rings. The loss to a levitated ring is measured using a modulated light beam telemeter. The confinement is better than Bohm but considerably worse than classical. Low frequency convective cells which are fixed in space are observed. These cells around the ring are diminished when a weak toroidal field is added, and loss collectors show a vastly reduced flux to the rings. Analysis of the spatial density profile shows features of B-independent diffusion. The confinement is sensitive to some kinds of dc field errors, but surprisingly insensitive to perturbations of the ac confining field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaogang Wu
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the heat problems that occur during the operation of power batteries, especially thermal runaway, which usually take place in high temperature environments. The study was conducted on a ternary polymer lithium-ion battery. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal model was established to analyze the thermal behavior of the electric bus battery system under the operation conditions of the driving cycles of the Harbin city electric buses. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between the optimum heat transfer coefficient of the battery and the ambient temperature was investigated. The relationship between the temperature rise (Tr, the number of cycles (c, and the heat transfer coefficient (h under three Harbin bus cycles have been investigated at 30 °C, because it can provide a basis for the design of the battery thermal management system. The results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient that meets the requirements of the battery thermal management system is the cubic power function of the ambient temperature. Therefore, if the ambient temperature is 30 °C, the heat transfer coefficient should be at least 12 W/m2K in the regular bus lines, 22 W/m2K in the bus rapid transit lines, and 32 W/m2K in the suburban lines.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Salewski, Mirko; Korsholm, Søren Bang
2013-01-01
A method is developed to perform plasma composition and ion temperature measurements across the plasma minor radius in TEXTOR based on ion cyclotron structures in collective Thomson scattering spectra. By gradually moving the scattering volume, we obtain measurements across the outer midplane of ...
Validation of fast-ion D-alpha spectrum measurements during EAST neutral-beam heated plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Wu, C. R.; Hou, Y. M.; Chang, J. F.; Ding, S. Y.; Chen, Y. J.; Jin, Z.; Xu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wang, J. F.; Lyu, B.; Zang, Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Hu, L.; Wan, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China); Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.; Zhu, Y. B. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Hellermann, M. G. von [Diagnostic Team, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)
2016-11-15
To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been installed on EAST. Fast ion features can be inferred from the Doppler shifted spectrum of Balmer-alpha light from energetic hydrogenic atoms. This paper will focus on the validation of FIDA measurements performed using MHD-quiescent discharges in 2015 campaign. Two codes have been applied to calculate the D{sub α} spectrum: one is a Monte Carlo code, Fortran 90 version FIDASIM, and the other is an analytical code, Simulation of Spectra (SOS). The predicted SOS fast-ion spectrum agrees well with the measurement; however, the level of fast-ion part from FIDASIM is lower. The discrepancy is possibly due to the difference between FIDASIM and SOS velocity distribution function. The details will be presented in the paper to primarily address comparisons of predicted and observed spectrum shapes/amplitudes.
Suttle, L. G.; Hare, J. D.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ciardi, A.; Loureiro, N. F.; Burdiak, G. C.; Chittenden, J. P.; Clayson, T.; Halliday, J. W. D.; Niasse, N.; Russell, D.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Tubman, E.; Lane, T.; Ma, J.; Robinson, T.; Smith, R. A.; Stuart, N.
2018-04-01
This work presents a magnetic reconnection experiment in which the kinetic, magnetic, and thermal properties of the plasma each play an important role in the overall energy balance and structure of the generated reconnection layer. Magnetic reconnection occurs during the interaction of continuous and steady flows of super-Alfvénic, magnetized, aluminum plasma, which collide in a geometry with two-dimensional symmetry, producing a stable and long-lasting reconnection layer. Optical Thomson scattering measurements show that when the layer forms, ions inside the layer are more strongly heated than electrons, reaching temperatures of Ti˜Z ¯ Te≳300 eV—much greater than can be expected from strong shock and viscous heating alone. Later in time, as the plasma density in the layer increases, the electron and ion temperatures are found to equilibrate, and a constant plasma temperature is achieved through a balance of the heating mechanisms and radiative losses of the plasma. Measurements from Faraday rotation polarimetry also indicate the presence of significant magnetic field pile-up occurring at the boundary of the reconnection region, which is consistent with the super-Alfvénic velocity of the inflows.
Sequential stochastic optimization
Cairoli, Renzo
1996-01-01
Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet
Remarks on stochastic acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graeff, P.
1982-12-01
Stochastic acceleration and turbulent diffusion are strong turbulence problems since no expansion parameter exists. Hence the problem of finding rigorous results is of major interest both for checking approximations and for reference models. Since we have found a way of constructing such models in the turbulent diffusion case the question of the extension to stochastic acceleration now arises. The paper offers some possibilities illustrated by the case of 'stochastic free fall' which may be particularly interesting in the context of linear response theory. (orig.)
Generalization of uncertainty relation for quantum and stochastic systems
Koide, T.; Kodama, T.
2018-06-01
The generalized uncertainty relation applicable to quantum and stochastic systems is derived within the stochastic variational method. This relation not only reproduces the well-known inequality in quantum mechanics but also is applicable to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equation, showing that the finite minimum uncertainty between the position and the momentum is not an inherent property of quantum mechanics but a common feature of stochastic systems. We further discuss the possible implication of the present study in discussing the application of the hydrodynamic picture to microscopic systems, like relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
Non-proximate mass spectrometry using a heated 1-m long PTFE tube and an air-tight APCI ion source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usmanov, Dilshadbek T.; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Wada, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Masaya; Sanada-Morimura, Sachiyo; Nonami, Hiroshi; Yamabe, Shinichi
2017-01-01
Direct and rapid trace-level gas analysis is highly needed in various fields such as safety and security, quality control, food analysis, and forensic medicine. In many cases, the real samples are bulky and are not accessible to the space-limited ion source of the mass spectrometer. In order to circumvent this problem, we developed an airtight atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source equipped with a flexible 1-m-long, 2-mm-i.d. PTFE sniffing tube. The ambient air bearing sample gas was sucked into the heated PTFE tube (130 °C) and was transported to the air-tight ion source without using any extra pumping system or a Venturi device. Analytes were ionized by an ac corona discharge located at 1.5 mm from the inlet of the mass spectrometer. By using the airtight ion source, all the ionized gas in the ion source was introduced into the vacuum of the mass spectrometer via only the evacuation of the mass spectrometer (1.6 l min"−"1). Sub-pg limits of detection were obtained for carbaryl and trinitrotoluene. Owing to its flexibility and high sensitivity, the sniffing tube coupled with a mass spectrometer can be used as the stethoscope for the high-sensitive gas analysis. The experimental results obtained for drugs, hydrogen peroxide and small alkanes were discussed by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Non-proximate mass spectrometry for the trace-level gas analysis was developed. • Using a 1-m long flexible PTFE tube, it can be applicable to complicated-shape real-world samples. • By atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the airtight ion source, sub-pg limits of detection were attained. • Adsorption of less-volatility compounds was negligible with the tube temperature at 130° C. • Novel experimental results obtained were fully examined by density functional theory calculations.
Non-proximate mass spectrometry using a heated 1-m long PTFE tube and an air-tight APCI ion source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Usmanov, Dilshadbek T. [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, Takeda-4, Kofu, Yamanashi, 400-8511 (Japan); Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies, Durmon Yoli Street 33, 100125, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Hiraoka, Kenzo, E-mail: hiraoka@yamanashi.ac.jp [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, Takeda-4, Kofu, Yamanashi, 400-8511 (Japan); Wada, Hiroshi [Kyushu Okinawa Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 496 Izumi, Chikugo, Fukuoka 833-0041 (Japan); Matsumura, Masaya; Sanada-Morimura, Sachiyo [Kyushu Okinawa Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Suya 2421, shiKo, Kumamoto 861-1192 (Japan); Nonami, Hiroshi [Plant Biophysics/Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 T Tarumi, 790-0905, Matsuyama (Japan); Yamabe, Shinichi, E-mail: yamabesh@gmail.com [Department of Material Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama-cho, 8916-5, Ikoma, Nara, 630−0101 (Japan)
2017-06-22
Direct and rapid trace-level gas analysis is highly needed in various fields such as safety and security, quality control, food analysis, and forensic medicine. In many cases, the real samples are bulky and are not accessible to the space-limited ion source of the mass spectrometer. In order to circumvent this problem, we developed an airtight atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source equipped with a flexible 1-m-long, 2-mm-i.d. PTFE sniffing tube. The ambient air bearing sample gas was sucked into the heated PTFE tube (130 °C) and was transported to the air-tight ion source without using any extra pumping system or a Venturi device. Analytes were ionized by an ac corona discharge located at 1.5 mm from the inlet of the mass spectrometer. By using the airtight ion source, all the ionized gas in the ion source was introduced into the vacuum of the mass spectrometer via only the evacuation of the mass spectrometer (1.6 l min{sup −1}). Sub-pg limits of detection were obtained for carbaryl and trinitrotoluene. Owing to its flexibility and high sensitivity, the sniffing tube coupled with a mass spectrometer can be used as the stethoscope for the high-sensitive gas analysis. The experimental results obtained for drugs, hydrogen peroxide and small alkanes were discussed by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Non-proximate mass spectrometry for the trace-level gas analysis was developed. • Using a 1-m long flexible PTFE tube, it can be applicable to complicated-shape real-world samples. • By atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the airtight ion source, sub-pg limits of detection were attained. • Adsorption of less-volatility compounds was negligible with the tube temperature at 130° C. • Novel experimental results obtained were fully examined by density functional theory calculations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choudhuri, Gargi, E-mail: gargi@barc.gov.in [Quality Assurance Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mukherjee, P.; Gayathri, N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, 700064 (India); Kain, V.; Kiran Kumar, M.; Srivastava, D. [Material Science Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mukherjee, D. [Quality Assurance Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Dey, G.K. [Material Science Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India)
2017-06-15
Effect of heavy-ion irradiation on the crystalline phase transformation of oxide of Zr-2.5Nb alloys has been studied. The steam-autoclaved oxide of pressure tube is irradiated with 306 KeV Ar{sup +9} ions at a dose of 3 × 10{sup 19} Ar{sup +9}/m{sup 2}. The damage profile has been estimated using “Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter” computer program. The variation of the crystal structure along the depth of the irradiated oxide have been characterized non-destructively by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction technique and compared with unirradiated-oxide. The effect of different base metal microstructures on the characteristic of oxide has also been studied. Base metal microstructure as well as the cross-sectional oxide have been characterized using transmission electron microscope. Heavy ion irradiation can significantly alter the distribution of phases in the oxide of the alloy. The difference in chemical state of alloying element has also been found between unirradiated-oxide with that of irradiated-oxide using X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. Chemical state of Nb in steam autoclaved oxide is also altered when the base metal is α + β heat treated.
Stochastic processes inference theory
Rao, Malempati M
2014-01-01
This is the revised and enlarged 2nd edition of the authors’ original text, which was intended to be a modest complement to Grenander's fundamental memoir on stochastic processes and related inference theory. The present volume gives a substantial account of regression analysis, both for stochastic processes and measures, and includes recent material on Ridge regression with some unexpected applications, for example in econometrics. The first three chapters can be used for a quarter or semester graduate course on inference on stochastic processes. The remaining chapters provide more advanced material on stochastic analysis suitable for graduate seminars and discussions, leading to dissertation or research work. In general, the book will be of interest to researchers in probability theory, mathematical statistics and electrical and information theory.
Introduction to stochastic calculus
Karandikar, Rajeeva L
2018-01-01
This book sheds new light on stochastic calculus, the branch of mathematics that is most widely applied in financial engineering and mathematical finance. The first book to introduce pathwise formulae for the stochastic integral, it provides a simple but rigorous treatment of the subject, including a range of advanced topics. The book discusses in-depth topics such as quadratic variation, Ito formula, and Emery topology. The authors briefly address continuous semi-martingales to obtain growth estimates and study solution of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) by using the technique of random time change. Later, by using Metivier–Pellumail inequality, the solutions to SDEs driven by general semi-martingales are discussed. The connection of the theory with mathematical finance is briefly discussed and the book has extensive treatment on the representation of martingales as stochastic integrals and a second fundamental theorem of asset pricing. Intended for undergraduate- and beginning graduate-level stud...
Doberkat, Ernst-Erich
2009-01-01
Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.
Approximating Preemptive Stochastic Scheduling
Megow Nicole; Vredeveld Tjark
2009-01-01
We present constant approximative policies for preemptive stochastic scheduling. We derive policies with a guaranteed performance ratio of 2 for scheduling jobs with release dates on identical parallel machines subject to minimizing the sum of weighted completion times. Our policies as well as their analysis apply also to the recently introduced more general model of stochastic online scheduling. The performance guarantee we give matches the best result known for the corresponding determinist...
The stochastic goodwill problem
Marinelli, Carlo
2003-01-01
Stochastic control problems related to optimal advertising under uncertainty are considered. In particular, we determine the optimal strategies for the problem of maximizing the utility of goodwill at launch time and minimizing the disutility of a stream of advertising costs that extends until the launch time for some classes of stochastic perturbations of the classical Nerlove-Arrow dynamics. We also consider some generalizations such as problems with constrained budget and with discretionar...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hueffel, H.
1990-01-01
After a brief review of the BRST formalism and of the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization method we introduce the BRST stochastic quantization scheme. It allows the second quantization of constrained Hamiltonian systems in a manifestly gauge symmetry preserving way. The examples of the relativistic particle, the spinning particle and the bosonic string are worked out in detail. The paper is closed by a discussion on the interacting field theory associated to the relativistic point particle system. 58 refs. (Author)
Spatial stochasticity and non-continuum effects in gas flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dadzie, S. Kokou, E-mail: k.dadzie@glyndwr.ac.uk [Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Glyndwr University, Mold Road, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); Reese, Jason M., E-mail: jason.reese@strath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)
2012-02-06
We investigate the relationship between spatial stochasticity and non-continuum effects in gas flows. A kinetic model for a dilute gas is developed using strictly a stochastic molecular model reasoning, without primarily referring to either the Liouville or the Boltzmann equations for dilute gases. The kinetic equation, a stochastic version of the well-known deterministic Boltzmann equation for dilute gas, is then associated with a set of macroscopic equations for the case of a monatomic gas. Tests based on a heat conduction configuration and sound wave dispersion show that spatial stochasticity can explain some non-continuum effects seen in gases. -- Highlights: ► We investigate effects of molecular spatial stochasticity in non-continuum regime. ► Present a simplify spatial stochastic kinetic equation. ► Present a spatial stochastic macroscopic flow equations. ► Show effects of the new model on sound wave dispersion prediction. ► Show effects of the new approach in density profiles in a heat conduction.
Stochastic motion due to a single wave in a magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, G.R.
1979-01-01
A single electrostatic wave in a magnetoplasma causes stochastic ion motion in several physically different situations. Various magnetic fields (uniform, tokamak, and mirror) and various propagation angles with respect to the field have been studied. A brief review of this work shows that all situations can be understood using the concept of overlapping resonances. Analytical calculations of the wave amplitude necessary for stochasticity have been carried out in some cases and compared with computer and laboratory experiments. In the case of an axisymmetric mirror field the calculations predict stochastic motion of ions with energy below a threshold that depends weakly on the wave amplitude and on the scale lengths of the magnetic field. Studies with an azimuthally asymmetric field show that the asymmetry causes substantial changes in the motion of some ions
Some remarks on stochastic collective oscillations in ECRIS plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovanivsky, K.S.
1993-08-01
It is proposed that the thermal fluctuations in plasmas in general and in ECRIS plasmas in particular create rather strong stochastic electrical fields affecting both confinement and heating of an ECRIS plasma. The amplitude, range and characteristic frequency of the stochastic fields as well as the perpendicular diffusion coefficient and the upper density limit for the mirror confinement are determined on the level of the approximate evaluations. Some aspects of the ECRIS plasma's peculiarities due to the stochastic electrical fields are discussed. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lysoivan, A.I.; Moiseenko, V.E.; Plyusnin, V.V.; Kasilov, S.V.; Bondarenko, V.N.; Chechkin, V.V.; Fomin, I.P.; Grigor'eva, L.I.; Konovalov, V.G.; Koval'ov, S.V.; Litvinov, A.P.; Mironov, Yu.K.; Nazarov, N.I.; Pavlichenko, O.S.; Pavlichenko, R.O.; Shapoval, A.N.; Skibenko, A.I.; Volkov, E.D.
1995-01-01
Numerical and experimental results of Alfven wave heating of plasmas in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency (ω ci ) are presented. Two different types of antenna were used for plasma production and heating: a frame type antenna (FTA) conventionally used in the URAGAN-3M device and a three-half-turn antenna (THTA) proposed recently to avoid the deleterious effects of conversion of fast wave to slow wave in the plasma periphery and to perform plasma core heating more effectively. Numerical modeling of electromagnetic field excitation in the URAGAN-3M plasma by the FTA and THTA was performed using a one-dimensional code. The results of calculations showed better performance of the compact THTA compared with the FTA for the case of a high density plasma (approximately 10 13 cm -3 ). When using the THTA, the experiments performed showed the possibility of dense plasma production (more than 2x10 13 cm -3 ) and heating, which had not been obtained earlier in the URAGAN-3M. Shifting the power deposition profile deeper inside the plasma body with the THTA resulted in modification of the plasma density profile and an improvement in plasma confinement. ((orig.))
Stochastic Evolution Equations Driven by Fractional Noises
2016-11-28
paper is to establish the weak convergence, in the topology of the Skorohod space, of the ν-symmetric Riemann sums for functionals of the fractional...stochastic heat equation with fractional-colored noise: existence of the solution. ALEA Lat. Am. J. Probab. Math . Stat. 4 (2008), 57–87. [8] P. Carmona, Y...Hu: Strong disorder implies strong localization for directed polymers in a random environment. ALEA Lat. Am. J. Probab. Math . Stat. 2 (2006), 217
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pailloux, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes d`Enrichissement]|[Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)
1997-12-31
This work has been achieved in the frame of isotopic separation studies by in cyclotron resonance. For this purpose, in a highly magnetized (2 to 3 Tesla) and non-collisional (10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 3}) plasma, composed of metallic ions, a wave near the ion cyclotron frequency is thrown in order to heat selectively a given species. A laser induced fluorescence (LIP) has been developed on barium and gadolinium plasmas. The Larmor gyration of ions greatly modifies the interaction, which has been modelled through the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The obtained excitation probably has been integrated over all the ions excited in the measurement volume in order to check that the LIF still leads to the distribution function of ion velocities. The influence of the Larmor motion of ions on the spectral distribution of LIF has been derived both theoretically and experimentally. The LIF diagnostics has been achieved with a dye O`ring laser. The barium ion has been excited on the transition 6142 angstrom, using rhodamine 6G dye, and the gadolinium ion on the pseudo-triplet 3861 angstrom, using exalite dye. Data treatment has been developed taking into account the Zeeman effect and the different heating of isotopes. The ionic temperature (from 1 eV to some hundreds eV) has been measured as a function of radiofrequency heating. Our experimental results are in good agreement with the selective heating theory. Also, the ion velocity distribution function has been found locally Maxwellian. And the behaviour of the plasma has been studied as a function of control parameters of the plasma source. (author) 62 refs.
Stacking with stochastic cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter
2004-10-11
Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toupin, Catherine
1999-01-01
This work was aimed at characterizing the acceleration and transport of the plasma electrons and ions during the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a dense plasma. Our main tool was numerical simulation with kinetic particle-in-cell codes. During the interaction, the target surface electrons are accelerated up to high energies inward the target. The electron acceleration mechanisms are proved to strongly depend on the density profile deformation due to the ion motion. This motion has been studied as well and different acceleration mechanisms have been identified: pushing in of the target surface by the laser ponderomotive pressure, acceleration by an electrostatic shock or by breaking of an ion acoustic wave, acceleration by the space charge force induced by radial expulsion of the electrons out of a channel drilled in a slightly overcritical plasma. The electrons and ions accelerated at the target surface penetrate inward the target and interact with it. The competition between the focussing due to the self-generated magnetic field, driven by the very important electron current, and the scattering induced by collisions has been analyzed. In a homogeneous, hot plasma, the existence of an optimum current for which the propagation length without scattering is maximum, has been demonstrated. The electron drag-back effect of the axial electric field is also proved to be more significant than the friction due to collisions. By penetrating into the target, the accelerated ions can produce neutrons if the target is deuterated. A strong correlation between the ion acceleration mechanisms and the angle and energy distributions of the produced neutrons has been underlined. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haran, O.; Shvarts, D.; Thieberger, R.
1998-01-01
Classical transport of neutral particles in a binary, scattering, stochastic media is discussed. It is assumed that the cross-sections of the constituent materials and their volume fractions are known. The inner structure of the media is stochastic, but there exist a statistical knowledge about the lump sizes, shapes and arrangement. The transmission through the composite media depends on the specific heterogeneous realization of the media. The current research focuses on the averaged transmission through an ensemble of realizations, frm which an effective cross-section for the media can be derived. The problem of one dimensional transport in stochastic media has been studied extensively [1]. In the one dimensional description of the problem, particles are transported along a line populated with alternating material segments of random lengths. The current work discusses transport in two-dimensional stochastic media. The phenomenon that is unique to the multi-dimensional description of the problem is obstacle bypassing. Obstacle bypassing tends to reduce the opacity of the media, thereby reducing its effective cross-section. The importance of this phenomenon depends on the manner in which the obstacles are arranged in the media. Results of transport simulations in multi-dimensional stochastic media are presented. Effective cross-sections derived from the simulations are compared against those obtained for the one-dimensional problem, and against those obtained from effective multi-dimensional models, which are partially based on a Markovian assumption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sesnic, S.; Kaita, R.; Batha, S.H.
1998-01-01
If the ion Bernstein wave (IBW) heating power in an H mode discharge of the PBX-M experiment exceeds a threshold power of about 200 kW, a core transport barrier is created in the central region of the plasma. At lower neutral beam injection (NBI) powers, the core barrier is accompanied by an edge L mode. The high edge localized mode (ELM) repetition frequency (1 kHz) prevents the creation of a strong barrier, so the edge first has to make an H-to-L transition before a strong core transport barrier can be created. At higher NBI powers, the ELM repetition frequency is lowered to less than 200 Hz, which allows the immediate creation of a strong core barrier. Edge localized mode loss, which propagates radially first on a fast (non-diffusive) and then on a slow (diffusive) time-scale all the way to the plasma core, is strongly reduced in the core barrier region. Correlated with the reduced ELM loss, the fluctuations in the core barrier region are also strongly reduced, both during the ELM and during the quite periods between the ELMs. There is strong evidence that the IBW induced poloidal flow shear is responsible for the stabilization of core turbulence and the creation of the core transport barrier. The large perpendicular E x B flow shear component of the measured toroidal velocity in co-injection neutral beam heated discharges seems to be largely cancelled by the ion diamagnetic drift shear produced by large ion pressure gradients in the core barrier region. The value of IBW induced poloidal flow has not been experimentally determined, but its numerical value is found to be a factor of 4 larger than either the toroidal velocity or the ion diamagnetic drift shear components, leaving only IBW induced flow shear as the most probable cause for the turbulence stabilization. The core turbulence suppression and the creation of the core transport barrier is also consistent with expectations from a comparison between the E x B flow shear rate and a rough estimate of the
Stochastic approach to microphysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aron, J.C.
1987-01-01
The presently widespread idea of ''vacuum population'', together with the quantum concept of vacuum fluctuations leads to assume a random level below that of matter. This stochastic approach starts by a reminder of the author's previous work, first on the relation of diffusion laws with the foundations of microphysics, and then on hadron spectrum. Following the latter, a random quark model is advanced; it gives to quark pairs properties similar to those of a harmonic oscillator or an elastic string, imagined as an explanation to their asymptotic freedom and their confinement. The stochastic study of such interactions as electron-nucleon, jets in e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions, or pp -> ..pi../sup 0/ + X, gives form factors closely consistent with experiment. The conclusion is an epistemological comment (complementarity between stochastic and quantum domains, E.P.R. paradox, etc...).
Stochastic dynamics and irreversibility
Tomé, Tânia
2015-01-01
This textbook presents an exposition of stochastic dynamics and irreversibility. It comprises the principles of probability theory and the stochastic dynamics in continuous spaces, described by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, and in discrete spaces, described by Markov chains and master equations. Special concern is given to the study of irreversibility, both in systems that evolve to equilibrium and in nonequilibrium stationary states. Attention is also given to the study of models displaying phase transitions and critical phenomema both in thermodynamic equilibrium and out of equilibrium. These models include the linear Glauber model, the Glauber-Ising model, lattice models with absorbing states such as the contact process and those used in population dynamic and spreading of epidemic, probabilistic cellular automata, reaction-diffusion processes, random sequential adsorption and dynamic percolation. A stochastic approach to chemical reaction is also presented.The textbook is intended for students of ...
Stochastic optimization methods
Marti, Kurt
2005-01-01
Optimization problems arising in practice involve random parameters. For the computation of robust optimal solutions, i.e., optimal solutions being insensitive with respect to random parameter variations, deterministic substitute problems are needed. Based on the distribution of the random data, and using decision theoretical concepts, optimization problems under stochastic uncertainty are converted into deterministic substitute problems. Due to the occurring probabilities and expectations, approximative solution techniques must be applied. Deterministic and stochastic approximation methods and their analytical properties are provided: Taylor expansion, regression and response surface methods, probability inequalities, First Order Reliability Methods, convex approximation/deterministic descent directions/efficient points, stochastic approximation methods, differentiation of probability and mean value functions. Convergence results of the resulting iterative solution procedures are given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumpf, H.
1987-01-01
We begin with a naive application of the Parisi-Wu scheme to linearized gravity. This will lead into trouble as one peculiarity of the full theory, the indefiniteness of the Euclidean action, shows up already at this level. After discussing some proposals to overcome this problem, Minkowski space stochastic quantization will be introduced. This will still not result in an acceptable quantum theory of linearized gravity, as the Feynman propagator turns out to be non-causal. This defect will be remedied only after a careful analysis of general covariance in stochastic quantization has been performed. The analysis requires the notion of a metric on the manifold of metrics, and a natural candidate for this is singled out. With this a consistent stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity becomes possible. It is even possible, at least perturbatively, to return to the Euclidean regime. 25 refs. (Author)
Separable quadratic stochastic operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozikov, U.A.; Nazir, S.
2009-04-01
We consider quadratic stochastic operators, which are separable as a product of two linear operators. Depending on properties of these linear operators we classify the set of the separable quadratic stochastic operators: first class of constant operators, second class of linear and third class of nonlinear (separable) quadratic stochastic operators. Since the properties of operators from the first and second classes are well known, we mainly study the properties of the operators of the third class. We describe some Lyapunov functions of the operators and apply them to study ω-limit sets of the trajectories generated by the operators. We also compare our results with known results of the theory of quadratic operators and give some open problems. (author)
Stochastic cooling at Fermilab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marriner, J.
1986-08-01
The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system
Maximal stochastic transport in the Lorenz equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agarwal, Sahil, E-mail: sahil.agarwal@yale.edu [Program in Applied Mathematics, Yale University, New Haven (United States); Wettlaufer, J.S., E-mail: john.wettlaufer@yale.edu [Program in Applied Mathematics, Yale University, New Haven (United States); Departments of Geology & Geophysics, Mathematics and Physics, Yale University, New Haven (United States); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Nordita, Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)
2016-01-08
We calculate the stochastic upper bounds for the Lorenz equations using an extension of the background method. In analogy with Rayleigh–Bénard convection the upper bounds are for heat transport versus Rayleigh number. As might be expected, the stochastic upper bounds are larger than the deterministic counterpart of Souza and Doering [1], but their variation with noise amplitude exhibits interesting behavior. Below the transition to chaotic dynamics the upper bounds increase monotonically with noise amplitude. However, in the chaotic regime this monotonicity depends on the number of realizations in the ensemble; at a particular Rayleigh number the bound may increase or decrease with noise amplitude. The origin of this behavior is the coupling between the noise and unstable periodic orbits, the degree of which depends on the degree to which the ensemble represents the ergodic set. This is confirmed by examining the close returns plots of the full solutions to the stochastic equations and the numerical convergence of the noise correlations. The numerical convergence of both the ensemble and time averages of the noise correlations is sufficiently slow that it is the limiting aspect of the realization of these bounds. Finally, we note that the full solutions of the stochastic equations demonstrate that the effect of noise is equivalent to the effect of chaos.
Stochastic Feedforward Control Technique
Halyo, Nesim
1990-01-01
Class of commanded trajectories modeled as stochastic process. Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research and development program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center aimed at developing capabilities for increases in capacities of airports, safe and accurate flight in adverse weather conditions including shear, winds, avoidance of wake vortexes, and reduced consumption of fuel. Advances in techniques for design of modern controls and increased capabilities of digital flight computers coupled with accurate guidance information from Microwave Landing System (MLS). Stochastic feedforward control technique developed within context of ATOPS program.
Markov stochasticity coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-01-01
Markov dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental models of random motion between the states of a system of interest. Markov dynamics have diverse applications in many fields of science and engineering, and are particularly applicable in the context of random motion in networks. In this paper we present a two-dimensional gauging method of the randomness of Markov dynamics. The method–termed Markov Stochasticity Coordinates–is established, discussed, and exemplified. Also, the method is tweaked to quantify the stochasticity of the first-passage-times of Markov dynamics, and the socioeconomic equality and mobility in human societies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Maria
This thesis treats stochastic systems with switching dynamics. Models with these characteristics are studied from several perspectives. Initially in a simple framework given in the form of stochastic differential equations and, later, in an extended form which fits into the framework of sliding...... mode control. It is investigated how to understand and interpret solutions to models of switched systems, which are exposed to discontinuous dynamics and uncertainties (primarily) in the form of white noise. The goal is to gain knowledge about the performance of the system by interpreting the solution...
Stochastic dynamics and control
Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zaslavsky, George
2006-01-01
This book is a result of many years of author's research and teaching on random vibration and control. It was used as lecture notes for a graduate course. It provides a systematic review of theory of probability, stochastic processes, and stochastic calculus. The feedback control is also reviewed in the book. Random vibration analyses of SDOF, MDOF and continuous structural systems are presented in a pedagogical order. The application of the random vibration theory to reliability and fatigue analysis is also discussed. Recent research results on fatigue analysis of non-Gaussian stress proc
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Roux Presented at the International Conference on Correlation Optics 2013 Chernivtsi, Ukraine 18-20 September 2013 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa – p. 1/24 Contents ⊲ Defining Stochastic Singular Optics (SSO) ⊲ Tools of Stochastic... of vortices: topological charge ±1 (higher order are unstable). Positive and negative vortex densities np(x, y, z) and nn(x, y, z) ⊲ Vortex density: V = np + nn ⊲ Topological charge density: T = np − nn – p. 4/24 Subfields of SSO ⊲ Homogeneous, normally...
Foundations of stochastic analysis
Rao, M M; Lukacs, E
1981-01-01
Foundations of Stochastic Analysis deals with the foundations of the theory of Kolmogorov and Bochner and its impact on the growth of stochastic analysis. Topics covered range from conditional expectations and probabilities to projective and direct limits, as well as martingales and likelihood ratios. Abstract martingales and their applications are also discussed. Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the basic Kolmogorov-Bochner theorem, followed by a discussion on conditional expectations and probabilities containing several characterizations of operators and mea
Markov stochasticity coordinates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: iddo.eliazar@intel.com
2017-01-15
Markov dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental models of random motion between the states of a system of interest. Markov dynamics have diverse applications in many fields of science and engineering, and are particularly applicable in the context of random motion in networks. In this paper we present a two-dimensional gauging method of the randomness of Markov dynamics. The method–termed Markov Stochasticity Coordinates–is established, discussed, and exemplified. Also, the method is tweaked to quantify the stochasticity of the first-passage-times of Markov dynamics, and the socioeconomic equality and mobility in human societies.
Stochastic models, estimation, and control
Maybeck, Peter S
1982-01-01
This volume builds upon the foundations set in Volumes 1 and 2. Chapter 13 introduces the basic concepts of stochastic control and dynamic programming as the fundamental means of synthesizing optimal stochastic control laws.
Blume, A; Tuchtenhagen, J
1992-05-19
The heat of dissociation of the second proton of 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) was studied as a function of temperature using titration calorimetry. The dissociation of the second proton of DMPA was induced by addition of NaOH. From the calorimetric titration experiment, the intrinsic pK0 for the dissociation reaction could be determined by applying the Gouy-Chapman theory. pK0 decreases with temperature from ca. 6.2 at 11 degrees C to 5.4 at 54 degrees C. From the total heat of reaction, the dissociation enthalpy, delta Hdiss, was determined by subtracting the heat of neutralization of water and the heat of dilution of NaOH. In the temperature range between 2 and 23 degrees C, delta Hdiss is endothermic with an average value of ca. 2.5 kcal.mol-1 and shows no clear-cut temperature dependence. In the temperature range between 23 and 52 degrees C, delta Hdiss calculated after subtraction of the heat of neutralization and dilution is not the true dissociation enthalpy but includes contributions from the phase transition enthalpy, delta Htrans, as the pH jump induces a transition from the gel to the liquid-crystalline phase. The delta Cp for the reaction enthalpy observed in this temperature range is positive. Above 53 degrees C, the pH jump induces again only the dissociation of the second proton, and the bilayers stay in the liquid-crystalline phase. In this temperature range, delta Hdiss seems to decrease with temperature. The thermodynamic data from titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry as a function of pH can be combined to construct a complete enthalpy-temperature diagram of DMPA in its two ionization states.
Stochastic quantisation: theme and variation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klauder, J.R.; Kyoto Univ.
1987-01-01
The paper on stochastic quantisation is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. Stochastic quantisation reformulates Euclidean quantum field theory in the language of Langevin equations. The generalised free field is discussed from the viewpoint of stochastic quantisation. An artificial family of highly singular model theories wherein the space-time derivatives are dropped altogether is also examined. Finally a modified form of stochastic quantisation is considered. (U.K.)
Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in shaft-type reactor with fuel-plasma source of heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dmitriev, S. A.; Knyazev, I. A.; Lifanov, F. A.; Polkanov, M. A.; Shvetsov, S. Yu; Savkin, A. E.
1999-01-01
The method of high-temperature conditioning the spent radioactive ion-exchange resins in combination with other combustible and incombustible radioactive waste in the plasma shaft furnace with obtaining a crystalline glass-like matrix as a final product has been developed. The method was tested on the pilot plant consisted of ceramic plasma melter, steel water-cooled shaft furnace, lined by fire-resistant concrete, and system of gas purification. The capacity of the furnace was within the limits from 10 to 15 kg/h. The volume and mass reduction factors of treated waste were 36 and 7.6, accordingly. The content of gaseous products of thermal decomposition of a waste at an output of the shaft furnace and properties of obtained slag compound were determined. Based on test results the proposals on creation of compact plasma plant for treatment of mixed radioactive waste including spent ion exchange resins were developed. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs
COSMIC DUST AGGREGATION WITH STOCHASTIC CHARGING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.; Shotorban, Babak
2013-01-01
The coagulation of cosmic dust grains is a fundamental process which takes place in astrophysical environments, such as presolar nebulae and circumstellar and protoplanetary disks. Cosmic dust grains can become charged through interaction with their plasma environment or other processes, and the resultant electrostatic force between dust grains can strongly affect their coagulation rate. Since ions and electrons are collected on the surface of the dust grain at random time intervals, the electrical charge of a dust grain experiences stochastic fluctuations. In this study, a set of stochastic differential equations is developed to model these fluctuations over the surface of an irregularly shaped aggregate. Then, employing the data produced, the influence of the charge fluctuations on the coagulation process and the physical characteristics of the aggregates formed is examined. It is shown that dust with small charges (due to the small size of the dust grains or a tenuous plasma environment) is affected most strongly
Stochastic quantization of Proca field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, S.C.
1981-03-01
We discuss the complications that arise in the application of Nelson's stochastic quantization scheme to classical Proca field. One consistent way to obtain spin-one massive stochastic field is given. It is found that the result of Guerra et al on the connection between ground state stochastic field and the corresponding Euclidean-Markov field extends to the spin-one case. (author)
Stochastic Estimation via Polynomial Chaos
2015-10-01
AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2015-108 Stochastic Estimation via Polynomial Chaos Douglas V. Nance Air Force Research...COVERED (From - To) 20-04-2015 – 07-08-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Stochastic Estimation via Polynomial Chaos ...This expository report discusses fundamental aspects of the polynomial chaos method for representing the properties of second order stochastic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuch, R.
1987-01-01
A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs