Mechanisms of Stochastic Diffusion of Energetic Ions in Spherical Tori
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; R.B. White; Yu.V. Yakovenko
2001-01-18
Stochastic diffusion of the energetic ions in spherical tori is considered. The following issues are addressed: (I) Goldston-White-Boozer diffusion in a rippled field; (ii) cyclotron-resonance-induced diffusion caused by the ripple; (iii) effects of non-conservation of the magnetic moment in an axisymmetric field. It is found that the stochastic diffusion in spherical tori with a weak magnetic field has a number of peculiarities in comparison with conventional tokamaks; in particular, it is characterized by an increased role of mechanisms associated with non-conservation of the particle magnetic moment. It is concluded that in current experiments on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) the stochastic diffusion does not have a considerable influence on the confinement of energetic ions.
Stochastic diffusion models for substitutable technological innovations
Wang, L.; Hu, B.; Yu, X.
2004-01-01
Based on the analysis of firms' stochastic adoption behaviour, this paper first points out the necessity to build more practical stochastic models. And then, stochastic evolutionary models are built for substitutable innovation diffusion system. Finally, through the computer simulation of the
Double diffusivity model under stochastic forcing
Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Aifantis, Elias C.
2017-05-01
The "double diffusivity" model was proposed in the late 1970s, and reworked in the early 1980s, as a continuum counterpart to existing discrete models of diffusion corresponding to high diffusivity paths, such as grain boundaries and dislocation lines. It was later rejuvenated in the 1990s to interpret experimental results on diffusion in polycrystalline and nanocrystalline specimens where grain boundaries and triple grain boundary junctions act as high diffusivity paths. Technically, the model pans out as a system of coupled Fick-type diffusion equations to represent "regular" and "high" diffusivity paths with "source terms" accounting for the mass exchange between the two paths. The model remit was extended by analogy to describe flow in porous media with double porosity, as well as to model heat conduction in media with two nonequilibrium local temperature baths, e.g., ion and electron baths. Uncoupling of the two partial differential equations leads to a higher-ordered diffusion equation, solutions of which could be obtained in terms of classical diffusion equation solutions. Similar equations could also be derived within an "internal length" gradient (ILG) mechanics formulation applied to diffusion problems, i.e., by introducing nonlocal effects, together with inertia and viscosity, in a mechanics based formulation of diffusion theory. While being remarkably successful in studies related to various aspects of transport in inhomogeneous media with deterministic microstructures and nanostructures, its implications in the presence of stochasticity have not yet been considered. This issue becomes particularly important in the case of diffusion in nanopolycrystals whose deterministic ILG-based theoretical calculations predict a relaxation time that is only about one-tenth of the actual experimentally verified time scale. This article provides the "missing link" in this estimation by adding a vital element in the ILG structure, that of stochasticity, that takes into
Stochastic models for surface diffusion of molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shea, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.shea@dal.ca; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)
2014-07-28
We derive a stochastic model for the surface diffusion of molecules, starting from the classical equations of motion for an N-atom molecule on a surface. The equation of motion becomes a generalized Langevin equation for the center of mass of the molecule, with a non-Markovian friction kernel. In the Markov approximation, a standard Langevin equation is recovered, and the effect of the molecular vibrations on the diffusion is seen to lead to an increase in the friction for center of mass motion. This effective friction has a simple form that depends on the curvature of the lowest energy diffusion path in the 3N-dimensional coordinate space. We also find that so long as the intramolecular forces are sufficiently strong, memory effects are usually not significant and the Markov approximation can be employed, resulting in a simple one-dimensional model that can account for the effect of the dynamics of the molecular vibrations on the diffusive motion.
Minimum uncertainty and squeezing in diffusion processes and stochastic quantization
Demartino, S.; Desiena, S.; Illuminati, Fabrizo; Vitiello, Giuseppe
1994-01-01
We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.
Diffusive processes in a stochastic magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, H.; Vlad, M.; Vanden Eijnden, E.; Spineanu, F.; Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.
1995-01-01
The statistical representation of a fluctuating (stochastic) magnetic field configuration is studied in detail. The Eulerian correlation functions of the magnetic field are determined, taking into account all geometrical constraints: these objects form a nondiagonal matrix. The Lagrangian correlations, within the reasonable Corrsin approximation, are reduced to a single scalar function, determined by an integral equation. The mean square perpendicular deviation of a geometrical point moving along a perturbed field line is determined by a nonlinear second-order differential equation. The separation of neighboring field lines in a stochastic magnetic field is studied. We find exponentiation lengths of both signs describing, in particular, a decay (on the average) of any initial anisotropy. The vanishing sum of these exponentiation lengths ensures the existence of an invariant which was overlooked in previous works. Next, the separation of a particle's trajectory from the magnetic field line to which it was initially attached is studied by a similar method. Here too an initial phase of exponential separation appears. Assuming the existence of a final diffusive phase, anomalous diffusion coefficients are found for both weakly and strongly collisional limits. The latter is identical to the well known Rechester-Rosenbluth coefficient, which is obtained here by a more quantitative (though not entirely deductive) treatment than in earlier works
Stochastic Modelling of the Diffusion Coefficient for Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thoft-Christensen, Palle
In the paper, a new stochastic modelling of the diffusion coefficient D is presented. The modelling is based on physical understanding of the diffusion process and on some recent experimental results. The diffusion coefficients D is strongly dependent on the w/c ratio and the temperature....
Conservative diffusions: a constructive approach to Nelson's stochastic mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlen, E.A.
1984-01-01
In Nelson's stochastic mechanics, quantum phenomena are described in terms of diffusions instead of wave functions; this thesis is a study of that description. Concern here is with the possibility of describing, as opposed to explaining, quantum phenomena in terms of diffusions. In this direction, the following questions arise: ''Do the diffusion of stochastic mechanics - which are formally given by stochastic differential equations with extremely singular coefficients - really exist.'' Given that they exist, one can ask, ''Do these diffusions have physically reasonable paths to study the behavior of physical systems.'' These are the questions treated in this thesis. In Chapter 1, stochastic mechanics and diffusion theory are reviewed, using the Guerra-Morato variational principle to establish the connection with the Schroedinger equation. Chapter II settles the first of the questions raised above. Using PDE methods, the diffusions of stochastic mechanics are constructed. The result is sufficiently general to be of independent mathematical interest. In Chapter III, potential scattering in stochastic mechanics is treated and direct probabilistic methods of studying quantum scattering problems are discussed. The results provide a solid YES in answer to the second question raised above
Stochastic differential equations and diffusion processes
Ikeda, N
1989-01-01
Being a systematic treatment of the modern theory of stochastic integrals and stochastic differential equations, the theory is developed within the martingale framework, which was developed by J.L. Doob and which plays an indispensable role in the modern theory of stochastic analysis.A considerable number of corrections and improvements have been made for the second edition of this classic work. In particular, major and substantial changes are in Chapter III and Chapter V where the sections treating excursions of Brownian Motion and the Malliavin Calculus have been expanded and refined. Sectio
Stochastic reaction-diffusion algorithms for macromolecular crowding
Sturrock, Marc
2016-06-01
Compartment-based (lattice-based) reaction-diffusion algorithms are often used for studying complex stochastic spatio-temporal processes inside cells. In this paper the influence of macromolecular crowding on stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations is investigated. Reaction-diffusion processes are considered on two different kinds of compartmental lattice, a cubic lattice and a hexagonal close packed lattice, and solved using two different algorithms, the stochastic simulation algorithm and the spatiocyte algorithm (Arjunan and Tomita 2010 Syst. Synth. Biol. 4, 35-53). Obstacles (modelling macromolecular crowding) are shown to have substantial effects on the mean squared displacement and average number of molecules in the domain but the nature of these effects is dependent on the choice of lattice, with the cubic lattice being more susceptible to the effects of the obstacles. Finally, improvements for both algorithms are presented.
Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility and Jump Diffusion Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radu Lupu
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Option pricing by the use of Black Scholes Merton (BSM model is based on the assumption that asset prices have a lognormal distribution. In spite of the use of these models on a large scale, both by practioners and academics, the assumption of lognormality is rejected by the history of returns. The objective of this article is to present the methods that developed after the Black Scholes Merton environment and deals with the option pricing model adjustment to the empirical properties of asset returns. The main models that appeared after BSM allowed for special changes of the returns that materialized in jump-diffusion and stochastic volatility processes. The article presents the foundations of risk neutral options evaluation and the empirical evidence that fed the amendment of the lognormal assumption in the first part and shows the evaluation procedure under the assumption of stock prices following the jump-diffusion process and the stochastic volatility process.
Facilitated diffusion in a crowded environment: from kinetics to stochastics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meroz, Yasmine; Klafter, Joseph; Eliazar, Iddo
2009-01-01
Facilitated diffusion is a fundamental search process used to describe the problem of a searcher protein finding a specific target site over a very large DNA strand. In recent years macromolecular crowding has been recognized to affect this search process. In this paper, we bridge between two different modelling methodologies of facilitated diffusion: the physics-oriented kinetic approach, which yields the reaction rate of the search process, and the probability-oriented stochastic approach, which yields the probability distribution of the search duration. We translate the former approach to the latter, ascertaining that the two approaches yield coinciding results, both with and without macromolecular crowding. We further show that the stochastic approach markedly generalizes the kinetic approach by accommodating a vast array of search mechanisms, including mechanisms having no reaction rates, and thus being beyond the realm of the kinetic approach.
Simulation of conditional diffusions via forward-reverse stochastic representations
Bayer, Christian
2015-01-01
We derive stochastic representations for the finite dimensional distributions of a multidimensional diffusion on a fixed time interval,conditioned on the terminal state. The conditioning can be with respect to a fixed measurement point or more generally with respect to some subset. The representations rely on a reverse process connected with the given (forward) diffusion as introduced by Milstein, Schoenmakers and Spokoiny in the context of density estimation. The corresponding Monte Carlo estimators have essentially root-N accuracy, and hence they do not suffer from the curse of dimensionality. We also present an application in statistics, in the context of the EM algorithm.
Simulation of conditional diffusions via forward-reverse stochastic representations
Bayer, Christian
2015-01-07
We derive stochastic representations for the finite dimensional distributions of a multidimensional diffusion on a fixed time interval,conditioned on the terminal state. The conditioning can be with respect to a fixed measurement point or more generally with respect to some subset. The representations rely on a reverse process connected with the given (forward) diffusion as introduced by Milstein, Schoenmakers and Spokoiny in the context of density estimation. The corresponding Monte Carlo estimators have essentially root-N accuracy, and hence they do not suffer from the curse of dimensionality. We also present an application in statistics, in the context of the EM algorithm.
Magnetic field line diffusion at the onset of stochasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsaesser, K.; Deeskow, P.
1987-01-01
The Hamiltonian equations of a particle in a random set of waves just above the stochasticity threshold are considered both theoretically and numerically. First we derive the diffusion coefficient and the autocorrelation time perturbatively without using the thermodynamic limit, and we discuss the relevance of the Hamiltonian problem for particle acceleration and magnetic field line flow. Then we integrate the equations for an ensemble of magnetic field lines numerically for a model problem and show the time evolution of moments and correlations. Twice above the threshold we observe diffusive behaviour from the beginning, but the diffusion coefficient includes also the non-resonant modes. Just at threshold we find first a short phase of free acceleration, later a diffusion which is lower than predicted by the theoretical formula. The best way to analyze the problem is in terms of cumulants, but a reliable comparison with any theory requires also a time integration of the corresponding kinetic equations. (orig.)
Diffusion of charged particles in a stochastic magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balescu, R.; Misguich, J.H.; Nakach, R.
1992-07-01
The diffusive motion of charged particles in a stochastic magnetic field is investigated systematically in a model in which the statistics of both the collisions and the magnetic field are described by coloured noises characterized, respectively, by a finite correlation time and finite correlation lengths. An analytic solution is obtained for the basic nonlinear differential equation of the model..It describes asymptotically a pure diffusion process, in which the mean square displacement in the perpendicular direction, Γ(t), grows proportionally to time (after a sufficiently long time). The corresponding diffusion coefficient scales like the fourth power of the magnetic fluctuation intensity. The values obtained are in very good agreement with experimental data in reverse-field pinch experiments. The present result contradicts earlier results predicting subdiffusive behaviour: Γ(t) ∼ t 1/2 or Γ(t) ∼ t 1/4 . The relation of these results to ours is discussed in detail
Geometro-stochastic locality in quantum spacetime and quantum diffusions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prugovecki, E.
1991-01-01
The issue of the intrinsic nonlocality of quantum mechanics raised by J.S. Bell is examined from the point of view of the recently developed method of geometro-stochastic quantization and its applications to general relativistic quantum theory. This analysis reveals that a distinction should be made between the topological concept of locality used in formulating relativistic causality and a type of geometric locality based on the concept of fiber bundle, which can be used in extending the strong equivalence principle to the quantum domain. Both play an essential role in formulating a notion of geometro-stochastic propagation based on quantum diffusions, which throws new light on the EPR paradox, on the origin of the arrow of time, and on other fundamental issues in quantum cosmology and the theory of measurement
Anomalous transport regimes in a stochastic advection-diffusion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dranikov, I.L.; Kondratenko, P.S.; Matveev, L.V.
2004-01-01
A general solution to the stochastic advection-diffusion problem is obtained for a fractal medium with long-range correlated spatial fluctuations. A particular transport regime is determined by two basic parameters: the exponent 2h of power-law decay of the two-point velocity correlation function and the mean advection velocity u. The values of these parameters corresponding to anomalous diffusion are determined, and anomalous behavior of the tracer distribution is analyzed for various combinations of u and h. The tracer concentration is shown to decrease exponentially at large distances, whereas power-law decay is predicted by fractional differential equations. Equations that describe the essential characteristics of the solution are written in terms of coupled space-time fractional differential operators. The analysis relies on a diagrammatic technique and makes use of scale-invariant properties of the medium
Stochastic diffusion of dust grains by the interplanetary magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, M.H.A.; Wallis, M.K.
1983-10-01
The effects of the sectored Interplanetary Magnetic Field on charged dust grains orbiting around the sun under radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag forces are examined for initially circular and non-inclined orbits. The distribution function of the charged grains satisfies a Fokker-Planck equation in which the sectored field is taken as a source of stochastic impulses. By adopting the integrals of the impulse-free motion as variable parameters, the Fokker-Planck equation can be properly treated as a diffusion equation. Analytic solutions of the resulting diffusion equation show that dust grains injected near the ecliptic plane are scattered strongly to high helio-latitudes. The scattering is more pronounced for small grains injected at large distances from the Sun. (author)
Wilcox, R. Stimson
1980-01-01
Discusses how surface-dwelling animals use the water surface as a mode of communication by making ripple signals while they swim about. Provides information about surfaces and surface waves, ripple communication in water striders, ripple signal characteristics, sensing and orienting, other modes of communication, and evolution of ripple…
The effect of toroidal field ripple on confined alphas in TFTR D-T plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duong, H.H.; Medley, S.S.
1996-05-01
The Pellet Charge Exchange (PCX) diagnostic on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) presently measures trapped alpha distribution functions with very small pitch angle (v parallel /v ∼ 0.05) at the midplane. The measured PCX alpha signal exhibits a depletion region near the outboard region. Results of the alpha energy spectra and radial profile suggest stochastic ripple diffusion is the cause of the depletion. Comparison of the ripple stochastization boundary with Goldston-White-Boozer theory also shows the correct functional dependence on alpha energy and q-profile
Stochastic Description of Activated Surface Diffusion with Interacting Adsorbates
Martínez-Casado, Ruth; Vega, José Luis; Sanz, Ángel S.; Miret-Artés, Salvador
Activated surface diffusion on metal surfaces is receiving much attention both experimentally and theoretically. One of the main theoretical problems in this field is to explain the line-shape broadening observed when the surface coverage is increased. Recently, we have proposed a fully stochastic model, the interacting single adsorbate (ISA) model, aimed at explaining and understanding this type of experiments, which essentially consists of considering the classical Langevin formulation with two types of noise forces: (i) a Gaussian white noise accounting for the substrate friction, and (ii) a shot noise simulating the interacting adsorbates at different coverages. No interaction potential between adsorbates is included because any trace of microscopic interaction seems to be wiped out in a Markovian regime. This model describes in a good approximation, and at a very low computational cost, the line-shape broadening observed experimentally. Furthermore, its mathematical simplicity also allows to derive some analytical expressions which are of much help in the interpretation of the physics underlying surface diffusion processes.
Wang, Xiaohu; Lu, Kening; Wang, Bixiang
2018-01-01
In this paper, we study the Wong-Zakai approximations given by a stationary process via the Wiener shift and their associated long term behavior of the stochastic reaction-diffusion equation driven by a white noise. We first prove the existence and uniqueness of tempered pullback attractors for the Wong-Zakai approximations of stochastic reaction-diffusion equation. Then, we show that the attractors of Wong-Zakai approximations converges to the attractor of the stochastic reaction-diffusion equation for both additive and multiplicative noise.
Diagram of collisional regimes for particle diffusion in a stochastic magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.
1995-01-01
This document deals with static stochastic fields, where magnetic lines experience exponential separation and magnetic diffusion. It more particularly focuses on the diffusivity of collisional particles in such a fields and presents a general graph which describes most regimes of collisional and weakly collisional diffusion for guiding centers in a time-independent magnetic field. (TEC). 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
Stochastic processes and applications diffusion processes, the Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations
Pavliotis, Grigorios A
2014-01-01
This book presents various results and techniques from the theory of stochastic processes that are useful in the study of stochastic problems in the natural sciences. The main focus is analytical methods, although numerical methods and statistical inference methodologies for studying diffusion processes are also presented. The goal is the development of techniques that are applicable to a wide variety of stochastic models that appear in physics, chemistry and other natural sciences. Applications such as stochastic resonance, Brownian motion in periodic potentials and Brownian motors are studied and the connection between diffusion processes and time-dependent statistical mechanics is elucidated. The book contains a large number of illustrations, examples, and exercises. It will be useful for graduate-level courses on stochastic processes for students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering. Many of the topics covered in this book (reversible diffusions, convergence to eq...
Lei, Youming; Zheng, Fan
2016-12-01
Stochastic chaos induced by diffusion processes, with identical spectral density but different probability density functions (PDFs), is investigated in selected lightly damped Hamiltonian systems. The threshold amplitude of diffusion processes for the onset of chaos is derived by using the stochastic Melnikov method together with a mean-square criterion. Two quasi-Hamiltonian systems, namely, a damped single pendulum and damped Duffing oscillator perturbed by stochastic excitations, are used as illustrative examples. Four different cases of stochastic processes are taking as the driving excitations. It is shown that in such two systems the spectral density of diffusion processes completely determines the threshold amplitude for chaos, regardless of the shape of their PDFs, Gaussian or otherwise. Furthermore, the mean top Lyapunov exponent is employed to verify analytical results. The results obtained by numerical simulations are in accordance with the analytical results. This demonstrates that the stochastic Melnikov method is effective in predicting the onset of chaos in the quasi-Hamiltonian systems.
Horowitz, Jordan M
2015-07-28
The stochastic thermodynamics of a dilute, well-stirred mixture of chemically reacting species is built on the stochastic trajectories of reaction events obtained from the chemical master equation. However, when the molecular populations are large, the discrete chemical master equation can be approximated with a continuous diffusion process, like the chemical Langevin equation or low noise approximation. In this paper, we investigate to what extent these diffusion approximations inherit the stochastic thermodynamics of the chemical master equation. We find that a stochastic-thermodynamic description is only valid at a detailed-balanced, equilibrium steady state. Away from equilibrium, where there is no consistent stochastic thermodynamics, we show that one can still use the diffusive solutions to approximate the underlying thermodynamics of the chemical master equation.
Diffusion with intrinsic trapping in 2-d incompressible stochastic velocity fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Misguich, J.H.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Balescu, R.
1998-10-01
A new statistical approach that applies to the high Kubo number regimes for particle diffusion in stochastic velocity fields is presented. This 2-dimensional model describes the partial trapping of the particles in the stochastic field. the results are close to the numerical simulations and also to the estimations based on percolation theory. (authors)
2006-01-01
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues to cut southward across a plain marked by large sand ripples and a pavement of outcrop rock. The ripple in the center of the image shows a distinct pattern of banding, which the science team hopes to investigate more closely during the trek through this terrain. The banding and other features have inspired a hypothesis that Meridiani ripples are old features that are currently being eroded, and not transported, by wind. This navigation camera image was taken on Opportunity's sol 795, April 19, 2006.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutierrez, R.; Nafidi, A.; Gutierrez Sanchez, R.
2005-01-01
The principal objective of the present study is to examine the possibilities of using a Gompertz-type innovation diffusion process as a stochastic growth model of natural-gas consumption in Spain, and to compare our results with those obtained, on the one hand, by stochastic logistic innovation modelling and, on the other, by using a stochastic lognormal growth model based on a non-innovation diffusion process. Such a comparison is carried out taking into account the macroeconomic characteristics and natural-gas consumption patterns in Spain, both of which reflect the current expansive situation characterizing the Spanish economy. From the technical standpoint a contribution is also made to the theory of the stochastic Gompertz Innovation diffusion process (SGIDP), as applied to the case in question. (author)
Generalized ripple-banana transport in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yushmanov, P.N.
1983-01-01
The paper considers the transport of banana particles in a rippled magnetic field over the entire energy range. It is shown that all familiar regimes of ripple transport - ripple-plateau, banana-drift and stochastic - can be described in a unified manner. The general expression obtained for the rippled fluxes of banana particles describes, apart from the already familiar regimes, also the as yet unstudied energy region between the drift and stochastic regimes. A generalized ripple-banana thermal conductivity coefficient, chisub(i)sup(RB), is calculated. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Jin; Wu, Sheng; Li, Hong; Petzold, Linda R.
2014-01-01
The inhomogeneous stochastic simulation algorithm (ISSA) is a fundamental method for spatial stochastic simulation. However, when diffusion events occur more frequently than reaction events, simulating the diffusion events by ISSA is quite costly. To reduce this cost, we propose to use the time dependent propensity function in each step. In this way we can avoid simulating individual diffusion events, and use the time interval between two adjacent reaction events as the simulation stepsize. We demonstrate that the new algorithm can achieve orders of magnitude efficiency gains over widely-used exact algorithms, scales well with increasing grid resolution, and maintains a high level of accuracy
Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction–diffusion models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spill, Fabian; Guerrero, Pilar; Alarcon, Tomas; Maini, Philip K.; Byrne, Helen
2015-01-01
Reaction–diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction–diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid stochastic/deterministic reaction–diffusion simulation method is given. • Can massively speed up stochastic simulations while preserving stochastic effects. • Can handle multiple reacting species. • Can handle moving boundaries
Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction–diffusion models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spill, Fabian, E-mail: fspill@bu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Guerrero, Pilar [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Alarcon, Tomas [Centre de Recerca Matematica, Campus de Bellaterra, Edifici C, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Atonòma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Maini, Philip K. [Wolfson Centre for Mathematical Biology, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Byrne, Helen [Wolfson Centre for Mathematical Biology, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Computational Biology Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom)
2015-10-15
Reaction–diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction–diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid stochastic/deterministic reaction–diffusion simulation method is given. • Can massively speed up stochastic simulations while preserving stochastic effects. • Can handle multiple reacting species. • Can handle moving boundaries.
Ripple induced trapped particle loss in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R.B.
1996-05-01
The threshold for stochastic transport of high energy trapped particles in a tokamak due to toroidal field ripple is calculated by explicit construction of primary resonances, and a numerical examination of the route to chaos. Critical field ripple amplitude is determined for loss. The expression is given in magnetic coordinates and makes no assumptions regarding shape or up-down symmetry. An algorithm is developed including the effects of prompt axisymmetric orbit loss, ripple trapping, convective banana flow, and stochastic ripple loss, which gives accurate ripple loss predictions for representative Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor equilibria. The algorithm is extended to include the effects of collisions and drag, allowing rapid estimation of alpha particle loss in tokamaks
Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.
1990-05-01
The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs
On time-dependent diffusion coefficients arising from stochastic processes with memory
Carpio-Bernido, M. Victoria; Barredo, Wilson I.; Bernido, Christopher C.
2017-08-01
Time-dependent diffusion coefficients arise from anomalous diffusion encountered in many physical systems such as protein transport in cells. We compare these coefficients with those arising from analysis of stochastic processes with memory that go beyond fractional Brownian motion. Facilitated by the Hida white noise functional integral approach, diffusion propagators or probability density functions (pdf) are obtained and shown to be solutions of modified diffusion equations with time-dependent diffusion coefficients. This should be useful in the study of complex transport processes.
Diffusive flux in a model of stochastically gated oxygen transport in insect respiration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2016-05-28
Oxygen delivery to insect tissues is controlled by transport through a branched tubular network that is connected to the atmosphere by valve-like gates, known as spiracles. In certain physiological regimes, the spiracles appear to be randomly switching between open and closed states. Quantitative analysis of this regime leads a reaction-diffusion problem with stochastically switching boundary condition. We derive an expression for the diffusive flux at long times in this problem. Our approach starts with the derivation of the passage probability for a single particle that diffuses between a stochastically gated boundary, which models the opening and closing spiracle, and the perfectly absorbing boundary, which models oxygen absorption by the tissue. This passage probability is then used to derive an expression giving the diffusive flux as a function of the geometric parameters of the tube and characteristic time scales of diffusion and gate dynamics.
An adaptive algorithm for simulation of stochastic reaction-diffusion processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferm, Lars; Hellander, Andreas; Loetstedt, Per
2010-01-01
We propose an adaptive hybrid method suitable for stochastic simulation of diffusion dominated reaction-diffusion processes. For such systems, simulation of the diffusion requires the predominant part of the computing time. In order to reduce the computational work, the diffusion in parts of the domain is treated macroscopically, in other parts with the tau-leap method and in the remaining parts with Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) as implemented in the next subvolume method (NSM). The chemical reactions are handled by SSA everywhere in the computational domain. A trajectory of the process is advanced in time by an operator splitting technique and the timesteps are chosen adaptively. The spatial adaptation is based on estimates of the errors in the tau-leap method and the macroscopic diffusion. The accuracy and efficiency of the method are demonstrated in examples from molecular biology where the domain is discretized by unstructured meshes.
2006-01-01
16 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows windblown materials that have collected and been shaped into large ripples in a valley in the Auqakuh Vallis system in northeastern Arabia Terra, Mars. Location near: 29.1oN, 299.6oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter
Dynamical Behaviors of Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Wan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates dynamical behaviors of stochastic Cohen-Grossberg neural network with delays and reaction diffusion. By employing Lyapunov method, Poincaré inequality and matrix technique, some sufficient criteria on ultimate boundedness, weak attractor, and asymptotic stability are obtained. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the correctness and effectiveness of our theoretical results.
Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donnelly, Catherine, E-mail: C.Donnelly@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Actuarial Mathematics and Statistics (United Kingdom)
2011-10-15
We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.
Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, Catherine
2011-01-01
We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.
Gaussian and Affine Approximation of Stochastic Diffusion Models for Interest and Mortality Rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcus C. Christiansen
2013-10-01
Full Text Available In the actuarial literature, it has become common practice to model future capital returns and mortality rates stochastically in order to capture market risk and forecasting risk. Although interest rates often should and mortality rates always have to be non-negative, many authors use stochastic diffusion models with an affine drift term and additive noise. As a result, the diffusion process is Gaussian and, thus, analytically tractable, but negative values occur with positive probability. The argument is that the class of Gaussian diffusions would be a good approximation of the real future development. We challenge that reasoning and study the asymptotics of diffusion processes with affine drift and a general noise term with corresponding diffusion processes with an affine drift term and an affine noise term or additive noise. Our study helps to quantify the error that is made by approximating diffusive interest and mortality rate models with Gaussian diffusions and affine diffusions. In particular, we discuss forward interest and forward mortality rates and the error that approximations cause on the valuation of life insurance claims.
Stochastic modeling and simulation of reaction-diffusion system with Hill function dynamics.
Chen, Minghan; Li, Fei; Wang, Shuo; Cao, Young
2017-03-14
Stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion systems presents great challenges for spatiotemporal biological modeling and simulation. One widely used framework for stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion systems is reaction diffusion master equation (RDME). Previous studies have discovered that for the RDME, when discretization size approaches zero, reaction time for bimolecular reactions in high dimensional domains tends to infinity. In this paper, we demonstrate that in the 1D domain, highly nonlinear reaction dynamics given by Hill function may also have dramatic change when discretization size is smaller than a critical value. Moreover, we discuss methods to avoid this problem: smoothing over space, fixed length smoothing over space and a hybrid method. Our analysis reveals that the switch-like Hill dynamics reduces to a linear function of discretization size when the discretization size is small enough. The three proposed methods could correctly (under certain precision) simulate Hill function dynamics in the microscopic RDME system.
Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction-diffusion models
Spill, Fabian; Guerrero, Pilar; Alarcon, Tomas; Maini, Philip K.; Byrne, Helen
2015-10-01
Reaction-diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction-diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model.
Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction-diffusion models.
Spill, Fabian
2015-10-01
Reaction-diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction-diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model.
Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction-diffusion models.
Spill, Fabian; Guerrero, Pilar; Alarcon, Tomas; Maini, Philip K; Byrne, Helen
2015-01-01
Reaction-diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction-diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Linshan; Zhang Zhe; Wang Yangfan
2008-01-01
Some criteria for the global stochastic exponential stability of the delayed reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters are presented. The jumping parameters considered here are generated from a continuous-time discrete-state homogeneous Markov process, which are governed by a Markov process with discrete and finite state space. By employing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is developed to establish some easy-to-test criteria of global exponential stability in the mean square for the stochastic neural networks. The criteria are computationally efficient, since they are in the forms of some linear matrix inequalities
Fractional diffusion equation with distributed-order material derivative. Stochastic foundations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magdziarz, M; Teuerle, M
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the stochastic foundations of fractional dynamics driven by the fractional material derivative of distributed-order type. Before stating our main result, we present the stochastic scenario which underlies the dynamics given by the fractional material derivative. Then we introduce the Lévy walk process of distributed-order type to establish our main result, which is the scaling limit of the considered process. It appears that the probability density function of the scaling limit process fulfills, in a weak sense, the fractional diffusion equation with the material derivative of distributed-order type. (paper)
Diffusion of test particles in stochastic magnetic fields in the percolative regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neuer, Marcus; Spatschek, Karl H.
2006-01-01
For stochastic magnetic flux functions with percolative contours the test particle transport is investigated. The calculations make use of the stochastic Liouville approach. They start from the so-called A-Langevin equations, including stochastic magnetic field components and binary collisions. Using the decorrelation trajectory method, a relation between the Lagrangian velocity correlation function and the Eulerian magnetic field correlation is derived and introduced into the Green-Kubo formalism. Finite Larmor radius effects are included. Interesting results are presented in the percolation regime corresponding to high Kubo numbers. Previous results are found to be limiting cases for small Kubo numbers. For different percolative scenarios the diffusion is analyzed and strong influences of the percolative structures on the transport scaling are found. The finite Larmor radius effects are discussed in detail. Numerical simulations of the A-Langevin equation confirm the semianalytical predictions
Kucza, Witold
2013-07-25
Stochastic and deterministic simulations of dispersion in cylindrical channels on the Poiseuille flow have been presented. The random walk (stochastic) and the uniform dispersion (deterministic) models have been used for computations of flow injection analysis responses. These methods coupled with the genetic algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization methods, respectively, have been applied for determination of diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein sodium, potassium hexacyanoferrate and potassium dichromate have been determined by means of the presented methods and FIA responses that are available in literature. The best-fit results agree with each other and with experimental data thus validating both presented approaches. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hepburn, I.; De Schutter, E., E-mail: erik@oist.jp [Computational Neuroscience Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904 0495 (Japan); Theoretical Neurobiology & Neuroengineering, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610 (Belgium); Chen, W. [Computational Neuroscience Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904 0495 (Japan)
2016-08-07
Spatial stochastic molecular simulations in biology are limited by the intense computation required to track molecules in space either in a discrete time or discrete space framework, which has led to the development of parallel methods that can take advantage of the power of modern supercomputers in recent years. We systematically test suggested components of stochastic reaction-diffusion operator splitting in the literature and discuss their effects on accuracy. We introduce an operator splitting implementation for irregular meshes that enhances accuracy with minimal performance cost. We test a range of models in small-scale MPI simulations from simple diffusion models to realistic biological models and find that multi-dimensional geometry partitioning is an important consideration for optimum performance. We demonstrate performance gains of 1-3 orders of magnitude in the parallel implementation, with peak performance strongly dependent on model specification.
Diffusion of test particles in stochastic magnetic fields for small Kubo numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neuer, Marcus; Spatschek, Karl H.
2006-01-01
Motion of charged particles in a collisional plasma with stochastic magnetic field lines is investigated on the basis of the so-called A-Langevin equation. Compared to the previously used V-Langevin model, here finite Larmor radius effects are taken into account. The A-Langevin equation is solved under the assumption that the Lagrangian correlation function for the magnetic field fluctuations is related to the Eulerian correlation function (in Gaussian form) via the Corrsin approximation. The latter is justified for small Kubo numbers. The velocity correlation function, being averaged with respect to the stochastic variables including collisions, leads to an implicit differential equation for the mean square displacement. From the latter, different transport regimes, including the well-known Rechester-Rosenbluth diffusion coefficient, are derived. Finite Larmor radius contributions show a decrease of the diffusion coefficient compared to the guiding center limit. The case of small (or vanishing) mean fields is also discussed
2006-01-01
3 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the margin of a lava flow on a cratered plain in the Athabasca Vallis region of Mars. Remarkably, the cratered plain in this scene is essentially free of bright, windblown ripples. Conversely, the lava flow apparently acted as a trap for windblown materials, illustrated by the presence of the light-toned, wave-like texture over much of the flow. That the lava flow surface trapped windblown sand and granules better than the cratered plain indicates that the flow surface has a rougher texture at a scale too small to resolve in this image. Location near: 10.7oN, 204.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter
Coron, Camille
2016-01-01
We are interested in the long-time behavior of a diploid population with sexual reproduction and randomly varying population size, characterized by its genotype composition at one bi-allelic locus. The population is modeled by a 3-dimensional birth-and-death process with competition, weak cooperation and Mendelian reproduction. This stochastic process is indexed by a scaling parameter K that goes to infinity, following a large population assumption. When the individual birth and natural death rates are of order K, the sequence of stochastic processes indexed by K converges toward a new slow-fast dynamics with variable population size. We indeed prove the convergence toward 0 of a fast variable giving the deviation of the population from quasi Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while the sequence of slow variables giving the respective numbers of occurrences of each allele converges toward a 2-dimensional diffusion process that reaches (0,0) almost surely in finite time. The population size and the proportion of a given allele converge toward a Wright-Fisher diffusion with stochastically varying population size and diploid selection. We insist on differences between haploid and diploid populations due to population size stochastic variability. Using a non trivial change of variables, we study the absorption of this diffusion and its long time behavior conditioned on non-extinction. In particular we prove that this diffusion starting from any non-trivial state and conditioned on not hitting (0,0) admits a unique quasi-stationary distribution. We give numerical approximations of this quasi-stationary behavior in three biologically relevant cases: neutrality, overdominance, and separate niches.
Stochastic flows, reaction-diffusion processes, and morphogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozak, J.J.; Hatlee, M.D.; Musho, M.K.; Politowicz, P.A.; Walsh, C.A.
1983-01-01
Recently, an exact procedure has been introduced [C. A. Walsh and J. J. Kozak, Phys. Rev. Lett.. 47: 1500 (1981)] for calculating the expected walk length for a walker undergoing random displacements on a finite or infinite (periodic) d-dimensional lattice with traps (reactive sites). The method (which is based on a classification of the symmetry of the sites surrounding the central deep trap and a coding of the fate of the random walker as it encounters a site of given symmetry) is applied here to several problems in lattice statistics for each of which exact results are presented. First, we assess the importance of lattice geometry in influencing the efficiency of reaction-diffusion processs in simple and multiple trap systems by reporting values of for square (cubic) versus hexagonal lattices in d = 2,3. We then show how the method may be applied to variable-step (distance-dependent) walks for a single walker on a given lattice and also demonstrate the calculation of the expected walk length for the case of multiple walkers. Finally, we make contact with recent discussions of ''mixing'' by showing that the degree of chaos associated with flows in certain lattice-systems can be calibrated by monitoring the lattice walks induced by the Poincare map of a certain parabolic function
Stochastic Simulation of Soot Formation Evolution in Counterflow Diffusion Flames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao Jiang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Soot generally refers to carbonaceous particles formed during incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. A typical simulation of soot formation and evolution contains two parts: gas chemical kinetics, which models the chemical reaction from hydrocarbon fuels to soot precursors, that is, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, and soot dynamics, which models the soot formation from PAHs and evolution due to gas-soot and soot-soot interactions. In this study, two detailed gas kinetic mechanisms (ABF and KM2 have been compared during the simulation (using the solver Chemkin II of ethylene combustion in counterflow diffusion flames. Subsequently, the operator splitting Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the soot dynamics. Both the simulated data from the two mechanisms for gas and soot particles are compared with experimental data available in the literature. It is found that both mechanisms predict similar profiles for the gas temperature and velocity, agreeing well with measurements. However, KM2 mechanism provides much closer prediction compared to measurements for soot gas precursors. Furthermore, KM2 also shows much better predictions for soot number density and volume fraction than ABF. The effect of nozzle exit velocity on soot dynamics has also been investigated. Higher nozzle exit velocity renders shorter residence time for soot particles, which reduces the soot number density and volume fraction accordingly.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik
the Lamperti transform. This note gives an example driven introduction to the Lamperti transform. The general applicability of the Lamperti transform is limited to univariate diffusion processes, but for a restricted class of multivariate diffusion processes Lamperti type transformations are available...
Ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tani, K.; Takizuka, T.; Azumi, M.
1986-01-01
The ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles has been studied by the newly developed Monte-Carlo code in which the motion of banana orbit in a toroidal field ripple is described by a mapping method. The existence of ripple-resonance diffusion has been confirmed numerically. We have developed another new code in which the radial displacement of banana orbit is given by the diffusion coefficients from the mapping code or the orbit following Monte-Carlo code. The ripple loss of α particles during slowing down has been estimated by the mapping model code as well as the diffusion model code. From the comparison of the results with those from the orbit-following Monte-Carlo code, it has been found that all of them agree very well. (author)
Electricity consumption in Morocco: Stochastic Gompertz diffusion analysis with exogenous factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutierrez, R.; Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.; Nafidi, A.
2006-01-01
This paper proposes a means of using stochastic diffusion processes to model the total consumption of electrical power (including distribution and transport losses) in Morocco, as recorded by the official data for total sales published by Office Nationale de l'Electricite (ONE), the Moroccan electricity authority. Two models of univariate stochastic diffusion were used: the time-homogeneous Gompertz Diffusion Process (HGDP) and the time-non-homogeneous Gompertz Diffusion Process (NHGDP). The methodology proposed is based on the analysis of the trend function; this requires the analyst to obtain fits and forecasts for the consumption of electrical power by means of the estimated trend function (conditioned and non-conditioned). This latter function is obtained from the mean value of the process and the maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) of the parameters of the model. This estimation and the subsequent statistical inference are based on the discretised observation of the variable 'electricity consumption in Morocco', using annual data for the period 1980-2001. The fit and forecast are improved by using macroeconomic exogenous factors such as the gross domestic product per inhabitant (GDP/inhab), the final domestic consumption (FDC) and the gross fixed capital formation (GFCF). The results obtained show that NHGDP (with the above three exogenous factors) provides an adequate fit and medium-term forecast of electricity consumption in Morocco
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nafidi, A.; Gutiérrez, R.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Ramos-Ábalos, E.; El Hachimi, S.
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to model electric power consumption during a period of economic crisis, characterised by declining gross domestic product. A novel aspect of this study is its use of a Gamma-type diffusion process for short and medium-term forecasting – other techniques that have been used to describe such consumption patterns are not valid in this situation. In this study, we consider a new extension of the stochastic Gamma diffusion process by introducing time functions (exogenous factors) that affect its trend. This extension is defined in terms of Kolmogorov backward and forward equations. After obtaining the transition probability density function and the moments (specifically, the trend function), the inference on the process parameters is obtained by discrete sampling of the sample paths. Finally, this stochastic process is applied to model total net electricity consumption in Spain, when affected by the following set of exogenous factors: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) and Final Domestic Consumption (FDC). - Highlights: • The aim is modelling and predicting electricity consumption in Spain. • We propose a Gamma-type diffusion process for short and medium-term forecasting. • We compared the fit using diffusion processes with different exogenous factors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.
1981-02-01
Three different time regimes are presented for relative spatial diffusion of charged particles in fluctuating electric fields, which behave like tau 3 , exp (tau) and tau 3 , respectively. The first regime, corresponding to a quasi-linear description of the trajectories, is analogous to the one observed in fluid turbulence and is valid in the limit of a small amplitude turbulent spectrum, or for not too small initial separation of the particles. The third regime, appearing for long times, describes the diffusion of independent particles at very large separations. Its existence is ensured by the nonlinear renormalization of the propagators. The second, intermediate, regime appears in a stochastic treatment of the renormalization effect for particles with a very small spatial and velocity difference, and describes Dupree's clumps diffusion. The appearance of the corresponding regime is similar to that of the Suzuki scaling regime of non-linear Langevin equations. It is also shown that the clumps have a behaviour similar to an intrinsic stochasticity, but which is of extrinsic nature. Similar failure of the quasi-linear approximation for spacific velocity domains has been previously studied and solved for classical Landau collisions, as well as for pitch angle diffusion where renormalization effects have been proved also to be important
Impurity penetration through the stochastic layer near the separatrix in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, D.K.; Herrera, J.J.E.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.
1995-01-01
It is shown that a stochastic layer produced by ripple perturbations near the separatrix in tokamaks, leads to anomalous plasma flow out of the bulk plasma along perturbed field lines, which brings out impurities. This suggests that the stochastic layer may play a cleaning role. There is an opposite process of anomalous impurity diffusion into the plasma. The balance of these two processes defines the impurity concentration in the bulk plasma. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems
Woolley, Thomas E.; Baker, Ruth E.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Maini, Philip K.; Seirin-Lee, Sungrim
2012-01-01
Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems
Woolley, Thomas E.
2012-05-22
Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mlynarczyk, Paul J.; Pullen, Robert H.; Abel, Steven M.
2016-01-01
Positive feedback is a common feature in signal transduction networks and can lead to phenomena such as bistability and signal propagation by domain growth. Physical features of the cellular environment, such as spatial confinement and the mobility of proteins, play important but inadequately understood roles in shaping the behavior of signaling networks. Here, we use stochastic, spatially resolved kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to explore a positive feedback network as a function of system size, system shape, and mobility of molecules. We show that these physical properties can markedly alter characteristics of bistability and stochastic switching when compared with well-mixed simulations. Notably, systems of equal volume but different shapes can exhibit qualitatively different behaviors under otherwise identical conditions. We show that stochastic switching to a state maintained by positive feedback occurs by cluster formation and growth. Additionally, the frequency at which switching occurs depends nontrivially on the diffusion coefficient, which can promote or suppress switching relative to the well-mixed limit. Taken together, the results provide a framework for understanding how confinement and protein mobility influence emergent features of the positive feedback network by modulating molecular concentrations, diffusion-influenced rate parameters, and spatiotemporal correlations between molecules
STEPS: efficient simulation of stochastic reaction–diffusion models in realistic morphologies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hepburn Iain
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of cellular molecular systems are built from components such as biochemical reactions (including interactions between ligands and membrane-bound proteins, conformational changes and active and passive transport. A discrete, stochastic description of the kinetics is often essential to capture the behavior of the system accurately. Where spatial effects play a prominent role the complex morphology of cells may have to be represented, along with aspects such as chemical localization and diffusion. This high level of detail makes efficiency a particularly important consideration for software that is designed to simulate such systems. Results We describe STEPS, a stochastic reaction–diffusion simulator developed with an emphasis on simulating biochemical signaling pathways accurately and efficiently. STEPS supports all the above-mentioned features, and well-validated support for SBML allows many existing biochemical models to be imported reliably. Complex boundaries can be represented accurately in externally generated 3D tetrahedral meshes imported by STEPS. The powerful Python interface facilitates model construction and simulation control. STEPS implements the composition and rejection method, a variation of the Gillespie SSA, supporting diffusion between tetrahedral elements within an efficient search and update engine. Additional support for well-mixed conditions and for deterministic model solution is implemented. Solver accuracy is confirmed with an original and extensive validation set consisting of isolated reaction, diffusion and reaction–diffusion systems. Accuracy imposes upper and lower limits on tetrahedron sizes, which are described in detail. By comparing to Smoldyn, we show how the voxel-based approach in STEPS is often faster than particle-based methods, with increasing advantage in larger systems, and by comparing to MesoRD we show the efficiency of the STEPS implementation. Conclusion STEPS simulates
Solution verification, goal-oriented adaptive methods for stochastic advection–diffusion problems
Almeida, Regina C.
2010-08-01
A goal-oriented analysis of linear, stochastic advection-diffusion models is presented which provides both a method for solution verification as well as a basis for improving results through adaptation of both the mesh and the way random variables are approximated. A class of model problems with random coefficients and source terms is cast in a variational setting. Specific quantities of interest are specified which are also random variables. A stochastic adjoint problem associated with the quantities of interest is formulated and a posteriori error estimates are derived. These are used to guide an adaptive algorithm which adjusts the sparse probabilistic grid so as to control the approximation error. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methodology for a specific model problem. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Solution verification, goal-oriented adaptive methods for stochastic advection–diffusion problems
Almeida, Regina C.; Oden, J. Tinsley
2010-01-01
A goal-oriented analysis of linear, stochastic advection-diffusion models is presented which provides both a method for solution verification as well as a basis for improving results through adaptation of both the mesh and the way random variables are approximated. A class of model problems with random coefficients and source terms is cast in a variational setting. Specific quantities of interest are specified which are also random variables. A stochastic adjoint problem associated with the quantities of interest is formulated and a posteriori error estimates are derived. These are used to guide an adaptive algorithm which adjusts the sparse probabilistic grid so as to control the approximation error. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methodology for a specific model problem. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Ancey, C.; Bohorquez, P.; Heyman, J.
2015-12-01
The advection-diffusion equation is one of the most widespread equations in physics. It arises quite often in the context of sediment transport, e.g., for describing time and space variations in the particle activity (the solid volume of particles in motion per unit streambed area). Phenomenological laws are usually sufficient to derive this equation and interpret its terms. Stochastic models can also be used to derive it, with the significant advantage that they provide information on the statistical properties of particle activity. These models are quite useful when sediment transport exhibits large fluctuations (typically at low transport rates), making the measurement of mean values difficult. Among these stochastic models, the most common approach consists of random walk models. For instance, they have been used to model the random displacement of tracers in rivers. Here we explore an alternative approach, which involves monitoring the evolution of the number of particles moving within an array of cells of finite length. Birth-death Markov processes are well suited to this objective. While the topic has been explored in detail for diffusion-reaction systems, the treatment of advection has received no attention. We therefore look into the possibility of deriving the advection-diffusion equation (with a source term) within the framework of birth-death Markov processes. We show that in the continuum limit (when the cell size becomes vanishingly small), we can derive an advection-diffusion equation for particle activity. Yet while this derivation is formally valid in the continuum limit, it runs into difficulty in practical applications involving cells or meshes of finite length. Indeed, within our stochastic framework, particle advection produces nonlocal effects, which are more or less significant depending on the cell size and particle velocity. Albeit nonlocal, these effects look like (local) diffusion and add to the intrinsic particle diffusion (dispersal due
Equilibrium Asset and Option Pricing under Jump-Diffusion Model with Stochastic Volatility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinfeng Ruan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study the equity premium and option pricing under jump-diffusion model with stochastic volatility based on the model in Zhang et al. 2012. We obtain the pricing kernel which acts like the physical and risk-neutral densities and the moments in the economy. Moreover, the exact expression of option valuation is derived by the Fourier transformation method. We also discuss the relationship of central moments between the physical measure and the risk-neutral measure. Our numerical results show that our model is more realistic than the previous model.
Katsoulakis, Markos A.; Vlachos, Dionisios G.
2003-11-01
We derive a hierarchy of successively coarse-grained stochastic processes and associated coarse-grained Monte Carlo (CGMC) algorithms directly from the microscopic processes as approximations in larger length scales for the case of diffusion of interacting particles on a lattice. This hierarchy of models spans length scales between microscopic and mesoscopic, satisfies a detailed balance, and gives self-consistent fluctuation mechanisms whose noise is asymptotically identical to the microscopic MC. Rigorous, detailed asymptotics justify and clarify these connections. Gradient continuous time microscopic MC and CGMC simulations are compared under far from equilibrium conditions to illustrate the validity of our theory and delineate the errors obtained by rigorous asymptotics. Information theory estimates are employed for the first time to provide rigorous error estimates between the solutions of microscopic MC and CGMC, describing the loss of information during the coarse-graining process. Simulations under periodic boundary conditions are used to verify the information theory error estimates. It is shown that coarse-graining in space leads also to coarse-graining in time by q2, where q is the level of coarse-graining, and overcomes in part the hydrodynamic slowdown. Operation counting and CGMC simulations demonstrate significant CPU savings in continuous time MC simulations that vary from q3 for short potentials to q4 for long potentials. Finally, connections of the new coarse-grained stochastic processes to stochastic mesoscopic and Cahn-Hilliard-Cook models are made.
Non-linear diffusion of charged particles due to stochastic electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, A.M.; Balescu, R.; Mendonca, J.T.
1989-01-01
It is well known that the energy confinement times observed in tokamak cannot be explained by the classical or neo-classical transport theory. The alternative explanations are based on the existence of various kinds of micro-instabilities, or on the stochastic destruction of the magnetic surfaces, due to the interaction of magnetic islands of different helicities. In the absence of a well established theory of anomalous transport it is perhaps important to study in some detail the diffusion coefficient of single charged particles in the presence of electromagnetic fluctuation, because it can provide the physical grounds for more complete and self-consistent calculations. In the present work we derive a general expression for the transverse diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions in a constant magnetic field and in the presence of space and time dependent electromagnetic fluctuation. We neglect macroscopic drifts due to inhomogeneity and field curvatures, but retain finite Larmor radius effects. (author) 3 refs
Méndez, Vicenç; Bartumeus, Frederic
2014-01-01
This book presents the fundamental theory for non-standard diffusion problems in movement ecology. Lévy processes and anomalous diffusion have shown to be both powerful and useful tools for qualitatively and quantitatively describing a wide variety of spatial population ecological phenomena and dynamics, such as invasion fronts and search strategies. Adopting a self-contained, textbook-style approach, the authors provide the elements of statistical physics and stochastic processes on which the modeling of movement ecology is based and systematically introduce the physical characterization of ecological processes at the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic levels. The explicit definition of these levels and their interrelations is particularly suitable to coping with the broad spectrum of space and time scales involved in bio-ecological problems. Including numerous exercises (with solutions), this text is aimed at graduate students and newcomers in this field at the interface of theoretical ecology, mat...
From quantum stochastic differential equations to Gisin-Percival state diffusion
Parthasarathy, K. R.; Usha Devi, A. R.
2017-08-01
Starting from the quantum stochastic differential equations of Hudson and Parthasarathy [Commun. Math. Phys. 93, 301 (1984)] and exploiting the Wiener-Itô-Segal isomorphism between the boson Fock reservoir space Γ (L2(R+ ) ⊗(Cn⊕Cn ) ) and the Hilbert space L2(μ ) , where μ is the Wiener probability measure of a complex n-dimensional vector-valued standard Brownian motion {B (t ) ,t ≥0 } , we derive a non-linear stochastic Schrödinger equation describing a classical diffusion of states of a quantum system, driven by the Brownian motion B. Changing this Brownian motion by an appropriate Girsanov transformation, we arrive at the Gisin-Percival state diffusion equation [N. Gisin and J. Percival, J. Phys. A 167, 315 (1992)]. This approach also yields an explicit solution of the Gisin-Percival equation, in terms of the Hudson-Parthasarathy unitary process and a randomized Weyl displacement process. Irreversible dynamics of system density operators described by the well-known Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad master equation is unraveled by coarse-graining over the Gisin-Percival quantum state trajectories.
Constrained ripple optimization of Tokamak bundle divertors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hively, L.M.; Rome, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Fowler, R.H.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Dory, R.A.
1983-02-01
Magnetic field ripple from a tokamak bundle divertor is localized to a small toroidal sector and must be treated differently from the usual (distributed) toroidal field (TF) coil ripple. Generally, in a tokamak with an unoptimized divertor design, all of the banana-trapped fast ions are quickly lost due to banana drift diffusion or to trapping between the 1/R variation in absolute value vector B ω B and local field maxima due to the divertor. A computer code has been written to optimize automatically on-axis ripple subject to these constraints, while varying up to nine design parameters. Optimum configurations have low on-axis ripple ( 0 ) are lost. However, because finite-sized TF coils have not been used in this study, the flux bundle is not expanded
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huapu Lu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at introducing a new improved stochastic differential equation related to Gompertz curve for the projection of vehicle ownership growth. This diffusion model explains the relationship between vehicle ownership and GDP per capita, which has been studied as a Gompertz-like function before. The main innovations of the process lie in two parts: by modifying the deterministic part of the original Gompertz equation, the model can present the remaining slow increase when the S-shaped curve has reached its saturation level; by introducing the stochastic differential equation, the model can better fit the real data when there are fluctuations. Such comparisons are carried out based on data from US, UK, Japan, and Korea with a time span of 1960–2008. It turns out that the new process behaves better in fitting curves and predicting short term growth. Finally, a prediction of Chinese vehicle ownership up to 2025 is presented with the new model, as China is on the initial stage of motorization with much fluctuations in growth.
The two-regime method for optimizing stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations
Flegg, M. B.
2011-10-19
Spatial organization and noise play an important role in molecular systems biology. In recent years, a number of software packages have been developed for stochastic spatio-temporal simulation, ranging from detailed molecular-based approaches to less detailed compartment-based simulations. Compartment-based approaches yield quick and accurate mesoscopic results, but lack the level of detail that is characteristic of the computationally intensive molecular-based models. Often microscopic detail is only required in a small region (e.g. close to the cell membrane). Currently, the best way to achieve microscopic detail is to use a resource-intensive simulation over the whole domain. We develop the two-regime method (TRM) in which a molecular-based algorithm is used where desired and a compartment-based approach is used elsewhere. We present easy-to-implement coupling conditions which ensure that the TRM results have the same accuracy as a detailed molecular-based model in the whole simulation domain. Therefore, the TRM combines strengths of previously developed stochastic reaction-diffusion software to efficiently explore the behaviour of biological models. Illustrative examples and the mathematical justification of the TRM are also presented.
Higher-order Solution of Stochastic Diffusion equation with Nonlinear Losses Using WHEP technique
El-Beltagy, Mohamed A.; Al-Mulla, Noah
2014-01-01
Using Wiener-Hermite expansion with perturbation (WHEP) technique in the solution of the stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) has the advantage of converting the problem to a system of deterministic equations that can be solved efficiently using the standard deterministic numerical methods [1]. The Wiener-Hermite expansion is the only known expansion that handles the white/colored noise exactly. The main statistics, such as the mean, covariance, and higher order statistical moments, can be calculated by simple formulae involving only the deterministic Wiener-Hermite coefficients. In this poster, the WHEP technique is used to solve the 2D diffusion equation with nonlinear losses and excited with white noise. The solution will be obtained numerically and will be validated and compared with the analytical solution that can be obtained from any symbolic mathematics package such as Mathematica.
Higher-order Solution of Stochastic Diffusion equation with Nonlinear Losses Using WHEP technique
El-Beltagy, Mohamed A.
2014-01-06
Using Wiener-Hermite expansion with perturbation (WHEP) technique in the solution of the stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) has the advantage of converting the problem to a system of deterministic equations that can be solved efficiently using the standard deterministic numerical methods [1]. The Wiener-Hermite expansion is the only known expansion that handles the white/colored noise exactly. The main statistics, such as the mean, covariance, and higher order statistical moments, can be calculated by simple formulae involving only the deterministic Wiener-Hermite coefficients. In this poster, the WHEP technique is used to solve the 2D diffusion equation with nonlinear losses and excited with white noise. The solution will be obtained numerically and will be validated and compared with the analytical solution that can be obtained from any symbolic mathematics package such as Mathematica.
Regularity of random attractors for fractional stochastic reaction-diffusion equations on Rn
Gu, Anhui; Li, Dingshi; Wang, Bixiang; Yang, Han
2018-06-01
We investigate the regularity of random attractors for the non-autonomous non-local fractional stochastic reaction-diffusion equations in Hs (Rn) with s ∈ (0 , 1). We prove the existence and uniqueness of the tempered random attractor that is compact in Hs (Rn) and attracts all tempered random subsets of L2 (Rn) with respect to the norm of Hs (Rn). The main difficulty is to show the pullback asymptotic compactness of solutions in Hs (Rn) due to the noncompactness of Sobolev embeddings on unbounded domains and the almost sure nondifferentiability of the sample paths of the Wiener process. We establish such compactness by the ideas of uniform tail-estimates and the spectral decomposition of solutions in bounded domains.
Pacemaker-driven stochastic resonance on diffusive and complex networks of bistable oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perc, Matjaz; Gosak, Marko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Koroska cesta 160, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia)], E-mail: matjaz.perc@uni-mb.si
2008-05-15
We study the phenomenon of stochastic resonance on diffusive, small-world and scale-free networks consisting of bistable overdamped oscillators. Important thereby is the fact that the external subthreshold periodic forcing is introduced only to a single oscillator of the network. Hence, the forcing acts as a pacemaker trying to impose its rhythm on the whole network through the unit to which it is introduced. Without the addition of additive spatiotemporal noise, however, the whole network, including the unit that is directly exposed to the pacemaker, remains trapped forever in one of the two stable steady states of the local dynamics. We show that the correlation between the frequency of subthreshold pacemaker activity and the response of the network is resonantly dependent on the intensity of additive noise. The reported pacemaker-driven stochastic resonance depends most significantly on the coupling strength and the underlying network structure. Namely, the outreach of the pacemaker obeys the classic diffusion law in the case of nearest-neighbor interactions, thus being proportional to the square root of the coupling strength, whereas it becomes superdiffusive by an appropriate small-world or scale-free topology of the interaction network. In particular, the scale-free topology is identified as being optimal for the dissemination of localized rhythmic activity across the whole network. Also, we show that the ratio between the clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length is the crucial quantity defining the ability of a small-world network to facilitate the outreach of the pacemaker-emitted subthreshold rhythm. We additionally confirm these findings by using the FitzHugh-Nagumo excitable system as an alternative to the bistable overdamped oscillator.
Pacemaker-driven stochastic resonance on diffusive and complex networks of bistable oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perc, Matjaz; Gosak, Marko
2008-01-01
We study the phenomenon of stochastic resonance on diffusive, small-world and scale-free networks consisting of bistable overdamped oscillators. Important thereby is the fact that the external subthreshold periodic forcing is introduced only to a single oscillator of the network. Hence, the forcing acts as a pacemaker trying to impose its rhythm on the whole network through the unit to which it is introduced. Without the addition of additive spatiotemporal noise, however, the whole network, including the unit that is directly exposed to the pacemaker, remains trapped forever in one of the two stable steady states of the local dynamics. We show that the correlation between the frequency of subthreshold pacemaker activity and the response of the network is resonantly dependent on the intensity of additive noise. The reported pacemaker-driven stochastic resonance depends most significantly on the coupling strength and the underlying network structure. Namely, the outreach of the pacemaker obeys the classic diffusion law in the case of nearest-neighbor interactions, thus being proportional to the square root of the coupling strength, whereas it becomes superdiffusive by an appropriate small-world or scale-free topology of the interaction network. In particular, the scale-free topology is identified as being optimal for the dissemination of localized rhythmic activity across the whole network. Also, we show that the ratio between the clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length is the crucial quantity defining the ability of a small-world network to facilitate the outreach of the pacemaker-emitted subthreshold rhythm. We additionally confirm these findings by using the FitzHugh-Nagumo excitable system as an alternative to the bistable overdamped oscillator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef
2011-01-01
Results are given in [Yang et. al. 2009] regarding the overall stability of switched diffusion processes based on stability properties of separate processes combined through stochastic switching. This paper argues two main results to be empty, in that the presented hypotheses are logically...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lánský, Petr; Ditlevsen, S.
2008-01-01
Roč. 99, 4-5 (2008), s. 253-262 ISSN 0340-1200 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400110401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : parameter estimation * stochastic diffusion neuronal model Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.935, year: 2008
Electronic properties of rippled graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gui Gui; Ma Zhenqiang; Zhong Jianxin
2012-01-01
Short range periodic ripples in graphene have been modeled. The electronic properties of the rippled graphene have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Compared with flat graphene, there is a band gap opening in rippled graphene. Generally, the value of energy gaps increases as the height of ripples increase, but it decreases as the range of ripples enlarges. The maximum value of energy gaps in rippled graphene can reach several hundred meV, which turns rippled graphene into a good semiconductor. As a result, the magnitude of energy gaps can be tuned effectively by controlling the range and height of ripples in graphene.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Shi, E-mail: sjin@wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Institute of Natural Sciences, Department of Mathematics, MOE-LSEC and SHL-MAC, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing@math.wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2017-04-01
In this paper, we develop an Asymptotic-Preserving (AP) stochastic Galerkin scheme for the radiative heat transfer equations with random inputs and diffusive scalings. In this problem the random inputs arise due to uncertainties in cross section, initial data or boundary data. We use the generalized polynomial chaos based stochastic Galerkin (gPC-SG) method, which is combined with the micro–macro decomposition based deterministic AP framework in order to handle efficiently the diffusive regime. For linearized problem we prove the regularity of the solution in the random space and consequently the spectral accuracy of the gPC-SG method. We also prove the uniform (in the mean free path) linear stability for the space-time discretizations. Several numerical tests are presented to show the efficiency and accuracy of proposed scheme, especially in the diffusive regime.
Ripple formation in unilamellar-supported lipid bilayer revealed by FRAPP.
Harb, Frédéric; Simon, Anne; Tinland, Bernard
2013-12-01
The mechanisms of formation and conditions of the existence of the ripple phase are fundamental thermodynamic questions with practical implications for medicine and pharmaceuticals. We reveal a new case of ripple formation occurring in unilamellar-supported bilayers in water, which results solely from the bilayer/support interaction, without using lipid mixtures or specific ions. This ripple phase is detected by FRAPP using diffusion coefficient measurements as a function of temperature: a diffusivity plateau is observed. It occurs in the same temperature range where ripple phase existence has been observed using other methods. When AFM experiments are performed in the appropriate temperature range the ripple phase is confirmed.
Permeation through graphene ripples
Liang, Tao; He, Guangyu; Wu, Xu; Ren, Jindong; Guo, Hongxuan; Kong, Yuhan; Iwai, Hideo; Fujita, Daisuke; Gao, Hongjun; Guo, Haiming; Liu, Yingchun; Xu, Mingsheng
2017-06-01
Real graphene sheets show limited anti-permeation performance deviating from the ideally flat honeycomb carbon lattice that is impermeable to gases. Ripples in graphene are prevalent and they could significantly influence carrier transport. However, little attention has been paid to the role of ripples in the permeation properties of graphene. Here, we report that gases can permeate through graphene ripples at room temperature. The feasibility of gas permeation through graphene ripples is determined by detecting the initial oxidation sites of Cu surface covered with isolated graphene domain. Nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations demonstrate that the oxygen atom permeation occurs via the formation of C-O-C bond, in which process the energy barrier through the rippled graphene lattice is much smaller than that through a flat graphene lattice, rendering permeation through ripples more favorable. Combining with the recent advances in atoms intercalation between graphene and metal substrate for transfer-free and electrically insulated graphene, this discovery provides new perspectives regarding graphene’s limited anti-permeation performance and evokes for rational design of graphene-based encapsulation for barrier and selective gas separation applications through ripple engineering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farid Chighoub
2014-01-01
the stochastic calculus of jump diffusions and some properties of singular controls. Then, we give, under smoothness conditions, a useful verification theorem and we show that the solution of the adjoint equation coincides with the spatial gradient of the value function, evaluated along the optimal trajectory of the state equation. Finally, using these theoretical results, we solve explicitly an example, on optimal harvesting strategy, for a geometric Brownian motion with jumps.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rax, J.M.
1992-04-01
The dynamics of electrons in two-dimensional, linearly or circularly polarized, ultra-high intensity (above 10 18 W/cm 2 ) laser waves, is investigated. The Compton harmonic resonances are identified as the source of various stochastic instabilities. Both Arnold diffusion and resonance overlap are considered. The quasilinear kinetic equation, describing the evolution of the electron distribution function, is derived, and the associated collisionless damping coefficient is calculated. The implications of these new processes are considered and discussed
Deterministic ripple-spreading model for complex networks.
Hu, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Ming; Leeson, Mark S; Hines, Evor L; Di Paolo, Ezequiel
2011-04-01
This paper proposes a deterministic complex network model, which is inspired by the natural ripple-spreading phenomenon. The motivations and main advantages of the model are the following: (i) The establishment of many real-world networks is a dynamic process, where it is often observed that the influence of a few local events spreads out through nodes, and then largely determines the final network topology. Obviously, this dynamic process involves many spatial and temporal factors. By simulating the natural ripple-spreading process, this paper reports a very natural way to set up a spatial and temporal model for such complex networks. (ii) Existing relevant network models are all stochastic models, i.e., with a given input, they cannot output a unique topology. Differently, the proposed ripple-spreading model can uniquely determine the final network topology, and at the same time, the stochastic feature of complex networks is captured by randomly initializing ripple-spreading related parameters. (iii) The proposed model can use an easily manageable number of ripple-spreading related parameters to precisely describe a network topology, which is more memory efficient when compared with traditional adjacency matrix or similar memory-expensive data structures. (iv) The ripple-spreading model has a very good potential for both extensions and applications.
Diffusion approximation-based simulation of stochastic ion channels: which method to use?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danilo ePezo
2014-11-01
Full Text Available To study the effects of stochastic ion channel fluctuations on neural dynamics, several numerical implementation methods have been proposed. Gillespie’s method for Markov Chains (MC simulation is highly accurate, yet it becomes computationally intensive in the regime of high channel numbers. Many recent works aim to speed simulation time using the Langevin-based Diffusion Approximation (DA. Under this common theoretical approach, each implementation differs in how it handles various numerical difficulties – such as bounding of state variables to [0,1]. Here we review and test a set of the most recently published DA implementations (Dangerfield et al., 2012; Linaro et al., 2011; Huang et al., 2013a; Orio and Soudry, 2012; Schmandt and Galán, 2012; Goldwyn et al., 2011; Güler, 2013, comparing all of them in a set of numerical simulations that asses numerical accuracy and computational efficiency on three different models: the original Hodgkin and Huxley model, a model with faster sodium channels, and a multi-compartmental model inspired in granular cells. We conclude that for low channel numbers (usually below 1000 per simulated compartment one should use MC – which is both the most accurate and fastest method. For higher channel numbers, we recommend using the method by Orio and Soudry (2012, possibly combined with the method by Schmandt and Galán (2012 for increased speed and slightly reduced accuracy. Consequently, MC modelling may be the best method for detailed multicompartment neuron models – in which a model neuron with many thousands of channels is segmented into many compartments with a few hundred channels.
Diffusion approximation-based simulation of stochastic ion channels: which method to use?
Pezo, Danilo; Soudry, Daniel; Orio, Patricio
2014-01-01
To study the effects of stochastic ion channel fluctuations on neural dynamics, several numerical implementation methods have been proposed. Gillespie's method for Markov Chains (MC) simulation is highly accurate, yet it becomes computationally intensive in the regime of a high number of channels. Many recent works aim to speed simulation time using the Langevin-based Diffusion Approximation (DA). Under this common theoretical approach, each implementation differs in how it handles various numerical difficulties—such as bounding of state variables to [0,1]. Here we review and test a set of the most recently published DA implementations (Goldwyn et al., 2011; Linaro et al., 2011; Dangerfield et al., 2012; Orio and Soudry, 2012; Schmandt and Galán, 2012; Güler, 2013; Huang et al., 2013a), comparing all of them in a set of numerical simulations that assess numerical accuracy and computational efficiency on three different models: (1) the original Hodgkin and Huxley model, (2) a model with faster sodium channels, and (3) a multi-compartmental model inspired in granular cells. We conclude that for a low number of channels (usually below 1000 per simulated compartment) one should use MC—which is the fastest and most accurate method. For a high number of channels, we recommend using the method by Orio and Soudry (2012), possibly combined with the method by Schmandt and Galán (2012) for increased speed and slightly reduced accuracy. Consequently, MC modeling may be the best method for detailed multicompartment neuron models—in which a model neuron with many thousands of channels is segmented into many compartments with a few hundred channels. PMID:25404914
Cotter, C J; Gottwald, G A; Holm, D D
2017-09-01
In Holm (Holm 2015 Proc. R. Soc. A 471 , 20140963. (doi:10.1098/rspa.2014.0963)), stochastic fluid equations were derived by employing a variational principle with an assumed stochastic Lagrangian particle dynamics. Here we show that the same stochastic Lagrangian dynamics naturally arises in a multi-scale decomposition of the deterministic Lagrangian flow map into a slow large-scale mean and a rapidly fluctuating small-scale map. We employ homogenization theory to derive effective slow stochastic particle dynamics for the resolved mean part, thereby obtaining stochastic fluid partial equations in the Eulerian formulation. To justify the application of rigorous homogenization theory, we assume mildly chaotic fast small-scale dynamics, as well as a centring condition. The latter requires that the mean of the fluctuating deviations is small, when pulled back to the mean flow.
The two-regime method for optimizing stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations
Flegg, M. B.; Chapman, S. J.; Erban, R.
2011-01-01
Spatial organization and noise play an important role in molecular systems biology. In recent years, a number of software packages have been developed for stochastic spatio-temporal simulation, ranging from detailed molecular-based approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tartakovsky, Daniel
2013-08-30
We developed new CDF and PDF methods for solving non-linear stochastic hyperbolic equations that does not rely on linearization approximations and allows for rigorous formulation of the boundary conditions.
Lateral diffusion of the topological charge density in stochastic optical fields
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Stochastic (i.e. random and quasi-random) optical fields may contain distributions of optical vortices that are represented by non-uniform topological charge densities. Numerical simulations are used to investigate the evolution under free...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuang Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study the pricing of American options in an incomplete market in which the dynamics of the underlying risky asset is driven by a jump diffusion process with stochastic volatility. By employing a risk-minimization criterion, we obtain the Radon-Nikodym derivative for the minimal martingale measure and consequently a linear complementarity problem (LCP for American option price. An iterative method is then established to solve the LCP problem for American put option price. Our numerical results show that the model and numerical scheme are robust in capturing the feature of incomplete finance market, particularly the influence of market volatility on the price of American options.
Davidson, J. K.; Houck, W. H.
1971-01-01
Electronic circuit for monitoring excessive ripple voltage on dc power lines senses voltage variations from few millivolts to maximum of 10 volts rms. Instrument is used wherever power supply fluctuations might endanger system operations or damage equipment. Device is inexpensive and easily packaged in small chassis.
Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.
1995-01-01
Dust grains in planetary rings acquire stochastically fluctuating electric charges as they orbit through any corotating magnetospheric plasma. Here we investigate the nature of this stochastic charging and calculate its effect on the Lorentz resonance (LR). First we model grain charging as a Markov process, where the transition probabilities are identified as the ensemble-averaged charging fluxes due to plasma pickup and photoemission. We determine the distribution function P(t;N), giving the probability that a grain has N excess charges at time t. The autocorrelation function tau(sub q) for the strochastic charge process can be approximated by a Fokker-Planck treatment of the evolution equations for P(t; N). We calculate the mean square response to the stochastic fluctuations in the Lorentz force. We find that transport in phase space is very small compared to the resonant increase in amplitudes due to the mean charge, over the timescale that the oscillator is resonantly pumped up. Therefore the stochastic charge variations cannot break the resonant interaction; locally, the Lorentz resonance is a robust mechanism for the shaping of etheral dust ring systems. Slightly stronger bounds on plasma parameters are required when we consider the longer transit times between Lorentz resonances.
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-11-01
One of the longest standing unsolved problems in physics relates to the behavior of fluids that are driven far from equilibrium such as occurs when they become turbulent due to fast flow through a grid or tidal motions. In turbulent flows the distribution of vortex energy as a function of the inverse length scale [or wavenumber 'k'] of motion is proportional to 1/k5/3 which is the celebrated law of Kolmogorov. Although this law gives a good description of the average motion, fluctuations around the average are huge. This stands in contrast with thermally activated motion where large fluctuations around thermal equilibrium are highly unfavorable. The problem of turbulence is the problem of understanding why large fluctuations are so prevalent which is also called the problem of 'intermittency'. Turbulence is a remarkable problem in that its solution sits simultaneously at the forefront of physics, mathematics, engineering and computer science. A recent conference [March 2002] on 'Statistical Hydrodynamics' organized by the Los Alamos Laboratory Center for Nonlinear Studies brought together researchers in all of these fields. Although turbulence is generally thought to be described by the Navier-Stokes Equations of fluid mechanics the solution as well as its existence has eluded researchers for over 100 years. In fact proof of the existence of such a solution qualifies for a 1 M millennium prize. As part of our NASA funded research we have proposed building a bridge between vortex turbulence and wave turbulence. The latter occurs when high amplitude waves of various wavelengths are allowed to mutually interact in a fluid. In particular we have proposed measuring the interaction of ripples [capillary waves] that run around on the surface of a fluid sphere suspended in a microgravity environment. The problem of ripple turbulence poses similar mathematical challenges to the problem of vortex turbulence. The waves can have a high amplitude and a strong nonlinear
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-01-01
One of the longest standing unsolved problems in physics relates to the behavior of fluids that are driven far from equilibrium such as occurs when they become turbulent due to fast flow through a grid or tidal motions. In turbulent flows the distribution of vortex energy as a function of the inverse length scale [or wavenumber 'k'] of motion is proportional to 1/k(sup 5/3) which is the celebrated law of Kolmogorov. Although this law gives a good description of the average motion, fluctuations around the average are huge. This stands in contrast with thermally activated motion where large fluctuations around thermal equilibrium are highly unfavorable. The problem of turbulence is the problem of understanding why large fluctuations are so prevalent which is also called the problem of 'intermittency'. Turbulence is a remarkable problem in that its solution sits simultaneously at the forefront of physics, mathematics, engineering and computer science. A recent conference [March 2002] on 'Statistical Hydrodynamics' organized by the Los Alamos Laboratory Center for Nonlinear Studies brought together researchers in all of these fields. Although turbulence is generally thought to be described by the Navier-Stokes Equations of fluid mechanics the solution as well as its existence has eluded researchers for over 100 years. In fact proof of the existence of such a solution qualifies for a 1 M$ millennium prize. As part of our NASA funded research we have proposed building a bridge between vortex turbulence and wave turbulence. The latter occurs when high amplitude waves of various wavelengths are allowed to mutually interact in a fluid. In particular we have proposed measuring the interaction of ripples [capillary waves] that run around on the surface of a fluid sphere suspended in a microgravity environment. The problem of ripple turbulence poses similar mathematical challenges to the problem of vortex turbulence. The waves can have a high amplitude and a strong nonlinear
A stochastic formulation of the Bass model of new-product diffusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niu Shun-Chen
2002-01-01
Full Text Available For a large variety of new products, the Bass Model (BM describes the empirical cumulative-adoptions curve extremely well. The BM postulates that the trajectory of cumulative adoptions of a new product follows a deterministic function whose instantaneous growth rate depends on two parameters, one of which captures an individual's intrinsic tendency to purchase, independent of the number of previous adopters, and the other captures a positive force of influence on an individual by previous adopters. In this paper, we formulate a stochastic version of the BM, which we call the Stochastic Bass Model (SBM, where the trajectory of cumulative number of adoptions is governed by a pure birth process. We show that with an appropriately-chosen set of birth rates, the fractions of individuals who have adopted the product by time t in a family of SBMs indexed by the size of the target population converge in probability to the deterministic fraction in a corresponding BM, when the population size approaches infinity. The formulation therefore supports and expands the BM by allowing stochastic trajectories.
Stochastic processes crossing from ballistic to fractional diffusion with memory: exact results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Ilyin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We address the now classical problem of a diffusion process that crosses over from a ballistic behavior at short times to a fractional diffusion (sub- or super-diffusion at longer times. Using the standard non-Markovian diffusion equation we demonstrate how to choose the memory kernel to exactly respect the two different asymptotics of the diffusion process. Having done so we solve for the probability distribution function as a continuous function which evolves inside a ballistically expanding domain. This general solution agrees for long times with the probability distribution function obtained within the continuous random walk approach but it is much superior to this solution at shorter times where the effect of the ballistic regime is crucial.
Shape and Dimensions of Ripples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl
and the general conclusion is that sharp crested ripples is thought unlikely to become stable under oscillatory flow due to the large increase in bed shear stresses because of the rapid contraction of the flow around the crest. Further, a dynamically moving ripple crest is investigated. The key focus...... are the recirculation zone and its penetration into the main flow. This will be compared to the period averaged bed shear stress. An analysis of the bed load transport, both as a transport capacity in the phase resolved space and an analysis of possible stable ripples is conducted. This leads to some stable ripples...
Diffusive heat transport across magnetic islands and stochastic layers in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoelzl, Matthias
2010-01-01
Heat transport in tokamak plasmas with magnetic islands and ergodic field lines was simulated at realistic plasma parameters in realistic tokamak geometries. This requires the treatment of anisotropic heat diffusion, which is more efficient along magnetic field lines by up to ten orders of magnitude than perpendicular to them. Comparisons with analytical predictions and experimental measurements allow to determine the stability properties of neoclassical tearing modes as well as the experimental heat diffusion anisotropy.
Ackerman, David M; Wang, Jing; Wendel, Joseph H; Liu, Da-Jiang; Pruski, Marek; Evans, James W
2011-03-21
We analyze the spatiotemporal behavior of species concentrations in a diffusion-mediated conversion reaction which occurs at catalytic sites within linear pores of nanometer diameter. Diffusion within the pores is subject to a strict single-file (no passing) constraint. Both transient and steady-state behavior is precisely characterized by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a spatially discrete lattice-gas model for this reaction-diffusion process considering various distributions of catalytic sites. Exact hierarchical master equations can also be developed for this model. Their analysis, after application of mean-field type truncation approximations, produces discrete reaction-diffusion type equations (mf-RDE). For slowly varying concentrations, we further develop coarse-grained continuum hydrodynamic reaction-diffusion equations (h-RDE) incorporating a precise treatment of single-file diffusion in this multispecies system. The h-RDE successfully describe nontrivial aspects of transient behavior, in contrast to the mf-RDE, and also correctly capture unreactive steady-state behavior in the pore interior. However, steady-state reactivity, which is localized near the pore ends when those regions are catalytic, is controlled by fluctuations not incorporated into the hydrodynamic treatment. The mf-RDE partly capture these fluctuation effects, but cannot describe scaling behavior of the reactivity.
Effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldston, R.J.; Towner, H.H.
1980-02-01
Analytic calculations of three important effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas are presented. In the first process, collisional ripple-trapping, beam ions become trapped in local magnetic wells near their banana tips due to pitch-angle scattering as they traverse the ripple on barely unripple-trapped orbits. In the second process, collisionless ripple-trapping, near-perpendicular untrapped ions are captured (again near a banana tip) due to their finite orbits, which carry them out into regions of higher ripple. In the third process, banana-drift diffusion, fast-ion banana orbits fail to close precisely, due to a ripple-induced variable lingering period near the banana tips. These three mechanisms lead to substantial radial transport of banana-trapped, neutral-beam-injected ions when the quantity α* identical with epsilon/sin theta/Nqdelta is of order unity or smaller
Effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldston, R.J.; Towner, H.H.
1981-01-01
Analytic calculations of three important effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas are presented. In the first process, collisional ripple-trapping, ions become trapped in local magnetic wells near their banana tips owing to pitch-angle scattering as they traverse the ripple on barely unripple-trapped orbits. In the second process, collisionless ripple-trapping, ions are captured (again near a banana tip) owing to their finite orbits, which carry them out into regions of higher ripple. In the third process, banana-drift diffusion, fast-ion banana orbits fail to close precisely, due to a ripple-induced 'variable lingering period' near the banana tips. These three mechanisms lead to substantial radial transport of banana-trapped, neutral-beam-injected ions when the quantity α* is identical with epsilonsinthetaNqdelta is of order unity or smaller. (author)
Plasma transport in stochastic magnetic fields. III. Kinetics of test-particle diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.; Kleva, R.G.
1982-07-01
A discussion is given of test particle transport in the presence of specified stochastic magnetic fields, with particular emphasis on the collisional limit. Certain paradoxes and inconsistencies in the literature regarding the form of the scaling laws are resolved by carefully distinguishing a number of physically distinct correlation lengths, and thus by identifying several collisional subregimes. The common procedure of averaging the conventional fluid equations over the statistics of a random field is shown to fail in some important cases because of breakdown of the Chapman-Enskog ordering in the presence of a stochastic field component with short autocorrelation length. A modified perturbation theory is introduced which leads to a Kubo-like formula valid in all collisionality regimes. The direct-interaction approximation is shown to fail in the interesting limit in which the orbit exponentiation length L/sub K/ appears explicitly. A higher order renormalized kinetic theory in which L/sub K/ appears naturally is discussed and used to rederive more systematically the results of the heuristic scaling arguments
Wang, Y. L.; Zha, Y.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Wen, J. C.
2015-12-01
Estimation of subsurface hydraulic diffusivity was carried out to understand the characteristics of Zhuoshui River alluvial fan, Taiwan. The fan, an important agricultural and industrial region with high water demand, is located at middle Taiwan with an area of 1800 km2. The prior geo-investigations suggest that the main recharge region of the fan is at an apex along the river. The distribution of soil hydraulic diffusivity was estimated by fusing naturally recurring stimulus provided by river and groundwater head. Specifically, the variance and power spectrum provided by temporal and spatial change of groundwater head in response to river stage variations are analyzed to estimate hydraulic diffusivity distribution. It is found that the hydraulic diffusivity of the fan is at the range from 0.08 to 16 m2/s. The average hydraulic diffusivity at the apex, middle, and tail of the fan along the river is about 0.4, 0.6, and 1.0 m2/s, respectively.
Mechanics of wind ripple stratigraphy.
Forrest, S B; Haff, P K
1992-03-06
Stratigraphic patterns preserved under translating surface undulations or ripples in a depositional eolian environment are computed on a grain by grain basis using physically based cellular automata models. The spontaneous appearance, growth, and motion of the simulated ripples correspond in many respects to the behavior of natural ripples. The simulations show that climbing strata can be produced by impact alone; direct action of fluid shear is unnecessary. The model provides a means for evaluating the connection between mechanical processes occurring in the paleoenvironment during deposition and the resulting stratigraphy preserved in the geologic column: vertical compression of small laminae above a planar surface indicates nascent ripple growth; supercritical laminae are associated with unusually intense deposition episodes; and a plane erosion surface separating sets of well-developed laminae is consistent with continued migration of mature ripples during a hiatus in deposition.
Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.
Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng
2015-05-07
Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.
Stochastic mechanics and the Kepler problem: Diffusions generated by the quantum motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbaczewski, P.
1986-01-01
We construct a class of solutions of the Schroedinger equation for the Coulomb-Kepler problem. Their ψ = ρ 1/2 exp(iS/ℎ) structure implies that the quantal dynamics of wave functions is completely determined by the related classical Hamiltonian system. A construction of the associated controlled stochastic processes is then possible, their drift velocity being entirely defined in terms of (explicitly known) probability density ρ(x,y,z,t) and phase S(x,y,z,t). In particular, for the stationary states of the quantum problem, in its four-oscillator reconstruction, we identify the regime in which the related classical Hamiltonian can be effectively replaced by the Hamiltonian of the classical Kepler motion. (orig.)
Bos, Charles S.
2008-01-01
When analysing the volatility related to high frequency financial data, mostly non-parametric approaches based on realised or bipower variation are applied. This article instead starts from a continuous time diffusion model and derives a parametric analog at high frequency for it, allowing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlen, E.A.
1984-01-01
In Nelson's stochastic mechanics, quantum phenomena are described in terms of diffusions instead of wave functions. These diffusions are formally given by stochastic differential equations with extremely singular coefficients. Using PDE methods, we prove the existence of solutions. This reult provides a rigorous basis for stochastic mechanics. (orig.)
Barber, Jared; Tanase, Roxana; Yotov, Ivan
2016-06-01
Several Kalman filter algorithms are presented for data assimilation and parameter estimation for a nonlinear diffusion model of epithelial cell migration. These include the ensemble Kalman filter with Monte Carlo sampling and a stochastic collocation (SC) Kalman filter with structured sampling. Further, two types of noise are considered -uncorrelated noise resulting in one stochastic dimension for each element of the spatial grid and correlated noise parameterized by the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion resulting in one stochastic dimension for each KL term. The efficiency and accuracy of the four methods are investigated for two cases with synthetic data with and without noise, as well as data from a laboratory experiment. While it is observed that all algorithms perform reasonably well in matching the target solution and estimating the diffusion coefficient and the growth rate, it is illustrated that the algorithms that employ SC and KL expansion are computationally more efficient, as they require fewer ensemble members for comparable accuracy. In the case of SC methods, this is due to improved approximation in stochastic space compared to Monte Carlo sampling. In the case of KL methods, the parameterization of the noise results in a stochastic space of smaller dimension. The most efficient method is the one combining SC and KL expansion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Real-time observation of FIB-created dots and ripples on GaAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rose, F; Fujita, H; Kawakatsu, H
2008-01-01
We report a phenomenological study of Ga dots and ripples created by a focused ion beam (FIB) on the GaAs(001) surface. Real-time observation of dot diffusion and ripple formation was made possible by recording FIB movies. In the case of FIB irradiation with a 40 nA current of Ga + ions accelerated under 40 kV with an incidence angle of θ = 30 0 , increasing ion dose gives rise to three different regimes. In Regime 1, dots with lateral sizes in the range 50-460 nm are formed. Dots diffuse under continuous sputtering. In Regime 2, dots self-assemble into Bradley and Harper (BH) type ripples with a pseudo-period of λ = 1150 ± 25 nm. In Regime 3, ripples are eroded and the surface topology evolves into microplanes. In the case of normal incidence, FIB sputtering leads only to the formation of dots, without surface rippling
Model of alpha particle diffusion in the outer limiter shadow of TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S.; Academia Sinica, Hefei, Anhui; Zweben, S.J.
1996-05-01
A new code, Monte Carlo Collisional Stochastic Orbit Retracing (MCCSOR), has been developed to model the alpha particle loss signal as measured by the outer midplane scintillator detector in TFTR. The shadowing effects due to the outer limiters and the detector itself have been included, along with a pitch angle scattering and stochastic ripple diffusion. Shadowing by the outer limiters has a strong effect on both the magnitude and pitch angle distribution of the calculated loss. There is at least qualitative agreement between the calculated results and the experimental data
The measurement problem on classical diffusion process: inverse method on stochastic processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigerelle, M.; Iost, A.
2004-01-01
In a high number of diffusive systems, measures are processed to calculate material parameters such as diffusion coefficients, or to verify the accuracy of mathematical models. However, the precision of the parameter determination or of the model relevance depends on the location of the measure itself. The aim of this paper is first to analyse, for a mono-dimensional system, the precision of the measure in relation with its location by an inverse problem algorithm and secondly to examine the physical meaning of the results. Statistical mechanic considerations show that, passing over a time-distance criterion, measurement becomes uncertain whatever the initial conditions. The criterion proves that this chaotic mode is related to the production of anti-entropy at a mesoscopique scale that is in violation to quantum theory about measurement
2006-01-01
This false-color composite image shows the Cartwheel galaxy as seen by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer's far ultraviolet detector (blue); the Hubble Space Telescope's wide field and planetary camera 2 in B-band visible light (green); the Spitzer Space Telescope's infrared array camera at 8 microns (red); and the Chandra X-ray Observatory's advanced CCD imaging spectrometer-S array instrument (purple). Approximately 100 million years ago, a smaller galaxy plunged through the heart of Cartwheel galaxy, creating ripples of brief star formation. In this image, the first ripple appears as an ultraviolet-bright blue outer ring. The blue outer ring is so powerful in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer observations that it indicates the Cartwheel is one of the most powerful UV-emitting galaxies in the nearby universe. The blue color reveals to astronomers that associations of stars 5 to 20 times as massive as our sun are forming in this region. The clumps of pink along the outer blue ring are regions where both X-rays and ultraviolet radiation are superimposed in the image. These X-ray point sources are very likely collections of binary star systems containing a blackhole (called massive X-ray binary systems). The X-ray sources seem to cluster around optical/ultraviolet-bright supermassive star clusters. The yellow-orange inner ring and nucleus at the center of the galaxy result from the combination of visible and infrared light, which is stronger towards the center. This region of the galaxy represents the second ripple, or ring wave, created in the collision, but has much less star formation activity than the first (outer) ring wave. The wisps of red spread throughout the interior of the galaxy are organic molecules that have been illuminated by nearby low-level star formation. Meanwhile, the tints of green are less massive, older visible-light stars. Although astronomers have not identified exactly which galaxy collided with the Cartwheel, two of three candidate galaxies can be
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Rodrigo Siqueira Batista
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to verify the robustness of the Least Square Monte Carlo and Grant, Vora & Weeks methods when used to determine the incremental payoff of the carbon market for renewable electricity generation projects, considering that the behavior of the price of Certified Emission Reductions, otherwise known as Carbon Credits, may be modeled using a jump-diffusion process. In addition, this paper analyses particular characteristics, such as absence of monotonicity, found in trigger curves obtained through use of the Grant, Vora & Weeks method to valuate these types of project.
Chakrabarti, Anindya S.
2016-01-01
We present a model of technological evolution due to interaction between multiple countries and the resultant effects on the corresponding macro variables. The world consists of a set of economies where some countries are leaders and some are followers in the technology ladder. All of them potentially gain from technological breakthroughs. Applying Lotka-Volterra (LV) equations to model evolution of the technology frontier, we show that the way technology diffuses creates repercussions in the partner economies. This process captures the spill-over effects on major macro variables seen in the current highly globalized world due to trickle-down effects of technology.
Mechanisms of sharp wave initiation and ripple generation.
Schlingloff, Dániel; Káli, Szabolcs; Freund, Tamás F; Hájos, Norbert; Gulyás, Attila I
2014-08-20
Replay of neuronal activity during hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) is essential in memory formation. To understand the mechanisms underlying the initiation of irregularly occurring SWRs and the generation of periodic ripples, we selectively manipulated different components of the CA3 network in mouse hippocampal slices. We recorded EPSCs and IPSCs to examine the buildup of neuronal activity preceding SWRs and analyzed the distribution of time intervals between subsequent SWR events. Our results suggest that SWRs are initiated through a combined refractory and stochastic mechanism. SWRs initiate when firing in a set of spontaneously active pyramidal cells triggers a gradual, exponential buildup of activity in the recurrent CA3 network. We showed that this tonic excitatory envelope drives reciprocally connected parvalbumin-positive basket cells, which start ripple-frequency spiking that is phase-locked through reciprocal inhibition. The synchronized GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents give rise to a major component of the ripple-frequency oscillation in the local field potential and organize the phase-locked spiking of pyramidal cells. Optogenetic stimulation of parvalbumin-positive cells evoked full SWRs and EPSC sequences in pyramidal cells. Even with excitation blocked, tonic driving of parvalbumin-positive cells evoked ripple oscillations. Conversely, optogenetic silencing of parvalbumin-positive cells interrupted the SWRs or inhibited their occurrence. Local drug applications and modeling experiments confirmed that the activity of parvalbumin-positive perisomatic inhibitory neurons is both necessary and sufficient for ripple-frequency current and rhythm generation. These interneurons are thus essential in organizing pyramidal cell activity not only during gamma oscillation, but, in a different configuration, during SWRs. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411385-14$15.00/0.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svetlana Strbac Savic
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Forecasting the operational efficiency of an existing underground mine plays an important role in strategic planning of production. Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL is used to express the operational efficiency of production. The forecasting model should be able to involve common time horizon, taking the characteristics of the input variables that directly affect the value of DOL. Changes in the magnitude of any input variable change the value of DOL. To establish the relationship describing the way of changing we applied multivariable grey modeling. Established time sequence multivariable response formula is also used to forecast the future values of operating leverage. Operational efficiency of production is often associated with diverse sources of uncertainties. Incorporation of these uncertainties into multivariable forecasting model enables mining company to survive in today’s competitive environment. Simulation of mean reversion process and geometric Brownian motion is used to describe the stochastic diffusion nature of metal price, as a key element of revenues, and production costs, respectively. By simulating a forecasting model, we imitate its action in order to measure its response to different inputs. The final result of simulation process is the expected value of DOL for every year of defined time horizon.
"Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?
Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.
2018-05-01
Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.
Ion peak narrowing by applying additional AC voltage (ripple voltage) to FAIMS extractor electrode.
Pervukhin, Viktor V; Sheven, Dmitriy G
2010-01-01
The use of a non-uniform electric field in a high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzer increases sensitivity but decreases resolution. The application of an additional AC voltage to the extractor electrode ("ripple" voltage, U(ripple)) can overcome this effect, which decreases the FAIMS peak width. In this approach, the diffusion ion loss remains minimal in the non-uniform electric field in the cylindrical part of the device, and all ion losses under U(ripple) occur in a short portion of their path. Application of the ripple voltage to the extractor electrode is twice as efficient as the applying of U(ripple) along the total length of the device. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Helical ripple transport in stellarators at low collision frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beidler, C.D.
1987-12-01
Numerical and analytical techniques have been developed to investigate the plasma transport which is due to particles trapping/detrapping in the local helical ripple wells of a stellarator's magnetic field. This process is of considerable importance as it provides the dominant transport mechanism in a stellarator plasma at ''low'' collision frequency: that is, when the frequency with which a particle is collisionally detrapped from a local ripple well is less than the bounce frequency of the particle in that well. A form of the longitudinal adiabatic invariant, J, is constructed and shown to describe accurately the orbits of ripple trapped particles. Unlike previous expressions for J, the form derived here correctly accounts for the local toroidal variation of the magnetic field. The expression for J is incorporated into a rapid ''hybrid'' Monte Carlo simulation of ripple transport in stellarators. The simulation is a hybrid in the sense that particle orbits in the narrow region of phase space on either side of the ripple trapping/detrapping boundary are followed using guiding center equations of motion while orbits in the remainder of phase space are described using adiabatic invariants. An analytical expression for the distribution function of ripple trapped particles in a stellarator - valid at all low collision frequencies - has been obtained by series solution of the bounce - averaged kinetic equation. This solution has been applied to both 'standard' and a class of 'transport optimized' stellarator magnetic fields. Analytical estimates of the diffusion coefficient obtained from the series solution show excellent agreement with the numerical results of the hybrid Monte Carlo code in all cases studied. 55 refs., 30 figs
Reducing Ripple In A Switching Voltage Regulator
Paulkovich, John; Rodriguez, G. Ernest
1994-01-01
Ripple voltage in output of switching voltage regulator reduced substantially by simple additional circuitry adding little to overall weight and size of regulator. Heretofore, additional filtering circuitry needed to obtain comparable reductions in ripple typically as large and heavy as original regulator. Current opposing ripple current injected into filter capacitor.
Energy measurement of fast ions trapped in the toroidal field ripple of Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Hutter, T.; Martin, G.; Pecquet, A.L.; Saoutic, B.
1993-09-01
During additional heating in Tore Supra (ICRF or NBI) fast ion losses due to the toroidal field ripple were clearly measured by a set of graphite probes. This diagnostic collects the flow of fast ions entering a vertical port and usually shows a maximum flux for ions originating from the vicinity of surface δ * = 0. During the monster sawteeth regime, achieved with ICRF, a remarkable phenomenon was observed: the ejection of fast ions, not correlated with any measured MHD activity. The radial distribution of these ions is quite different from that usually observed exhibiting a peak located in the central section of the plasma. In order to measure the energy distribution of these ions, from 80 keV (energy of the neutral beam injected in Tore Supra) up to 1 MeV (expected during ICRF), a new diagnostic is under construction. The principle of the diagnostic is to discriminate the ions in energy using their Larmor radius (p = 1.3 cm for 100 keV → p = 3.6 cm for 700 keV, B = 4T). The detector is made of a hollow graphite cylinder with a small entrance slot, located in a vertical port on the ion drift side. An array of six metallic collectors placed inside the graphite cylinder intercepts the ions. The current on each collector was estimated at 10 → 100 nA, during ICRF heating. The energy resolution of this diagnostic is expected to be about 20 keV for the lowest energy range and 100 keV for the highest. This type of ruggedized detector might be extrapolated for the measurements of alpha particle losses in future DT experiments. It should also be suitable for the studies of stochastic ripple diffusion. (authors). 3 refs., 9 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubaschewski, O.
1983-01-01
The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes
Borodin, Andrei N
2017-01-01
This book provides a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the theory of stochastic processes. A significant part of the book is devoted to the classic theory of stochastic processes. In turn, it also presents proofs of well-known results, sometimes together with new approaches. Moreover, the book explores topics not previously covered elsewhere, such as distributions of functionals of diffusions stopped at different random times, the Brownian local time, diffusions with jumps, and an invariance principle for random walks and local times. Supported by carefully selected material, the book showcases a wealth of examples that demonstrate how to solve concrete problems by applying theoretical results. It addresses a broad range of applications, focusing on concrete computational techniques rather than on abstract theory. The content presented here is largely self-contained, making it suitable for researchers and graduate students alike.
Lecca, Paola; Morpurgo, Daniele
2012-01-01
Reaction-diffusion based models have been widely used in the literature for modeling the growth of solid tumors. Many of the current models treat both diffusion/consumption of nutrients and cell proliferation. The majority of these models use classical transport/mass conservation equations for describing the distribution of molecular species in tumor spheroids, and the Fick's law for describing the flux of uncharged molecules (i.e oxygen, glucose). Commonly, the equations for the cell movement and proliferation are first order differential equations describing the rate of change of the velocity of the cells with respect to the spatial coordinates as a function of the nutrient's gradient. Several modifications of these equations have been developed in the last decade to explicitly indicate that the tumor includes cells, interstitial fluids and extracellular matrix: these variants provided a model of tumor as a multiphase material with these as the different phases. Most of the current reaction-diffusion tumor models are deterministic and do not model the diffusion as a local state-dependent process in a non-homogeneous medium at the micro- and meso-scale of the intra- and inter-cellular processes, respectively. Furthermore, a stochastic reaction-diffusion model in which diffusive transport of the molecular species of nutrients and chemotherapy drugs as well as the interactions of the tumor cells with these species is a novel approach. The application of this approach to he scase of non-small cell lung cancer treated with gemcitabine is also novel. We present a stochastic reaction-diffusion model of non-small cell lung cancer growth in the specification formalism of the tool Redi, we recently developed for simulating reaction-diffusion systems. We also describe how a spatial gradient of nutrients and oncological drugs affects the tumor progression. Our model is based on a generalization of the Fick's first diffusion law that allows to model diffusive transport in non
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutierrez, R.; Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.; Nafidi, A.
2009-01-01
The main aim of this study is to model the trend of the evolution of the total stock of private petrol-driven cars. In Spain, as in other EU countries, this trend between 2000 and 2005 differed significantly from that observed from 1986 to 1999. Moreover, it varies greatly from that corresponding to the stock of diesel-driven cars, which consistently presents an exponential Gompertz-type increase. Spain constitutes a typical example of a failure to observe the maximum CO 2 emission levels assigned to it by 2012 under the Kyoto Protocol (1992); a significant percentage of these excess emissions is accounted for by the land transport sector, in general, and by the private cars subsector, in particular. This paper proposes a stochastic model based on a new non homogeneous stochastic gamma-type diffusion process which it is a stochastic version of a Gamma function type deterministic growth model considered in Skiadas . We describe its main probabilistic characteristics and establish a statistical methodology by which it can be fitted to real data and obtain medium-term forecasts that, in statistical terms, are quite accurate
Filin, I
2009-06-01
Using diffusion processes, I model stochastic individual growth, given exogenous hazards and starvation risk. By maximizing survival to final size, optimal life histories (e.g. switching size for habitat/dietary shift) are determined by two ratios: mean growth rate over growth variance (diffusion coefficient) and mortality rate over mean growth rate; all are size dependent. For example, switching size decreases with either ratio, if both are positive. I provide examples and compare with previous work on risk-sensitive foraging and the energy-predation trade-off. I then decompose individual size into reversibly and irreversibly growing components, e.g. reserves and structure. I provide a general expression for optimal structural growth, when reserves grow stochastically. I conclude that increased growth variance of reserves delays structural growth (raises threshold size for its commencement) but may eventually lead to larger structures. The effect depends on whether the structural trait is related to foraging or defence. Implications for population dynamics are discussed.
Toroidal ripple transport of beam ions in the mega-ampère spherical tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McClements, K. G.; Hole, M. J.
2012-01-01
The transport of injected beam ions due to toroidal magnetic field ripple in the mega-ampère spherical tokamak (MAST) is quantified using a full orbit particle tracking code, with collisional slowing-down and pitch-angle scattering by electrons and bulk ions taken into account. It is shown that the level of ripple losses is generally rather low, although it depends sensitively on the major radius of the outer midplane plasma edge; for typical values of this parameter in MAST plasmas, the reduction in beam heating power due specifically to ripple transport is less than 1%, and the ripple contribution to beam ion diffusivity is of the order of 0.1 m 2 s –1 or less. It is concluded that ripple effects make only a small contribution to anomalous transport rates that have been invoked to account for measured neutron rates and plasma stored energies in some MAST discharges. Delayed (non-prompt) losses are shown to occur close to the outer midplane, suggesting that banana-drift diffusion is the most likely cause of the ripple-induced losses.
A Simple Ripple Filter for FLUKA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bassler, Niels; Herrmann, Rochus
In heavy ion radiotherapy, pristine C-12 beams are usually widened a few mm (FWHM) along the beam axis, before the actual spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is build. The pristine beam widening is commonly performed with a ripple filter, known from the facility at GSI (Darmstadt) and at HIT (Heidelberg......). The ripple filter at GSI and HIT consists of several wedge like structures, which widens the Bragg-peak up to e.g. 3 mm. For Monte Carlo simulations of C-12 therapy, the exact setup, including the ripple filter needs to be simulated. In the Monte Carlo particle transport program FLUKA, the ripple filter can....... Since the ripple filter is a periodic geometry, one could use the LATTIC card with advantage, but here we shall take a Monte Carlo based approach istead. The advantage of this method is that our input file merely contains one body as the ripple filter, which can be a flat slab (or any other arbitrary...
Numerical simulation of aeolian sand ripples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang Liqiang; Guo Liejin
2004-01-01
With a new horizontal saltation displacement vector, a model is implemented to simulate the initiation and evolution of aeolian sand ripples. In the model, saltation distance considers the effects of surface height and slope. A linear stability analysis is also carried out for formation of sand ripples. The results show that, the model can be able to successfully reproduce sand ripples which can increase in scale by merging of small ripples. The linear stability analysis indicates that sand ripples appear when the relaxation rate parameter is below a threshold value and wind strength parameter is larger than a critical value. The results also verified that the formation of sand ripples is a self-organization process
Stochastic processes in cell biology
Bressloff, Paul C
2014-01-01
This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology. A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods. This text is primarily...
Remarks on stochastic acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graeff, P.
1982-12-01
Stochastic acceleration and turbulent diffusion are strong turbulence problems since no expansion parameter exists. Hence the problem of finding rigorous results is of major interest both for checking approximations and for reference models. Since we have found a way of constructing such models in the turbulent diffusion case the question of the extension to stochastic acceleration now arises. The paper offers some possibilities illustrated by the case of 'stochastic free fall' which may be particularly interesting in the context of linear response theory. (orig.)
Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boivin, R.L.
1991-12-01
The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator (ZnS(Ag)) and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current ({approx gt} 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model.
Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boivin, Rejean Louis [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
1991-12-01
The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator [ZnS(Ag)] and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current (≳ 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model.
Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boivin, R.L.
1991-12-01
The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator [ZnS(Ag)] and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current (approx-gt 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model
On the formation of current ripples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartholdy, Jesper; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Flemming, Burg W.
2015-01-01
such an explanation based on a virtual boundary layer concept, and present a model predicting ripple height on the basis of grain size, current velocity and water depth. The model contradicts the conventional view of current ripples as bedforms not scaling with flow depth. Furthermore, it confirms the dependence...
Molecular structure of the lecithin ripple phase
de Vries, AH; Yefimov, S; Mark, AE; Marrink, SJ
2005-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of lecithin lipid bilayers in water as they are cooled from the liquid crystalline phase show the spontaneous formation of rippled bilayers. The ripple consists of two domains of different length and orientation, connected by a kink. The organization of the lipids in
Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.
2001-01-01
Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...
Bonilla, L. L.; Carpio, A.
2012-11-01
We propose a model of ripples in suspended graphene sheets based on plate equations that are made discrete with the periodicity of the honeycomb lattice and then periodized. In addition, the equation for the displacements with respect to the planar configuration contains a double-well site potential, a nonlinear friction, and a multiplicative white-noise term satisfying the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The nonlinear friction terms agree with those proposed by Eichler [Nature Nanotech.1748-338710.1038/nnano.2011.71 6, 339 (2011)] to explain their experiments with a graphene resonator. The site double-well potential indicates that the carbon atoms at each lattice point have equal probability to move upward or downward off plane. For the considered parameter values, the relaxation time due to friction is much larger than the periods of membrane vibrations and the noise is quite small. Then ripples with no preferred orientation appear as long-lived metastable states for any temperature. Numerical solutions confirm this picture.
Transport properties of stochastic Lorentz models
Beijeren, H. van
Diffusion processes are considered for one-dimensional stochastic Lorentz models, consisting of randomly distributed fixed scatterers and one moving light particle. In waiting time Lorentz models the light particle makes instantaneous jumps between scatterers after a stochastically distributed
Ripple transport in a modular Helias
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beidler, C.D.
1989-01-01
Neoclassical transport rates are determined for Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators (Helias). Special emphasis is given to Wendelstein VII-X candidates, for which the magnetic field is produced by a large number of discrete non-planar coils. The investigation is concentrated on the long-mean-free-path regime where particles trapped in local ripple wells of the magnetic field make the dominant contribution to transport. For Wendelstein VII-X, such particles fall into two classes; those localized in the helical ripple common to all stellarator-type devices and those very-localized particles which are trapped in the modular ripples existing between the individual coils. Using analytical techniques it is shown that helical-ripple transport rates are substantially reduced for all Wendelstein VII-X candidates relative to classical stellarator/torsatron configurations. This reduction is most pronounced in the 1/ν regime - equivalent helical ripples of less than 1% lead to reduction factors of more than an order of magnitude - but is significant throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime. Modular ripple transport in Wendelstein VII-X is calculated by analytically solving the appropriate bounce-averaged kinetic equation. This solution assumes a general magnetic field model and fully accounts for the deformation of modular ripples due to the presence of the other magnetic-field harmonics. Results indicate that 12 coils per field period are necessary if modular-ripple losses are to remain smaller than helical-ripple losses over the entire plasma cross section. (orig.)
Emittance growth due to dipole ripple and sextupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shih, H.J.; Ellison, J.A.; Syphers, M.J.; Newberger, B.S.
1993-05-01
Ripple in the power supplies for storage ring magnets can have adverse effects on the circulating beams: orbit distortion and emittance growth from dipole ripple, tune modulation and dynamic aperture reduction from quadrupole ripple, etc. In this paper, we study the effects of ripple in the horizontal bending field of the SSC in the presence of nonlinearity, in particular, the growth in beam emittance
Effect of ripple-induced transport on H-mode performance in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parail, V.; Vries, P. de; Lonnroth, J.; Kiviniemi, T.; Johnson, T.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Hatae, T.; Kamada, Y.; Konovalov, S.; Oyama, N.; Shinohara, K.; Tobita, K.; Urano, H.
2005-01-01
A number of experiments have shown that ripple-induced transport influences performance of ELMy H-modes in the tokamak. A noticeable difference in confinement, ELM frequency and amplitude was found between JET (with ripple amplitude δ∼0.1%) and JT-60U (with δ∼1%) in otherwise identical discharges. It was previously shown in JET experiments with enhanced ripple that a gradual increase in the ripple amplitude first leads to a modest improvement in plasma confinement, which is followed by the degradation of edge pedestal and further transition to the L-mode regime if δ increases further. The DIII-D team recently reported a marginal increase in confinement in experiments with an edge transport enhanced by the externally driven resonant magnetic perturbation. Numerical predictive modelling of the dynamics of ELMy H-mode JET plasma relevant to a JET/JT-60U similarity experiment has been conducted taking into account ripple-induced ion transport, which was computed using the orbit following code ASCOT. This predictive modelling reveals that, depending on plasma parameters, ripple amplitude and localisation (the latter depending on the toroidal coil design), this additional transport can either improve global plasma confinement or reduce it. These controlled ripple losses might be used as an effective tool for ELM mitigation and may provide an explanation for the difference between JET and JT-60U observed in the similarity experiments. A detailed comparison between ripple- induced transport and the alternative method of ELM mitigation by an externally driven edge magnetic perturbation is discussed. The fact that ripple losses mainly increase ion transport, while a stochastic magnetic layer increases electron transport indicates that it might be beneficial to use a combination of both methods in future experiments. This work was funded partly by the United Kingdom Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and by the European Communities under the contract of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elisa Alòs
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We obtain a Hull and White type formula for a general jump-diffusion stochastic volatility model, where the involved stochastic volatility process is correlated not only with the Brownian motion driving the asset price but also with the asset price jumps. Towards this end, we establish an anticipative Itô's formula, using Malliavin calculus techniques for Lévy processes on the canonical space. As an application, we show that the dependence of the volatility process on the asset price jumps has no effect on the short-time behavior of the at-the-money implied volatility skew.
Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock
2009-01-01
The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal...
Toroidal field ripple effects in large tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uckan, N.A.; Tsang, K.T.; Callen, J.D.
1975-01-01
In an experimental power reactor, the ripple produced by the finite number of toroidal field coils destroys the ideal axisymmetry of the configuration and is responsible for additional particle trapping, loss regions and plasma transport. The effects of toroidal field ripple on the plasma transport coefficient, the loss of alpha particles and energetic injection ions, and the relaxation of toroidal flows are investigated in a new and systematic way. The relevant results are applied to the ORNL-EPR reference design; the maximum ripple there of about 2.2 percent at the outer edge of the plasma column is found to be tolerable from plasma physics considerations
Moreno-Sanchez Pedro; Zafar Muhammad Bilal; Kate Aniket
2016-01-01
The decentralized I owe you (IOU) transaction network Ripple is gaining prominence as a fast, low-cost and efficient method for performing same and cross-currency payments. Ripple keeps track of IOU credit its users have granted to their business partners or friends, and settles transactions between two connected Ripple wallets by appropriately changing credit values on the connecting paths. Similar to cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, while the ownership of the wallets is implicitly pseudony...
Utilization of reduced fuelling ripple set in ROP detector layout optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kastanya, Doddy
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► ADORE is an ROP detect layout optimization algorithm in CANDU reactors. ► The effect of using reduced set of fuelling ripples in ADORE is assessed. ► Significant speedup can be realized by adopting this approach. ► The quality of the results is comparable to results from full set of ripples. - Abstract: The ADORE (Alternative Detector layout Optimization for REgional overpower protection system) algorithm for performing the optimization of regional overpower protection (ROP) for CANDU® reactors has been recently developed. This algorithm utilizes the simulated annealing (SA) stochastic optimization technique to come up with an optimized detector layout for the ROP systems. For each history in the SA iteration where a particular detector layout is evaluated, the goodness of this detector layout is measured in terms of its trip set point value which is obtained by performing a probabilistic trip set point calculation using the ROVER-F code. Since during each optimization execution thousands of candidate detector layouts are evaluated, the overall optimization process is time consuming. Since for each ROVER-F evaluation the number of fuelling ripples controls the execution time, reducing the number of fuelling ripples will reduce the overall execution time. This approach has been investigated and the results are presented in this paper. The challenge is to construct a set of representative fuelling ripples which will significantly speedup the optimization process while guaranteeing that the resulting detector layout has similar quality to the ones produced when the complete set of fuelling ripples is employed.
Impact of Attitude: The Ripple Effect.
Bullen, Robert
1983-01-01
Describes the potential ripple effect of a principal's mercurial personality and poor interpersonal skills on teachers, students, families, and the community. Suggests effective personnel selection methods to enhance the chances of employing desirable principals. (SB)
Temperature dependence of rippled corrugations induced on the Rh(1 1 0) surface via ion sputtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molle, Alessandro; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Granone, F.; Buzio, R.; Firpo, G.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.
2005-01-01
Metal surfaces can be easily nanopatterned via ion sputtering: mounds or ripples can be created depending on the surface symmetry and temperature. However, in many cases these structures are unstable at room temperature and above, due to the adatom fast diffusion. This fact prevents the use of such systems as substrate or nanostamps for a technological implementation. In this paper we present a spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) study on the nanopatterning of a Rh(1 1 0) single crystal. Like the other (1 1 0) metal surfaces, previously investigated, also Rh(1 1 0) shows for increasing temperatures a transition between different rippled morphologies. The main advantage of this system is its stability at room temperature. From SPA-LEED data we can measure the structural features (average periodicity and local faceting) of the observed rippled structures
Cryptocurrency market making in the Ripple network
Brezigar, Jakob
2016-01-01
Market maker provides counterparty for buyers and sellers of financial instruments in transaction settlement. Market makers quote the bid price and the ask price at the same time. This price setting process is called market making. This thesis covers theoretical and practical basis for implementation of autonomous market making algorithm for a promising cryptocurrency market called Ripple. We summarize market making theory, how Ripple cryptocurrency protocol works and how price formation proc...
Diffusion of alpha-like MeV ions in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boivin, R.L.; Zweben, S.J.; Chang, C.S.; Hammett, G.; Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.
1991-01-01
Single particle confinement of alpha particles is of crucial importance in reactor-grade tokamaks like BPX and ITER. Besides the well-known process of first-orbit losses, mechanisms that could lead to significant loss of alpha particles are turbulence-induced diffusion and toroidal field ripple stochastic diffusion. These two mechanisms have been separately studied in TFTR using two different detectors (one at the bottom of the machine and the other near the outer midplane) which can detect escaping charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton in D-D plasmas (and also the 3.5 MeV alpha in D-T). The main difficulty in this type of experiment lies in the necessity of distinguishing the diffusion process from the always-present first-orbit loss-process. In this paper, we show how these two processes can be distinguished using the pitch-angle discrimination of the detectors. The pitch-angle is defined here as the angle of the particle trajectory with respect to the toroidal direction and so is a measure of the ion magnetic moment, μ. Results obtained at the midplane would be the first reported evidence of TF ripple diffusion in a tokamak. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moreno-Sanchez Pedro
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The decentralized I owe you (IOU transaction network Ripple is gaining prominence as a fast, low-cost and efficient method for performing same and cross-currency payments. Ripple keeps track of IOU credit its users have granted to their business partners or friends, and settles transactions between two connected Ripple wallets by appropriately changing credit values on the connecting paths. Similar to cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, while the ownership of the wallets is implicitly pseudonymous in Ripple, IOU credit links and transaction flows between wallets are publicly available in an online ledger. In this paper, we present the first thorough study that analyzes this globally visible log and characterizes the privacy issues with the current Ripple network. In particular, we define two novel heuristics and perform heuristic clustering to group wallets based on observations on the Ripple network graph. We then propose reidentification mechanisms to deanonymize the operators of those clusters and show how to reconstruct the financial activities of deanonymized Ripple wallets. Our analysis motivates the need for better privacy-preserving payment mechanisms for Ripple and characterizes the privacy challenges faced by the emerging credit networks.
Stochastic processes and quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klauder, J.R.
1975-01-01
The author analyses a variety of stochastic processes, namely real time diffusion phenomena, which are analogues of imaginary time quantum theory and convariant imaginary time quantum field theory. He elaborates some standard properties involving probability measures and stochastic variables and considers a simple class of examples. Finally he develops the fact that certain stochastic theories actually exhibit divergences that simulate those of covariant quantum field theory and presents examples of both renormaizable and unrenormalizable behavior. (V.J.C.)
A particle model of rolling grain ripples under waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste
2001-01-01
A simple model for the formation of rolling grain ripples on a flat sand bed by the oscillatory flow generated by a surface wave is presented. An equation of motion is derived for the individual ripples, seen as "particles," on the otherwise flat bed. The model accounts for the initial appearance...... of the ripples, the subsequent coarsening of the ripples, and the final equilibrium state. The model is related to the physical parameters of the problem, and an analytical approximation for the equilibrium spacing of the ripples is developed. It is found that the spacing between the ripples scales...
Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.
This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...
Cochlear implant users' spectral ripple resolution.
Jeon, Eun Kyung; Turner, Christopher W; Karsten, Sue A; Henry, Belinda A; Gantz, Bruce J
2015-10-01
This study revisits the issue of the spectral ripple resolution abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. The spectral ripple resolution of recently implanted CI recipients (implanted during the last 10 years) were compared to those of CI recipients implanted 15 to 20 years ago, as well as those of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners from previously published data from Henry, Turner, and Behrens [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1111-1121 (2005)]. More recently, implanted CI recipients showed significantly better spectral ripple resolution. There is no significant difference in spectral ripple resolution for these recently implanted subjects compared to hearing-impaired (acoustic) listeners. The more recently implanted CI users had significantly better pre-operative speech perception than previously reported CI users. These better pre-operative speech perception scores in CI users from the current study may be related to better performance on the spectral ripple discrimination task; however, other possible factors such as improvements in internal and external devices cannot be excluded.
Beamforming applied to surface EEG improves ripple visibility.
van Klink, Nicole; Mol, Arjen; Ferrier, Cyrille; Hillebrand, Arjan; Huiskamp, Geertjan; Zijlmans, Maeike
2018-01-01
Surface EEG can show epileptiform ripples in people with focal epilepsy, but identification is impeded by the low signal-to-noise ratio of the electrode recordings. We used beamformer-based virtual electrodes to improve ripple identification. We analyzed ten minutes of interictal EEG of nine patients with refractory focal epilepsy. EEGs with more than 60 channels and 20 spikes were included. We computed ∼79 virtual electrodes using a scalar beamformer and marked ripples (80-250 Hz) co-occurring with spikes in physical and virtual electrodes. Ripple numbers in physical and virtual electrodes were compared, and sensitivity and specificity of ripples for the region of interest (ROI; based on clinical information) were determined. Five patients had ripples in the physical electrodes and eight in the virtual electrodes, with more ripples in virtual than in physical electrodes (101 vs. 57, p = .007). Ripples in virtual electrodes predicted the ROI better than physical electrodes (AUC 0.65 vs. 0.56, p = .03). Beamforming increased ripple visibility in surface EEG. Virtual ripples predicted the ROI better than physical ripples, although sensitivity was still poor. Beamforming can facilitate ripple identification in EEG. Ripple localization needs to be improved to enable its use for presurgical evaluation in people with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stochasticity induced by coherent wavepackets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, V.; Krapchev, V.; Ram, A.; Bers, A.
1983-02-01
We consider the momentum transfer and diffusion of electrons periodically interacting with a coherent longitudinal wavepacket. Such a problem arises, for example, in lower-hybrid current drive. We establish the stochastic threshold, the stochastic region δv/sub stoch/ in velocity space, the associated momentum transfer j, and the diffusion coefficient D. We concentrate principally on the weak-field regime, tau/sub autocorrelation/ < tau/sub bounce/
Assessment of Estimation Methods ForStage-Discharge Rating Curve in Rippled Bed Rivers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Maleki
2016-02-01
in a flume located at the hydraulic laboratory ofShahrekordUniversity, Iran. Bass (1993 [reported in Joep (1999], determined an empirical relation between median grain size, D50, and equilibrium ripple length, l: L=75.4 (logD50+197 Eq.(1 Where l and D50 are both given in millimeters. Raudkivi (1997 [reported in Joep (1999], proposed another empirical relation to estimate the ripple length that D50 is given in millimeters: L=245(D500.35 Eq. (2 Flemming (1988 [reported in Joep (1999], derived an empirical relation between mean ripple length and ripple height based on a large dataset: hm= 0.0677l 0.8098 Eq.(3 Where hm is the mean ripple height (m and l is the mean ripple length (m. Ikeda S. and Asaeda (1983 investigated the characteristics of flow over ripples. They found that there are separation areas and vortices at lee of ripples and maximum turbulent diffusion occurs in these areas. Materials and Methods: In this research, the effects of two different type of ripples onthe hydraulic characteristics of flow were experimentally studied in a flume located at the hydraulic laboratory of ShahrekordUniversity, Iran. The flume has the dimensions of 0.4 m wide and depth and 12 m long. Generally 48 tests variety slopes of 0.0005 to 0.003 and discharges of 10 to 40 lit/s, were conducted. Velocity and the shear stress were measured by using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV. Two different types of ripples (parallel and flake ripples were used. The stage- discharge rating curve was then estimated in different ways, such as Einstein - Barbarvsa, shen and White et al. Results and Discussion: In order to investigateresult of the tests, were usedst atistical methods.White method as amaximum valueofα, RMSE, and average absolute error than other methods. Einstein method offitting the discharge under estimated. Evaluation of stage- discharge rating curve methods based on the obtained results from this research showed that Shen method had the highest accuracy for developing the
Molecular structure of the lecithin ripple phase
de Vries, Alex H.; Yefimov, Serge; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert J.
2005-04-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of lecithin lipid bilayers in water as they are cooled from the liquid crystalline phase show the spontaneous formation of rippled bilayers. The ripple consists of two domains of different length and orientation, connected by a kink. The organization of the lipids in one domain of the ripple is found to be that of a splayed gel; in the other domain the lipids are gel-like and fully interdigitated. In the concave part of the kink region between the domains the lipids are disordered. The results are consistent with the experimental information available and provide an atomic-level model that may be tested by further experiments. molecular dynamics simulation | structural model
Rotation and neoclassical ripple transport in ITER
Paul, E. J.; Landreman, M.; Poli, F. M.; Spong, D. A.; Smith, H. M.; Dorland, W.
2017-11-01
Neoclassical transport in the presence of non-axisymmetric magnetic fields causes a toroidal torque known as neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV). The toroidal symmetry of ITER will be broken by the finite number of toroidal field coils and by test blanket modules (TBMs). The addition of ferritic inserts (FIs) will decrease the magnitude of the toroidal field ripple. 3D magnetic equilibria in the presence of toroidal field ripple and ferromagnetic structures are calculated for an ITER steady-state scenario using the variational moments equilibrium code (VMEC). Neoclassical transport quantities in the presence of these error fields are calculated using the stellarator Fokker-Planck iterative neoclassical conservative solver (SFINCS). These calculations fully account for E r , flux surface shaping, multiple species, magnitude of ripple, and collisionality rather than applying approximate analytic NTV formulae. As NTV is a complicated nonlinear function of E r , we study its behavior over a plausible range of E r . We estimate the toroidal flow, and hence E r , using a semi-analytic turbulent intrinsic rotation model and NUBEAM calculations of neutral beam torque. The NTV from the \\vert{n}\\vert = 18 ripple dominates that from lower n perturbations of the TBMs. With the inclusion of FIs, the magnitude of NTV torque is reduced by about 75% near the edge. We present comparisons of several models of tangential magnetic drifts, finding appreciable differences only for superbanana-plateau transport at small E r . We find the scaling of calculated NTV torque with ripple magnitude to indicate that ripple-trapping may be a significant mechanism for NTV in ITER. The computed NTV torque without ferritic components is comparable in magnitude to the NBI and intrinsic turbulent torques and will likely damp rotation, but the NTV torque is significantly reduced by the planned ferritic inserts.
Origin of the two scales of wind ripples on Mars
Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Rubin, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; Ballard, M.; Day, M. D.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S.; Bridges, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Fraeman, A. A.; Grant, J. A., III; Ming, D. W.; Mischna, M.; Rice, M. S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Vasavada, A. R.; Yingst, R. A.
2016-12-01
Earth's sandy deserts host two main types of bedforms - decimeter-scale ripples and larger dunes. Years of orbital observations on Mars also confirmed the existence of two modes of active eolian bedforms - meter-scale ripples, and dunes. By analogy to terrestrial ripples, which are thought to form from a grain mechanism, it was hypothesized that large martian ripples also formed from grain impacts, but spaced further apart due to elongated saltation trajectories from the lower martian gravity and different atmospheric properties. However, the Curiosity rover recently documented the coexistence of three scales of bedforms in Gale crater. Because a grain impact mechanism cannot readily explain two distinct and coeval ripple modes in similar sand sizes, a new mechanism seems to be required to explain one of the scales of ripples. Small ripples are most similar to Earth's impact ripples, with straight crests and subdued profiles. In contrast, large martian ripples are sinuous and asymmetric, with lee slopes dominated by grain flows and grainfall deposits. Thus, large martian ripples resemble current ripples formed underwater on Earth, suggesting that they may form from a fluid-drag mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we develop a scaling relation to predict the spacing of fluid-drag ripples from an extensive flume data compilation. The size of large martian ripples is predicted by our scaling relation when adjusted for martian atmospheric properties. Specifically, we propose that the wavelength of martian wind-drag ripples arises from the high kinematic viscosity of the low-density atmosphere. Because fluid density controls drag-ripple size, our scaling relation can help constrain paleoatmospheric density from wind-drag ripple stratification.
Beam-ripple monitor with secondary electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Noda, Koji; Takada, Eiichi; Komiyama, Akihito; Ichinohe, Ken-ichi; Sano, Yoshinobu
1997-01-01
To replace the scintillation-ripple monitor, we have developed a new monitor with a smaller destructive effect on the beam. In this monitor, we use secondary electrons emitted from an aluminum foil with a thickness of 2 μm. The signals of secondary electrons are amplified by an electron multiplier having a maximum gain of 10 6 . By using the new monitor, we could clearly observe the beam ripple with a beam intensity of 3.6x10 8 pps (particle per second). This monitor can also be used as an intensity monitor in the range of 10 4 - 10 9 pps. (author)
Ripple Ring Basins on Ganymede and Callisto
Croft, S. K.
1985-01-01
The unusual morphology of the Valhalla multiple or ripple-ring basin in Callisto was totally unexpected in light of the morphologies of large impact structures on the terrestrial planets. Two other ripple-ring basins (RRB's), Asgard and a smaller structure near the crater Adlinda are also described. Several additional RRB's were found on Callisto, an example of which is shown. A previously unrecognized RRB on Ganymede was also found. An image and geologic sketch map of this RRB are shown. Morphometric and positional data for all known RRB's are given.
Stochasticity in the Josephson map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Filippov, A.T.
1996-04-01
The Josephson map describes nonlinear dynamics of systems characterized by standard map with the uniform external bias superposed. The intricate structures of the phase space portrait of the Josephson map are examined on the basis of the tangent map associated with the Josephson map. Numerical observation of the stochastic diffusion in the Josephson map is examined in comparison with the renormalized diffusion coefficient calculated by the method of characteristic function. The global stochasticity of the Josephson map occurs at the values of far smaller stochastic parameter than the case of the standard map. (author)
Optimum geometry for torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance motors
Sahin, F.; Ertan, H.B.; Leblebicioglu, K.
2000-01-01
For switched reluctance motors, one of the major problems is torque ripple which causes increased undesirable acoustic noise and possibly speed ripple. This paper describes an approach to determine optimum magnetic circuit parameters to minimize low speed torque ripple for such motors. The
Dynamical models for sand ripples beneath surface waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Chabanol, M.-L.; v. Hecke, M.
2001-01-01
We introduce order parameter models for describing the dynamics of sand ripple patterns under oscillatory flow. A crucial ingredient of these models is the mass transport between adjacent ripples, which we obtain from detailed numerical simulations for a range of ripple sizes. Using this mass tra...
A Biatrial Myxoma with Triple Ripples.
Barik, Ramachandra
2018-01-01
Cardiac myxoma is a benign tumor, but it is known for its space-occupying effect at the site of origin and frequent systemic embolization. This case report highlights a biatrial myxoma of interatrial septum who presented with significant tricuspid valve regurgitation, atrial fibrillation, and cardioembolic stroke of the left parietal lobe, i.e., a biatrial myxoma with triple ripples.
The Ripple Tank: Management and Observation
Auty, Geoff
2017-01-01
This overview is intended to help colleagues achieve successful and satisfying observations using a ripple tank. There are many observations to consider that can effectively illustrate reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction, but the most important consideration is to make every effort to enable students to see the effects we want…
Recording Images Observed Using Ripple Tanks
Auty, Geoff
2018-01-01
Diagrams and photographs (or computer simulations) should not replace effective observations of the wave properties that can be illustrated using a ripple tank, but they can provide support when discussing and revising what has been observed. This article explains and illustrates a route towards successful photography, which is much easier with…
Measuring Social Capital Change Using Ripple Mapping
Baker, Barbara; Johannes, Elaine M.
2013-01-01
This article provides a detailed description of how to implement a ripple mapping activity to assess youth program effects on community capital and concludes with examples from Maine and Kansas. The maps lead to group reflection on project outcomes and further research and evaluation questions for group members. The results from five Maine…
Current-ripple effect on superconductive dc critical current measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodrich, L.F.; Bray, S.L.; Clark, A.F.
1988-01-01
The effect of sample-current power-supply ripple on dc critical current measurement in multifilamentary NbTi superconductors was evaluated. In general the ripple in a current supply became more significant above 500 A because effective filtering was hard to achieve. Ripple also caused noise at the input of the voltmeter used for the measurements. The quantitative effect of current ripple was studied using a battery current supply modified to allow the creation of ripple current with variable frequency and amplitude. Problems common to all large-conductor critical current measurements are discussed
Mesopontine median raphe regulates hippocampal ripple oscillation and memory consolidation.
Wang, Dong V; Yau, Hau-Jie; Broker, Carl J; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Bonci, Antonello; Ikemoto, Satoshi
2015-05-01
Sharp wave-associated field oscillations (∼200 Hz) of the hippocampus, referred to as ripples, are believed to be important for consolidation of explicit memory. Little is known about how ripples are regulated by other brain regions. We found that the median raphe region (MnR) is important for regulating hippocampal ripple activity and memory consolidation. We performed in vivo simultaneous recording in the MnR and hippocampus of mice and found that, when a group of MnR neurons was active, ripples were absent. Consistently, optogenetic stimulation of MnR neurons suppressed ripple activity and inhibition of these neurons increased ripple activity. Notably, using a fear conditioning procedure, we found that photostimulation of MnR neurons interfered with memory consolidation. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the MnR in regulating ripples and memory consolidation.
Stochastic approach to microphysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aron, J.C.
1987-01-01
The presently widespread idea of ''vacuum population'', together with the quantum concept of vacuum fluctuations leads to assume a random level below that of matter. This stochastic approach starts by a reminder of the author's previous work, first on the relation of diffusion laws with the foundations of microphysics, and then on hadron spectrum. Following the latter, a random quark model is advanced; it gives to quark pairs properties similar to those of a harmonic oscillator or an elastic string, imagined as an explanation to their asymptotic freedom and their confinement. The stochastic study of such interactions as electron-nucleon, jets in e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions, or pp -> ..pi../sup 0/ + X, gives form factors closely consistent with experiment. The conclusion is an epistemological comment (complementarity between stochastic and quantum domains, E.P.R. paradox, etc...).
Stochastic dynamics and irreversibility
Tomé, Tânia
2015-01-01
This textbook presents an exposition of stochastic dynamics and irreversibility. It comprises the principles of probability theory and the stochastic dynamics in continuous spaces, described by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, and in discrete spaces, described by Markov chains and master equations. Special concern is given to the study of irreversibility, both in systems that evolve to equilibrium and in nonequilibrium stationary states. Attention is also given to the study of models displaying phase transitions and critical phenomema both in thermodynamic equilibrium and out of equilibrium. These models include the linear Glauber model, the Glauber-Ising model, lattice models with absorbing states such as the contact process and those used in population dynamic and spreading of epidemic, probabilistic cellular automata, reaction-diffusion processes, random sequential adsorption and dynamic percolation. A stochastic approach to chemical reaction is also presented.The textbook is intended for students of ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Hu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A class of drift-implicit one-step schemes are proposed for the neutral stochastic delay differential equations (NSDDEs driven by Poisson processes. A general framework for mean-square convergence of the methods is provided. It is shown that under certain conditions global error estimates for a method can be inferred from estimates on its local error. The applicability of the mean-square convergence theory is illustrated by the stochastic θ-methods and the balanced implicit methods. It is derived from Theorem 3.1 that the order of the mean-square convergence of both of them for NSDDEs with jumps is 1/2. Numerical experiments illustrate the theoretical results. It is worth noting that the results of mean-square convergence of the stochastic θ-methods and the balanced implicit methods are also new.
Rippled beam free electron laser amplifier
Carlsten, Bruce E.
1999-01-01
A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a TM.sub.0n mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and, a solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.
CBA main magnet power supply ripple reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagley, G.; Edwards, R.J.
1983-01-01
The preliminary results of a development program to minimize beam perturbation resulting from ripple current generated by the CBA Main Magnet Power Supply are presented. The assessment of the magnitude and causes of the ripple generated led to a modification of the SCR Gate Driver and the addition of a bandpass amplifier correction loop which gave significant improvement. A description of the changes made and the results obtained are included. A second design approach was developed in which the timing of the SCR gate pulses is directly determined by a VCO. The results reported with this VCO Loop indicate superior performance particularly at frequencies below 60 Hz. A shunt transistor regulator design is proposed to minimize higher SCR switching frequency harmonics
Runaway-ripple interaction in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurent, L.; Rax, J.M.
1989-08-01
Two approaches of the interaction between runaway electrons and the ripple field, in tokamaks, are discussed. The first approach considers the resonance effect as an intense cyclotron heating of the electrons, by the ripple field, in the guiding center frame of the fast particles. In the second approach, an Hamiltonian formalism is used. A criterion for the onset of chaotic behavior and the results are given. A new universal instability of the runaway population in tokamak configuration is found. When combined with cyclotron losses one of its major consequence is to act as an effective slowing down mechanism preventing the free fall acceleration toward the synchrotron limit. This configuration allows the explanation of some experimental results of Tore Supra and Textor
Spectral Ripple Discrimination in Normal Hearing Infants
Horn, David L.; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T.; Werner, Lynne A.
2016-01-01
Objectives Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in post-lingually deaf adults as well as pre-lingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). In order to apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in NH children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners’ sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise. Both resolution of peak to peak location (frequency resolution) and peak to trough intensity (across-channel intensity resolution) are required for SRD. Design SRD was measured as the highest ripple density (in ripples per octave) for which a listener could discriminate a 90 degree shift in phase of the sinusoidally-modulated amplitude spectrum. A 2X3 between subjects design was used to assess the effects of age (7-month-old infants versus adults) and ripple peak/trough “depth” (10, 13, and 20 dB) on SRD in normal hearing listeners (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, SRD thresholds in the same age groups were compared using a task in which ripple starting phases were randomized across trials to obscure within-channel intensity cues. In Experiment 3, the randomized starting phase method was used to measure SRD as a function of age (3-month-old infants, 7-month-old infants, and young adults) and ripple depth (10 and 20 dB in repeated measures design). Results In Experiment 1, there was a significant interaction between age and ripple depth. The Infant SRDs were significantly poorer than the adult SRDs at 10 and 13 dB ripple depths but adult-like at 20 dB depth. This result is consistent with immature across-channel intensity resolution. In contrast, the trajectory of SRD as a function of depth was steeper for infants than adults suggesting that frequency resolution was better in infants than adults. However, in Experiment 2 infant performance was
Reduction of ripple voltage in a dynamitron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langsdorf, A. Jr.
1982-01-01
We determined that a precise neutralization of the RF ripple voltage on the high-voltage terminal of a Dynamitron has previously been prevented by a nonegligible phase shift of RF currents in the two halves of the approx. 100-kHz class C oscillator tank circuit, which is actually constituted of two slightly unequal high-Q coupled circuits because it has two ground points: the inescapable center-tap-ground in the capacitive legs and a center-tap-ground lead to the induction coil. The latter is needed to prevent damage by flashover transients; equivalent to its removal was the adjusting of RF ground return current to a null by aid of a current transformer on this lead and the suitable adjusting of trimmer capacitance. While the phase shift was thus held to a null, the actual ripple amplitude on the hv terminal was minimized by adjusting additional trimmer capacitances installed in the terminal of the machine. Then p/p 100-kHz ripple at 2-MV dc output was reduced to about 50V and RMS resolution by (p,#betta#) resonance threshold data near 1 MV was about 250 V. The limit to resolution has various causes including mechanical vibrations and unbalanced harmonics of the RF
Dynamics of stochastic systems
Klyatskin, Valery I
2005-01-01
Fluctuating parameters appear in a variety of physical systems and phenomena. They typically come either as random forces/sources, or advecting velocities, or media (material) parameters, like refraction index, conductivity, diffusivity, etc. The well known example of Brownian particle suspended in fluid and subjected to random molecular bombardment laid the foundation for modern stochastic calculus and statistical physics. Other important examples include turbulent transport and diffusion of particle-tracers (pollutants), or continuous densities (''''oil slicks''''), wave propagation and scattering in randomly inhomogeneous media, for instance light or sound propagating in the turbulent atmosphere.Such models naturally render to statistical description, where the input parameters and solutions are expressed by random processes and fields.The fundamental problem of stochastic dynamics is to identify the essential characteristics of system (its state and evolution), and relate those to the input parameters of ...
Comparing the force ripple during asynchronous and conventional stimulation.
Downey, Ryan J; Tate, Mark; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Dixon, Warren E
2014-10-01
Asynchronous stimulation has been shown to reduce fatigue during electrical stimulation; however, it may also exhibit a force ripple. We quantified the ripple during asynchronous and conventional single-channel transcutaneous stimulation across a range of stimulation frequencies. The ripple was measured during 5 asynchronous stimulation protocols, 2 conventional stimulation protocols, and 3 volitional contractions in 12 healthy individuals. Conventional 40 Hz and asynchronous 16 Hz stimulation were found to induce contractions that were as smooth as volitional contractions. Asynchronous 8, 10, and 12 Hz stimulation induced contractions with significant ripple. Lower stimulation frequencies can reduce fatigue; however, they may also lead to increased ripple. Future efforts should study the relationship between force ripple and the smoothness of the evoked movements in addition to the relationship between stimulation frequency and NMES-induced fatigue to elucidate an optimal stimulation frequency for asynchronous stimulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Automatic detection and visualisation of MEG ripple oscillations in epilepsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicole van Klink
2017-01-01
Full Text Available High frequency oscillations (HFOs, 80–500 Hz in invasive EEG are a biomarker for the epileptic focus. Ripples (80–250 Hz have also been identified in non-invasive MEG, yet detection is impeded by noise, their low occurrence rates, and the workload of visual analysis. We propose a method that identifies ripples in MEG through noise reduction, beamforming and automatic detection with minimal user effort. We analysed 15 min of presurgical resting-state interictal MEG data of 25 patients with epilepsy. The MEG signal-to-noise was improved by using a cross-validation signal space separation method, and by calculating ~2400 beamformer-based virtual sensors in the grey matter. Ripples in these sensors were automatically detected by an algorithm optimized for MEG. A small subset of the identified ripples was visually checked. Ripple locations were compared with MEG spike dipole locations and the resection area if available. Running the automatic detection algorithm resulted in on average 905 ripples per patient, of which on average 148 ripples were visually reviewed. Reviewing took approximately 5 min per patient, and identified ripples in 16 out of 25 patients. In 14 patients the ripple locations showed good or moderate concordance with the MEG spikes. For six out of eight patients who had surgery, the ripple locations showed concordance with the resection area: 4/5 with good outcome and 2/3 with poor outcome. Automatic ripple detection in beamformer-based virtual sensors is a feasible non-invasive tool for the identification of ripples in MEG. Our method requires minimal user effort and is easily applicable in a clinical setting.
PathShuffle: Credit Mixing and Anonymous Payments for Ripple
Moreno-Sanchez Pedro; Ruffing Tim; Kate Aniket
2017-01-01
The I owe you (IOU) credit network Ripple is one of the most prominent alternatives in the burgeoning field of decentralized payment systems. Ripple’s path-based transactions set it apart from cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Its pseudonymous nature, while still maintaining some regulatory capabilities, has motivated several financial institutions across the world to use Ripple for processing their daily transactions. Nevertheless, with its public ledger, a credit network such as Ripple is n...
Ripple losses during ICRF heating in Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basiuk, V.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Bergeaud, V.; Chantant, M.; Martin, G.; Nguyen, F.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J.C.; Delpeche, L.; Surle, F.
2004-01-01
The toroidal field coils in Tore Supra are supra-conducting, and their number is restricted to 18. As a result, the ripple is fairly large, about 7% at the plasma boundary. Tore Supra has consequently been equipped with dedicated ripple loss diagnostics, which has allowed ripple loss studies. This paper reports on the measurements made with these diagnostics and provides an analysis of the experimental results, comparing them with theoretical expectations whenever possible. Furthermore, the main heating source accelerating ions in Tore Supra is ion cyclotron resonance range of frequency (ICRF) heating, and the paper provides new information on the ripple losses of ICRF accelerated ions. (author)
The development of a modified spectral ripple test.
Aronoff, Justin M; Landsberger, David M
2013-08-01
Poor spectral resolution can be a limiting factor for hearing impaired listeners, particularly for complex listening tasks such as speech understanding in noise. Spectral ripple tests are commonly used to measure spectral resolution, but these tests contain a number of potential confounds that can make interpretation of the results difficult. To measure spectral resolution while avoiding those confounds, a modified spectral ripple test with dynamically changing ripples was created, referred to as the spectral-temporally modulated ripple test (SMRT). This paper describes the SMRT and provides evidence that it is sensitive to changes in spectral resolution.
Novitskaya, Yulia; Sara, Susan J.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Eschenko, Oxana
2016-01-01
Experience-induced replay of neuronal ensembles occurs during hippocampal high-frequency oscillations, or ripples. Post-learning increase in ripple rate is predictive of memory recall, while ripple disruption impairs learning. Ripples may thus present a fundamental component of a neurophysiological mechanism of memory consolidation. In addition to…
Parzen, Emanuel
1962-01-01
Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tristan Guillaume
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper shows how to value multiasset options analytically in a modeling framework that combines both continuous and discontinuous variations in the underlying equity or foreign exchange processes and a stochastic, two-factor yield curve. All correlations are taken into account, between the factors driving the yield curve, between fixed income and equity as asset classes, and between the individual equity assets themselves. The valuation method is applied to three of the most popular two-asset options.
Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations
Simon, Anna; Traub, Roger D.; Vladimirov, Nikita; Jenkins, Alistair; Nicholson, Claire; Whittaker, Roger G.; Schofield, Ian; Clowry, Gavin J.; Cunningham, Mark O.; Whittington, Miles A.
2014-01-01
Fast ripples (FRs) are network oscillations, defined variously as having frequencies of > 150 to > 250 Hz, with a controversial mechanism. FRs appear to indicate a propensity of cortical tissue to originate seizures. Here, we demonstrate field oscillations, at up to 400 Hz, in spontaneously epileptic human cortical tissue in vitro, and present a network model that could explain FRs themselves, and their relation to ‘ordinary’ (slower) ripples. We performed network simulations with model pyramidal neurons, having axons electrically coupled. Ripples ( 250 Hz, were sustained or interrupted, and had little jitter in the firing of individual axons. The form of model FR was similar to spontaneously occurring FRs in excised human epileptic tissue. In vitro, FRs were suppressed by a gap junction blocker. Our data suggest that a given network can produce ripples, FRs, or both, via gap junctions, and that FRs are favored by clusters of axonal gap junctions. If axonal gap junctions indeed occur in epileptic tissue, and are mediated by connexin 26 (recently shown to mediate coupling between immature neocortical pyramidal cells), then this prediction is testable. PMID:24118191
Narne, Vijaya Kumar; Sharma, Mridula; Van Dun, Bram; Bansal, Shalini; Prabhu, Latika; Moore, Brian C J
2016-12-01
The main aim of this study was to use spectral smearing to evaluate the efficacy of a spectral ripple test (SRt) using stationary sounds and a recent variant with gliding ripples called the spectro-temporal ripple test (STRt) in measuring reduced spectral resolution. In experiment 1 the highest detectable ripple density was measured using four amounts of spectral smearing (unsmeared, mild, moderate, and severe). The thresholds worsened with increasing smearing and were similar for the SRt and the STRt across the three conditions with smearing. For unsmeared stimuli, thresholds were significantly higher (better) for the STRt than for the SRt. An amplitude fluctuation at the outputs of simulated (gammatone) auditory filters centered above 6400 Hz was identified as providing a potential detection cue for the STRt stimuli. Experiment 2 used notched noise with energy below and above the passband of the SRt and STRt stimuli to reduce confounding cues in the STRt. Thresholds were almost identical for the STRt and SRt for both unsmeared and smeared stimuli, indicating that the confounding cue for the STRt was eliminated by the notched noise. Thresholds obtained with notched noise present could be predicted reasonably accurately using an excitation-pattern model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klauder, J.R.
1983-01-01
The author provides an introductory survey to stochastic quantization in which he outlines this new approach for scalar fields, gauge fields, fermion fields, and condensed matter problems such as electrons in solids and the statistical mechanics of quantum spins. (Auth.)
Structure of the ripple phase of phospholipid multibilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sengupta, Kheya; Raghunathan, V.A.; Katsaras, John
2003-01-01
We present electron density maps (EDMs) of the ripple phase formed by phosphorylcholine lipids such as dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), dihexadecyl phosphatidylcholine, and dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC). With the exception of DLPC, the rippled bilayers have a sawtooth shape in all the systems, with one arm being almost twice as long as the other. For DMPC and POPC bilayers, EDMs have been obtained at different temperatures at a fixed relative humidity, and the overall shape of the ripples and the ratio of the lengths of the two arms are found to be insensitive to temperature. EDMs of all the systems with saturated hydrocarbon chains suggest the existence of a mean chain tilt along the ripple wave vector. In the literature it is generally assumed that the asymmetry of the rippled bilayers (absence of a mirror plane normal to the ripple wave vector) arises from a sawtoothlike height profile. However, in the case of DLPC, the height profile is found to be almost symmetric and the asymmetry results mainly from different bilayer thicknesses in the two arms of the ripple. We also present EDMs of the metastable ripple phase of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, formed on cooling from the L α phase
Vibrational resonances of nonrigid vehicles: Polygonization and ripple patterns
Dekker, H.
2009-01-01
The well-known phenomenon of ripples on roads has its modern counterpart in ripple patterns on railroads and polygonization of wheels on state-of-the-art lightrail streetcars. Here we study an idealized mechanical suspension model for the vibrational frequency response of a buggy with a nonrigid
Automatic Detection of Sand Ripple Features in Sidescan Sonar Imagery
2014-07-09
Among the features used in forensic scientific fingerprint analysis are terminations or bifurcations of print ridges. Sidescan sonar imagery of ripple...always be pathological cases. The size of the blocks of pixels used in determining the ripple wavelength is evident in the output images on the right in
X-ray scattering and diffraction from Xe-induced ripples in crystalline silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich; Grigorian, Souren [Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan; Hanisch, Antje [Foschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Carbone, Dina; Metzger, Hartmut [ID Beamline, ESRF (France)
2008-07-01
The formation of surface-nanostructures with a characteristic size ranging from several nanometer up to microns has attracted significant interest in the last decades in the context of fabrication of novel opto-electronic and storage devices. One kind of those nanostructures are wave-like patterns (ripples) produced by an interplay between a roughening process caused by ion beam erosion (sputtering) of the surface and smoothening processes caused by surface diffusion. In this contribution we report on investigations of patterned Si(001) surfaces after irradiation with Xe{sup +}-ions using ion-energies up to 40 keV. During the sputtering, an amorphous surface-layer is formed followed by a rather sharp interface towards crystalline material, showing the same morphology as the surface. The structures of the amorphous layer and the amorphous-crystalline interface were studied by means of grazing-incidence-small angle scattering (GISAXS) and diffraction (GID) using synchrotron-radiation. We found that the crystal structure at the interface is expanded along the ripples, caused by the creation of defects inside the surface region, whereas this expansion is strongly reduced across the ripples. This different relaxation may play a driving role in pattern formation at the interface.
Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arranz, Miguel A., E-mail: MiguelAngel.Arranz@uclm.es [Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologías Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo J. Cela 10, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Colino, José M. [Instituto de Nanociencia, Nanotecnología y Materiales Moleculares, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fábrica de Armas, 45071 Toledo (Spain)
2015-06-22
We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes.
Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution
Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Rubin, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; Ballard, M. J.; Day, M.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S. G.; Bridges, N. T.; Des Marais, D. J.; Fraeman, A. A.; Grant, J. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ming, D. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Rice, M. S.; Sumner, D. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; Yingst, R. A.
2016-07-01
Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter- to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them unlike terrestrial wind ripples. Rather, these structures resemble fluid-drag ripples, which on Earth include water-worked current ripples, but on Mars instead form by wind because of the higher kinematic viscosity of the low-density atmosphere. A reevaluation of the wind-deposited strata in the Burns formation (about 3.7 billion years old or younger) identifies potential wind-drag ripple stratification formed under a thin atmosphere.
Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution
Lapotre, M G; Ewing, R C; Lamb, M P; Fischer, W W; Grotzinger, J P; Rubin, D M; Lewis, K W; Ballard, M; Day, Mitch D.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S G; Bridges, N T; Des Marais, D J; Fraeman, A A; Grant, J A; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Ming, D W; Mischna, M A; Rice, M S; Sumner, D A; Vasavada, A R; Yingst, R A
2016-01-01
Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter– to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them unlike terrestrial wind ripples. Rather, these structures resemble fluid-drag ripples, which on Earth include water-worked current ripples, but on Mars instead form by wind because of the higher kinematic viscosity of the low-density atmosphere. A reevaluation of the wind-deposited strata in the Burns formation (about 3.7 billion years old or younger) identifies potential wind-drag ripple stratification formed under a thin atmosphere.
PathShuffle: Credit Mixing and Anonymous Payments for Ripple
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moreno-Sanchez Pedro
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The I owe you (IOU credit network Ripple is one of the most prominent alternatives in the burgeoning field of decentralized payment systems. Ripple’s path-based transactions set it apart from cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Its pseudonymous nature, while still maintaining some regulatory capabilities, has motivated several financial institutions across the world to use Ripple for processing their daily transactions. Nevertheless, with its public ledger, a credit network such as Ripple is no different from a cryptocurrency in terms of weak privacy; recent demonstrative deanonymization attacks raise important concerns regarding the privacy of the Ripple users and their transactions. However, unlike for cryptocurrencies, there is no known privacy solution compatible with the existing credit networks such as Ripple.
Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arranz, Miguel A.; Colino, José M.
2015-01-01
We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes
Pyramidal cell-interneuron interactions underlie hippocampal ripple oscillations.
Stark, Eran; Roux, Lisa; Eichler, Ronny; Senzai, Yuta; Royer, Sebastien; Buzsáki, György
2014-07-16
High-frequency ripple oscillations, observed most prominently in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer, are associated with memory consolidation. The cellular and network mechanisms underlying the generation, frequency control, and spatial coherence of the rhythm are poorly understood. Using multisite optogenetic manipulations in freely behaving rodents, we found that depolarization of a small group of nearby pyramidal cells was sufficient to induce high-frequency oscillations, whereas closed-loop silencing of pyramidal cells or activation of parvalbumin- (PV) or somatostatin-immunoreactive interneurons aborted spontaneously occurring ripples. Focal pharmacological blockade of GABAA receptors abolished ripples. Localized PV interneuron activation paced ensemble spiking, and simultaneous induction of high-frequency oscillations at multiple locations resulted in a temporally coherent pattern mediated by phase-locked interneuron spiking. These results constrain competing models of ripple generation and indicate that temporally precise local interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons support ripple generation in the intact hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ripple/Carcinoid pattern sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation.
Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka
2011-02-01
Sebaceoma is a benign sebaceous neoplasm, which has been reported to show characteristic growth patterns, such as, ripple, labyrinthine/sinusoidal, and carcinoid-like patterns. Another recent finding regarding in sebaceoma is the observation of apocrine differentiation within the sebaceoma lesion. This report describes a case of carcinoid (a partial ripple and labyrinthine) pattern sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation with a literature review and immunohistochemical studies. The various characteristic growth patterns in sebaceoma were suggested to simply be variations of the same growth pattern arranged in cords, namely, a unified term "ripple/carcinoid pattern." The primitive sebaceous germinative cells in sebaceoma may still have the ability to undergo apocrine differentiation. Most of the reports so far on sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation, including the present case, describe a ripple/carcinoid pattern, thus suggesting that ripple/carcinoid pattern sebaceoma is composed of more primitive sebaceous germinative cells than conventional sebaceoma.
Highly sensitive detection of a current ripple
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Takashi; Gushiken, Tutomu; Nishikigouri, Kazutaka; Kumada, Masayuki.
1996-01-01
In the HIMAC, there are six thyristor-controlled power sources for driving two synchrotrons. These power sources are the three-output terminal power sources which are equipped with positive output, negative output and neutral point for the common mode countermeasures. As electromagnet circuits are connected to the three-output terminal power sources, those are three-line type. In the inside of the power source circuits controlled by thyristors, there is the oscillation peculiar to the power sources, and the variation of voltage induces current spikes. This time, in order to assess the results of the common mode countermeasures in the power source and electromagnet circuits, as one method of cross-check, it is considered that since electromagnet current flows being divided to the bridging resistance and the coil, if attention is paid to the current on bridging resistance side, the ripple components of common mode and normal mode can be detected with high sensitivity, and this was verified. The present state of heightening the performance of synchrotron power sources is explained. The cross-check of the method of assessing the performance of electromagnet power sources is reported. The method of measuring ripple current and the results of the measurement are reported. (K.I.)
Quantum and classical ripples in graphene
Hašík, Juraj; Tosatti, Erio; MartoÅák, Roman
2018-04-01
Thermal ripples of graphene are well understood at room temperature, but their quantum counterparts at low temperatures are in need of a realistic quantitative description. Here we present atomistic path-integral Monte Carlo simulations of freestanding graphene, which show upon cooling a striking classical-quantum evolution of height and angular fluctuations. The crossover takes place at ever-decreasing temperatures for ever-increasing wavelengths so that a completely quantum regime is never attained. Zero-temperature quantum graphene is flatter and smoother than classical graphene at large scales yet rougher at short scales. The angular fluctuation distribution of the normals can be quantitatively described by coexistence of two Gaussians, one classical strongly T -dependent and one quantum about 2° wide, of zero-point character. The quantum evolution of ripple-induced height and angular spread should be observable in electron diffraction in graphene and other two-dimensional materials, such as MoS2, bilayer graphene, boron nitride, etc.
STOCHASTIC ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN STOCHASTIC ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
STOCHASTIC ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN WOOD FOR BRIDGE DECKS ... abandoned bridges with defects only in their decks in both rural and urban locations can be effectively .... which can be seen as the detection of rare physical.
Stochastic porous media equations
Barbu, Viorel; Röckner, Michael
2016-01-01
Focusing on stochastic porous media equations, this book places an emphasis on existence theorems, asymptotic behavior and ergodic properties of the associated transition semigroup. Stochastic perturbations of the porous media equation have reviously been considered by physicists, but rigorous mathematical existence results have only recently been found. The porous media equation models a number of different physical phenomena, including the flow of an ideal gas and the diffusion of a compressible fluid through porous media, and also thermal propagation in plasma and plasma radiation. Another important application is to a model of the standard self-organized criticality process, called the "sand-pile model" or the "Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model". The book will be of interest to PhD students and researchers in mathematics, physics and biology.
Chang, Mou-Hsiung
2015-01-01
The classical probability theory initiated by Kolmogorov and its quantum counterpart, pioneered by von Neumann, were created at about the same time in the 1930s, but development of the quantum theory has trailed far behind. Although highly appealing, the quantum theory has a steep learning curve, requiring tools from both probability and analysis and a facility for combining the two viewpoints. This book is a systematic, self-contained account of the core of quantum probability and quantum stochastic processes for graduate students and researchers. The only assumed background is knowledge of the basic theory of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, and classical Markov processes. From there, the book introduces additional tools from analysis, and then builds the quantum probability framework needed to support applications to quantum control and quantum information and communication. These include quantum noise, quantum stochastic calculus, stochastic quantum differential equations, quantum Markov semigrou...
Ripples and ripples: from sandy deserts to ion-sputtered surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aste, T; Valbusa, U
2005-01-01
We study the morphological evolution of surfaces during ion sputtering and we compare their dynamical corrugation with aeolian ripple formation in sandy deserts. We show that, although the two phenomena are physically different, they must obey similar geometrical constraints and therefore they can be described within the same theoretical framework. The present theory distinguishes between atoms that stay bounded in the bulk and others that are mobile on the surface. We describe the excavation mechanisms, the adsorption and the surface mobility by means of a continuous equation derived from the study of dune formation on sand. We explore the spontaneous development of ordered nanostructures and explain the different dynamical behaviours experimentally observed in metals or in semiconductors or in amorphous systems. We also show that this novel approach can describe the occurrence of rotation in the ripple direction and the formation of other kinds of self-organized patterns induced by changes in the sputtering incidence angle
Influence of the ion distribution on shape and damage in Xe-induced ripple formation on Si
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan [Foschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Metzger, Hartmut [ID01 beamline, ESRF (France)
2009-07-01
In recent years, the creation of surface-nanostructures due to ion-beam sputtering has gained much interest due to the possibility to pattern large surface areas with tunable morphologies in a short time. One kind of those nanostructures are wave-like patterns (ripples) produced by an interplay between a roughening process caused by ion beam erosion (sputtering) of the surface and smoothening processes caused by surface diffusion. For the creation of such ripple patterns with medium energy ions, the ion beam has to be inclined with respect to the surface normal of the target by an angle between 60 {sup circle} and 80 {sup circle}. In this presentation we show that the resulting inhomogeneity within the irradiated sample area is essential for the ripple formation. We report on investigations of the ion distribution on ripple formation on Si (001) surfaces after irradiation with medium-energy Xe{sup +}-ions. We studied the change of average surface morphology and the damage imposed to the crystal by means of grazing-incidence - small angle scattering (GISAXS) and diffraction (GID) using synchrotron-radiation. We show that changing the asymmetry of the ion distribution changes both morphology and degree of damage of the crystalline material.
Source of spill ripple in the RF-KO slow-extraction method with FM and AM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noda, K.; Furukawa, T.; Shibuya, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Uesugi, T.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Takada, E.; Yamada, S.
2002-01-01
The RF-knockout (RF-KO) slow-extraction method with frequency modulation (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM) has brought high-accuracy irradiation to the treatment of a cancer tumor moving with respiration, because of a quick response to beam start/stop. However, a beam spill extracted from a synchrotron ring through RF-KO slow-extraction has a huge ripple with a frequency of around 1 kHz related to the FM. The spill ripple will disturb the lateral dose distribution in the beam scanning methods. Thus, the source of the spill ripple has been investigated through experiments and simulations. There are two tune regions for the extraction process through the RF-KO method: the extraction region and the diffusion region. The particles in the extraction region can be extracted due to amplitude growth through the transverse RF field, only when its frequency matches with the tune in the extraction region. For a large chromaticity, however, the particles in the extraction region can be extracted through the synchrotron oscillation, even when the frequency does not match with the tune in the extraction region. Thus, the spill structure during one period of the FM strongly depends on the horizontal chromaticity. They are repeated with the repetition frequency of the FM, which is the very source of the spill ripple in the RF-KO method
The molecular dynamics simulation of ion-induced ripple growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suele, P.; Heinig, K.-H.
2009-01-01
The wavelength-dependence of ion-sputtering induced growth of repetitive nanostructures, such as ripples has been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in Si. The early stage of the ion erosion driven development of ripples has been simulated on prepatterned Si stripes with a wavy surface. The time evolution of the height function and amplitude of the sinusoidal surface profile has been followed by simulated ion-sputtering. According to Bradley-Harper (BH) theory, we expect correlation between the wavelength of ripples and the stability of them. However, we find that in the small ripple wavelength (λ) regime BH theory fails to reproduce the results obtained by molecular dynamics. We find that at short wavelengths (λ 35 nm is stabilized in accordance with the available experimental results. According to the simulations, few hundreds of ion impacts in λ long and few nanometers wide Si ripples are sufficient for reaching saturation in surface growth for for λ>35 nm ripples. In another words, ripples in the long wavelength limit seems to be stable against ion-sputtering. A qualitative comparison of our simulation results with recent experimental data on nanopatterning under irradiation is attempted.
Facile characterization of ripple domains on exfoliated graphene.
Choi, Jin Sik; Kim, Jin-Soo; Byun, Ik-Su; Lee, Duk Hyun; Hwang, In Rok; Park, Bae Ho; Choi, Taekjib; Park, Jeong Young; Salmeron, Miquel
2012-07-01
Ripples in graphene monolayers deposited on SiO(2)/Si wafer substrates were recently shown to give rise to friction anisotropy. High friction appears when the AFM tip slides in a direction perpendicular to the ripple crests and low friction when parallel. The direction of the ripple crest is, however, hard to determine as it is not visible in topographic images and requires elaborate measurements of friction as a function of angle. Here we report a simple method to characterize ripple crests by measuring the cantilever torsion signal while scanning in the non-conventional longitudinal direction (i.e., along the cantilever axis, as opposed to the usual friction measurement). The longitudinal torsion signal provides a much clearer ripple domain contrast than the conventional friction signal, while both signals show respective rotation angle dependences that can be explained using the torsion component of the normal reaction force exerted by the graphene ripples. We can also determine the ripple direction by comparing the contrast in torsion images obtained in longitudinal and lateral scans without sample rotation or complicated normalization.
Strategy of restraining ripple error on surface for optical fabrication.
Wang, Tan; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Tam, Honyuen
2014-09-10
The influence from the ripple error to the high imaging quality is effectively reduced by restraining the ripple height. A method based on the process parameters and the surface error distribution is designed to suppress the ripple height in this paper. The generating mechanism of the ripple error is analyzed by polishing theory with uniform removal character. The relation between the processing parameters (removal functions, pitch of path, and dwell time) and the ripple error is discussed through simulations. With these, the strategy for diminishing the error is presented. A final process is designed and demonstrated on K9 work-pieces using the optimizing strategy with magnetorheological jet polishing. The form error on the surface is decreased from 0.216λ PV (λ=632.8 nm) and 0.039λ RMS to 0.03λ PV and 0.004λ RMS. And the ripple error is restrained well at the same time, because the ripple height is less than 6 nm on the final surface. Results indicate that these strategies are suitable for high-precision optical manufacturing.
Thermal ripples in model molybdenum disulfide monolayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Remsing, Richard C.; Klein, Michael L. [Institute for Computational Molecular Science, Center for the Computational, Design of Functional Layered Materials, and Department of Chemistry, Temple University, 1925 N. 12th St., 19122, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Waghmare, Umesh V. [Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, 560 064, Jakkur, Bangalore (India)
2017-01-15
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) monolayers have the potential to revolutionize nanotechnology. To reach this potential, it will be necessary to understand the behavior of this two-dimensional (2D) material on large length scales and under thermal conditions. Herein, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the nature of the rippling induced by thermal fluctuations in monolayers of the 2H and 1T phases of MoS{sub 2}. The 1T phase is found to be more rigid than the 2H phase. Both monolayer phases are predicted to follow long wavelength scaling behavior typical of systems with anharmonic coupling between vibrational modes as predicted by classic theories of membrane-like systems. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Martian Dune Ripples as Indicators of Recent Surface Wind Patterns
Johnson, M.; Zimbelman, J. R.
2015-12-01
Sand dunes have been shown to preserve the most recent wind patterns in their ripple formations. This investigation continues the manual documentation of ripples on Martian dunes in order to assess surface wind flow. Study sites investigated must have clear HiRISE frames and be able to represent diverse locations across the surface, decided primarily by their spread of latitude and longitude values. Additionally, frames with stereo pairs are preferred because of their ability to create digital terrain models. This will assist in efforts to relate dune slopes and obstacles to ripple patterns. The search and analysis period resulted in 40 study sites with mapped ripples. Lines were drawn perpendicular to ripple crests across three adjacent ripples in order to document both ripple wavelength from line length and inferred wind direction from azimuth. It is not possible to infer a unique wind direction from ripple orientation alone and therefore these inferred directions have a 180 degree ambiguity. Initial results from all study sites support previous observations that the Martian surface has many dune types in areas with adequate sand supply. The complexity of ripple patterns varies greatly across sites as well as within individual sites. Some areas of uniform directionality for hundreds of kilometers suggest a unimodal wind regime while overlapping patterns suggest multiple dominant winds or seasonally varying winds. In most areas, form flow related to dune shape seems to have a large effect on orientation and must be considered along with the dune type. As long as the few steep slip faces on these small dunes are avoided, form flow can be considered the dominant cause of deviation from the regional wind direction. Regional results, wind roses, and comparisons to previous work will be presented for individual sites.
Edge pedestal characteristics in JET and JT-60U tokamaks under variable toroidal field ripple
Urano, H.; Saibene, G.; Oyama, N.; Parail, V.; P. de Vries,; Sartori, R.; Kamada, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Loarte, A.; Lonnroth, J.; Sakamoto, Y.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Takenaga, H.; Yoshida, M.
2011-01-01
The effects of toroidal field (TF) ripple on the edge pedestal characteristics were examined in the TF ripple scan experiments at the plasma current I(p) of 1.1 MA in JET and JT-60U. The TF ripple amplitude delta(R) was defined as a value averaged over the existing ripple wells at the separatrix on
Raman scattering in a nearly resonant density ripple
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, H.C.; Chen, F.F.
1987-01-01
Stimulated Raman scattering of light waves by an underdense plasma is affected by the presence of a density ripple caused by a simultaneously occurring stimulated Brillouin instability. The problem is treated kinetically for the particularly interesting case where the ripple has nearly the same wavelength as the plasma wave. The ripple is found to reduce the growth rate of the usual Raman instability but allows other decay modes to occur. Numerical results for the frequencies, growth rates, and k spectra of these modes are obtained. A physical explanation is given for a baffling result of the calculation. The physical picture is also of interest to particle acceleration by plasma waves
Immune-mediated rippling muscle disease and myasthenia gravis.
Bettini, Mariela; Gonorazky, Hernan; Chaves, Marcelo; Fulgenzi, Ernesto; Figueredo, Alejandra; Christiansen, Silvia; Cristiano, Edgardo; Bertini, Enrico S; Rugiero, Marcelo
2016-10-15
Cases of acquired rippling muscle disease in association with myasthenia gravis have been reported. We present three patients with iRMD (immune-mediated rippling muscle disease) and AChR-antibody positive myasthenia gravis. None of them had thymus pathology. They presented exercise-induced muscle rippling combined with generalized myasthenia gravis. One of them had muscle biopsy showing a myopathic pattern and a patchy immunostaining with caveolin antibodies. They were successfully treated steroids and azathioprine. The immune nature of this association is supported by the response to immunotherapies and the positivity of AChR-antibodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pekik Argo Dahono
2008-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.
1982-03-01
Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron
Analisis Ripple Masukan Dan Keluaran PWM AC Chopper 3-Fasa Pada Beban Motor Induksi 3-Fasa
Luthfi, Muhamad; Dachlan, Harry Soekotjo; Wijono, Wijono
2013-01-01
Penggunaan chopper dalam sistem kelistrikan akan menimbulkan ripple pada tegangan keluarannya. Kebanyakan ripple difahami terbangkit pada sisi output. Pada penelitian ini ripple pada sisi input juga dianalisis. Disamping ripple, penggunaan chopper akan membangkitkan harmonisa yang akan menimbulkan rugirugi. Untuk memperkecil rugi-rugi tersebut, pada sisi input maupun output perlu dipasang filter LC. Penentuan nilai komponen filter ini dipengaruhi oleh ripple yang timbul. Dengan mengetahui m...
Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2014-04-01
'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response
Climbing ripple structure and associated storm-lamination from a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Pranhita–Godavari Valley, south India, displays well developed climbing ripple lamination and ... sedimentary environments, such as river flood .... Sediment, sequence and facies ..... tic Archaean Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa;.
Oscillatory ripples, evaluation of ancient wave climates and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Oscillatory ripples, evaluation of ancient wave climates and epierogeny in the Anambra ... conditions, epierogenic patterns and paleogeographic history of the basins. ... shallow and marked by low to moderate hydrodynamic energy conditions.
Real time algorithms for sharp wave ripple detection.
Sethi, Ankit; Kemere, Caleb
2014-01-01
Neural activity during sharp wave ripples (SWR), short bursts of co-ordinated oscillatory activity in the CA1 region of the rodent hippocampus, is implicated in a variety of memory functions from consolidation to recall. Detection of these events in an algorithmic framework, has thus far relied on simple thresholding techniques with heuristically derived parameters. This study is an investigation into testing and improving the current methods for detection of SWR events in neural recordings. We propose and profile methods to reduce latency in ripple detection. Proposed algorithms are tested on simulated ripple data. The findings show that simple realtime algorithms can improve upon existing power thresholding methods and can detect ripple activity with latencies in the range of 10-20 ms.
Design and Analysis of LT Codes with Decreasing Ripple Size
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Popovski, Petar; Østergaard, Jan
2012-01-01
In this paper we propose a new design of LT codes, which decreases the amount of necessary overhead in comparison to existing designs. The design focuses on a parameter of the LT decoding process called the ripple size. This parameter was also a key element in the design proposed in the original...... work by Luby. Specifically, Luby argued that an LT code should provide a constant ripple size during decoding. In this work we show that the ripple size should decrease during decoding, in order to reduce the necessary overhead. Initially we motivate this claim by analytical results related...... to the redundancy within an LT code. We then propose a new design procedure, which can provide any desired achievable decreasing ripple size. The new design procedure is evaluated and compared to the current state of the art through simulations. This reveals a significant increase in performance with respect...
Correlation between the ripple phase and stripe domains in membranes.
Bernchou, Uffe; Midtiby, Henrik; Ipsen, John Hjort; Simonsen, Adam Cohen
2011-12-01
We investigate the relationship between stripe domains and the ripple phase in membranes. These have previously been observed separately without being linked explicitly. Past results have demonstrated that solid and ripple phases exhibit rich textural patterns related to the orientational order of tilted lipids and the orientation of ripple corrugations. Here we reveal a highly complex network pattern of ripple and solid domains in DLPC, DPPC bilayers with structures covering length scales from 10 nm to 100 μm. Using spincoated double supported membranes we investigate domains by correlated AFM and fluorescence microscopy. Cooling experiments demonstrate the mode of nucleation and growth of stripe domains enriched in the fluorescent probe. Concurrent AFM imaging reveals that these stripe domains have a one-to-one correspondence with a rippled morphology running parallel to the stripe direction. Both thin and thick stripe domains are observed having ripple periods of 13.5±0.2 nm and 27.4±0.6 nm respectively. These are equivalent to previously observed asymmetric/equilibrium and symmetric/metastable ripple phases, respectively. Thin stripes grow from small solid domains and grow predominantly in length with a speed of ~3 times that of the thick stripes. Thick stripes grow by templating on the sides of thinner stripes or can emerge directly from the fluid phase. Bending and branching angles of stripes are in accordance with an underlying six fold lattice. We discuss mechanisms for the nucleation and growth of ripples and discuss a generic phase diagram that may partly rationalize the coexistence of metastable and stable phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
MD 1691: Active halo control using tune ripple at injection
Garcia Morales, Hector; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Fitterer, Miriam; Fiascaris, Maria; Nisbet, David; Thiesen, Hugues; Valentino, Gianluca; Xu, Chen; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
In this MD we performed halo excitation through tune ripple. This consists in an excitation that introduces new resonance sidebands around the existing resonance lines. In presence of sufficient detuning with amplitude, these sidebands can in principle affect only the dynamics of the halo particles at large amplitudes. Tune ripple was induced through a current modulation of the warm trim quadrupoles in IR7. This is the first time this method is experimentally tested at the LHC.
Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Ewing, R. C.; McElroy, B. J.
2016-12-01
Current ripples form on riverbeds and on the seafloor from viscous drag exerted by water flow over sand and are thought to be absent in subaerial systems, where ripple formation is dominated by a mechanism involving the impacting and splashing of sand grains. A fluid-drag mechanism, however, is not precluded in subaerial conditions and was originally hypothesized by R. A. Bagnold. Despite decades of observations in the field and in the laboratory, no universal scaling relation exists to predict the size of fluid-drag ripples. We combine dimensional analysis and a new extensive data compilation to develop a relationship and predict the equilibrium wavelength of current ripples. Our analysis shows that ripples are spaced farther apart when formed by more viscous fluids, smaller bed shear velocities, in coarser grains, or for smaller sediment specific gravity. Our scaling relation also highlights the abrupt transition between current ripples and subaqueous dunes, and thus allows for a process-based segregation of ripples from dunes. When adjusting for subaerial conditions, we predict the formation of decimeter-scale wind-drag ripples on Earth and meter-scale wind-drag ripples on Mars. The latter are ubiquitous on the Red Planet, and are found to co-exist with smaller decimeter-scale ripples, which we interpret as impact ripples. Because the predicted scale of terrestrial wind-drag ripples overlaps with that of impact ripples, it is possible that wind-drag ripples exist on Earth too, but are not recognized as such. When preserved in rocks, fluid-drag ripple stratification records flow directions and fluid properties that are crucial to constrain paleo-environments. Our new theory allows for predictions of ripple size, perhaps in both fluvial and eolian settings, and thus potentially represents a powerful tool for paleo-environmental reconstructions on different planetary bodies.
Crisan, Dan
2011-01-01
"Stochastic Analysis" aims to provide mathematical tools to describe and model high dimensional random systems. Such tools arise in the study of Stochastic Differential Equations and Stochastic Partial Differential Equations, Infinite Dimensional Stochastic Geometry, Random Media and Interacting Particle Systems, Super-processes, Stochastic Filtering, Mathematical Finance, etc. Stochastic Analysis has emerged as a core area of late 20th century Mathematics and is currently undergoing a rapid scientific development. The special volume "Stochastic Analysis 2010" provides a sa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basu, T.; Kumar, M.; Som, T., E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Nandy, S. [CENIMAT, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica 2829 516 (Portugal); Satpati, B. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saini, C. P.; Kanjilal, A. [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh 201 314 (India)
2015-09-14
Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films of thicknesses 5,10, 15, 20, and 30 nm were deposited on 500 eV argon ion-beam fabricated nanoscale self-organized rippled-Si substrates at room temperature and are compared with similar films deposited on pristine-Si substrates (without ripples). It is observed that morphology of self-organized AZO films is driven by the underlying substrate morphology. For instance, for pristine-Si substrates, a granular morphology evolves for all AZO films. On the other hand, for rippled-Si substrates, morphologies having chain-like arrangement (anisotropic in nature) are observed up to a thickness of 20 nm, while a granular morphology evolves (isotropic in nature) for 30 nm-thick film. Photoluminescence studies reveal that excitonic peaks corresponding to 5–15 nm-thick AZO films, grown on rippled-Si templates, show a blue shift of 8 nm and 3 nm, respectively, whereas the peak shift is negligible for 20-nm thick film (with respect to their pristine counter parts). The observed blue shifts are substantiated by diffuse reflectance study and attributed to quantum confinement effect, associated with the size of the AZO grains and their spatial arrangements driven by the anisotropic morphology of underlying rippled-Si templates. The present findings will be useful for making tunable AZO-based light-emitting devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colombino, A.; Mosiello, R.; Norelli, F.; Jorio, V.M.; Pacilio, N.
1975-01-01
A nuclear system kinetics is formulated according to a stochastic approach. The detailed probability balance equations are written for the probability of finding the mixed population of neutrons and detected neutrons, i.e. detectrons, at a given level for a given instant of time. Equations are integrated in search of a probability profile: a series of cases is analyzed through a progressive criterium. It tends to take into account an increasing number of physical processes within the chosen model. The most important contribution is that solutions interpret analytically experimental conditions of equilibrium (moise analysis) and non equilibrium (pulsed neutron measurements, source drop technique, start up procedures)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romanu Ekaterini
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This article shows the similarities between Claude Debussy’s and Iannis Xenakis’ philosophy of music and work, in particular the formers Jeux and the latter’s Metastasis and the stochastic works succeeding it, which seem to proceed parallel (with no personal contact to what is perceived as the evolution of 20th century Western music. Those two composers observed the dominant (German tradition as outsiders, and negated some of its elements considered as constant or natural by "traditional" innovators (i.e. serialists: the linearity of musical texture, its form and rhythm.
Stochastic biomathematical models with applications to neuronal modeling
Batzel, Jerry; Ditlevsen, Susanne
2013-01-01
Stochastic biomathematical models are becoming increasingly important as new light is shed on the role of noise in living systems. In certain biological systems, stochastic effects may even enhance a signal, thus providing a biological motivation for the noise observed in living systems. Recent advances in stochastic analysis and increasing computing power facilitate the analysis of more biophysically realistic models, and this book provides researchers in computational neuroscience and stochastic systems with an overview of recent developments. Key concepts are developed in chapters written by experts in their respective fields. Topics include: one-dimensional homogeneous diffusions and their boundary behavior, large deviation theory and its application in stochastic neurobiological models, a review of mathematical methods for stochastic neuronal integrate-and-fire models, stochastic partial differential equation models in neurobiology, and stochastic modeling of spreading cortical depression.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habib, S.
1994-01-01
We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ''quantum diffusion'' terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source
Thermal dynamics of silver clusters grown on rippled silica surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhatnagar, Mukul, E-mail: mkbh10@gmail.com [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India); Ranjan, Mukesh [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India); Jolley, Kenny; Lloyd, Adam; Smith, Roger [Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, Subroto [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Low energy oblique angle ion bombardment forms ripple pattern on silicon surface. • The ripple patterns have wavelengths between 20 and 45 nm and correspondingly low height. • Silver nanoparticles have been deposited at an angle of 70° on patterned silicon templates. • The as-deposited np are annealed in vacuo at temperature of 573 K for a time duration of 1 h. • MD simulation is used to model the process and compare the results to the experiment. • Results show that silver clusters grow preferentially along parallel to the rippled surface. • Mobility of silver atoms depends on the site to which they are bonded on this amorphous surface. • MD simulations show contour ordered coalescence which is dependent on ripple periodicity. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles have been deposited on silicon rippled patterned templates at an angle of incidence of 70° to the surface normal. The templates are produced by oblique incidence argon ion bombardment and as the fluence increases, the periods and heights of the structures increase. Structures with periods of 20 nm, 35 nm and 45 nm have been produced. Moderate temperature vacuum annealing shows the phenomenon of cluster coalescence following the contour of the more exposed faces of the ripple for the case of 35 nm and 45 nm but not at 20 nm where the silver aggregates into larger randomly distributed clusters. In order to understand this effect, the morphological changes of silver nanoparticles deposited on an asymmetric rippled silica surface are investigated through the use of molecular dynamics simulations for different deposition angles of incidence between 0° and 70° and annealing temperatures between 500 K and 900 K. Near to normal incidence, clusters are observed to migrate over the entire surface but for deposition at 70°, a similar patterning is observed as in the experiment. The random distribution of clusters for the periodicity ≈ of 20 nm is linked to the geometry of the silica
VHTR Construction Ripple Effect using Inter-Industry Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, T. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Shin, Y. J.
2015-01-01
As a part of a VHTR economic analysis, we have studied the VHTR construction cost and operation and maintenance cost. However, it is somewhat difficult to expect the exact cost due to insufficient reference data and experience. As a result, we propose quantitative analysis techniques for ripple effects such as the production inducement effect, added value inducement effect, and employment inducement effect for VHTR 600MWt x 4 module construction and operation ripple effect based on NOAK. This paper presents a new method for the ripple effect and preliminary ripple effect consequence. We proposed a ripple effect analysis method using a time series and inter-industry table. As a result, we can predict that a 600MWth x 4 module VHTR reactor construction will bring about a 43771 employment effect, 24160 billion KRW production effect, and 4472 billion added value effect for 22 years. It is necessary to use the sub-account values of an inter-industry table to obtain a more precise effect result. However, the methodology can be applied with minor modification to another reactor type.
VHTR Construction Ripple Effect using Inter-Industry Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, T. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Shin, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
As a part of a VHTR economic analysis, we have studied the VHTR construction cost and operation and maintenance cost. However, it is somewhat difficult to expect the exact cost due to insufficient reference data and experience. As a result, we propose quantitative analysis techniques for ripple effects such as the production inducement effect, added value inducement effect, and employment inducement effect for VHTR 600MWt x 4 module construction and operation ripple effect based on NOAK. This paper presents a new method for the ripple effect and preliminary ripple effect consequence. We proposed a ripple effect analysis method using a time series and inter-industry table. As a result, we can predict that a 600MWth x 4 module VHTR reactor construction will bring about a 43771 employment effect, 24160 billion KRW production effect, and 4472 billion added value effect for 22 years. It is necessary to use the sub-account values of an inter-industry table to obtain a more precise effect result. However, the methodology can be applied with minor modification to another reactor type.
Spontaneous ripple formation in phosphorene: electronic properties and possible applications.
Zhou, Yungang; Yang, Li; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei
2016-06-09
According to the Mermin-Wagner theorem and theory of elasticity, long-range order in two-dimensional (2D) crystals will be inevitably destroyed due to a thermal fluctuation. Thus, a 2D lattice prefers a corrugation meaning that a 2D crystal is easy to present a ripple. In this work, we, via employing ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, for the first time evidenced that the inherent dynamics of phosphorene would lead to a spontaneous formation of ripples at room temperature. The height of a ripple closely associates with the temperature and the width. Via density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we further demonstrated that the emergence of ripples would remarkably reduce the bandgap of phosphorene. Via the construction of the unique phosphorene structure, we finally found that such a rippled structure is expected to be used in the light-emitting field. These results give us further knowledge of phosphorene, which goes beyond the current scope of phosphorene limited to the flat lattice.
Wave plus current over a ripple-covered bed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredsøe, Jørgen; Andersen, Ken Haste; Sumer, B. Mutlu
1999-01-01
This paper concerns the combined wave and current boundary layer flow over a ripple-covered bed, The study comprises experiments as well as a numerical modelling study: the experimental part comprises laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) velocity and turbulence measurements, and a flow-visualization st......This paper concerns the combined wave and current boundary layer flow over a ripple-covered bed, The study comprises experiments as well as a numerical modelling study: the experimental part comprises laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) velocity and turbulence measurements, and a flow......-visualization study in the laboratory with ripples, 22 cm in length, and 3.5 cm in height. One wave-alone, three current-alone, and three combined waves and current tests were conducted. The wave-velocity-to-current-velocity ratio ranges from 1 to 2.4. The orbiral-amplitude-ro-ripple-length ratio (at the bed) is 0.......41. The effect of superimposing waves on a current is to displace the velocity profile to higher elevations. The velocity profiles exhibit two "logarithmic layers", one associated with the actual roughness of the bed (the actual ripple roughness), and the other with the apparent roughness induced by the waves...
Stochastic Stabilityfor Contracting Lorenz Maps and Flows
Metzger, R. J.
In a previous work [M], we proved the existence of absolutely continuous invariant measures for contracting Lorenz-like maps, and constructed Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measures f or the flows that generate them. Here, we prove stochastic stability for such one-dimensional maps and use this result to prove that the corresponding flows generating these maps are stochastically stable under small diffusion-type perturbations, even though, as shown by Rovella [Ro], they are persistent only in a measure theoretical sense in a parameter space. For the one-dimensional maps we also prove strong stochastic stability in the sense of Baladi and Viana[BV].
Stochastic Effects in Microstructure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glicksman M.E.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We are currently studying microstructural responses to diffusion-limited coarsening in two-phase materials. A mathematical solution to late-stage multiparticle diffusion in finite systems is formulated with account taken of particle-particle interactions and their microstructural correlations, or "locales". The transition from finite system behavior to that for an infinite microstructure is established analytically. Large-scale simulations of late-stage phase coarsening dynamics show increased fluctuations with increasing volume fraction, Vv, of the mean flux entering or leaving particles of a given size class. Fluctuations about the mean flux were found to depend on the scaled particle size, R/, where R is the radius of a particle and is the radius of the dispersoid averaged over the population within the microstructure. Specifically, small (shrinking particles tend to display weak fluctuations about their mean flux, whereas particles of average, or above average size, exhibit strong fluctuations. Remarkably, even in cases of microstructures with a relatively small volume fraction (Vv ~ 10-4, the particle size distribution is broader than that for the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov limit predicted at zero volume fraction. The simulation results reported here provide some additional surprising insights into the effect of diffusion interactions and stochastic effects during evolution of a microstructure, as it approaches its thermodynamic end-state.
Valero, Manuel; Averkin, Robert G; Fernandez-Lamo, Ivan; Aguilar, Juan; Lopez-Pigozzi, Diego; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R; Cid, Elena; Tamas, Gabor; Menendez de la Prida, Liset
2017-06-21
Memory traces are reactivated selectively during sharp-wave ripples. The mechanisms of selective reactivation, and how degraded reactivation affects memory, are poorly understood. We evaluated hippocampal single-cell activity during physiological and pathological sharp-wave ripples using juxtacellular and intracellular recordings in normal and epileptic rats with different memory abilities. CA1 pyramidal cells participate selectively during physiological events but fired together during epileptic fast ripples. We found that firing selectivity was dominated by an event- and cell-specific synaptic drive, modulated in single cells by changes in the excitatory/inhibitory ratio measured intracellularly. This mechanism collapses during pathological fast ripples to exacerbate and randomize neuronal firing. Acute administration of a use- and cell-type-dependent sodium channel blocker reduced neuronal collapse and randomness and improved recall in epileptic rats. We propose that cell-specific synaptic inputs govern firing selectivity of CA1 pyramidal cells during sharp-wave ripples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-Hyuk Park
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.
Rippling modes in the edge of a tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.; Callen, J.D.; Gaffney, P.W.; Hicks, H.R.
1982-02-01
A promising resistive magnetohydrodynamic candidate for the underlying cause of turbulence in the edge of a tokamak plasma is the rippling instability. In this paper we develop a computational model for these modes in the cylindrical tokamak approximation and explore the linear growth and single-helicity quasi-linear saturation phases of the rippling modes for parameters appropriate to the edge of a tokamak plasma. Large parallel heat conduction does not stabilize these modes; it only reduces their growth rate by a factor scaling as k/sub parallel//sup -4/3/. Nonlinearly, individual rippling modes are found to saturate by quasi-linear flattening of the resistivity profile. The saturated amplitude of the modes scales as m/sup -1/, and the radial extent of these modes grows linearly with time due to radial Vector E x Vector B 0 convection. This evolution is found to be terminated by parallel heat conduction
Rippling modes in the edge of a tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.; Gaffney, P.W.; Hicks, H.R.; Callan, J.D.
1982-01-01
A promising resistive magnetohydrodynamic candidate for the underlying cause of turbulence in the edge of a tokamak plasma is the rippling instability. In this paper a computational model for these modes in the cylindrical tokamak approximation was developed and the linear growth and single-helicity quasi-linear saturation phases of the rippling modes for parameters appropriate to the edge of a tokamak plasma were explored. Large parallel heat conduction does not stabilize these modes; it only reduces their growth rate by a factor sacling as K/sup -4/3//sub parallel/. Nonlinearly, individual rippling modes are found to saturate by quasi-linear flattening of the resistivity profile. The saturated amplitude of the modes scales as m -1 , and the radial extent of these modes grows linearly with time due to radial E x B 0 convection. This evolution is found to be terminated by parallel heat conduction
Evolution of a Rippled Membrane during Phospholipase A2 Hydrolysis Studied by Time-Resolved AFM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leidy, Chad; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent
2004-01-01
The sensitivity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) for lipid membrane curvature is explored by monitoring, through time-resolved atomic force microscopy, the hydrolysis of supported double bilayers in the ripple phase. The ripple phase presents a corrugated morphology. PLA2 is shown to have higher activity...... toward the ripple phase compared to the gel phase in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membranes, indicating its preference for this highly curved membrane morphology. Hydrolysis of the stable and metastable ripple structures is monitored for equimolar DMPC/1,2-distearoyl- sn-glycero-3....... This is reflected in an increase in ripple spacing, followed by a sudden flattening of the lipid membrane during hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of the ripple phase results in anisotropic holes running parallel to the ripples, suggesting that the ripple phase has strip regions of higher sensitivity to enzymatic attack. Bulk...
Lanchier, Nicolas
2017-01-01
Three coherent parts form the material covered in this text, portions of which have not been widely covered in traditional textbooks. In this coverage the reader is quickly introduced to several different topics enriched with 175 exercises which focus on real-world problems. Exercises range from the classics of probability theory to more exotic research-oriented problems based on numerical simulations. Intended for graduate students in mathematics and applied sciences, the text provides the tools and training needed to write and use programs for research purposes. The first part of the text begins with a brief review of measure theory and revisits the main concepts of probability theory, from random variables to the standard limit theorems. The second part covers traditional material on stochastic processes, including martingales, discrete-time Markov chains, Poisson processes, and continuous-time Markov chains. The theory developed is illustrated by a variety of examples surrounding applications such as the ...
Effects of complex magnetic ripple on fast ions in JFT-2M ferritic insert experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shinohara, Kouji; Kawashima, H.; Tsuzuki, K.
2003-01-01
In JFT-2M, the ferritic steel plates (FPs) were installed inside the vacuum vessel all over vacuum vessel, which is named Ferritic Inside Wall (FIW), as the third step of the Advanced Material Tokamak Experiment (AMTEX) program. A toroidal field ripple was reduced, however the magnetic field structure has become the complex ripple structure with a non-periodic feature in the toroidal direction because of the existence of other components and ports that limit the periodic installation of FPs. Under the complex magnetic ripple, we investigated its effect on the heat flux to the first wall due to the fast ion loss. The small heat flux was observed as the result of the reduced magnetic ripple by FIW. Additional FPs were also installed outside the vacuum vessel to produce the localized larger ripple. The small ripple trapped loss was observed when the shallow ripple well exist in the poloidal cross section, and the large ripple trapped loss was observed when the ripple well hollow out the plasma region deeply. The experimental results were almost consistent with the newly developed Fully three Dimensional magnetic field Orbit-Following Monte-Carlo (F3D OFMC) code including the three dimensional complex structure of the toroidal field ripple and the non-axisymmetric first wall geometry. By using F3D OFMC, we investigated the effect on the ripple trapped loss of the localized larger ripple produced by FPs in detail. The ripple well structure, e.g. the thickness of the ripple well, is important for ripple trapped loss in complex magnetic ripple rather than the value defined at one position in a poloidal cross section. (author)
Ion bombardment induced ripple topography on amorphous solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Paton, F.; Williams, J.S.
1977-01-01
Earlier studies of the ion bombardment induced ripple morphology on the surfaces of amorphous solids when compared with geomorphological effects are shown to possess many similar features. The present study, with 40 keV Ar + ion bombarded Si suggests that analogies are incomplete, however, and that greater similarities with the process of macroscopic sandblasting (corrosion) exist. It is shown that the genesis of wave like structures on Si is from isolated features, which have the appearance of ripple trains, which are faceted. It is suggested that these features result from particle flux enhancement processes near surface dimples generated by stress induced surface lifting. (author)
Buck supplies output voltage ripple reduction using fuzzy control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicu BIZON
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Using the PWM control for switching power supplies the peaks EMI noise appear at the switching frequency and its harmonics. Using randomize or chaotic PWM control techniques in these systems the power spectrum is spread out in all frequencies band spectral emissions, but with a bigger ripple in the output voltage. The proposed nonlinear feedback control method, which induces chaos, is based by fuzzy rules that minimize the output voltage ripple. The feasibility and effectiveness of this relative simple method is shown by simulation. A comparison with the previous control method is included, too.
Gravitational-Like Lens Based on Graphene Ripple.
Liu, Daqing; Chen, Shuyue; Ma, Ning; Zhao, Xiang; Xu, Zhuo
2015-10-01
We conducted a semiclassical study on carrier movement in curved graphene. A previous attempt was made to show that curved graphene is a readily available and cheap laboratory material used to study general relativity effects, especially if the electron energies satisfy 4μeV ≪ |E| ≪ 3eV. Furthermore, a gravitational-like lens can be constructed based on a special graphene ripple; this lens has neither chromatic nor cometic aberration. One can design an ideal electron lens using a graphene ripple.
Source of spill ripple in the RF-KO slow-extraction method with FM and AM
Noda, K; Shibuya, S; Muramatsu, M; Uesugi, T; Kanazawa, M; Torikoshi, M; Takada, E; Yamada, S
2002-01-01
The RF-knockout (RF-KO) slow-extraction method with frequency modulation (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM) has brought high-accuracy irradiation to the treatment of a cancer tumor moving with respiration, because of a quick response to beam start/stop. However, a beam spill extracted from a synchrotron ring through RF-KO slow-extraction has a huge ripple with a frequency of around 1 kHz related to the FM. The spill ripple will disturb the lateral dose distribution in the beam scanning methods. Thus, the source of the spill ripple has been investigated through experiments and simulations. There are two tune regions for the extraction process through the RF-KO method: the extraction region and the diffusion region. The particles in the extraction region can be extracted due to amplitude growth through the transverse RF field, only when its frequency matches with the tune in the extraction region. For a large chromaticity, however, the particles in the extraction region can be extracted through the synchrotron ...
Stochastic stability and bifurcation in a macroeconomic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Wei; Xu Wei; Zhao Junfeng; Jin Yanfei
2007-01-01
On the basis of the work of Goodwin and Puu, a new business cycle model subject to a stochastically parametric excitation is derived in this paper. At first, we reduce the model to a one-dimensional diffusion process by applying the stochastic averaging method of quasi-nonintegrable Hamiltonian system. Secondly, we utilize the methods of Lyapunov exponent and boundary classification associated with diffusion process respectively to analyze the stochastic stability of the trivial solution of system. The numerical results obtained illustrate that the trivial solution of system must be globally stable if it is locally stable in the state space. Thirdly, we explore the stochastic Hopf bifurcation of the business cycle model according to the qualitative changes in stationary probability density of system response. It is concluded that the stochastic Hopf bifurcation occurs at two critical parametric values. Finally, some explanations are given in a simply way on the potential applications of stochastic stability and bifurcation analysis
Stochastic description of supersymmetric fields with values in a manifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoba, Z.
1986-01-01
This paper discusses the mathematical problem of the imaginary time quantum mechanics of a particle moving in Euclidean space as considered from the theory of diffusion processes. The diffusion process is defined by a stochastic equation; the equation describes the diffusion process as a time evolution of a Brownian particle in a force field. The paper considers a Brownian particle on a Riemannian manifold
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this paper, the stochastic flow of mappings generated by a Feller convolution semigroup on a compact metric space is studied. This kind of flow is the generalization of superprocesses of stochastic flows and stochastic diffeomorphism induced by the strong solutions of stochastic differential equations.
Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking
Liu, Shu-Jun
2012-01-01
Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering and analysis of bacterial convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...
Preliminary ripple effect analysis for HTR 350MWt 4 modules construction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, T. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Shin, Y. J. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
We propose quantitative analysis techniques for ripple effects such as the production inducement effect and employment inducement effect for HTR 350MWt x 4 module construction and operation ripple effect based on NOAK. It is known that APR1400 reactors export ripple effect is about 8,500 billion KRW. As a result, HTR construction has more effective effect than that of APR1400.
Hopf bifurcation of the stochastic model on business cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, J; Wang, H; Ge, G
2008-01-01
A stochastic model on business cycle was presented in thas paper. Simplifying the model through the quasi Hamiltonian theory, the Ito diffusion process was obtained. According to Oseledec multiplicative ergodic theory and singular boundary theory, the conditions of local and global stability were acquired. Solving the stationary FPK equation and analyzing the stationary probability density, the stochastic Hopf bifurcation was explained. The result indicated that the change of parameter awas the key factor to the appearance of the stochastic Hopf bifurcation
Stochastic displacement group and its application in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namsraj, Kh.; Tsehrehn, D.; Sehrdamba, L.
1978-01-01
Within the stochastic displacement the equation of the brownian motion and the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations are obtained. It is noted that the existance of a new equation describing four states with certain energy is possible. The notion of stochastic groups and its representations with illustrations in concrete examples and applications are given. The diffusion equation is obtained on the basis of the notion of stochastic rotation
Stochastic motion of particles in tandem mirror devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Y.H.; Kamimura, T.
1982-01-01
Stochastic motion of particles in tandem mirror devices is examined on basis of a nonlinear mapping of particle positions on the equatorial plane. Local stability analysis provides detailed informations on particle trajectories. The rate of stochastic plasma diffusion is estimated from numerical observations of motions of particles over a large number of time steps. (author)
A stochastic modeling of recurrent measles epidemic | Kassem ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A simple stochastic mathematical model is developed and investigated for the dynamics of measles epidemic. The model, which is a multi-dimensional diffusion process, includes susceptible individuals, latent (exposed), infected and removed individuals. Stochastic effects are assumed to arise in the process of infection of ...
Stochastic models of intracellular transport
Bressloff, Paul C.
2013-01-09
The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Plasma-ﬁlled rippled wall rectangular backward wave oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Performance of the backward wave oscillator (BWO) is greatly enhanced with the introduction of plasma. Linear theory of the dispersion relation and the growth rate have been derived and analysed numerically for plasma-ﬁlled rippled wall rectangular waveguide driven by sheet electron beam. To see the effect of plasma ...
Wave Driven Fluid-Sediment Interactions over Rippled Beds
Foster, Diane; Nichols, Claire
2008-11-01
Empirical investigations relating vortex shedding over rippled beds to oscillatory flows date back to Darwin in 1883. Observations of the shedding induced by oscillating forcing over fixed beds have shown vortical structures to reach maximum strength at 90 degrees when the horizontal velocity is largest. The objective of this effort is to examine the vortex generation and ejection over movable rippled beds in a full-scale, free surface wave environment. Observations of the two-dimensional time-varying velocity field over a movable sediment bed were obtained with a submersible Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system in two wave flumes. One wave flume was full scale and had a natural sand bed and the other flume had an artificial sediment bed with a specific gravity of 1.6. Full scale observations over an irregularly rippled bed show that the vortices generated during offshore directed flow over the steeper bed form slope were regularly ejected into the water column and were consistent with conceptual models of the oscillatory flow over a backward facing step. The results also show that vortices remain coherent during ejection when the background flow stalls (i.e. both the velocity and acceleration temporarily approach zero). These results offer new insight into fluid sediment interaction over rippled beds.
Analysis of ripple formation in single crystal spot welds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rappaz, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab de Metallurgie Physique; Corrigan, D.; Boatner, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.
1997-10-01
Stationary spot welds have been made at the (001) surface of Fe-l5%Ni-15%Cr single crystals using a Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA). On the top surface of the spot welds, very regular and concentric ripples were observed after solidification by differential interference color microscopy. Their height (typically 1--5 {micro}m) and spacing (typically {approximately} 60 {micro}m) decreased with the radius of the pool. These ripples were successfully accounted for in terms of capillary-wave theory using the fundamental mode frequency f{sub 0} given by the first zero of the zero-order Bessel function. The spacing d between the ripples was then equated to v{sub s}/f{sub 0}, where v{sub s} is the solidification rate. From the measured ripple spacing, the velocity of the pool was deduced as a function of the radius, and this velocity was in good agreement with the results of a heat-flow simulation.
Ripple distribution for nonlinear fiber-optic channels.
Sorokina, Mariia; Sygletos, Stylianos; Turitsyn, Sergei
2017-02-06
We demonstrate data rates above the threshold imposed by nonlinearity on conventional optical signals by applying novel probability distribution, which we call ripple distribution, adapted to the properties of the fiber channel. Our results offer a new direction for signal coding, modulation and practical nonlinear distortions compensation algorithms.
A low-ripple chargepump circuit for high voltage applications
Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; van Steenwijk, G.; van Steenwijk, Gijs; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria
1995-01-01
The subject of this paper is a fully integrated chargepump circuit with a very low output voltage ripple. At a supply voltage of 30V the chargepump can source 1mA at an output voltage of 40V. Two simple modifications to the classical chargepump circuit give a substantial reduction of the output
Uncovering Transdisciplinary Team Project Outcomes through Ripple Effect Mapping
Daniels, Catherine H.; Chalker-Scott, Linda; Martini, Nicole
2016-01-01
The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary, geographically dispersed group of faculty and staff. As with many such teams, member retention requires effort, as busy individuals may not see the overall benefits of active team membership. Ripple effect mapping is a strategy that can illustrate the tangible and often…
The WEBSIM FISHBANKS Simulation Laboratory: Analysis of Its Ripple Effects
Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Hess, Aurélio
2018-01-01
In this article, we discuss the ripple effects of the WEBSIM FISHBANKS Simulation Laboratory held at Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) in 2014, held as a result of a partnership between the Sloan School of Management of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the UNIFESP, and the Brazilian Chapter of the System Dynamics Society of…
Ripple design of LT codes for AWGN channel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present an analytical framework for designing LT codes in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. We show that some of analytical results from binary erasure channels (BEC) also hold in AWGN channels with slight modifications. This enables us to apply a ripple-based design...
Ripple Design of LT Codes for BIAWGN Channels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel framework, which enables a design of rateless codes for binary input additive white Gaussian noise (BIAWGN) channels, using the ripple-based approach known from the works for the binary erasure channel (BEC). We reveal that several aspects of the analytical results from...
Delayed ripple counter simplifies square-root computation
Cliff, R.
1965-01-01
Ripple subtract technique simplifies the logic circuitry required in a binary computing device to derive the square root of a number. Successively higher numbers are subtracted from a register containing the number out of which the square root is to be extracted. The last number subtracted will be the closest integer to the square root of the number.
Ripple Effect Mapping: A "Radiant" Way to Capture Program Impacts
Kollock, Debra Hansen; Flage, Lynette; Chazdon, Scott; Paine, Nathan; Higgins, Lorie
2012-01-01
Learn more about a promising follow-up, participatory group process designed to document the results of Extension educational efforts within complex, real-life settings. The method, known as Ripple Effect Mapping, uses elements of Appreciative Inquiry, mind mapping, and qualitative data analysis to engage program participants and other community…
Ripple coarsening on ion beam-eroded surfaces.
Teichmann, Marc; Lorbeer, Jan; Frost, Frank; Rauschenbach, Bernd
2014-01-01
The temporal evolution of ripple pattern on Ge, Si, Al 2 O 3, and SiO 2 by low-energy ion beam erosion with Xe (+) ions is studied. The experiments focus on the ripple dynamics in a fluence range from 1.1 × 10(17) cm(-2) to 1.3 × 10(19) cm(-2) at ion incidence angles of 65° and 75° and ion energies of 600 and 1,200 eV. At low fluences a short-wavelength ripple structure emerges on the surface that is superimposed and later on dominated by long wavelength structures for increasing fluences. The coarsening of short wavelength ripples depends on the material system and angle of incidence. These observations are associated with the influence of reflected primary ions and gradient-dependent sputtering. The investigations reveal that coarsening of the pattern is a universal behavior for all investigated materials, just at the earliest accessible stage of surface evolution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, Wolfgang; Koeppe, Jeanette [Institut fuer Physik, Martin Luther Universitaet, 06099 Halle (Germany); Grecksch, Wilfried [Institut fuer Mathematik, Martin Luther Universitaet, 06099 Halle (Germany)
2016-07-01
The standard approach to solve a non-relativistic quantum problem is through analytical or numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation. We show a way to go around it. This way is based on the derivation of the Schroedinger equation from conservative diffusion processes and the establishment of (several) stochastic variational principles leading to the Schroedinger equation under the assumption of a kinematics described by Nelson's diffusion processes. Mathematically, the variational principle can be considered as a stochastic optimal control problem linked to the forward-backward stochastic differential equations of Nelson's stochastic mechanics. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann equation of this control problem is the Schroedinger equation. We present the mathematical background and how to turn it into a numerical scheme for analyzing a quantum system without using the Schroedinger equation and exemplify the approach for a simple 1d problem.
Relationship between behavioral and physiological spectral-ripple discrimination.
Won, Jong Ho; Clinard, Christopher G; Kwon, Seeyoun; Dasika, Vasant K; Nie, Kaibao; Drennan, Ward R; Tremblay, Kelly L; Rubinstein, Jay T
2011-06-01
Previous studies have found a significant correlation between spectral-ripple discrimination and speech and music perception in cochlear implant (CI) users. This relationship could be of use to clinicians and scientists who are interested in using spectral-ripple stimuli in the assessment and habilitation of CI users. However, previous psychoacoustic tasks used to assess spectral discrimination are not suitable for all populations, and it would be beneficial to develop methods that could be used to test all age ranges, including pediatric implant users. Additionally, it is important to understand how ripple stimuli are processed in the central auditory system and how their neural representation contributes to behavioral performance. For this reason, we developed a single-interval, yes/no paradigm that could potentially be used both behaviorally and electrophysiologically to estimate spectral-ripple threshold. In experiment 1, behavioral thresholds obtained using the single-interval method were compared to thresholds obtained using a previously established three-alternative forced-choice method. A significant correlation was found (r = 0.84, p = 0.0002) in 14 adult CI users. The spectral-ripple threshold obtained using the new method also correlated with speech perception in quiet and noise. In experiment 2, the effect of the number of vocoder-processing channels on the behavioral and physiological threshold in normal-hearing listeners was determined. Behavioral thresholds, using the new single-interval method, as well as cortical P1-N1-P2 responses changed as a function of the number of channels. Better behavioral and physiological performance (i.e., better discrimination ability at higher ripple densities) was observed as more channels added. In experiment 3, the relationship between behavioral and physiological data was examined. Amplitudes of the P1-N1-P2 "change" responses were significantly correlated with d' values from the single-interval behavioral
Effects of Resonant Helical Field on Toroidal Field Ripple in IR-T1 Tokamak
Mahdavipour, B.; Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.
2018-02-01
The toroidal magnetic field which is created by toroidal coils has the ripple in torus space. This magnetic field ripple has an importance in plasma equilibrium and stability studies in tokamak. In this paper, we present the investigation of the interaction between the toroidal magnetic field ripple and resonant helical field (RHF). We have estimated the amplitude of toroidal field ripples without and with RHF (with different q = m/n) ( m = 2, m = 3, m = 4, m = 5, m = 2 & 3, n = 1) using “Comsol Multiphysics” software. The simulations show that RHF has effects on the toroidal ripples.
Stochastic processes, slaves and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drummond, I T; Horgan, R R
2012-01-01
We extend the work of Tănase-Nicola and Kurchan on the structure of diffusion processes and the associated supersymmetry algebra by examining the responses of a simple statistical system to external disturbances of various kinds. We consider both the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for the process and the associated diffusion equation. The influence of the disturbances can be understood by augmenting the original SDE with an equation for slave variables. The evolution of the slave variables describes the behaviour of line elements carried along in the stochastic flow. These line elements, together with the associated surface and volume elements constructed from them, provide the basis of the supersymmetry properties of the theory. For ease of visualization, and in order to emphasize a helpful electromagnetic analogy, we work in three dimensions. The results are all generalizable to higher dimensions and can be specialized to one and two dimensions. The electromagnetic analogy is a useful starting point for calculating asymptotic results at low temperature that can be compared with direct numerical evaluations. We also examine the problems that arise in a direct numerical simulation of the stochastic equation together with the slave equations. We pay special attention to the dependence of the slave variable statistics on temperature. We identify in specific models the critical temperature below which the slave variable distribution ceases to have a variance and consider the effect on estimates of susceptibilities. (paper)
Spatial patterns of cyanobacterial mat growth on sand ripples
Mariotti, G.; Klepac-Ceraj, V.; Perron, J. T.; Bosak, T.
2016-02-01
Photosynthetic microbial mats produce organic matter, cycle nutrients, bind pollutants and stabilize sediment in sandy marine environments. Here, we investigate the influence of bedforms and wave motion on the growth rate, composition and spatial variability of microbial mats by growing cyanobacterial mats on a rippled bed of carbonate sand in a wave tank. The tank was forced with an oscillatory flow with velocities below the threshold for sediment motion yet able to induce a porewater flow within the sediment. Different spatial patterns developed in mats depending on the initial biochemistry of the water medium. When growing in a medium rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and micronutrients, mats grew faster on ripple troughs than on ripple crests. After two months, mats covered the bed surface uniformly, and the microbial communities on the crests and in the troughs had similar compositions. Differences in bed shear stress and nutrient availability between crests and troughs were not able to explain the faster growth in the troughs. We hypothesize that this growth pattern is due to a "strainer" effect, i.e. the suspended bacteria from the inoculum were preferentially delivered to troughs by the wave-induced porewater flow. In the experiments initiated in a medium previously used up by a microbial mat and thus depleted in nutrients, mats grew preferentially on the ripple crests. This spatial pattern persisted for nearly two years, and the microbial composition on troughs and crests was different. We attribute this pattern to the upwelling of porewater in the crests, which increased the delivery of nutrients from sediment to the cyanobacteria on the bed surface. Thus, the macroscopic patterns formed by photosynthetic microbial mats on sand ripples may be used to infer whether mats are nutrient-limited and whether they are recently colonized or older than a month.
Dolgov, Sergey; Khoromskij, Boris N.; Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.
2015-01-01
We apply the tensor train (TT) decomposition to construct the tensor product polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) of a random field, to solve the stochastic elliptic diffusion PDE with the stochastic Galerkin discretization, and to compute some
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wellens, Thomas; Shatokhin, Vyacheslav; Buchleitner, Andreas
2004-01-01
We are taught by conventional wisdom that the transmission and detection of signals is hindered by noise. However, during the last two decades, the paradigm of stochastic resonance (SR) proved this assertion wrong: indeed, addition of the appropriate amount of noise can boost a signal and hence facilitate its detection in a noisy environment. Due to its simplicity and robustness, SR has been implemented by mother nature on almost every scale, thus attracting interdisciplinary interest from physicists, geologists, engineers, biologists and medical doctors, who nowadays use it as an instrument for their specific purposes. At the present time, there exist a lot of diversified models of SR. Taking into account the progress achieved in both theoretical understanding and practical application of this phenomenon, we put the focus of the present review not on discussing in depth technical details of different models and approaches but rather on presenting a general and clear physical picture of SR on a pedagogical level. Particular emphasis will be given to the implementation of SR in generic quantum systems-an issue that has received limited attention in earlier review papers on the topic. The major part of our presentation relies on the two-state model of SR (or on simple variants thereof), which is general enough to exhibit the main features of SR and, in fact, covers many (if not most) of the examples of SR published so far. In order to highlight the diversity of the two-state model, we shall discuss several examples from such different fields as condensed matter, nonlinear and quantum optics and biophysics. Finally, we also discuss some situations that go beyond the generic SR scenario but are still characterized by a constructive role of noise
Stochastic Thermodynamics: A Dynamical Systems Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanmay Rajpurohit
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an energy-based, large-scale dynamical system model driven by Markov diffusion processes to present a unified framework for statistical thermodynamics predicated on a stochastic dynamical systems formalism. Specifically, using a stochastic state space formulation, we develop a nonlinear stochastic compartmental dynamical system model characterized by energy conservation laws that is consistent with statistical thermodynamic principles. In particular, we show that the difference between the average supplied system energy and the average stored system energy for our stochastic thermodynamic model is a martingale with respect to the system filtration. In addition, we show that the average stored system energy is equal to the mean energy that can be extracted from the system and the mean energy that can be delivered to the system in order to transfer it from a zero energy level to an arbitrary nonempty subset in the state space over a finite stopping time.
Perturbation theory for continuous stochastic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chechetkin, V.R.; Lutovinov, V.S.
1987-01-01
The various general perturbational schemes for continuous stochastic equations are considered. These schemes have many analogous features with the iterational solution of Schwinger equation for S-matrix. The following problems are discussed: continuous stochastic evolution equations for probability distribution functionals, evolution equations for equal time correlators, perturbation theory for Gaussian and Poissonian additive noise, perturbation theory for birth and death processes, stochastic properties of systems with multiplicative noise. The general results are illustrated by diffusion-controlled reactions, fluctuations in closed systems with chemical processes, propagation of waves in random media in parabolic equation approximation, and non-equilibrium phase transitions in systems with Poissonian breeding centers. The rate of irreversible reaction X + X → A (Smoluchowski process) is calculated with the use of general theory based on continuous stochastic equations for birth and death processes. The threshold criterion and range of fluctuational region for synergetic phase transition in system with Poissonian breeding centers are also considered. (author)
Stochastic problems in population genetics
Maruyama, Takeo
1977-01-01
These are" notes based on courses in Theoretical Population Genetics given at the University of Texas at Houston during the winter quarter, 1974, and at the University of Wisconsin during the fall semester, 1976. These notes explore problems of population genetics and evolution involving stochastic processes. Biological models and various mathematical techniques are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the diffusion method and an attempt is made to emphasize the underlying unity of various problems based on the Kolmogorov backward equation. A particular effort was made to make the subject accessible to biology students who are not familiar with stochastic processes. The references are not exhaustive but were chosen to provide a starting point for the reader interested in pursuing the subject further. Acknowledgement I would like to use this opportunity to express my thanks to Drs. J. F. Crow, M. Nei and W. J. Schull for their hospitality during my stays at their universities. I am indebted to Dr. M. Kimura...
The effect of biological cohesion on current ripple development
Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie
2014-05-01
Results are presented from laboratory experiments examining the role of biological cohesion, associated with Extra Polymeric Substances, on the development of current ripples. The results demonstrate the importance of biological cohesion compared to the effect of physical cohesion associated with clays in an otherwise sandy bed. FURTHER INFORMATION In fluvial and marine environments sediment transport is mainly dependent on the nature of the bed surface (rippled or flat) and the nature of cohesion in the bed. Cohesion can be either physical, as a result of the presence of clays, or biological as a result of the presence of organisms. In the case of the latter, biological cohesion occurs as a result of the presence of Extra Polymeric Substances (EPS) secreted by microorganisms. While it is known that EPS can dramatically increase the threshold of motion (Grant and Gust, 1987), comparatively little is known about the effect of EPS on ripple formation and development. The experiments described here seek to fill this gap. They also allow the effect of biological cohesion to be compared with that of physical cohesion from previous experiments (Baas et al., 2013). The experiments, which were conducted in a 10m flume at Bangor University, involved a current over a bed made of fine sand, with a median diameter of 0.148mm, and various amounts of xanthan gum, a proxy for naturally occurring EPS (Vardy et al., 2007). The hydrodynamic experimental conditions were matched very closely to those of Baas et al. (2013). The ripple dimensions were recorded through the glass side wall of the tank using time lapse photography. In the physical cohesion experiments of Baas et al. (2013) for clay contents up to 12%, the clay was very quickly winnowed out of the bed, leaving essentially clay-free ripples that developed at more or less the same rate as clean sand ripples. The resulting equilibrium ripples were essentially the same length as the clean sand ripples but reduced in height. By
Distribution of particles in stochastic electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolland, Paul.
1979-11-01
The distribution of one particle as well as an ensemble of particles submitted to a stochastic electric field obeying different kinds of laws is studied. A particular attention is devoted to the deviation from the gaussian distribution and to the consequences of this effect on diffusion and heating [fr
Efficient Estimating Functions for Stochastic Differential Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt
The overall topic of this thesis is approximate martingale estimating function-based estimationfor solutions of stochastic differential equations, sampled at high frequency. Focuslies on the asymptotic properties of the estimators. The first part of the thesis deals with diffusions observed over...
Introduction to stochastic analysis integrals and differential equations
Mackevicius, Vigirdas
2013-01-01
This is an introduction to stochastic integration and stochastic differential equations written in an understandable way for a wide audience, from students of mathematics to practitioners in biology, chemistry, physics, and finances. The presentation is based on the naïve stochastic integration, rather than on abstract theories of measure and stochastic processes. The proofs are rather simple for practitioners and, at the same time, rather rigorous for mathematicians. Detailed application examples in natural sciences and finance are presented. Much attention is paid to simulation diffusion pro
Bipartite Fuzzy Stochastic Differential Equations with Global Lipschitz Condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marek T. Malinowski
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce and analyze a new type of fuzzy stochastic differential equations. We consider equations with drift and diffusion terms occurring at both sides of equations. Therefore we call them the bipartite fuzzy stochastic differential equations. Under the Lipschitz and boundedness conditions imposed on drifts and diffusions coefficients we prove existence of a unique solution. Then, insensitivity of the solution under small changes of data of equation is examined. Finally, we mention that all results can be repeated for solutions to bipartite set-valued stochastic differential equations.
100 years after Smoluchowski: stochastic processes in cell biology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holcman, D; Schuss, Z
2017-01-01
100 years after Smoluchowski introduced his approach to stochastic processes, they are now at the basis of mathematical and physical modeling in cellular biology: they are used for example to analyse and to extract features from a large number (tens of thousands) of single molecular trajectories or to study the diffusive motion of molecules, proteins or receptors. Stochastic modeling is a new step in large data analysis that serves extracting cell biology concepts. We review here Smoluchowski’s approach to stochastic processes and provide several applications for coarse-graining diffusion, studying polymer models for understanding nuclear organization and finally, we discuss the stochastic jump dynamics of telomeres across cell division and stochastic gene regulation. (topical review)
Stochastic tools in turbulence
Lumey, John L
2012-01-01
Stochastic Tools in Turbulence discusses the available mathematical tools to describe stochastic vector fields to solve problems related to these fields. The book deals with the needs of turbulence in relation to stochastic vector fields, particularly, on three-dimensional aspects, linear problems, and stochastic model building. The text describes probability distributions and densities, including Lebesgue integration, conditional probabilities, conditional expectations, statistical independence, lack of correlation. The book also explains the significance of the moments, the properties of the
Spectral Ripple Discrimination in Normal-Hearing Infants.
Horn, David L; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T; Werner, Lynne A
Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in postlingually deaf adults and prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). To apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in normal-hearing children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners' sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise. Both resolution of peak to peak location (frequency resolution) and peak to trough intensity (across-channel intensity resolution) are required for SRD. SRD was measured as the highest ripple density (in ripples per octave) for which a listener could discriminate a 90° shift in phase of the sinusoidally-modulated amplitude spectrum. A 2 × 3 between-subjects design was used to assess the effects of age (7-month-old infants versus adults) and ripple peak/trough "depth" (10, 13, and 20 dB) on SRD in normal-hearing listeners (experiment 1). In experiment 2, SRD thresholds in the same age groups were compared using a task in which ripple starting phases were randomized across trials to obscure within-channel intensity cues. In experiment 3, the randomized starting phase method was used to measure SRD as a function of age (3-month-old infants, 7-month-old infants, and young adults) and ripple depth (10 and 20 dB in repeated measures design). In experiment 1, there was a significant interaction between age and ripple depth. The infant SRDs were significantly poorer than the adult SRDs at 10 and 13 dB ripple depths but adult-like at 20 dB depth. This result is consistent with immature across-channel intensity resolution. In contrast, the trajectory of SRD as a function of depth was steeper for infants than adults suggesting that frequency resolution was better in infants than adults. However, in experiment 2 infant performance was significantly poorer than adults at 20 d
Theory of the rippling instability in toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogister, A.
1985-04-01
The theory of the rippling instability is developed for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas including ion viscosity and parallel electron heat conduction, but assuming that the growth rate is small compared to the wave angular frequency. Parallel electron heat conduction is stabilizing but ion viscosity broadens the instability domain. Under certain conditions, an important top-bottom asymmetry of the density fluctuation spectrum may arise. (orig./GG)
Periodic sediment shift in migrating ripples influences benthic microbial activity
Zlatanović, Sanja; Fabian, Jenny; Mendoza-Lera, Clara; Woodward, K. Benjamin; Premke, Katrin; Mutz, Michael
2017-06-01
Migrating bedforms have high levels of particulate organic matter and high rates of pore water exchange, causing them to be proposed as hot spots of carbon turnover in rivers. Yet, the shifting of sediments and associated mechanical disturbance within migrating bedforms, such as ripples, may stress and abrade microbial communities, reducing their activity. In a microcosm experiment, we replicated the mechanical disturbances caused by the periodic sediment shift within ripples under oligotrophic conditions. We assessed the effects on fungal and bacterial biomass ratio (F:B), microbial community respiration (CR), and bacterial production (BCP) and compared with stable undisturbed sediments. Interactions between periodic mechanical disturbance and sediment-associated particulate organic matter (POM) were tested by enriching sediments collected from migrating ripples with different qualities of POM (fish feces, leaf litter fragments and no addition treatments). F:B and BCP were affected by an interaction between mechanical disturbance and POM quality. Fish feces enriched sediments showed increased F:B and BCP compared to sediments with lower POM quality and responded with a decrease of F:B and BCP to sediment disturbance. In the other POM treatments F:B and BCP were not affected by disturbance. Microbial respiration was however reduced by mechanical disturbance to similar low activity levels regardless of POM qualities added, whereas fish feces enriched sediment showed short temporary boost of CR. With the worldwide proliferation of migrating sand ripples due to massive catchment erosion, suppressed mineralization of POM will increasingly affect stream metabolism, downstream transport of POM and carbon cycling from reach to catchment scale.
Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution
Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Rubin, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; Ballard, M. J.; Daybell, M.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S. G.; Bridges, N. T.; Des Marais, D. J.; Fraeman, A. A.; Grant, J. A.
2016-01-01
Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter– to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them ...
Ripple compensation for a class-D amplifier
Cox, Stephen M.; du Toit Mouton, Hendrik
2015-01-01
This paper presents the first detailed mathematical analysis of the ripple compensation technique for reducing audio distortion in a class-D amplifier with negative feedback. The amplifier converts a relatively low-frequency audio signal to a high-frequency train of rectangular pulses whose widths are slowly modulated according to the audio signal (pulse-width modulation, PWM). Distortion manifests itself through unwanted audio-frequency harmonics that arise in the output due to nonlinearitie...
Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples.
Xia, H; Maimbourg, T; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2012-09-14
We report new experimental results which suggest that the generation of extreme wave events in the Faraday surface ripples is related to the increase in the horizontal mobility of oscillating solitons (oscillons). The analysis of the oscillon trajectories in a horizontal plane shows that at higher vertical acceleration, oscillons move chaotically, merge and form enclosed areas on the water surface. The probability of the formation of such craters, which precede large wave events, increases with the increase in horizontal mobility.
Numerical methods for stochastic partial differential equations with white noise
Zhang, Zhongqiang
2017-01-01
This book covers numerical methods for stochastic partial differential equations with white noise using the framework of Wong-Zakai approximation. The book begins with some motivational and background material in the introductory chapters and is divided into three parts. Part I covers numerical stochastic ordinary differential equations. Here the authors start with numerical methods for SDEs with delay using the Wong-Zakai approximation and finite difference in time. Part II covers temporal white noise. Here the authors consider SPDEs as PDEs driven by white noise, where discretization of white noise (Brownian motion) leads to PDEs with smooth noise, which can then be treated by numerical methods for PDEs. In this part, recursive algorithms based on Wiener chaos expansion and stochastic collocation methods are presented for linear stochastic advection-diffusion-reaction equations. In addition, stochastic Euler equations are exploited as an application of stochastic collocation methods, where a numerical compa...
Reducing torque ripples in permanent magnet synchronous motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rihab Abdelmoula
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs are exceptionally promising thanks to their many advantages compared with other types of electrical machines. Indeed, PMSMs are characterized by their important torque density, light weight, high air gap flux density, high acceleration, high efficiency and strong power-to-weight ratio. A surface-mounted PMSM (SPMSM is used in this work. The SPMSM is built using a 2D finite element method (FEM. Cogging torque, torque ripples and back-EMF are examined during the design process in order to obtain sinusoidal back-EMF and to minimise torque ripples which are one of the major problems with PMSMs. Two procedures are used to reduce the cogging torque of SPMSM: the effect of slot opening and the influence of skewing the stator laminations. Cogging torque factor tc and the torque ripples factor tr have been calculated to compare the two configurations (open slots and closed slots. Then, the configuration with closed slots is utilised with skewing the stator laminations for different angle 0°, 10° and 15°.
Ripple-Spreading Network Model Optimization by Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Bing Hu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Small-world and scale-free properties are widely acknowledged in many real-world complex network systems, and many network models have been developed to capture these network properties. The ripple-spreading network model (RSNM is a newly reported complex network model, which is inspired by the natural ripple-spreading phenomenon on clam water surface. The RSNM exhibits good potential for describing both spatial and temporal features in the development of many real-world networks where the influence of a few local events spreads out through nodes and then largely determines the final network topology. However, the relationships between ripple-spreading related parameters (RSRPs of RSNM and small-world and scale-free topologies are not as obvious or straightforward as in many other network models. This paper attempts to apply genetic algorithm (GA to tune the values of RSRPs, so that the RSNM may generate these two most important network topologies. The study demonstrates that, once RSRPs are properly tuned by GA, the RSNM is capable of generating both network topologies and therefore has a great flexibility to study many real-world complex network systems.
Validation of a clinical assessment of spectral-ripple resolution for cochlear implant users.
Drennan, Ward R; Anderson, Elizabeth S; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T
2014-01-01
Nonspeech psychophysical tests of spectral resolution, such as the spectral-ripple discrimination task, have been shown to correlate with speech-recognition performance in cochlear implant (CI) users. However, these tests are best suited for use in the research laboratory setting and are impractical for clinical use. A test of spectral resolution that is quicker and could more easily be implemented in the clinical setting has been developed. The objectives of this study were (1) To determine whether this new clinical ripple test would yield individual results equivalent to the longer, adaptive version of the ripple-discrimination test; (2) To evaluate test-retest reliability for the clinical ripple measure; and (3) To examine the relationship between clinical ripple performance and monosyllabic word recognition in quiet for a group of CI listeners. Twenty-eight CI recipients participated in the study. Each subject was tested on both the adaptive and the clinical versions of spectral ripple discrimination, as well as consonant-nucleus-consonant word recognition in quiet. The adaptive version of spectral ripple used a two-up, one-down procedure for determining spectral ripple discrimination threshold. The clinical ripple test used a method of constant stimuli, with trials for each of 12 fixed ripple densities occurring six times in random order. Results from the clinical ripple test (proportion correct) were then compared with ripple-discrimination thresholds (in ripples per octave) from the adaptive test. The clinical ripple test showed strong concurrent validity, evidenced by a good correlation between clinical ripple and adaptive ripple results (r = 0.79), as well as a correlation with word recognition (r = 0.7). Excellent test-retest reliability was also demonstrated with a high test-retest correlation (r = 0.9). The clinical ripple test is a reliable nonlinguistic measure of spectral resolution, optimized for use with CI users in a clinical setting. The test
VALIDATION OF A CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF SPECTRAL RIPPLE RESOLUTION FOR COCHLEAR-IMPLANT USERS
Drennan, Ward. R.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T.
2013-01-01
Objectives Non-speech psychophysical tests of spectral resolution, such as the spectral-ripple discrimination task, have been shown to correlate with speech recognition performance in cochlear implant (CI) users (Henry et al., 2005; Won et al. 2007, 2011; Drennan et al. 2008; Anderson et al. 2011). However, these tests are best suited for use in the research laboratory setting and are impractical for clinical use. A test of spectral resolution that is quicker and could more easily be implemented in the clinical setting has been developed. The objectives of this study were 1) To determine if this new clinical ripple test would yield individual results equivalent to the longer, adaptive version of the ripple discrimination test; 2) To evaluate test-retest reliability for the clinical ripple measure; and 3) To examine the relationship between clinical ripple performance and monosyllabic word recognition in quiet for a group of CI listeners. Design Twenty-eight CI recipients participated in the study. Each subject was tested on both the adaptive and the clinical versions of spectral ripple discrimination, as well as CNC word recognition in quiet. The adaptive version of spectral ripple employed a 2-up, 1-down procedure for determining spectral ripple discrimination threshold. The clinical ripple test used a method of constant stimuli, with trials for each of 12 fixed ripple densities occurring six times in random order. Results from the clinical ripple test (proportion correct) were then compared to ripple discrimination thresholds (in ripples per octave) from the adaptive test. Results The clinical ripple test showed strong concurrent validity, evidenced by a good correlation between clinical ripple and adaptive ripple results (r=0.79), as well as a correlation with word recognition (r = 0.7). Excellent test-retest reliability was also demonstrated with a high test-retest correlation (r = 0.9). Conclusions The clinical ripple test is a reliable non-linguistic measure
Spin-diffusions and diffusive molecular dynamics
Farmer, Brittan; Luskin, Mitchell; Plecháč, Petr; Simpson, Gideon
2017-12-01
Metastable configurations in condensed matter typically fluctuate about local energy minima at the femtosecond time scale before transitioning between local minima after nanoseconds or microseconds. This vast scale separation limits the applicability of classical molecular dynamics (MD) methods and has spurned the development of a host of approximate algorithms. One recently proposed method is diffusive MD which aims at integrating a system of ordinary differential equations describing the likelihood of occupancy by one of two species, in the case of a binary alloy, while quasistatically evolving the locations of the atoms. While diffusive MD has shown itself to be efficient and provide agreement with observations, it is fundamentally a model, with unclear connections to classical MD. In this work, we formulate a spin-diffusion stochastic process and show how it can be connected to diffusive MD. The spin-diffusion model couples a classical overdamped Langevin equation to a kinetic Monte Carlo model for exchange amongst the species of a binary alloy. Under suitable assumptions and approximations, spin-diffusion can be shown to lead to diffusive MD type models. The key assumptions and approximations include a well-defined time scale separation, a choice of spin-exchange rates, a low temperature approximation, and a mean field type approximation. We derive several models from different assumptions and show their relationship to diffusive MD. Differences and similarities amongst the models are explored in a simple test problem.
Ogawa, Shigeyoshi
2017-01-01
This book presents an elementary introduction to the theory of noncausal stochastic calculus that arises as a natural alternative to the standard theory of stochastic calculus founded in 1944 by Professor Kiyoshi Itô. As is generally known, Itô Calculus is essentially based on the "hypothesis of causality", asking random functions to be adapted to a natural filtration generated by Brownian motion or more generally by square integrable martingale. The intention in this book is to establish a stochastic calculus that is free from this "hypothesis of causality". To be more precise, a noncausal theory of stochastic calculus is developed in this book, based on the noncausal integral introduced by the author in 1979. After studying basic properties of the noncausal stochastic integral, various concrete problems of noncausal nature are considered, mostly concerning stochastic functional equations such as SDE, SIE, SPDE, and others, to show not only the necessity of such theory of noncausal stochastic calculus but ...
Learning-enhanced coupling between ripple oscillations in association cortices and hippocampus.
Khodagholy, Dion; Gelinas, Jennifer N; Buzsáki, György
2017-10-20
Consolidation of declarative memories requires hippocampal-neocortical communication. Although experimental evidence supports the role of sharp-wave ripples in transferring hippocampal information to the neocortex, the exact cortical destinations and the physiological mechanisms of such transfer are not known. We used a conducting polymer-based conformable microelectrode array (NeuroGrid) to record local field potentials and neural spiking across the dorsal cortical surface of the rat brain, combined with silicon probe recordings in the hippocampus, to identify candidate physiological patterns. Parietal, midline, and prefrontal, but not primary cortical areas, displayed localized ripple (100 to 150 hertz) oscillations during sleep, concurrent with hippocampal ripples. Coupling between hippocampal and neocortical ripples was strengthened during sleep following learning. These findings suggest that ripple-ripple coupling supports hippocampal-association cortical transfer of memory traces. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Multiple fields in stochastic inflation
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Assadullahi, Hooshyar [Institute of Cosmology & Gravitation, University of Portsmouth,Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noorbala, Mahdiyar [Department of Physics, University of Tehran,P.O. Box 14395-547, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vennin, Vincent; Wands, David [Institute of Cosmology & Gravitation, University of Portsmouth,Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
2016-06-24
Stochastic effects in multi-field inflationary scenarios are investigated. A hierarchy of diffusion equations is derived, the solutions of which yield moments of the numbers of inflationary e-folds. Solving the resulting partial differential equations in multi-dimensional field space is more challenging than the single-field case. A few tractable examples are discussed, which show that the number of fields is, in general, a critical parameter. When more than two fields are present for instance, the probability to explore arbitrarily large-field regions of the potential, otherwise inaccessible to single-field dynamics, becomes non-zero. In some configurations, this gives rise to an infinite mean number of e-folds, regardless of the initial conditions. Another difference with respect to single-field scenarios is that multi-field stochastic effects can be large even at sub-Planckian energy. This opens interesting new possibilities for probing quantum effects in inflationary dynamics, since the moments of the numbers of e-folds can be used to calculate the distribution of primordial density perturbations in the stochastic-δN formalism.
Stochastic models for tumoral growth
Escudero, Carlos
2006-02-01
Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border and the surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stochastic partial differential equations are reported in this paper in order to correctly model the physical properties of tumoral growth in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions. The advantage of these models is that they reproduce the correct geometry of the tumor and are defined in terms of polar variables. An analysis of these models allows us to quantitatively estimate the response of the tumor to an unfavorable perturbation during growth.
Limitations on current ripple of the power supplies for the SSC bending magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebedev, V.A.
1993-01-01
Noise and ripple in the bending magnets of large proton collider cause the beam emittance growth and the luminosity degradation. The emittance growth due to voltage ripple of the bending magnets power supplies is studied. The role of the collider transverse feedback system is shown to be very important to facilitate the requirements to value of ripple. The longitudinal emittance growth due to slow variations of power supply current is studied as well. 9 refs.; 15 figs
Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki
1987-01-01
The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...
A Dynamical Theory of Markovian Diffusion
Davidson, Mark
2001-01-01
A dynamical treatment of Markovian diffusion is presented and several applications discussed. The stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics is considered within this framework. A model for Brownian movement which includes second order quantum effects is derived.
Xu, Meimei; Liu, Guohai; Zhao, Wenxiang; Aamir, Nazir
2018-05-01
Torque ripple is one of the important issues for ferrite assisted synchronous reluctance motors (FASRMs). In this paper, an asymmetrical stator is proposed for the FASRM to reduce its torque ripple. In the proposed FASRM, an asymmetrical stator is designed by appropriately choosing the angle of the slot-opening shift. Meanwhile, its analytical torque expressions are derived. The results show that the proposed FASRM has an effective reduction in the cogging torque, reluctance torque ripple and total torque ripple. Moreover, it is easy to implement while the average torque is not sacrificed.
Detailed Analysis of Torque Ripple in High Frequency Signal Injection based Sensor less PMSM Drives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravikumar Setty A.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available High Frequency Signal Injection based techniques are robust and well proven to estimate the rotor position from stand still to low speed. However, Injected high frequency signal introduces, high frequency harmonics in the motor phase currents and results in significant Output Torque ripple. There is no detailed analysis exist in the literature, to study the effect of injected signal frequency on Torque ripple. Objective of this work is to study the Torque Ripple resulting from High Frequency signal injection in PMSM motor drives. Detailed MATLAB/Simulink simulations are carried to quantify the Torque ripple at different Signal frequencies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.
2012-01-01
Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.
Effects of toroidal field ripple on injected deuterons in the FED device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, R.H.; Rome, J.A.
1981-07-01
A Monte Carlo beam deposition and thermalization code is used to assess the effects of toroidal field (TF) ripple on injected fast deuterons in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The code uses realistic geometry for the beam, plasma equilibrium, TF ripple, and vacuum chamber. For injection at an angle of 35 0 (co) from perpendicular, no particles were ripple trapped and less than 1% of the injected power went to the wall and the limiter. However, due to the large amounts of computer time required by these programs, only 100 particles were followed in the rippled case and the results must be regarded as preliminary
Wiegand, Jean-Paul L; Gray, Daniel T; Schimanski, Lesley A; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, C A; Cowen, Stephen L
2016-05-18
Spatial and episodic memory performance declines with age, and the neural basis for this decline is not well understood. Sharp-wave ripples are brief (∼70 ms) high-frequency oscillatory events generated in the hippocampus and are associated with the consolidation of spatial memories. Given the connection between ripple oscillations and memory consolidation, we investigated whether the structure of ripple oscillations and ripple-triggered patterns of single-unit activity are altered in aged rats. Local field and single-unit activity surrounding sharp-wave ripple events were examined in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of old (n = 5) and young (n = 6) F344 rats during periods of rest preceding and following performance on a place-dependent eyeblink-conditioning task. Neural responses in aged rats differed from responses in young rats in several ways. First, compared with young rats, the rate of ripple occurrence (ripple density) is reduced in aged rats during postbehavior rest. Second, mean ripple frequency during prebehavior and postbehavior rest is lower in aged animals (aged: 132 Hz; young: 146 Hz). Third, single neurons in aged animals responded more consistently from ripple to ripple. Fourth, variability in interspike intervals was greater in aged rats. Finally, neurons were tuned to a narrower range of phases of the ripple oscillation relative to young animals. Together, these results suggest that the CA1 network in aged animals has a reduced "vocabulary" of available representational states. The hippocampus is a structure that is critical for the formation of episodic memories. Sharp-wave ripple events generated in the hippocampus have been implicated in memory consolidation processes critical to memory stabilization. We examine here whether these ripple oscillations are altered over the course of the life span, which could contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory deficits that occur during aging. This experiment used young and aged memory-impaired rats
Diffraction analysis of sidelobe characteristics of optical elements with ripple error
Zhao, Lei; Luo, Yupeng; Bai, Jian; Zhou, Xiangdong; Du, Juan; Liu, Qun; Luo, Yujie
2018-03-01
The ripple errors of the lens lead to optical damage in high energy laser system. The analysis of sidelobe on the focal plane, caused by ripple error, provides a reference to evaluate the error and the imaging quality. In this paper, we analyze the diffraction characteristics of sidelobe of optical elements with ripple errors. First, we analyze the characteristics of ripple error and build relationship between ripple error and sidelobe. The sidelobe results from the diffraction of ripple errors. The ripple error tends to be periodic due to fabrication method on the optical surface. The simulated experiments are carried out based on angular spectrum method by characterizing ripple error as rotationally symmetric periodic structures. The influence of two major parameter of ripple including spatial frequency and peak-to-valley value to sidelobe is discussed. The results indicate that spatial frequency and peak-to-valley value both impact sidelobe at the image plane. The peak-tovalley value is the major factor to affect the energy proportion of the sidelobe. The spatial frequency is the major factor to affect the distribution of the sidelobe at the image plane.
Kerber, Karolin; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Schelter, Björn; Le Van, Pierre; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Jacobs, Julia
2014-07-01
High frequency oscillations (HFOs) at 80-500 Hz are promising markers of epileptic areas. Several retrospective studies reported that surgical removal of areas generating HFOs was associated with a good seizure outcome. Recent reports suggested that ripple (80-200 Hz) HFO patterns co-existed with different background EEG activities. We hypothesized that the coexisting background EEG pattern may distinguish physiological from epileptic ripples. Rates of HFOs were analyzed in intracranial EEG recordings of 22 patients. Additionally, ripple patterns were classified for each channel depending either as coexisting with a flat or oscillatory background activity. A multi-variate analysis was performed to determine whether removal of areas showing the above EEG markers correlated with seizure outcome. Removal of areas generating high rates of 'fast ripples (>200 Hz)' and 'ripples on a flat background activity' showed a significant correlation with a seizure-free outcome. In contrast, removal of high rates of 'ripples' or 'ripple patterns in a continuously oscillating background' was not significantly associated with seizure outcome. Ripples occurring in an oscillatory background activity may be suggestive of physiological activity, while those on a flat background reflect epileptic activity. Consideration of coexisting background patterns may improve the delineation of the epileptogenic areas using ripple oscillations. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Electricity price modeling with stochastic time change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borovkova, Svetlana; Schmeck, Maren Diane
2017-01-01
In this paper, we develop a novel approach to electricity price modeling, based on the powerful technique of stochastic time change. This technique allows us to incorporate the characteristic features of electricity prices (such as seasonal volatility, time varying mean reversion and seasonally occurring price spikes) into the model in an elegant and economically justifiable way. The stochastic time change introduces stochastic as well as deterministic (e.g., seasonal) features in the price process' volatility and in the jump component. We specify the base process as a mean reverting jump diffusion and the time change as an absolutely continuous stochastic process with seasonal component. The activity rate of the stochastic time change can be related to the factors that influence supply and demand. Here we use the temperature as a proxy for the demand and hence, as the driving factor of the stochastic time change, and show that this choice leads to realistic price paths. We derive properties of the resulting price process and develop the model calibration procedure. We calibrate the model to the historical EEX power prices and apply it to generating realistic price paths by Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the simulated price process matches the distributional characteristics of the observed electricity prices in periods of both high and low demand. - Highlights: • We develop a novel approach to electricity price modeling, based on the powerful technique of stochastic time change. • We incorporate the characteristic features of electricity prices, such as seasonal volatility and spikes into the model. • We use the temperature as a proxy for the demand and hence, as the driving factor of the stochastic time change • We derive properties of the resulting price process and develop the model calibration procedure. • We calibrate the model to the historical EEX power prices and apply it to generating realistic price paths.
Diffusion in condensed matter methods, materials, models
Kärger, Jörg
2005-01-01
Diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement is a phenomenon of crucial relevance for a large variety of processes and materials. This comprehensive, handbook- style survey of diffusion in condensed matter gives detailed insight into diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement. Leading experts in the field describe in 23 chapters the different aspects of diffusion, covering microscopic and macroscopic experimental techniques and exemplary results for various classes of solids, liquids and interfaces as well as several theoretical concepts and models. Students and scientists in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology will benefit from this detailed compilation.
Elitism and Stochastic Dominance
Bazen, Stephen; Moyes, Patrick
2011-01-01
Stochastic dominance has typically been used with a special emphasis on risk and inequality reduction something captured by the concavity of the utility function in the expected utility model. We claim that the applicability of the stochastic dominance approach goes far beyond risk and inequality measurement provided suitable adpations be made. We apply in the paper the stochastic dominance approach to the measurment of elitism which may be considered the opposite of egalitarianism. While the...
From complex to simple: interdisciplinary stochastic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazilu, D A; Zamora, G; Mazilu, I
2012-01-01
We present two simple, one-dimensional, stochastic models that lead to a qualitative understanding of very complex systems from biology, nanoscience and social sciences. The first model explains the complicated dynamics of microtubules, stochastic cellular highways. Using the theory of random walks in one dimension, we find analytical expressions for certain physical quantities, such as the time dependence of the length of the microtubules, and diffusion coefficients. The second one is a stochastic adsorption model with applications in surface deposition, epidemics and voter systems. We introduce the ‘empty interval method’ and show sample calculations for the time-dependent particle density. These models can serve as an introduction to the field of non-equilibrium statistical physics, and can also be used as a pedagogical tool to exemplify standard statistical physics concepts, such as random walks or the kinetic approach of the master equation. (paper)
Singular stochastic differential equations
Cherny, Alexander S
2005-01-01
The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.
Rippling and drift instabilities in the straight cylinder tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogister, A.
1984-01-01
It is shown that the electron and ion diamagnetic drifts stabilize the rippling mode in the straigth cylindrical tokamak model. Parallel electron heat conduction is further stabilizing if the parameter etasub(e) = dlnTsub(e)/dlnN is positive. This has a consequence that the mode does not survive at temperatures exceeding, typically, 50 eV for standard values of magnetic field and density. The collisional drift wave is found to be always stable even when the effect of the tokamak current is included in the calculation. (orig.)
Rippled cosmological dark matter from a damped oscillating Newton constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, Aharon
2005-01-01
Let the reciprocal Newton 'constant' be an apparently non-dynamical Brans-Dicke scalar field damped oscillating towards its general relativistic VEV. We show, without introducing additional matter fields or dust, that the corresponding cosmological evolution averagely resembles, in the Jordan frame, the familiar dark radiation → dark matter → dark energy domination sequence. The fingerprints of our theory are fine ripples, hopefully testable, in the FRW scale factor; they die away at the general relativity limit. The possibility that the Brans-Dicke scalar also serves as the inflaton is favourably examined
Rippled shock front solutions for testing hydrodynamic stability simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munro, D.H.
1989-01-01
The response of a shock front to arbitrary small perturbations can be calculated analytically. Such rippled shock front solutions are useful for determining the accuracy of hydrodynamic simulation codes such as LASNEX [Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 51 (1977)], which are used to compute perturbation growth in inertial fusion targets. The LASNEX fractional errors are of order κ 2 L 2 , where κ is the transverse wavenumber of the perturbation, and L is the largest zone dimension. Numerical errors are about 25% for a calculation using 26 zones per transverse wavelength
Trapping in stochastic mechanics and applications to covers of clouds and radiation belts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albeverio, S.; Blanchard, P.; Combe, P.; Rodriguez, R.; Sirugue, M.; Sirugue-Collin, M.
1984-11-01
It is possible to assign a stochastic acceleration to conservative stochastic diffusion processes. As a basic assumption, this stochastic acceleration is set equal to the deterministic smooth component of the external force acting on the particle, whereas the influences of the remainder is modelled by a diffusion coefficient. In this paper, we shall try to see whether it can account for the observation in two cases: the cover of clouds of planets and the radiation belts in the planetary magnetic field. We describe the basic properties of Newtonian Diffusion Stochastic Processes and indicate their connection with Schroedinger-like equations. Furthermore we give a heuristic interpretation of the nodal surfaces as impenetrable barriers for Newtonian Stochastic Diffusion Processes. The possible applications to the observed average cloud covering in the planetary atmosphere are presented we discuss the radiation belts (Van Allen Belts) along the previous ideas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad; Crowe, J.H.
2003-01-01
Temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to visualize and study the structure and kinetics of ripple phases in one-component dipalmitoylphosphaticlylcholine (DPPC) and two-component dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC-DSPC) lipid bilayers....... The lipid bilayers are mica-supported double bilayers in which ripple-phase formation occurs in the top bilayer. In one-component DPPC lipid bilayers, the stable and metastable ripple phases were observed. In addition, a third ripple structure with approximately twice the wavelength of the metastable...... ripples was seen. From height profiles of the AFM images, estimates of the amplitudes of the different ripple phases are reported. To elucidate the processes of ripple formation and disappearance, a ripple-phase DPPC lipid bilayer was taken through the pretransition in the cooling and the heating...
Missing lynx and trophic cascades in food webs: A reply to Ripple et al.
John R. Squires; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Mark Hebblewhite; Joel Berger
2012-01-01
Ripple et al. (2011) proposed a hypothesis that the recovery of gray wolves (Canis lupus) may positively affect the viability of threatened Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) populations in the contiguous United States through indirect species interactions. Ripple et al. (2011) proposed 2 key trophic linkages connecting wolf restoration with lynx recovery. First, recovering...
Radial electric field in JET advanced tokamak scenarios with toroidal field ripple
Crombe, K.; Andrew, Y.; Biewer, T. M.; Blanco, E.; de Vries, P. C.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Meigs, A.; Tala, T.; von Hellermann, M.; Zastrow, K. D.
2009-01-01
A dedicated campaign has been run on JET to study the effect of toroidal field (TF) ripple on plasma performance. Radial electric field measurements from experiments on a series of plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) and different levels of ripple amplitude are presented. They have been
Dimas, Athanassios A.; Kolokythas, Gerasimos A.
Numerical simulations of the free-surface flow, developing by the propagation of nonlinear water waves over a rippled bottom, are performed assuming that the corresponding flow is two-dimensional, incompressible and viscous. The simulations are based on the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations subject to the fully-nonlinear free-surface boundary conditions and appropriate bottom, inflow and outflow boundary conditions. The equations are properly transformed so that the computational domain becomes time-independent. For the spatial discretization, a hybrid scheme is used where central finite-differences, in the horizontal direction, and a pseudo-spectral approximation method with Chebyshev polynomials, in the vertical direction, are applied. A fractional time-step scheme is used for the temporal discretization. Over the rippled bed, the wave boundary layer thickness increases significantly, in comparison to the one over flat bed, due to flow separation at the ripple crests, which generates alternating circulation regions. The amplitude of the wall shear stress over the ripples increases with increasing ripple height or decreasing Reynolds number, while the corresponding friction force is insensitive to the ripple height change. The amplitude of the form drag forces due to dynamic and hydrostatic pressures increase with increasing ripple height but is insensitive to the Reynolds number change, therefore, the percentage of friction in the total drag force decreases with increasing ripple height or increasing Reynolds number.
Ho Won, Jong; Jones, Gary L.; Drennan, Ward R.; Jameyson, Elyse M.; Rubinstein, Jay T.
2011-01-01
Spectral-ripple discrimination has been used widely for psychoacoustical studies in normal-hearing, hearing-impaired, and cochlear implant listeners. The present study investigated the perceptual mechanism for spectral-ripple discrimination in cochlear implant listeners. The main goal of this study was to determine whether cochlear implant listeners use a local intensity cue or global spectral shape for spectral-ripple discrimination. The effect of electrode separation on spectral-ripple discrimination was also evaluated. Results showed that it is highly unlikely that cochlear implant listeners depend on a local intensity cue for spectral-ripple discrimination. A phenomenological model of spectral-ripple discrimination, as an “ideal observer,” showed that a perceptual mechanism based on discrimination of a single intensity difference cannot account for performance of cochlear implant listeners. Spectral modulation depth and electrode separation were found to significantly affect spectral-ripple discrimination. The evidence supports the hypothesis that spectral-ripple discrimination involves integrating information from multiple channels. PMID:21973363
Effect of buck driver ripple on BER performance in visible light communication using LED
Deng, X.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Arulandu, K.; Zhou, G.; Wu, Y.
2015-01-01
This paper analyses the communication performance for visible light communication (VLC) with Manchester encoded amplitude modulation. In particular, it considers the ripple generated by the LED driver as an important noise contribution for VLC. The ripple depends on the oscillation frequency of the
New possibility of magnetic ripple shielding for specific heat measurements in hybrid magnets
Tarnawski, Z.; Meulen, der, H. van; Franse, J.J.M.; Kadowaki, K.; Veenhuizen, P.A.; Klaasse, J.
1988-01-01
A test of the new high Tc superconducting materials for magnetic ripple shielding has been carried out. It was found that magnetic ripples of 0.0009 T (peak-to-peak) in the frequency range below 20 kHz can be completely shielded in high static fields by a 2 mm thick Y-Ba-Cu-O screen.
Asynchronous ripple oscillations between left and right hippocampi during slow-wave sleep.
Villalobos, Claudio; Maldonado, Pedro E; Valdés, José L
2017-01-01
Spatial memory, among many other brain processes, shows hemispheric lateralization. Most of the published evidence suggests that the right hippocampus plays a leading role in the manipulation of spatial information. Concurrently in the hippocampus, memory consolidation during sleep periods is one of the key steps in the formation of newly acquired spatial memory traces. One of the most characteristic oscillatory patterns in the hippocampus are sharp-wave ripple (SWR) complexes. Within this complex, fast-field oscillations or ripples have been demonstrated to be instrumental in the memory consolidation process. Since these ripples are relevant for the consolidation of memory traces associated with spatial navigation, and this process appears to be lateralized, we hypothesize that ripple events between both hippocampi would exhibit different temporal dynamics. We tested this idea by using a modified "split-hyperdrive" that allows us to record simultaneous LFPs from both right and left hippocampi of Sprague-Dawley rats during sleep. We detected individual events and found that during sleep periods these ripples exhibited a different occurrence patterns between hemispheres. Most ripple events were synchronous between intra- rather than inter-hemispherical recordings, suggesting that ripples in the hippocampus are independently generated and locally propagated within a specific hemisphere. In this study, we propose the ripples' lack of synchrony between left and right hippocampi as the putative physiological mechanism underlying lateralization of spatial memory.
Won, Jong Ho; Jones, Gary L; Drennan, Ward R; Jameyson, Elyse M; Rubinstein, Jay T
2011-10-01
Spectral-ripple discrimination has been used widely for psychoacoustical studies in normal-hearing, hearing-impaired, and cochlear implant listeners. The present study investigated the perceptual mechanism for spectral-ripple discrimination in cochlear implant listeners. The main goal of this study was to determine whether cochlear implant listeners use a local intensity cue or global spectral shape for spectral-ripple discrimination. The effect of electrode separation on spectral-ripple discrimination was also evaluated. Results showed that it is highly unlikely that cochlear implant listeners depend on a local intensity cue for spectral-ripple discrimination. A phenomenological model of spectral-ripple discrimination, as an "ideal observer," showed that a perceptual mechanism based on discrimination of a single intensity difference cannot account for performance of cochlear implant listeners. Spectral modulation depth and electrode separation were found to significantly affect spectral-ripple discrimination. The evidence supports the hypothesis that spectral-ripple discrimination involves integrating information from multiple channels. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Sparse learning of stochastic dynamical equations
Boninsegna, Lorenzo; Nüske, Feliks; Clementi, Cecilia
2018-06-01
With the rapid increase of available data for complex systems, there is great interest in the extraction of physically relevant information from massive datasets. Recently, a framework called Sparse Identification of Nonlinear Dynamics (SINDy) has been introduced to identify the governing equations of dynamical systems from simulation data. In this study, we extend SINDy to stochastic dynamical systems which are frequently used to model biophysical processes. We prove the asymptotic correctness of stochastic SINDy in the infinite data limit, both in the original and projected variables. We discuss algorithms to solve the sparse regression problem arising from the practical implementation of SINDy and show that cross validation is an essential tool to determine the right level of sparsity. We demonstrate the proposed methodology on two test systems, namely, the diffusion in a one-dimensional potential and the projected dynamics of a two-dimensional diffusion process.
Analytical Assessment for Transient Stability Under Stochastic Continuous Disturbances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ju, Ping [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Li, Hongyu [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Gan, Chun [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Liu, Yong [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Yu, Yiping [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Liu, Yilu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
2017-06-28
Here, with the growing integration of renewable power generation, plug-in electric vehicles, and other sources of uncertainty, increasing stochastic continuous disturbances are brought to power systems. The impact of stochastic continuous disturbances on power system transient stability attracts significant attention. To address this problem, this paper proposes an analytical assessment method for transient stability of multi-machine power systems under stochastic continuous disturbances. In the proposed method, a probability measure of transient stability is presented and analytically solved by stochastic averaging. Compared with the conventional method (Monte Carlo simulation), the proposed method is many orders of magnitude faster, which makes it very attractive in practice when many plans for transient stability must be compared or when transient stability must be analyzed quickly. Also, it is found that the evolution of system energy over time is almost a simple diffusion process by the proposed method, which explains the impact mechanism of stochastic continuous disturbances on transient stability in theory.
Computational studies of the effect of magnetic field ''ripple'' on neutral beam heating of ZEPHYR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lister, G.G.; Gruber, O.
1981-01-01
The results of computations to estimate the heating efficiency of neutral injection in the proposed ZEPHYR experiment are presented. A suitably modified version of the Monte-Carlo neutral deposition and orbit following code FREYA was used for these calculations, in which particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of toroidal field ripple. We find that the ripple associated with the preliminary design of the experiment (+-6%) would result in intolerable energy losses due to ''ripple trapping'' of the fast ions produced by the neutral beam and insufficient heating of the central plasma. The necessary conditions for ignition can be obtained with a total heating power of 25 MW provided the ripple can be reduced to +-1%, in which case energy losses could be kept below 30%. These results are compatible with those found from transport code calculations of the losses to be expected due to ripple enhanced thermal conduction in the plasma
High speed non-latching squid binary ripple counter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silver, A.H.; Phillips, R.R.; Sandell, R.D.
1985-01-01
High speed, single flux quantum (SFQ) binary scalers are important components in superconducting analog-to-digital converters (ADC). This paper reviews the concept for a SQUID ADC and the design of an SFQ binary ripple counter, and reports the simulation of key components, and fabrication and performance of non-latching SQUID scalers and SFQ binary ripple counters. The SQUIDs were fabricated with Nb/Nb 2 O 5 /PbIn junctions and interconnected by monolithic superconducting transmission lines and isolation resistors. Each SQUID functioned as a bistable flip-flop with the input connected to the center of the device and the output across one junction. All junctions were critically damped to optimize the pulse response. Operation was verified by observing the dc I-V curves of successive SQUIDs driven by a cw pulse train generated on the same chip. Each SQUID exhibited constant-voltage current steps at 1/2 the voltage of the preceding device as expected from the Josephson voltage-to-frequency relation. Steps were observed only for the same voltage polarity of successive devices and for proper phase bias of the SQUID. Binary frequency division was recorded up to 40GHz for devices designed to operate to 28GHz
Permanent magnet working point ripple in synchronous generators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan Sjökvist
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnets (PMs are today widely used in electrical machines of all sorts. With their increase in popularity, the amount of research has increased as well. In this study, the magnetic flux density ripple of the working point of the PMs in a 100 kW PM synchronous generator has been investigated for three different load cases: no load, AC load, and DC load. The PMs will be subjected to a shift in working point as a consequence of the characteristics of the electrical loading. This study is based on finite element method simulations where the ripple of the magnetic flux density in the PMs was recorded at three positions within a PM. The slot harmonic of 7.5 times the electrical frequency (f(el was present in the results for all load cases, but mainly at the surface of the PM, as expected. Results showed an unexpected harmonic of 1.5 f(el, assumed to be an undertone of the slot harmonics. The 6f(el harmonic for the DC load case was significantly higher than for the AC load case and is caused by the current fluctuation during passive rectification. For the studied machine, the added harmonics in the magnetic field due to passive rectification are less than the slot-related harmonics.
Ion flow ripples in the Earth's plasma sheet
De Spiegeleer, Alexandre; Hamrin, Maria; Pitkänen, Timo; Norqvist, Patrik; Mann, Ingrid
2016-04-01
For a long time, magnetotail flows were considered rather smooth and laminar, and primarily dominated by a simple convection flow pattern. However, in the early 90's, high speed bursty bulk flows (BBFs) were discovered and found to commonly perturb the underlying convection flows. In addition, there are other disturbances complicating the magnetotail flow pattern. Instabilities such as the Kelvin-Helmholz instability and the kink instability can cause different types of magnetic field oscillations, such as field line resonances. It is expected that ions will follow these oscillations if the typical time and length scales are larger than the gyroperiod and gyroradius of the ions. Though low-velocity sloshing and ripple disturbances of the average magnetotail convection flows have been observed, their connection with magnetic field oscillations is not fully understood. Furthermore, when studying BFFs, these "Ion Flow Ripples" (IFRs) are often neglected, dismissed as noise or can even erroneously be identified as BBFs. It is therefore of utter importance to find out and understand the role of IFRs in magnetotail dynamics. In a statistical investigation, we use several years of Cluster plasma sheet data to study the low-speed flows in the magnetotail. We investigate different types of IFRs, study their occurrence, and discuss their possible causes.
Stochastic analytic regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, J.
1984-07-01
Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)
Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lüscher, Martin
2015-01-01
A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.
Gottwald, G.A.; Crommelin, D.T.; Franzke, C.L.E.; Franzke, C.L.E.; O'Kane, T.J.
2017-01-01
In this chapter we review stochastic modelling methods in climate science. First we provide a conceptual framework for stochastic modelling of deterministic dynamical systems based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism. The Mori-Zwanzig equations contain a Markov term, a memory term and a term suggestive of
Meyer, Joerg M.
2018-01-01
The contrary of stochastic independence splits up into two cases: pairs of events being favourable or being unfavourable. Examples show that both notions have quite unexpected properties, some of them being opposite to intuition. For example, transitivity does not hold. Stochastic dependence is also useful to explain cases of Simpson's paradox.
Wave-induced ripple development in mixed clay-sand substrates
Wu, Xuxu; Parsons, Daniel; Baas, Jaco H.; Mouazé, Dominique; McLelland, Stuart; Amoudry, Laurent; Eggenhuisen, Jorris; Cartigny, Matthieu; Ruessink, Gerben
2016-04-01
This paper reports on a series of experiments that aim to provide a fuller understanding of ripple development within clay-sand mixture substrates under oscillatory flow conditions. The work was conducted in the Total Environment Simulator at the University of Hull and constituted 6 separate runs, in which 5 runs were conducted under identical sets of regular waves (an additional run was conducted under irregular waves, but is not discussed in present paper). The bed content was systematically varied in its composition ranging from a pure sand bed through to a bed comprising 7.4% clay. A series of state-of-the-art measurements were employed to quantify interactions of near-bed hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and turbulence over rippled beds formed by wave action, during and after, each run. The experimental results demonstrate the significant influence of the amount of cohesive clay materials in the substrate on ripple evolution under waves. Most importantly, addition of clay in the bed dramatically slowed down the rate of ripple development and evolution. The equilibrium time of each run increased exponentially from 30 minutes under the control conditions of a pure sand bed, rising to ~350 minutes for the bed with the highest fraction of clay. The paper discusses the slower ripple growth rates with higher cohesive fractions, via an influence on critical shear, but highlights that the end equilibrium size of ripples is found to be independent of increasing substrate clay fraction. The suspended particles mass (SPM) concentration indicates that clay particles were suspended and winnowed by wave action. Additionally, laser granulometry of the final substrates verified that ripple crests were composed of pure sand layers that were absent at ripple troughs, reflecting a relatively higher winnowing efficiency at wave ripples crest. The winnowing process and its efficiency is inexorably linked to wave ripple development and evolution. The implications of the results
Stochastic quantization and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumpf, H.
1984-01-01
We give a preliminary account of the application of stochastic quantization to the gravitational field. We start in Section I from Nelson's formulation of quantum mechanics as Newtonian stochastic mechanics and only then introduce the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme on which all the later discussion will be based. In Section II we present a generalization of the scheme that is applicable to fields in physical (i.e. Lorentzian) space-time and treat the free linearized gravitational field in this manner. The most remarkable result of this is the noncausal propagation of conformal gravitons. Moreover the concept of stochastic gauge-fixing is introduced and a complete discussion of all the covariant gauges is given. A special symmetry relating two classes of covariant gauges is exhibited. Finally Section III contains some preliminary remarks on full nonlinear gravity. In particular we argue that in contrast to gauge fields the stochastic gravitational field cannot be transformed to a Gaussian process. (Author)
Greenwood, Priscilla E
2016-01-01
This book describes a large number of open problems in the theory of stochastic neural systems, with the aim of enticing probabilists to work on them. This includes problems arising from stochastic models of individual neurons as well as those arising from stochastic models of the activities of small and large networks of interconnected neurons. The necessary neuroscience background to these problems is outlined within the text, so readers can grasp the context in which they arise. This book will be useful for graduate students and instructors providing material and references for applying probability to stochastic neuron modeling. Methods and results are presented, but the emphasis is on questions where additional stochastic analysis may contribute neuroscience insight. An extensive bibliography is included. Dr. Priscilla E. Greenwood is a Professor Emerita in the Department of Mathematics at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Lawrence M. Ward is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Brain...
Some remarks on stochastic collective oscillations in ECRIS plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovanivsky, K.S.
1993-08-01
It is proposed that the thermal fluctuations in plasmas in general and in ECRIS plasmas in particular create rather strong stochastic electrical fields affecting both confinement and heating of an ECRIS plasma. The amplitude, range and characteristic frequency of the stochastic fields as well as the perpendicular diffusion coefficient and the upper density limit for the mirror confinement are determined on the level of the approximate evaluations. Some aspects of the ECRIS plasma's peculiarities due to the stochastic electrical fields are discussed. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs
Efficient Estimating Functions for Stochastic Differential Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt
The overall topic of this thesis is approximate martingale estimating function-based estimationfor solutions of stochastic differential equations, sampled at high frequency. Focuslies on the asymptotic properties of the estimators. The first part of the thesis deals with diffusions observed over...... a fixed time interval. Rate optimal and effcient estimators areobtained for a one-dimensional diffusion parameter. Stable convergence in distribution isused to achieve a practically applicable Gaussian limit distribution for suitably normalisedestimators. In a simulation example, the limit distributions...... multidimensional parameter. Conditions for rate optimality and effciency of estimatorsof drift-jump and diffusion parameters are given in some special cases. Theseconditions are found to extend the pre-existing conditions applicable to continuous diffusions,and impose much stronger requirements on the estimating...
Davies-Venn, Evelyn; Nelson, Peggy; Souza, Pamela
2015-07-01
Some listeners with hearing loss show poor speech recognition scores in spite of using amplification that optimizes audibility. Beyond audibility, studies have suggested that suprathreshold abilities such as spectral and temporal processing may explain differences in amplified speech recognition scores. A variety of different methods has been used to measure spectral processing. However, the relationship between spectral processing and speech recognition is still inconclusive. This study evaluated the relationship between spectral processing and speech recognition in listeners with normal hearing and with hearing loss. Narrowband spectral resolution was assessed using auditory filter bandwidths estimated from simultaneous notched-noise masking. Broadband spectral processing was measured using the spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) task and the spectral ripple depth detection (SMD) task. Three different measures were used to assess unamplified and amplified speech recognition in quiet and noise. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that SMD at 2.0 cycles per octave (cpo) significantly predicted speech scores for amplified and unamplified speech in quiet and noise. Commonality analyses revealed that SMD at 2.0 cpo combined with SRD and equivalent rectangular bandwidth measures to explain most of the variance captured by the regression model. Results suggest that SMD and SRD may be promising clinical tools for diagnostic evaluation and predicting amplification outcomes.
Davies-Venn, Evelyn; Nelson, Peggy; Souza, Pamela
2015-01-01
Some listeners with hearing loss show poor speech recognition scores in spite of using amplification that optimizes audibility. Beyond audibility, studies have suggested that suprathreshold abilities such as spectral and temporal processing may explain differences in amplified speech recognition scores. A variety of different methods has been used to measure spectral processing. However, the relationship between spectral processing and speech recognition is still inconclusive. This study evaluated the relationship between spectral processing and speech recognition in listeners with normal hearing and with hearing loss. Narrowband spectral resolution was assessed using auditory filter bandwidths estimated from simultaneous notched-noise masking. Broadband spectral processing was measured using the spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) task and the spectral ripple depth detection (SMD) task. Three different measures were used to assess unamplified and amplified speech recognition in quiet and noise. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that SMD at 2.0 cycles per octave (cpo) significantly predicted speech scores for amplified and unamplified speech in quiet and noise. Commonality analyses revealed that SMD at 2.0 cpo combined with SRD and equivalent rectangular bandwidth measures to explain most of the variance captured by the regression model. Results suggest that SMD and SRD may be promising clinical tools for diagnostic evaluation and predicting amplification outcomes. PMID:26233047
Edge plasma physics modifications due to magnetic ripple in RFX-mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scarin, P.; Agostini, M.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Ciaccio, G.; De Masi, G.; Spizzo, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.
2015-01-01
The edge of the RFX-mod (R = 2 m, a = 0.46 m) Reversed Field Pinch is characterized by weak magnetic chaos affecting ion and electron diffusion. Edge particle transport is strongly influenced by a toroidal asymmetry caused by magnetic islands. An ambipolar radial electric field ensures local neutrality and possesses the same symmetry as the parent magnetic ripple: the result is the modulation of the perpendicular flow, with a slowing-down at the island X-point. In this paper we present a complete statistical analysis, over a large database of RFX-mod discharges, of the edge properties as they are modified by the magnetic topology: the plasma wall footprint follows the helical shape of the dominant central mode (m/n = 1/7), with an increase of H α emission and electron density corresponding to the O-point of the inner magnetic island. Edge turbulence is modified by the magnetic topology, being generated in the O-point region and damped near the X-point
Goyal, Meetika; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu; Ojha, Sunil
2018-05-01
Temporal variations in nano-scale surface morphology generated on Polypropylene (PP) substrates utilizing 40 keV oblique argon ion beam have been presented. Due to controlled variation of crucial beam parameters i.e. ion incidence angle and erosion time, formation of ripple patterns and further its transition into dot nanostructures have been realized. Experimental investigations have been supported by evaluation of Bradley and Harper (B-H) coefficients estimated using SRIM (The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) simulations. Roughness of pristine target surfaces has been accredited to be a crucial factor behind the early time evolution of nano-scale patterns over the polymeric surface. Study of Power spectral density (PSD) spectra reveals that smoothing mechanism switch from ballistic drift to ion enhanced surface diffusion (ESD) which can be the most probable cause for such morphological transition under given experimental conditions. Compositional analysis and depth profiling of argon ion irradiated specimens using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) has also been correlated with the AFM findings.
Herbert, Christopher; Alexander, Jan; Martinez De Alvaro, Maria
2015-01-01
Back-flow ripples are bedforms created within the lee-side eddy of a larger bedform with migration directions opposed or oblique to that of the host bedform. In the flume experiments described in this article, back-flow ripples formed in the trough downstream of a unit bar and changed with mean flow velocity; varying from small incipient back-flow ripples at low velocities, to well-formed back-flow ripples with greater velocity, to rapidly migrating transient back-flow ripples formed at the g...
Stochastic effects in hybrid inflation
Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent
2012-02-01
Hybrid inflation is a two-field model where inflation ends due to an instability. In the neighborhood of the instability point, the potential is very flat and the quantum fluctuations dominate over the classical motion of the inflaton and waterfall fields. In this article, we study this regime in the framework of stochastic inflation. We numerically solve the two coupled Langevin equations controlling the evolution of the fields and compute the probability distributions of the total number of e-folds and of the inflation exit point. Then, we discuss the physical consequences of our results, in particular, the question of how the quantum diffusion can affect the observable predictions of hybrid inflation.
Stochastic control with rough paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diehl, Joscha; Friz, Peter K.; Gassiat, Paul
2017-01-01
We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).
Stochastic control with rough paths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)
2017-04-15
We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).
Sequential stochastic optimization
Cairoli, Renzo
1996-01-01
Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ondarza R, R.; Boyd, T.J.M.
2000-01-01
High-order harmonic emission from the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with super-critical plasmas characterized by a rippled density profile at the vacuum-plasma interface has been observed from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A plasma simulation box several laser wavelengths in extent was prepared with a rippled density of a fraction of a laser wavelength. Emission spectra at the very initial stage of the interaction were recorded with spectral characteristics dissimilar to those previously reported in the literature. The reflected light spectra were characterized by a strong emission at the plasma line and by a series of harmonics at multiples of the ripple frequency. Harmonic spectra were obtained for different values of the plasma ripple frequency. In all cases the harmonics were emitted at the precise multiple harmonic number of the ripple frequency. Another important feature apparent from the simulations was that the emission peaks appeared to havea complex structure as compared with those for unrippled plasmas. For the cases when the plasma was rippled the peaks that corresponded to the multiples of the rippled density typically showed a double peak for the first few harmonics. The reflected emission plots for the main laser pulse showed strong emission at the plasma frequency and at multiples of that frequency as reported by the authors in the literature. (Author)
Effect of ripple loads on sustained-load cracking in titanium alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pao, P.S.; Meyn, D.A.; Bayles, R.A.; Feng, C.R.; Yoder, G.R.
1995-01-01
In the present paper, the authors have extended their study on the effect of the ripple loads on the sustained-load cracking (SLC) behavior of two titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V (an α-β alloy) and Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (a β-α alloy), in an ambient air environment. The methodology which has been used successfully to treat ripple effects on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is employed again to address the influence of ripple loads on sustained-load cracking. Ripple loads can significantly reduce the apparent sustained load cracking resistance of titanium alloys in a relatively benign environment such as ambient air. For a ripple-load amplitude equal to 5% of the sustained load, the ripple-load cracking thresholds (K IRLC ) of beta-annealed Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-15V-3Cr-3al-3Sn are less than half of the respective sustained-load cracking thresholds (K ISLC ). The extent of ripple-load degradation for these alloys in ambient air -- relative to K ISLC , were found comparable to those observed in a much more aggressive 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution
Seasonal and local time variability of ripples from airglow imager observations in US and Japan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Yue
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Ripples as seen in airglow imagers are small wavy structures with short horizontal wavelengths (<15 km. Ripples are thought to form as the result of local instabilities, which are believed to occur when the amplitude of gravity waves becomes large enough. We have investigated ripple formation based on years of airglow imager observations located at Fort Collins, Colorado (41° N, 105° W and Misato Observatory, Japan (34° N, 135° E/Shigaraki MU Observatory (35° N, 136° E. Na temperature-wind lidar observations are employed to detect convective and dynamic instabilities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT region over Fort Collins, Colorado. Seasonal variation of the ripple occurrence in Colorado is compared to that of the lidar-measured instability. The occurrence frequency of ripples varies semiannually, with maxima occurring during solstices and minima during equinoxes in both Colorado and Japan. However, the probability of convective and dynamic instabilities varies annually with a peak in Colorado winter. The seasonal variation of the occurrence frequency of ripples correlates with that of the gravity wave variances in the MLT. Ripple occurrence over Colorado also shows strong local time dependence, but it bears little resemblance to the local time dependence of instability probability.
Anderson, Elizabeth S; Nelson, David A; Kreft, Heather; Nelson, Peggy B; Oxenham, Andrew J
2011-07-01
Spectral ripple discrimination thresholds were measured in 15 cochlear-implant users with broadband (350-5600 Hz) and octave-band noise stimuli. The results were compared with spatial tuning curve (STC) bandwidths previously obtained from the same subjects. Spatial tuning curve bandwidths did not correlate significantly with broadband spectral ripple discrimination thresholds but did correlate significantly with ripple discrimination thresholds when the rippled noise was confined to an octave-wide passband, centered on the STC's probe electrode frequency allocation. Ripple discrimination thresholds were also measured for octave-band stimuli in four contiguous octaves, with center frequencies from 500 Hz to 4000 Hz. Substantial variations in thresholds with center frequency were found in individuals, but no general trends of increasing or decreasing resolution from apex to base were observed in the pooled data. Neither ripple nor STC measures correlated consistently with speech measures in noise and quiet in the sample of subjects in this study. Overall, the results suggest that spectral ripple discrimination measures provide a reasonable measure of spectral resolution that correlates well with more direct, but more time-consuming, measures of spectral resolution, but that such measures do not always provide a clear and robust predictor of performance in speech perception tasks. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Aivar, Paloma; Valero, Manuel; Bellistri, Elisa; Menendez de la Prida, Liset
2014-02-19
Hippocampal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are prominent in physiological and pathological conditions. During physiological ripples (100-200 Hz), few pyramidal cells fire together coordinated by rhythmic inhibitory potentials. In the epileptic hippocampus, fast ripples (>200 Hz) reflect population spikes (PSs) from clusters of bursting cells, but HFOs in the ripple and the fast ripple range are vastly intermixed. What is the meaning of this frequency range? What determines the expression of different HFOs? Here, we used different concentrations of Ca(2+) in a physiological range (1-3 mM) to record local field potentials and single cells in hippocampal slices from normal rats. Surprisingly, we found that this sole manipulation results in the emergence of two forms of HFOs reminiscent of ripples and fast ripples recorded in vivo from normal and epileptic rats, respectively. We scrutinized the cellular correlates and mechanisms underlying the emergence of these two forms of HFOs by combining multisite, single-cell and paired-cell recordings in slices prepared from a rat reporter line that facilitates identification of GABAergic cells. We found a major effect of extracellular Ca(2+) in modulating intrinsic excitability and disynaptic inhibition, two critical factors shaping network dynamics. Moreover, locally modulating the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration in an in vivo environment had a similar effect on disynaptic inhibition, pyramidal cell excitability, and ripple dynamics. Therefore, the HFO frequency band reflects a range of firing dynamics of hippocampal networks.
Indirect Inference for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Moment Expansions
Ballesio, Marco
2016-01-06
We provide an indirect inference method to estimate the parameters of timehomogeneous scalar diffusion and jump diffusion processes. We obtain a system of ODEs that approximate the time evolution of the first two moments of the process by the approximation of the stochastic model applying a second order Taylor expansion of the SDE s infinitesimal generator in the Dynkin s formula. This method allows a simple and efficient procedure to infer the parameters of such stochastic processes given the data by the maximization of the likelihood of an approximating Gaussian process described by the two moments equations. Finally, we perform numerical experiments for two datasets arising from organic and inorganic fouling deposition phenomena.
The Ripple Effect: Citation Chain Reactions of a Nobel Prize
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faber Frandsen, Tove; Nicolaisen, Jeppe
2013-01-01
This paper explores the possible citation chain reactions of a Nobel Prize using the mathematician Robert J. Aumann as a case example. The results show that the award of the Nobel Prize in 2005 affected not only the citations to his work, but also affected the citations to the references in his s...... citation network. The effect is discussed using innovation decision process theory as a point of departure to identify the factors that created a bandwagon effect leading to the reported observations....... scientific oeuvre. The results indicate that the spillover effect is almost as powerful as the effect itself. We are consequently able to document a ripple effect in which the awarding of the Nobel Prize ignites a citation chain reaction to Aumann's scientific ouvre and to the references in its nearest...
The Ripple Pond: Enabling Spiking Networks to See
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed eAfshar
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We present the biologically inspired Ripple Pond Network (RPN, a simply connected spiking neural network which performs a transformation converting two dimensional images to one dimensional temporal patterns suitable for recognition by temporal coding learning and memory networks. The RPN has been developed as a hardware solution linking previously implemented neuromorphic vision and memory structures such as frameless vision sensors and neuromorphic temporal coding spiking neural networks. Working together such systems are potentially capable of delivering end-to-end high-speed, low-power and low-resolution recognition for mobile and autonomous applications where slow, highly sophisticated and power hungry signal processing solutions are ineffective. Key aspects in the proposed approach include utilising the spatial properties of physically embedded neural networks and propagating waves of activity therein for information processing, using dimensional collapse of imagery information into amenable temporal patterns and the use of asynchronous frames for information binding.
The ripple pond: enabling spiking networks to see.
Afshar, Saeed; Cohen, Gregory K; Wang, Runchun M; Van Schaik, André; Tapson, Jonathan; Lehmann, Torsten; Hamilton, Tara J
2013-01-01
We present the biologically inspired Ripple Pond Network (RPN), a simply connected spiking neural network which performs a transformation converting two dimensional images to one dimensional temporal patterns (TP) suitable for recognition by temporal coding learning and memory networks. The RPN has been developed as a hardware solution linking previously implemented neuromorphic vision and memory structures such as frameless vision sensors and neuromorphic temporal coding spiking neural networks. Working together such systems are potentially capable of delivering end-to-end high-speed, low-power and low-resolution recognition for mobile and autonomous applications where slow, highly sophisticated and power hungry signal processing solutions are ineffective. Key aspects in the proposed approach include utilizing the spatial properties of physically embedded neural networks and propagating waves of activity therein for information processing, using dimensional collapse of imagery information into amenable TP and the use of asynchronous frames for information binding.
Emulating porphyrins with a rippled multivacancy graphene system
Mombrú, Dominique; Faccio, Ricardo; Mombrú, Alvaro W.
2018-04-01
The interaction between a complex porphyrin-like system formed by an iron atom and multivacant graphene layer and O2, CO and CO2 molecules is studied, using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The multivacancy graphene system used for this study, consists in the removal of a 1,4-dimethybenzene-like moiety, in a 6 × 6 supercell. This removal and the structural optimization subsequently performed, yield to a biaxial vacancy, where the location of an iron atom embedded in it, lead to a system with resemblance to iron-porphyrin systems. This similar structure could be used to form complexes where gas molecules are allowed to interact with these iron-octavacant graphene systems. The study focuses on the structure of the system and the net magnetic moment for different gas molecules: O2, CO2 and CO. Rippling in the vacant graphene is enhanced through this interaction.
Scully, Malcolm; Trowbridge, John; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Jones, Katie R.; Traykovski, Peter A.
2018-01-01
Direct covariance observations of the mean flow Reynolds stress and sonar images of the seafloor collected on a wave‐exposed inner continental shelf demonstrate that the drag exerted by the seabed on the overlying flow is consistent with boundary layer models for wave‐current interaction, provided that the orientation and anisotropy of the bed roughness are appropriately quantified. Large spatial and temporal variations in drag result from nonequilibrium ripple dynamics, ripple anisotropy, and the orientation of the ripples relative to the current. At a location in coarse sand characterized by large two‐dimensional orbital ripples, the observed drag shows a strong dependence on the relative orientation of the mean current to the ripple crests. At a contrasting location in fine sand, where more isotropic sub‐orbital ripples are observed, the sensitivity of the current to the orientation of the ripples is reduced. Further, at the coarse site under conditions when the currents are parallel to the ripple crests and the wave orbital diameter is smaller than the wavelength of the relic orbital ripples, the flow becomes hydraulically smooth. This transition is not observed at the fine site, where the observed wave orbital diameter is always greater than the wavelength of the observed sub‐orbital ripples. Paradoxically, the dominant along‐shelf flows often experience lower drag at the coarse site than at the fine site, despite the larger ripples, highlighting the complex dynamics controlling drag in wave‐exposed environments with heterogeneous roughness.
Weiss, Shennan A; Orosz, Iren; Salamon, Noriko; Moy, Stephanie; Wei, Linqing; Van ’t Klooster, Maryse A; Knight, Robert T; Harper, Ronald M; Bragin, Anatol; Fried, Itzhak; Engel, Jerome; Staba, Richard J
2016-01-01
Objective Ripples (80–150 Hz) recorded from clinical macroelectrodes have been shown to be an accurate biomarker of epileptogenic brain tissue. We investigated coupling between epileptiform spike phase and ripple amplitude to better understand the mechanisms that generate this type of pathological ripple (pRipple) event. Methods We quantified phase amplitude coupling (PAC) between epileptiform EEG spike phase and ripple amplitude recorded from intracranial depth macroelectrodes during episodes of sleep in 12 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PAC was determined by 1) a phasor transform that corresponds to the strength and rate of ripples coupled with spikes, and a 2) ripple-triggered average to measure the strength, morphology, and spectral frequency of the modulating and modulated signals. Coupling strength was evaluated in relation to recording sites within and outside the seizure onset zone (SOZ). Results Both the phasor transform and ripple-triggered averaging methods showed ripple amplitude was often robustly coupled with epileptiform EEG spike phase. Coupling was more regularly found inside than outside the SOZ, and coupling strength correlated with the likelihood a macroelectrode’s location was within the SOZ (pripples coupled with EEG spikes inside the SOZ to rates of coupled ripples in non-SOZ was greater than the ratio of rates of ripples on spikes detected irrespective of coupling (pripple amplitude (pripple spectral frequency (pripple amplitude. The changes in excitability reflected as epileptiform spikes may also cause clusters of pathologically interconnected bursting neurons to grow and synchronize into aberrantly large neuronal assemblies. PMID:27723936
Surface ripple evolution by argon ion irradiation in polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goyal, Meetika; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu
2016-01-01
In this report, an attempt has been made to investigate the morphological evolution of nanoscale surface ripples on aliphatic (polypropylene, PP) and aromatic (polyethylene terephthalate, PET) polymeric substrates irradiated with 50 keV Ar"+ ions. The specimens were sputtered at off normal incidence of 30° with 5 × 10"1"6 Ar"+ cm"−"2. The topographical features and structural behavior of the specimens were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy techniques, respectively. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter simulations were performed to calculate sputtering yield of irradiated PP and PET polymers. Sputtering yield of carbon atoms has been found to be smaller for PP (0.40) as compared to PET (0.73), which is attributed to the different structures of two polymers. AFM analysis demonstrates the evolution of ripple like features with amplitude (2.50 nm) and wavelength (690 nm) on PET while that of lower amplitude (1.50 nm) and higher wavelength (980 nm) on PP specimen. The disorder parameter (Urbach energy) has been found to increase significantly from 0.30 eV to 1.67 eV in case of PP as compared to a lesser increase from 0.35 eV to 0.72 eV in case of PET as revealed by UV-Visible characterization. A mutual correlation between ion beam sputtering induced topographical variations with that of enhancement in the disorder parameter of the specimens has been discussed.
FLOC: Field Line and Orbit Code for the study of ripple beam injection into tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fowler, R. H.; Lee, D. K.; Gaffney, P. W.; Rome, J. A.
1978-06-01
The computer code described is used to study ripple beam injection into a tokamak plasma. The collisionless guiding center equations of motion are integrated to find the orbits of single particles in realistic magnetic fields for ripple injection. In order to determine if the ripple is detrimental to the plasma, the magnetic flux surfaces are constructed by integration of the field line equations. The numerical techniques are described, and use of the code is outlined. A program listing is provided, and the results of sample cases are presented.
Advanced RF-KO slow-extraction method for the reduction of spill ripple
Noda, K; Shibuya, S; Uesugi, T; Muramatsu, M; Kanazawa, M; Takada, E; Yamada, S
2002-01-01
Two advanced RF-knockout (RF-KO) slow-extraction methods have been developed at HIMAC in order to reduce the spill ripple for accurate heavy-ion cancer therapy: the dual frequency modulation (FM) method and the separated function method. As a result of simulations and experiments, it was verified that the spill ripple could be considerably reduced using these advanced methods, compared with the ordinary RF-KO method. The dual FM method and the separated function method bring about a low spill ripple within standard deviations of around 25% and of 15% during beam extraction within around 2 s, respectively, which are in good agreement with the simulation results.
Adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple improves the closed loop system performance significantly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, A.S.
1998-01-01
The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of LLRF control system for LEDA. The authors propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and a control law which is based on PID control and adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple. The control law reduces the effect of the deterministic cathode ripple that is due to high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points
Online high voltage power supply ripple estimation and feedforward in LEDA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, T.
1999-01-01
The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of LLRF control system for LEDA. They propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and a control law which is based on PID control and adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple. The control law reduces the effect of the deterministic cathode ripple that is due to high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chason, Eric; Shenoy, Vivek
2013-01-22
Self-organized pattern formation enables the creation of nanoscale surface structures over large areas based on fundamental physical processes rather than an applied template. Low energy ion bombardment is one such method that induces the spontaneous formation of a wide variety of interesting morphological features (e.g., sputter ripples and/or quantum dots). This program focused on the processes controlling sputter ripple formation and the kinetics controlling the evolution of surfaces and nanostructures in high flux environments. This was done by using systematic, quantitative experiments to measure ripple formation under a variety of processing conditions coupled with modeling to interpret the results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. R. Mousavi-Aghdam
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new design to reduce torque ripple in Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM. Although SRM possesses many advantages in terms of motor structure, it suffers from large torque ripple that causes problems such as vibration and acoustic noise. The paper describes new rotor and stator pole shapes with a non-uniform air gap profile to reduce torque ripple while retaining its average value. An optimization using fuzzy strategy is successfully performed after sensitivity analysis. The two dimensional (2-D finite element method (FEM results, have demonstrated validity of the proposed new design.
Magnetic ripple and the modeling of lower-hybrid current drive in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peysson, Y.; Arslanbekov, R.; Basiuk, V.; Carrasco, J.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Bizarro, J.P.
1996-01-01
Using ray-tracing, a detailed investigation of the lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation in presence of toroidal magnetic field ripple is presented. By coupling ray tracing with a one-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck code, simulations of LH experiments have been performed for the Tore Supra tokamak. Taking into account magnetic ripple in LH simulations, a better agreement is found between numerical predictions and experimental observations, such as non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission, current profile, ripple-induced power losses in local magnetic mirrors, when plasma conditions correspond to the ' 'few passes' regime. (author)
FLOC: Field Line and Orbit Code for the study of ripple beam injection into tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, R.H.; Lee, D.K.; Gaffney, P.W.; Rome, J.A.
1978-06-01
The computer code described is used to study ripple beam injection into a tokamak plasma. The collisionless guiding center equations of motion are integrated to find the orbits of single particles in realistic magnetic fields for ripple injection. In order to determine if the ripple is detrimental to the plasma, the magnetic flux surfaces are constructed by integration of the field line equations. The numerical techniques are described, and use of the code is outlined. A program listing is provided, and the results of sample cases are presented
The wave plus current flow over vortex ripples at an arbitrary angle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Faraci, C
2003-01-01
This work concerns the wave plus current flow over a sand bed covered by vortex ripples, with the current and the waves coming from different angles. Experiments were performed in a basin, where current and waves were perpendicular, in order to determine the conditions (current strength) leading...... to a regular ripple pattern formation. Numerical simulations were conducted changing the direction between the waves and the current from 0degrees to 90degrees and the ratio between the current strength and the wave orbital velocity from 0.2 to 1.5. Close to the bed, the current aligns parallel to the ripple...
Pattern dynamics of vortex ripples in sand: Nonlinear modeling and experimental validation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Abel, M.; Krug, J.
2002-01-01
Vortex ripples in sand are studied experimentally in a one-dimensional setup with periodic boundary conditions. The nonlinear evolution, far from the onset of instability, is analyzed in the framework of a simple model developed for homogeneous patterns. The interaction function describing the mass...... transport between neighboring ripples is extracted from experimental runs using a recently proposed method for data analysis, and the predictions of the model are compared to the experiment. An analytic explanation of the wavelength selection mechanism in the model is provided, and the width of the stable...... band of ripples is measured....
Stochastic processes inference theory
Rao, Malempati M
2014-01-01
This is the revised and enlarged 2nd edition of the authors’ original text, which was intended to be a modest complement to Grenander's fundamental memoir on stochastic processes and related inference theory. The present volume gives a substantial account of regression analysis, both for stochastic processes and measures, and includes recent material on Ridge regression with some unexpected applications, for example in econometrics. The first three chapters can be used for a quarter or semester graduate course on inference on stochastic processes. The remaining chapters provide more advanced material on stochastic analysis suitable for graduate seminars and discussions, leading to dissertation or research work. In general, the book will be of interest to researchers in probability theory, mathematical statistics and electrical and information theory.
Introduction to stochastic calculus
Karandikar, Rajeeva L
2018-01-01
This book sheds new light on stochastic calculus, the branch of mathematics that is most widely applied in financial engineering and mathematical finance. The first book to introduce pathwise formulae for the stochastic integral, it provides a simple but rigorous treatment of the subject, including a range of advanced topics. The book discusses in-depth topics such as quadratic variation, Ito formula, and Emery topology. The authors briefly address continuous semi-martingales to obtain growth estimates and study solution of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) by using the technique of random time change. Later, by using Metivier–Pellumail inequality, the solutions to SDEs driven by general semi-martingales are discussed. The connection of the theory with mathematical finance is briefly discussed and the book has extensive treatment on the representation of martingales as stochastic integrals and a second fundamental theorem of asset pricing. Intended for undergraduate- and beginning graduate-level stud...
Doberkat, Ernst-Erich
2009-01-01
Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.
Approximating Preemptive Stochastic Scheduling
Megow Nicole; Vredeveld Tjark
2009-01-01
We present constant approximative policies for preemptive stochastic scheduling. We derive policies with a guaranteed performance ratio of 2 for scheduling jobs with release dates on identical parallel machines subject to minimizing the sum of weighted completion times. Our policies as well as their analysis apply also to the recently introduced more general model of stochastic online scheduling. The performance guarantee we give matches the best result known for the corresponding determinist...
The stochastic goodwill problem
Marinelli, Carlo
2003-01-01
Stochastic control problems related to optimal advertising under uncertainty are considered. In particular, we determine the optimal strategies for the problem of maximizing the utility of goodwill at launch time and minimizing the disutility of a stream of advertising costs that extends until the launch time for some classes of stochastic perturbations of the classical Nerlove-Arrow dynamics. We also consider some generalizations such as problems with constrained budget and with discretionar...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hueffel, H.
1990-01-01
After a brief review of the BRST formalism and of the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization method we introduce the BRST stochastic quantization scheme. It allows the second quantization of constrained Hamiltonian systems in a manifestly gauge symmetry preserving way. The examples of the relativistic particle, the spinning particle and the bosonic string are worked out in detail. The paper is closed by a discussion on the interacting field theory associated to the relativistic point particle system. 58 refs. (Author)
Derivation of the Schroedinger equation from stochastic mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallstrom, T.C.
1988-01-01
The thesis is divided into four largely independent chapters. The first three chapters treat mathematical problems in the theory of stochastic mechanics. The fourth chapter deals with stochastic mechanisms as a physical theory and shows that the Schroedinger equation cannot be derived from existing formulations of stochastic mechanics, as had previously been believed. Since the drift coefficients of stochastic mechanical diffusions are undefined on the nodes, or zeros of the density, an important problem has been to show that the sample paths stay away from the nodes. In Chapter 1, it is shown that for a smooth wavefunction, the closest approach to the nodes can be bounded solely in terms of the time-integrated energy. The ergodic properties of stochastic mechanical diffusions are greatly complicated by the tendency of the particles to avoid the nodes. In Chapter 2, it is shown that a sufficient condition for a stationary process to be ergodic is that there exist positive t and c such that for all x and y, p t (x,y) > cp(y), and this result is applied to show that the set of spin-1/2 diffusions is uniformly ergodic. Nelson has conjectured that in the limit as the particle's moment of inertia I goes to zero, the projections of the Bopp-Haag-Dankel diffusions onto IR 3 converge to a Markovian limit process. This conjecture is proved for the spin-1/2 case in Chapter 3, and the limit process identified as the diffusion naturally associated with the solution to the regular Pauli equation. In Chapter 4 it is shown that the general solution of the stochastic Newton equation does not correspond to a solution of the Schroedinger equation
Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael
We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...... proposed simulation method for one-dimensional bridges to the mulit-variate setting. First a method of simulating approzimate, but often very accurate, diffusion bridges is proposed. These approximate bridges are used as proposal for easily implementable MCMC algorithms that produce exact diffusion bridges...
Stochastic inflation in phase space: is slow roll a stochastic attractor?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grain, Julien [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, CNRS, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bt. 121, Orsay, F-91405 (France); Vennin, Vincent, E-mail: julien.grain@ias.u-psud.fr, E-mail: vincent.vennin@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO13FX (United Kingdom)
2017-05-01
An appealing feature of inflationary cosmology is the presence of a phase-space attractor, ''slow roll'', which washes out the dependence on initial field velocities. We investigate the robustness of this property under backreaction from quantum fluctuations using the stochastic inflation formalism in the phase-space approach. A Hamiltonian formulation of stochastic inflation is presented, where it is shown that the coarse-graining procedure—where wavelengths smaller than the Hubble radius are integrated out—preserves the canonical structure of free fields. This means that different sets of canonical variables give rise to the same probability distribution which clarifies the literature with respect to this issue. The role played by the quantum-to-classical transition is also analysed and is shown to constrain the coarse-graining scale. In the case of free fields, we find that quantum diffusion is aligned in phase space with the slow-roll direction. This implies that the classical slow-roll attractor is immune to stochastic effects and thus generalises to a stochastic attractor regardless of initial conditions, with a relaxation time at least as short as in the classical system. For non-test fields or for test fields with non-linear self interactions however, quantum diffusion and the classical slow-roll flow are misaligned. We derive a condition on the coarse-graining scale so that observational corrections from this misalignment are negligible at leading order in slow roll.
The role of stochasticity in sawtooth oscillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichtenberg, A.J.; Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.
1991-08-01
In this paper we have demonstrated that stochastization of field lines, resulting from the interaction of the fundamental m/n=1/1 helical mode with other periodicities, plays an important role in sawtooth oscillations. The time scale for the stochastic temperature diffusion has been determined. It was shown to be sufficiently fast to account for the fast sawtooth crash, and is generally shorter than the time scales for the redistribution of current. The enhancement of the electron and ion viscosity, arising from the stochastic field lines, has been calculated. The enhanced electron viscosity always leads to an initial increase in the growth rate of the mode; the enhanced ion viscosity can ultimately lead to mode stabilization before a complete temperature redistribution or flux reconnection has occurred. A dynamical model has been introduced to calculate the path of the sawtooth oscillation through a parameter space of shear and amplitude of the helical perturbation. The stochastic trigger to the enhanced growth rate and the stabilization by the ion viscosity are also included in the mode. A reasonable prescription for the flux reconnection at the end of the growth phase allows us to determine the initial q-value for the successive sawtooth ramps. (J.P.N.)
Stochasticity and superadiabaticity in radiofrequency plasma heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1979-04-01
In a plasma subject to radiofrequency fields, it is only the resonant particles - comprising just a minor portion of the total velocity distribution - which are strongly affected. Under near-fusion conditions, thermalization by Coulomb collisions is slow, and noncollisional stochasticity can play an important role in reshaping f(v). It is found that the common rf interactions, including Landau, cyclotron and transit-time damping, can be fitted in a unified manner by a simple two-step one-parameter (epsilon) mapping which can display collision-free stochastic or adiabatic (also called superadiabatic) behavior, depending on the choice of epsilon. The effect on the evolution of the space averaged f (x,v,t) is reasonably well described by a pseudo-stochastic diffusion function, D/sub PS/(v,epsilon) which is the quasilinear diffusion coefficient but with appropriate widening of the delta-function spikes. Coulomb collisions, leading to D/sub Coul/(v) which may be added and directly compared to D/sub PS/(v,epsilon), are introduced by Langevin terms in the mapping equations
Control of surface ripple amplitude in ion beam sputtered polycrystalline cobalt films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fabrica de Armas, Toledo 45071 (Spain); Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real 13071 (Spain)
2011-02-15
We have grown both polycrystalline and partially textured cobalt films by magnetron sputter deposition in the range of thickness (50-200 nm). Kinetic roughening of the growing film leads to a controlled rms surface roughness values (1-6 nm) increasing with the as-grown film thickness. Ion erosion of a low energy 1 keV Ar+ beam at glancing incidence (80{sup o}) on the cobalt film changes the surface morphology to a ripple pattern of nanometric wavelength. The wavelength evolution at relatively low fluency is strongly dependent on the initial surface topography (a wavelength selection mechanism hereby confirmed in polycrystalline rough surfaces and based on the shadowing instability). At sufficiently large fluency, the ripple wavelength steadily increases on a coarsening regime and does not recall the virgin surface morphology. Remarkably, the use of a rough virgin surface makes the ripple amplitude in the final pattern can be controllably increased without affecting the ripple wavelength.
Plasma waves generated by rippled magnetically focused electron beams surrounded by tenuous plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuperman, S.; Petran, F.
1982-01-01
This chapter investigates the electrostatic instability and the corresponding unstable wave spectrum of magnetically focused neutralized rippled electron beams under spacelike conditions. Topics considered include general equations and equilibrium, the derivation of the dispersion relation, and the solution of the dispersion relation (long wavelength perturbations, short wavelength perturbations, the rippled beam). The results indicate that in the long wavelength limit two types of instability (extending over different frequency ranges) exist. An instability of the beam-plasma type occurs due to the interaction between the beam electrons and the surrounding plasm electrons at the beam-plasma interface. A parametric type instability is produced by the coupling of a fast forward wave and a fast backward wave due to the rippling (modulation) of the beam. It is demonstrated that in the short wavelength limit, surface waves which are stable for the laminar beam may become unstable in the rippled beam case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jassby, D.L.; Sheffield, G.V.; Towner, H.H.; Weissenburger, D.W.
1976-10-01
The neutral-beam energy required for adequate penetration of tokamak plasmas of high opacity can be reduced by a large factor if the beam is injected vertically into a region of large TF (toroidal-field) ripple. Energetic ions are trapped in local magnetic wells and drift vertically toward the midplane (z = 0). If the ripple is made very small on the opposite side of the midplane, drifting ions are detrapped and thermalized in the central plasma region. This paper discusses design considerations for establishing the required vertically asymmetric ripple. Examples are given of special TF-coil configurations, and of the use of auxiliary coil windings to create the prescribed ripple profiles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)
2015-02-15
Magnetic islands are externally produced by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in toroidal plasmas. Spontaneous annihilation of RMP-induced magnetic islands called self-healing has been observed in helical systems. A possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by helical ripple-induced neoclassical flows, which give rise to neoclassical viscous torques. In this study, effective helical ripple rates in multi-helicity helical systems are revisited, and a multi-helicity effect on the self-healing is investigated, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands. It is confirmed that effective helical ripple rates are sensitive to magnetic axis positions. It is newly found that self-healing thresholds also strongly depend on magnetic axis positions, which is due to dependence of neoclassical viscous torques on effective helical ripple rates.
Effect of toroidal field ripple on the formation of internal transport barriers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vries, P C de; Hawkes, N C; Challis, C D; Andrew, Y; Beurskens, M; Brix, M; Giroud, C; Zastrow, K-D [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E [EFDA-JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Litaudon, X [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/DFRC, CEA Cadarache, 13108, St Paul lez Durance (France); Brzozowski, J; Johnson, T [Association EURATOM-VR, Fusion Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Crombe, K [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Hobirk, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Loennroth, J; Salmi, A [Association Euratom-Tekes, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Tala, T [Association Euratom-Tekes, VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Yavorskij, V [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Association EURATOM-OEAW, University of Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: Peter.de.Vries@jet.uk
2008-06-15
The effect of a toroidal field (TF) ripple on the formation and performance of internal transport barriers (ITBs) has been studied in JET. It was found that the TF ripple had a profound effect on the toroidal plasma rotation. An increased TF ripple up to {delta} = 1% led to a lower rotation and reduced the rotational shear in the region where the ITBs were formed. ITB triggering events were observed in all cases and it is thought that the rotational shear may be less important for this process than, for example, the q-profile. However, the increase in the pressure gradient following the ITB trigger was reduced in discharges with a larger TF ripple and consequently a lower rotational shear. This suggests that toroidal rotation and its shear play a role in the growth of the ITB once it has been triggered.
A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Ruxi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Wang, Fei [ORNL; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Burgos, Rolando [ABB; Lai, Rixin [General Electric; Ning, Puqi [ORNL; Rajashekara, Kaushik [Rolls Royce
2011-01-01
It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.
Self-Assembled Gold Nano-Ripple Formation by Gas Cluster Ion Beam Bombardment.
Tilakaratne, Buddhi P; Chen, Quark Y; Chu, Wei-Kan
2017-09-08
In this study, we used a 30 keV argon cluster ion beam bombardment to investigate the dynamic processes during nano-ripple formation on gold surfaces. Atomic force microscope analysis shows that the gold surface has maximum roughness at an incident angle of 60° from the surface normal; moreover, at this angle, and for an applied fluence of 3 × 10 16 clusters/cm², the aspect ratio of the nano-ripple pattern is in the range of ~50%. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis reveals a formation of a surface gradient due to prolonged gas cluster ion bombardment, although the surface roughness remains consistent throughout the bombarded surface area. As a result, significant mass redistribution is triggered by gas cluster ion beam bombardment at room temperature. Where mass redistribution is responsible for nano-ripple formation, the surface erosion process refines the formed nano-ripple structures.
A high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved DC-DC converter for fuel cell applications.
Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters.
Efficient Estimation for Diffusions Sampled at High Frequency Over a Fixed Time Interval
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt; Sørensen, Michael
Parametric estimation for diffusion processes is considered for high frequency observations over a fixed time interval. The processes solve stochastic differential equations with an unknown parameter in the diffusion coefficient. We find easily verified conditions on approximate martingale...
Studies of suprathermal electron loss in the magnetic ripple of Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basiuk, V.; Lipa, M.; Martin, G.; Chantant, M.; Guilhem, D.; Imbeaux, F.; Mitteau, R.; Peysson, Y.; Surle, F.
2000-01-01
A new prototype of protection against fast electron trapped in the magnetic ripple was installed on Tore-Supra in 1998. It was designed to support the high flux of fast electron generated by lower hybrid in the CIEL project (up to 6 MW/m 2 ) during steady state experiments. So it is actively cooled and allows a direct measurement of the energy lost in the ripple. (author)
Surface magnetization and the role of pattern defects in various types of ripple patterned films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colino, Jose M; Arranz, Miguel A; Barbero, Antonio J; Bollero, A; Camarero, J
2016-01-01
We present a detailed study of the magnetic properties of cobalt films with wide-area nanoscale ripple patterns, either on their surface only, or on both the film surface and substrate interface. Angular dependence vectorial-resolved magnetometry measurements and magnetic force microscopy with in situ magnetic field have been used to determine the magnetization reversal processes to correlate them to the different patterned nanostructures. All the samples show well-defined uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with the anisotropy axis lying along the ripple direction. Atomic force microscopy of the different types of pattern reveals various pattern defects: height corrugation and breaks of continuity along the ripple direction, and overlapping ripples and Y-shaped defects (pattern dislocation) across the pattern. In spite of the existence of such customary defects of erosive-regime patterns, the type of low-amplitude, surface-patterned films remarkably behave as a macrospin over almost the whole in-plane angular range (340°), with negligible spread of anisotropy axis or energy. In turn, it is found that high-amplitude surface-patterned films develop an angular distribution of anisotropy axes, probably related to the large distribution of amplitudes in a pattern of short ripples, and a significant distribution of anisotropy fields ΔH k /H k up to 15%. On the other hand, films grow on pre-patterned silicon with a significantly longer mean ripple length, and develop a larger anisotropy energy with H k up to 110 mT, probably because of the double interface effect. The switching fields close to the magnetization easy axis of all types of ripple pattern are not well reproduced by the macrospin approximation, but the observed pattern defects seem to be not responsible for the domain wall pinning that occurs with the field applied along the ripple direction. (paper)
Simulation of Alpha Particles in Rotating Plasma Interacting with a Stationary Ripple
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-01-01
Superthermal ExB rotation can provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and enhanced confinement to axisymmetric mirrors. However, the rotation speed has been limited by phenomena at end electrodes. A new prediction is that rotation might instead be produced using a magnetic ripple and alpha particle kinetic energy, in an extension of the alpha channeling concept. The interaction of alpha particles with the ripple results in visually interesting and practically useful orbits.
Temperature-Controlled High-Speed AFM: Real-Time Observation of Ripple Phase Transitions.
Takahashi, Hirohide; Miyagi, Atsushi; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Scheuring, Simon
2016-11-01
With nanometer lateral and Angstrom vertical resolution, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has contributed unique data improving the understanding of lipid bilayers. Lipid bilayers are found in several different temperature-dependent states, termed phases; the main phases are solid and fluid phases. The transition temperature between solid and fluid phases is lipid composition specific. Under certain conditions some lipid bilayers adopt a so-called ripple phase, a structure where solid and fluid phase domains alternate with constant periodicity. Because of its narrow regime of existence and heterogeneity ripple phase and its transition dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, a temperature control device to high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to observe dynamics of phase transition from ripple phase to fluid phase reversibly in real time is developed and integrated. Based on HS-AFM imaging, the phase transition processes from ripple phase to fluid phase and from ripple phase to metastable ripple phase to fluid phase could be reversibly, phenomenologically, and quantitatively studied. The results here show phase transition hysteresis in fast cooling and heating processes, while both melting and condensation occur at 24.15 °C in quasi-steady state situation. A second metastable ripple phase with larger periodicity is formed at the ripple phase to fluid phase transition when the buffer contains Ca 2+ . The presented temperature-controlled HS-AFM is a new unique experimental system to observe dynamics of temperature-sensitive processes at the nanoscopic level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Anderson, Elizabeth S; Oxenham, Andrew J; Nelson, Peggy B; Nelson, David A
2012-12-01
Measures of spectral ripple resolution have become widely used psychophysical tools for assessing spectral resolution in cochlear-implant (CI) listeners. The objective of this study was to compare spectral ripple discrimination and detection in the same group of CI listeners. Ripple detection thresholds were measured over a range of ripple frequencies and were compared to spectral ripple discrimination thresholds previously obtained from the same CI listeners. The data showed that performance on the two measures was correlated, but that individual subjects' thresholds (at a constant spectral modulation depth) for the two tasks were not equivalent. In addition, spectral ripple detection was often found to be possible at higher rates than expected based on the available spectral cues, making it likely that temporal-envelope cues played a role at higher ripple rates. Finally, spectral ripple detection thresholds were compared to previously obtained speech-perception measures. Results confirmed earlier reports of a robust relationship between detection of widely spaced ripples and measures of speech recognition. In contrast, intensity difference limens for broadband noise did not correlate with spectral ripple detection measures, suggesting a dissociation between the ability to detect small changes in intensity across frequency and across time.
Long-time correlations in the stochastic regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karney, C.F.F.
1982-11-01
The phase space for Hamiltonians of two degrees of freedom is usually divided into stochastic and integrable components. Even when well into the stochastic regime, integrable orbits may surround small stable regions or islands. The effect of these islands on the correlation function for the stochastic trajectories is examined. Depending on the value of the parameter describing the rotation number for the elliptic fixed point at the center of the island, the long-time correlation function may decay as t -5 or exponentially, but more commonly it decays much more slowly (roughly as t -1 ). As a consequence these small islands may have a profound effect on the properties such as the diffusion coefficient, of the stochastic orbits
A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liwen Pan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge circuit suffers from ripple power pulsating at second-order line frequency, and a scheme of active ripple compensation circuit has been explored to solve this second-order ripple problem, in which a pair of power switches shared traction mode, a ripple energy storage capacitor, and an energy transfer inductor. Simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink validated the eligibility of the proposed topology. The integrated charger can work as a 70 kW motor drive circuit or a converter with an active ripple compensation circuit for 3 kW charging the battery. The impact of the proposed topology and control strategy on the integrated charger power losses, efficiency, power density, and thermal performance has also been analysed and simulated.
Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage λ
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dennehy John J
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible λ lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of λ lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.
Approximate models for broken clouds in stochastic radiative transfer theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doicu, Adrian; Efremenko, Dmitry S.; Loyola, Diego; Trautmann, Thomas
2014-01-01
This paper presents approximate models in stochastic radiative transfer theory. The independent column approximation and its modified version with a solar source computed in a full three-dimensional atmosphere are formulated in a stochastic framework and for arbitrary cloud statistics. The nth-order stochastic models describing the independent column approximations are equivalent to the nth-order stochastic models for the original radiance fields in which the gradient vectors are neglected. Fast approximate models are further derived on the basis of zeroth-order stochastic models and the independent column approximation. The so-called “internal mixing” models assume a combination of the optical properties of the cloud and the clear sky, while the “external mixing” models assume a combination of the radiances corresponding to completely overcast and clear skies. A consistent treatment of internal and external mixing models is provided, and a new parameterization of the closure coefficient in the effective thickness approximation is given. An efficient computation of the closure coefficient for internal mixing models, using a previously derived vector stochastic model as a reference, is also presented. Equipped with appropriate look-up tables for the closure coefficient, these models can easily be integrated into operational trace gas retrieval systems that exploit absorption features in the near-IR solar spectrum. - Highlights: • Independent column approximation in a stochastic setting. • Fast internal and external mixing models for total and diffuse radiances. • Efficient optimization of internal mixing models to match reference models
Reformulation of a stochastic action principle for irregular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Q.A.; Bangoup, S.; Dzangue, F.; Jeatsa, A.; Tsobnang, F.; Le Mehaute, A.
2009-01-01
A stochastic action principle for random dynamics is revisited. Numerical diffusion experiments are carried out to show that the diffusion path probability depends exponentially on the Lagrangian action A=∫ a b Ldt. This result is then used to derive the Shannon measure for path uncertainty. It is shown that the maximum entropy principle and the least action principle of classical mechanics can be unified into δA-bar=0 where the average is calculated over all possible paths of the stochastic motion between two configuration points a and b. It is argued that this action principle and the maximum entropy principle are a consequence of the mechanical equilibrium condition extended to the case of stochastic dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haran, O.; Shvarts, D.; Thieberger, R.
1998-01-01
Classical transport of neutral particles in a binary, scattering, stochastic media is discussed. It is assumed that the cross-sections of the constituent materials and their volume fractions are known. The inner structure of the media is stochastic, but there exist a statistical knowledge about the lump sizes, shapes and arrangement. The transmission through the composite media depends on the specific heterogeneous realization of the media. The current research focuses on the averaged transmission through an ensemble of realizations, frm which an effective cross-section for the media can be derived. The problem of one dimensional transport in stochastic media has been studied extensively [1]. In the one dimensional description of the problem, particles are transported along a line populated with alternating material segments of random lengths. The current work discusses transport in two-dimensional stochastic media. The phenomenon that is unique to the multi-dimensional description of the problem is obstacle bypassing. Obstacle bypassing tends to reduce the opacity of the media, thereby reducing its effective cross-section. The importance of this phenomenon depends on the manner in which the obstacles are arranged in the media. Results of transport simulations in multi-dimensional stochastic media are presented. Effective cross-sections derived from the simulations are compared against those obtained for the one-dimensional problem, and against those obtained from effective multi-dimensional models, which are partially based on a Markovian assumption
Parameter estimation in stochastic differential equations
Bishwal, Jaya P N
2008-01-01
Parameter estimation in stochastic differential equations and stochastic partial differential equations is the science, art and technology of modelling complex phenomena and making beautiful decisions. The subject has attracted researchers from several areas of mathematics and other related fields like economics and finance. This volume presents the estimation of the unknown parameters in the corresponding continuous models based on continuous and discrete observations and examines extensively maximum likelihood, minimum contrast and Bayesian methods. Useful because of the current availability of high frequency data is the study of refined asymptotic properties of several estimators when the observation time length is large and the observation time interval is small. Also space time white noise driven models, useful for spatial data, and more sophisticated non-Markovian and non-semimartingale models like fractional diffusions that model the long memory phenomena are examined in this volume.
Stochastic calculus for uncoupled continuous-time random walks.
Germano, Guido; Politi, Mauro; Scalas, Enrico; Schilling, René L
2009-06-01
The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) is a pure-jump stochastic process with several applications not only in physics but also in insurance, finance, and economics. A definition is given for a class of stochastic integrals driven by a CTRW, which includes the Itō and Stratonovich cases. An uncoupled CTRW with zero-mean jumps is a martingale. It is proved that, as a consequence of the martingale transform theorem, if the CTRW is a martingale, the Itō integral is a martingale too. It is shown how the definition of the stochastic integrals can be used to easily compute them by Monte Carlo simulation. The relations between a CTRW, its quadratic variation, its Stratonovich integral, and its Itō integral are highlighted by numerical calculations when the jumps in space of the CTRW have a symmetric Lévy alpha -stable distribution and its waiting times have a one-parameter Mittag-Leffler distribution. Remarkably, these distributions have fat tails and an unbounded quadratic variation. In the diffusive limit of vanishing scale parameters, the probability density of this kind of CTRW satisfies the space-time fractional diffusion equation (FDE) or more in general the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, which generalizes the standard diffusion equation, solved by the probability density of the Wiener process, and thus provides a phenomenologic model of anomalous diffusion. We also provide an analytic expression for the quadratic variation of the stochastic process described by the FDE and check it by Monte Carlo.
A Connection between Singular Stochastic Control and Optimal Stopping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espen Benth, Fred; Reikvam, Kristin
2003-01-01
We show that the value function of a singular stochastic control problem is equal to the integral of the value function of an associated optimal stopping problem. The connection is proved for a general class of diffusions using the method of viscosity solutions
Markov Stochastic Technique to Determine Galactic Cosmic Ray ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A new numerical model of particle propagation in the Galaxy has been developed, which allows the study of cosmic-ray production and propagation in 2D. The model has been used to solve cosmic ray diffusive transport equation with a complete network of nuclear interactions using the time backward Markov stochastic ...
Stochastic models for transport in a fluidized bed
Dehling, H.G; Hoffmann, A.C; Stuut, H.W.
1999-01-01
In this paper we study stochastic models for the transport of particles in a fluidized bed reactor and compute the associated residence time distribution (RTD). Our main model is basically a diffusion process in [0;A] with reflecting/absorbing boundary conditions, modified by allowing jumps to the
Travelling fronts in stochastic Stokes’ drifts
Blanchet, Adrien
2008-10-01
By analytical methods we study the large time properties of the solution of a simple one-dimensional model of stochastic Stokes\\' drift. Semi-explicit formulae allow us to characterize the behaviour of the solutions and compute global quantities such as the asymptotic speed of the center of mass or the effective diffusion coefficient. Using an equivalent tilted ratchet model, we observe that the speed of the center of mass converges exponentially to its limiting value. A diffuse, oscillating front attached to the center of mass appears. The description of the front is given using an asymptotic expansion. The asymptotic solution attracts all solutions at an algebraic rate which is determined by the effective diffusion coefficient. The proof relies on an entropy estimate based on homogenized logarithmic Sobolev inequalities. In the travelling frame, the macroscopic profile obeys to an isotropic diffusion. Compared with the original diffusion, diffusion is enhanced or reduced, depending on the regime. At least in the limit cases, the rate of convergence to the effective profile is always decreased. All these considerations allow us to define a notion of efficiency for coherent transport, characterized by a dimensionless number, which is illustrated on two simple examples of travelling potentials with a sinusoidal shape in the first case, and a sawtooth shape in the second case. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stochastic lattice model of synaptic membrane protein domains.
Li, Yiwei; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A
2017-05-01
Neurotransmitter receptor molecules, concentrated in synaptic membrane domains along with scaffolds and other kinds of proteins, are crucial for signal transmission across chemical synapses. In common with other membrane protein domains, synaptic domains are characterized by low protein copy numbers and protein crowding, with rapid stochastic turnover of individual molecules. We study here in detail a stochastic lattice model of the receptor-scaffold reaction-diffusion dynamics at synaptic domains that was found previously to capture, at the mean-field level, the self-assembly, stability, and characteristic size of synaptic domains observed in experiments. We show that our stochastic lattice model yields quantitative agreement with mean-field models of nonlinear diffusion in crowded membranes. Through a combination of analytic and numerical solutions of the master equation governing the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains, together with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we find substantial discrepancies between mean-field and stochastic models for the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains. Based on the reaction and diffusion properties of synaptic receptors and scaffolds suggested by previous experiments and mean-field calculations, we show that the stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of synaptic receptors and scaffolds provide a simple physical mechanism for collective fluctuations in synaptic domains, the molecular turnover observed at synaptic domains, key features of the observed single-molecule trajectories, and spatial heterogeneity in the effective rates at which receptors and scaffolds are recycled at the cell membrane. Our work sheds light on the physical mechanisms and principles linking the collective properties of membrane protein domains to the stochastic dynamics that rule their molecular components.
Stochastic optimization methods
Marti, Kurt
2005-01-01
Optimization problems arising in practice involve random parameters. For the computation of robust optimal solutions, i.e., optimal solutions being insensitive with respect to random parameter variations, deterministic substitute problems are needed. Based on the distribution of the random data, and using decision theoretical concepts, optimization problems under stochastic uncertainty are converted into deterministic substitute problems. Due to the occurring probabilities and expectations, approximative solution techniques must be applied. Deterministic and stochastic approximation methods and their analytical properties are provided: Taylor expansion, regression and response surface methods, probability inequalities, First Order Reliability Methods, convex approximation/deterministic descent directions/efficient points, stochastic approximation methods, differentiation of probability and mean value functions. Convergence results of the resulting iterative solution procedures are given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumpf, H.
1987-01-01
We begin with a naive application of the Parisi-Wu scheme to linearized gravity. This will lead into trouble as one peculiarity of the full theory, the indefiniteness of the Euclidean action, shows up already at this level. After discussing some proposals to overcome this problem, Minkowski space stochastic quantization will be introduced. This will still not result in an acceptable quantum theory of linearized gravity, as the Feynman propagator turns out to be non-causal. This defect will be remedied only after a careful analysis of general covariance in stochastic quantization has been performed. The analysis requires the notion of a metric on the manifold of metrics, and a natural candidate for this is singled out. With this a consistent stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity becomes possible. It is even possible, at least perturbatively, to return to the Euclidean regime. 25 refs. (Author)
Separable quadratic stochastic operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozikov, U.A.; Nazir, S.
2009-04-01
We consider quadratic stochastic operators, which are separable as a product of two linear operators. Depending on properties of these linear operators we classify the set of the separable quadratic stochastic operators: first class of constant operators, second class of linear and third class of nonlinear (separable) quadratic stochastic operators. Since the properties of operators from the first and second classes are well known, we mainly study the properties of the operators of the third class. We describe some Lyapunov functions of the operators and apply them to study ω-limit sets of the trajectories generated by the operators. We also compare our results with known results of the theory of quadratic operators and give some open problems. (author)
Stochastic cooling at Fermilab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marriner, J.
1986-08-01
The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system
TRANSIENT ANOMALOUS SUB-DIFFUSION ON BOUNDED DOMAINS
MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; NANE, ERKAN; VELLAISAMY, P.
2012-01-01
This paper develops strong solutions and stochastic solutions for the tempered fractional diffusion equation on bounded domains. First the eigenvalue problem for tempered fractional derivatives is solved. Then a separation of variables, and eigenfunction expansions in time and space, are used to write strong solutions. Finally, stochastic solutions are written in terms of an inverse subordinator.
IDENTIFIKASI PENYAKIT PADA TERUMBU KARANG MENGGUNAKAN RIPPLE DOWN RULES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agus Cahyo Nugroho
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Along with the development of technology, people developed a system that capable of adopting processes and human thinking as an expert system that contains specific knowledge so that everyone can use it to solve a specific problem, namely the diagnosis of coral reef disease. The purpose of this study is to develop an expert system for diagnosing coral reef disease in the form of websites using PHP with a MySQL database. Expert system for diagnosing coral reef disease problem is using Ripple Down Rules (RDR method has a goal to discover symptoms that appear in the form of questions that can diagnose the coral reef disease based on website. Web based expert system is able to recognize types of coral reef disease after consultation by answering a few questions that are displayed by the application of expert systems and can infer some types of coral reef disease. Data coral reef disease that already known adapt to rules which are made for matching the symptoms of coral reef disease.
Stochastic Feedforward Control Technique
Halyo, Nesim
1990-01-01
Class of commanded trajectories modeled as stochastic process. Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research and development program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center aimed at developing capabilities for increases in capacities of airports, safe and accurate flight in adverse weather conditions including shear, winds, avoidance of wake vortexes, and reduced consumption of fuel. Advances in techniques for design of modern controls and increased capabilities of digital flight computers coupled with accurate guidance information from Microwave Landing System (MLS). Stochastic feedforward control technique developed within context of ATOPS program.
Markov stochasticity coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-01-01
Markov dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental models of random motion between the states of a system of interest. Markov dynamics have diverse applications in many fields of science and engineering, and are particularly applicable in the context of random motion in networks. In this paper we present a two-dimensional gauging method of the randomness of Markov dynamics. The method–termed Markov Stochasticity Coordinates–is established, discussed, and exemplified. Also, the method is tweaked to quantify the stochasticity of the first-passage-times of Markov dynamics, and the socioeconomic equality and mobility in human societies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Maria
This thesis treats stochastic systems with switching dynamics. Models with these characteristics are studied from several perspectives. Initially in a simple framework given in the form of stochastic differential equations and, later, in an extended form which fits into the framework of sliding...... mode control. It is investigated how to understand and interpret solutions to models of switched systems, which are exposed to discontinuous dynamics and uncertainties (primarily) in the form of white noise. The goal is to gain knowledge about the performance of the system by interpreting the solution...
Stochastic dynamics and control
Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zaslavsky, George
2006-01-01
This book is a result of many years of author's research and teaching on random vibration and control. It was used as lecture notes for a graduate course. It provides a systematic review of theory of probability, stochastic processes, and stochastic calculus. The feedback control is also reviewed in the book. Random vibration analyses of SDOF, MDOF and continuous structural systems are presented in a pedagogical order. The application of the random vibration theory to reliability and fatigue analysis is also discussed. Recent research results on fatigue analysis of non-Gaussian stress proc
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Roux Presented at the International Conference on Correlation Optics 2013 Chernivtsi, Ukraine 18-20 September 2013 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa – p. 1/24 Contents ⊲ Defining Stochastic Singular Optics (SSO) ⊲ Tools of Stochastic... of vortices: topological charge ±1 (higher order are unstable). Positive and negative vortex densities np(x, y, z) and nn(x, y, z) ⊲ Vortex density: V = np + nn ⊲ Topological charge density: T = np − nn – p. 4/24 Subfields of SSO ⊲ Homogeneous, normally...
Foundations of stochastic analysis
Rao, M M; Lukacs, E
1981-01-01
Foundations of Stochastic Analysis deals with the foundations of the theory of Kolmogorov and Bochner and its impact on the growth of stochastic analysis. Topics covered range from conditional expectations and probabilities to projective and direct limits, as well as martingales and likelihood ratios. Abstract martingales and their applications are also discussed. Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the basic Kolmogorov-Bochner theorem, followed by a discussion on conditional expectations and probabilities containing several characterizations of operators and mea
Markov stochasticity coordinates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: iddo.eliazar@intel.com
2017-01-15
Markov dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental models of random motion between the states of a system of interest. Markov dynamics have diverse applications in many fields of science and engineering, and are particularly applicable in the context of random motion in networks. In this paper we present a two-dimensional gauging method of the randomness of Markov dynamics. The method–termed Markov Stochasticity Coordinates–is established, discussed, and exemplified. Also, the method is tweaked to quantify the stochasticity of the first-passage-times of Markov dynamics, and the socioeconomic equality and mobility in human societies.
Stochastic models, estimation, and control
Maybeck, Peter S
1982-01-01
This volume builds upon the foundations set in Volumes 1 and 2. Chapter 13 introduces the basic concepts of stochastic control and dynamic programming as the fundamental means of synthesizing optimal stochastic control laws.
Stochastic quantisation: theme and variation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klauder, J.R.; Kyoto Univ.
1987-01-01
The paper on stochastic quantisation is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. Stochastic quantisation reformulates Euclidean quantum field theory in the language of Langevin equations. The generalised free field is discussed from the viewpoint of stochastic quantisation. An artificial family of highly singular model theories wherein the space-time derivatives are dropped altogether is also examined. Finally a modified form of stochastic quantisation is considered. (U.K.)
Stochastic quantization of Proca field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, S.C.
1981-03-01
We discuss the complications that arise in the application of Nelson's stochastic quantization scheme to classical Proca field. One consistent way to obtain spin-one massive stochastic field is given. It is found that the result of Guerra et al on the connection between ground state stochastic field and the corresponding Euclidean-Markov field extends to the spin-one case. (author)
Stochastic Estimation via Polynomial Chaos
2015-10-01
AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2015-108 Stochastic Estimation via Polynomial Chaos Douglas V. Nance Air Force Research...COVERED (From - To) 20-04-2015 – 07-08-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Stochastic Estimation via Polynomial Chaos ...This expository report discusses fundamental aspects of the polynomial chaos method for representing the properties of second order stochastic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. Yadav
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The computation of bed load allows for the fact that only part of the shear stress is used for transport of sediments and some of the shear stress is wasted in overcoming the resistance due to bed forms therefore the total shear stress developed in the open channel requires correction in the form of correction factor called ripple factor. Different methods have been followed for correcting the actual shear stress in order to compute the sediment load. Correction factors are based on particular characteristics grain size of particle. In the present paper the ripple factor has been obtained for non uniform bed material considering the various variables like discharge, hydraulic mean depth, flow velocity, bed slope, average diameter of particle etc. by collecting the field data of Tapi river for 15 years for a particular gauging station. The ripple factor is obtained using Meyer Peter and Muller formula, Einstein Formula, Kalinske’s formula, Du Boy’s formula, Shield’s formula, Bagnold’s formula, average of six formulae and multiple regression analysis. The variation of ripple factor with particle Reynolds Number is studied. The ripple factor obtained by different approaches are further analyzed using Origin software and carrying out multiple regression on the 15 years of data with more than 10 parameters, ripple factor by multiple regression has been obtained. These values are further analysed and giving statistical mean to the parameters a relationship of power form has been developed. The ripple factor increases with the increase in the value of Particle Reynolds number. The large deviation is observed in case of Kalinske’s approach when compare with other approaches
Alvarado-Rojas, C; Huberfeld, G; Baulac, M; Clemenceau, S; Charpier, S; Miles, R; Menendez de la Prida, L; Le Van Quyen, M
2015-01-01
Transient high-frequency oscillations (150-600 Hz) in local field potential generated by human hippocampal and parahippocampal areas have been related to both physiological and pathological processes. The cellular basis and effects of normal and abnormal forms of high-frequency oscillations (HFO) has been controversial. Here, we searched for HFOs in slices of the subiculum prepared from human hippocampal tissue resected for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. HFOs occurred spontaneously in extracellular field potentials during interictal discharges (IID) and also during pharmacologically induced preictal discharges (PID) preceding ictal-like events. While most of these events might be considered pathological since they invaded the fast ripple band (>250 Hz), others were spectrally similar to physiological ripples (150-250 Hz). Do similar cellular mechanisms underly IID-ripples and PID-ripples? Are ripple-like oscillations a valid proxy of epileptogenesis in human TLE? With combined intra- or juxta-cellular and extracellular recordings, we showed that, despite overlapping spectral components, ripple-like IID and PID oscillations were associated with different cellular and synaptic mechanisms. IID-ripples were associated with rhythmic GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic potentials with moderate neuronal firing. In contrast, PID-ripples were associated with depolarizing synaptic inputs frequently reaching the threshold for bursting in most cells. Thus ripple-like oscillations (100-250 Hz) in the human epileptic hippocampus are associated with different mechanisms for synchrony reflecting distinct dynamic changes in inhibition and excitation during interictal and pre-ictal states. PMID:25448920
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Depireux, Didier A; Simon, Jonathan Z; Klein, David J; Shamma, Shihab A
1999-01-01
.... It is calculated here from the responses to elementary 'ripples,' a family of sounds with drifting, sinusoidal, spectral envelopes - the complex spectrotemporal envelope of any broadband, dynamic...
Lectures on Dynamics of Stochastic Systems
Klyatskin, Valery I
2010-01-01
Fluctuating parameters appear in a variety of physical systems and phenomena. They typically come either as random forces/sources, or advecting velocities, or media (material) parameters, like refraction index, conductivity, diffusivity, etc. Models naturally render to statistical description, where random processes and fields express the input parameters and solutions. The fundamental problem of stochastic dynamics is to identify the essential characteristics of system (its state and evolution), and relate those to the input parameters of the system and initial data. This book is a revised a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G
1983-12-01
Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)
Schrager, D.F.
2006-01-01
We propose a new model for stochastic mortality. The model is based on the literature on affine term structure models. It satisfies three important requirements for application in practice: analytical tractibility, clear interpretation of the factors and compatibility with financial option pricing
Composite stochastic processes
Kampen, N.G. van
Certain problems in physics and chemistry lead to the definition of a class of stochastic processes. Although they are not Markovian they can be treated explicitly to some extent. In particular, the probability distribution for large times can be found. It is shown to obey a master equation. This
Entropy Production in Stochastics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Demetris Koutsoyiannis
2017-10-01
Full Text Available While the modern definition of entropy is genuinely probabilistic, in entropy production the classical thermodynamic definition, as in heat transfer, is typically used. Here we explore the concept of entropy production within stochastics and, particularly, two forms of entropy production in logarithmic time, unconditionally (EPLT or conditionally on the past and present having been observed (CEPLT. We study the theoretical properties of both forms, in general and in application to a broad set of stochastic processes. A main question investigated, related to model identification and fitting from data, is how to estimate the entropy production from a time series. It turns out that there is a link of the EPLT with the climacogram, and of the CEPLT with two additional tools introduced here, namely the differenced climacogram and the climacospectrum. In particular, EPLT and CEPLT are related to slopes of log-log plots of these tools, with the asymptotic slopes at the tails being most important as they justify the emergence of scaling laws of second-order characteristics of stochastic processes. As a real-world application, we use an extraordinary long time series of turbulent velocity and show how a parsimonious stochastic model can be identified and fitted using the tools developed.
Stochastic modelling of turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse
previously been shown to be closely connected to the energy dissipation. The incorporation of the small scale dynamics into the spatial model opens the door to a fully fledged stochastic model of turbulence. Concerning the interaction of wind and wind turbine, a new method is proposed to extract wind turbine...
Research in Stochastic Processes.
1982-10-31
Office of Scientific Research Grant AFOSR F49620 82 C 0009 Period: 1 Noveber 1981 through 31 October 1982 Title: Research in Stochastic Processes Co...STA4ATIS CAMBANIS The work briefly described here was developed in connection with problems arising from and related to the statistical comunication
Stochastic Control - External Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
2005-01-01
This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...
Stochastic nonlinear beam equations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brzezniak, Z.; Maslowski, Bohdan; Seidler, Jan
2005-01-01
Roč. 132, č. 1 (2005), s. 119-149 ISSN 0178-8051 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stochastic beam equation * stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.896, year: 2005
Kemper, A; Nishino, T; Schadschneider, A; Zittartz, J
2003-01-01
We develop a new variant of the recently introduced stochastic transfer matrix DMRG which we call stochastic light-cone corner-transfer-matrix DMRG (LCTMRG). It is a numerical method to compute dynamic properties of one-dimensional stochastic processes. As suggested by its name, the LCTMRG is a modification of the corner-transfer-matrix DMRG, adjusted by an additional causality argument. As an example, two reaction-diffusion models, the diffusion-annihilation process and the branch-fusion process are studied and compared with exact data and Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the capability and accuracy of the new method. The number of possible Trotter steps of more than 10 sup 5 shows a considerable improvement on the old stochastic TMRG algorithm.
The ripple electromagnetic calculation: accuracy demand and possible responses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cocilovo, V.; Ramogida, G.; Formisano, A.; Martone, R.; Portone, A.; Roccella, M.; Roccella, R.
2006-01-01
Due to a number of causes (the finite number of toroidal field coils or the presence of concentrate blocks of magnetic materials, as the neutral beam shielding) the actual magnetic configuration in a Tokamak differs from the desired one. For example, a ripple is added to the ideal axisymmetric toroidal field, impacting the equilibrium and stability of the plasma column; as a further example the magnetic field out of plasma affects the operation of a number of critical components, included the diagnostic system and the neutral beam. Therefore the actual magnetic field has to be suitably calculated and his shape controlled within the required limits. Due to the complexity of its design, the problem is quite critical for the ITER project. In this paper the problem is discussed both from mathematical and numerical point of view. In particular, a complete formulation is proposed, taking into account both the presence of the non linear magnetic materials and the fully 3D geometry. Then the quality level requirements are discussed, included the accuracy of calculations and the spatial resolution. As a consequence, the numerical tools able to fulfil the quality needs while requiring reasonable computer burden are considered. In particular possible tools based on numerical FEM scheme are considered; in addition, in spite of the presence of non linear materials, the practical possibility to use Biot-Savart based approaches, as cross check tools, is also discussed. The paper also analyses the possible geometrical simplifications of the geometry able to make possible the actual calculation while guarantying the required accuracy. Finally the characteristics required for a correction system able to effectively counteract the magnetic field degradation are presented. Of course a number of examples will be also reported and commented. (author)
Dynamic and photometric evolutionary models of tidal tails and ripples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallin, J.F.
1989-01-01
An investigation into the causes of star formation in tidal tails has been conducted using a restricted three-body dynamical model in conjunction with a broad-band photometric evolutionary code. In these models, regions of compression form inside the disk and along the tidal tail and tidal bridge. The effects these density changes have on the colors of the tidal features are examined with a broad-band photometric evolutionary code. A spiral galaxy population is synthesized and the effects of modest changes in the star formation rate are explored. Limits on the density changes needed to make detectable changes in the colors are calculated using a Schmidt (1959) law. These models suggest that the blue colors and knotty features observed in the tidal features of some galaxies result from increased rates of star formation induced by tidally produced density increases. Limitations of this model are discussed along with photometric evolutionary models based on the density evolution in the tails. The Lynds and Toomre (1976) interpretation of ring galaxies as the natural result of a nearly head-on collision between a disk galaxy and a companion galaxy has become widely accepted. Similarly, Quinn's (1984) interpretation of the shells in elliptical galaxies as the aftermath of the cannibalization of a low-mass companion has been quite successful in accounting for the observations. Restricted three-body calculations of high inclination, low impact parameter encounters demonstrate that the shell-like ripples observed in a number of disk galaxies can also be produced as collisional artifacts from internal oscillations much as in ring galaxies
Turbulence and sediment transport over sand dunes and ripples
Bennis, A.; Le Bot, S.; lafite, R.; Bonneton, P.; Ardhuin, F.
2013-12-01
Several bedforms are present near to the surfzone of natural beaches. Dunes and ripples are frequently observed. Understanding the turbulence over these forms is essential for the sediment transport. The turbulent flow and the suspended sand particles interact with each other. At the moment, the modelling strategy for turbulence is still a challenge. According to the spatial scales, some different methods to model the turbulence are employed, in particular the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation). A hybrid method combining both RANS and LES is set up here. We have adapted this method, initially developed for atmospheric flow, to the oceanic flow. This new method is implemented inside the 3D hydrodynamic model, MARS 3D, which is forced by waves. LES is currently the best way to simulate turbulent flow but its higher cost prevents it from being used for large scale applications. So, here we use RANS near the bottom while LES is set elsewhere. It allows us minimize the computational cost and ensure a better accuracy of the results than with a fully RANS model. In the case of megaripples, the validation step was performed with two sets of field data (Sandy Duck'97 and Forsoms'13) but also with the data from Dune2D model which uses only RANS for turbulence. The main findings are: a) the vertical profiles of the velocity are similar throughout the data b) the turbulent kinetic energy, which was underestimated by Dune2D, is in line with the observations c) the concentration of the suspended sediment is simulated with a better accuracy than with Dune2D but this remains lower than the observations.
Serotonin dependent masking of hippocampal sharp wave ripples.
ul Haq, Rizwan; Anderson, Marlene L; Hollnagel, Jan-Oliver; Worschech, Franziska; Sherkheli, Muhammad Azahr; Behrens, Christoph J; Heinemann, Uwe
2016-02-01
Sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) are thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. By rapid replay of previously stored information during slow wave sleep and consummatory behavior, they result from the formation of neural ensembles during a learning period. Serotonin (5-HT), suggested to be able to modify SPW-Rs, can affect many neurons simultaneously by volume transmission and alter network functions in an orchestrated fashion. In acute slices from dorsal hippocampus, SPW-Rs can be induced by repeated high frequency stimulation that induces long-lasting LTP. We used this model to study SPW-R appearance and modulation by 5-HT. Although stimulation in presence of 5-HT permitted LTP induction, SPW-Rs were "masked"--but appeared after 5-HT wash-out. This SPW-R masking was dose dependent with 100 nM 5-HT being sufficient--if the 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor citalopram was present. Fenfluramine, a serotonin releaser, could also mask SPW-Rs. Masking was due to 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptor activation. Neither membrane potential nor membrane conductance changes in pyramidal cells caused SPW-R blockade since both remained unaffected by combining 5-HT and citalopram. Moreover, 10 and 30 μM 5-HT mediated SPW-R masking preceded neuronal hyperpolarization and involved reduced presynaptic transmitter release. 5-HT, as well as a 5-HT1A agonist, augmented paired pulse facilitation and affected the coefficient of variance. Spontaneous SPW-Rs in mice hippocampal slices were also masked by 5-HT and fenfluramine. While neuronal ensembles can acquire long lasting LTP during higher 5-HT levels, lower 5-HT levels enable neural ensembles to replay previously stored information and thereby permit memory consolidation memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.
2013-12-01
The hydrodynamics and seabed morphodynamics on the inner continental shelf and near shore environments have increasing relevance with continued development of near shore structures, offshore energy technologies and artificial reef construction. Characterizing the stresses on and response of the seabed near and around seabed objects will inform best practices for structural design, seabed mine and unexploded ordnance detection, and archaeological and benthic habitat studies. As part of an ONR funded project, Delaware's Redbird Reef is being studied for object scour and sorted bedform morphodynamics (Trembanis et al., in press). Central to this study are the effects of large storm events, such as Hurricane Sandy, which have had significant impact on the seafloor. Previous studies of inner shelf bedform dynamics have typically focused on near bed currents and bed stressors (e.g. Trembanis et al., 2004), sorted bedforms (e.g. Green et al., 2004) and object scour (e.g. Quinn, 2006; Trembanis et al., 2007; Mayer et al., 2007), but our understanding of the direct effects of objects and object scour on bedform morphodynamics is still incomplete. With prominent sorted bedform ripple fields, the Delaware Redbird artificial reef site, composed of 997 former New York City subway cars, as well as various military vehicles, tugboats, barges and ballasted tires, has made an ideal study location (Raineault et al., 2013 and 2011). Acoustic mapping of the Redbird reef three days prior to Sandy and two days after the following nor'easter, captured the extensive effects of the storms to the site, while acoustic Doppler current profilers characterized both the waves and bottom currents generated by the storm events. Results of the post-Sandy survey support the theory of sorted bedform evolution proposed by Murray and Thieler (2004). Acoustic imagery analysis indicates a highly energized and mobile bed during the storms, leading to self-organization of bedforms and creation of large
Energy-separated sequential irradiation for ripple pattern tailoring on silicon surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Tanuj [Department of Physics, Central University of Haryana, Jant-Pali, Mahendergarh 1123029 (India); Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishbharadwaj@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Central University of Rajasthan, Kishangarh 305801 (India); Panchal, Vandana [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Sahoo, P.K. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)
2015-12-01
Highlights: • A new process for controlling the near-surface amorphization of ripples on Si surfaces. • Ripples generation by 100 KeV Ar{sup +} and amorphization control by 60 KeV Ar{sup +} irradiation. • Advantage of energy-separated irradiation demonstrated by detailed RBS and AFM studies. • Relevant mechanism is presented on the basis of DAMAGE and SIMNRA simulations. • Key role of solid flow towards the amorphous/crystalline interface is demonstrated. - Abstract: Nanoscale ripples on semiconductor surfaces have potential application in biosensing and optoelectronics, but suffer from uncontrolled surface-amorphization when prepared by conventional ion-irradiation methods. A two-step, energy-separated sequential-irradiation enables simultaneous control of surface-amorphization and ripple-dimensions on Si(1 0 0). The evolution of ripples using 100 keV Ar{sup +} bombardment and further tuning of the patterns using a sequential-irradiation by 60 keV Ar{sup +} at different fluences are demonstrated. The advantage of this approach as opposed to increased fluence at the same energy is clarified by atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy investigations. The explanation of our findings is presented through DAMAGE simulation.
Dune and ripple migration along Curiosity's traverse in Gale Crater on Mars
Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.; Ewing, R. C.; Fenton, L. K.; Michaels, T. I.; Ayoub, F.; Bridges, N. T.
2013-12-01
The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, has safely landed near a 35-km-long dark dune field in Gale Crater on Mars. This dune field lies along Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp). Here we present new evidence of aeolian activity and further estimate wind directions within the dune field through analysis of ripple migration with the COSI-Corr technique, which provides precise measurements of ripple displacement at the sub-pixel scale.The area analyzed is located ~10 km southwest of rover Curiosity's current position and ~4 km SW of its selected path through Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp) (Fig. 1a). Here barchan dunes with elongated horns and seif dunes coexist with more typical barchan and dome dunes (Fig. 1a, b), with slopes sculpted by two intersecting ripple crestline orientations trending at 45° and 330°. The range of dune types and ripple orientations indicate the dune field morphology is influenced by at least two winds from the NW and the NE. The direction of migration is toward the SW, suggesting the most recent sand transporting winds were from the NE (Fig. 1c). These results match previous predictions and can be used to forecast the wind conditions close to the entry point to Mt. Sharp. Fig. 1: a-b) Study area c) Ripple migration direction computed using the COSI-Corr technique
Hippocampal sharp wave/ripples during sleep for consolidation of associative memory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wiâm Ramadan
Full Text Available The beneficial effect of sleep on memory has been well-established by extensive research on humans, but the neurophysiological mechanisms remain a matter of speculation. This study addresses the hypothesis that the fast oscillations known as ripples recorded in the CA1 region of the hippocampus during slow wave sleep (SWS may provide a physiological substrate for long term memory consolidation. We trained rats in a spatial discrimination task to retrieve palatable reward in three fixed locations. Hippocampal local field potentials and cortical EEG were recorded for 2 h after each daily training session. There was an increase in ripple density during SWS after early training sessions, in both trained rats and in rats randomly rewarded for exploring the maze. In rats learning the place -reward association, there was a striking further significant increase in ripple density correlated with subsequent improvements in behavioral performance as the rat learned the spatial discrimination aspect of the task. The results corroborate others showing an experience-dependent increase in ripple activity and associated ensemble replay after exploratory activity, but in addition, for the first time, reveal a clear further increase in ripple activity related to associative learning based on spatial discrimination.
Adhesion modification of neural stem cells induced by nanoscale ripple patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedraz, P; Casado, S; Rodriguez, V; Ayuso-Sacido, A; Gnecco, E; Giordano, M C; Mongeot, F Buatier de
2016-01-01
We have studied the influence of anisotropic nanopatterns (ripples) on the adhesion and morphology of mouse neural stem cells (C17.2) on glass substrates using cell viability assay, optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The ripples were produced by defocused ion beam sputtering with inert Ar ions, which physically remove atoms from the surface at the energy of 800 eV. The ripple periodicity (∼200 nm) is comparable to the thickness of the cytoplasmatic microspikes (filopodia) which link the stem cells to the substrate. All methods show that the cell adhesion is significantly lowered compared to the same type of cells on flat glass surfaces. Furthermore, the AFM analysis reveals that the filopodia tend to be trapped parallel or perpendicular to the ripples, which limits the spreading of the stem cell on the rippled substrate. This opens the perspective of controlling the micro-adhesion of stem cells and the orientation of their filopodia by tuning the anisotropic substrate morphology without chemical reactions occurring at the surface. (paper)
Masciullo, Cecilia; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Böettger, Roman; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Cecchini, Marco
2017-10-12
Periodic ripples are a variety of anisotropic nanostructures that can be realized by ion beam irradiation on a wide range of solid surfaces. Only a few authors have investigated these surfaces for tuning the response of biological systems, probably because it is challenging to directly produce them in materials that well sustain long-term cellular cultures. Here, hierarchical rippled nanotopographies with a lateral periodicity of ∼300 nm are produced from a gold-irradiated germanium mold in polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a biocompatible polymer approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical applications, by a novel three-step embossing process. The effects of nano-ripples on Schwann Cells (SCs) are studied in view of their possible use for nerve-repair applications. The data demonstrate that nano-ripples can enhance short-term SC adhesion and proliferation (3-24 h after seeding), drive their actin cytoskeleton spatial organization and sustain long-term cell growth. Notably, SCs are oriented perpendicularly with respect to the nanopattern lines. These results provide information about the possible use of hierarchical nano-rippled elements for nerve-regeneration protocols.
Direct imaging of atomic-scale ripples in few-layer graphene.
Wang, Wei L; Bhandari, Sagar; Yi, Wei; Bell, David C; Westervelt, Robert; Kaxiras, Efthimios
2012-05-09
Graphene has been touted as the prototypical two-dimensional solid of extraordinary stability and strength. However, its very existence relies on out-of-plane ripples as predicted by theory and confirmed by experiments. Evidence of the intrinsic ripples has been reported in the form of broadened diffraction spots in reciprocal space, in which all spatial information is lost. Here we show direct real-space images of the ripples in a few-layer graphene (FLG) membrane resolved at the atomic scale using monochromated aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thickness of FLG amplifies the weak local effects of the ripples, resulting in spatially varying TEM contrast that is unique up to inversion symmetry. We compare the characteristic TEM contrast with simulated images based on accurate first-principles calculations of the scattering potential. Our results characterize the ripples in real space and suggest that such features are likely common in ultrathin materials, even in the nanometer-thickness range.
Diversity of sharp-wave–ripple LFP signatures reveals differentiated brain-wide dynamical events
Ramirez-Villegas, Juan F.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Besserve, Michel
2015-01-01
Sharp-wave–ripple (SPW-R) complexes are believed to mediate memory reactivation, transfer, and consolidation. However, their underlying neuronal dynamics at multiple scales remains poorly understood. Using concurrent hippocampal local field potential (LFP) recordings and functional MRI (fMRI), we study local changes in neuronal activity during SPW-R episodes and their brain-wide correlates. Analysis of the temporal alignment between SPW and ripple components reveals well-differentiated SPW-R subtypes in the CA1 LFP. SPW-R–triggered fMRI maps show that ripples aligned to the positive peak of their SPWs have enhanced neocortical metabolic up-regulation. In contrast, ripples occurring at the trough of their SPWs relate to weaker neocortical up-regulation and absent subcortical down-regulation, indicating differentiated involvement of neuromodulatory pathways in the ripple phenomenon mediated by long-range interactions. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for the existence of SPW-R subtypes with differentiated CA1 activity and metabolic correlates in related brain areas, possibly serving different memory functions. PMID:26540729
A ripple-spreading genetic algorithm for the aircraft sequencing problem.
Hu, Xiao-Bing; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A
2011-01-01
When genetic algorithms (GAs) are applied to combinatorial problems, permutation representations are usually adopted. As a result, such GAs are often confronted with feasibility and memory-efficiency problems. With the aircraft sequencing problem (ASP) as a study case, this paper reports on a novel binary-representation-based GA scheme for combinatorial problems. Unlike existing GAs for the ASP, which typically use permutation representations based on aircraft landing order, the new GA introduces a novel ripple-spreading model which transforms the original landing-order-based ASP solutions into value-based ones. In the new scheme, arriving aircraft are projected as points into an artificial space. A deterministic method inspired by the natural phenomenon of ripple-spreading on liquid surfaces is developed, which uses a few parameters as input to connect points on this space to form a landing sequence. A traditional GA, free of feasibility and memory-efficiency problems, can then be used to evolve the ripple-spreading related parameters in order to find an optimal sequence. Since the ripple-spreading model is the centerpiece of the new algorithm, it is called the ripple-spreading GA (RSGA). The advantages of the proposed RSGA are illustrated by extensive comparative studies for the case of the ASP.
Ripple artifact reduction using slice overlap in slice encoding for metal artifact correction.
den Harder, J Chiel; van Yperen, Gert H; Blume, Ulrike A; Bos, Clemens
2015-01-01
Multispectral imaging (MSI) significantly reduces metal artifacts. Yet, especially in techniques that use gradient selection, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), a residual ripple artifact may be prominent. Here, an analysis is presented of the ripple artifact and of slice overlap as an approach to reduce the artifact. The ripple artifact was analyzed theoretically to clarify its cause. Slice overlap, conceptually similar to spectral bin overlap in multi-acquisition with variable resonances image combination (MAVRIC), was achieved by reducing the selection gradient and, thus, increasing the slice profile width. Time domain simulations and phantom experiments were performed to validate the analyses and proposed solution. Discontinuities between slices are aggravated by signal displacement in the frequency encoding direction in areas with deviating B0. Specifically, it was demonstrated that ripple artifacts appear only where B0 varies both in-plane and through-plane. Simulations and phantom studies of metal implants confirmed the efficacy of slice overlap to reduce the artifact. The ripple artifact is an important limitation of gradient selection based MSI techniques, and can be understood using the presented simulations. At a scan-time penalty, slice overlap effectively addressed the artifact, thereby improving image quality near metal implants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Diversity of sharp-wave-ripple LFP signatures reveals differentiated brain-wide dynamical events.
Ramirez-Villegas, Juan F; Logothetis, Nikos K; Besserve, Michel
2015-11-17
Sharp-wave-ripple (SPW-R) complexes are believed to mediate memory reactivation, transfer, and consolidation. However, their underlying neuronal dynamics at multiple scales remains poorly understood. Using concurrent hippocampal local field potential (LFP) recordings and functional MRI (fMRI), we study local changes in neuronal activity during SPW-R episodes and their brain-wide correlates. Analysis of the temporal alignment between SPW and ripple components reveals well-differentiated SPW-R subtypes in the CA1 LFP. SPW-R-triggered fMRI maps show that ripples aligned to the positive peak of their SPWs have enhanced neocortical metabolic up-regulation. In contrast, ripples occurring at the trough of their SPWs relate to weaker neocortical up-regulation and absent subcortical down-regulation, indicating differentiated involvement of neuromodulatory pathways in the ripple phenomenon mediated by long-range interactions. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for the existence of SPW-R subtypes with differentiated CA1 activity and metabolic correlates in related brain areas, possibly serving different memory functions.
Deciphering the role of CA1 inhibitory circuits in sharp wave-ripple complexes.
Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Taxidis, Jiannis
2013-01-01
Sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) are population oscillatory patterns in hippocampal LFPs during deep sleep and immobility, involved in the replay of memories acquired during wakefulness. SWRs have been extensively studied, but their exact generation mechanism is still unknown. A computational model has suggested that fast perisomatic inhibition may generate the high frequency ripples (~200 Hz). Another model showed how replay of memories can be controlled by various classes of inhibitory interneurons targeting specific parts of pyramidal cells (PC) and firing at particular SWR phases. Optogenetic studies revealed new roles for interneuronal classes and rich dynamic interplays between them, shedding new light in their potential role in SWRs. Here, we integrate these findings in a conceptual model of how dendritic and somatic inhibition may collectively contribute to the SWR generation. We suggest that sharp wave excitation and basket cell (BC) recurrent inhibition synchronises BC spiking in ripple frequencies. This rhythm is imposed on bistratified cells which prevent pyramidal bursting. Axo-axonic and stratum lacunosum/moleculare interneurons are silenced by inhibitory inputs originating in the medial septum. PCs receiving rippling inhibition in both dendritic and perisomatic areas and excitation in their apical dendrites, exhibit sparse ripple phase-locked spiking.
Plasma diffusion in systems with disrupted magnetic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, D.K.; Pogutse, O.P.
1982-01-01
Plasma diffusion is analyzed in the case in which the system of magnetic surfaces is disrupted by a stochastic perturbation of the magnetic field. The diffusion coefficient is related to the statistical properties of the field. The statistical characteristics of the field are found when the magnetic surfaces near the separatrix are disrupted by an external perturbation. The diffusion coefficient is evaluated in the region in which the magnetic surfaces are disrupted. In this region the diffusion coefficient is of the Bohm form
Expressing stochastic unravellings using random evolution operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salgado, D; Sanchez-Gomez, J L
2002-01-01
We prove how the form of the most general invariant stochastic unravelling for Markovian (recently given in the literature by Wiseman and Diosi) and non-Markovian but Lindblad-type open quantum systems can be attained by imposing a single mathematical condition upon the random evolution operator of the system, namely a.s. trace preservation (a.s. stands for almost surely). The use of random operators ensures the complete positivity of the density operator evolution and characterizes the linear/non-linear character of the evolution in a straightforward way. It is also shown how three quantum stochastic evolution models - continuous spontaneous localization, quantum state diffusion and quantum mechanics with universal position localization - appear as concrete choices for the noise term of the evolution random operators are assumed. We finally conjecture how these operators may in the future be used in two different directions: both to connect quantum stochastic evolution models with random properties of space-time and to handle noisy quantum logical gates
Langevin diffusions on the torus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
García-Portugués, Eduardo; Sørensen, Michael; Mardia, Kanti V.
2018-01-01
We introduce stochastic models for continuous-time evolution of angles and develop their estimation. We focus on studying Langevin diffusions with stationary distributions equal to well-known distributions from directional statistics, since such diffusions can be regarded as toroidal analogues......) a likelihood based on the stationary distribution; (ii) toroidal adaptations of the Euler and Shoji–Ozaki pseudo-likelihoods; (iii) a likelihood based on a specific approximation to the transition density of the wrapped normal process. A simulation study compares, in dimensions one and two, the approximate...
Stochastic development regression on non-linear manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst
2017-01-01
We introduce a regression model for data on non-linear manifolds. The model describes the relation between a set of manifold valued observations, such as shapes of anatomical objects, and Euclidean explanatory variables. The approach is based on stochastic development of Euclidean diffusion...... processes to the manifold. Defining the data distribution as the transition distribution of the mapped stochastic process, parameters of the model, the non-linear analogue of design matrix and intercept, are found via maximum likelihood. The model is intrinsically related to the geometry encoded...
A generalization of Fenyes-Nelson stochastic model of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, M.
1979-01-01
It is shown that the stochastic model of Fenyes and Nelson can be generalized in such a way that the diffusion constant of the Markov theory becomes a free parameter. This extra freedom allows one to identify quantum mechanics with a class of Markov processes with diffusion constants varying from 0 to infinity. (Auth.)
Spontaneous transition to a stochastic state in a four-dimensional Yang-Mills quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semikhatov, A.M.
1983-01-01
The quantum expectation values in a four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory are represented in each topological sector as expectation values over the diffusion which develops in the ''fourth'' Euclidean time. The Langevin equations of this diffusion are stochastic duality equations in the A 4 = 0 gauge
Computational study of ammonia adsorption on the perfect and rippled graphene sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seyed-Talebi, Seyedeh Mozhgan; Beheshtian, Javad
2013-01-01
Adsorption of an ammonia molecule onto perfect and rippled graphene is studied using molecular mechanics calculations. The most stable orientation of an ammonia molecule and equilibrium distance of this molecule over graphene surface (motivated by the recent realization of graphene sensors to detect individual gas molecules) is determined using DFT calculation. This result is in agreement with the predicted molecular mechanics calculation result. It also has been found that (i) the ammonia molecule is weakly adsorbed onto the graphene sheet; (ii) the periodic nature of the potential energy stored between ammonia and perfect graphene is altered due to the sinusoidal ripples; and (iii) the effect of amplitude and wavelength of the one-dimensional created ripple on different energy modes is reported
Low cost concepts to reduce the voltage ripple of the DC power supply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, Y.; Liu, K.B.
1993-01-01
If the gain of current feedback is low, the short term stability of magnet power supply will be affected by a soft power line. Typically, the step-charge and the imbalance of the three phase power line cause the most serious voltage ripple. Usually, the voltage feedback with a coupling transformer is considered to reduce the voltage ripple. However, for the high current power supply, the space and cooling problem of the coupling transformer become inconvenient. In this paper, the authors suggest to use the toroidal core with the compensation winding, working like a DCCT, as the coupling transformer. Then, a high speed detector of the AC line level is developed. It restricts the voltage ripple passing to the coupling transformer. These methods have the advantage of small size, low power consumption and low cost
Use of field ripple for burn phase control in short-pulse tokamak reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, J.N.; Stacey, W.M. Jr.
1979-05-01
The possible use of toroidal field ripple to control temperature excursions was investigated. In particular, the magnitude of the power savings necessary to control the ion temperature for about 120 seconds during the burn phase of an ETF tokamak was determined through the use of a global dynamics code. Then the amount of field ripple necessary to effect that control was calculated for each case. In the next section the basic properties of the simulation code are given and the various plasma cases investigated are described in some detail. There follows a discussion of the field ripple control mechanisms and their application to the problem at hand. Finally, the results of the study are presented along with the conclusions drawn from them
Computational study of ammonia adsorption on the perfect and rippled graphene sheet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seyed-Talebi, Seyedeh Mozhgan [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beheshtian, Javad, E-mail: J.Beheshtian@Srttu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-11-15
Adsorption of an ammonia molecule onto perfect and rippled graphene is studied using molecular mechanics calculations. The most stable orientation of an ammonia molecule and equilibrium distance of this molecule over graphene surface (motivated by the recent realization of graphene sensors to detect individual gas molecules) is determined using DFT calculation. This result is in agreement with the predicted molecular mechanics calculation result. It also has been found that (i) the ammonia molecule is weakly adsorbed onto the graphene sheet; (ii) the periodic nature of the potential energy stored between ammonia and perfect graphene is altered due to the sinusoidal ripples; and (iii) the effect of amplitude and wavelength of the one-dimensional created ripple on different energy modes is reported.
Reducing Torque Ripples of the Axial Flux PM Motors by Magnet Stepping and Shifting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Cetin
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Higher efficiency on electric machines is the research goal of many studies. An example is the axial flux permanent magnet machines. These machines have some advantages like their watt/kg efficiency and torque density. This study aims to develop the performance characteristics of the axial flux permanent magnet machines. A new rotor magnet poles design in axial flux machines is suggested to mitigate the torque ripples. The method of stepping and shifting of the magnets is used. Two different designs are compared to verify the proposed approach. 3D finite element analysis is used for simulations. Torque ripple and back electromotive force waveforms are obtained from computer analysis. As a conclusion, the suggested method is found to be useable and mitigates the torque ripples. In addition to that, back EMF waveforms are turned to sinusoidal by the suggested design.
Xe ion beam induced rippled structures on differently oriented single-crystalline Si surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, PO Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich, E-mail: A.Hanisch@fzd.d [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany)
2010-03-24
We report on Xe{sup +} induced ripple formation at medium energy on single-crystalline silicon surfaces of different orientations using substrates with an intentional miscut from the [0 0 1] direction and a [1 1 1] oriented wafer. The ion beam incidence angle with respect to the surface normal was kept fixed at 65{sup 0} and the ion beam projection was parallel or perpendicular to the [1 1 0] direction. By a combination of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy we found that the features of the surface and subsurface rippled structures such as ripple wavelength and amplitude and the degree of order do not depend on the surface orientation as assumed in recent models of pattern formation for semiconductor surfaces. (fast track communication)
Ripple structures on surfaces and underlying crystalline layers in ion beam irradiated Si wafers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grenzer, J.; Muecklich, A. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, A.; Grigorian, S.A.; Pietsch, U. [Institute of Physics, University of Siegen (Germany)
2009-08-15
We report on the formation of ion beam induced ripples in Si(001) wafers when bombarded with Ar+ ions at an energy of 60 keV. A set of samples varying incidence and azimuthal angles of the ion beam with respect to the crystalline surface orientation was studied by two complementary near surface sensitive techniques, namely atomic force microscopy and depth-resolved X-ray grazing incidence diffraction (GID). Additionally, cross-section TEM investigations were carried out. The ripple-like structures are formed at the sample surface as well as at the buried amorphous-crystalline interface. Best quality of the ripple pattern was found when the irradiating ion beam was aligned parallel to the (111) planes. The quality decreases rapidly if the direction of the ion beam deviates from (111). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Effect of impurities and ripple upon power regulation in self-sustained tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.
1981-01-01
Tokamak power reactors will likely operate in a self sustained heating mode where additional power losses are introduced to permit higher levels of alpha particle heating (and thus higher levels of total fusion power) at thermal equilibrium. Illustrative 0-dimensional calculations are made to assess requirements for power regulation of self sustained tokamak plasmas by the use of impurity radiation. Effects of impurities upon allowable fuel density and thermal stability are determined. Requirements are calculated for passive thermal stability control by temperature driven radial motion in the presence of ripple transport losses; it appears that stability might be attained over a relatively wide temperature range with a small amount of ripple transport loss. Requirements for power regulation by the use of ripple transport are also determined
High Ripples Reduction in DTC of Induction Motor by Using a New Reduced Switching Table
Mokhtari, Bachir; Benkhoris, Mohamed F.
2016-05-01
The direct torque and flux control (DTC) of electrical motors is characterized by ripples of torque and flux. Among the many solutions proposed to reduce them is to use modified switching tables which is very advantageous; because its implementation is easy and requires no additional cost compared to other solutions. This paper proposes a new reduced switching table (RST) to improve the DTC by reducing harmful ripples of torque and flux. This new switching table is smaller than the conventional one (CST) and depends principally at the flux error. This solution is studied by simulation under Matlab/Simulink and experimentally validated on a testbed with DSPACE1103. The results obtained of a DTC with RST applied to a three-phase induction motor (IM) show a good improvement and an effectiveness of proposed solution, the torque ripple decreases about 47% and 3% for the stator flux compared with a basic DTC.
An Analysis of Ripple and Error Fields Induced by a Blanket in the CFETR
Yu, Guanying; Liu, Xufeng; Liu, Songlin
2016-10-01
The Chinese Fusion Engineering Tokamak Reactor (CFETR) is an important intermediate device between ITER and DEMO. The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket whose structural material is mainly made of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel, is one of the candidate conceptual blanket design. An analysis of ripple and error field induced by RAFM steel in WCCB is evaluated with the method of static magnetic analysis in the ANSYS code. Significant additional magnetic field is produced by blanket and it leads to an increased ripple field. Maximum ripple along the separatrix line reaches 0.53% which is higher than 0.5% of the acceptable design value. Simultaneously, one blanket module is taken out for heating purpose and the resulting error field is calculated to be seriously against the requirement. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2013GB108004)
Torque ripple reduction of brushless DC motor based on adaptive input-output feedback linearization.
Shirvani Boroujeni, M; Markadeh, G R Arab; Soltani, J
2017-09-01
Torque ripple reduction of Brushless DC Motors (BLDCs) is an interesting subject in variable speed AC drives. In this paper at first, a mathematical expression for torque ripple harmonics is obtained. Then for a non-ideal BLDC motor with known harmonic contents of back-EMF, calculation of desired reference current amplitudes, which are required to eliminate some selected harmonics of torque ripple, are reviewed. In order to inject the reference harmonic currents to the motor windings, an Adaptive Input-Output Feedback Linearization (AIOFBL) control is proposed, which generates the reference voltages for three phases voltage source inverter in stationary reference frame. Experimental results are presented to show the capability and validity of the proposed control method and are compared with the vector control in Multi-Reference Frame (MRF) and Pseudo-Vector Control (P-VC) method results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lacosamide and Levetiracetam Have No Effect on Sharp-Wave Ripple Rate.
Kudlacek, Jan; Chvojka, Jan; Posusta, Antonin; Kovacova, Lubica; Hong, Seung Bong; Weiss, Shennan; Volna, Kamila; Marusic, Petr; Otahal, Jakub; Jiruska, Premysl
2017-01-01
Pathological high-frequency oscillations are a novel marker used to improve the delineation of epileptogenic tissue and, hence, the outcome of epilepsy surgery. Their practical clinical utilization is curtailed by the inability to discriminate them from physiological oscillations due to frequency overlap. Although it is well documented that pathological HFOs are suppressed by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the effect of AEDs on normal HFOs is not well known. In this experimental study, we have explored whether physiological HFOs (sharp-wave ripples) of hippocampal origin respond to AED treatment. The results show that application of a single dose of levetiracetam or lacosamide does not reduce the rate of sharp-wave ripples. In addition, it seems that these new generation drugs do not negatively affect the cellular and network mechanisms involved in sharp-wave ripple generation, which may provide a plausible explanation for the absence of significant negative effects on cognitive functions of these drugs, particularly on memory.
A Zero Input Current Ripple ZVS/ZCS Boost Converter with Boundary-Mode Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ching-Ming Lai
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, in order to achieve zero ripple conditions, the use of a ripple mirror (RM circuit for the boost converter is proposed. The operation modes are studied and steady-state analyses performed to show the merits of the proposed converter. It is found that the proposed RM circuit technique can provide much better flexibility than the two-phase interleaved boost converter for locating the zero ripple operating point in the design stage. In addition, the choice of using a boundary-mode control is mainly based on the consideration of achieving both ZVS (zero voltage switching/ZCS (zero current switching soft-switching and constant on-time control for the converter. To verify the performance of the proposed converter, a 48 V input and 200 W/200 V output prototype is constructed. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.
Stochastic calculus and applications
Cohen, Samuel N
2015-01-01
Completely revised and greatly expanded, the new edition of this text takes readers who have been exposed to only basic courses in analysis through the modern general theory of random processes and stochastic integrals as used by systems theorists, electronic engineers and, more recently, those working in quantitative and mathematical finance. Building upon the original release of this title, this text will be of great interest to research mathematicians and graduate students working in those fields, as well as quants in the finance industry. New features of this edition include: End of chapter exercises; New chapters on basic measure theory and Backward SDEs; Reworked proofs, examples and explanatory material; Increased focus on motivating the mathematics; Extensive topical index. "Such a self-contained and complete exposition of stochastic calculus and applications fills an existing gap in the literature. The book can be recommended for first-year graduate studies. It will be useful for all who intend to wo...