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Sample records for stimulus-dependent central processing

  1. Stimulus-dependent deliberation process leading to a specific motor action demonstrated via a multi-channel EEG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja eHenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether a deliberative process, leading to a motor action, is detectable in high density EEG recordings. Subjects were required to press one of two buttons. In a simple motor task the subject knew which button to press, whilst in a color-word Stroop task subjects had to press the right button with the right index finger when meaning and color coincided, or the left button with the left index finger when meaning and color were disparate.EEG recordings obtained during the simple motor task showed a sequence of positive (P and negative (N cortical potentials (P1-N1-P2 which are assumed to be related to the processing of the movement.The sequence of cortical potentials was similar in EEG recordings of subjects having to deliberate over how to respond, but the above sequence (P1-N1-P2 was preceded by slowly increasing negativity (N0, with N0 being assumed to represent the end of the deliberation process.Our data suggest the existence of neurophysiological correlates of deliberative processes.

  2. Stimulus-dependent maximum entropy models of neural population codes.

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    Einat Granot-Atedgi

    Full Text Available Neural populations encode information about their stimulus in a collective fashion, by joint activity patterns of spiking and silence. A full account of this mapping from stimulus to neural activity is given by the conditional probability distribution over neural codewords given the sensory input. For large populations, direct sampling of these distributions is impossible, and so we must rely on constructing appropriate models. We show here that in a population of 100 retinal ganglion cells in the salamander retina responding to temporal white-noise stimuli, dependencies between cells play an important encoding role. We introduce the stimulus-dependent maximum entropy (SDME model-a minimal extension of the canonical linear-nonlinear model of a single neuron, to a pairwise-coupled neural population. We find that the SDME model gives a more accurate account of single cell responses and in particular significantly outperforms uncoupled models in reproducing the distributions of population codewords emitted in response to a stimulus. We show how the SDME model, in conjunction with static maximum entropy models of population vocabulary, can be used to estimate information-theoretic quantities like average surprise and information transmission in a neural population.

  3. Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia

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    Smucny J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jason Smucny,1,3 Korey Wylie,3 Jason Tregellas1–31Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Research Science, Denver VA Medical, Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USABackground: When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening, healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed "right ear advantage". Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables. The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli.Methods: Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task.Results: A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.Keywords: schizophrenia, right ear advantage, dichotic, distraction

  4. Nav 1.8-null mice show stimulus-dependent deficits in spinal neuronal activity

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    Wood John N

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The voltage gated sodium channel Nav 1.8 has a highly restricted expression pattern to predominantly nociceptive peripheral sensory neurones. Behaviourally Nav 1.8-null mice show an increased acute pain threshold to noxious mechanical pressure and also deficits in inflammatory and visceral, but not neuropathic pain. Here we have made in vivo electrophysiology recordings of dorsal horn neurones in intact anaesthetised Nav 1.8-null mice, in response to a wide range of stimuli to further the understanding of the functional roles of Nav 1.8 in pain transmission from the periphery to the spinal cord. Results Nav 1.8-null mice showed marked deficits in the coding by dorsal horn neurones to mechanical, but not thermal, -evoked responses over the non-noxious and noxious range compared to littermate controls. Additionally, responses evoked to other stimulus modalities were also significantly reduced in Nav 1.8-null mice where the reduction observed to pinch > brush. The occurrence of ongoing spontaneous neuronal activity was significantly less in mice lacking Nav 1.8 compared to control. No difference was observed between groups in the evoked activity to electrical activity of the peripheral receptive field. Conclusion This study demonstrates that deletion of the sodium channel Nav 1.8 results in stimulus-dependent deficits in the dorsal horn neuronal coding to mechanical, but not thermal stimuli applied to the neuronal peripheral receptive field. This implies that Nav 1.8 is either responsible for, or associated with proteins involved in mechanosensation.

  5. Stimulus-dependent modulation of spike burst length in cat striate cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, B C; DeBruyn, E J; Snider, R K; Kabara, J F; Bonds, A B

    1997-07-01

    as a form of coding by supporting dynamic, stimulus-dependent reorganization of the effectiveness of individual network connections.

  6. Sexual motivation is reflected by stimulus-dependent motor cortex excitability.

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    Schecklmann, Martin; Engelhardt, Kristina; Konzok, Julian; Rupprecht, Rainer; Greenlee, Mark W; Mokros, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Poeppl, Timm B

    2015-08-01

    Sexual behavior involves motivational processes. Findings from both animal models and neuroimaging in humans suggest that the recruitment of neural motor networks is an integral part of the sexual response. However, no study so far has directly linked sexual motivation to physiologically measurable changes in cerebral motor systems in humans. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation in hetero- and homosexual men, we here show that sexual motivation modulates cortical excitability. More specifically, our results demonstrate that visual sexual stimuli corresponding with one's sexual orientation, compared with non-corresponding visual sexual stimuli, increase the excitability of the motor cortex. The reflection of sexual motivation in motor cortex excitability provides evidence for motor preparation processes in sexual behavior in humans. Moreover, such interrelationship links theoretical models and previous neuroimaging findings of sexual behavior. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Ecosystem process interactions between central Chilean habitats

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    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding ecosystem processes is vital for developing dynamic adaptive management of human-dominated landscapes. We focus on conservation and management of the central Chilean silvopastoral savanna habitat called “espinal”, which often occurs near matorral, a shrub habitat. Although matorral, espinal and native sclerophyllous forest are linked successionally, they are not jointly managed and conserved. Management goals in “espinal” include increasing woody cover, particularly of the dominant tree Acacia caven, improving herbaceous forage quality, and increasing soil fertility. We asked whether adjacent matorral areas contribute to espinal ecosystem processes related to the three main espinal management goals. We examined input and outcome ecosystem processes related to these goals in matorral and espinal with and without shrub understory. We found that matorral had the largest sets of inputs to ecosystem processes, and espinal with shrub understory had the largest sets of outcomes. Moreover, we found that these outcomes were broadly in the directions preferred by management goals. This supports our prediction that matorral acts as an ecosystem process bank for espinal. We recommend that management plans for landscape resilience consider espinal and matorral as a single landscape cover class that should be maintained as a dynamic mosaic. Joint management of espinal and matorral could create new management and policy opportunities.

  8. The Distinct Role of the Amygdala, Superior Colliculus and Pulvinar in Processing of Central and Peripheral Snakes.

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    Inês Almeida

    Full Text Available Visual processing of ecologically relevant stimuli involves a central bias for stimuli demanding detailed processing (e.g., faces, whereas peripheral object processing is based on coarse identification. Fast detection of animal shapes holding a significant phylogenetic value, such as snakes, may benefit from peripheral vision. The amygdala together with the pulvinar and the superior colliculus are implicated in an ongoing debate regarding their role in automatic and deliberate spatial processing of threat signals.Here we tested twenty healthy participants in an fMRI task, and investigated the role of spatial demands (the main effect of central vs. peripheral vision in the processing of fear-relevant ecological features. We controlled for stimulus dependence using true or false snakes; snake shapes or snake faces and for task constraints (implicit or explicit. The main idea justifying this double task is that amygdala and superior colliculus are involved in both automatic and controlled processes. Moreover the explicit/implicit instruction in the task with respect to emotion is not necessarily equivalent to explicit vs. implicit in the sense of endogenous vs. exogenous attention, or controlled vs. automatic processes.We found that stimulus-driven processing led to increased amygdala responses specifically to true snake shapes presented in the centre or in the peripheral left hemifield (right hemisphere. Importantly, the superior colliculus showed significantly biased and explicit central responses to snake-related stimuli. Moreover, the pulvinar, which also contains foveal representations, also showed strong central responses, extending the results of a recent single cell pulvinar study in monkeys. Similar hemispheric specialization was found across structures: increased amygdala responses occurred to true snake shapes presented to the right hemisphere, with this pattern being closely followed by the superior colliculus and the pulvinar

  9. Mountain building processes in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. L.; Isacks, B. L.

    False color composite images of the Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 5, 4, and 2 were examined to make visual interpretations of geological features. The use of the roam mode of image display with the International Imaging Systems (IIS) System 600 image processing package running on the IIS Model 75 was very useful. Several areas in which good comparisons with ground data existed, were examined in detail. Parallel to the visual approach, image processing methods are being developed which allow the complete use of the seven TM bands. The data was organized into easily accessible files and a visual cataloging of the quads (quarter TM scenes) with preliminary registration with the best available charts for the region. The catalog has proved to be a valuable tool for the rapid scanning of quads for a specific investigation. Integration of the data into a complete approach to the problems of uplift, deformation, and magnetism in relation to the Nazca-South American plate interaction is at an initial stage.

  10. Centralized processing of contact-handled TRU waste feasibility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    This report presents work for the feasibility study of central processing of contact-handled TRU waste. Discussion of scenarios, transportation options, summary of cost estimates, and institutional issues are a few of the subjects discussed

  11. Stimulus Dependency of Object-Evoked Responses in Human Visual Cortex: An Inverse Problem for Category Specificity

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    Graewe, Britta; De Weerd, Peter; Farivar, Reza; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have linked the processing of different object categories to specific event-related potentials (ERPs) such as the face-specific N170. Despite reports showing that object-related ERPs are influenced by visual stimulus features, there is consensus that these components primarily reflect categorical aspects of the stimuli. Here, we re-investigated this idea by systematically measuring the effects of visual feature manipulations on ERP responses elicited by both structure-from-motion (SFM)-defined and luminance-defined object stimuli. SFM objects elicited a novel component at 200–250 ms (N250) over parietal and posterior temporal sites. We found, however, that the N250 amplitude was unaffected by restructuring SFM stimuli into meaningless objects based on identical visual cues. This suggests that this N250 peak was not uniquely linked to categorical aspects of the objects, but is strongly determined by visual stimulus features. We provide strong support for this hypothesis by parametrically manipulating the depth range of both SFM- and luminance-defined object stimuli and showing that the N250 evoked by SFM stimuli as well as the well-known N170 to static faces were sensitive to this manipulation. Importantly, this effect could not be attributed to compromised object categorization in low depth stimuli, confirming a strong impact of visual stimulus features on object-related ERP signals. As ERP components linked with visual categorical object perception are likely determined by multiple stimulus features, this creates an interesting inverse problem when deriving specific perceptual processes from variations in ERP components. PMID:22363479

  12. Stimulus-dependent state transition between synchronized oscillation and randomly repetitive burst in a model cerebellar granular layer.

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    Takeru Honda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Information processing of the cerebellar granular layer composed of granule and Golgi cells is regarded as an important first step toward the cerebellar computation. Our previous theoretical studies have shown that granule cells can exhibit random alternation between burst and silent modes, which provides a basis of population representation of the passage-of-time (POT from the onset of external input stimuli. On the other hand, another computational study has reported that granule cells can exhibit synchronized oscillation of activity, as consistent with observed oscillation in local field potential recorded from the granular layer while animals keep still. Here we have a question of whether an identical network model can explain these distinct dynamics. In the present study, we carried out computer simulations based on a spiking network model of the granular layer varying two parameters: the strength of a current injected to granule cells and the concentration of Mg²⁺ which controls the conductance of NMDA channels assumed on the Golgi cell dendrites. The simulations showed that cells in the granular layer can switch activity states between synchronized oscillation and random burst-silent alternation depending on the two parameters. For higher Mg²⁺ concentration and a weaker injected current, granule and Golgi cells elicited spikes synchronously (synchronized oscillation state. In contrast, for lower Mg²⁺ concentration and a stronger injected current, those cells showed the random burst-silent alternation (POT-representing state. It is suggested that NMDA channels on the Golgi cell dendrites play an important role for determining how the granular layer works in response to external input.

  13. Central Processing Dysfunctions in Children: A Review of Research.

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    Chalfant, James C.; Scheffelin, Margaret A.

    Research on central processing dysfunctions in children is reviewed in three major areas. The first, dysfunctions in the analysis of sensory information, includes auditory, visual, and haptic processing. The second, dysfunction in the synthesis of sensory information, covers multiple stimulus integration and short-term memory. The third area of…

  14. Altered central pain processing after pancreatic surgery for chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwense, S. A.; Ahmed Ali, U.; ten Broek, R. P.; Issa, Y.; van Eijck, C. H.; Wilder-Smith, O. H.; van Goor, H.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is common in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and may involve altered central pain processing. This study evaluated the relationship between pain processing and pain outcome after pancreatic duct decompression and/or pancreatic resection in patients with CP. Patients with CP

  15. Procedures for central auditory processing screening in schoolchildren.

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    Carvalho, Nádia Giulian de; Ubiali, Thalita; Amaral, Maria Isabel Ramos do; Santos, Maria Francisca Colella

    2018-03-22

    Central auditory processing screening in schoolchildren has led to debates in literature, both regarding the protocol to be used and the importance of actions aimed at prevention and promotion of auditory health. Defining effective screening procedures for central auditory processing is a challenge in Audiology. This study aimed to analyze the scientific research on central auditory processing screening and discuss the effectiveness of the procedures utilized. A search was performed in the SciELO and PUBMed databases by two researchers. The descriptors used in Portuguese and English were: auditory processing, screening, hearing, auditory perception, children, auditory tests and their respective terms in Portuguese. original articles involving schoolchildren, auditory screening of central auditory skills and articles in Portuguese or English. studies with adult and/or neonatal populations, peripheral auditory screening only, and duplicate articles. After applying the described criteria, 11 articles were included. At the international level, central auditory processing screening methods used were: screening test for auditory processing disorder and its revised version, screening test for auditory processing, scale of auditory behaviors, children's auditory performance scale and Feather Squadron. In the Brazilian scenario, the procedures used were the simplified auditory processing assessment and Zaidan's battery of tests. At the international level, the screening test for auditory processing and Feather Squadron batteries stand out as the most comprehensive evaluation of hearing skills. At the national level, there is a paucity of studies that use methods evaluating more than four skills, and are normalized by age group. The use of simplified auditory processing assessment and questionnaires can be complementary in the search for an easy access and low-cost alternative in the auditory screening of Brazilian schoolchildren. Interactive tools should be proposed, that

  16. Insulating process for HT-7U central solenoid model coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yimin; Pan Wanjiang; Wu Songtao; Wan Yuanxi

    2003-01-01

    The HT-7U superconducting Tokamak is a whole superconducting magnetically confined fusion device. The insulating system of its central solenoid coils is critical to its properties. In this paper the forming of the insulating system and the vacuum-pressure-impregnating (VPI) are introduced, and the whole insulating process is verified under the super-conducting experiment condition

  17. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes

  18. Central auditory processing and migraine: a controlled study.

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    Agessi, Larissa Mendonça; Villa, Thaís Rodrigues; Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Carvalho, Deusvenir de Souza; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2014-11-08

    This study aimed to verify and compare central auditory processing (CAP) performance in migraine with and without aura patients and healthy controls. Forty-one volunteers of both genders, aged between 18 and 40 years, diagnosed with migraine with and without aura by the criteria of "The International Classification of Headache Disorders" (ICDH-3 beta) and a control group of the same age range and with no headache history, were included. Gaps-in-noise (GIN), Duration Pattern test (DPT) and Dichotic Digits Test (DDT) tests were used to assess central auditory processing performance. The volunteers were divided into 3 groups: Migraine with aura (11), migraine without aura (15), and control group (15), matched by age and schooling. Subjects with aura and without aura performed significantly worse in GIN test for right ear (p = .006), for left ear (p = .005) and for DPT test (p UNIFESP.

  19. Perceptual weights for loudness reflect central spectral processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt

    2011-01-01

    Weighting patterns for loudness obtained using the reverse correlation method are thought to reveal the relative contributions of different frequency regions to total loudness, the equivalent of specific loudness. Current models of loudness assume that specific loudness is determined by peripheral...... processes such as compression and masking. Here we test this hypothesis using 20-tone harmonic complexes (200Hz f0, 200 to 4000Hz, 250 ms, 65 dB/Component) added in opposite phase relationships (Schroeder positive and negative). Due to the varying degree of envelope modulations, these time-reversed harmonic...... processes and reflect a central frequency weighting template....

  20. Central auditory processing outcome after stroke in children

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    Karla M. I. Freiria Elias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate central auditory processing in children with unilateral stroke and to verify whether the hemisphere affected by the lesion influenced auditory competence. Method 23 children (13 male between 7 and 16 years old were evaluated through speech-in-noise tests (auditory closure; dichotic digit test and staggered spondaic word test (selective attention; pitch pattern and duration pattern sequence tests (temporal processing and their results were compared with control children. Auditory competence was established according to the performance in auditory analysis ability. Results Was verified similar performance between groups in auditory closure ability and pronounced deficits in selective attention and temporal processing abilities. Most children with stroke showed an impaired auditory ability in a moderate degree. Conclusion Children with stroke showed deficits in auditory processing and the degree of impairment was not related to the hemisphere affected by the lesion.

  1. Evaluation of the Central Hearing Process in Parkinson Patients

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    Santos, Rosane Sampaio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parkinson disease (PD is a degenerating disease with a deceitful character, impairing the central nervous system and causing biological, psychological and social changes. It shows motor signs and symptoms characterized by trembling, postural instability, rigidity and bradykinesia. Objective: To evaluate the central hearing function in PD patients. Method: A descriptive, prospect and transversal study, in which 10 individuals diagnosed of PD named study group (SG and 10 normally hearing individuals named control group (CG were evaluated, age average of 63.8 and (SD 5.96. Both groups went through otorhinolaryngological and ordinary audiological evaluations, and dichotic test of alternate disyllables (SSW. Results: In the quantitative analysis, CG showed 80% normality on competitive right-ear hearing (RC and 60% on the competitive left-ear hearing (LC in comparison with the SG that presented 70% on RC and 40% on LC. In the qualitative analysis, the biggest percentage of errors was evident in the SG in the order effect. The results showed a difficulty in identifying a sound when there is another competitive sound and in the memory ability. Conclusion: A qualitative and quantitative difference was observed in the SSW test between the evaluated groups, although statistical data does not show significant differences. The importance to evaluate the central hearing process is emphasized when contributing to the procedures to be taken at the therapeutic follow-up.

  2. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

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    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  3. Operating The Central Process Systems At Glenn Research Center

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    Weiler, Carly P.

    2004-01-01

    As a research facility, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) trusts and expects all the systems, controlling their facilities to run properly and efficiently in order for their research and operations to occur proficiently and on time. While there are many systems necessary for the operations at GRC, one of those most vital systems is the Central Process Systems (CPS). The CPS controls operations used by GRC's wind tunnels, propulsion systems lab, engine components research lab, and compressor, turbine and combustor test cells. Used widely throughout the lab, it operates equipment such as exhausters, chillers, cooling towers, compressors, dehydrators, and other such equipment. Through parameters such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc., it performs its primary operations on the major systems of Electrical Dispatch (ED), Central Air Dispatch (CAD), Central Air Equipment Building (CAEB), and Engine Research Building (ERB). In order for the CPS to continue its operations at Glenn, a new contract must be awarded. Consequently, one of my primary responsibilities was assisting the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) with the process of awarding the recertification contract of the CPS. The job of the SEB was to evaluate the proposals of the contract bidders and then to present their findings to the Source Selecting Official (SSO). Before the evaluations began, the Center Director established the level of the competition. For this contract, the competition was limited to those companies classified as a small, disadvantaged business. After an industry briefing that explained to qualified companies the CPS and type of work required, each of the interested companies then submitted proposals addressing three components: Mission Suitability, Cost, and Past Performance. These proposals were based off the Statement of Work (SOW) written by the SEB. After companies submitted their proposals, the SEB reviewed all three components and then presented their results to the SSO. While the

  4. Background Noise Degrades Central Auditory Processing in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Haapala, Sini; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Kujala, Teija

    2015-01-01

    Noise, as an unwanted sound, has become one of modern society's environmental conundrums, and many children are exposed to higher noise levels than previously assumed. However, the effects of background noise on central auditory processing of toddlers, who are still acquiring language skills, have so far not been determined. The authors evaluated the effects of background noise on toddlers' speech-sound processing by recording event-related brain potentials. The hypothesis was that background noise modulates neural speech-sound encoding and degrades speech-sound discrimination. Obligatory P1 and N2 responses for standard syllables and the mismatch negativity (MMN) response for five different syllable deviants presented in a linguistic multifeature paradigm were recorded in silent and background noise conditions. The participants were 18 typically developing 22- to 26-month-old monolingual children with healthy ears. The results showed that the P1 amplitude was smaller and the N2 amplitude larger in the noisy conditions compared with the silent conditions. In the noisy condition, the MMN was absent for the intensity and vowel changes and diminished for the consonant, frequency, and vowel duration changes embedded in speech syllables. Furthermore, the frontal MMN component was attenuated in the noisy condition. However, noise had no effect on P1, N2, or MMN latencies. The results from this study suggest multiple effects of background noise on the central auditory processing of toddlers. It modulates the early stages of sound encoding and dampens neural discrimination vital for accurate speech perception. These results imply that speech processing of toddlers, who may spend long periods of daytime in noisy conditions, is vulnerable to background noise. In noisy conditions, toddlers' neural representations of some speech sounds might be weakened. Thus, special attention should be paid to acoustic conditions and background noise levels in children's daily environments

  5. (Central Auditory Processing: the impact of otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Reis Borges

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze auditory processing test results in children suffering from otitis media in their first five years of age, considering their age. Furthermore, to classify central auditory processing test findings regarding the hearing skills evaluated. METHODS: A total of 109 students between 8 and 12 years old were divided into three groups. The control group consisted of 40 students from public school without a history of otitis media. Experimental group I consisted of 39 students from public schools and experimental group II consisted of 30 students from private schools; students in both groups suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years of age and underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes. The individuals underwent complete audiological evaluation and assessment by Auditory Processing tests. RESULTS: The left ear showed significantly worse performance when compared to the right ear in the dichotic digits test and pitch pattern sequence test. The students from the experimental groups showed worse performance when compared to the control group in the dichotic digits test and gaps-in-noise. Children from experimental group I had significantly lower results on the dichotic digits and gaps-in-noise tests compared with experimental group II. The hearing skills that were altered were temporal resolution and figure-ground perception. CONCLUSION: Children who suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years and who underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes showed worse performance in auditory abilities, and children from public schools had worse results on auditory processing tests compared with students from private schools.

  6. A new era for central processing and production in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, E; Gutsche, O; Foulkes, S; Linacre, J; Spinoso, V; Lahiff, A; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Klute, M; Mohapatra, A

    2012-01-01

    The goal for CMS computing is to maximise the throughput of simulated event generation while also processing event data generated by the detector as quickly and reliably as possible. To maintain this achievement as the quantity of events increases CMS computing has migrated at the Tier 1 level from its old production framework, ProdAgent, to a new one, WMAgent. The WMAgent framework offers improved processing efficiency and increased resource usage as well as a reduction in operational manpower. In addition to the challenges encountered during the design of the WMAgent framework, several operational issues have arisen during its commissioning. The largest operational challenges were in the usage and monitoring of resources, mainly a result of a change in the way work is allocated. Instead of work being assigned to operators, all work is centrally injected and managed in the Request Manager system and the task of the operators has changed from running individual workflows to monitoring the global workload. In this report we present how we tackled some of the operational challenges, and how we benefitted from the lessons learned in the commissioning of the WMAgent framework at the Tier 2 level in late 2011. As case studies, we will show how the WMAgent system performed during some of the large data reprocessing and Monte Carlo simulation campaigns.

  7. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

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    Liberalesso Paulo Breno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP. Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT, and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT. Baseline (BSL performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005, for males (p = 0.0066, and for females (p = 0.0208. Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p  Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  8. An Online Satellite Altimetry Data Processing System: Ads Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, A.; Braun, A.; Schöne, T.; Wen, H.; Reigber, C.

    To help solving important issues of climate change and sea level change and to un- derstand the complex system Earth, an interdisciplinary interpretation of various data sets is needed. Several groups on the national and international level are recently ac- tive in building up services to faciliate the access to geoscientific data to a broader community, especially the access to higher level products. In Germany, GFZ-Potsdam is currently building up the modular German Earth Science and Information System (GESIS). In the frame of GESIS the Altimeter Database System (ADS) has been com- pleted recently. This modul provides high quality data and processing capabilities for radar altimetry data to a wide range of users. The ADS modul can be accessed worldwide via the internet based user-interface "ADS Central" with a standard browser at (http://gesis.gfz-potsdam.de/ads). After a registra- tion process the system offers higher level standard products, calculated routinely from the harmonised and intercalibrated satellite database. Additionally, ADS allows to generate individual user specific products. The user is able to perform several processing and analysing steps, e.g. to generate mean sea sur- face height grids, to extract altimetry data time series around a given location, to anal- yse parameter variability, or to perform a crossover analysis. The user can specify general parameters like the satellite mission, time interval and region of the used data. Additionally, different available correction models can be choosen, which will be ap- plied to the data. It is further possible to enter several quality parameters to optimize the data for individual applications. These individual user defined products are au- tomatically processed by ADS at GFZ-Potsdam and are subsequently distributed via anonymous ftp. The system is an attempt to offer easy access to the daily growing satellite altime- try database and numerous correction models and orbits. Due to the effectiveness

  9. Analysis of expected ATM processes changes in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav MIHETEC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates feasibility of the new Air Traffic Management (ATM organisation in Functional Airspace Block Central Europe (FAB CE and specifies the implementation scenarios that are proposed by Central European Air Traffic Services Coordination Group (CEATS CG. The paper elaborates elements of required Functional Airspace Block Central Europe implementation and identifies and assesses the implementation blockers. Provision of air navigation services in European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC area is diversely regulated and highly fragmented.

  10. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel

  11. Establishing a central waste processing and storage facility in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.; Darko, E.O.

    2001-01-01

    regulations. About 50 delegates from various ministries and establishment participated in the seminar. The final outcome of the draft regulation was sent to the Attorney General's office for the necessary legal review before been presented to Parliament through the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology. A radiation sources and radioactive waste inventory have been established using the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS) and the Sealed Radiation Sources Registry System (SRS). A central waste processing and storage facility was constructed in the mid sixties to handle waste from a 2MW reactor that was never installed. The facility consists of a decontamination unit, two concrete vaults (about 5x15 m and 4m deep) intended for low and intermediate level waste storage and 60 wells (about 0.5m diameter x 4.6m) for storage of spent fuel. This Facility will require significant rehabilitation. Safety and performance assessment studies have been carried out with the help of three IAEA experts. The recommendations from the assessment indicate that the vaults are very old and deteriorated to be considered for any future waste storage. However the decontamination unit and the wells are still in good condition and were earmarked for refurbishment and use as waste processing and storage facilities respectively. The decontamination unit has a surface area of 60m 2 and a laboratory of surface area 10m 2 . The decontamination unit will have four technological areas. An area for cementation of non-compactible solid waste and spent sealed sources. An area for compaction of compactable solid waste and a controlled area for conditioned wastes in 200L drums. Provision has been made to condition liquid waste. There will be a section for receipt and segregation of the waste. The laboratory will be provided with the necessary equipment for quality control. Research to support technological processes will be carried out in the laboratory. A quality assurance and control systems

  12. Central processing and interim storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Within the ZWILAG project, the buildings for the temporary storage of all categories of radioactive wastes including the spent fuel elements are being readied at a central location. The intermediate storage installations are enhanced by a conditioning and burning plant for weak radioactive operating waste from the nuclear power plants and from the area of responsibility of the state. (author) 2 figs

  13. The Relationship between Central Auditory Processing, Language, and Cognition in Children Being Evaluated for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Lauren; Cash, Elizabeth; Chermak, Gail D; Guenette, Linda; Masters, Gay; Musiek, Frank E; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzegerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). A retrospective study. Twenty-seven patients referred for CAPD testing who scored average or better on the CELF and low average or better on the WISC were initially included. Seven children who scored below the CELF and/or WISC inclusion criteria were then added to the dataset for a second analysis, yielding a sample size of 34. Participants were administered a CAPD battery that included at least the following three CAPD tests: Frequency Patterns (FP), Dichotic Digits (DD), and Competing Sentences (CS). In addition, they were administered the CELF and WISC. Relationships between scores on CAPD, language (CELF), and cognition (WISC) tests were examined using correlation analysis. DD and FP showed significant correlations with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, and the DD left ear and the DD interaural difference measures both showed significant correlations with working memory. However, ∼80% or more of the variance in these CAPD tests was unexplained by language and cognition measures. Language and cognition measures were more strongly correlated with each other than were the CAPD tests with any CELF or WISC scale. Additional correlations with the CAPD tests were revealed when patients who scored in the mild-moderate deficit range on the CELF and/or in the borderline low intellectual functioning range on the WISC were included in the analysis. While both the DD and FP tests showed significant correlations with one or more cognition measures, the majority of the variance in these

  14. Improving management decision processes through centralized communication linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanton, D. F.; Garman, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Information flow is a critical element to intelligent and timely decision-making. At NASA's Johnson Space Center the flow of information is being automated through the use of a centralized backbone network. The theoretical basis of this network, its implications to the horizontal and vertical flow of information, and the technical challenges involved in its implementation are the focus of this paper. The importance of the use of common tools among programs and some future concerns related to file transfer, graphics transfer, and merging of voice and data are also discussed.

  15. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Is It a Meaningful Construct or a Twentieth Century Unicorn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G.; Beasley, Daniel S.

    1985-01-01

    The article demonstrates how professional and theoretical perspectives (including psycholinguistics, behaviorist, and information processing perspectives) significantly influence the manner in which central auditory processing is viewed, assessed, and remediated. (Author/CL)

  16. IDEAS, for integral logistics in centralized wood processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is developed to improve the quality of decision making in wood processing companies. Wood processing companies are businesses that import (buy, harvest) raw materials, stems and logs, and export (deliver) products, assortments and boards, after a multi-step

  17. The effects of analgesics on central processing of tonic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lelic, Dina; Hansen, Tine M; Mark, Esben Bolvig

    2017-01-01

    to tonic pain is modified by oxycodone (opioid) and venlafaxine (SNRI). Methods Twenty healthy males were included in this randomized, cross-over, double-blinded study. 61-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded before and after five days of treatment with placebo, oxycodone (10 mg extended release......Introduction Opioids and antidepressants that inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNRI) are recognized as analgesics to treat moderate to severe pain, but the central mechanisms underlying their analgesia remain unclear. This study investigated how brain activity at rest and exposed...... b.i.d) or venlafaxine (37.5 mg extended release b.i.d) at rest and during tonic pain (hand immersed in 2 °C water for 80 s). Subjective pain and unpleasantness scores of tonic pain were recorded. Spectral analysis and sLORETA source localization were done in delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8...

  18. Recognition of oral spelling is diagnostic of the central reading processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Teresa; McCloskey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The task of recognition of oral spelling (stimulus: "C-A-T", response: "cat") is often administered to individuals with acquired written language disorders, yet there is no consensus about the underlying cognitive processes. We adjudicate between two existing hypotheses: Recognition of oral spelling uses central reading processes, or recognition of oral spelling uses central spelling processes in reverse. We tested the recognition of oral spelling and spelling to dictation abilities of a single individual with acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia. She was impaired relative to matched controls in spelling to dictation but unimpaired in recognition of oral spelling. Recognition of oral spelling for exception words (e.g., colonel) and pronounceable nonwords (e.g., larth) was intact. Our results were predicted by the hypothesis that recognition of oral spelling involves the central reading processes. We conclude that recognition of oral spelling is a useful tool for probing the integrity of the central reading processes.

  19. Stakeholder consultations regarding centralized power procurement processes in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Ontario held 4 Requests for Proposals (RFPs) to encourage the development of new clean renewable combined heat and power generation and the implementation of conservation and demand management programs. Details of a stakeholder consultation related to the RFP process were presented were in this paper. The aim of the consultation was to synthesize stakeholder comments and to provide appropriate recommendations for future RFPs held by the Ontario Power Authority (OPA). The financial burden of bidding was discussed, as well as communications procedures and contract ambiguities. Issues concerning the criteria used for qualifying potential bidders and evaluating project submissions were reviewed. Recommendations for future processes included prequalification, a simplification in collusion requirements, and a fixed time response. It was also recommended that the process should not emphasize financing as lenders do not make firm commitments to bidders prior to a bid being accepted. It was suggested that the amount of bid security should vary with the project size and phase of development, and that the contracts for differences format should be refined to allow participants to propose parameters. Issues concerning audit procedures and performance deviations were reviewed. It was suggested that contract terms should be compatible with gas markets. It was also suggested that the OPA should adopt a more simplified approach to co-generation proposals, where proponents can specify amounts of energy and required prices. The adoption of the Swiss challenge approach of allowing other vendors an opportunity to match or beat terms on an offer was recommended. It was suggested that renewables should be acquired through a targeted and volume limited standard-offer process to be set yearly. Conservation and demand management recommendations were also presented. It was suggested that the OPA should serve as a facilitator of clean development mechanism (CDM) programs. It was

  20. Central pain processing in chronic tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Kim; Ellrich, Jens; Jensen, Rigmor

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) affects 3% of the population. Directly and indirectly it causes high costs and considerable loss of quality of life. The mechanisms of this disorder are poorly understood and the treatment possibilities are therefore limited. The blink reflex (BR......) reflects neuronal excitability due to nociceptive input in the brainstem. The aim of this study was to investigate nociceptive processing at the level of the brainstem in an experimental pain model of CTTH symptoms. METHODS: The effect of conditioning pain, 5 min infusion of hypertonic saline into the neck...... muscles, was investigated in 20 patients with CTTH and 20 healthy controls. In addition, a pilot study with isotonic saline was performed with 5 subjects in each group. The BR was elicited by electrical stimuli with an intensity of four times the pain threshold, with a superficial concentric electrode. We...

  1. Profiles of Types of Central Auditory Processing Disorders in Children with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiek, Frank E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The article profiles five cases of children (8-17 years old) with learning disabilities and auditory processing problems. Possible correlations between the presumed etiology and the unique audiological pattern on the central test battery are analyzed. (Author/CL)

  2. Central Auditory Processing through the Looking Glass: A Critical Look at Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Maxine L.

    1985-01-01

    The article examines the contributions of both audiologists and speech-language pathologists to the diagnosis and management of students with central auditory processing disorders and language impairments. (CL)

  3. Sedimentary processes in the Carnot Formation (Central African Republic) related to the palaeogeographic framework of Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censier, Claude; Lang, Jacques

    1999-08-01

    The depositional environment, provenance and processes of emplacement of the detrital material of the Mesozoic Carnot Formation are defined, by bedding and sedimentological analysis of its main facies, and are reconstructed within the palaeogeographic framework of Central Africa. The clastic material was laid down between probably the Albian and the end of the Cretaceous, in a NNW-oriented braided stream fluvial system that drained into the Doba Trough (Chad) and probably also into the Touboro Basin (Cameroon). The material was derived from weathering of the underlying Devonian-Carboniferous Mambéré Glacial Formation and of the Precambrian schist-quartzite complex located to the south of the Carnot Formation. These results provide useful indications as to the provenance of diamonds mined in the southwest Central African Republic.

  4. Dual Stimulus-Dependent Effect of Oenothera paradoxa Extract on the Respiratory Burst in Human Leukocytes: Suppressing for Escherichia coli and Phorbol Myristate Acetate and Stimulating for Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Burzynska-Pedziwiatr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a growing body of evidence suggests that plant polyphenols can modulate human immune responses, their simultaneous action on monocyte and neutrophil oxidative burst is currently poorly understood. Based on the hypothesis that various polyphenols contained in plant extracts might affect the oxidative burst of phagocytes, we evaluated the effects of ethanolic O. paradoxa extract polyphenols on monocyte and neutrophil oxidative burst in vitro activated by different stimuli, including opsonized bacteria E. coli, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP. Samples were analyzed by the dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry assay. Our results showed that the extract repressed significantly and dose-dependently reactive oxygen species production in both cell types stimulated with E. coli and PMA (P < 0.05 and its inhibitory efficiency was stimulus- and cell-type-dependent. Interestingly, there was significant stimulatory effect of the extract on bursting phagocytes induced by fMLP (P < 0.05. Additionally, several flavonoids and phenolic compounds as well as penta-galloyl-β-(D-glucose (PGG, the representative of hydrolyzable tannins, were identified in the 60% extract by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. In summary, the ethanolic O. paradoxa extract, rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibits dual stimulus-dependent effect on the respiratory burst in human leukocytes; hence, it might affect immune responses in humans.

  5. Dual stimulus-dependent effect of Oenothera paradoxa extract on the respiratory burst in human leukocytes: suppressing for Escherichia coli and phorbol myristate acetate and stimulating for formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzynska-Pedziwiatr, Izabela; Bukowiecka-Matusiak, Malgorzata; Wojcik, Marzena; Machala, Waldemar; Bienkiewicz, Malgorzata; Spolnik, Grzegorz; Danikiewicz, Witold; Wozniak, Lucyna Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that plant polyphenols can modulate human immune responses, their simultaneous action on monocyte and neutrophil oxidative burst is currently poorly understood. Based on the hypothesis that various polyphenols contained in plant extracts might affect the oxidative burst of phagocytes, we evaluated the effects of ethanolic O. paradoxa extract polyphenols on monocyte and neutrophil oxidative burst in vitro activated by different stimuli, including opsonized bacteria E. coli, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Samples were analyzed by the dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry assay. Our results showed that the extract repressed significantly and dose-dependently reactive oxygen species production in both cell types stimulated with E. coli and PMA (P < 0.05) and its inhibitory efficiency was stimulus- and cell-type-dependent. Interestingly, there was significant stimulatory effect of the extract on bursting phagocytes induced by fMLP (P < 0.05). Additionally, several flavonoids and phenolic compounds as well as penta-galloyl-β-(D)-glucose (PGG), the representative of hydrolyzable tannins, were identified in the 60% extract by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. In summary, the ethanolic O. paradoxa extract, rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibits dual stimulus-dependent effect on the respiratory burst in human leukocytes; hence, it might affect immune responses in humans.

  6. Contrasting serpentinization processes in the eastern Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, D.J.M.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope compositions have been determined for serpentinites from between Davos (Arosa-Platta nappe, Switzerland) and the Valmalenco (Italy). ??D and ??18O values (-120 to -60 and 6-10???, respectively) in the Arosa-Platta nappe indicate that serpentinization took place on the continent at relatively low temperatures in the presence of limited amounts of metamorphic fluids that contained a component of meteoric water. One sample of chrysotile has a ??18O value of 13??? providing evidence of high W/R ratios and low formation temperature of lizardite-chrysotile in this area. In contrast, relatively high ??D values (-42 to -34???) and low ??18O values (4.4-7.4???) for serpentine in the eastern part of the Valmalenco suggest a serpentinization process that took place at moderate temperatures in fluids that were dominated by ocean water. The antigorite in the Valmalenco is the first reported example of continental antigorite with an ocean water signature. An amphibole sample from a metasomatically overprinted contact zone to metasediments (??D=-36???) indicates that the metasomatic event also took place in the presence of ocean water. Lower ??D values (-93 to -60???) of serpentines in the western part of the Valmalenco suggest a different alteration history possibly influenced by fluids associated with contact metamorphism. Low water/rock ratios during regional metamorphism (and metasomatism) have to be assumed for both regions. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Big Data Processing for a Central Texas Groundwater Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, A.; Rivera, O.; Martínez, A.; Lewis, D. H.; Gentle, J. N., Jr.; Fuentes, G.; Pierce, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    As computational methods improve, scientists are able to expand the level and scale of experimental simulation and testing that is completed for case studies. This study presents a comparative analysis of multiple models for the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer. Several numerical simulations using state-mandated MODFLOW models ran on Stampede, a High Performance Computing system housed at the Texas Advanced Computing Center, were performed for multiple scenario testing. One goal of this multidisciplinary project aims to visualize and compare the output data of the groundwater model using the statistical programming language R to find revealing data patterns produced by different pumping scenarios. Presenting data in a friendly post-processing format is covered in this paper. Visualization of the data and creating workflows applicable to the management of the data are tasks performed after data extraction. Resulting analyses provide an example of how supercomputing can be used to accelerate evaluation of scientific uncertainty and geological knowledge in relation to policy and management decisions. Understanding the aquifer behavior helps policy makers avoid negative impact on the endangered species, environmental services and aids in maximizing the aquifer yield.

  8. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder in speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Vilela, Nadia; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of auditory information for the acquisition and organization of phonological rules, the assessment of (central) auditory processing contributes to both the diagnosis and targeting of speech therapy in children with speech sound disorders. To study phonological measures and (central) auditory processing of children with speech sound disorder. Clinical and experimental study, with 21 subjects with speech sound disorder aged between 7.0 and 9.11 years, divided into two groups according to their (central) auditory processing disorder. The assessment comprised tests of phonology, speech inconsistency, and metalinguistic abilities. The group with (central) auditory processing disorder demonstrated greater severity of speech sound disorder. The cutoff value obtained for the process density index was the one that best characterized the occurrence of phonological processes for children above 7 years of age. The comparison among the tests evaluated between the two groups showed differences in some phonological and metalinguistic abilities. Children with an index value above 0.54 demonstrated strong tendencies towards presenting a (central) auditory processing disorder, and this measure was effective to indicate the need for evaluation in children with speech sound disorder. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Modern-Day Demographic Processes in Central Europe and Their Potential Interactions with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bański, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of contemporary transformations in the population of Central European countries on climate change, in addition to singling out the primary points of interaction between demographic processes and the climate. In analyzing the interactions between climate and demographics, we can formulate three basic hypotheses regarding the region in question: 1) as a result of current demographic trends in Central Europe, the influence of the region on its climate will probably diminish, 2) the importance of the "climatically displaced" in global migratory movements will increase, and some of those concerned will move to Central Europe, 3) the contribution of the region to global food security will increase. In the last decade most of what comprises the region of Central Europe has reported a decline in population growth and a negative migration balance. As a process, this loss of population may have a positive effect on the environment and the climate. We can expect ongoing climate change to intensify migration processes, particularly from countries outside Europe. Interactions between climate and demographic processes can also be viewed in the context of food security. The global warming most sources foresee for the coming decades is the process most likely to result in spatial polarization of food production in agriculture. Central Europe will then face the challenge of assuring and improving food security, albeit this time on a global scale.

  10. Central load reduces peripheral processing: Evidence from incidental memory of background speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halin, Niklas; Marsh, John E; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    Is there a trade-off between central (working memory) load and peripheral (perceptual) processing? To address this question, participants were requested to undertake an n-back task in one of two levels of central/cognitive load (i.e., 1-back or 2-back) in the presence of a to-be-ignored story presented via headphones. Participants were told to ignore the background story, but they were given a surprise memory test of what had been said in the background story, immediately after the n-back task was completed. Memory was poorer in the high central load (2-back) condition in comparison with the low central load (1-back) condition. Hence, when people compensate for higher central load, by increasing attentional engagement, peripheral processing is constrained. Moreover, participants with high working memory capacity (WMC) - with a superior ability for attentional engagement - remembered less of the background story, but only in the low central load condition. Taken together, peripheral processing - as indexed by incidental memory of background speech - is constrained when task engagement is high. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of delayed auditory feedback on stuttering with and without central auditory processing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoloto, Luana Altran; Cardoso, Ana Cláudia Vieira; Cerqueira, Amanda Venuti; Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti de

    2017-12-07

    To verify the effect of delayed auditory feedback on speech fluency of individuals who stutter with and without central auditory processing disorders. The participants were twenty individuals with stuttering from 7 to 17 years old and were divided into two groups: Stuttering Group with Auditory Processing Disorders (SGAPD): 10 individuals with central auditory processing disorders, and Stuttering Group (SG): 10 individuals without central auditory processing disorders. Procedures were: fluency assessment with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF), assessment of the stuttering severity and central auditory processing (CAP). Phono Tools software was used to cause a delay of 100 milliseconds in the auditory feedback. The "Wilcoxon Signal Post" test was used in the intragroup analysis and "Mann-Whitney" test in the intergroup analysis. The DAF caused a statistically significant reduction in SG: in the frequency score of stuttering-like disfluencies in the analysis of the Stuttering Severity Instrument, in the amount of blocks and repetitions of monosyllabic words, and in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies of duration. Delayed auditory feedback did not cause statistically significant effects on SGAPD fluency, individuals with stuttering with auditory processing disorders. The effect of delayed auditory feedback in speech fluency of individuals who stutter was different in individuals of both groups, because there was an improvement in fluency only in individuals without auditory processing disorder.

  12. Motivation enhances visual working memory capacity through the modulation of central cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Motoyuki; Ikeda, Koki; Kimura, Kenta; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-09-01

    Motivation is well known to enhance working memory (WM) capacity, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The WM process can be divided into encoding, maintenance, and retrieval, and in a change detection visual WM paradigm, the encoding and retrieval processes can be subdivided into perceptual and central processing. To clarify which of these segments are most influenced by motivation, we measured ERPs in a change detection task with differential monetary rewards. The results showed that the enhancement of WM capacity under high motivation was accompanied by modulations of late central components but not those reflecting attentional control on perceptual inputs across all stages of WM. We conclude that the "state-dependent" shift of motivation impacted the central, rather than the perceptual functions in order to achieve better behavioral performances. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. U.S. Experience and practices associated with the use of centralized rad waste processing centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, James D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the experience and current practices employed within the United States (US) associated with the use of Centralized Rad waste Processing Centers for the processing of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLRW). Information is provided on the methods, technologies, and practices employed by Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG), which is the worlds largest processor of LLRW. SEG processes over 80,000 cubic meters of waste annually and achieves an overall volume reduction of 12 : 1. LLRW processing in the United States is currently performed primarily at Centralized Rad waste Processing Centers, such as SEG's Central Volume Reduction Facility (CVRF) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This is primarily due to the superior economical application of advanced waste processing technologies, equipment, and personnel maintained at these centers. Information is provided on how SEG uses supercompaction, incineration, metals recycling, vitrification, and various other waste processing techniques to process both dry and wet wastes from over 90 commercial nuclear power plants, government operated facilities, hospitals, universities, and various small generators of radioactive waste

  14. Examining the central and peripheral processes of written word production through meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy ePurcell

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Producing written words requires central cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.. In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying Activation Likelihood Estimation methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002. For alphabet languages, we identified 11 studies (with a total of 17 experimental contrasts that had been designed to isolate central and/or peripheral processes of word spelling (total number of participants = 146. Three ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the complete set of 17 contrasts; two others were applied to subsets of contrasts to distinguish the neural substrates of central from peripheral processes. These analyses identified a network of brain regions reliably associated with the central and peripheral processes of word spelling. Among the many significant results, is the finding that the regions with the greatest correspondence across studies were in the left inferior temporal/fusiform gyri and left inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, although the angular gyrus has traditionally been identified as a key site within the written word production network, none of the meta-analyses found it to be a consistent site of activation, identifying instead a region just superior/medial to the left angular gyrus in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus. In general these meta-analyses and the discussion of results provide a valuable foundation upon which future studies that examine the neural basis of written word production can build.

  15. Cortisol, but not intranasal insulin, affects the central processing of visual food cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira de Sá, D.S.; Schulz, A.; Streit, F.E.; Turner, J.D.; Oitzl, M.S.; Blumenthal, T.D.; Schächinger, H.

    2014-01-01

    Stress glucocorticoids and insulin are important endocrine regulators of energy homeostasis, but little is known about their central interaction on the reward-related processing of food cues. According to a balanced group design, healthy food deprived men received either 40IU intranasal insulin

  16. Readability of Questionnaires Assessing Listening Difficulties Associated with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…

  17. Lexical Processing in Toddlers with ASD: Does Weak Central Coherence Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis Weismer, Susan; Haebig, Eileen; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny; Venker, Courtney E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether vocabulary delays in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be explained by a cognitive style that prioritizes processing of detailed, local features of input over global contextual integration--as claimed by the weak central coherence (WCC) theory. Thirty toddlers with ASD and 30 younger,…

  18. Temporal and spatial interactions of slope and catchment processes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J.M.; Lana-Renault, N.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Lasanta, T.; Arnáez, J.; López-Moreno, J.I.; Regüés, D.; Martí-Bono, C.

    2004-01-01

    Historical and present day changes in land uses and plant cover explain the complex interactions assessed in the Central Spanish Pyrenees between geomorphic processes in hillslopes and channels. More intense erosion periods caused an enlargement of sediment sources areas and an increase of

  19. A Systematic Approach to Process Evaluation in the Central Oklahoma Turning Point (COTP) Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Cheney, Marshall K.; Chrislip, David D.; Blankenship, Derek; Troup, Pam; Hann, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Formation is an important stage of partnership development. Purpose: To describe the systematic approach to process evaluation of a Turning Point initiative in central Oklahoma during the formation stage. The nine-month collaborative effort aimed to develop an action plan to promote health. Methods: A sound planning framework was used in the…

  20. Comparison between the fragmentation processes in central Pb + Ag and Pb + Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouault, B.; Royer, G.; Sebille, F.; Haddad, F.; Lecolley, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The fragmentation processes of a medium mass system and of a very massive one formed in central collisions are compared within the Landau-Vlasov model taking into account both the isospin dependence and the two-body residual interactions. The simulations predict the formation of a roughly ellipsoidal source in the central Pb + Ag reactions while, for the Pb + Au system, the fragmentation occurs from an hollow source, the configuration of which being intermediate between bubble-like and toroidal shapes. This difference shapes explain and allow to reproduce semi-quantitatively the two different profiles of the experimental kinetic energy spectra. (authors)

  1. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  2. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  3. Pain hypersensitivity in congenital blindness is associated with faster central processing of C-fibre input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, H.; Plaghki, L.; Ptito, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have recently shown that visual deprivation from birth exacerbates responses to painful thermal stimuli. However, the mechanisms underlying pain hypersensitivity in congenital blindness are unclear. Methods To study the contribution of Aδ- and C-fibres in pain perception, we measure...... The increased sensitivity to painful thermal stimulation in congenital blindness may be due to more efficient central processing of C-fibre–mediated input, which may help to avoid impending dangerous encounters with stimuli that threaten the bodily integrity....

  4. Critical Internal Factors Influencing The Centralization Of Stock Procurement Processes In A South African Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Zwelihle Wiseman Nzuza; Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was threefold: 1) to examine the internal factors influencing centralization of stock procurement processes, 2) to assess the relationship between demographic factors and staff understanding of Information Communication Technology (ICT) with performance improvement, and 3) to examine the relationship between prevention of corruption with management commitment. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 82 members of staff from procurement division in a ...

  5. Radiation processing in some Central-East European countries: an area report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    The area report presents the state of art and the hard-ware status of radiation processing in some Central-East European countries. Only sources exceeding 1.85 PBq (50 kCi) of the isotope and 0.5 kW beam power electron accelerators have been taken into account, operating in the first half of 1989. Trends of development are discussed. (author)

  6. Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations...... of ammonia or long chain fatty acids is in most cases expected to be the cause of microbial inhibitions/imbalances while foaming in the prestorage tanks and digesters is the most important practical process problem at the plants. A correlation between increased residual biogas production (suboptimal process...... conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate...

  7. Economic comparison of centralizing or decentralizing processing facilities for defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1980-07-01

    This study is part of a set of analyses under direction of the Transuranic Waste Management Program designed to provide comprehensive, systematic methodology and support necessary to better understand options for national long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste. The report summarizes activities to evaluate the economics of possible alternatives in locating facilities to process DOE-managed transuranic waste. The options considered are: (1) Facilities located at all major DOE TRU waste generating sites. (2) Two or three regional facilities. (3) Central processing facility at only one DOE site. The study concludes that processing at only one facility is the lowest cost option, followed, in order of cost, by regional then individual site processing

  8. Techno-economic comparison of centralized versus decentralized biorefineries for two alkaline pretreatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Ryan J; Del Pilar Orjuela, Andrea; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Williams, Daniel L; Dale, Bruce E; Hodge, David B; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-02-01

    In this work, corn stover subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) 1 pretreatment or alkaline pre-extraction followed by hydrogen peroxide post-treatment (AHP pretreatment) were compared for their enzymatic hydrolysis yields over a range of solids loadings, enzymes loadings, and enzyme combinations. Process techno-economic models were compared for cellulosic ethanol production for a biorefinery that handles 2000tons per day of corn stover employing a centralized biorefinery approach with AHP or a de-centralized AFEX pretreatment followed by biomass densification feeding a centralized biorefinery. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) of these scenarios shows that the AFEX process resulted in the highest capital investment but also has the lowest minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) at $2.09/gal, primarily due to good energy integration and an efficient ammonia recovery system. The economics of AHP could be made more competitive if oxidant loadings were reduced and the alkali and sugar losses were also decreased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pedogenetic processes in anthrosols with pretic horizon (Amazonian Dark Earth in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S Macedo

    Full Text Available Anthrosols known as Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE have borne witness to the intensification of sedentary patterns and the demographic increase in Central Amazon. As a result, a recurring pattern has been observed of mounds with ADE arising from domestic activities and the disposal of waste. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the relationship of these anthropic activities with pedogenetic formation processes of ADE in the municipality of Iranduba, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from two areas of ADE (pretic horizon and from a non-anthropic pedon. Physical, chemical, micromorphological and SEM-EDS analyses were performed. The coarse material of the pretic horizons consisted predominantly of quartz, iron nodules, ceramics and charcoal fragments, and the fine material is organo-mineral. There was a direct relationship between the color of pretic horizons and the number of charcoal fragments. The thickness of the ADE results from the redistribution of charcoal at depth through bioturbation, transforming subsurface horizons into anthropic horizons. ADE presents granular microaggregates of geochemical and zoogenetic origin. Degradation of iron nodules is intensified in pretic horizons, promoting a reverse pedogenic process contributing to the xanthization process. Surprisingly the anthropic activities also favor clay dispersion and argilluviation; clay coatings on the ceramic fragments and in the pores demonstrate that this is a current process. Processes identified as contributing to ADE genesis included: i addition of organic residues and ceramic artifacts (cumulization with the use of fire; ii mechanical action of humans, roots and macrofauna (bioturbation; iii melanization of deeper horizons as a result of bioturbation; iv argilluviation and degradation of iron nodules. This study offers new support to archaeological research in respect to ADE formation processes in Central Amazon and confirmed the hypothesis

  10. Working Memory in Children With Neurocognitive Effects From Sickle Cell Disease: Contributions of the Central Executive and Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelsey E.; Schatz, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for working memory deficits due to multiple disease processes. We assessed working memory abilities and related functions in 32 school-age children with SCD and 85 matched comparison children using Baddeley’s working memory model as a framework. Children with SCD performed worse than controls for working memory, central executive function, and processing/rehearsal speed. Central executive function was found to mediate the relationship between SCD status and working memory, but processing speed did not. Cognitive remediation strategies that focus on central executive processes may be important for remediating working memory deficits in SCD. PMID:27759435

  11. Security central processing unit applications in the protection of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzke, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    New or upgraded electronic security systems protecting nuclear facilities or complexes will be heavily computer dependent. Proper planning for new systems and the employment of new state-of-the-art 32 bit processors in the processing of subsystem reports are key elements in effective security systems. The processing of subsystem reports represents only a small segment of system overhead. In selecting a security system to meet the current and future needs for nuclear security applications the central processing unit (CPU) applied in the system architecture is the critical element in system performance. New 32 bit technology eliminates the need for program overlays while providing system programmers with well documented program tools to develop effective systems to operate in all phases of nuclear security applications

  12. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Petschow

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels.13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ and higher (E = 640 mJ target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale.No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex.Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  13. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Davis, Caroline; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process. A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases) and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents) was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers. Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional "yes," "no," or "yes with restrictions" options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited. Centralized reimbursement systems have become an

  14. It Is Time to Rethink Central Auditory Processing Disorder Protocols for School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, David A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature that pertains to ongoing concerns regarding the central auditory processing construct among school-aged children and to assess whether the degree of uncertainty surrounding central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) warrants a change in current protocols. Methodology on this topic included a review of relevant and recent literature through electronic search tools (e.g., ComDisDome, PsycINFO, Medline, and Cochrane databases); published texts; as well as published articles from the Journal of the American Academy of Audiology; the American Journal of Audiology; the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research; and Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. This review revealed strong support for the following: (a) Current testing of CAPD is highly influenced by nonauditory factors, including memory, attention, language, and executive function; (b) the lack of agreement regarding the performance criteria for diagnosis is concerning; (c) the contribution of auditory processing abilities to language, reading, and academic and listening abilities, as assessed by current measures, is not significant; and (d) the effectiveness of auditory interventions for improving communication abilities has not been established. Routine use of CAPD test protocols cannot be supported, and strong consideration should be given to redirecting focus on assessing overall listening abilities. Also, intervention needs to be contextualized and functional. A suggested protocol is provided for consideration. All of these issues warrant ongoing research.

  15. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Nadia; Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-02-01

    To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder . Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) auditory processing evaluation results. When a (central) auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central) auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central) auditory processing disorder. The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central) auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful.

  16. Guess you're right on this one too : Central and peripheral processing in attitude changes in large populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Amblard, Frederic; Takahashi, S; Scallach, D; Rouchier, J

    2007-01-01

    In processes of attitude change people may employ different mechanisms, for example focussing on arguments (central processing) versus focusing on the reputation of the source (peripheral processing). In this paper we formalise these processes and systematically explore bow this affects the relation

  17. Decreasing troponin turnaround time in the emergency department using the central laboratory: A process improvement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelstler, Arlene M; Rowland, Ralph; Theoret, Jennifer; Takla, Robert B; Szpunar, Susan; Patel, Shraddha P; Lowry, Andrew M; Pena, Margarita E

    2015-03-01

    To implement collaborative process improvement measures to reduce emergency department (ED) troponin turnaround time (TAT) to less than 60min using central laboratory. This was an observational, retrospective data study. A multidisciplinary team from the ED and laboratory identified opportunities and developed a new workflow model. Process changes were implemented in ED patient triage, staffing, lab collection and processing. Data collected included TAT of door-to-order, order-to-collect, collect-to-received, received-to-result, door-to-result, ED length of stay, and hemolysis rate before (January-August, 2011) and after (September 2011-June 2013) process improvement. After process improvement and implementation of the new workflow model, decreased median TAT (in min) was seen in door-to-order (54 [IQR43] vs. 11 [IQR20]), order-to-collect (15 [IQR 23] vs. 10 [IQR12]), collect-to-received (6 [IQR8] vs. 5 [IQR5]), received-to-result (30 [IQR12] vs. 24 [IQR11]), and overall door-to-result (117 [IQR60] vs. 60 [IQR40]). A troponin TAT of <60min was realized beginning in May 2012 (59 [IQR39]). Hemolysis rates decreased (14.63±0.74 vs. 3.36±1.99, p<0.0001), as did ED length of stay (5.87±2.73h vs. 5.15±2.34h, p<0.0001). Conclusion Troponin TAT of <60min using a central laboratory was achieved with collaboration between the ED and the laboratory; additional findings include a decreased ED length of stay. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafinski T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tania Stafinski1, Devidas Menon2, Caroline Davis1, Christopher McCabe31Health Technology and Policy Unit, 2Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 3Academic Unit of Health Economics, Leeds Institute for Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process.Methods: A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers.Results: Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations

  19. Noise Equally Degrades Central Auditory Processing in 2- and 4-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Haapala, Sini; Kujala, Teija; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2017-08-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate developmental and noise-induced changes in central auditory processing indexed by event-related potentials in typically developing children. P1, N2, and N4 responses as well as mismatch negativities (MMNs) were recorded for standard syllables and consonants, frequency, intensity, vowel, and vowel duration changes in silent and noisy conditions in the same 14 children at the ages of 2 and 4 years. The P1 and N2 latencies decreased and the N2, N4, and MMN amplitudes increased with development of the children. The amplitude changes were strongest at frontal electrodes. At both ages, background noise decreased the P1 amplitude, increased the N2 amplitude, and shortened the N4 latency. The noise-induced amplitude changes of P1, N2, and N4 were strongest frontally. Furthermore, background noise degraded the MMN. At both ages, MMN was significantly elicited only by the consonant change, and at the age of 4 years, also by the vowel duration change during noise. Developmental changes indexing maturation of central auditory processing were found from every response studied. Noise degraded sound encoding and echoic memory and impaired auditory discrimination at both ages. The older children were as vulnerable to the impact of noise as the younger children. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5233939.

  20. Reactivity of two hydrate forms of europium(3) ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the processes of central ion substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitenko, S.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of central ion substitution in the system EuA - -Cu 2+ , where A 4- -ethylenediaminetetraacetate (pH 6.0, t=25-55 deg C), has been studied spectrophotometrically. It is shown, that the form EuA(H 2 O) 3 - is more reactive as compared with EuA(H 2 O) 2 - . It is found, that equilibrium constant of the process EuA(H 2 O) 3 - reversible EuA(H 2 O) 2 - (1) equals 1 at t=36.2 deg C. The values ΔH and ΔS of the process (1), constituting 13.0+-3.2 kJ/mol and 41.8+-5.5 J/molxdeg respectively, are calculated

  1. Centralized management for LA and MA waste selection and optimization of processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medal, G.

    1985-01-01

    The procedure currently used for removal of process waste produced by EDF Nuclear Power Plants consists in the local embedding of the waste on each EDF site, the embedded waste is then shipped to a National Final Storage Center. The method used is a financial limitation of opportunities for amendment of containement and volume reduction techniques. The work made by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and its subsidiary TECHNICATOME on behalf of the French Electricite Board (EDF) aim at the removal of waste ''in bulk'' with minimum possible pretreatment in compliance with transport regulation, treatment and conditioning taking place in a centralized waste treatment station so as to allow final storage. This method enables: optimization of the management of waste, selection of safe treatment-processes, storage volume reduction, lower investment and operating costs [fr

  2. Mapping tectonic and anthropogenic processes in central California using satellite and airborne InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Lundgren, P.; Liang, C.; Farr, T. G.; Fielding, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    The improved spatiotemporal resolution of surface deformation from recent satellite and airborne InSAR measurements provides a great opportunity to improve our understanding of both tectonic and non-tectonic processes. In central California the primary plate boundary fault system (San Andreas fault) lies adjacent to the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), a vast structural trough that accounts for about one-sixth of the United Sates' irrigated land and one-fifth of its extracted groundwater. The central San Andreas fault (CSAF) displays a range of fault slip behavior with creeping in its central segment that decreases towards its northwest and southeast ends, where it transitions to being fully locked. Despite much progress, many questions regarding fault and anthropogenic processes in the region still remain. In this study, we combine satellite InSAR and NASA airborne UAVSAR data to image fault and anthropogenic deformation. The UAVSAR data cover fault perpendicular swaths imaged from opposing look directions and fault parallel swaths since 2009. The much finer spatial resolution and optimized viewing geometry provide important constraints on near fault deformation and fault slip at very shallow depth. We performed a synoptic InSAR time series analysis using Sentinel-1, ALOS, and UAVSAR interferograms. We estimate azimuth mis-registration between single look complex (SLC) images of Sentinel-1 in a stack sense to achieve accurate azimuth co-registration between SLC images for low coherence and/or long interval interferometric pairs. We show that it is important to correct large-scale ionosphere features in ALOS-2 ScanSAR data for accurate deformation measurements. Joint analysis of UAVSAR and ALOS interferometry measurements show clear variability in deformation along the fault strike, suggesting variable fault creep and locking at depth and along strike. In addition to fault creep, the L-band ALOS, and especially ALOS-2 ScanSAR interferometry, show large-scale ground

  3. Abnormal Resting-State Quantitative Electroencephalogram in Children With Central Auditory Processing Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rafał; Lewandowska, Monika; Ganc, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Grudzień, Diana; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we showed an abnormal resting-state quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) pattern in children with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Twenty-seven children (16 male, 11 female; mean age = 10.7 years) with CAPD and no symptoms of other developmental disorders, as well as 23 age- and sex-matched, typically developing children (TDC, 11 male, 13 female; mean age = 11.8 years) underwent examination of central auditory processes (CAPs) and QEEG evaluation consisting of two randomly presented blocks of "Eyes Open" (EO) or "Eyes Closed" (EC) recordings. Significant correlations between individual frequency band powers and CAP tests performance were found. The QEEG studies revealed that in CAPD relative to TDC there was no effect of decreased delta absolute power (1.5-4 Hz) in EO compared to the EC condition. Furthermore, children with CAPD showed increased theta power (4-8 Hz) in the frontal area, a tendency toward elevated theta power in EO block, and reduced low-frequency beta power (12-15 Hz) in the bilateral occipital and the left temporo-occipital regions for both EO and EC conditions. Decreased middle-frequency beta power (15-18 Hz) in children with CAPD was observed only in the EC block. The findings of the present study suggest that QEEG could be an adequate tool to discriminate children with CAPD from normally developing children. Correlation analysis shows relationship between the individual EEG resting frequency bands and the CAPs. Increased power of slow waves and decreased power of fast rhythms could indicate abnormal functioning (hypoarousal of the cortex and/or an immaturity) of brain areas not specialized in auditory information processing.

  4. Abnormal Resting-State Quantitative Electroencephalogram in Children With Central Auditory Processing Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rafał; Lewandowska, Monika; Ganc, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Grudzień, Diana; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we showed an abnormal resting-state quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) pattern in children with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Twenty-seven children (16 male, 11 female; mean age = 10.7 years) with CAPD and no symptoms of other developmental disorders, as well as 23 age- and sex-matched, typically developing children (TDC, 11 male, 13 female; mean age = 11.8 years) underwent examination of central auditory processes (CAPs) and QEEG evaluation consisting of two randomly presented blocks of “Eyes Open” (EO) or “Eyes Closed” (EC) recordings. Significant correlations between individual frequency band powers and CAP tests performance were found. The QEEG studies revealed that in CAPD relative to TDC there was no effect of decreased delta absolute power (1.5–4 Hz) in EO compared to the EC condition. Furthermore, children with CAPD showed increased theta power (4–8 Hz) in the frontal area, a tendency toward elevated theta power in EO block, and reduced low-frequency beta power (12–15 Hz) in the bilateral occipital and the left temporo-occipital regions for both EO and EC conditions. Decreased middle-frequency beta power (15–18 Hz) in children with CAPD was observed only in the EC block. The findings of the present study suggest that QEEG could be an adequate tool to discriminate children with CAPD from normally developing children. Correlation analysis shows relationship between the individual EEG resting frequency bands and the CAPs. Increased power of slow waves and decreased power of fast rhythms could indicate abnormal functioning (hypoarousal of the cortex and/or an immaturity) of brain areas not specialized in auditory information processing.

  5. Working Memory in Children With Neurocognitive Effects From Sickle Cell Disease: Contributions of the Central Executive and Processing Speed

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kelsey E.; Schatz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for working memory deficits due to multiple disease processes. We assessed working memory abilities and related functions in 32 school-age children with SCD and 85 matched comparison children using Baddeley’s working memory model as a framework. Children with SCD performed worse than controls for working memory, central executive function, and processing/rehearsal speed. Central executive function was found to mediate the relationship betwee...

  6. [Trends in the urbanization process in Central America in the 1980's].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungo Ucles, M

    1990-01-01

    In the 1980s, urbanization in Central America was increasing compared to the three previous decades. By 1990, the urban population reached 42% in Guatemala, 44% in El Salvador, 43% in Honduras, 59% in Nicaragua, 53% in Costa Rica, and 54% in Panama. The urban population increased mostly in the largest cities, in contrast to Latin America, where secondary cities grew fastest. This trend was particularly true in Managua and San Salvador because of the military conflicts. The only exception was Honduras, where the second city underwent stronger growth. The urban population comprised 51.7% women and 48.3% men in Central America. The segregation and polarization of social classes was also increasing because of increased poverty and unemployment during the 1980s. This was partly caused by the increasing privatization of public services, decentralization, and the reinforcement of local governments, which all ensued from the structural readjustment programs of the International Monetary Fund. This neoliberal model of economic development in the short run resulted in increased poverty and unemployment for the urban populations. In 1982, the informal sector represented 29% of the total employment in Central America, and its share reached 40% in Managua and San Salvador. Urban unemployment increased from 2.2% in 1980 to 12% in 1988 in Guatemala; from 8.8% to 13.1% in Honduras; and from 10.4% to 20.8% in Panama. In the political arena, the process of democratization was underway, with civil presidents taking power and promoting privatization and deregulation of the economy. There was a close relationship between the urban social structure, the economy, and politics in the region. In Costa Rica, during the Arias administration between 1986 and 1990, a program was implemented creating 80,000 new homes, and in El Salvador there was an increasing demand to find a negotiated solution to the military conflict. These new political and economic perspectives could lead to genuine

  7. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Waste Receiving and Processing Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, and/or disposal (TSD) unites that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford Facility. The Complex includes two units: the WRAP Facility and the Radioactive Mixed Wastes Storage Facility (RMW Storage Facility). This Part B permit application addresses the WRAP Facility. The Facility will be a treatment and storage unit that will provide the capability to examine, sample, characterize, treat, repackage, store, and certify radioactive and/or mixed waste. Waste treated and stored will include both radioactive and/or mixed waste received from onsite and offsite sources. Certification will be designed to ensure and demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria set forth by onsite disposal units and/or offsite facilities that subsequently are to receive waste from the WRAP Facility. This permit application discusses the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characterization; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plant; personnel training; exposure information report; waste minimization plan; closure and postclosure requirements; reporting and recordkeeping; other relevant laws; certification

  8. Cortisol, but not intranasal insulin, affects the central processing of visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Schulz, André; Streit, Fabian E; Turner, Jonathan D; Oitzl, Melly S; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-12-01

    Stress glucocorticoids and insulin are important endocrine regulators of energy homeostasis, but little is known about their central interaction on the reward-related processing of food cues. According to a balanced group design, healthy food deprived men received either 40IU intranasal insulin (n=13), 30mg oral cortisol (n=12), both (n=15), or placebo (n=14). Acoustic startle responsiveness was assessed during presentation of food and non-food pictures. Cortisol enhanced startle responsiveness during visual presentation of "high glycemic" food pictures, but not during presentation of neutral and pleasant non-food pictures. Insulin had no effect. Based on the "frustrative nonreward" model these results suggest that the reward value of high glycemic food items is specifically increased by cortisol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Data on nearshore wave process and surficial beach deposits, central Tamil Nadu coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V; Chandrasekar, N

    2017-08-01

    The chronicles of nearshore morphology and surficial beach deposits provide valuable information about the nature of the beach condition and the depositional environment. It imparts an understanding about the spatial and temporal relationship of nearshore waves and its influence over the distribution of beach sediments. This article contains data about wave and sediment dynamics of the ten sandy beaches along the central Tamil Nadu coast, India. This present dataset comprises nearshore wave parameters, breaker wave type, beach morphodynamic state, grain size distribution and weight percentage of heavy and light mineral distribution. The dataset will figure out the beach morphology and hydrodynamic condition with respect to the different monsoonal season. This will act as a field reference to realize the coastal dynamics in an open sea condition. The nearshore entities were obtained from the intensive field survey between January 2011 and December 2011, while characteristics of beach sediments are examined by the chemical process in the laboratory environment.

  10. Automated processing of first-pass radioisotope ventriculography data to determine essential central circulation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, Aleksei; Pankin, Victor

    2017-09-01

    The assessment of central circulation (including heart function) parameters is vital in the preventive diagnostics of inherent and acquired heart failures and during polychemotherapy. The protocols currently applied in Russia do not fully utilize the first-pass assessment (FPRNA) and that results in poor data formalization, while the FPRNA is the one of the fastest, affordable and compact methods among other radioisotope diagnostics protocols. A non-imaging algorithm basing on existing protocols has been designed to use the readings of an additional detector above vena subclavia to determine the total blood volume (TBV), not requiring blood sampling in contrast to current protocols. An automated processing of precordial detector readings is presented, in order to determine the heart strike volume (SV). Two techniques to estimate the ejection fraction (EF) of the heart are discussed.

  11. Beyond the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex: Vestibular Input is Processed Centrally to Achieve Visual Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin S. Dalmaijer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a re-analysis of data from Zink et al. (1998, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 107, who administered galvanic vestibular stimulation through unipolar direct current. They placed electrodes on each mastoid and applied either right or left anodal stimulation. Ocular torsion and visual tilt were measured under different stimulation intensities. New modelling introduced here demonstrates that directly proportional linear models fit reasonably well with the relationship between vestibular input and visual tilt, but not to that between vestibular input and ocular torsion. Instead, an exponential model characterised by a decreasing slope and an asymptote fitted best. These results demonstrate that in the results presented by Zink et al. (1998, ocular torsion could not completely account for visual tilt. This suggests that vestibular input is processed centrally to stabilise vision when ocular torsion is insufficient. Potential mechanisms and seemingly conflicting literature are discussed.

  12. Processos inflamatorios cronicos do sistema nervoso central: aspectos neurocirurgicos Inflamatory chronic processes of the central nervous system: neurosurgical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubor Orlando Facure

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 35 casos de pacientes com síndrome de hipertensão intra-craniana causada por processos inflamatórios crônicos do sistema nervoso central. Apesar da multiplicidade dos agentes etiológicos, a conduta neuro-cirúrgica para a solução da hipertensão intracraniana é semelhante nestes processos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. O grupo 1 inclui 7 pacientes nos quais o quadro clínico e neuro-radiológico era de lesão expansiva intracerebral. Estes pacientes foram submetidos a cranotomia com exerese do processo expansivo: tratava-se de cisticercos múltiplos em 5 casos, tuberculoma em um e granuloma blastomicótico em outro. A mortalidade foi nula e não houve recidiva da hipertensão intracraniana. Nos pacientes do grupo 2 as lesões fundamentais são representadas pela ependimite granulosa e leptomeningite crônica das cisternas basais. Os quadros clínico e neuro-radiológico são de hidrocefalia com dilatação ventricular e frequentemente sem sintais neurológicos focais. O prognóstico nestes casos é mais grave devido quase sempre à progressão da doença. Nos 28 pacientes incluídos neste grupo o tratamento de escolha foi a derivação ventriculoatrial ou ventrículoperitonial. A mortalidade foi de 39,2%.A study into the neurosurgical approach to thirty-five patients with increased intracranial pressure due to inflamatory diseases affecting the central nervous system and meninges is reported. The entities under consideration were found to have similar surgical aspects despite the heterogeneity of etiologic agents. As regards the surgical treatment, two groups of cases were recognized. Group 1 comprises 7 patientes with symptoms of a space-occupying lesion; in these patients craniotomies were perfomed with good results. Group 2 included the remainder 28 cases with acquired hydrocephalus. In this group differents methods for ventricular drainage were used, but ventriculo-auriculostomy and specially ventriculo

  13. Central pain processing in chronic chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine G Boland

    Full Text Available Life expectancy in multiple myeloma has significantly increased. However, a high incidence of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN can negatively influence quality of life during this period. This study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare areas associated with central pain processing in patients with multiple myeloma who had chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (MM-CIPN with those from healthy volunteers (HV. Twenty-four participants (n = 12 MM-CIPN, n = 12 HV underwent Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD fMRI at 3T whilst noxious heat-pain stimuli were applied to the foot and then thigh. Patients with MM-CIPN demonstrated greater activation during painful stimulation in the precuneus compared to HV (p = 0.014, FWE-corrected. Patients with MM-CIPN exhibited hypo-activation of the right superior frontal gyrus compared to HV (p = 0.031, FWE-corrected. Significant positive correlation existed between the total neuropathy score (reduced version and activation in the frontal operculum (close to insular cortex during foot stimulation in patients with MM-CIPN (p = 0.03, FWE-corrected; adjusted R2 = 0.87. Painful stimuli delivered to MM-CIPN patients evoke differential activation of distinct cortical regions, reflecting a unique pattern of central pain processing compared with healthy volunteers. This characteristic activation pattern associated with pain furthers the understanding of the pathophysiology of painful chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. Functional MRI provides a tool for monitoring cerebral changes during anti-cancer and analgesic treatment.

  14. Optimization of the coherence function estimation for multi-core central processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremnov, A. G.; Faerman, V. A.; Avramchuk, V. S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper considers use of parallel processing on multi-core central processing unit for optimization of the coherence function evaluation arising in digital signal processing. Coherence function along with other methods of spectral analysis is commonly used for vibration diagnosis of rotating machinery and its particular nodes. An algorithm is given for the function evaluation for signals represented with digital samples. The algorithm is analyzed for its software implementation and computational problems. Optimization measures are described, including algorithmic, architecture and compiler optimization, their results are assessed for multi-core processors from different manufacturers. Thus, speeding-up of the parallel execution with respect to sequential execution was studied and results are presented for Intel Core i7-4720HQ и AMD FX-9590 processors. The results show comparatively high efficiency of the optimization measures taken. In particular, acceleration indicators and average CPU utilization have been significantly improved, showing high degree of parallelism of the constructed calculating functions. The developed software underwent state registration and will be used as a part of a software and hardware solution for rotating machinery fault diagnosis and pipeline leak location with acoustic correlation method.

  15. The combined influence of central and peripheral routes in the online persuasion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanJosé-Cabezudo, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-Arranz, Ana M; Gutiérrez-Cillán, Jesús

    2009-06-01

    The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) is one of the most widely used psychological theories in academic literature to account for how advertising information is processed. The current work seeks to overturn one of the basic principles of the ELM and takes account of new variables in the model that help to explain the online persuasion process more clearly. Specifically, we posit that in a context of high-involvement exposure to advertising (e.g., Web pages), central and peripheral processing routes may act together. In a repeated-measures experimental design, 112 participants were exposed to two Web sites of a fictitious travel agency, differing only in their design--serious versus amusing. Findings evidence that a peripheral cue, such as how the Web pages are presented, does prove relevant when attempting to reflect the level of effectiveness. Moreover, if we take account of individuals' motivation when accessing the Internet, whether cognitive or affective, the motivation will impact their response to the Web site design. The work contributes to ELM literature and may help firms to pinpoint those areas and features of Internet advertising that prove most efficient.

  16. Participatory Communication in Development Process of Matenggeng Dams Cilacap District Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waluyo Handoko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction process of Matenggeng Dams is still have problem such as no dialogue or renegotiation to create a mutual agreement between the government and Dayeuhluhur society. This research aims to identify, analyze and design the model of participatory development communication in the construction process of Matenggeng Dams at Dayeuhluhur subdistrict Cilacap District, Central Java Province. This research used qualitative method with case study. Data Collection through interviews, observation, analysis of documentation and focus group discussions (FGD. The results showed: (1 People have known for a long time about the discourse of Matenggeng Dams construction through interpersonal communication from the parents. (2 There is still no agreement about compensation between the community and the government. (3 The community agree and have learned the benefits of dams and willing to dialogue again to achieve an agreement of compensation for the land and productive trees. The implication, the public will continue to feel anxious for certainty the future of people's lives, if there is no certainty continuation the development of the Matenggeng dams.

  17. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina C. Murphy-Ruiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD, we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. Method We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS. Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP, such as determination of frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Results Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Conclusion Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD. Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.

  18. Late Pleistocene - Holocene surface processes and landscape evolution in the central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxleitner, Max; Musso, Alessandra; Waroszewski, Jarosław; Malkiewicz, Małgorzata; Maisch, Max; Dahms, Dennis; Brandová, Dagmar; Christl, Marcus; de Castro Portes, Raquel; Egli, Markus

    2017-10-01

    The European Alps are a geomorphologically active region and experience a number of gravity-driven hillslope processes. Soil and landscape formation in the Alps has consequently undergone several minor and major traceable changes of developmental trajectories during the Holocene. Soil development is hypothesised to be often non-linear with time and characterised by stages of progressive and regressive evolution caused by upbuilding (formation, profile deepening) and erosion (profile shallowing). Several cold and warm climate phases are identified during the Holocene but it is largely unknown which effects these might have had on slope processes. By using datable moraines (10Be) and mires (14C), we have constructed a temporal framework for these processes. Using the geochemical imprint of mires in the Alpine setting of the Göschener-valley of the Central Swiss Alps, we reconstructed general (mostly erosional) landscape processes for the last ca. 10 ka. As this is the type locality for the Göschener cold phase, we assumed that this phase (Göschener cold phase I and II 1.5 and 2.5 ka BP) should have left easily recognizable traits. After deglaciation (11-12 ka BP), soil evolution was progressive. Beginning around 8 ka BP, we detect a distinct increase in erosion here, together with a vegetation change (towards tundra vegetation) and the highest measured rates of carbon sequestration. Other phases of high geomorphic activity were recognised ca. 5-6 ka BP, 4 ka BP and, to a lesser extent, 1-3 ka ago. The cold phase at 5-6 ka BP corresponds to a less distinct change in vegetation and lessened erosion. Human impact is increasingly obvious since about 2.4 ka BP which overlaps with the Göschener cold phase. Nonetheless, erosion processes were not extraordinarily high during this period and a climate effect cannot be distinguished. We detect evidence of increasing human disturbance (regressive soil evolution) for about the last 1 ka. We also detect an increase in dust

  19. Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Subha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R2 of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81% was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87% was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  20. Role of Russia in development of intra-regional integration process between countries of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureddin Kayumovich Kayumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The character of partnership of Central Asia countries is described. Prosperity of each of these countries for natural resources is analyzed. Is highlighted that the countries of region complete each other in the context of resources. In order to resist a negative influence of globalization, countries of a region should become integrated using complementarity of their economic potentials. The countries of region derived from the USSR productions united into the single technological and transport net. Meanwhile, there were more disintegration processes in the last years. China placed into the region very big investments. Chinese capital is being placed in Tajikistan, for example, into energetic, road building, agriculture. Position of Russia in the region is feeble. Critically is evaluated economic cooperation of the region with non-CIS states. Leader of integration in the region can become Russia. It is reasonable to use Russia for the organization of links. The positiveinfluence of policy of tsarist Russia on theregion in theforetimeis underlined. External and internal factors of disintegration in the region are analyzed. It is supposed to create within the SCO a research fund for solving scientific problems of an international character

  1. Hydrothermal processes in the Edmond deposits, slow- to intermediate-spreading Central Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong; Sun, Zhilei; Zhai, Shikui; Cao, Zhimin; Jiang, Xuejun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Xilin; He, Yongjun

    2018-04-01

    The Edmond hydrothermal field, located on the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), has a distinct mineralization history owing to its unique magmatic, tectonic, and alteration processes. Here, we report the detailed mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal metal sulfides recovered from this area. Based on the mineralogical investigations, the Edmond hydrothermal deposits comprise of high-temperature Fe-rich massive sulfides, medium-temperature Zn-rich sulfide chimney and low-temperature Ca-rich sulfate mineral assemblages. According to these compositions, three distinctive mineralization stages have been identified: (1) low-temperature consisting largely of anhydrite and pyrite/marcasite; (2) medium-high temperature distinguished by the mineral assemblage of pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite; and (3) low-temperature stage characterized by the mineral assemblage of colloidal pyrite/marcasite, barite, quartz, anglesite. Several lines of evidence suggest that the sulfides were influenced by pervasive low-temperature diffuse flows in this area. The hydrothermal deposits are relatively enriched in Fe (5.99-18.93 wt%), Zn (2.10-10.00 wt%) and Ca (0.02-19.15 wt%), but display low Cu (0.28-0.81 wt%). The mineralogical varieties and low metal content of sulfides in the Edmond hydrothermal field both indicate that extensive water circulation is prevalent below the Edmond hydrothermal field. With regard to trace elements, the contents of Pb, Ba, Sr, As, Au, Ag, and Cd are significantly higher than those in other sediment-starved mid-ocean ridges, which is indicative of contribution from felsic rock sources. Furthermore, the multiphase hydrothermal activity and the pervasive water circulation underneath are speculated to play important roles in element remobilization and enrichment. Our findings deepen our understanding about the complex mineralization process in slow- to intermediate-spreading ridges globally.

  2. Motor dysfunction of complex regional pain syndrome is related to impaired central processing of proprioceptive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C Lieke E; Marinus, Johan; Beek, Peter J; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of proprioceptive deficits in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and its potential contribution to impaired motor function is still limited. To gain more insight into these issues, we evaluated accuracy and precision of joint position sense over a range of flexion-extension angles of the wrist of the affected and unaffected sides in 25 chronic CRPS patients and in 50 healthy controls. The results revealed proprioceptive impairment at both the patients' affected and unaffected sides, characterized predominantly by overestimation of wrist extension angles. Precision of the position estimates was more prominently reduced at the affected side. Importantly, group differences in proprioceptive performance were observed not only for tests at identical percentages of each individual's range of wrist motion but also when controls were tested at wrist angles that corresponded to those of the patient's affected side. More severe motor impairment of the affected side was associated with poorer proprioceptive performance. Based on additional sensory tests, variations in proprioceptive performance over the range of wrist angles, and comparisons between active and passive displacements, the disturbances of proprioceptive performance most likely resulted from altered processing of afferent (and not efferent) information and its subsequent interpretation in the context of a distorted "body schema." The present results point at a significant role for impaired central processing of proprioceptive information in the motor dysfunction of CRPS and suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at identification of proprioceptive impairments and their restoration may promote the recovery of motor function in CRPS patients. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma amyloid levels within the Alzheimer's process and correlations with central biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bombois, Stéphanie; Allinquant, Bernadette; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Gelé, Patrick; Delmaire, Christine; Blanc, Fredéric; Mangin, Jean-François; Buée, Luc; Touchon, Jacques; Hugon, Jacques; Vellas, Bruno; Galbrun, Evelyne; Benetos, Athanase; Berrut, Gilles; Paillaud, Elèna; Wallon, David; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Volpe-Gillot, Lisette; Paccalin, Marc; Robert, Philippe-Henri; Godefroy, Olivier; Dantoine, Thierry; Camus, Vincent; Belmin, Joël; Vandel, Pierre; Novella, Jean-Luc; Duron, Emmanuelle; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Schraen-Maschke, Suzanna; Gabelle, Audrey

    2018-02-17

    Diagnostic relevance of plasma amyloid β (Aβ) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) process yields conflicting results. The objective of the study was to assess plasma levels of Aβ 42 and Aβ 40 in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), nonamnestic MCI, and AD patients and to investigate relationships between peripheral and central biomarkers. One thousand forty participants (417 amnestic MCI, 122 nonamnestic MCI, and 501 AD) from the Biomarker of AmyLoïd pepTide and AlZheimer's diseAse Risk multicenter prospective study with cognition, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and magnetic resonance imaging assessments were included. Plasma Aβ 1-42 and Aβ 1-40 were lower in AD (36.9 [11.7] and 263 [80] pg/mL) than in amnestic MCI (38.2 [11.9] and 269 [68] pg/mL) than in nonamnestic MCI (39.7 [10.5] and 272 [52] pg/mL), respectively (P = .01 for overall difference between groups for Aβ 1-42 and P = .04 for Aβ 1-40 ). Globally, plasma Aβ 1-42 correlated with age, Mini-Mental State Examination, and APOE ε4 allele. Plasma Aβ 1-42 correlated with all CSF biomarkers in MCI but only with CSF Aβ 42 in AD. Plasma Aβ was associated with cognitive status and CSF biomarkers, suggesting the interest of plasma amyloid biomarkers for diagnosis purpose. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT) performance of individuals with central auditory processing disorders from 5 to 25 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Jutras, Benoît; Acrani, Isabela Olszanski; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with central auditory processing disorders, to examine the maturation effect and to investigate the relationship between the performance on a temporal resolution test with the performance on other central auditory tests. Participants were divided in two groups: 131 with Central Auditory Processing Disorder and 94 with normal auditory processing. They had pure-tone air-conduction thresholds no poorer than 15 dB HL bilaterally, normal admittance measures and presence of acoustic reflexes. Also, they were assessed with a central auditory test battery. Participants who failed at least one or more tests were included in the Central Auditory Processing Disorder group and those in the control group obtained normal performance on all tests. Following the auditory processing assessment, the Random Gap Detection Test was administered to the participants. A three-way ANOVA was performed. Correlation analyses were also done between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests data as well as between Random Gap Detection Test data and the other auditory processing test results. There was a significant difference between the age-group performances in children with and without Central Auditory Processing Disorder. Also, 48% of children with Central Auditory Processing Disorder failed the Random Gap Detection Test and the percentage decreased as a function of age. The highest percentage (86%) was found in the 5-6 year-old children. Furthermore, results revealed a strong significant correlation between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests. There was a modest correlation between the Random Gap Detection Test results and the dichotic listening tests. No significant correlation was observed between the Random Gap Detection Test data and the results of the other tests in the battery. Random Gap Detection Test should not be administered to children younger than 7 years old because

  5. Simulation modelling of central order processing system under resource sharing strategy in demand-driven garment supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K.; Thomassey, S.; Zeng, X.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proposed a central order processing system under resource sharing strategy for demand-driven garment supply chains to increase supply chain performances. We examined this system by using simulation technology. Simulation results showed that significant improvement in various performance indicators was obtained in new collaborative model with proposed system.

  6. Processing and Memory of Central versus Peripheral Information as a Function of Reading Goals: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeari, Menahem; van den Broek, Paul; Oudega, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of reading goals on the processing and memory of central and peripheral textual information. Using eye-tracking methodology, we compared the effect of four common reading goals--entertainment, presentation, studying for a close-ended (multiple-choice) questions test, and studying for an open-ended questions…

  7. An Investigation into the Involvement of California Central Valley High School Students with Disabilities in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryle Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of California Central Valley high school students with disabilities in the Individual Education Plan (IEP) process. Specifically, this study investigated the involvement of students with disabilities in the development of the IEP and IEP meetings. In addition, this study explored the…

  8. Quaternary Tectonic and Climatic Processes shaping the Central Andean hyperarid forearc (southern Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audin, Laurence; Benavente, Carlos; Zerathe, Swann; Saillard, Marianne; Hall, Sarah R.; Farber, Daniel L.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the forearc structure and processes related to Quaternary evolution and uplift of the Western Andean Cordillera remains an outstanding scientific issue. Models of Andean Plateau evolution based on Tertiary volcanic stratigraphy since 5Ma suggest that the deformation was focused along the eastern margin of the plateau and that minimal uplift occurred along the Pacific margin. On the contrary, new tectonic data and Quaternary surface 10Be dating highlight the presence of recently active deformation, incision and alluvial processes within the upper Andean forearc together with a regional uplift of the coastal zone. Additionally, the high obliquity observed in the northern Arica Bend region makes it an ideal target to discuss whether partitioning of the oblique convergence is accommodated by the neotectonic features that dissect the Quaternary forearc. Our goals are both to decipher the Quaternary tectonic and climatic processes shaping the hyperarid forearc along strike and across strike. Finally, we aim to quantify the respective influence of these factors in the overall uplift of the Western Andes. Indeed, sequences of pediment surfaces, landslide products, paleolake deposits and marine terraces found along the oblique Peruvian margin are a unique set of datable markers that can be used to quantify the rates of Quaternary processes. In this study, we focus on the southern Peru hyperarid Atacama area where regional surfaces and tectonic markers (scarps, folds, temporary streams and paleolake levels offsets…) are well preserved for the Quaternary timescale. Numerous landsliding events align on the major fault segments and reflect Plio-Pleistocene climatic and tectonic activity together with filled and strath terraces. As the present day sea-level is one of the highest levels recorded for Quaternary time span, any emerged marine terrace is preserved by tectonic coastal uplift. In particular, the geomorphic and chronologic correlation between marine and

  9. Improved Exercise Tolerance with Caffeine Is Associated with Modulation of both Peripheral and Central Neural Processes in Human Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Mohr, Magni; Fulford, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    calcium handling and extracellular potassium regulation. Our aims were to investigate how caffeine (i) affects knee extensor PCr kinetics and pH during repeated sets of single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure and (ii) modulates the interplay between central and peripheral neural processes. We...... hypothesized that the caffeine-induced extension of exercise capacity during repeated sets of exercise would occur despite greater disturbance of the muscle milieu due to enhanced peripheral and corticospinal excitatory output, central motor drive, and muscle contractility. Methods: Nine healthy active young...

  10. The use of a children software in the treatment of Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Juliana Schwambach; Pinheiro, Maria Madalena Canina; Blasi, Helena Ferro

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a efetividade do uso de recursos de informática na terapia fonoaudiológica do Distúrbio do Processamento Auditivo Central para a adequação das habilidades auditivas alteradas. Participaram desta pesquisa dois indivíduos, com diagnóstico do Distúrbio do Processamento Auditivo Central, sendo um do sexo masculino e outro do sexo feminino, ambos com nove anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a oito sessões de terapia fonoaudiológica com a utilização do software...

  11. Cogeneration in large processing power stations; Cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel [Observatorio Ciudadano de la Energia A. C., (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this communication it is spoken of the cogeneration in large processing power stations with or without electricity surplus, the characteristics of combined cycle power plants and a comparative analysis in a graph entitled Sale price of electricity in combined cycle and cogeneration power plants. The industrial plants, such as refineries, petrochemical, breweries, paper mills and cellulose plants, among others, with steam necessities for their processes, have the technical and economical conditions to cogenerate, that is, to produce steam and electricity simultaneously. In fact, many of such facilities that exist at the moment in any country, count on cogeneration equipment that allows them to obtain their electricity at a very low cost, taking advantage of the existence steam generators that anyway are indispensable to satisfy their demand. In Mexico, given the existing legal frame, the public services of electricity as well as the oil industry are activities of obligatory character for the State. For these reasons, the subject should be part of the agenda of planning of this power sector. The opportunities to which we are referring to, are valid for the small industries, but from the point of view of the national interest, they are more important for the large size facilities and in that rank, the most numerous are indeed in PEMEX, whereas large energy surplus and capacity would result into cogenerations in refineries and petrochemical facilities and they would be of a high value, precisely for the electricity public service, that is, for the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de la cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso con o sin excedentes de electricidad, las caracteristicas de plantas de ciclo combinado y se muestra el analisis comparativo en una grafica titulada precio de venta de electricidad en plantas de ciclo combinado y de cogeneracion. Las plantas industriales, tales como refinerias, petroquimicas

  12. Future forest aboveground carbon dynamics in the central United States: the importance of forest demographic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchi Jin; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Wen J. Wang; Jacob S. Fraser; Stephen R. Shifley; Brice B. Hanberry; William D. Dijak

    2017-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) in the United States is currently a major carbon sink, there are uncertainties in how long the current carbon sink will persist and if the CHF will eventually become a carbon source. We used a multi-model ensemble to investigate aboveground carbon density of the CHF from 2010 to 2300 under current climate. Simulations were done using...

  13. Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2014-01-01

    . In this article we use the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeo-stratigraphic record from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (les Roches d'Abilly site, Central France), a Bayesian analysis of the ages obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon on ultrafiltered collagen and by luminescence on quartz...

  14. Cancellation of the central singularity of the Schwarzschild solution with natural mass inversion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean-Pierre; D'Agostini, G.

    2015-03-01

    We reconsider the classical Schwarzschild solution in the context of a Janus cosmological model. We show that the central singularity can be eliminated through a simple coordinate change and that the subsequent transit from one fold to the other is accompanied by mass inversion. In such scenario matter swallowed by black holes could be ejected as invisible negative mass and dispersed in space.

  15. Atypical central pain processing in sensory modulation disorder: absence of temporal summation and higher after-sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalita, T; Vatine, J-J; Yarnitsky, D; Parush, S; Weissman-Fogel, I

    2014-02-01

    Sensory over-responsivity (SOR), a subtype of the proposed sensory modulation disorder (SMD), is characterized by over-responsiveness to stimuli in several sensory modalities. SMD individuals demonstrate abnormal responses to naturally occurring stimuli in a manner that interferes with daily life participation. Previous psychophysical testing of the somatosensory system revealed that SOR individuals rated pain sensations higher than controls, demonstrating hyperalgesia that can be centrally mediated. Temporal summation (TS) of second pain and after-sensation are manifestations of central sensitization; therefore, this study explored these measures for better characterization of central pain processing in SOR. Twelve SOR adults and 12 healthy controls participated. TS was produced by a train of fifteen repetitive heat pulses, 0.7 s duration each, and 2 s of inter-stimulus interval, applied to the thenar-eminence, while four pain ratings were obtained. An after-sensation was then measured for 5 min, obtaining six pain ratings. No TS of pain was indicated in the SOR group (SOR: p = 0.36; control: p sensation, individuals with SOR continued to report pain for the duration of the 5 min measured (p = 0.002). These results demonstrate an atypical response pattern, suggesting alteration in pain processing and/or modulation at a central level in individuals with SOR. These possible neural changes may manifest themselves as interference with daily functioning as well as shed light on some of the between-subject variability seen in psychophysical testing in non-painful subjects.

  16. Stimulus-dependent spiking relationships with the EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The development and refinement of noninvasive techniques for imaging neural activity is of paramount importance for human neuroscience. Currently, the most accessible and popular technique is electroencephalography (EEG). However, nearly all of what we know about the neural events that underlie EEG signals is based on inference, because of the dearth of studies that have simultaneously paired EEG recordings with direct recordings of single neurons. From the perspective of electrophysiologists there is growing interest in understanding how spiking activity coordinates with large-scale cortical networks. Evidence from recordings at both scales highlights that sensory neurons operate in very distinct states during spontaneous and visually evoked activity, which appear to form extremes in a continuum of coordination in neural networks. We hypothesized that individual neurons have idiosyncratic relationships to large-scale network activity indexed by EEG signals, owing to the neurons' distinct computational roles within the local circuitry. We tested this by recording neuronal populations in visual area V4 of rhesus macaques while we simultaneously recorded EEG. We found substantial heterogeneity in the timing and strength of spike-EEG relationships and that these relationships became more diverse during visual stimulation compared with the spontaneous state. The visual stimulus apparently shifts V4 neurons from a state in which they are relatively uniformly embedded in large-scale network activity to a state in which their distinct roles within the local population are more prominent, suggesting that the specific way in which individual neurons relate to EEG signals may hold clues regarding their computational roles. PMID:26108954

  17. Stimulus-dependent effects on tactile spatial acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommerdahl M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that spatio-tactile acuity is influenced by the clarity of the cortical response in primary somatosensory cortex (SI. Stimulus characteristics such as frequency, amplitude, and location of tactile stimuli presented to the skin have been shown to have a significant effect on the response in SI. The present study observes the effect of changing stimulus parameters of 25 Hz sinusoidal vertical skin displacement stimulation ("flutter" on a human subject's ability to discriminate between two adjacent or near-adjacent skin sites. Based on results obtained from recent neurophysiological studies of the SI response to different conditions of vibrotactile stimulation, we predicted that the addition of 200 Hz vibration to the same site that a two-point flutter stimulus was delivered on the skin would improve a subject's spatio-tactile acuity over that measured with flutter alone. Additionally, similar neurophysiological studies predict that the presence of either a 25 Hz flutter or 200 Hz vibration stimulus on the unattended hand (on the opposite side of the body from the site of two-point limen testing – the condition of bilateral stimulation – which has been shown to evoke less SI cortical activity than the contralateral-only stimulus condition would decrease a subject's ability to discriminate between two points on the skin. Results A Bekesy tracking method was employed to track a subject's ability to discriminate between two-point stimuli delivered to the skin. The distance between the two points of stimulation was varied on a trial-by-trial basis, and several different stimulus conditions were examined: (1 The "control" condition, in which 25 Hz flutter stimuli were delivered simultaneously to the two points on the skin of the attended hand, (2 the "complex" condition, in which a combination of 25 Hz flutter and 200 Hz vibration stimuli were delivered to the two points on the attended hand, and (3 a "bilateral" condition, in which 25 Hz flutter was delivered to the two points on the attended hand and a second stimulus (either flutter or vibration was delivered to the unattended hand. The two-point limen was reduced (i.e., spatial acuity was improved under the complex stimulus condition when compared to the control stimulus condition. Specifically, whereas adding vibration to the unilateral two-point flutter stimulus improved spatial acuity by 20 to 25%, the two-point limen was not significantly affected by substantial changes in stimulus amplitude (between 100 – 200 μm. In contrast, simultaneous stimulation of the unattended hand (contralateral to the attended site, impaired spatial acuity by 20% with flutter stimulation and by 30% with vibration stimulation. Conclusion It was found that the addition of 200 Hz vibration to a two-point 25 Hz flutter stimulus significantly improved a subject's ability to discriminate between two points on the skin. Since previous studies showed that 200 Hz vibration preferentially evokes activity in cortical area SII and reduces or inhibits the spatial extent of activity in SI in the same hemisphere, the findings in this paper raise the possibility that although SI activity plays a major role in two-point discrimination on the skin, influences relayed to SI from SII in the same hemisphere may contribute importantly to SI's ability to differentially respond to stimuli applied to closely spaced skin points on the same side of the body midline.

  18. Stimulus-dependent suppression of chaos in recurrent neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Kanaka; Abbott, L. F.; Sompolinsky, Haim

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal activity arises from an interaction between ongoing firing generated spontaneously by neural circuits and responses driven by external stimuli. Using mean-field analysis, we ask how a neural network that intrinsically generates chaotic patterns of activity can remain sensitive to extrinsic input. We find that inputs not only drive network responses, but they also actively suppress ongoing activity, ultimately leading to a phase transition in which chaos is completely eliminated. The critical input intensity at the phase transition is a nonmonotonic function of stimulus frequency, revealing a 'resonant' frequency at which the input is most effective at suppressing chaos even though the power spectrum of the spontaneous activity peaks at zero and falls exponentially. A prediction of our analysis is that the variance of neural responses should be most strongly suppressed at frequencies matching the range over which many sensory systems operate.

  19. Improved Exercise Tolerance with Caffeine Is Associated with Modulation of both Peripheral and Central Neural Processes in Human Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Mohr, Magni; Fulford, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise performance and capacity. The mechanisms remain unclear but are suggested to relate to adenosine receptor antagonism, resulting in increased central motor drive, reduced perception of effort, and altered peripheral processes such as enhanced...... men performed five sets of intense single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure on four separate occasions: for two visits (6 mg·kg-1 caffeine vs placebo), quadriceps 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans were performed to quantify phosphocreatine kinetics and pH, and for the remaining two...... calcium handling and extracellular potassium regulation. Our aims were to investigate how caffeine (i) affects knee extensor PCr kinetics and pH during repeated sets of single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure and (ii) modulates the interplay between central and peripheral neural processes. We...

  20. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain sensitivity in carpal tunnel syndrome: evidence of central processing in unilateral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity exists in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 20 females with carpal tunnel syndrome (aged 22-60 years), and 20 healthy matched females (aged 21-60 years old) were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. The results showed that pressure pain threshold levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome as compared to healthy controls (all, P < 0.001). Pressure pain threshold was negatively correlated to both hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms (all, P < 0.001). Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, which suggest that widespread central sensitization is involved in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The generalized decrease in pressure pain thresholds associated with pain intensity and duration of symptoms supports a role of the peripheral drive to initiate and maintain central sensitization. Nevertheless, both central and peripheral sensitization mechanisms are probably involved at the same time in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  1. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael; Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas; Braus, Dieter F.; Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl; Roesch, Frank; Cumming, Paul; Gruender, Gerhard; Bartenstein, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [ 18 F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [ 18 F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [ 18 F]DOPA net influx constant K in app /[ 18 F]DMFP-binding potential (BP N D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  2. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias [University of Mainz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Braus, Dieter F. [University of Hamburg, Neuroimage Nord, Department of Psychiatry, Hamburg (Germany); Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl [Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Roesch, Frank [University of Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cumming, Paul [PET Center and Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus (Denmark); Gruender, Gerhard [Aachen University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry of the RWTH, Mainz (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [{sup 18}F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [{sup 18}F]DOPA net influx constant K{sub in}{sup app} /[{sup 18}F]DMFP-binding potential (BP{sub N}D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of source material (U and Th) in exploration, mining, processing of zircon sand in Central Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedi Hermawan; Pandu Dewanto; Sudarto

    2011-01-01

    From 2004 to 2008, according to data released by the Commerce Department, the volume of zircon sand and concentrates exports has increased highly. One of many locations in Indonesia that widely available zircon sand is Kalimantan island. For example, Central Kalimantan Province in 2007 to 2008 exports about 51,000 tones up to 79,000 tones of zircon sand annually. The concentration of source material in the zircon sand is important to be known because the presence of natural radioactive U and Th in zircon sand has the potential radiation hazard. Therefore it is necessary to conduct an assessment the potential reserves related to the source material contained in the zircon sand and radiation safety that are applied in the process of mining or processing of zircon sand. In this paper the location of mining and processing of zircon sand is restricted to the province of Central Kalimantan. From the assessment obtained that source material which is carried by zircon sand export form the province of Central Kalimantan have the potential to exceed the limits set by the BAPETEN Chairman Decree No.9 of 2006 About the Implementation of the Additional Protocol to the Accountability System and Control of Nuclear Materials. In terms of compliance with radiation safety, required increased surveillance of K3 during mining, process / processing by the worker, supervisor / supervisors and regional management company to be able the achievement of compliance with the provisions of the management of materials and the safety of radiation sources based on national regulations (BAPETEN) and international. (author)

  4. Design process robustness: A bi-partite network analysis reveals the central importance of people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Sebastiano; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Maier, Anja

    2018-01-01

    , reducing the risk of rework and delays. Although there has been much progress in modelling and understanding design processes, little is known about the interplay between people and the activities they perform and its influence on design process robustness. To analyse this interplay, we model a large...

  5. Strong law and central limit theorem for a process between maxima and sums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Hooghiemstra, G.; Keane, M.S.; Resing, J.A.C.

    1991-01-01

    We prove an invariance principle for the random process (X n ) n1 given by where (Y n ) n1 are i.i.d. random variables and ( n ) n are nonrandom numbers tending upward to 1 (both in ). This process interpolates between maxima ( n 0) and sums ( n 1). Depending on the distribution ofY n and on the

  6. Using Systems Theory to Examine Patient and Nurse Structures, Processes, and Outcomes in Centralized and Decentralized Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Kevin; Fay, Lindsey; Isaacs, Kathy; Carll-White, Allison; Schadler, Aric

    2018-01-01

    This study utilizes systems theory to understand how changes to physical design structures impact communication processes and patient and staff design-related outcomes. Many scholars and researchers have noted the importance of communication and teamwork for patient care quality. Few studies have examined changes to nursing station design within a systems theory framework. This study employed a multimethod, before-and-after, quasi-experimental research design. Nurses completed surveys in centralized units and later in decentralized units ( N = 26 pre , N = 51 post ). Patients completed surveys ( N = 62 pre ) in centralized units and later in decentralized units ( N = 49 post ). Surveys included quantitative measures and qualitative open-ended responses. Patients preferred the decentralized units because of larger single-occupancy rooms, greater privacy/confidentiality, and overall satisfaction with design. Nurses had a more complex response. Nurses approved the patient rooms, unit environment, and noise levels in decentralized units. However, they reported reduced access to support spaces, lower levels of team/mentoring communication, and less satisfaction with design than in centralized units. Qualitative findings supported these results. Nurses were more positive about centralized units and patients were more positive toward decentralized units. The results of this study suggest a need to understand how system components operate in concert. A major contribution of this study is the inclusion of patient satisfaction with design, an important yet overlooked fact in patient satisfaction. Healthcare design researchers and practitioners may consider how changing system interdependencies can lead to unexpected changes to communication processes and system outcomes in complex systems.

  7. Integration of a central protein repository into a standard data processing application for mining proteomics data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzemeier, Kai; Kristensen, Jakob; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    efficient data mining and categorizing of large data sets. Methods All samples were analyzed on an Orbitrap mass Spectrometer coupled to a nano Easy LC. The proteomics repository database is built using the Sun Java technology and the Microsoft mySQL database technology for optimal performance. Proteome......Novel Aspect All major protein repositories integrated into a central domain for direct analyses and interpretation in a standard proteomics data analysis software. Introduction Modern proteomics must face the challenge of performing bioinformatics analysis and comparison of large datasets....... It is a time consuming and at times nearly impossible task to distinguish known proteins from novel proteins in these data sets without proper annotation and comparison with literature sources. Tools are needed that can handle the complexity of these data including: redundancy (same protein but different...

  8. Detrital processing in streams exposed to acidic precipitation in the Central Appalachian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meegan, S.K.; Perry, S.A.; Perry, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Continuing high rates of acidic deposition in the eastern United States may lead to long-term effects on stream communities, because sensitive catchments are continuing to lose anions and cations. A two-year study of the effects of pH and associated water chemistry variables on detrital processing in three streams with different bedrock geology in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia were investigated. Leaf pack processing rates and macroinvertebrate colonization and microbial biomass (ATP concentration) on the packs in the three stream were compared. It was found that macroinvertebrate and microbial communities differed both among streams that differed in their capacity to buffer the effects of acidic precipitation and among years in the same stream; these differences in biotic communities were not large enough to affect rates of leaf processing between the two years of the study, but they did significantly affect processing rates between acidic and circumneutral streams

  9. Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism: beyond central coherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottron, L; Peretz, I; Ménard, E

    2000-11-01

    A multi-modal abnormality in the integration of parts and whole has been proposed to account for a bias toward local stimuli in individuals with autism (Frith, 1989; Mottron & Belleville, 1993). In the current experiment, we examined the utility of hierarchical models in characterising musical information processing in autistic individuals. Participants were 13 high-functioning individuals with autism and 13 individuals of normal intelligence matched on chronological age, nonverbal IQ, and laterality, and without musical experience. The task consisted of same-different judgements of pairs of melodies. Differential local and global processing was assessed by manipulating the level, local or global, at which modifications occurred. No deficit was found in the two measures of global processing. In contrast, the clinical group performed better than the comparison group in the detection of change in nontransposed, contour-preserved melodies that tap local processing. These findings confirm the existence of a "local bias" in music perception in individuals with autism, but challenge the notion that it is accounted for by a deficit in global music processing. The present study suggests that enhanced processing of elementary physical properties of incoming stimuli, as found previously in the visual modality, may also exist in the auditory modality.

  10. A multi-criteria assessment of scenarios on thermal processing of infectious hospital wastes: A case study for Central Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiannidis, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Perkoulidis, G.; Sanida, G.; Samaras, P.

    2010-01-01

    In Greece more than 14,000 tonnes of infectious hospital waste are produced yearly; a significant part of it is still mismanaged. Only one off-site licensed incineration facility for hospital wastes is in operation, with the remaining of the market covered by various hydroclave and autoclave units, whereas numerous problems are still generally encountered regarding waste segregation, collection, transportation and management, as well as often excessive entailed costs. Everyday practices still include dumping the majority of solid hospital waste into household disposal sites and landfills after sterilization, still largely without any preceding recycling and separation steps. Discussed in the present paper are the implemented and future treatment practices of infectious hospital wastes in Central Macedonia; produced quantities are reviewed, actual treatment costs are addressed critically, whereas the overall situation in Greece is discussed. Moreover, thermal treatment processes that could be applied for the treatment of infectious hospital wastes in the region are assessed via the multi-criteria decision method Analytic Hierarchy Process. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed and the analysis demonstrated that a centralized autoclave or hydroclave plant near Thessaloniki is the best performing option, depending however on the selection and weighing of criteria of the multi-criteria process. Moreover the study found that a common treatment option for the treatment of all infectious hospital wastes produced in the Region of Central Macedonia, could offer cost and environmental benefits. In general the multi-criteria decision method, as well as the conclusions and remarks of this study can be used as a basis for future planning and anticipation of the needs for investments in the area of medical waste management.

  11. A study on mineralization U,REE and related processes in anomaly No.6 Khoshomy area central Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidaryan, F.

    2005-01-01

    Uranium mineralization in Khoshomy prospect, located in central. part of Iran, with 303-15000 (cps) and 14 to 4000 (ppm) released, The main rock types include: gneiss, granite, pegmatite and migmatite, that influenced by pegmatite-albitic vines (quartz-heldespatic). Acidic and basic dykes, granodioritic, units and dolomite and marble have been seen. The alteration associated with the mineralization is potassic, argillic, propylitic, carbonization, silisificaition and hematitizaition. Uranium mineralization occurred in a hydrothermal phase with Cu, Mo, Ni and Au elements. Uranium primary minerals include pitchblende, coffinite, uraninite; and uranium secondary minerals include uranophane and . boltwoodite. REE mineralization occurred by the potassic phase in peginatitization process

  12. Behavioural conditioning of immune functions: how the central nervous system controls peripheral immune responses by evoking associative learning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riether, Carsten; Doenlen, Raphaël; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Niemi, Maj-Britt; Engler, Andrea; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    During the last 30 years of psychoneuroimmunology research the intense bi-directional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system has been demonstrated in studies on the interaction between the nervous-endocrine-immune systems. One of the most intriguing examples of such interaction is the capability of the CNS to associate an immune status with specific environmental stimuli. In this review, we systematically summarize experimental evidence demonstrating the behavioural conditioning of peripheral immune functions. In particular, we focus on the mechanisms underlying the behavioural conditioning process and provide a theoretical framework that indicates the potential feasibility of behaviourally conditioned immune changes in clinical situations.

  13. Dental calculus reveals unique insights into food items, cooking and plant processing in prehistoric central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephen; Usai, Donatella; Jakob, Tina; Radini, Anita; Hardy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the mouth. Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. This plant is a good source of carbohydrates and has many useful medicinal and aromatic qualities, though today it is considered to be the world's most costly weed. Its ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans may have contributed to the unexpectedly low level of caries found in the agricultural population. Other evidence extracted from the dental calculus includes smoke inhalation, dry (roasting) and wet (heating in water) cooking, a second plant possibly from the Triticaceae tribe and plant fibres suggestive of raw material preparation through chewing.

  14. A Comparison of Central Composite Design and Taguchi Method for Optimizing Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anam Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. Dyeini, Dye : Fe+2, H2O2 : Fe+2, and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications.

  15. Dental calculus reveals unique insights into food items, cooking and plant processing in prehistoric central Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Buckley

    Full Text Available Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the mouth. Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. This plant is a good source of carbohydrates and has many useful medicinal and aromatic qualities, though today it is considered to be the world's most costly weed. Its ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans may have contributed to the unexpectedly low level of caries found in the agricultural population. Other evidence extracted from the dental calculus includes smoke inhalation, dry (roasting and wet (heating in water cooking, a second plant possibly from the Triticaceae tribe and plant fibres suggestive of raw material preparation through chewing.

  16. Agricultural land for urban development : The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuc, Nguyen Quang; Westen, A. C M van; Zoomers, Annelies

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam's progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted

  17. Agricultural land for urban development: The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, C.P.; Westen, A.C.M. van; Zoomers, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam’s progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted

  18. The Creys-Malville nuclear power plant. Information in central data processing during current microbreaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garelly, H.

    1980-01-01

    Having recalled a few definitions and some statistics, mention is then made of the problem of current microbreak measurement, the software facilities to be employed so that they do not affect the operation of the data processing system and their effects on the software [fr

  19. Ravenna from imperial residence to episcopal city: processes of centrality across empires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Cosentino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From Late Antiquity to the early Middle Ages, two basic factor shaped Ravenna’s ability to influence a much more extensive space than its natural hinterland. The first was its establishment as an imperial residence the second was its location within the northern Adriatic basin, which had since Antiquity been a crossroads for peoples, trade and cultures. Just on the basis of the support it received from the imperial power, its episcopate was elevated to one of the most important sees of Italy. By means of the large international harbour of Classe, from the 5th to the 7th centuries the city imported products from around the entire Mediterranean. With the arrival of the Byzantine government, the ties between the port of Classe and the other Mediterranean export centres shifted by moving from West to East. Moreover, the relationship with Constantinople reaffirmed the political and ecclesiastical importance of Ravenna. As long as these ties remained strong, Ravenna retained a vital contact to the other maritime Mediterranean trade centres. The twilight of Byzantine rule did not cause the decline of the city, but rather a progressive turn of its ruling class toward the political scenario of the medieval West. By virtue of being the management centre of the patrimonium beati Apollinaris, the city remained wealthy and influential well beyond the 9th century. This was due both to the economic power of its archbishops and to their alliance with the Ottonians and then later with the Salian and Swabian emperors. The trajectories of the political centrality of Ravenna from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages were, therefore, deeply influenced by the dynamic of successive empires, which, in one form or another, were all connected or attempted to reconnect to the memory of its Roman past.

  20. Pb and O isotope systematics in granulite facies xenoliths, French Massif Central: Implications for crustal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, H.; Kempton, P.D.; Harmon, R.S.; Briot, D.; Leyreloup, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Pb and O isotope data are represented for a suite of granulite facies xenoliths found within Tertiary alkaline volcanic rocks of the Massif Central, France. The suite consists of ultramafic and mafic cumulates, metagabbros which are considered to represent basic liquids, felsic meta-igneous lithologies (charnockites) and metasediments. Ranges of δ 18 O values are +6.9 to +9.8per mille for mafic xenoliths, +9.3 to +10.2per mille for felsic meta-igneous samples and +6.1 to +11.8per mille for the metasediments. By comparison, δ 18 O values for mantle peridotites from the same region range from +5.1 to +6.9per mille, whilst local Hercynian granitoids vary from +8.6 to +12.0per mille. The 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios of the granulite xenoliths are between 17.77 and 19.19, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios vary from 15.51 to 15.69, and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios range from 38.07 to 40.07. In general, metasedimentary granulites have the more radiogenic Pb isotope compositions, whereas mafic meta-igneous samples are less radiogenic. These isotopic characteristics can be explained as the result of the interaction of mafic magmas with the metasedimentary crust into which they intruded. The release of heat also provoked melting of the more fusible parts of the lower crust and led to the formation of late-orogenic Hercynian granitoids. However, an additional component which provides less radiogenic Pb is also needed in the source of the granitoids; this may be the felsic meta-igneous xenoliths or middle/upper crustal gneisses. (orig.)

  1. The role of sleep problems in central pain processing in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yvonne C; Lu, Bing; Edwards, Robert R; Wasan, Ajay D; Nassikas, Nicholas J; Clauw, Daniel J; Solomon, Daniel H; Karlson, Elizabeth W

    2013-01-01

    Among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, the intensity of pain may be out of proportion to the severity of peripheral inflammation. This observation suggests that mechanisms of central nervous system pain amplification, such as diminished conditioned pain modulation (CPM), may play a role in enhancing pain perception among some RA patients. This study was undertaken to examine the level of CPM, pressure-pain threshold, and pressure-pain tolerance among RA patients compared to healthy controls. Fifty-eight female RA patients and 54 age-matched female control subjects without chronic pain underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST) to assess CPM levels, pressure-pain thresholds, and pressure-pain tolerance levels. CPM was induced using a cold water bath, and the pain threshold (when patients first felt pain) and pain tolerance (when pain was too much to bear) were assessed with an algometer. Associations between RA and each QST outcome were analyzed using linear regression. Sleep problems, mental health, and inflammation were assessed as mediators of the relationship between RA and QST outcomes. The median CPM level was 0.5 kg/cm2 (interquartile range [IQR] -0.1, 1.6) among RA patients, compared to a median of 1.5 kg/cm2 (IQR -0.1, 2.5) among controls (P=0.04). RA patients, compared to controls, had a lower pain threshold and lower pain tolerance at the wrists (each P≤0.05). In addition, RA patients had greater problems with sleep, pain catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety (Ppain-free control subjects. Sleep problems may mediate the association between RA and attenuated CPM. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B.; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A.; Halford, Jason C. G.; Stancak, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation under...

  3. Mercury Distribution in the Processing of Jatiroto Gold Mine Wonogiri Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri Yudiantoro, Dwi; Nurcholis, Muhammad; Sri Sayudi, Dewi; Abdurrachman, Mirzam; Paramita Haty, Intan; Pambudi, Wiryan; Subroborini, Arum

    2017-06-01

    The research area is one of the Wonogiri gold producer. In this region there are nearly 30 gold processing locations. This area has a steep morphology which is part of Mt. Mas. The work of the gold processing is a part time job besides for the local farmer population. To get the gold bearing rocks, are by digging holes manually around Mt. Mas, while gold processing is carried out in their homes. As a result of these activities, then identified the distribution of mercury in the surrounding settlements. Analytical methods used in this study is the measurement mercury content using Hg meter on altered rocks, soil and using XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) for plant samples. This results of research shows that there are conducted on mercury contents in the altered rocks, soil and plants showed significant mercury contents in altered rocks, soil and plants. This proves that mercury has polluted the environment surrounding residents, both of people living in the hill down on the lower plain areas. The results of this study are expected to be used as reference to help overcome the pollution of the area.

  4. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouwense SA

    2015-07-01

    -generating study provides the first evidence that pain relief with pregabalin is associated with anti-hyperalgesic effects and increased endogenous inhibitory modulation. No such effects were observed in patients experiencing pain relief with the placebo treatment. The mechanisms underlying analgesic response to placebo vs drug treatments are different and, together with their interactions, deserve further study.Keywords: chronic pancreatitis, pregabalin, placebo, chronic pain treatment, quantitative sensory testing, central sensitization

  5. San Miguel Volcanic Seismic and Structure in Central America: Insight into the Physical Processes of Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, E.; Velasco, A.; Konter, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    The San Miguel volcano lies near the city of San Miguel, El Salvador (13.43N and - 88.26W). San Miguel volcano, an active stratovolcano, presents a significant natural hazard for the city of San Miguel. In general, the internal state and activity of volcanoes remains an important component to understanding volcanic hazard. The main technology for addressing volcanic hazards and processes is through the analysis of data collected from the deployment of seismic sensors that record ground motion. Six UTEP seismic stations were deployed around San Miguel volcano from 2007-2008 to define the magma chamber and assess the seismic and volcanic hazard. We utilize these data to develop images of the earth structure beneath the volcano, studying the volcanic processes by identifying different sources, and investigating the role of earthquakes and faults in controlling the volcanic processes. We initially locate events using automated routines and focus on analyzing local events. We then relocate each seismic event by hand-picking P-wave arrivals, and later refine these picks using waveform cross correlation. Using a double difference earthquake location algorithm (HypoDD), we identify a set of earthquakes that vertically align beneath the edifice of the volcano, suggesting that we have identified a magma conduit feeding the volcano. We also apply a double-difference earthquake tomography approach (tomoDD) to investigate the volcano’s plumbing system. Our preliminary results show the extent of the magma chamber that also aligns with some horizontal seismicity. Overall, this volcano is very active and presents a significant hazard to the region.

  6. Central vasopressin V1a receptors modulate neural processing in mothers facing intruder threat to pups

    OpenAIRE

    Caffrey, Martha K.; Nephew, Benjamin C.; Febo, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Vasopressin V1a receptors in the rat brain have been studied for their role in modulating aggression and anxiety. In the current study blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI was used to test whether V1a receptors modulate neural processing in the maternal brain when dams are exposed to a male intruder. Primiparous females were given an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of vehicle or V1a receptor antagonist ([deamino-Pen1, O-Me-Try, Arg8]-Vasopressin, 125 ng/10 μL) 90-120 min...

  7. p-Nitrophenol degradation by electro-Fenton process: Pathway, kinetic model and optimization using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, J; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2017-10-01

    The chemical process scale-up, from lab studies to industrial production, is challenging and requires deep knowledge of the kinetic model and the reactions that take place in the system. This knowledge is also useful in order to be employed for the reactor design and the determination of the optimal operational conditions. In this study, a model substituted phenol such as p-nitrophenol was degraded by electro-Fenton process and the reaction products yielded along the treatment were recorded. The kinetic model was developed using Matlab software and was based on main reactions that occurred until total mineralization which allowed predicting the degradation pathway under this advanced oxidation process. The predicted concentration profiles of p-nitrophenol, their intermediates and by-products in electro-Fenton process were validated with experimental assays and the results were consistent. Finally, based on the developed kinetic model the degradation process was optimized using central composite design taking as key parameters the ferrous ion concentration and current density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Distributed control and data processing system with a centralized database for a BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K.; Neda, T.; Kawamura, A.; Monta, K.; Satoh, K.

    1980-01-01

    Recent digital techniques based on changes in electronics and computer technologies have realized a very wide scale of computer application to BWR Power Plant control and instrumentation. Multifarious computers, from micro to mega, are introduced separately. And to get better control and instrumentation system performance, hierarchical computer complex system architecture has been developed. This paper addresses the hierarchical computer complex system architecture which enables more efficient introduction of computer systems to a Nuclear Power Plant. Distributed control and processing systems, which are the components of the hierarchical computer complex, are described in some detail, and the database for the hierarchical computer complex is also discussed. The hierarchical computer complex system has been developed and is now in the detailed design stage for actual power plant application. (auth)

  10. Geochemical processes controlling groundwater quality under semi arid environment: A case study in central Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karroum, Morad; Elgettafi, Mohammed; Elmandour, Abdenabi; Wilske, Cornelia; Himi, Mahjoub; Casas, Albert

    2017-12-31

    Bahira plain is an important area for Morocco due to its agriculture and mining activities. Situated in a sub-arid to arid climate, this plain hosts an aquifer system that represents sequences of carbonates, phosphates, evaporates and alluvial deposits. Groundwater flows from Ganntour plateau (recharge area) to the basin-fill deposits and Zima Lake and Sed Elmejnoun where water evaporates. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical properties of the groundwater and to assess the processes controlling the groundwater's chemistry. We can divide water samples into three hydrochemical water groups: recharge waters (Ca/Mg-HCO 3 ), transition zone waters (Ca-HCO 3 -SO 4 /Cl) and discharge waters (Na-Cl/SO 4 ). Accordingly, compositions of waters are determined by the availability of easily soluble minerals like calcite (Ca-HCO 3 dominant), halite (Na-Cl dominant) and gypsum (Ca-SO 4 dominant). Cl/Br ratios show that Cl concentration increases from dissolution of natural halite. When groundwater is affected by extreme evaporation Cl/Br ratios may increase up to 1900. High fluoride concentrations are associated with low Ca 2+ concentrations (<100mg/L). That means when recharge waters enter the aquifer, it starts dissolving fluorite since the Ca 2+ concentration is low. Once groundwater becomes saturated with Ca 2+ , the immobilization of fluoride is occurring by precipitation of fluoride-rich minerals like fluoro-apatite. According to the environmental isotope ( 18 O and 2 H) analyses, they are three potential processes affecting groundwater: 1. Evaporation as verified by low slope value, 2. Water-rock interaction, 3. admixture of waters showed different stable isotope compositions and salinities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Large-scale functional networks connect differently for processing words and symbol strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Mia; Vartiainen, Johanna; Kujala, Jan; Salmelin, Riitta

    2018-01-01

    Reconfigurations of synchronized large-scale networks are thought to be central neural mechanisms that support cognition and behavior in the human brain. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings together with recent advances in network analysis now allow for sub-second snapshots of such networks. In the present study, we compared frequency-resolved functional connectivity patterns underlying reading of single words and visual recognition of symbol strings. Word reading emphasized coherence in a left-lateralized network with nodes in classical perisylvian language regions, whereas symbol processing recruited a bilateral network, including connections between frontal and parietal regions previously associated with spatial attention and visual working memory. Our results illustrate the flexible nature of functional networks, whereby processing of different form categories, written words vs. symbol strings, leads to the formation of large-scale functional networks that operate at distinct oscillatory frequencies and incorporate task-relevant regions. These results suggest that category-specific processing should be viewed not so much as a local process but as a distributed neural process implemented in signature networks. For words, increased coherence was detected particularly in the alpha (8-13 Hz) and high gamma (60-90 Hz) frequency bands, whereas increased coherence for symbol strings was observed in the high beta (21-29 Hz) and low gamma (30-45 Hz) frequency range. These findings attest to the role of coherence in specific frequency bands as a general mechanism for integrating stimulus-dependent information across brain regions.

  12. Proteome analysis reveals an energy-dependent central process for Populus×canadensis seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Ke-Xin; Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Song-Quan

    2017-06-01

    Poplar (Populus×canadensis) seeds rapidly germinated in darkness at 10, 15, and 20°C and reached 50% seed germination after about 22, 4.5, and 3.5h, respectively. Germination of poplar seeds was markedly inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA) at 50μM and cycloheximide (CHX) at 100μM, and these inhibitive roles were temperature-dependent. In the present study, mature poplar seeds were used to investigate the differentially changed proteome of seeds germinating in water, ABA, and CHX. A total of 130 protein spots showed a significant change (1.5-fold increase/decrease, Pgermination of poplar seeds is closely related with the increase in those proteins involved in amino acid and lipid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway, protein synthesis and destination, cell defense and rescue, and degradation of storage proteins. ABA and CHX inhibit the germination of poplar seeds by decreasing the protein abundance associated with protein proteolysis, protein folding, and storage proteins. We conclude that poplar seed germination is an energy-dependent active process, and is accompanied by increasing amino acid activation, protein synthesis and destination, as well as cell defense and rescue, and degradation of storage proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Contributions of the cerebellum to disturbed central processing of visceral stimuli in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Christina; Thürling, Markus; Forsting, Michael; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Timmann, Dagmar; Gizewski, Elke R

    2013-04-01

    There is evidence to support that the cerebellum contributes to the neural processing of both emotions and painful stimuli. This could be particularly relevant in conditions associated with chronic abdominal pain, such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which are often also characterized by affective disturbances. We aimed to test the hypothesis that in IBS, symptoms of anxiety and depression modulate brain activation during visceral stimulation within the cerebellum. We reanalyzed a previous data set from N = 15 female IBS patients and N = 12 healthy women with a specific focus on the cerebellum using advanced normalization methods. Rectal distension-induced brain activation was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging using non-painful and painful rectal distensions. Symptoms of anxiety and depression, assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, were correlated with cerebellar activation within IBS patients. Within IBS, depression scores were associated with non-painful distension-induced activation in the right cerebellum primarily in Crus II and lobule VIIIb, and additionally in Crus I. Depression scores were also associated with painful distension-induced activation predominantly in vermal lobule V with some extension to the intermediate cerebellum. Anxiety scores correlated significantly with non-painful induced activation in Crus II. Symptoms of anxiety and depression, which are frequently found in chronic pain conditions like IBS, modulate activation during visceral sensory signals not only in cortical and subcortical brain areas but also in the cerebellum.

  14. Standardization of fixation, processing and staining methods for the central nervous system of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana Marcos, H J; Ferrari, C C; Benitez, I; Affanni, J M

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports the standardization of methods used for processing and embedding various vertebrate brains of different size in paraffin. Other technical details developed for avoiding frequent difficulties arising during laboratory routine are also reported. Some modifications of the Nissl and Klüver-Barrera staining methods are proposed. These modifications include: 1) a Nissl stain solution with a rapid and efficient action with easier differentiation; 2) the use of a cheap microwave oven for the Klüver-Barrera stain. These procedures have the advantage of permitting Nissl and Klüver-Barrera staining of nervous tissue in about five and fifteen minutes respectively. The proposed procedures have been tested in brains obtained from fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals of different body sizes. They are the result of our long experience in preparing slides for comparative studies. Serial sections of excellent quality were regularly obtained in all the specimens studied. These standardized methods, being simple and quick, are recommended for routine use in neurobiological laboratories.

  15. The multi-level impact of chronic intermittent hypoxia on central auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eddie; Yang, Bin; Du, Lida; Ho, Wai Hong; Lau, Condon; Ke, Ya; Chan, Ying Shing; Yung, Wing Ho; Wu, Ed X

    2017-08-01

    During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3-7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing. Adult rats were reared for seven days during sleeping hours in a gas chamber with oxygen level cycled between 10% and 21% (normal atmosphere) every 90s. During awake hours, the subjects were housed in standard conditions with normal atmosphere. CIH treatment significantly reduces arterial oxygen partial pressure and oxygen saturation during sleeping hours (relative to controls). After treatment, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with broadband sound stimulation. Responses are observed in major auditory centers in all subjects, including the auditory cortex (AC) and auditory midbrain. fMRI signals from the AC are statistically significantly increased after CIH by 0.13% in the contralateral hemisphere and 0.10% in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In contrast, signals from the lateral lemniscus of the midbrain are significantly reduced by 0.39%. Signals from the neighboring inferior colliculus of the midbrain are relatively unaffected. Chronic hypoxia affects multiple levels of the auditory system and these changes are likely related to hearing disorders associated with sleep apnea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incertezza e processo finanziario: le conseguenze per il potere della banca centrale. ( Uncertainty and the financial process and its consequences for the power of the central bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.R. DOW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La maggior parte dei teorici monetari sostengono che l'offerta di moneta determina il livello dei prezzi e che le autorità fissano i tassi di interesse per  influenzare gli investimenti e i consumi . L'autore chiede come le banche centrali , relativamente piccole istituzioni finanziarie ,siano in grado di influenzare il mondo reale . Nell'analisi , l'articolo si occupa di determinazione dei tassi di cambio , tassi di interesse e l'offerta di moneta . L'autore conclude che le banche centrali hanno influenza , all'interno di una gamma limitata , solo a causa di incertezza . A causa dell'incertezza , i legami tra attività finanziarie e reali sono deboli nel breve -medio periodo consentendo una certa influenza da maneggiato da un'autorità centraleMost monetary theorists claim that the money supply determines the price level and that the authorities set interest rates to influence investment and consumption. The author asks how central banks, relatively small financial institutions, can affect the real world. In analysis, the article deals with determination of exchange rates, interest rates and the money supply. The author concludes that central banks have influence, within a limited range, only because of uncertainty. Because of uncertainty, the links between financial and real assets are weak in the short- to medium-term allowing some influence to be wielded by a central authority.JEL: E52, E58

  17. "Plantas con madre": plants that teach and guide in the shamanic initiation process in the East-Central Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, X; Clavo, Z M; Jovel, E M; Pardo-de-Santayana, M

    2011-04-12

    We present and discuss a particular group of plants used by a diversity of healers in the initiation process and apprenticeship of traditional medicine, as practiced by Amazonian societies in East-Central Peru. Often, these plants are locally called plantas con madre (plants with a mother), and are thought to guide initiates in the process of seeking sacred knowledge, learning about plant usage, and understanding traditional medicine practices. We illustrate the diversity of plants used in the apprenticeship and practice of traditional medicine, and nurture the discussion to better understand the terminology used by Indigenous healers to describe plant uses and their practices. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2008 with the participation of 29 curanderos (healers; 23 men, 6 women), 3 apprentices and 4 herbalists. The participants belonged to four ethnic groups: 17 Mestizos, 15 Shipibo-Konibo, 1 Ashaninka, and 1 Matsiguenga; a Spanish apprentice and an Italian herbalist were also included in the study. The field data were collected using semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and the witnessing of numerous healing sessions. Oral informed consent was obtained from each participant. We identified 55 plant species belonging to 26 botanical families, which are used in initiation processes and apprenticeships of traditional medicine. This group of plants is administered under strict conditions during training and healing sessions called dietas (shamanic diets), with the supervision of one or more maestros curanderos (master healers). We observed that during the shamanic diets, maestros curanderos administered plants depending on the teachings or tools he/she was passing on, and were based on a particular sequence during the initiation process: (I) purification and cleansing species; (II) sensitivity and intuition; (III) strengthening; and (IV) protection and defence. Traditional healers continue to be a primary source of health care for the majority

  18. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  19. CITY AND CENTRAL CAPITALISM IN GLOBALIZATION´S TIME – A CRITICAL CONTRIBUTION OF THE URBAN BARBARITY IN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Alves Natal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper concern the central economies urban spaces issues on the capitalism contemporaneity. First of all, we related the historic potentiality of this social phenomenon in terms of the human existence and contrasting subsequently with the growing capital's appropriation in the last 250 years. The article also reviews this social phenomenon, the capitalist city, under the three main scientific and technological revolutions in the capitalism history. In the third part we face the main reflections by some of the great bourgeoisie's intellectuals with the capital city and his urban barbarity process. Lastly, this paper ends by showing our conclusions and indicates a need for reflections that can articulate public policies, different analyze scales and insurgent planning on his urban citizenship interaction.

  20. Central Exclusive Processes (CEP) in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt[]{s} = 13$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Al Hyder, Ragheed

    2017-01-01

    The successful operation of the {\\em Large Hadron Collider} (LHC) during the past years allowed to explore particle interaction in a new energy regime. Measurements of important Standard Model processes like the production of high$P_t$ jets, $W$ and $Z$ bosons and top and $b$-quarks were performed by the LHC experiments. In addition, the high collision energy allowed to search for new particles in so far unexplored mass regions. Important constraints on the existence of new particles predicted in many models of physics beyond the Standard Model could be established. With integrated luminosities reaching values around $5 ifb$ in 2011, the experiments reached as well sensitivity to probe the existence of the Standard Model Higgs boson over a large mass range. In the present report the major outlines followed to studying Central Exclusive Production in the ALICE experiment are presented.

  1. Structures within the oceanic crust of the central South China Sea basin and their implications for oceanic accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weiwei; Sun, Zhen; Dadd, Kelsie; Fang, Yinxia; Li, Jiabiao

    2018-04-01

    Internal structures in mature oceanic crust can elucidate understanding of the processes and mechanism of crustal accretion. In this study, we present two multi-channel seismic (MCS) transects across the northern flank of the South China Sea basin to reveal the internal structures related to Cenozoic tectono-magmatic processes during seafloor spreading. Bright reflectors within the oceanic crust, including the Moho, upper crustal reflectors, and lower crustal reflectors, are clearly imaged in these two transects. The Moho reflection displays varied character in continuity, shape and amplitude from the continental slope area to the abyssal basin, and becomes absent in the central part of the basin where abundant seamounts and seamount chains formed after the cessation of seafloor spreading. Dipping reflectors are distinct in most parts of the MCS data but generally confined to the lower crust above the Moho reflection. These lower crustal reflectors merge downward into the Moho without offsetting it, probably arising from shear zones between the crust and mantle characterized by interstitial melt, although we cannot exclude other possibilities such as brittle faulting or magmatic layering in the local area. A notable feature of these lower crustal reflector events is their opposite inclinations. We suggest the two groups of conjugate lower crustal reflector events observed between magnetic anomalies C11 and C8 were associated with two unusual accretionary processes arising from plate reorganizations with southward ridge jumps.

  2. Process improvement approach to the acid activation of smectite using factorial and orthogonal central composite design methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRDJAN PETROVIC

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effective operating parameters and the optimum operating conditions of an acid activation process within the framework of improvement of the process. Full two-level factorial and orthogonal central composite design methods were used successively. The examined parameters were the main and interaction effects of temperature, leaching time, acid normality, solid-to-liquid ratio and stirring rate. The selected process response was the leaching yield of the MgO content because Mg is the element most readily removed from the octahedral sheet, which affects the tendency for activation. Statistical regression analysis and analysis of variance were applied to the experimental data to develop a predictive model, which revealed that temperature, leaching time and acid normality exert the strongest influence on the specific surface area of smectite, whilst the solid-to-liquid ratio and the stirring rate have a secondary effect. Furthermore, the highest leaching yield of MgO was found to be 41.86 %, which is responsible for the increase in the specific surface area of up to 221 m2 g-1.

  3. Optimization of the Büchi B-90 spray drying process using central composite design for preparation of solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bing; Linehan, Brian; Tseng, Yin-Chao

    2015-08-01

    A central composite design approach was applied to study the effect of polymer concentration, inlet temperature and air flow rate on the spray drying process of the Büchi B-90 nano spray dryer (B-90). Hypromellose acetate succinate-LF was used for the Design of Experiment (DoE) study. Statistically significant models to predict the yield, spray rate, and drying efficiency were generated from the study. The spray drying conditions were optimized according to the models to maximize the yield and efficiency of the process. The models were further validated using a poorly water-soluble investigational compound (BI064) from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. The polymer/drug ratio ranged from 1/1 to 3/1w/w. The spray dried formulations were amorphous determined by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. The particle size of the spray dried formulations was 2-10 μm under polarized light microscopy. All the formulations were physically stable for at least 3h when suspended in an aqueous vehicle composed of 1% methyl cellulose. This study demonstrates that DoE is a useful tool to optimize the spray drying process, and the B-90 can be used to efficiently produce amorphous solid dispersions with a limited quantity of drug substance available during drug discovery stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. HTA and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe: Results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mochón, Leticia; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Caro Martinez, Araceli; Martin Ruiz, Eva; Pérez Velasco, Román

    2017-03-31

    To gain knowledge and insights on health technology assessment (HTA) and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) countries. A cross-sectional study was performed. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed in a multi-stage process. The questionnaire was arranged according to 5 broad domains: (i) introduction/country settings; (ii) use of HTA in the country; (iii) decision-making process; (iv) implementation of decisions; and (v) HTA and decision-making: future challenges. Potential survey respondents were identified through literature review-with a total of 118 contacts from the 24 CESEE countries. From March to July 2014, the survey was administered via e-mail. A total of 22 questionnaires were received generating an 18.6% response rate, including 4 responses indicating that their institutions had no involvement in HTA. Most of the CESEE countries have entities under government mandates with advisory functions and different responsibilities for decision-making, but mainly in charge of the reimbursement and pricing of medicines. Other areas where discrepancies across countries were found include criteria for selecting technologies to be assessed, stakeholder involvement, evidence requirements, use of economic evaluation, and timeliness of HTA. A number of CESEE countries have created formal decision-making processes for which HTA is used. However, there is a high level of heterogeneity related to the degree of development of HTA structures, and the methods and processes followed. Further studies focusing on the countries from which information is scarcer and on the HTA of health technologies other than medicines are warranted. Reviews/comparative analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved Exercise Tolerance with Caffeine Is Associated with Modulation of both Peripheral and Central Neural Processes in Human Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna L. Bowtell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCaffeine has been shown to enhance exercise performance and capacity. The mechanisms remain unclear but are suggested to relate to adenosine receptor antagonism, resulting in increased central motor drive, reduced perception of effort, and altered peripheral processes such as enhanced calcium handling and extracellular potassium regulation. Our aims were to investigate how caffeine (i affects knee extensor PCr kinetics and pH during repeated sets of single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure and (ii modulates the interplay between central and peripheral neural processes. We hypothesized that the caffeine-induced extension of exercise capacity during repeated sets of exercise would occur despite greater disturbance of the muscle milieu due to enhanced peripheral and corticospinal excitatory output, central motor drive, and muscle contractility.MethodsNine healthy active young men performed five sets of intense single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure on four separate occasions: for two visits (6 mg·kg−1 caffeine vs placebo, quadriceps 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans were performed to quantify phosphocreatine kinetics and pH, and for the remaining two visits (6 mg·kg−1 caffeine vs placebo, femoral nerve electrical and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the quadriceps cortical motor area were applied pre- and post exercise.ResultsThe total exercise time was 17.9 ± 6.0% longer in the caffeine (1,225 ± 86 s than in the placebo trial (1,049 ± 73 s, p = 0.016, and muscle phosphocreatine concentration and pH (p < 0.05 were significantly lower in the latter sets of exercise after caffeine ingestion. Voluntary activation (VA (peripheral, p = 0.007; but not supraspinal, p = 0.074, motor-evoked potential (MEP amplitude (p = 0.007, and contractility (contraction time, p = 0.009; and relaxation rate, p = 0.003 were significantly higher after caffeine consumption, but at

  6. Parallel Implementation of the Discrete Green's Function Formulation of the FDTD Method on a Multicore Central Processing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stefański

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel implementation of the discrete Green's function formulation of the finite-difference time-domain (DGF-FDTD method was developed on a multicore central processing unit. DGF-FDTD avoids computations of the electromagnetic field in free-space cells and does not require domain termination by absorbing boundary conditions. Computed DGF-FDTD solutions are compatible with the FDTD grid enabling the perfect hybridization of FDTD with the use of time-domain integral equation methods. The developed implementation can be applied to simulations of antenna characteristics. For the sake of example, arrays of Yagi-Uda antennas were simulated with the use of parallel DGF-FDTD. The efficiency of parallel computations was investigated as a function of the number of current elements in the FDTD grid. Although the developed method does not apply the fast Fourier transform for convolution computations, advantages stemming from the application of DGF-FDTD instead of FDTD can be demonstrated for one-dimensional wire antennas when simulation results are post-processed by the near-to-far-field transformation.

  7. Multidisciplinary characterisation of sedimentary processes in a recent maar lake (Lake Pavin, French Massif Central and implication for natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chapron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation processes occurring in the most recent maar lake of the French Massif Central (Lake Pavin are documented for the first time based on high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric surveys and by piston coring and radiocarbon dating on a sediment depocentre developed on a narrow sub aquatic plateau. This new data set confirms the mid Holocene age of maar lake Pavin formation at 6970±60 yrs cal BP and highlights a wide range of gravity reworking phenomena affecting the basin. In particular, a slump deposit dated between AD 580–640 remoulded both mid-Holocene lacustrine sediments, terrestrial plant debris and some volcanic material from the northern crater inner walls. Between AD 1200 and AD 1300, a large slide scar mapped at 50 m depth also affected the southern edge of the sub aquatic plateau, suggesting that these gas-rich biogenic sediments (laminated diatomite are poorly stable. Although several triggering mechanisms can be proposed for these prehistoric sub-aquatic mass wasting deposits in Lake Pavin, we argue that such large remobilisation of gas-rich sediments may affect the gas stability in deep waters of meromictic maar lakes. This study highlights the need to further document mass wasting processes in maar lakes and their impacts on the generation of waves, favouring the development of dangerous (and potentially deadly limnic eruptions.

  8. Behavioral Signs of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder in Children With Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate: A Parental Questionnaire Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoran; McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian

    2016-03-01

    Objective Children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate often have a high prevalence of middle ear dysfunction. However, there are also indications that they may have a higher prevalence of (central) auditory processing disorder. This study used Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist for caregivers to determine whether children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate have potentially more auditory processing difficulties compared with craniofacially normal children. Methods Caregivers of 147 school-aged children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate were recruited for the study. This group was divided into three subgroups: cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate. Caregivers of 60 craniofacially normal children were recruited as a control group. Hearing health tests were conducted to evaluate peripheral hearing. Caregivers of children who passed this assessment battery completed Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist, which contains 25 questions related to behaviors linked to (central) auditory processing disorder. Results Children with cleft palate showed the lowest scores on the Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist questionnaire, consistent with a higher index of suspicion for (central) auditory processing disorder. There was a significant difference in the manifestation of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors between the cleft palate and the control groups. The most common behaviors reported in the nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate group were short attention span and reduced learning motivation, along with hearing difficulties in noise. Conclusion A higher occurrence of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors were found in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, particularly cleft palate. Auditory processing abilities should not be ignored in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, and it is necessary to consider assessment tests for (central) auditory processing disorder when an

  9. A utilização de um software infantil na terapia fonoaudiológica de Distúrbio do Processamento Auditivo Central The use of a children software in the treatment of Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Schwambach Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a efetividade do uso de recursos de informática na terapia fonoaudiológica do Distúrbio do Processamento Auditivo Central para a adequação das habilidades auditivas alteradas. Participaram desta pesquisa dois indivíduos, com diagnóstico do Distúrbio do Processamento Auditivo Central, sendo um do sexo masculino e outro do sexo feminino, ambos com nove anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a oito sessões de terapia fonoaudiológica com a utilização do software e, posteriormente, realizou-se uma re-avaliação do processamento auditivo central para verificar o desenvolvimento das habilidades auditivas e a efetividade do treinamento auditivo. Verificou-se que, após o treinamento auditivo informal, houve adequação das habilidades auditivas de resolução temporal, figura-fundo para sons não verbais e verbais, ordenação temporal para sons verbais e não-verbais para ambos os pacientes. Conclui-se que o computador como instrumento terapêutico é um recurso estimulador e que possibilita o desenvolvimento de habilidades auditivas alteradas em pacientes com Distúrbio do Processamento Auditivo Central.The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of the use of computer science resources in the treatment of Central Auditory Processing Disorder, in order to adequate the altered auditory abilities. Two individuals with diagnosis of Central Auditory Processing Disorder, a boy and a girl, both with nine years old, participated on this study. The subjects were submitted to eight sessions of speech therapy using the software and, after this period, a reassessment of the central auditory processing abilities was carried out, in order to verify the development of the auditory abilities and the effectiveness of the auditory training. It was verified that, after this informal auditory training, the auditory abilities of temporal resolution, figure-ground for both verbal and nonverbal sounds, and temporal

  10. Tectonic origin and deformation process of the Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in Central Qiangtang of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    The metamorphic characteristics, deformation process, geochronology of the medium-high pressure metamorphic rocks in blueschist bearing Central Qiangtang Metamorphic belt (CQMB) of Tibet were less well constrained. It is, however, commonly assumed that these rock slices in the margin also contain important implications on the evolution of the entire metamorphic belt. The well-exposed Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in north flank of the CQMB provides an unique opportunity to investigate the outer part of the CQMB, which could facilitate the study on the subduction-exhumation-post orogenic scenarios of the Triassic accretionary orogeny in Central Qiangtang. Field structural analyses indicate the Mayer Kangri metamorphic dome are bounded by low-angle normal faults (LANF) within the hanging wall of low-green schist facies mélange. It majorly consists of epidote-amphibolites, quartz-phengite schist, epidote-albite schist. The outcrop and micro structural observations of footwall metamorphic rocks show an open anticline with multiple foliation replacement, which largely differentiate themselves from the dextral strike-slip shearing of the hanging wall. Well-zoned amphiboles were found within the epidote-amphibolite after micro-structural observations and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA), which indicate that the amphibole zonation demonstrates a Hastingsite core, a Ferro-actinolite mantle and a Ferro-winchite rim in most cases. The mean temperature and pressure estimates of the zoned amphibolites change from 544 °, 0.98Gpa in the core, to 426°, 0.34Gpa in the mantle, and to ca.364° and 0.70 GPa in the rim. The detailed analyses on the stepwise-heating Ar-Ar results of the zoned amphiboles provide good constrains on the episodic deformation process of the CQMB. For Hast-cores, we obtained near plateau ages of 242.4-241.2 Ma, indicating the onset of the oceanic subduction is earlier than the Anisian stage of Middle Triassic. The subsequent

  11. Process modeling studies of physical mechanisms of the formation of an anticyclonic eddy in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Changsheng; Li, Ruixiang; Pratt, Larry; Limeburner, Richard; Beardsley, Robert C.; Bower, Amy; Jiang, Houshuo; Abualnaja, Yasser; Xu, Qichun; Lin, Huichan; Liu, Xuehai; Lan, Jian; Kim, Taewan

    2014-01-01

    Surface drifters released in the central Red Sea during April 2010 detected a well-defined anticyclonic eddy around 23°N. This eddy was ∼45–60 km in radius, with a swirl speed up to ∼0.5 m/s. The eddy feature was also evident in monthly averaged sea surface height fields and in current profiles measured on a cross-isobath, shipboard CTD/ADCP survey around that region. The unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) was configured for the Red Sea and process studies were conducted to establish the conditions necessary for the eddy to form and to establish its robustness. The model was capable of reproducing the observed anticyclonic eddy with the same location and size. Diagnosis of model results suggests that the eddy can be formed in a Red Sea that is subject to seasonally varying buoyancy forcing, with no wind, but that its location and structure are significantly altered by wind forcing, initial distribution of water stratification and southward coastal flow from the upstream area. Momentum analysis indicates that the flow field of the eddy was in geostrophic balance, with the baroclinic pressure gradient forcing about the same order of magnitude as the surface pressure gradient forcing.

  12. Process modeling studies of physical mechanisms of the formation of an anticyclonic eddy in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Changsheng

    2014-02-01

    Surface drifters released in the central Red Sea during April 2010 detected a well-defined anticyclonic eddy around 23°N. This eddy was ∼45–60 km in radius, with a swirl speed up to ∼0.5 m/s. The eddy feature was also evident in monthly averaged sea surface height fields and in current profiles measured on a cross-isobath, shipboard CTD/ADCP survey around that region. The unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) was configured for the Red Sea and process studies were conducted to establish the conditions necessary for the eddy to form and to establish its robustness. The model was capable of reproducing the observed anticyclonic eddy with the same location and size. Diagnosis of model results suggests that the eddy can be formed in a Red Sea that is subject to seasonally varying buoyancy forcing, with no wind, but that its location and structure are significantly altered by wind forcing, initial distribution of water stratification and southward coastal flow from the upstream area. Momentum analysis indicates that the flow field of the eddy was in geostrophic balance, with the baroclinic pressure gradient forcing about the same order of magnitude as the surface pressure gradient forcing.

  13. Characteristics of Pediatric Performance on a Test Battery Commonly Used in the Diagnosis of Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Guenette, Linda; Chermak, Gail; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzgerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Brenneman, Lauren; Musiek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Although central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) test battery performance has been examined in adults with neurologic lesions of the central auditory nervous system (CANS), similar data on children being referred for CAPD evaluations are sparse. This study characterizes CAPD test battery performance in children using tests commonly administered to diagnose the disorder. Specifically, this study describes failure rates for various test combinations, relationships between CAPD tests used in the battery, and the influence of cognitive function on CAPD test performance and CAPD diagnosis. A comparison is also made between the performance of children with CAPD and data from patients with neurologic lesions of the CANS. A retrospective study. Fifty-six pediatric patients were referred for CAPD testing. Participants were administered four CAPD tests, including frequency patterns (FP), low-pass filtered speech (LPFS), dichotic digits (DD), and competing sentences (CS). In addition, they were given the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Descriptive analyses examined the failure rates of various test combinations, as well as how often children with CAPD failed certain combinations when compared with adults with CANS lesions. A principal components analysis was performed to examine interrelationships between tests. Correlations and regressions were conducted to determine the relationship between CAPD test performance and the WISC. Results showed that the FP and LPFS tests were most commonly failed by children with CAPD. Two-test combinations that included one or both of these two tests and excluded DD tended to be failed more often. Including the DD and CS test in a battery benefited specificity. Tests thought to measure interhemispheric transfer tended to be correlated. Compared with adult patients with neurologic lesions, children with CAPD tended to fail LPFS more frequently and DD less frequently. Both groups failed FP with relatively equal frequency

  14. Nucleation process and dynamic inversion of the Mw 6.9 Valparaíso 2017 earthquake in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Aden-Antoniow, F.; Baez, J. C., Sr.; Otarola, C., Sr.; Potin, B.; DelCampo, F., Sr.; Poli, P.; Flores, C.; Satriano, C.; Felipe, L., Sr.; Madariaga, R. I.

    2017-12-01

    The Valparaiso 2017 sequence occurred in mega-thrust Central Chile, an active zone where the last mega-earthquake occurred in 1730. An intense seismicity occurred 2 days before of the Mw 6.9 main-shock. A slow trench ward movement observed in the coastal GPS antennas accompanied the foreshock seismicity. Following the Mw 6.9 earthquake the seismicity migrated 30 Km to South-East. This sequence was well recorded by multi-parametric stations composed by GPS, Broad-Band and Strong Motion instruments. We built a seismic catalogue with 2329 events associated to Valparaiso sequence, with a magnitude completeness of Ml 2.8. We located all the seismicity considering a new 3D velocity model obtained for the Valparaiso zone, and compute the moment tensor for events with magnitude larger than Ml 3.5, and finally studied the presence of repeating earthquakes. The main-shock is studied by performing a dynamic inversion using the strong motion records and an elliptical patch approach to characterize the rupture process. During the two days nucleation stage, we observe a compact zone of repeater events. In the meantime a westward GPS movement was recorded in the coastal GPS stations. The aseismic moment estimated from GPS is larger than the foreshocks cumulative moment, suggesting the presence of a slow slip event, which potentially triggered the 6.9 mainshock. The Mw 6.9 earthquake is associated to rupture of an elliptical asperity of semi-axis of 10 km and 5 km, with a sub-shear rupture, stress drop of 11.71 MPa, yield stress of 17.21 MPa, slip weakening of 0.65 m and kappa value of 1.70. This sequence occurs close to, and with some similar characteristics that 1985 Valparaíso Mw 8.0 earthquake. The rupture of this asperity could stress more the highly locked Central Chile zone where a mega-thrust earthquake like 1730 is expected.

  15. Application of a process-based shallow landslide hazard model over a broad area in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Eleonora; Speranza, Gabriella; Ferretti, Maurizio; Godt, Jonathan W.; Baum, Rex L.; Marincioni, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Process-based models are widely used for rainfall-induced shallow landslide forecasting. Previous studies have successfully applied the U.S. Geological Survey’s Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) model (Baum et al. 2002) to compute infiltration-driven changes in the hillslopes’ factor of safety on small scales (i.e., tens of square kilometers). Soil data input for such models are difficult to obtain across larger regions. This work describes a novel methodology for the application of TRIGRS over broad areas with relatively uniform hydrogeological properties. The study area is a 550-km2 region in Central Italy covered by post-orogenic Quaternary sediments. Due to the lack of field data, we assigned mechanical and hydrological property values through a statistical analysis based on literature review of soils matching the local lithologies. We calibrated the model using rainfall data from 25 historical rainfall events that triggered landslides. We compared the variation of pressure head and factor of safety with the landslide occurrence to identify the best fitting input conditions. Using calibrated inputs and a soil depth model, we ran TRIGRS for the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, comparing the model’s output with a shallow landslide inventory, shows that TRIGRS effectively simulated the instability conditions in the post-orogenic complex during historical rainfall scenarios. The implication of this work is that rainfall-induced landslides over large regions may be predicted by a deterministic model, even where data on geotechnical and hydraulic properties as well as temporal changes in topography or subsurface conditions are not available.

  16. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  17. A study on the evolution of Indian Ocean triple junction and the process of deformation in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    It is generally presumed that the intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) is a direct consequence of spreading across the South East Indian Ridge and the resistance to shortening at the continental collision between India...

  18. Structural organization of process zones in upland watersheds of central Nevada and its influence on basin connectivity, dynamics, and wet meadow complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord; Lionel F. Villarroel; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2012-01-01

    The drainage network within upland watersheds in central Nevada can be subdivided into distinct zones each dominated by a unique set of processes on the basis of valley form, the geological materials that comprise the valley floor, and the presence or absence of surficial channels. On hillslopes, the type and structure (frequency, length, and spatial arrangement) of...

  19. Riparian leaf litter processing by benthic macroinvertebrates in a woodland stream of central Chile Procesamiento de detritus ripariano por macroinvertebrados bentónicos en un estero boscoso de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litter input from riparian landscapes has been identified as both a major energy flow to stream ecosystems and as a food source for stream macroinvertebrates. In riparian landscapes of woodland streams of central Chile, the native deciduous hardwoods are being artificially replaced by exotic coniferous trees at a large spatial scale. It is suggested that this process has a significant impact on the stream communities of central Chile. Today, exotic plantations occur throughout central Chile, with Pinus radiata (D. Don (Monterrey pine accounting for about 80 % of the more than 1,800,000 ha of exotic forests. The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of the litter beds of a dominant native species (Nothofagus pumilio and an exotic species (P. radiata on the detritus processing carried out by benthic macroinvertebrates, in an experimental catchment of central Chile (Rucúe Creek; 36° 26'00" S, 71° 35'40" W. Results revealed that processing rates of native leaf packs are higher than rates of coniferous leaf packs, suggesting that the replacement of the native hardwoods by exotic coniferous riparian flora has an important impact on the stream energy flow in central Chile. The decay rate coefficients (k were 0.0072 for N. pumilio, and 0.0027 for P. radiata. The greater abundance and biomass of shredders per gram of leaf pack of native Nothofagus would explain the differences in leaf processing rates, especially through the activity of two Plecoptera Gripopterygidae, Limnoperla jaffueli and Antarctoperla michaelseniLa entrada de detritus foliar procedente de áreas riparianas ha sido reconocido como un componente importante en la energética de ecosistemas fluviales y como fuente de alimento de macroinvertebrados acuáticos. En áreas riparianas de esteros boscosos de Chile central los componentes nativos caducifolios están siendo artificialmente reemplazados a gran escala por coníferas exóticas, sugiriendo que este proceso tiene

  20. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches

  1. A efetividade do treinamento auditivo na desordem do processamento auditivo central: estudo de caso The effectiveness of the auditory training in the central auditory processing disorder: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Kozlowski

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é a apresentação de um caso de um indivíduo de 9 anos de idade, do sexo masculino, com queixa de distúrbio de aprendizagem, para o qual a efetividade da fonoterapia pôde ser avaliada através de testes objetivos e comportamentais, compreendendo audiometria tonal, imitanciometria, potenciais auditivos evocados de tronco encefálico, P300 e Avaliação do Processamento Auditivo Central. Foram encontrados resultados normais nos exames otorrinolaringológico e audiológico. O P300 foi realizado mostrando tempo de latência aumentada. A avaliação do Processamento Auditivo Central revelou uma desordem em grau severo, caracterizada por alterações nos processos de codificação, organização e memória, assim como dificuldade significativa para atenção seletiva e fechamento auditivo. Foi diagnosticado Desordem do Processamento Auditivo Central, sendo que o indivíduo foi encaminhado para acompanhamento fonoaudiológico com o objetivo de desenvolvimento das habilidades auditivas alteradas. Após um período de 4 meses de fonoterapia, repetidos os exames acima descritos, observou-se melhora nas latências do P300, a desordem permaneceu em grau moderado, com prejuízo mais significativo no processo de organização e não apresentou dificuldade para o fechamento auditivo. Podemos concluir com este estudo a efetividade da terapia fonoaudiológica para o desenvolvimento das habilidades auditivas, podendo ser verificada através da avaliação objetiva e comportamental.The objective of this study is to present the effectiveness of auditory training in the evaluation of a 9 year-old individual with a learning disorder, which have been evaluated through objective and behavioral tests, including audiometric test, imitanciometry, auditory brain response, P300 and central auditory processing evaluation. The diagnosis of Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD was confirmed by a normal performance on an audiometric test

  2. Hydrocarbons in the Bay of Bengal and Central Indian Basin bottom sediments: Indicators of geochemical processes in the lithosphere

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chernova, T.G.; Paropkari, A.L.; Pikovskii, Yu.I.; Alekseeva, T.A.

    A study on the bulk distributions and molecular structures of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in organic matter of the sediments from the Bay of Bengal and the Eastern and Central Indian Basins was underdaken. The former two...

  3. Summer cooling in the east central Arabian Sea - a process of dynamic response to the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Sastry, J.S.

    The cooling of the east central Arabian Sea during summer monsoon season is examined using data sets of MONEX '79 and MONSOON '77 programmes. These studies have revealed that downward transfer of heat due to the mixing of warm surface and cold sub...

  4. Exploring the feasibility of multi-site flow cytometric processing of gut associated lymphoid tissue with centralized data analysis for multi-site clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McGowan

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the development of a standardized approach to the collection of intestinal tissue from healthy volunteers, isolation of gut associated lymphoid tissue mucosal mononuclear cells (MMC, and characterization of mucosal T cell phenotypes by flow cytometry was sufficient to minimize differences in the normative ranges of flow parameters generated at two trial sites. Forty healthy male study participants were enrolled in Pittsburgh and Los Angeles. MMC were isolated from rectal biopsies using the same biopsy acquisition and enzymatic digestion protocols. As an additional comparator, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from the study participants. For quality control, cryopreserved PBMC from a single donor were supplied to both sites from a central repository (qPBMC. Using a jointly optimized standard operating procedure, cells were isolated from tissue and blood and stained with monoclonal antibodies targeted to T cell phenotypic markers. Site-specific flow data were analyzed by an independent center which analyzed all data from both sites. Ranges for frequencies for overall CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, derived from the qPBMC samples, were equivalent at both UCLA and MWRI. However, there were significant differences across sites for the majority of T cell activation and memory subsets in qPBMC as well as PBMC and MMC. Standardized protocols to collect, stain, and analyze MMC and PBMC, including centralized analysis, can reduce but not exclude variability in reporting flow data within multi-site studies. Based on these data, centralized processing, flow cytometry, and analysis of samples may provide more robust data across multi-site studies. Centralized processing requires either shipping of fresh samples or cryopreservation and the decision to perform centralized versus site processing needs to take into account the drawbacks and restrictions associated with each method.

  5. Exploring the feasibility of multi-site flow cytometric processing of gut associated lymphoid tissue with centralized data analysis for multi-site clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ian; Anton, Peter A; Elliott, Julie; Cranston, Ross D; Duffill, Kathryn; Althouse, Andrew D; Hawkins, Kevin L; De Rosa, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the development of a standardized approach to the collection of intestinal tissue from healthy volunteers, isolation of gut associated lymphoid tissue mucosal mononuclear cells (MMC), and characterization of mucosal T cell phenotypes by flow cytometry was sufficient to minimize differences in the normative ranges of flow parameters generated at two trial sites. Forty healthy male study participants were enrolled in Pittsburgh and Los Angeles. MMC were isolated from rectal biopsies using the same biopsy acquisition and enzymatic digestion protocols. As an additional comparator, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from the study participants. For quality control, cryopreserved PBMC from a single donor were supplied to both sites from a central repository (qPBMC). Using a jointly optimized standard operating procedure, cells were isolated from tissue and blood and stained with monoclonal antibodies targeted to T cell phenotypic markers. Site-specific flow data were analyzed by an independent center which analyzed all data from both sites. Ranges for frequencies for overall CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, derived from the qPBMC samples, were equivalent at both UCLA and MWRI. However, there were significant differences across sites for the majority of T cell activation and memory subsets in qPBMC as well as PBMC and MMC. Standardized protocols to collect, stain, and analyze MMC and PBMC, including centralized analysis, can reduce but not exclude variability in reporting flow data within multi-site studies. Based on these data, centralized processing, flow cytometry, and analysis of samples may provide more robust data across multi-site studies. Centralized processing requires either shipping of fresh samples or cryopreservation and the decision to perform centralized versus site processing needs to take into account the drawbacks and restrictions associated with each method.

  6. The role of the migrational zones in the historical processes in Central-Europe and in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csüllog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La región de Europa Central y los Balcanes es una de las zonas de flujo más im-portantes de Europa, donde la migración de los pueblos ha estado ocurriendo durante miles de años, las influencias económicas y culturales se han extendido y la política del poder ha tenido vigencia. Sus características históricas y geográ-ficas determinantes son las siguientes: espacio geográfico común; flujos espaciales que unen los espacios; espacios estatales separados por acontecimientos políticos; espacios étnicos tipo mosaico creados por la migración; subdivisión de los espacios de amortiguamiento provoca-dos por los intereses de la política del poder.Palabras clave: Europa Central, Balcanes, Impe-rio Habsburgo, Imperio Otomano, zonas de migración._______________ The Central European region and the Balkans are one of the most important flow zones in Europe where the migration of peoples has been going on for thousands of years, eco-nomic and cultural influences have been spreading and power politics has taken effect. Its determinative historical and geographical features are as follows: common geographical space; spatial flows linking the spaces; state spaces separated by political events; mosaic-like ethnic spaces created by migration; dividing buffer spaces brought about by the interests of power politics.Keywords: Central Europe, Balkans, Habsburg Empire, Ottoman Empire, migrational zones.

  7. Compensating additional optical power in the central zone of a multifocal contact lens forminimization of the shrinkage error of the shell mold in the injection molding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lien T; Chen, Chao-Chang A; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chia-Wei

    2018-04-20

    This study aims to develop a compensating method to minimize the shrinkage error of the shell mold (SM) in the injection molding (IM) process to obtain uniform optical power in the central optical zone of soft axial symmetric multifocal contact lenses (CL). The Z-shrinkage error along the Z axis or axial axis of the anterior SM corresponding to the anterior surface of a dry contact lens in the IM process can be minimized by optimizing IM process parameters and then by compensating for additional (Add) powers in the central zone of the original lens design. First, the shrinkage error is minimized by optimizing three levels of four IM parameters, including mold temperature, injection velocity, packing pressure, and cooling time in 18 IM simulations based on an orthogonal array L 18 (2 1 ×3 4 ). Then, based on the Z-shrinkage error from IM simulation, three new contact lens designs are obtained by increasing the Add power in the central zone of the original multifocal CL design to compensate for the optical power errors. Results obtained from IM process simulations and the optical simulations show that the new CL design with 0.1 D increasing in Add power has the closest shrinkage profile to the original anterior SM profile with percentage of reduction in absolute Z-shrinkage error of 55% and more uniform power in the central zone than in the other two cases. Moreover, actual experiments of IM of SM for casting soft multifocal CLs have been performed. The final product of wet CLs has been completed for the original design and the new design. Results of the optical performance have verified the improvement of the compensated design of CLs. The feasibility of this compensating method has been proven based on the measurement results of the produced soft multifocal CLs of the new design. Results of this study can be further applied to predict or compensate for the total optical power errors of the soft multifocal CLs.

  8. Modeling Potential Impacts of Planting Palms or Tree in Small Holder Fruit Plantations on Ecohydrological Processes in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kunert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon, but little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. To explore the potential impacts of plantations on local to regional water balance, we studied plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region. The study was conducted in a mixed fruit plantation containing a dicot tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum and a monocot palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleracea close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon. Scaling from sap flux measurements, palms had a 3.5-fold higher water consumption compared to trees with a similar diameter. Despite the high transpiration rates of the palms, our plantation had only one third of the potential water recycling capacity of natural forests in the area. Converting natural forest into such plantations will thus result in significantly higher runoff rates.

  9. Local processing enhancements associated with superior observational drawing are due to enhanced perceptual functioning, not weak central coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Rebecca; McManus, I C; Riley, Howard; Rankin, Qona; Brunswick, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with drawing talent have previously been shown to exhibit enhanced local visual processing ability. The aim of the current study was to assess whether local processing biases associated with drawing ability result from a reduced ability to cohere local stimuli into global forms, or an increased ability to disregard global aspects of an image. Local and global visual processing ability was assessed in art students and controls using the Group Embedded Figures Task, Navon shape stimuli, the Block Design Task and the Autism Spectrum Quotient, whilst controlling for nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. Local processing biases associated with drawing appear to arise from an enhancement of local processing alongside successful filtering of global information, rather than a reduction in global processing. The relationship between local processing and drawing ability is independent of individual differences in nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. These findings have implications for bottom-up and attentional theories of observational drawing, as well as explanations of special skills in autism.

  10. The spatial variation of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Toki granite, Central Japan. Implications for the intrusion and cooling processes of a granitic pluton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuguchi, Takashi; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Hama, Katsuhiro; Nishiyama, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    The spatial variation in initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (SrI) in the Toki granite, Central Japan, shows heterogeneity ranging from 0.708942 to 0.710069, which provides information on the intrusion and cooling processes of plutons. The Toki granite has three mineralogy-based rock facies: muscovite-biotite granite (MBG), hornblende-biotite granite (HBG) and biotite granite (BG). Large SrI values were found to be distributed at the western margin (west MBG) and the lithologically central region (central BG), while small SrI values were found at the northeast margin (northeast MBG). Regions with high and low Sr concentrations were also found in the Toki granite. In the Sr-rich samples, SrI (0.708942-0.709789) increases with 100/Sr (0.7-1.5). This geochemical trend extends towards the country sedimentary rocks of the Mino Terrane, which can be interpreted to result from assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) between the original granitic magma and the Mino sedimentary rocks. The SrI values in the Sr-rich regions show a correlation with the Alumina Saturation Index (ASI). In particular, the west MBG, with large SrI values, is classified as a peraluminous granitoid with large ASI, suggesting that the western margin of the pluton was strongly affected by assimilation during the intrusion process. The Sr-poor samples are present both in the central BG, with large SrI values, and in the northeast MBG, with small SrI values. The Sr-poor samples have small ASI and large differentiation indices, indicating that the central BG and the northeast MBG were generated either by different AFC process with different amounts of contaminants or by the intrusion and fractionation of different source magma with different SrI values. Overall, the geochemical spatial variations found in the Toki granite can be explained by various degrees of assimilation and fractional crystallization in the magma chamber and/or multi-stage intrusions with different degrees of crystallization of

  11. Source tagging modeling study of heavy haze episodes under complex regional transport processes over Wuhan megacity, Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Miaomiao; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Zifa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Liang, Shengwen; Hu, Ke; Wu, Lin; Wu, Huangjian; Huang, Zhen; Shen, Longjiao

    2017-01-01

    Wuhan as a megacity of Central China was suffering from severe particulate matter pollution according to previous observation studies, however, the mechanism behind the pollution formation especially the impact of regional chemical transport is still unclear. This study, carried out on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with an on-line source-tagging module, explores different roles regional transport had in two strong haze episodes over Wuhan in October 2014 and quantitatively assesses the contributions from local and regional sources to PM 2.5 concentration. Validation of predictions based on observations shows modeling system good skills in reproducing key meteorological and chemical features. The first short-time haze episode occurred on 12 October under strong northerly winds, with a hourly PM 2.5 peak of 180 μg m −3 , and was found to be caused primarily by the long-range transport from the northern regions, which contributed 60.6% of the episode's PM 2.5 concentration (versus a total of 32.7% from sources in and near Wuhan). The second episode lasted from the 15–20 October under stable regional large-scale synoptic conditions and weak winds, and had an hourly PM 2.5 peak of 231.0 μg m −3 . In this episode, both the long-distance transport from far regions and short-range transport from the Wuhan-cluster were the primary causes of the haze episode and account for 24.8% and 29.2% of the PM 2.5 concentration respectively. Therefore, regional transport acts as a crucial driver of haze pollution over Wuhan through not only long-range transfer of pollutants, but also short-range aerosol movement under specific meteorological conditions. The present findings highlight the important role of regional transport in urban haze formation and indicate that the joint control of multi city-clusters are needed to reduce the particulate pollution level in Wuhan. - Highlights: • Regional transport impacts studied on two haze

  12. Preliminary design for an institutional needs assessment process to guide the development of training programs at the Department of Energy Central Training Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, T.; Laktasic, S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to provide and maintain a high level of nuclear security at DOE installations, the Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) is charged with the deployment of highly trained security staff at each DOE site. Faced with this mission, OSS must ensure that both Safeguards and Security personnel are adequately trained to meet present as well as potential future insider and outside threats. A major step toward meeting this goal was to begin to standardize training, establish an elite training cadre, and create a central training facility to implement training for safeguards and security personnel. These requirements were actualized by the creation of the Central Training Academy. After a 9 month start-up and 2 years of initial operation, the CTA can now provide a historical perspective on its evolution, early program development, and future plans and challenges. Central to future program planning at the Academy is the development and implementation of an internal DOE needs assessment process which is the focus of this study. Once institutionalized, the system would allow for the Academy to accurately assess and translate OSS needs into requirements for both OSS Safeguards and Security personnel and place the Academy in position to develop and tailor Tactical and Specialized programs that reflect and respond to changing threats and technological advances

  13. Processes regulating pCO2 in the surface waters of the central eastern Gotland Sea: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schneider

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a one-dimensional simulation of the seasonal changes in CO2 partial pressure (pCO2. The results of the model were constrained using data from observations, which improved the model's ability to estimate nitrogen fixation in the central Baltic Sea and allowed the impact of nitrogen fixation on the ecological state of the Baltic Sea to be studied. The model used here is the public domain water-column model GOTM (General Ocean Turbulence Model, which in this study was coupled with a modifed Baltic Sea ecosystem model, ERGOM (The Baltic Sea Research Institute's ecosystem model. To estimate nitrogen fixation rates in the Gotland Sea, the ERGOM model was modified by including an additional cyanobacteria group able to fix nitrogen from March to June. Furthermore, the model was extended by a simple CO2 cycle. Variable C:P and N:P ratios, controlled by phosphate concentrations in ambient water, were used to represent cyanobacteria, detritus and sediment detritus. This approach improved the model's ability to reproduce sea-surface phosphate and pCO2 dynamics. The resulting nitrogen fixation rates in 2005 for the two simulations, with and without the additional cyanobacteria group, were 259 and 278 mmol N m-2 year-1respectively.

  14. Age of hydrothermal processes in the central iberian zone (Spain according TO U-Pb dating of cassiterite and apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Ризванова

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of isotope-geochemical studies by PbLS step-leaching method of cassiterite from greisens located in Logrosán granite massif (Central Iberian Zone, Spain and apatite from hydrothermal quartz-apatite vein on its exocontact indicate that in both cases a hydrothermal event is recorded in the interval of 114-126 Ma, which has been accompanied by lead supply. Within the limits of estimation error, the same age around 120 Ma corresponds to crystallization of hydrothermal apatite, formation of sticks and micro-inclusions in cassiterite from greisens and is suggested for Au-As-Sb-Pb ore mineralization, which calls for further confirmation. Xenogenous zircon from quartz-apatite vein does not react to this relatively low-temperature hydrothermal event either with building up new generations (sticks, areas of recrystallization or with rebalancing of U-Pb isotope system. The age of greisen formation has been confirmed to be around 305 Ma by PbLS method on final phases of cassiterite leaching. Earlier it was estimated with 40Ar/39Ar method on muscovite.

  15. Plurality of religion, plurality of justice : exploring the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, Central Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.

    2010-01-01

    Religion is alive, especially - and increasingly - in the global South. What impact does religion have in everyday life as provider of normative orientations? This research investigates the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, Mozambique, where both traditional religion and

  16. A universal electronical adaptation of automats for biochemical analysis to a central processing computer by applying CAMAC-signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, R.

    1975-01-01

    A universal expansion of a CAMAC-subsystem - BORER 3000 - for adapting analysis instruments in biochemistry to a processing computer is described. The possibility of standardizing input interfaces for lab instruments with such circuits is discussed and the advantages achieved by applying the CAMAC-specifications are described

  17. Working memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an examination of central executive and storage/rehearsal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R Matt; Hudec, Kristen L; Patros, Connor H G; Kasper, Lisa J

    2013-05-01

    The current study was the first to use a regression approach to examine the unique contributions of central executive (CE) and storage/rehearsal processes to working memory (WM) deficits in adults with ADHD. Thirty-seven adults (ADHD = 21, HC = 16) completed phonological (PH) and visuospatial (VS) working memory tasks. While both groups performed significantly better during the PH task relative to the VS task, adults with ADHD exhibited significant deficits across both working memory modalities. Further, the ADHD group recalled disproportionately fewer PH and VS stimuli as set-size demands increased. Overall, the CE and PH storage/rehearsal processes of adults with ADHD were both significantly impaired relative to those of the healthy control adults; however, the magnitude of the CE effect size was much smaller compared to previous studies of children with the disorder. Collectively, results provide support for a lifelong trajectory of WM deficits in ADHD. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  18. Development of the process of energy transfer from a nuclear Power Plant to an intermediate temperature electrolyse; Desarrollo del proceso de transferencia de energia desde una central nuclear a un electrolizador de temperatura intermedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cervantes, A.; Cuadrado Garcia, P.; Soraino Garcia, J.

    2013-07-01

    Fifty million tons of hydrogen are consumed annually in the world in various industrial processes. Among them, the ammonia production, oil refining and the production of methanol. One of the methods to produce it is the electrolysis of water, oxygen and hydrogen. This process needs electricity and steam which a central nuclear It can be your source; Hence the importance of developing the transfer process energy between the two. The objective of the study is to characterize the process of thermal energy transfer from a nuclear power plant to an electrolyzer of intermediate temperature (ITSE) already defined. The study is limited to the intermediate engineering process, from the central to the cell.

  19. Euglena in time: Evolution, control of central metabolic processes and multi-domain proteins in carbohydrate and natural product biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis C. O’Neill

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Euglena gracilis is a eukaryotic microalgae that has been the subject of scientific study for hundreds of years. It has a complex evolutionary history, with traces of at least four endosymbiotic genomes and extensive horizontal gene transfer. Given the importance of Euglena in terms of evolutionary cell biology and its unique taxonomic position, we initiated a de novo transcriptome sequencing project in order to understand this intriguing organism. By analysing the proteins encoded in this transcriptome, we can identify an extremely complex metabolic capacity, rivalling that of multicellular organisms. Many genes have been acquired from what are now very distantly related species. Herein we consider the biology of Euglena in different time frames, from evolution through control of cell biology to metabolic processes associated with carbohydrate and natural products biochemistry.

  20. P19-S Managing Proteomics Data from Data Generation and Data Warehousing to Central Data Repository and Journal Reviewing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, H.; Glandorf, J.; Koerting, G.; Reidegeld, K.; Blüggel, M.; Meyer, H.; Stephan, C.

    2007-01-01

    In today’s proteomics research, various techniques and instrumentation bioinformatics tools are necessary to manage the large amount of heterogeneous data with an automatic quality control to produce reliable and comparable results. Therefore a data-processing pipeline is mandatory for data validation and comparison in a data-warehousing system. The proteome bioinformatics platform ProteinScape has been proven to cover these needs. The reprocessing of HUPO BPP participants’ MS data was done within ProteinScape. The reprocessed information was transferred into the global data repository PRIDE. ProteinScape as a data-warehousing system covers two main aspects: archiving relevant data of the proteomics workflow and information extraction functionality (protein identification, quantification and generation of biological knowledge). As a strategy for automatic data validation, different protein search engines are integrated. Result analysis is performed using a decoy database search strategy, which allows the measurement of the false-positive identification rate. Peptide identifications across different workflows, different MS techniques, and different search engines are merged to obtain a quality-controlled protein list. The proteomics identifications database (PRIDE), as a public data repository, is an archiving system where data are finally stored and no longer changed by further processing steps. Data submission to PRIDE is open to proteomics laboratories generating protein and peptide identifications. An export tool has been developed for transferring all relevant HUPO BPP data from ProteinScape into PRIDE using the PRIDE.xml format. The EU-funded ProDac project will coordinate the development of software tools covering international standards for the representation of proteomics data. The implementation of data submission pipelines and systematic data collection in public standards–compliant repositories will cover all aspects, from the generation of MS data

  1. Applying the food technology neophobia scale in a developing country context. A case-study on processed matooke (cooking banana) flour in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Odongo, Walter; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The success of new food technologies largely depends on consumers' behavioral responses to the innovation. In Eastern Africa, and Uganda in particular, a technology to process matooke into flour has been introduced with limited success. We measure and apply the Food technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS) to this specific case. This technique has been increasingly used in consumer research to determine consumers' fear for foods produced by novel technologies. Although it has been successful in developed countries, the low number and limited scope of past studies underlines the need for testing its applicability in a developing country context. Data was collected from 209 matooke consumers from Central Uganda. In general, respondents are relatively neophobic towards the new technology, with an average FTNS score of 58.7%, which hampers the success of processed matooke flour. Besides socio-demographic indicators, 'risk perception', 'healthiness' and the 'necessity of technologies' were key factors that influenced consumer's preference of processed matooke flour. Benchmarking the findings against previous FTNS surveys allows to evaluate factor solutions, compare standardized FTNS scores and further lends support for the multidimensionality of the FTNS. Being the first application in a developing country context, this study provides a case for examining food technology neophobia for processed staple crops in various regions and cultures. Nevertheless, research is needed to replicate this method and evaluate the external validity of our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710-1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  3. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values 2 was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds

  4. USING THE GENERAL ELECTRIC / MCKINSEY MATRIX IN THE PROCESS OF SELECTING THE CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Răzvan Decuseară

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited resources a company cannot serve all potential markets in the world in a manner that all the clients to be satisfied and the business goals achieved, which is why the company should select the most appropriate markets. It can focus on a single product market serving many geographic areas, but may also decide to serve different product markets in a group of selected geographic areas. Due to the large number and diversity of markets that can choose, analyze of the market attractiveness and the selection the most interesting is a complex process. General Electric Matrix/McKinsey has two dimensions, market attractiveness and the competitive strength of the firm, and aims to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the company in a variety of areas, allowing the company to identify the most attractive markets and to guide managers in allocating resources to these markets, improve the weaker competitive position of the company in emerging markets, or to draw firm unattractive markets. We can say that it is a very efficient tool for the company being used by international market specialists, on one hand to select foreign markets for the company, and on the other hand, to determine the strategy that the firm will be using to internationalize on those markets. At the end of this paper we present a part of a larger study in which we showed how General Electric Matrix/McKinsey it is used specifically in select foreign markets.

  5. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on central processing of CT-targeted and discriminatory touch in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Paula Diane; McGlone, Francis; McKie, Shane; McFarquhar, Martyn; Elliott, Rebecca; Walker, Susannah Claire; Deakin, John Francis William

    2016-08-01

    C-tactile afferents (CTs) are slowly conducting nerve fibres, present only in hairy skin. They are optimally activated by slow, gentle stroking touch, such as those experienced during a caress. CT stimulation activates affective processing brain regions, alluding to their role in affective touch perception. We tested a theory that CT-activating touch engages the pro-social functions of serotonin, by determining whether reducing serotonin, through acute tryptophan depletion, diminishes subjective pleasantness and affective brain responses to gentle touch. A tryptophan depleting amino acid drink was administered to 16 healthy females, with a further 14 receiving a control drink. After 4 h, participants underwent an fMRI scan, during which time CT-innervated forearm skin and CT non-innervated finger skin was stroked with three brushes of differing texture, at CT-optimal force and velocity. Pleasantness ratings were obtained post scanning. The control group showed a greater response in ipsilateral orbitofrontal cortex to CT-activating forearm touch compared to touch to the finger where CTs are absent. This differential response was not present in the tryptophan depleted group. This interaction effect was significant. In addition, control participants showed a differential primary somatosensory cortex response to brush texture applied to the finger, a purely discriminatory touch response, which was not observed in the tryptophan depleted group. This interaction effect was also significant. Pleasantness ratings were similar across treatment groups. These results implicate serotonin in the differentiation between CT-activating and purely discriminatory touch responses. Such effects could contribute to some of the social abnormalities seen in psychiatric disorders associated with abnormal serotonin function. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Characterization of phyllosilicates observed in the central Mawrth Vallis region, Mars, their potential formational processes, and implications for past climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, N.K.; Bishop, J.L.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Parente, M.; Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Swayze, G.A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Silver, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Mawrth Vallis contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates on Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hydrated silica have been identified throughout the region using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). In addition, saponite has been identified in one observation within a crater. These individual minerals are identified and distinguished by features at 1.38-1.42, ???1.91, and 2.17-2.41 ??m. There are two main phyllosilicate units in the Mawrth Vallis region. The lowermost unit is nontronite bearing, unconformably overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate unit containing montmorillonite plus hydrated silica, with a thin layer of kaolinite plus hydrated silica at the top of the unit. These two units are draped by a spectrally unremarkable capping unit. Smectites generally form in neutral to alkaline environments, while kaolinite and hydrated silica typically form in slightly acidic conditions; thus, the observed phyllosilicates may reflect a change in aqueous chemistry. Spectra retrieved near the boundary between the nontronite and Al-phyllosilicate units exhibit a strong positive slope from 1 to 2 ??m, likely from a ferrous component within the rock. This ferrous component indicates either rapid deposition in an oxidizing environment or reducing conditions. Formation of each of the phyllosilicate minerals identified requires liquid water, thus indicating a regional wet period in the Noachian when these units formed. The two main phyllosilicate units may be extensive layers of altered volcanic ash. Other potential formational processes include sediment deposition into a marine or lacustrine basin or pedogenesis. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Processing insect abundance: trading and fishing of zazamushi in Central Japan (Nagano Prefecture, Honshū Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Césard, Nicolas; Komatsu, Seiji; Iwata, Akihisa

    2015-11-11

    This article presents the links between technique, commerce and consumption in fishing for zazamushi, a mixture of aquatic insect larvae sold as food souvenirs in Japan. Since zazamushi are mainly collected for economic reasons, we suggest that demand for them has incited technical development among collectors in order to fish more insects. Several fishermen and traders were interviewed in semi-directed interviews about their practices and knowledge. To understand the passage from a faunal composition to a commercial composition, our research follows a fishing session closely, as well as the selection of insects that follows it. The insects collected were separated from inanimate matter, then identified, counted and weighed at each stage of the process. Our results suggest that the current technique corresponds to an evolution in subsistence and recreational collecting towards a more systematic fishing of the insects, the aim of which is commercial. In their response to trade issues, the collectors have moved away from the banks to fish the insects in the river current, thus increasing the amount of one species captured compared to another. Although the technique is efficient (and similar to other harvesting techniques), it requires the thorough sorting of organic debris and insects (in our example, the catch contains approximately 78 % of inanimate matter and 22 % of insects, of which 3.29 % are retained for consumption, i.e., less than 2 out of 100 insects). The selection of insects to be consumed takes place mainly during cleaning. This stage depends on traders and reflects the different compositions sold as souvenirs. Our research shows that the consumption of insects is not explained just by ecological factors that are favourable or unfavourable, but also by technological and economic factors related to their commerce. It suggests that the traders have gradually established the insects that are currently sold as zazamushi and that this commercial development

  8. The Association of State Legal Mandates for Data Submission of Central Line-associated Blood Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units with Process and Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Philip; Reagan, Julie; Furuya, E. Yoko; Dick, Andrew; Liu, Hangsheng; Herzig, Carolyn T.A; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between state legal mandates for data submission of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with process/outcome measures. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants National sample of level II/III and III NICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance. Methods State mandates for data submission of CLABSIs in NICUs in place by 2011 were compiled and verified with state healthcare-associated infection coordinators. A web-based survey of infection control departments in October 2011 assessed CLABSI prevention practices i.e. compliance with checklist and bundle components (process measures) in ICUs including NICUs. Corresponding 2011 NHSN NICU CLABSI rates (outcome measures) were used to calculate Standardized Infection Ratios (SIR). The association between mandates and process/outcome measures was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results Among 190 study NICUs, 107 (56.3%) NICUs were located in states with mandates, with mandates in place for 3 or more years for half. More NICUs in states with mandates reported ≥95% compliance to at least one CLABSI prevention practice (52.3% – 66.4%) than NICUs in states without mandates (28.9% – 48.2%). Mandates were predictors of ≥95% compliance with all practices (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.4–6.1). NICUs in states with mandates reported lower mean CLABSI rates in the prevention practices but not with lower CLABSI rates. PMID:25111921

  9. The central noradrenergic system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-27

    Jul 27, 2006 ... recognition of a direct influence of the central noradrenergic system on peripheral ... influences on cerebral function and behavior it is impossible to imagine ... stimuli and to speed-up information processing.4. The influence of ...

  10. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  11. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed [School of Bioprocess Engineering, Jejawi Complex of Academics (3), UniMAP, 02600 Arau Perlis (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R{sup 2} was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  12. Investigating Crustal Scale Fault Systems Controlling Volcanic and Hydrothermal Fluid Processes in the South-Central Andes, First Results from a Magnetotelluric Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.; Mitchell, T. M.; Moorkamp, M.; Araya, J.; Cembrano, J. M.; Yanez, G. A.; Hammond, J. O. S.

    2017-12-01

    At convergent plate boundaries, volcanic orogeny is largely controlled by major thrust fault systems that act as magmatic and hydrothermal fluid conduits through the crust. In the south-central Andes, the volcanically and seismically active Tinguiririca and Planchon-Peteroa volcanoes are considered to be tectonically related to the major El Fierro thrust fault system. These large scale reverse faults are characterized by 500 - 1000m wide hydrothermally altered fault cores, which possess a distinct conductive signature relative to surrounding lithology. In order to establish the subsurface architecture of these fault systems, such conductivity contrasts can be detected using the magnetotelluric method. In this study, LEMI fluxgate-magnetometer long-period and Metronix broadband MT data were collected at 21 sites in a 40km2 survey grid that surrounds this fault system and associated volcanic complexes. Multi-remote referencing techniques is used together with robust processing to obtain reliable impedance estimates between 100 Hz and 1,000s. Our preliminary inversion results provide evidence of structures within the 10 - 20 km depth range that are attributed to this fault system. Further inversions will be conducted to determine the approximate depth extent of these features, and ultimately provide constraints for future geophysical studies aimed to deduce the role of these faults in volcanic orogeny and hydrothermal fluid migration processes in this region of the Andes.

  13. Sediment transport dynamics in the Central Himalaya: assessing during monsoon the erosion processes signature in the daily suspended load of the Narayani river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Guillaume; Lavé, Jérôme; Lanord, Christian France; Prassad Gajurel, Ananta

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of mountainous landscapes is the result of competition between tectonic and erosional processes. In response to the creation of topography by tectonics, fluvial, glacial, and hillslope denudation processes erode topography, leading to rock exhumation and sediment redistribution. When trying to better document the links between climate, tectonic, or lithologic controls in mountain range evolution, a detailed understanding of the influence of each erosion process in a given environment is fundamental. At the scale of a whole mountain range, a systematic survey and monitoring of all the geomorphologic processes at work can rapidly become difficult. An alternative approach can be provided by studying the characteristics and temporal evolution of the sediments exported out of the range. In central Himalaya, the Narayani watershed presents contrasted lithologic, geochemical or isotopic signatures of the outcropping rocks as well as of the erosional processes: this particular setting allows conducting such type of approach by partly untangling the myopic vision of the spatial integration at the watershed scale. Based on the acquisition and analysis of a new dataset on the daily suspended load concentration and geochemical characteristics at the mountain outlet of one of the largest Himalayan rivers (drainage area = 30000 km2) bring several important results on Himalayan erosion, and on climatic and process controls. 1. Based on discrete depth sampling and on daily surface sampling of suspended load associated to flow characterization through ADCP measurements, we were first able to integrate sediment flux across a river cross-section and over time. We estimate for 2010 year an equivalent erosion rate of 1.8 +0.35/-0.2 mm/yr, and over the last 15 years, using past sediment load records from the DHM of Nepal, an equivalent erosion rate of 1.6 +0.3/-0.2 mm/yr. These rates are also in close agreement with the longer term ( 500 yrs) denudation rates of 1.7 mm

  14. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD tests in a school-age hearing screening programme – analysis of 76,429 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr H. Skarzynski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Hearing disorders among school-age children are a current concern. Continuing studies have been performed in Poland since 2008, and on 2 December 2011 the EU Council adopted Conclusions on the Early Detection and Treatment of Communication Disorders in Children, Including the Use of e-Health Tools and innovative Solutions. The discussion now focuses not only on the efficacy of hearing screening programmes in schoolchildren, but what should be its general aim and what tests it should include? This paper makes the case that it is important to include central auditory processing disorder (CAPD tests. One such test is the dichotic digits test (DDT. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the usefulness of the DDT in detecting central hearing disorders in school-age children. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. During hearing screening programmes conducted in Poland in 2008–2010, exactly 235,664 children (7–12-years-old were screened in 9,325 schools. Of this number, 7,642 were examined using the DDT test for CAPD. Screening programmes were conducted using the Sense Examination Platform. [b]Results.[/b] With the cut-off criterion set at the 5th percentile, results for the DDT applied in a divided attention mode were 11.4% positive for 7-year-olds and 11.3% for 12-year-olds. In the focused attention mode, the comparable result for 12-year-olds was 9.7%. There was a clear right ear advantage. In children with positive DDT results, a higher incidence of other disorders, such as dyslexia, was observed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. A test for CAPD should be included in the hearing screening of school-age children. The results of this study form the basis for developing Polish standards in this area.

  15. Driving forces of main landscape change processes from past 200 years in Central Europe - differences between old democratic and post-socialist countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skokanová Hana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares and points out differences in driving forces of four main landscape change processes that shaped post-socialist countries and old democratic countries of Central Europe during the last two centuries. Studying landscape change processes and corresponding driving forces helps in understanding patterns of present landscape and can help among others in better prediction of future landscape change trends. Here, the presented results are based on review of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014. Driving forces affecting these processes were grouped into four categories. Economic forces drove mainly agricultural intensification; agricultural land abandonment and urbanisation and were pronounced especially in the second half of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. Technological driving forces affected agricultural intensification especially in the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century while cultural driving forces had the biggest impact on urbanisation at the beginning of the 21st century. Political driving forces affected agricultural intensification, urbanisation as well as agricultural land abandonment and were pronounced mainly during the second half of the 20th century in the post-socialist countries. Political forces in the form of subsidies drove agricultural extensification at the beginning of the 21st century. The drivers for the agricultural intensification as well as urbanisation seem to be similar for both old democratic and post-socialist countries. In contrast, agricultural land abandonment in the old democratic countries was driven by technological, cultural and economic driving forces while in the post-socialist countries the political driving forces were mainly responsible. Changes in systems for subsidies and changes in the agricultural commodity markets are also responsible for different frequencies and rates of extensification of

  16. Remote-sensing data processing with the multivariate regression analysis method for iron mineral resource potential mapping: a case study in the Sarvian area, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Edris; Feizi, Faranak; Jafari Rad, Alireza; Arian, Mehran

    2018-03-01

    This paper uses multivariate regression to create a mathematical model for iron skarn exploration in the Sarvian area, central Iran, using multivariate regression for mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM). The main target of this paper is to apply multivariate regression analysis (as an MPM method) to map iron outcrops in the northeastern part of the study area in order to discover new iron deposits in other parts of the study area. Two types of multivariate regression models using two linear equations were employed to discover new mineral deposits. This method is one of the reliable methods for processing satellite images. ASTER satellite images (14 bands) were used as unique independent variables (UIVs), and iron outcrops were mapped as dependent variables for MPM. According to the results of the probability value (p value), coefficient of determination value (R2) and adjusted determination coefficient (Radj2), the second regression model (which consistent of multiple UIVs) fitted better than other models. The accuracy of the model was confirmed by iron outcrops map and geological observation. Based on field observation, iron mineralization occurs at the contact of limestone and intrusive rocks (skarn type).

  17. Concentration and chiral signature of chlordane in soils and sediments of the Central Tibetan Plateau, China: Transformation in the surficial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guo-Li; Wu, Ming-Zhe; Sun, Yong; Li, Jun; Han, Peng; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2015-01-01

    The fraction of trans-chlordane (TC) in chlordane was used to indicate racemic degradation while the enantiomer fractions (EFs) indicated enantioselective depletion. In 44 soils of the Central Tibetan Plateau, the fractions of TC ranged from 0.368 to 0.411. The EFs ranged from 0.174 to 0.696 for TC and from 0.483 to 0.672 for cis-chlordane (CC). (−) enantiomer excess (ee) was found to be 80.0% in the soils for TC and (+) ee was 86.5% for CC. The fraction of TC changed with the clay content while the EFs changed with the soil organic carbon. Meanwhile, the fractions of TC and the EFs were determined for the surficial sediments in Yamzhog Yumco Lake, which were compared with those in the soils at its catchment area. The composition and chiral signature of chlordane did not vary between soils and sediments. Our results will help to elucidate the transformation of chlordane in soils and in surficial transport. - Highlights: • F TC and EFs were determined for TC and CC in soil and sediment of CTP. • F TC of racemic degradation changed with the content of clays in soils. • EFs of enantioselective depletion changed with SOC in soils. • F TC and EFs were maintained during the surficial transport process. - The racemic and enantioselective transformation of chlordane were investigated in soils and sediments to characterize the surficial soil-to-sediment transport in the CTP.

  18. Multiple sclerosis: Left advantage for auditory laterality in dichotic tests of central auditory processing and relationship of psychoacoustic tests with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale-EDSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza López, Yolanda Rebeca; Orozco Peña, Xóchitl Daisy; Pérez Ruiz, Santiago Jesús

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the central auditory processing disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis, emphasizing auditory laterality by applying psychoacoustic tests and to identify their relationship with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale (EDSS) functions. Depression scales (HADS), EDSS, and 9 psychoacoustic tests to study CAPD were applied to 26 individuals with multiple sclerosis and 26 controls. Correlation tests were performed between the EDSS and psychoacoustic tests. Seven out of 9 psychoacoustic tests were significantly different (P<.05); right or left (14/19 explorations) with respect to control. In dichotic digits there was a left-ear advantage compared to the usual predominance of RDD. There was significant correlation in five psychoacoustic tests and the specific functions of EDSS. The left-ear advantage detected and interpreted as an expression of deficient influences of the corpus callosum and attention in multiple sclerosis should be investigated. There was a correlation between psychoacoustic tests and specific EDSS functions. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of the luminescence emission of Si nanocrystals synthesized from non-stoichiometric Si oxides using a Central Composite Design of the deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morana, B.; Sande, J.C.G. de; Rodriguez, A.; Sangrador, J.; Rodriguez, T.; Avella, M.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Si oxide films with a controlled excess of Si were deposited on Si wafers by LPCVD using Si 2 H 6 and O 2 , thermally annealed to 1100 deg. C for 1 h to form Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO 2 and subsequently annealed at 450 deg. C in forming gas. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. The excess of Si in the as-deposited samples, ranging from 0 to 70% in volume, was obtained from the ellipsometry data analysis. After annealing at 1100 deg. C, the samples show a luminescence band (peaking at 665 nm) at 80 K and at room temperature which is associated to the presence of Si nanocrystals. The growth rate, the excess of Si incorporated to the films and the intensity of the luminescence band were modelled using a Face-Centered Central Composite Design as a function of the main deposition variables (pressure, 185-300 mTorr; temperature, 250-400 deg. C; Si 2 H 6 /O 2 flow ratio, 2-5) aiming to control the growth process and the incorporation of Si in excess as well as to determine the experimental conditions that yield the samples with the maximum intensity of the luminescence emission

  20. Detection of simultaneous processes leading to multifragmentation in central collisions of the system 86Kr + 197Au, at 60 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, O.

    1993-06-01

    Multi-fragments production in intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions is the most important deexcitation process for hot nuclei produced in small impact-parameter collisions (central collisions). The study of the 60 A.MeV Kr+Au system, performed at GANIL with a 4π and low threshold experimental setup including the fragments and light charged particles multidetectors DELF, XYZt, MUR and TONNEAU associated with 6 solid state detectors, has allowed to measure the global characteristics of dissipative reactions leading to a large amount (up to 6) of fragments with charge greater than 5. The events analysis has been performed by using global variables and has shown that there was the formation of a equilibrated composite system when one looked at kinematical observables (velocities) in the center-of-mass frame. The use of two models, one corresponding to multifragmentation, the other to sequential binary fission, has allowed to conclude for the existence of a simultaneous breakup of the composite system (multifragmentation). Last, no effect related to nuclear matter compressibility (compression/expansion stage) has been found for the most important part of the fragments (charge greater than 10). (orig.)

  1. Record of continental to marine transition from the Mesoproterozoic Ampani basin, Central India: An exercise of process-based sedimentology in a structurally deformed basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Saha, Subhojit; Das, Kaushik

    2017-08-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Ampani Group of rocks, a structurally deformed sedimentary package hosted within the Bastar Craton in central India, was studied for process-based facies and paleoenvironmental analyses. Outcrop mapping on 1:1500 scale, deconvolution of deformation pattern, and process-based facies analyses have led to the identification of fifteen facies types, clubbed under four facies associations. A range of paleoenvironmental settings varying from continental fluvial to distal marine shelf is inferred. Deductive paleohydrology revealed poorly-efficient 'dirty river' character for the Ampani River system with low water discharge. However, at times of catastrophic sheet floods release of sediments trapped at the river mouth in form of hyperpycnal underflows triggered formation of river mouth delta. Reworking of delta front sediment in wave-dominated coastline resulted development of beach-foreshore and shoreface (proximal to distal). Variation in the relative proportion of bar and interbar products within the shoreface successions exposed at different studied sections is interpreted as signature of relative bathymetric variation. The pro-deltaic Ampani shelf was storm infested. Tectonic perturbance in the basin hinterland in course of Ampani sedimentation is inferred from occurrence of a disparately thick lobate high-density flow deposit towards the top of shoreface succession and increase in feldspar content upward within the shoreface succession. Addition of detritus from a ∼1600 Ma Mesoproterozoic provenance in upper part of shoreface also strengthen the contention. Deconvolution of deformation pattern and delineation of environmental products ranging between continental and deep marine allowed us to infer the Ampani sediment package as fining-upward in character evolved in a transgressive mode.

  2. Stimulus-dependent changes of extracellular glucose in the rat hippocampus determined by in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, A; Bert, B; Fink, H; Voigt, J-P

    2009-10-19

    Neuronal activity is tightly coupled with brain energy metabolism; and glucose is an important energy substrate for neurons. The present in vivo microdialysis study was aimed at investigating changes in extracellular glucose concentrations in the rat ventral hippocampus due to exposure to the elevated plus maze. Determination of basal hippocampal glucose and lactate/pyruvate ratio in male Wistar rats was conducted in the home cage using in vivo microdialysis. Rats were exposed to the elevated plus maze, a rodent model of anxiety-related behaviour, or to unspecific stress induced by white noise (95dB) as a control condition. Basal hippocampal levels of glucose, as determined by zero-net-flux, and the basal lactate/pyruvate ratio were 1.49+/-0.05mmol/l and 13.8+/-1.1, respectively. In rats without manipulation, glucose levels remained constant throughout the experiment (120min). By contrast, exposure to the elevated plus maze led to a temporary decline in hippocampal glucose (-33.2+/-4.4%) which returned to baseline level in the home cage. White noise caused only a non-significant decrease in extracellular glucose level (-9.3+/-3.5%). In all groups, the lactate/pyruvate ratio remained unchanged by the experimental procedures. Our microdialysis study demonstrates that exposure to the elevated plus maze induces a transient decrease in extracellular hippocampal glucose concentration. In contrast, an unspecific stimulus did not change hippocampal glucose. The latter suggests that only specific behavioural stimuli increase hippocampal glucose utilization in the ventral hippocampus.

  3. Stimulus-dependent modulation of spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in the rat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liangming; Liu, Yadong; Gui, Jianjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Dewen

    2014-08-06

    Research on spontaneous low-frequency oscillations is important to reveal underlying regulatory mechanisms in the brain. The mechanism for the stimulus modulation of low-frequency oscillations is not known. Here, we used the intrinsic optical imaging technique to examine stimulus-modulated low-frequency oscillation signals in the rat visual cortex. The stimulation was presented monocularly as a flashing light with different frequencies and intensities. The phases of low-frequency oscillations in different regions tended to be synchronized and the rhythms typically accelerated within a 30-s period after stimulation. These phenomena were confined to visual stimuli with specific flashing frequencies (12.5-17.5 Hz) and intensities (5-10 mA). The acceleration and synchronization induced by the flashing frequency were more marked than those induced by the intensity. These results show that spontaneous low-frequency oscillations can be modulated by parameter-dependent flashing lights and indicate the potential utility of the visual stimulus paradigm in exploring the origin and function of low-frequency oscillations.

  4. Stimulus-dependent modulation of visual neglect in a touch-screen cancellation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Ingo; Volkening, Katharina; Garbacenkaite, Ruta

    2015-05-01

    Patients with left-sided neglect frequently show omissions and repetitive behavior on cancellation tests. Using a touch-screen-based cancellation task, we tested how visual feedback and distracters influence the number of omissions and perseverations. Eighteen patients with left-sided visual neglect and 18 healthy controls performed four different cancellation tasks on an iPad touch screen: no feedback (the display did not change during the task), visual feedback (touched targets changed their color from black to green), visual feedback with distracters (20 distracters were evenly embedded in the display; detected targets changed their color from black to green), vanishing targets (touched targets disappeared from the screen). Except for the condition with vanishing targets, neglect patients had significantly more omissions and perseverations than healthy controls in the remaining three subtests. Both conditions providing feedback by changing the target color showed the highest number of omissions. Erasure of targets nearly diminished omissions completely. The highest rate of perseverations was observed in the no-feedback condition. The implementation of distracters led to a moderate number of perseverations. Visual feedback without distracters and vanishing targets abolished perseverations nearly completely. Visual feedback and the presence of distracters aggravated hemispatial neglect. This finding is compatible with impaired disengagement from the ipsilesional side as an important factor of visual neglect. Improvement of cancellation behavior with vanishing targets could have therapeutic implications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Astrocytic expression of the Alzheimer's disease beta-secretase (BACE1) is stimulus-dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlage-Rübsamen, Maike; Zeitschel, Ulrike; Apelt, Jenny

    2003-01-01

    The beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is a prerequisite for the generation of beta-amyloid peptides, which give rise to cerebrovascular and parenchymal beta-amyloid deposits in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. BACE1 is neuronally expressed in the brains of humans and experimental...... paradigms studied. In contrast, BACE1 expression by reactive astrocytes was evident in chronic but not in acute models of gliosis. Additionally, we observed BACE1-immunoreactive astrocytes in proximity to beta-amyloid plaques in the brains of aged Tg2576 mice and Alzheimer's disease patients....

  6. IRAK2 directs stimulus-dependent nuclear export of inflammatory mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Bulek, Katarzyna; Li, Xiao; Herjan, Tomasz; Yu, Minjia; Qian, Wen; Wang, Han; Zhou, Gao; Chen, Xing; Yang, Hui; Hong, Lingzi; Zhao, Junjie; Qin, Luke; Fukuda, Koichi; Flotho, Annette; Gao, Ji; Dongre, Ashok; Carman, Julie A; Kang, Zizhen; Su, Bing; Kern, Timothy S; Smith, Jonathan D; Hamilton, Thomas A; Melchior, Frauke; Fox, Paul L; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-10-09

    Expression of inflammatory genes is determined in part by post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA metabolism but how stimulus- and transcript-dependent nuclear export influence is poorly understood. Here, we report a novel pathway in which LPS/TLR4 engagement promotes nuclear localization of IRAK2 to facilitate nuclear export of a specific subset of inflammation-related mRNAs for translation in murine macrophages. IRAK2 kinase activity is required for LPS-induced RanBP2-mediated IRAK2 sumoylation and subsequent nuclear translocation. Array analysis showed that an SRSF1-binding motif is enriched in mRNAs dependent on IRAK2 for nuclear export. Nuclear IRAK2 phosphorylates SRSF1 to reduce its binding to target mRNAs, which promotes the RNA binding of the nuclear export adaptor ALYREF and nuclear export receptor Nxf1 loading for the export of the mRNAs. In summary, LPS activates a nuclear function of IRAK2 that facilitates the assembly of nuclear export machinery to export selected inflammatory mRNAs to the cytoplasm for translation.

  7. The efficacy of formal auditory training in children with (central auditory processing disorder: behavioral and electrophysiological evaluation A eficácia do treinamento auditivo formal em crianças com transtorno de processamento auditivo (central: avaliação comportamental e eletrofisiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alonso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials can be used to monitor changes in the Central Auditory Nervous System after Auditory Training. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Auditory Training in children with (Central Auditory Processing Disorder, comparing behavioral and electrophysiological findings before and after training. MATERIAL AND METHODS: twenty nine individuals between eight and 16 years of age with (Central Auditory Processing Disorder - diagnosed by behavioral tests - were involved in this research. After evaluation with the P300, the subjects were submitted to an Auditory Training program in acoustic booth and, at the end, a new evaluation of (central auditory processing and a new recording of P300. RESULTS: The comparison between the evaluations made before and after the Auditory Training showed that there was a statistically significant difference among P300 latency values and also among behavioral test mean values in evaluation of (central auditory processing. CONCLUSION: P300 appears to be a useful tool to monitor Central Auditory Nervous System changes after Auditory Training, and this program was effective in the rehabilitation of the auditory skills in children with (Central Auditory Processing Disorder.Os Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Longa Latência podem ser uma ferramenta útil no monitoramento das mudanças ocorridas no Sistema Nervoso Auditivo Central após Treinamento Auditivo. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a eficácia do Treinamento Auditivo em crianças com Transtorno de Processamento Auditivo (Central, comparando as medidas comportamentais e eletrofisiológicas antes e após o treinamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 29 indivíduos com idades entre oito e 16 anos diagnosticados, por meio de testes comportamentais, com Transtorno de Processamento Auditivo (Central. Após serem submetidos à avaliação do P300, foi realizado com os sujeitos um programa de

  8. Elucidating tectonic events and processes from variably tectonized conglomerate clast detrital geochronology: examples from the Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleven, Nathan; Lin, Shoufa; Davis, Donald; Xiao, Wenjiao; Guilmette, Carl

    2017-04-01

    This work expands upon detrital zircon geochronology with a sampling and analysis strategy dating granitoid conglomerate clasts that exhibit differing degrees of internal ductile deformation. As deformation textures within clastic material reflect the variation and history of tectonization in the source region of a deposit, we outline a dating methodology that can provide details of the provenance's tectonomagmatic history from deformation-relative age distributions. The method involves bulk samples of solely granitoid clasts, as they are representative of the magmatic framework within the provenance. The clasts are classified and sorted into three subsets: undeformed, slightly deformed, and deformed. LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology is performed on zircon separates of each subset. Our case study, involving the Permian Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, analyzes each of the three clast subsets, as well as sandstone detrital samples, at three stratigraphic levels to yield a profile of the unroofed provenance. The age spectra of the clast samples exhibit different, wider distributions than sandstone samples, considered an effect of proximity to the respective provenance. Comparisons of clast data to sandstone data, as well as comparisons between stratigraphic levels, yield indications of key tectonic processes, in addition to the typical characteristics provided by detrital geochronology. The clast data indicates a minimal lag time, implying rapid exhumation rates, whereas sandstone data alone would indicate a 90 m.y. lag time. Early Paleozoic arc building episodes appear as Ordovician peaks in sandstone data, and Silurian-Devonian peaks in clast data, indicating a younging of magmatism towards the proximal provenance. A magmatic hiatus starts in the Devonian, correlating with the latest age of deformed clasts, interpreted as timing of collisional tectonics. Provenance interpretation using the correlations seen between the clast and sandstone

  9. Intensification of marrubiin concentration by optimization of microwave-assisted (low CO2 yielding) extraction process for Marrubium vulgare using central composite design and antioxidant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vineet; Nanda, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Marrubium vulgare Linn (Lamiaceae) was generally extracted by conventional methods with low yield of marrubiin; these processes were not considered environment friendly. This study extracts the whole plant of M. vulgare by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and optimizes the effect of various extraction parameters on the marrubiin yield by using Central Composite Design (CCD). The selected medicinal plant was extracted using ethanol: water (1:1) as solvent by MAE. The plant material was also extracted using a Soxhlet and the various extracts were analyzed by HPTLC to quantify the marrubiin concentration. The optimized conditions for the microwave-assisted extraction of selected medicinal plant was microwave power of 539 W, irradiation time of 373 s and solvent to drug ratio, 32 mL per g of the drug. The marrubiin concentration in MAE almost doubled relative to the traditional method (0.69 ± 0.08 to 1.35 ± 0.04%). The IC 50 for DPPH was reduced to 66.28 ± 0.6 μg/mL as compared to conventional extract (84.14 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The scanning electron micrographs of the treated and untreated drug samples further support the results. The CCD can be successfully applied to optimize the extraction parameters (MAE) for M. vulgare. Moreover, in terms of environmental impact, the MAE technique could be assumed as a 'Green approach' because the MAE approach for extraction of plant released only 92.3 g of CO 2 as compared to 3207.6 g CO 2 using the Soxhlet method of extraction.

  10. Processes affecting δ34S and δ18O values of dissolved sulfate in alluvium along the Canadian River, central Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Breit, George N.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2009-01-01

    The δ34S and δ18O values for dissolved sulfate in groundwater are commonly used in aquifer studies to identify sulfate reservoirs and describe biogeochemical processes. The utility of these data, however, often is compromised by mixing of sulfate sources within reservoirs and isotope fractionation during sulfur redox cycling. Our study shows that, after all potential sulfate sources are identified and isotopically characterized, the δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values differentiate processes such as sulfate-source mixing, sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and organosulfur decomposition. During bacterial reduction of sulfate, the values reflect kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation and exchange of oxygen isotopes between sulfate and water. Detailed analysis of the chemistry (Cl and SO4 concentrations) and isotopic composition (δ2HH2Oand δ18OH2O) of groundwater in an alluvial aquifer in Central Oklahoma, USA allowed the identification of five distinct end members that supply water to the aquifer (regional groundwater flowing into the study area, river water, leachate from a closed landfill that operated within the site, rain, and surface runoff). The δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values in each end member differentiated three sources of sulfate: sulfate dissolved from Early to Late Permian rocks within the drainage basin (δ34SSO4 = 8–12‰ and δ18OSO4 = 10‰), iron sulfides oxidized by molecular oxygen during low water-table levels (δ34SSO4 = − 16‰ and δ18OSO4 = 10‰), and organosulfur compounds (predominately ester sulfates) from decomposition of vegetation on the surface and from landfill trash buried in the alluvium (δ34SSO4 = 8‰ and δ18OSO4 = 6‰). During bacterial reduction of these sulfate sources, similar isotope fractionation processes are recorded in the parallel trends of increasing δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values. When extensive reduction occurs, the kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation (estimated by εH2S–SO4 = − 23

  11. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  12. Initiation process of the Mw 6.2 central Tottori, Japan, earthquake on October 21, 2016: Stress transfer due to its largest foreshock of Mw 4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, S.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    On October 21, 2016, a strike-slip earthquake with Mw 6.2 occurred in the central Tottori prefecture, Japan. It was preceded by a foreshock sequence that began with a Mw 4.1 event, the largest earthquake for the sequence, and lasted about two hours. According to the JMA catalog, the largest foreshock had a similar focal mechanism as the mainshock and was located in the immediate vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter. The goal of this study is to understand the relationship between the foreshock and the initial rupture of the mainshock. We first determine the relative hypocenter distance between the foreshock and mainshock using the P-wave onsets on Hi-net station records. The initiation points of the two events are likely about 100 m apart according to the current results, but could be closer. Within the location uncertainty, they might either be coplanar or on subparallel planes. Next, we obtain the slip-history models from a kinematic inversion method using empirical Green's functions derived from other foreshocks with M 2.2 - 2.4. The Mw 4.1 foreshock and Mw 6.2 mainshock started in a similar way until approximately 0.2 s after their onsets. For the foreshock, the rapid growth stage completed by 0.2 s even though the rupture propagation continued for 0.4 - 0.5 s longer (note that 0.2 s is significantly shorter than the typical source duration of a Mw 4.1 earthquake). On the other hand, the mainshock rupture continued to grow rapidly after 0.2 s. The comparison between the relative hypocenter locations and the slip models shows that the mainshock nucleated within the area strongly effected by both static and dynamic stress changes created by the foreshock. We also find that the mainshock initially propagated away from the foreshock hypocenter. We consider that the stress transfer process is a key to understand the mainshock nucleation as well as its rupture growth process.

  13. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.; Budd, David A.; Clayton, Edward A.; Missimer, Thomas M.; Dickson, John Anthony D

    2011-01-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  14. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  15. First simultaneous measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN and ozone at Nam Co in the central Tibetan Plateau: impacts from the PBL evolution and transport processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2018-04-01

    range of 0.3–1.0 ppb, with an average of 0.6 ppb. This long-range transport process influenced most of the western and central TP region for about a week in early June 2012. Our results suggest that polluted air masses from South Asia can significantly enhance the PAN level over the TP. As PAN acts as a reservoir of NOx, the impacts of pollution transport from South Asia on tropospheric photochemistry over the TP region deserve further studies.

  16. First simultaneous measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and ozone at Nam Co in the central Tibetan Plateau: impacts from the PBL evolution and transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Hualong; Lin, Weili; Wang, Ying; Xu, Wanyun; Jia, Shihui

    2018-04-01

    -range transport process influenced most of the western and central TP region for about a week in early June 2012. Our results suggest that polluted air masses from South Asia can significantly enhance the PAN level over the TP. As PAN acts as a reservoir of NOx, the impacts of pollution transport from South Asia on tropospheric photochemistry over the TP region deserve further studies.

  17. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  18. Afrique Centrale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  19. Soil erosion risk as a measure of the effects of land pattern changes on runoff processes in the landscape – case studies from Lower Austria and Central Bohemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devátý, Jan; Strauss, Peter; Hoesl, Rosemarie; Dostal, Tomas; Krása, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Changes in land use, landscape structure and agricultural technologies affect number of soil characteristics as well as rainfall-runoff processes in the landscape. Soil erosion and sediment transport can be easily used for documentation and quantification of the impacts of land use development in time. Extent and structure of arable land within a landscape is driven by technological, social and political, factors and differs between countries. However land structure development is more or less natural process and is driven under normal conditions mainly by climatic and economic forces, the effects of political development is very well documented on different sides of the former iron curtain. There is unique chance to compare the trends in historical development during different historical periods given by both of economic and political forces and to search for optimum land structure, using rainfall-runoff processes as a measure. Land structure analysis and soil erosion risk assessment was carried out for two areas of interest and series of historical periods: • Lower Austrian municipality of Kleinweikersdorf (580 ha) - 1822, 1945, 1966, 1990, 2008 • part of Botic river watershed in Central Bohemia (810 ha) - 1841, 1953, 1971, 1989, 2003, 2013 Land use delimitation and field plots spatial definition was digitized from available data sources (Historical Cadastral maps and aerial photographs). Changes in crop properties and management practices were also taken into account based on historical information. Comparison between time periods shows that political actions can cause substantial impact on field plot sizes. At the Austrian area of interest the number of arable field plot continually decreases from 1203 (in 1822) to 371 (in 2008) whereas at the Czech area of interest the initial number of 469 parcels (in 1841) decreases to 32 (in 1989) and then rises again in the last two time periods. While the trend of rising average parcel size in Austria is continuous

  20. Eruption and Degassing Processes in a Supervolcanic System: The Volatile Record Preserved in Melt Inclusions from the 3.49Ma Tara Ignimbrite in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocke, S.; de Silva, S. L.; Schmitt, A. K.; Wallace, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of H2O and CO2 in quartz and sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from one of the youngest supervolcanic eruptions in the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) in the Central Andes provides information on crystallization depths and eruption and degassing processes. At least 740 km3 of high-K, metaluminous, rhyodacite to rhyolite magma erupted from the Guacha Caldera in southwest Bolivia, producing three phases of the 3.49 Ma Tara Ignimbrite: a Plinian fall-deposit, an extensive ignimbrite, and several post-caldera domes. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of quartz-hosted melt inclusions from Tara Plinian pumice have H2O contents of ~4.5 wt % and variable CO2 contents (110-300 ppm), corresponding to vapor saturation pressures up to 180 MPa. In contrast, sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from the Plinian-fall deposit contain bubbles, lower water contents (1.4-2.2 wt %) and lower CO2 (87-143 ppm). These vesiculated melt inclusions and low volatile contents suggest that the sanidine crystals leaked on their ascent to the surface and therefore do not record accurate pre-eruptive melt volatile contents. In contrast, quartz-hosted melt inclusions from post-caldera dome samples contain lower H2O contents of 2.5-3.5 wt % (average 2.9 wt %) and no detectable CO2, corresponding to vapor saturation pressures of 50-90 MPa. These data indicate that the preeruptive plinian stage Tara magma was vapor saturated at the time of melt inclusion entrapment and stored between 5-6 km, while those from the post-caldera domes were trapped at 2-3 km. Differences in CO2 between Plinian and dome melt inclusions require that the post-caldera dome quartzes represent a different generation of crystals that grew as the magma slowly rose and progressively degassed at 2-3 km. During this shallow crystallization, the magma evolved further and eventually fed the post-caldera domes, one of which is a high-Si rhyolite. Consistent with this interpretation, melt inclusions from post-caldera dome samples

  1. Sources and Formation Processes of Short-Chain Saturated Diacids (C2–C4 in Inhalable Particles (PM10 from Huangshi City, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available PM10 samples were collected from Huangshi (HS city, Central China during April 2012 to March 2013, and were analyzed for short-chain saturated dicarboxylic acids (diacids using a capillary gas chromatograph (GC. We found that oxalic acid (C2, 318 ± 104 ng·m−3 was the most abundant diacid species, followed by malonic acid (C3, 25.4 ± 9.11 ng·m−3 and succinic acid (C4, 2.09 ± 0.52 ng·m−3. The concentrations of C2 and C4 diacids were highest in winter, followed by summer and spring, and lowest in autumn. C3 diacid was decreased in the order of summer > winter > autumn > spring. Further, the seasonal variations of WSOC (water-soluble organic carbon- and OC (organic carbon-normalized diacid concentrations were similar to those of diacid concentrations, suggesting that both primary emission and secondary production are important sources for diacids in Huangshi (HS aerosols. Strong correlations were found among C2 diacid and the three ions SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ in summer and winter, suggesting that the species could undergo a similar secondary oxidation processing. C2 had good correlation with K+ in summer and autumn, which indicates an enhanced contribution of combustion sources for C2 diacid. Moreover, according to the ratio of C2/K+, we can conclude that C2 diacid should be formed by a secondary reaction of biomass combustion in HS aerosols, especially in summer and autumn. The ratios of C2/C4 and C3/C4 were compared with those reported in other sites, and the results suggest that HS aerosols should be more photochemically aged than at other urban areas. Principal component analysis of diacids and selected water-soluble inorganic ions over four seasons suggests that HS aerosols are influenced not only from primary emission, but also from secondary reaction. According to the linear relation between C2 and C3 diacids, the results indicate that C2 diacid is formed from the oxidation of hydrocarbon compounds in spring, while it is from

  2. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  3. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to

  4. Changes in the frequency of benign focal spikes accompany changes in central information processing speed : a prospective 2-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebus, S.C.M.; IJff, D.M.; den Boer, J.T.; Debeij-van Hall, M.H.J.A.; Klinkenberg, S.; van der Does, A.; Boon, P.J.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    We prospectively examined whether changes in the frequency of benign focal spikes accompany changes in cognition. Twenty-six children with benign focal spikes (19 with Rolandic epilepsy) and learning difficulties were examined with repeated 24-hour EEG recordings, three cognitive tests on central

  5. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  6. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  7. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  8. Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Lin; Westbrook, John K; Hu, Gao; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Sword, Gregory A; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2018-04-30

    Mass landings of migrating white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), can lead to severe outbreaks that cause heavy losses for rice production in East Asia. South-central China is the main infestation area on the annual migration loop of S. furcifera between the northern Indo-China Peninsula and mainland China; however, rice planthopper species are not able to survive in this region over winter. In this study, a trajectory analysis of movements from population source areas and a spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of mesoscale and synoptic weather conditions from 7 to 10 May 2012 were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to identify source areas of immigrants and determine how weather and topographic terrain influence insect landing. A sensitivity experiment was conducted with reduced topography using the WRF model to explain the associations among rainfall, topography, and light-trap catches of S. furcifera. The trajectory modeling results suggest that the source areas of S. furcifera immigrants into south-central China from 8 to 10 May were mainly southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, and north-central Vietnam. The appearance of enormous catches of immigrant S. furcifera coincided with a period of rainstorms. The formation of transporting southerly winds was strongly associated with the topographic terrain. Additionally, the rainfall distribution and intensity over south-central China significantly decreased when topography was reduced in the model and were directly affected by wind circulation, which was associated with mountainous terrain that caused strong convection. This study indicates that migrating populations of S. furcifera were carried by the southwesterly low-level jets and that topographically induced convergent winds, precipitation, low temperatures, and wind shear acted as key factors that led to massive landings.

  9. Mineralogy, geochemistry and microfacies of late Quaternary periplatform sediments: Carbonate export cycles and secondary processes - Sanganeb Atoll and Abington Reef, Sudan, Central Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Emmermann, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A set of sediment cores was obtained in the periplatform realm close to Sanganeb Atoll and Abington Reef, about 20 miles offshore the Sudanese coast in the central Red Sea. Microfacies, mineralogy and geochemistry of periplatform sediments were analysed to quantify glacial-interglacial variations in carbonate production and sediment export of the reefs in response to late Quaternary sealevel fluctuations. The present study showed that the periplatform sediments from the Sudanese shelf to grea...

  10. Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Lin; Westbrook, John K.; Hu, Gao; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Sword, Gregory A.; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Mass landings of migrating white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), can lead to severe outbreaks that cause heavy losses for rice production in East Asia. South-central China is the main infestation area on the annual migration loop of S. furcifera between the northern Indo-China Peninsula and mainland China; however, rice planthopper species are not able to survive in this region over winter. In this study, a trajectory analysis of movements from population source areas and a spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of mesoscale and synoptic weather conditions from 7 to 10 May 2012 were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to identify source areas of immigrants and determine how weather and topographic terrain influence insect landing. A sensitivity experiment was conducted with reduced topography using the WRF model to explain the associations among rainfall, topography, and light-trap catches of S. furcifera. The trajectory modeling results suggest that the source areas of S. furcifera immigrants into south-central China from 8 to 10 May were mainly southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, and north-central Vietnam. The appearance of enormous catches of immigrant S. furcifera coincided with a period of rainstorms. The formation of transporting southerly winds was strongly associated with the topographic terrain. Additionally, the rainfall distribution and intensity over south-central China significantly decreased when topography was reduced in the model and were directly affected by wind circulation, which was associated with mountainous terrain that caused strong convection. This study indicates that migrating populations of S. furcifera were carried by the southwesterly low-level jets and that topographically induced convergent winds, precipitation, low temperatures, and wind shear acted as key factors that led to massive landings.

  11. Adaptation of the deoxyglucose method for use at cellular level: histological processing of the central nervous system for high resolution radio-autography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Rosiers, M.H.; Descarries, Laurent

    1978-01-01

    Vascular perfusion of all products required for primary fixation, postfixation, dehydration and embedding of nervous tissue in Epon permits radio-autographic detection of radioactivity accumulated in the central nervous system after intravenous injection of [ 3 H]deoxyglucose. This histological technique should allow application of the deoxyglucose method at cellular if not subcellular level, since a high proportion of the tracer appears to be retained in situ in specimens adequately preserved for light and electron microscope radio-autography [fr

  12. Energy integration experiences at the Europe, at the Nordic countries and at the Central America: considerations relevant to the South America integration process; Experiencias de integracao energetica na Europa, nos paises nordicos e na America Central: consideracoes relevantes ao processo de integracao Sul-Americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Andreza, Fernanda Marques Pereira; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Bacile; Oliveira, Ricardo Gorini de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: adriana.campos@epe.gov.br, fernanda.andreza@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br, maria.pinheiro, ricardo.gorini@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In view of institutional/contractual regulatory problems at the South America, some experiences of energy integration at the electrical sectors and natural gas (Nordic countries. European Union and Central America), identifying related vantages and advantageous. Besides, there is an attempt of characterization of the process step of energy integration, and the fitting of regions in these steps, observing that the process of energy integration in the South America it is found in a initial step yet if it is considered the used methodology by the Colombian enterprise Interconexion Electrica S.A.E.S.P. - ISA (2007)

  13. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  14. Central hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually due to pituitary macroadenomas, pituitary surgeries or post-irradiation. Fatigue and peripheral edema are the most specific clinical features. Diagnosis is established by the presence of normal to low-normal TSH on the background of low-normal thyroid hormones, confirmed by the thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Therapy includes use of levothyroxine titrated to improvement in symptomology and keeping free T4 in the upper limit of normal reference range.

  15. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00106463

    2015-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production is a unique QCD process in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. Several results have been obtained at LHCb for the production of single charmonia, pairs of charmonia, and single bottomonia.

  16. The modernization of the process computer of the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant; Modernizacion del ordenador de proceso de la Central Nuclear de Trillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Aparicio, J.; Atanasio, J.

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes the modernization of the Process computer of the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant. The process computer functions, have been incorporated in the non Safety I and C platform selected in Trillo NPP: the Siemens SPPA-T2000 OM690 (formerly known as Teleperm XP). The upgrade of the Human Machine Interface of the control room has been included in the project. The modernization project has followed the same development process used in the upgrade of the process computer of PWR German nuclear power plants. (Author)

  17. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  18. Assessment of magmatic vs. metasomatic processes in rare-metal granites: A case study of the Cínovec/Zinnwald Sn–W–Li deposit, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel; Ďurišová, Jana; Hrstka, Tomáš; Korbelová, Zuzana; Hložková Vaňková, M.; Vašinová Galiová, M.; Kanický, V.; Rambousek, P.; Knésl, I.; Dobeš, P.; Dosbaba, M.

    292/293, November (2017), s. 198-217 ISSN 0024-4937 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13600S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : rare-metal granite * Cínovec/Zinnwald deposit * rock textures * metasomatic processes * magmatic processes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.677, year: 2016

  19. Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: a boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Swaminathan, Gopalaraman; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil-water emulsification process and solid-liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2-5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In

  20. Study of CO{sub 2} capture processes in power plants; Etude de procedes de captage du CO{sub 2} dans les centrales thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.M

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the present study is to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO{sub 2} from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture by methanol and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO{sub 2}. These processes were evaluated using the process software Aspen PlusTM to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. With regard to post-combustion, an aqueous solution based on a mixture of amines (N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA)) was developed. Measurements of absorption were carried out between 298 and 333 K in a Lewis cell. CO{sub 2} partial pressure at equilibrium, characteristic of the CO{sub 2} solubility in the solvent, was determined up to 393 K. The solvent performances were compared with respect to more conventional solvents such as MDEA and monoethanolamine (MEA). For oxy-fuel combustion, a recovery process, based on a cryogenic separation of the components of the flue gas, was developed and applied to power plants. The study showed that O{sub 2} purity acts on the CO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas and thus on the performances of the recovery process. The last option is natural gas reforming with CO{sub 2} pre-combustion capture. Several configurations were assessed: air reforming and oxygen reforming, reforming pressure and dilution of the synthesis gas. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents. (author)

  1. How do laboratory technicians perceive their role in the tuberculosis diagnostic process? A cross-sectional study among laboratory technicians in health centers of Central Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjanarko, Bagoes; Widyastari, Dyah Anantalia; Martini, Martini; Ginandjar, Praba

    2016-01-01

    Detection of acid-fast bacilli in respiratory specimens serves as an initial pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. Laboratories are the essential and fundamental part of all health systems. This study aimed to describe how laboratory technicians perceived their own self and work. This included perceived self-efficacy, perceived role, perceived equipment availability, perceived procedures, perceived reward and job, and perceived benefit of health education, as well as level of knowledge and attitudes related to work performance of laboratory technicians. This was a cross-sectional quantitative study involving 120 laboratory technicians conducted in Central Java. Interviews and observation were conducted to measure performance and work-related variables. Among 120 laboratory technicians, 43.3% showed fairly good performance. They complied with 50%-75% of all procedures, including sputum collection, laboratory tools utilization, sputum smearing, staining, smear examination, grading of results, and universal precaution practice. Perceived role, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge of laboratory procedures were significantly correlated to performance, besides education and years of working as a laboratory technician. Perceived equipment availability was also significantly correlated to performance after the education variable was controlled. Most of the laboratory technicians believed that they have an important role in TB patients' treatment and should display proper self-efficacy in performing laboratory activities. The result may serve as a basic consideration to develop a policy for enhancing motivation of laboratory technicians in order to improve the TB control program.

  2. The Effects of Gravitation on the Inter-Media Agenda-Setting Central Process: The Case of the Murder of Hrant Dink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem YAŞIN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available While the first level agenda setting researches focus on the transfer of issue salience from the media to public agenda, second level agenda setting researches interest in the attributes emphasized in the news and their affect on the public agenda. Some of these researches tends to analysis the media agenda. Influences of the news media on each other are studied by the inter-media agenda setting researches at at both the first and second levels. The same researches examine also the effects of different types of media on each other. However there is the problem of lack of a systematic theoretical model. This is caused by the differentiation in the aims of researchers and in their research objects. The other problem in the inter-media agenda setting researches is that there is no research on the agenda setting effects of the newspapers which have different ideological and political identities. This research aims to scrutinize the inter-media agenda-setting effects among various newspapers that have got different points of view. The research is designed to test the central gravitation effects of the mainstream news papers. Here the Murder of Hrant Dink is selected as a case study.

  3. Working memory contributes to elevated motor activity in adults with ADHD: an examination of the role of central executive and storage/rehearsal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Kristen L; Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Patros, Connor H G

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between working memory (WM) and objectively measured motor activity was examined in adults with ADHD and healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-five adults (ADHD = 20, HC = 15) were grouped using self-report and collateral-report measures in addition to a semistructured clinical interview. All participants completed control conditions with minimal WM demands, and separate phonological (PH) and visuospatial (VS) WM tasks with recall demands ranging from four to seven stimuli. The ADHD group exhibited significantly more motor activity relative to the HC group, and both groups exhibited greater activity during PH and VS WM tasks, relative to control conditions. Finally, the central executive (CE) and PH storage/rehearsal subsystems were associated with large-magnitude between-group differences in activity. Findings suggest that increased demands on WM, particularly the CE and PH storage/rehearsal, contribute to ADHD-related hyperactivity, though a portion of excessive motor activity in adults with ADHD may occur independently of WM demands.

  4. Representing the root water uptake process in the Common Land Model for better simulating the energy and water vapour fluxes in a Central Asian desert ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Longhui; van der Tol, C.; Chen, Xuelong; Jing, C.; Su, Zhongbo; Luo, G.; Tian, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The ability of roots to take up water depends on both root distribution and root water uptake efficiency. The former can be experimentally measured, while the latter is extremely difficult to determine. Yet a correct representation of root water uptake process in land surface models (LSMs) is

  5. Drainage morphometric analysis for assessing form and processes of the watersheds of Pachamalai hills and its adjoinings, Central Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, A.; Jawahar Raj, N.

    2018-03-01

    The present study attempts to understand the form and geomorphic/hydrologic processes of the 20 watersheds of the Pachamalai hills and its adjoinings located in Tamil Nadu State of southern India from the analysis of its drainage morphometric characteristics. Survey of India's topographic sheets of 1:50,000 is the data source from which stream networks and watersheds of the study area were demarcated followed by the analysis of their morphometric characteristics using ArcGIS software. The results of the analysis formed the basis for deducing the form and processes of the watersheds of the study area. The form of the watersheds inferred from the analysis includes shape, length, slope steepness and length, degree of branching of streams, dissection and elongation of watersheds. The geomorphic/hydrologic processes inferred include denudation rate, potential energy, intensity of erosion, mean annual run off, mean discharge, discharge rate, rock resistivity and infiltration potential, amount of sediment transported, mean annual rainfall, rainfall intensity, lagtime, flash flood potential, flood discharge per unit area, sediment yield and speed of the water flow in the streams. The understanding of variations of form and processes mentioned can be used towards prioritizing the watersheds for development, management and conservation planning.

  6. Central presbycusis: an emerging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, George A

    2012-07-01

    Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system (central presbycusis) is common but rarely looked for by those who provide aural rehabilitation. Patients who complain of difficulty hearing in noise--the key symptom of central presbycusis--are generally disadvantaged with conventional rehabilitation. This symptom should be documented with commercially available speech-in-noise tests, which use materials that are uncomplicated to administer. Those patients who perform poorly on such tests should have a customized rehabilitation program aimed at optimizing their remaining communication abilities. Otolaryngologists who provide auditory rehabilitation may wish to consider expanding their practices to meet the communication needs of older patients with central presbycusis. Central presbycusis is an emerging area for basic and clinical research in auditory neurotology, particularly in the relation of cognitive dysfunction to impaired auditory processing.

  7. The choice of ultrasound assisted extraction coupled with spectrophotometric for rapid determination of gallic acid in water samples: Central composite design for optimization of process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooralhossini, Jaleh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Asfaram, Arash

    2017-01-01

    A sensitive procedure namely ultrasound-assisted (UA) coupled dispersive nano solid-phase microextraction spectrophotometry (DNSPME-UV-Vis) was designed for preconcentration and subsequent determination of gallic acid (GA) from water samples, while the detailed of composition and morphology and also purity and structure of this new sorbent was identified by techniques like field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. Among conventional parameters viz. pH, amount of sorbent, sonication time and volume of elution solvent based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and central composite design according to statistics based contour the best operational conditions was set at pH of 2.0; 1.5mg sorbent, 4.0min sonication and 150μL ethanol. Under these pre-qualified conditions the method has linear response over wide concentration range of 15-6000ngmL -1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The good figure of merits like acceptable LOD (S/N=3) and LOQ (S/N=10) with numerical value of 2.923 and 9.744ngmL -1 , respectively and relative recovery between 95.54 and 100.02% show the applicability and efficiency of this method for real samples analysis with RSDs below 6.0%. Finally the method with good performance were used for monitoring under study analyte in various real samples like tap, river and mineral waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. How do laboratory technicians perceive their role in tuberculosis diagnostic process: a cross-sectional study among laboratory technicians in health centers of Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjanarko B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bagoes Widjanarko,1 Dyah Anantalia Widyastari,2 Martini Martini,3 Praba Ginandjar3 1Department of Health Education and Behavior Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia; 2Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand; 3Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia Purpose: Detection of acid-fast bacilli in respiratory specimens serves as an initial pulmonary tuberculosis (TB diagnosis. Laboratories are the essential and fundamental part of all health systems. This study aimed to describe how laboratory technicians perceived their own self and work. This included perceived self-efficacy, perceived role, perceived equipment availability, perceived procedures, perceived reward and job, and perceived benefit of health education, as well as level of knowledge and attitudes related to work performance of laboratory technicians.Methods: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study involving 120 laboratory technicians conducted in Central Java. Interviews and observation were conducted to measure performance and work-related variables.Results: Among 120 laboratory technicians, 43.3% showed fairly good performance. They complied with 50%–75% of all procedures, including sputum collection, laboratory tools utilization, sputum smearing, staining, smear examination, grading of results, and universal precaution practice. Perceived role, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge of laboratory procedures were significantly correlated to performance, besides education and years of working as a laboratory technician. Perceived equipment availability was also significantly correlated to performance after the education variable was controlled.Conclusion: Most of the laboratory technicians believed that they have an important role in TB patients’ treatment and should display proper self-efficacy in performing laboratory activities. The

  9. Geomorphological response of a landscape to long-term tectonic and glacial processes: the upper Rhône basin, Central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutenbecker, Laura; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhône River in the Central Swiss Alps drains a 5380 km2 large basin that shows a high spatial variability of bedrock lithology, exhumation rate, glacial conditioning and climate. All of these factors were recently discussed to control erosion rates in orogenic settings in general, and particularly in the Alps (e.g. Wittmann et al. 2007, Vernon et al. 2008, Norton et al. 2010a). Thanks to various and densely distributed data, the upper Rhône basin located between the Aar massif and Lake Geneva is a suitable natural laboratory to analyze the landscape's geomorphological state and controlling factors at a basin-scale. In this study, we extract geomorphological parameters along the channels of ca. 50 tributary basins of various sizes that contribute to the sediment budget of the Rhône River either through sediment supply by torrents or debris flows. Their catchments are located in either granitic basement rocks (External Massifs), oceanic meta-sedimentary and ophiolitic rocks (Penninic nappes) or fine-grained continental-margin sediments (Helvetic nappes). The analysis of longitudinal river profiles from DEMs and slope/area relationships show that all tributary rivers within the Rhône basin are in topographic transient state that is expressed by mainly convex or concave-convex channel shapes with several knickpoints of either tectonic-lithological or glacial origin. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of elevations (hypsometry) along the river channel allows identifying glacially inherited morphologies and the recent erosional front. The combination of those different geomorphological data yields to a categorization of the tributary rivers into three endmember groups: (1) streams with highly convex profiles, testifying to a strong glacial inheritance, (2) concave-convex channels with several knickzones and inherited morphologies of past glaciations, (3) predominantly concave, relatively steep rivers with minor knickpoints and inner gorges. Assuming that

  10. Evaluation of input and process components of quality of child health services provided at 24 × 7 primary health centers of a district in Central Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paragkumar Chavda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With the critical Indian challenge on child survival and health, time is ripe to initiate focus on quality of services apart from measuring coverage, to bring about improvements. Aims: To assess the quality of child health services provided at 24 × 7 Primary Health Centers of Vadodara District in Gujarat in terms of Input and Process Indicators. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in 12 randomly chosen 24 × 7 Primary Health Centers (PHCs of Vadodara district using a modified quality assessment checklist of the Program on District Quality Assurance for Reproductive and Child Health (RCH services with use of scores from May 2010 to June 2011. Subjects and Methods: Inputs assessment was done by facility survey. Process assessment for the four child health service components used actual observation of service, review of records and interview of service providers and clients. Results: The mean obtained score for facilities in Input section was 65%. Highest score was obtained for Drugs and Consumables (86% followed by Equipments and Supplies (74%. The score obtained for Infrastructure facility was 65%, Personnel and training was 56% and Essential protocols and guidelines scored 43%. The mean obtained score in the process section was 55%. Highest scores were obtained for immunization at 76%. This was followed by newborn care (52%, growth monitoring (52%. management of sick child (41%. Conclusion: Quality improvement efforts should focus not only on resource-intensive structural improvements, but also on cost-effective measures at improving service delivery process, especially adherence to service guidelines by providers.

  11. Statistical analysis of the sustained lava dome emplacement and destruction processes at Popocatépetl volcano, Central México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa; Gómez-Vázquez, Ángel; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando

    2017-06-01

    Popocatépetl volcano reawakened in 1994 after nearly 70 years of quiescence. Between 1996 and 2015, a succession of at least 38 lava domes have been irregularly emplaced and destroyed, with each dome reaching particular volumes at specific emplacement rates. The complexity of this sequence is analyzed using statistical methods in an attempt to gain insight into the physics and dynamics of the lava dome emplacement and destruction process and to objectively assess the hazards related to that volcano. The time series of emplacements, dome residences, lava effusion lulls, and emplaced dome volumes and thicknesses are modeled using the simple exponential and Weibull distributions, the compound non-homogeneous generalized Pareto-Poisson process (NHPPP), and the mixture of exponentials distribution (MOED). The statistical analysis reveals that the sequence of dome emplacements is a non-stationary, self-regulating process most likely controlled by the balance between buoyancy-driven magma ascent and volatile exsolution crystallization. This balance has supported the sustained effusive activity for decades and may persist for an undetermined amount of time. However, the eruptive history of Popocatépetl includes major Plinian phases that may have resulted from a breach in that balance. Certain criteria to recognize such breaching conditions are inferred from this statistical analysis.

  12. Multivariate optimization of process parameters in the synthesis of calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH for defluoridation using 3(3) factorial, central composite and Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Partha S; Gupta, Ashok K; Sulaiman, Ayoob

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied for the first time in the optimization of the preparation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) for defluoridation. The influence of three vital process parameters (viz. pH, molar ratio and calcination temperature) in the synthesis of the adsorbent 'Calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH' was thoroughly examined to maximize its fluoride scavenging potential. The process parameters were optimized using the 3(3) factorial, face centered central composite and Box-Behnken designs and a comparative assessment of the methods was conducted. The maximum fluoride removal efficiency was achieved at a calcination temperature of approximately 500ºC; however, the efficiency decreased with increasing pH and molar ratio. The outcome of the comparative assessment clearly delineates the case specific nature of the models. A better predictability over the entire experimental domain was obtained with the 3(3) factorial method, whereas the Box-Behnken design was found to be the most efficient model with lesser number of experimental runs. The desirability function technique was performed for optimizing the response, wherein face centered central composite design exhibited a maximum desirability. The calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH, synthesized under the optimum conditions, demonstrated the removal efficiencies of 95% and 99% for the doses of 3 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1), respectively.

  13. Reference design for a centralized waste processing and storage facility. Technical manual for the management of low and intermediate level wastes generated at small nuclear research centres and by radioisotope users in medicine, research and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this report is to present the generic reference design of a centralized waste processing and storage facility (WPSF) intended for countries producing small but significant quantities of liquid and solid radioactive wastes. These wastes are generated through the use of radionuclides for research, medical, industrial and other institutional activities in IAEA Member States that have not yet developed the infrastructure for a complete nuclear fuel cycle. The WPSF comprises two separate buildings. The first, for receiving and processing waste from the producers, includes the necessary equipment and support services for treating and conditioning the waste. The second building acts as a simple but adequate warehouse for storing a ten year inventory of the conditioned waste. In developing the design, it was a requirement of the IAEA that options for waste management techniques for each of the waste streams should be evaluated, in order to demonstrate that the reference design is based on the most appropriate technology. Refs, figs and tabs.

  14. Reference design for a centralized waste processing and storage facility. Technical manual for the management of low and intermediate level wastes generated at small nuclear research centres and by radioisotope users in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this report is to present the generic reference design of a centralized waste processing and storage facility (WPSF) intended for countries producing small but significant quantities of liquid and solid radioactive wastes. These wastes are generated through the use of radionuclides for research, medical, industrial and other institutional activities in IAEA Member States that have not yet developed the infrastructure for a complete nuclear fuel cycle. The WPSF comprises two separate buildings. The first, for receiving and processing waste from the producers, includes the necessary equipment and support services for treating and conditioning the waste. The second building acts as a simple but adequate warehouse for storing a ten year inventory of the conditioned waste. In developing the design, it was a requirement of the IAEA that options for waste management techniques for each of the waste streams should be evaluated, in order to demonstrate that the reference design is based on the most appropriate technology. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant; Informe final. Impacto economico del desmantelamiento de la central nuclear Vandellos I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Silva, M.

    2005-07-01

    This economic study examines the economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of the Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant, measured in terms of the global income that generated the ending of the Nuclear Power Plant activity, on the territory. To this end, we will take into account the total investment that has been necessary to complete the process of decommissioning. The economic impact is calculated using the Input- Output methodology. Briefly, the Input-Output model defines a group of accounting relationships that reflect the links taking place within the production system. The Input-Output model is based on the assumption that given an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector, this sector should produce more (less) to satisfy this new demand. At the same time, this will lead to demand more (less) intermediate consumption goods from the remainder sectors of the economy. Then, these sectors should produce more (less) and use more (less) intermediate inputs, and so on. Therefore, an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector multiplies the effect throughout the economy, following the interdependency relationships that exist among the productive activities. We will start by collecting an exhaustive economic information. This information covers the whole decommissioning process and the whole economic and productive activity of the province of Tarragona. Next, this information is used with the objective of building an Input-Output table of the province that will serve as a base to establish the global economic impact of Vandellos I. The incomes and employment generation has been evaluated in the province of Tarragona that, following the main assumptions, correspond to the global effects of the decommissioning. In addition, we have evaluated the income and employment generation within the region where the nuclear power plant is located. The total income impacts show a high multiplier effect due to the investment carried out during the

  16. Recycling and recharge processes at the Hasandağ Stratovolcano, Central Anatolia: Insights on magma chamber systematics from plagioclase textures and zoning patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, H. D.; Cipar, J. H.; Crispin, K. L.; Kürkçüoğlu, B.; Furman, T.

    2017-12-01

    We elucidate crystal recycling and magma recharge processes at Hasandağ by investigating compositional zoning patterns and textural variation in plagioclase crystals from Quaternary basaltic andesite through dacite lavas. Previous work on Hasandağ intermediate compositions identified thermochemical disequilibrium features and showed abundant evidence for magma mixing1,2. We expand on this work through detailed micro-texture and mineral diffusion analysis to explore the mechanisms and timescales of crystal transport and mixing processes. Thermobarometric calculations constrain the plumbing system to 1.2-2 kbar and 850-950°C, corresponding to a felsic magma chamber at 4.5 km. Electron microprobe results reveal plagioclase phenocrysts from all lava types have common core (An33-46) and rim (An36-64) compositions, with groundmass laths (An57-67) resembling the phenocryst rims. Low An cores are ubiquitous, regardless of bulk rock chemistry, and suggest a consistent composition within the magma reservoir prior to high An rim growth. High An rims are regularly enriched in Mg, Fe, Ti and Sr, which we attribute to mafic recharge and magma mixing. We assess mixing timescales by inverse diffusion modeling of Mg profiles across the core-rim boundaries. Initial results suggest mixing to eruption processes occur on the order of days to months. Heterogeneous calculated timescales within thin sections indicate crystal populations with different growth histories. Crystals often display prominent sieve-textured zones just inside the rim, as well as other disequilibrium features such as oscillatory zoning or resorbed and patchy-zoned cores. We interpret these textures to indicate mobilization of a homogeneous dacitic reservoir with abundant An35 plagioclase crystals by frequent injection of mafic magma. Variability in observed textures and calculated timescales manifests during defrosting of a highly crystalline felsic mush, through different degrees of magma mixing. This process

  17. Recolonization patterns of ants in a rehabilitated lignite mine in central Italy: Potential for the use of Mediterranean ants as indicators of restoration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottonetti, L.; Tucci, L.; Santini, G. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages were sampled with pitfall traps in three different habitats associated with a rehabilitated mine district and in undisturbed forests in Tuscany, Italy. The four habitats were (1) open fields (3-4 years old); (2) a middle-age mixed plantation (10 years); (3) an old-age mixed plantation (20 years); and (4) an oak woodland (40 years) not directly affected by mining activities. The aim of the study was to analyze ant recolonization patterns in order to provide insights on the use of Mediterranean ant fauna as indicators of restoration processes. Species richness and diversity were not significantly different among the four habitats. However, multivariate analyses showed that the assemblages in the different habitats were clearly differentiated, with similarity relationships reflecting a successional gradient among rehabilitated sites. The observed patterns of functional group changes along the gradient broadly accord with those of previous studies in other biogeographic regions. These were (1) a decrease of dominant Dolichoderinae and opportunists; (2) an increase in the proportion of cold-climate specialists; and (3) the appearance of the Cryptic species in the oldest plantations, with a maximum of abundance in the woodland. In conclusion, the results of our study supported the use of Mediterranean ants as a suitable tool for biomonitoring of restoration processes, and in particular, the functional group approach proved a valuable framework to better interpret local trends in terms of global ecological patterns. Further research is, however, needed in order to obtain a reliable classification of Mediterranean ant functional groups.

  18. The influence of rock strength on erosion processes and river morphology in central Arizona: the accumulation of damage from macro-abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, J. E.; Yanites, B.

    2017-12-01

    River morphology reflects the interaction between the driving forces of erosion and the resisting properties of bedrock that limit erosion. Changes in energy dissipation at the riverbed are indicated by differences in channel geometry. To erode at the same rate, stronger rocks require more energy, and thus, an adjustment in river slope or width is necessary to accomplish this work. Therefore, morphological changes should reflect differences in the rock strength properties most relevant to the dominant erosion process. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing river morphology and rock-strength properties of reaches subject to different processes. Streams in Prescott National Forest, AZ expose bedrock through a variety of lithologies, which provides a natural testing ground. Measurements include channel geometry, surface P-wave velocity, fracture spacing, and bedload grain size distribution of 150 individual reaches, as well as 260 tensile and compressive-strength tests and P-wave velocity of cores up to depths of 20 cm. Based on observations, we infer that fluvial erosion processes in this region generally fall into three domains: (1) grain by grain abrasion, (2) progressive failure by damage accumulation due to bedload impacts or `macro-abrasion', and (3) `plucking' of jointed rocks. We focus analyses on the accumulation of damage from sub-critical stresses that weakens the surface of the bedrock, potentially leading to macroscopic fractures, fatigue, and rock failure. This plays a dual role facilitating the ease with which abrasion removes material and increasing the rate of production of pluck-able particles. We estimate the `damage potential' of saltating bedload using water discharge time-series, sediment transport models and grain size distribution. To determine the resistance to damage accumulation among different rocks, we measure the evolution of damage in core samples under uniaxial loading using strain energy and inherent flaw theory. Preliminary

  19. Deeply subducted continental fragments - Part 1: Fracturing, dissolution-precipitation, and diffusion processes recorded by garnet textures of the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Contiguous continental high-pressure terranes in orogens offer insight into deep recycling and transformation processes that occur in subduction zones. These remain poorly understood, and currently debated ideas need testing. The approach we chose is to investigate, in detail, the record in suitable rock samples that preserve textures and robust mineral assemblages that withstood overprinting during exhumation. We document complex garnet zoning in eclogitic mica schists from the Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps). These retain evidence of two orogenic cycles and provide detailed insight into resorption, growth, and diffusion processes induced by fluid pulses in high-pressure conditions. We analysed local textures and garnet compositional patterns, which turned out remarkably complex. By combining these with thermodynamic modelling, we could unravel and quantify repeated fluid-rock interaction processes. Garnet shows low-Ca porphyroclastic cores that were stable under (Permian) granulite facies conditions. The series of rims that surround these cores provide insight into the subsequent evolution: the first garnet rim that surrounds the pre-Alpine granulite facies core in one sample indicates that pre-Alpine amphibolite facies metamorphism followed the granulite facies event. In all samples documented, cores show lobate edges and preserve inner fractures, which are sealed by high-Ca garnet that reflects high-pressure Alpine conditions. These observations suggest that during early stages of subduction, before hydration of the granulites, brittle failure of garnet occurred, indicating high strain rates that may be due to seismic failure. Several Alpine rims show conspicuous textures indicative of interaction with hydrous fluid: (a) resorption-dominated textures produced lobate edges, at the expense of the outer part of the granulite core; (b) peninsulas and atoll garnet are the result of replacement reactions; and (c) spatially limited resorption and enhanced transport

  20. Integrated age-structured length-based stock assessment model with uncertain process variances, structural uncertainty and environmental covariates: case of Central Baltic herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäntyniemi, Samu; Uusitalo, Laura; Peltonen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    We developed a generic, age-structured, state-space stock assessment model that can be used as a platform for including information elicited from stakeholders. The model tracks the mean size-at-age and then uses it to explain rates of natural and fishing mortality. The fishery selectivity is divided...... to two components, which makes it possible to model the active seeking of the fleet for certain sizes of fish, as well as the selectivity of the gear itself. The model can account for uncertainties that are not currently accounted for in state-of-the-art models for integrated assessments: (i) The form...... of the stock–recruitment function is considered uncertain and is accounted for by using Bayesian model averaging. (ii) In addition to recruitment variation, process variation in natural mortality, growth parameters, and fishing mortality can also be treated as uncertain parameters...

  1. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  2. Implementation of warm-cloud processes in a source-oriented WRF/Chem model to study the effect of aerosol mixing state on fog formation in the Central Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-H. Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The source-oriented Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry model (SOWC was modified to include warm cloud processes and was applied to investigate how aerosol mixing states influence fog formation and optical properties in the atmosphere. SOWC tracks a 6-D chemical variable (X, Z, Y, size bins, source types, species through an explicit simulation of atmospheric chemistry and physics. A source-oriented cloud condensation nuclei module was implemented into the SOWC model to simulate warm clouds using the modified two-moment Purdue Lin microphysics scheme. The Goddard shortwave and long-wave radiation schemes were modified to interact with source-oriented aerosols and cloud droplets so that aerosol direct and indirect effects could be studied. The enhanced SOWC model was applied to study a fog event that occurred on 17 January 2011, in the Central Valley of California. Tule fog occurred because an atmospheric river effectively advected high moisture into the Central Valley and nighttime drainage flow brought cold air from mountains into the valley. The SOWC model produced reasonable liquid water path, spatial distribution and duration of fog events. The inclusion of aerosol–radiation interaction only slightly modified simulation results since cloud optical thickness dominated the radiation budget in fog events. The source-oriented mixture representation of particles reduced cloud droplet number relative to the internal mixture approach that artificially coats hydrophobic particles with hygroscopic components. The fraction of aerosols activating into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN at a supersaturation of 0.5 % in the Central Valley decreased from 94 % in the internal mixture model to 80 % in the source-oriented model. This increased surface energy flux by 3–5 W m−2 and surface temperature by as much as 0.25 K in the daytime.

  3. Actual versus Perceived Central Bank Transparency : The Case of the European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency lit- erature the distinction between actual and perceived central bank trans- parency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the ac- tions of economic

  4. The species description process of North and Central American Geotrupinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae Proceso de descripción de especies de Geotrupinae norte y centroamericanos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Trotta-Moreu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The description process for North and Central American species of Geotrupinae was analyzed and compared with that of Western Palaearctic species. This process was fitted to an asymptotic function to explore when the curve stabilized. By means of GLMs, the influence of some variables from 3 different groups (body size, geographic range and location was examined, taking into account both pure and combined effects on the development of the process of species description. The accumulation curve of North and Central American Geotrupinae showed that probably 84-91% of the total number of species is already known and 10-20 species remain yet to be described. Body size has not shown any influence on Geotrupinae species description for either region. The most influential elements were the pure effect of the geographic range, followed by the pure effect of the geographic location, and their combined effect. These same variables were also the most influential in the Western Palaearctic region, although with a different significance. As this species inventory remains yet to be completed, it is possible that some factors, such as distribution, could become progressively more important, as for the Geotrupinae species in the Western Palaearctic region.Se analizó el proceso de descripción de especies de Geotrupinae de América del Norte y Central y se comparó con el de las especies del Paleártico Occidental. Este proceso se ajustó a una función asintótica para explorar cuándo la curva terminaba estabilizándose. A través de GLMs, se examinó la influencia de 3 tipos diferentes de variables (tamaño corporal, rango geográfico y localización en el proceso de descripción, teniendo en cuenta sus efectos puros y combinados. La curva de acumulación de Geotrupinae de América del Norte y Central mostró que probablemente se conoce un 84-91% del número total de especies y que quedarían 10-20 especies por describir. El tamaño corporal no mostró ninguna

  5. Evidence for Cyclical Fractional Crystallization, Recharge, and Assimilation in Basalts of the Kimama Core, Central Snake River Plain, Idaho: A 5.5-million-year Highlight Reel of Petrogenetic processes in a Mid-Crustal Sill Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Katherine E.; Shervais, John W.; Christiansen, Eric H.; Vetter, Scott K.

    2018-02-01

    Basalts erupted in the Snake River Plain of central Idaho and sampled in the Kimama drill core link eruptive processes to the construction of mafic intrusions over 5.5 Ma. Cyclic variations in basalt composition reveal temporal chemical heterogeneity related to fractional crystallization and the assimilation of previously-intruded mafic sills. A range of compositional types are identified within 1912 m of continuous drill core: Snake River olivine tholeiite (SROT), low K SROT, high Fe-Ti, and evolved and high K-Fe lavas similar to those erupted at Craters of the Moon National Monument. Detailed lithologic and geophysical logs document 432 flow units comprising 183 distinct lava flows and 78 flow groups. Each lava flow represents a single eruptive episode, while flow groups document chemically and temporally related flows that formed over extended periods of time. Temporal chemical variation demonstrates the importance of source heterogeneity and magma processing in basalt petrogenesis. Low-K SROT and high Fe-Ti basalts are genetically related to SROT as, respectively, hydrothermally-altered and fractionated daughters. Cyclic variations in the chemical composition of Kimama flow groups are apparent as 21 upward fractionation cycles, six recharge cycles, eight recharge-fractionation cycles, and five fractionation-recharge cycles. We propose that most Kimama basalt flows represent typical fractionation and recharge patterns, consistent with the repeated influx of primitive SROT parental magmas and extensive fractional crystallization coupled with varying degrees of assimilation of gabbroic to ferrodioritic sills at shallow to intermediate depths over short durations. Trace element models show that parental SROT basalts were generated by 5-10% partial melting of enriched mantle at shallow depths above the garnet-spinel lherzolite transition. The distinctive evolved and high K-Fe lavas are rare. Found at four depths, 319 m, 1045 m, 1078 m, and 1189 m, evolved and high K

  6. Dynamics and stimulus-dependence of pacemaker control during behavioral modulations in the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, J

    1987-08-01

    1. Weakly electric fish generate around their bodies low-amplitude, AC electric fields which are used both for the detection of objects and intraspecific communication. The types of modulation in this signal of which the high-frequency wave-type gymnotiform, Apteronotus, is capable are relatively few and stereotyped. Chief among these is the chirp, a signal used in courtship and agonistic displays. Chirps are brief and rapid accelerations in the normally highly regular electric organ discharge (EOD) frequency. 2. Chirping can be elicited artificially in these animals by the use of a stimulus regime identical to that typically used to elicit another behavior, the jamming avoidance response (JAR). The neuronal basis for the JAR, a much slower and lesser alteration in EOD frequency, is well understood. Examination of the stimulus features which induce chirping show that, like the JAR, there is a region of frequency differences between the fish's EOD and the interfering signal that maximally elicits the response. Moreover, the response is sex-specific with regard to the sign of the frequency difference, with females chirping preferentially on the positive and most males on the negative Df. These features imply that the sensory mechanisms involved in the triggering of these communicatory behaviors are fundamentally similar to those explicated for the JAR. 3. Additionally, two other modulatory behaviors of unknown significance are described. The first is a non-selective rise in EOD frequency associated with a JAR stimulus, occurring regardless of the sign of the Df. This modulation shares many characteristics with the JAR. The second behavior, which we have termed a 'yodel', is distinct from and kinetically intermediate to chirping and the JAR. Moreover, unlike the other studied electromotor behaviors it is generally produced only after the termination of the eliciting stimulus.

  7. Stimulus-dependent regulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase by a VAV1, Rac1, and PAK1 signaling axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Kirstine; Rasmussen, Izabela Zorawska; Sawada, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    dominant-positive mutants enhanced, whereas dominant-negative mutants inhibited, NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide generation following formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation. Both Rac1 and the GTP exchange factor VAV1 were required as upstream signaling......The p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) is best known for its role in the regulation of cytoskeletal and transcriptional signaling pathways. We show here in the microglia cell line Ra2 that PAK1 regulates NADPH oxidase (NOX-2) activity in a stimulus-specific manner. Thus, conditional expression of PAK1...... proteins in the formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced activation of endogenous PAK1. In contrast, PAK1 mutants had no effect on superoxide generation downstream of FcgammaR signaling during phagocytosis of IgG-immune complexes. We further present evidence that the effect of PAK1 on the respiratory...

  8. Testing the Predictions of the Central Capacity Sharing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombu, Michael; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The divergent predictions of 2 models of dual-task performance are investigated. The central bottleneck and central capacity sharing models argue that a central stage of information processing is capacity limited, whereas stages before and after are capacity free. The models disagree about the nature of this central capacity limitation. The…

  9. Observations of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Difficulties occurring in the observation of central stars of planetary nebulae are reviewed with emphasis on spectral classifications and population types, and temperature determination. Binary and peculiar central stars are discussed. (U.M.G.)

  10. Gangs in Central America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare

    2005-01-01

    ... activities of Central American gangs. Citizens in several Central American countries have identified crime and gang violence among the top issues of popular concern, and Honduras and El Salvador have recently enacted tough anti-gang legislation...

  11. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  12. Supramodal parametric working memory processing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Bernhard; Blankenburg, Felix

    2012-03-07

    Previous studies of delayed-match-to-sample (DMTS) frequency discrimination in animals and humans have succeeded in delineating the neural signature of frequency processing in somatosensory working memory (WM). During retention of vibrotactile frequencies, stimulus-dependent single-cell and population activity in prefrontal cortex was found to reflect the task-relevant memory content, whereas increases in occipital alpha activity signaled the disengagement of areas not relevant for the tactile task. Here, we recorded EEG from human participants to determine the extent to which these mechanisms can be generalized to frequency retention in the visual and auditory domains. Subjects performed analogous variants of a DMTS frequency discrimination task, with the frequency information presented either visually, auditorily, or by vibrotactile stimulation. Examining oscillatory EEG activity during frequency retention, we found characteristic topographical distributions of alpha power over visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortices, indicating systematic patterns of inhibition and engagement of early sensory areas, depending on stimulus modality. The task-relevant frequency information, in contrast, was found to be represented in right prefrontal cortex, independent of presentation mode. In each of the three modality conditions, parametric modulations of prefrontal upper beta activity (20-30 Hz) emerged, in a very similar manner as recently found in vibrotactile tasks. Together, the findings corroborate a view of parametric WM as supramodal internal scaling of abstract quantity information and suggest strong relevance of previous evidence from vibrotactile work for a more general framework of quantity processing in human working memory.

  13. Is banking supervision central to central banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

    1997-01-01

    Whether central banks should play an active role in bank supervision and regulation is being debated both in the United States and abroad. While the Bank of England has recently been stripped of its supervisory responsibilities and several proposals in the United States have advocated removing bank supervision from the Federal Reserve System, other countries are considering enhancing central bank involvement in this area. Many of the arguments for and against these proposals hinge on the effe...

  14. Zircon growth in a granitic pluton with specific mechanisms, crystallization temperatures and U-Pb ages. Implication to the 'spatiotemporal' formation process of the Toki granite, central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuguchi, Takashi; Ishibashi, Masayuki; Sasao, Eiji; Iwano, Hideki; Danhara, Tohru; Kato, Takenori; Sakata, Shuhei; Hattori, Kentaro; Hirata, Takafumi; Sueoka, Shigeru; Nishiyama, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Zircons collected from a granitic pluton provide evidence of serial growth events with specific mechanisms, crystallization temperatures and U-Pb ages, revealing details of the sequential formation process from intrusion through emplacement to crystallization/solidification. The events have been identified by: 1) the study of the internal structure of zircon using cathodoluminescence, 2) deriving crystallization temperatures using Ti-in-zircon thermometry of the internal structure and 3) U-Pb age dating of the internal structure. The magmatic zircons from the Toki granite, central Japan, show two kinds in their internal structure: a low luminescence core (LLC) and oscillatory zonation (OZ). The LLC was produced by interfacial reaction-controlled growth in the granitic magma with cooling from about 910 to 760°C. The formation of OZ occurred by diffusion-controlled growth in a cooling magma chamber from about 850 to 690°C. The U-Pb ages derived from the LLC ranges from 74.7 ± 4.2 to 70.5 ± 1.3 Ma, indicating the incipient intrusion timing of the magma into the shallow crust. The OZ ages distribute from 72.7 ± 0.6 to 70.4 ± 1.7 Ma, which mean the timing from emplacement to crystallization/solidification of the granite pluton. Thus, the serial processes from intrusion through emplacement to crystallization/solidification occurred within a few million years. The old LLC and OZ ages are recognized in the western margins of the Toki granite, implying that the magma forming the western margins was the first to intrude, emplace and crystallize/solidify. The western margins with initial intrusion may accompany the crustal assimilation in order to create sufficient magma reservoir space, which is consistent with larger SrI and ASI values found in the western margins of the granite. (author)

  15. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  16. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as neurontin (gabapentin) can be useful. Lowering stress levels appears to reduce pain. View Full Treatment Information Definition Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition caused ...

  17. Central Diabetes Insipidus, Central Hypothyroidism, Renal Tubular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    readmitted to the hospital because of jaundice and failure to thrive, for which he was investigated and diagnosed to have central congenital hypothyroidism. Shortly thereafter, he was admitted to our institute with a history of vomiting, decreased oral intake, polyuria, and dehydration having lasted 5 days. He was investigated ...

  18. Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, M

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  19. Seismotectonic model of Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazkova, D.; Roth, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Earthquakes belong to natural disasters which are associated with tectonic processes in the interior of the Earth. They are extremely devastating in populated areas; they cause human losses and damage personal estates and the environment. To mitigate the potential effects of earthquakes it is necessary that relief and mitigation structures operate following an earthquake, but it is also essential to stimulate and enhance preparedness and prevention. Prevention includes the development of scenarios of potential earthquakes, hazard mapping, formulation of regulations, etc. Preparedness includes the installation and operation of warning systems, establishing communication networks to operate before, during, and after earthquakes. As nuclear technology belongs to high-risk technologies with regard to human health and the environment and its hazard substantially increases in consequence of earthquakes, in the siting of a nuclear plant engineering solutions are generally available to mitigate the potential vibratory effects through design. For the choice of a suitable engineering solution, reliable data must be processed by reliable techniques. The IAEA safety guide of the safety series No. 50-SG-S1(Rev. 1) specifies the demands on data and on their processing and also on the regional seismotectonic model. With a view of this the regional seismotectonic model of Central Europe was created. The paper presents regional geological characteristics of Central Europe and a chronological model of neotectonic movements in Central Europe with specification of neotectonic regional units and their present movements. Moreover, it contains earthquake characteristics for Central Europe and the specification of seismogenic movements. It was found that the genesis of local regions with occurrence of the strongest earthquakes is connected with several movement trends in the last 5 Ma. Six more or less tectonically separate regional units were revealed. The earthquake epicenters often

  20. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  1. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  2. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  3. Idiopathic central diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary; Balachandran, Venu; Menon, Sooraj

    2011-10-01

    Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder characterized clinically by polyuria and polydipsia, and an abnormal urinary concentration without any identified etiology. We report a case of central diabetes insipidus in a 60-year-old lady in the absence of secondary causes like trauma, infection, and infiltrative disorders of brain.

  4. Sedimentological processes in a scarp-controlled rocky shoreline to upper continental slope environment, as revealed by unusual sedimentary features in the Neogene Coquimbo Formation, north-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. P.; Gómez, Carolina; Fenner, Juliane; Middleton, Heather

    2004-03-01

    Exceptionally good outcrops of Miocene to Pliocene deposits in the vicinity of submarine Paleozoic basement scarps at Carrizalillo, north of La Serena, reveal a wealth of sedimentary features not commonly observed. The most proximal facies consist of rock fall and coarse-grained debris flow deposits directly abutting the basement wall from which they originated. Angular basement clasts are mixed with well-rounded cobbles, which probably formed as a basal gravel on a wave-cut platform at the beginning of marine flooding, subsequently accumulated at the scarp edge and were incorporated into the debris when the latter collapsed. The poor sorting, inverse grading, and protruding cobbles and boulders are classical debris flow features, with good clast imbrication indicating a laminar shearing action. A medial facies is represented by secondary channels running parallel to the major scarp about 1 km downslope of the first locality. In the largest channel, megaflutes at the base indicate the passage of highly turbulent, nondepositing flows eroding the soft, silty substrate. In the deepest, central part of the channel, a pebbly coquina shows horizontal and trough cross-stratification, with most of the bivalves oriented convex side up. Meter-scale rip-up clasts of the underlying siltstone are also present, indicating turbulent flow with a density sufficiently high to retard settling. The coquina is interpreted as a detachment deposit resulting from a hydroplaning debris flow along the central part of the channel, where the velocity and rate of pore pressure decay were highest. This deposit is overlain by fining upward, massive to horizontally stratified sandstone very similar in texture and composition to the matrix of the debris flow, suggesting its formation by surface transformation and elutriation of the latter. Along the channel margin, a basal centimeter-scale sandstone layer is virtually unaffected by the megaflute topography and clearly represents a subsequent event

  5. Actual versus perceived central bank transparency: the case of the European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.; Eijffinger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency literature the distinction between actual and perceived transparency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the actions of economic agents this

  6. Rare earth and trace element signatures for assessing an impact of rock mining and processing on the environment: Wiśniówka case study, south-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Dołęgowska, Sabina

    2016-12-01

    A detailed hydrogeochemical study was performed in the Wiśniówka mining area (south-central Poland). This covered three acid pit bodies, historic tailings acid ponds, acid pools, and additionally two neighboring rivers. All these acid mine drainage (AMD) waters are characterized by the pH in the range of 1.7 (pools) to 3.5 (tailings ponds). The most interesting is the Podwiśniówka acid pit lake that shows a very low pH (2.2-2.5) and very high concentrations of SO 4 2- (2720-5460 mg/L), Fe (545-1140 mg/L), Al (86.2 mg/L), As (9603-24,883 μg/L), Co (1317-3458 μg/L), Cr (753-2047 μg/L), Cu (6307-18,879 μg/L), Ni (1168-3127 μg/L), and rare earth element (REE) (589-1341 μg/L). In addition, seeps that drain the Podwiśniówka mine tailings and partly aggregate piles form strong acid pools in the mining area. Along with these pools, in which As and REE contents reach 369,726 and 6288 μg/L, respectively, these waters are among the most distinctive As- and REE-rich AMD surface waters across the world. It is noteworthy that the Podwiśniówka acid pit lake and Wiśniówka Duża acid pit sump exhibit different element signatures and REE concentration patterns normalized to North American Composite Shale (NASC): the Podwiśniówka acid pit lake always shows a characteristic roof-shaped medium REE (MREE) profile with distinct enrichments in Gd, Eu, and Tb whereas the other one displays a step-shaped heavy REE (HREE) profile with positive Tb and Gd anomalies. The REE undergo fractionation during weathering and the subsequent leaching of dissolved and suspended fractions from rocks to acid water bodies where these and other elements are further fractionated by geochemical processes. This study shows that the individual REE have greater affinities for Mn, HREE for Fe and SO 4 2- , and only La and Ce for Al. This specific water geochemistry has enabled us to (i) pinpoint the location of AMD "hot spots" originated from quartzite mining and processing operations

  7. Central alarm system replacement in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicvaric, D.; Susnic, M.; Djetelic, N.

    2004-01-01

    Current NPP Krsko central alarm system consists of three main segments. Main Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000), Ventilation Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000) and Electrical Control Board alarm system (BETA 1100). All sections are equipped with specific BetaTone audible alarms and silence, acknowledge as well as test push buttons. The main reason for central alarm system replacement is system obsolescence and problems with maintenance, due to lack of spare parts. Other issue is lack of system redundancy, which could lead to loss of several Alarm Light Boxes in the event of particular power supply failure. Current central alarm system does not provide means of alarm optimization, grouping or prioritization. There are three main options for central alarm system replacement: Conventional annunciator system, hybrid annunciator system and advanced alarm system. Advanced alarm system implementation requires Main Control Board upgrade, integration of process instrumentation and plant process computer as well as long time for replacement. NPP Krsko has decided to implement hybrid alarm system with patchwork approach. The new central alarm system will be stand alone, digital, with advanced filtering and alarm grouping options. Sequence of event recorder will be linked with plant process computer and time synchronized with redundant GPS signal. Advanced functions such as link to plant procedures will be implemented with plant process computer upgrade in outage 2006. Central alarm system replacement is due in outage 2004.(author)

  8. Tree ring-based chronology of hydro-geomorphic processes as a fundament for identification of hydro-meteorological triggers in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains (Central Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichavský, Radek; Šilhán, Karel; Tolasz, Radim

    2017-02-01

    Hydro-geomorphic processes have significantly influenced the recent development of valley floors, river banks and depositional forms in mountain environments, have caused considerable damage to manmade developments and have disrupted forest management. Trees growing along streams are affected by the transported debris mass and provide valuable records of debris flow/flood histories in their tree-ring series. Dendrogeomorphic approaches are currently the most accurate methods for creating a chronology of the debris flow/flood events in forested catchments without any field-monitoring or a stream-gauging station. Comprehensive studies focusing on the detailed chronology of hydro-geomorphic events and analysis of meteorological triggers and weather circulation patterns are still lacking for the studied area. We provide a spatio-temporal reconstruction of hydro-geomorphic events in four catchments of the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains, Czech Republic, with an analysis of their triggering factors using meteorological data from four nearby rain gauges. Increment cores from 794 coniferous trees (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) allowed the identification of 40 hydro-geomorphic events during the period of 1889-2013. Most of the events can be explained by extreme daily rainfalls (≥50mm) occurring in at least one rain gauge. However, in several cases, there was no record of extreme precipitation at rain gauges during the debris flow/flood event year, suggesting extremely localised rainstorms at the mountain summits. We concluded that the localisation, intensity and duration of rainstorms; antecedent moisture conditions; and amount of available sediments all influenced the initiation, spatial distribution and characteristics of hydro-geomorphic events. The most frequent synoptic situations responsible for the extreme rainfalls (1946-2015) were related to the meridional atmospheric circulation pattern. Our results enhance current knowledge of the occurrences and triggers of debris flows

  9. Central Diffraction in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and of additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central production at the LHC. I will report on first analysis results of meson production in double gap events in minimum-bias proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, and will describe a dedicated double gap trigger for future data taking.

  10. Crustal structure of Central Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo

    2018-01-01

    We processed crustal seismic profile SIRIPRO, acquired across Central Sicily. To improve the seismic image we utilized the wave equation datuming technique, a process of upward or downward continuation of the wave-field between two arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Wave equation datuming was applied to move shots and receivers to a given datum plane, removing time shifts related to topography and to near-surface velocity variations. The datuming procedure largely contributed to attenuate ground roll, enhance higher frequencies, increase resolution and improve the signal/noise ratio. Processed data allow recognizing geometries of crust structures differentiating seismic facies and offering a direct image of ongoing tectonic setting within variable lithologies characterizing the crust of Central Sicily. Migrated sections underline distinctive features of Hyblean Plateau foreland and above all a crustal thinning towards the Caltanissetta trough, to the contact with a likely deep Permo-Triassic rifted basin or rather a zone of a continent to oceanic transition. Inhomogeneity and fragmentation of Sicily crust, with a distinct separation of Central Sicily basin from western and eastern blocks, appear to have guided the tectonic transport inside the Caltanissetta crustal scale syncline and the accumulation of allochthonous terrains with south and north-verging thrusts. Major tectonic stack operated on the construction of a wide anticline of the Maghrebian chain in northern Sicily. Sequential south-verging imbrications of deep elements forming the anticline core denote a crust wedge indenting foreland structures. Deformation processes involved multiple detachment planes down to decoupling levels located near crust/mantle transition, supporting a presence of high-density lenses beneath the chain, interrelated to a southwards push of Tyrrhenian mantle and asthenosphere.

  11. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  12. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  13. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  14. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  15. Central Pontine Myelinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a neurological disorder that most frequently occurs ... Experts estimate that 10 percent of those with CPM will also have areas of EPM. The initial ...

  16. Démonstration du procédé IFP de désulfuration des fumées de centrales Demonstration of the Ifp Stack-Gas Desulfurization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busson C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les produits pétroliers et le charbon continueront à couvrir les besoins énergétiques pendant plusieurs décennies. La pollution par le SOZ, provenant de la combustion de ces combustibles fossiles, devient une préoccupation pour la population et les Pouvoirs publics. La désulfuration des fumées de combustion devrait, à plus ou moins longue échéance, se développer. L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, mettant à profit ses travaux dans le domaine de la désulfuration, a développé un procédé de traitement des fumées. L'IFP, en collaboration avec Électricité de France (EDF, a effectué en 1976 une opération de démonstration à une échelle pilote (30 MW dans la Centrale de Champagne-sur-Oise. Le procédé consiste à éliminer le S02 des fumées par lavage avec une solution ammoniacale, à produire du soufre à partir de la liqueur obtenue et à recycler l'ammoniaque dans l'étape de lavage. Après quelques modifications d'ordre technologique, l'unité de démonstration a fonctionné d'une manière continue pendant une période de trois mois, correspondant à l'objectif fixé. Les résultats obtenus permettent, actuellement, d'envisager une application de cette technique à une échelle de 250 MW. Oil and coal productswill continue to fulfill energy needs for several more decades. Pollution by SO2 coming from the combustion of such fossil fuels is becoming a preoccupation for the population and the public authorities. The desulfurization of combustion fumes should continue ta develop in the more or less long run. Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has taken advantage of its research in the fixed of desulfurization to develop a stock-gas treating process. In collaboration with Électricite de Fronce (EDF, IFP carried out a demonsiration operation in 1976 on a pilot-plant scale (30MW in a power plant at Champagne-sur-Oise. The process consists in removing S02 from stock gases by scrubbing them with an ammonia solution

  17. Central banks: Paradise lost

    OpenAIRE

    Issing, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the paper is to analyze how the concept behind central bank policy developed over time and how the recent financial crisis and its consequences will have an influence. While the principles of the institutional arrangement for central banks (independence, clear mandate, prohibition of monetary financing) are relevant as ever, pre- crisis consensus strategies of monetary policy have been revealed as flawed. The close monitoring of money and credit developments, a key lesson to be d...

  18. Participatory development activities at local level : case studies in villages of Central Thailand : an analysis of people's participation in the planned development process using the concept of the "Linking loops"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pongquan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated

  19. HOW TO DEVELOP A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ACTION PLAN (SEAP) IN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP AND CENTRAL ASIAN CITIES ─ GUIDEBOOK. PART I - THE SEAP PROCESS, STEP-BY-STEP TOWARDS THE -20% TARGET BY 2020

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELAITIENE IRENA; MELICA GIULIA; PAINA FEDERICA; ZANCANELLA PAOLO; PANEV STRAHIL; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present guidebook is to help the Covenant of Mayors signatories in Eastern Partnership countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine) and five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) to reach the commitments they have taken by signing the Covenant, and in particular to prepare within the year following their official adhesion a Baseline Emission Inventory (BEI) and a Sustainable Energy Act...

  20. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  1. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  2. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high...... overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addressed. A number of safety rules based on European standards apply to AC charging equipment up to 44 kW. The connection interlock and the automatic de......-energization are identified as fundamental requirements for safety in such a charging station. The connection interlock is a solution which ensures that no power is applied to the DC cable when the EV connector is not connected. The automatic de-energization device ensures that whenever a strain on the cable is detected, e...

  3. The central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The first section presents a comprehensive evaluation of radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system and provides a comparison of the detection accuracies of radionuclide imaging (RNI) and XCT in certain lesions, realizing that the XCT results may vary when radiocontrast or newer generation XCT scanners are used. Although conventional radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system has experienced no significant changes over the last 7 years except for mild refinements, a new section has been added on positron emission tomography (PET). Most positron radiopharmaceuticals passively cross the intact blood-brain barrier, and their localization has catalyzed renewed interest in our ability to metabolically study and obtain images of the central nervous system. The section on radionuclide cisternography has been rewritten to reflect present day practice and the wider application of XCT in describing conditions affecting the ventricular system

  4. Atmospheres of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents a brief summary of atmospheric models that are of possible relevance to the central stars of planetary nebulae, and then discusses the extent to which these models accord with the observations of both nebulae and central stars. Particular attention is given to the significance of the very high Zanstra temperature implied by the nebulae He II lambda 4686 A line, and to the discrepancy between the Zanstra He II temperature and the considerably lower temperatures suggested by the appearance of the visual spectrum for some of these objects. (Auth.)

  5. Several Centuries of Centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Dana L. Roth

    2015-01-01

    As Carolyn Bertozzi mentioned in her inaugural editorial, the relationship of “Central Science” to “Chemistry” became popularized over 40 years ago with the publication of the first edition of Brown and LeMay’s Chemistry: The Central Science, now in its 13th edition. Yet as late as 2003, Prof. Sason Shaik at The Hebrew University claimed “popularization of chemistry remains scant.” He goes on to share [his] “own experience of popularizing chemistry by delivering the following universal messag...

  6. Central Venous Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R.; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article

  7. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  8. Report of the Central Tracking Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, D.G.; Hanson, G.G.

    1986-10-01

    Issues involved in building a realistic central tracking system for a general-purpose 4π detector for the SSC are addressed. Such a central tracking system must be capable of running at the full design luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . Momentum measurement was required in a general-purpose 4π detector. Limitations on charged particle tracking detectors at the SSC imposed by rates and radiation damage are reviewed. Cell occupancy is the dominant constraint, which led us to the conclusion that only small cells, either wires or straw tubes, are suitable for a central tracking system at the SSC. Mechanical problems involved in building a central tracking system of either wires or straw tubes were studied, and our conclusion was that it is possible to build such a large central tracking system. Of course, a great deal of research and development is required. We also considered central tracking systems made of scintillating fibers or silicon microstrips, but our conclusion was that neither is a realistic candidate given the current state of technology. We began to work on computer simulation of a realistic central tracking system. Events from interesting physics processes at the SSC will be complex and will be further complicated by hits from out-of-time bunch crossings and multiple interactions within the same bunch crossing. Detailed computer simulations are needed to demonstrate that the pattern recognition and tracking problems can be solved

  9. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  10. Centralized vs. de-centralized multinationals and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs – here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulation instrument –, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large. Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs. ...

  11. Central Dogma Goes Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Channeling the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-05-21

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? In this issue of Neuron, O'Leary et al. (2014) address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  14. NCEP Central Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ) NCO Organizational Chart NOAA's Weather and Climate Operational Supercomputing System is known as Climate Climate Prediction Climate Archives Weather Safety Storm Ready NOAA Central Library Photo Library NCO's MISSION * Execute the NCEP operational model suite - Create climate, weather, ocean, space and

  15. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical intensive care unit (ICU), with two patients on full ventilation and ... uncertainty around the cause of the failure and the restoration, .... soon as its level also falls below three tons. Should ... (properly checked and closed prior to each anaesthetic). ... in use at the time of the central oxygen pipeline failure at Tygerberg.

  16. Central American Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Central America, as where mean temperatures are relatively warm throughout the year de- so spite seasonal rainfall changes. 75 Elevation, solar angle...November 1982 Control Hidalgo Anos.1952-1963, Republica de Nicaragua, Ministerio de Formento Y O0.PP, Comision Nacional de Energia . Craig, Richard A., The

  17. Biomass energy in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J M [Biomass Users` Network, Regional Office for Central America and the Caribbean, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  18. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  19. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  20. Effective bending strain estimated from I c test results of a D-shaped Nb3Al CICC coil fabricated with a react-and-wind process for the National Centralized Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, T.; Kizu, K.; Miura, Y.M.; Tsuchiya, K.; Matsukawa, M.; Tamai, H.; Ishida, S.; Koizumi, N.; Okuno, K.

    2005-01-01

    Japan National Centralized Tokamak (NCT) is a superconducting tokamak proposed as a modification to JT-60U. As part of the R and D for the National Centralized Tokamak, a two-turn, approximately 2 m tall, D-shaped Nb 3 Al coil was wound and tested using a full-size cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC). The Nb 3 Al cable-in-conductor was bent following the heat treatment reaction with a maximum bending strain of 0.4% to simulate the react-and-wind fabrication. The comparison of the coil performance to the measured strand data shows that the effective axial strain of the conductor strands is essentially zero despite the 0.4% bending strain of the conductor. This suggests that the strands in the cable slipped relatively to each other during bending of the conduit, thus reducing the effective strain transmitted to the strands. This result is very encouraging for the low-cost fabrication of high-current-density fusion coils using the react-and-wind method

  1. Business process quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, H.A.; Mendling, J.; Recker, J.; Brocke, vom J.; Rosemann, M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Process modeling is a central element in any approach to Business Process Management (BPM). However, what hinders both practitioners and aca demics is the lack of support for assessing the quality of process models — let alone realizing high quality process models. Existing frameworks are

  2. Centrality and Creativity:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Lorenzen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    To provide new insights into urban hierarchy, this article brings together one of economic geography’s oldest and most well-established notions with one of its newest and most disputed notions: Christäller’s centrality and Florida’s creative class. Using a novel original database, the article...... compares the distribution of the general population and the creative class across 444 city regions in 8 European countries. It finds that the two groups are both distributed according to the rank-size rule, but exhibit different distinct phases with different slopes. The article argues that the two...... distributions are different because market thresholds for creative services and jobs are lower than thresholds for less specialized services and jobs. The article hence concludes that centrality exerts a strong influence upon urban hierarchies of creativity and that the study of creative urban city hierarchies...

  3. Central American Flying Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    CEILING; VISIBILITY; WIND, PRECIPITATIDNc’--." HAZE, SMOKE, TEMPORALE ; MOUNTAIN WAVE; MILITARY METEOROLOGY. 4k- / ’A. bstract; Asummary of~ing weather...1 The " Temporale " ....................................1 Mountain Waves ......................I...............1 Severe Thunderstorms...charts. The for any part of Central America lies in having: Tactical Pilota.e Chart series , produced by the Df -.nse Mapping Agency, is * A good, basic

  4. The European Central Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Michael; Wieland, Volker

    2006-01-01

    The establishment of the ECB and with it the launch of the euro has arguably been a unique endeavor in economic history, representing an important experiment in central banking. This note aims to summarize some of the main lessons learned from this experiment and sketch some of the prospects for the ECB. It is written for "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics", 2nd edition. JEL Classification: E52, E58

  5. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  6. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, George; Meiklejohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of scalability and computational cost. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distribut...

  7. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.

    2016-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also serve to generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of computational costs and scalability. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on...

  8. Centralized vs decentralized contests

    OpenAIRE

    Beviá, Carmen; Corchón, Luis C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare two contests, decentralized in which there are several independent contests with non overlapping contestants and centralized in which all contestants fight for a unique prize which is the sum of all prizes in the small contests. We study the relationship between payoffs and efforts between these two contests. The first author acknowledges financial support from ECO2008-04756 (Grupo Consolidado-C), SGR2014-515 and PROMETEO/2013/037. The second author acknowledges financial suppor...

  9. Centralized versus distributed propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The functions and requirements of auxiliary propulsion systems are reviewed. None of the three major tasks (attitude control, stationkeeping, and shape control) can be performed by a collection of thrusters at a single central location. If a centralized system is defined as a collection of separated clusters, made up of the minimum number of propulsion units, then such a system can provide attitude control and stationkeeping for most vehicles. A distributed propulsion system is characterized by more numerous propulsion units in a regularly distributed arrangement. Various proposed large space systems are reviewed and it is concluded that centralized auxiliary propulsion is best suited to vehicles with a relatively rigid core. These vehicles may carry a number of flexible or movable appendages. A second group, consisting of one or more large flexible flat plates, may need distributed propulsion for shape control. There is a third group, consisting of vehicles built up from multiple shuttle launches, which may be forced into a distributed system because of the need to add additional propulsion units as the vehicles grow. The effects of distributed propulsion on a beam-like structure were examined. The deflection of the structure under both translational and rotational thrusts is shown as a function of the number of equally spaced thrusters. When two thrusters only are used it is shown that location is an important parameter. The possibility of using distributed propulsion to achieve minimum overall system weight is also examined. Finally, an examination of the active damping by distributed propulsion is described.

  10. Procedures of Operation at Cranbrook Central Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranbrook Institutions, Bloomfield Hills, MI. Central Library.

    This manual outlines the ordering, cataloging and classification, and processing procedures for books, periodicals, government documents, and non-book materials for a central library serving three schools--a co-ed elementary school and separate junior-senior high schools for boys and girls--and four special libraries--a fine and rare books…

  11. Russian Language in the Central Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Petrovna Borishpolets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available He article is devoted to the role of the Russian language in Central Asia and its development perspectives in the context of the Eurasian integration processes. Russian language has a long historical tradition in Central Asia and hasn't lost its importance even at the background of two waves of "derussification" that took place after 1991. Notwithstanding the decrease of the status, it keeps substantial public significance. During last two decades only in Turkmenistan we are witnessing the decrease in spreading of the Russian language among title population of the Central Asia region. Its positions as an active communication channel is secured not only by the social tradition, but also by the competitiveness of the Russian language education, advantages of the bilingual business, requirements of the labor migrants, HR interests and by some other pragmatic thoughts, which role within the context of Eurasian economic integration will increase. Despite the difficulties, it is too early to speak about the decrease of the Russian language in the Central Asia region. It is more likely that the institutes itself that maintain it and promoting it are at the low ebb. New scales and forms of practical work that is interested not only for Russia, but also Central Asia countries are required. Pressure on the resources of the Russian language increases the possibility of ethnic conflicts and strengthens the positions of political radicalism in Central Asia region.

  12. Fast network centrality analysis using GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exploding volume of data generated by continuously evolving high-throughput technologies, biological network analysis problems are growing larger in scale and craving for more computational power. General Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU provides a cost-effective technology for the study of large-scale biological networks. Designing algorithms that maximize data parallelism is the key in leveraging the power of GPUs. Results We proposed an efficient data parallel formulation of the All-Pairs Shortest Path problem, which is the key component for shortest path-based centrality computation. A betweenness centrality algorithm built upon this formulation was developed and benchmarked against the most recent GPU-based algorithm. Speedup between 11 to 19% was observed in various simulated scale-free networks. We further designed three algorithms based on this core component to compute closeness centrality, eccentricity centrality and stress centrality. To make all these algorithms available to the research community, we developed a software package gpu-fan (GPU-based Fast Analysis of Networks for CUDA enabled GPUs. Speedup of 10-50× compared with CPU implementations was observed for simulated scale-free networks and real world biological networks. Conclusions gpu-fan provides a significant performance improvement for centrality computation in large-scale networks. Source code is available under the GNU Public License (GPL at http://bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/gpu-fan/.

  13. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja B. Yung; Todd P. Primm

    2015-01-01

    The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  14. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja B. Yung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  15. The NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Oliaro; J. Dong; K. Tindall; P. Sichta

    1999-01-01

    Earlier this year the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory achieved ''first plasma''. The Central Instrumentation and Control System was used to support plasma operations. Major elements of the system include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System. This paper will focus on the Process Control System. Topics include the architecture, hardware interface, operator interface, data management, and system performance

  16. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  17. Central osteosclerosis with trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeling, Emma L.; Brady, Angela F. [North West Thames Regional Genetics Service, Kennedy-Galton Centre, Level 8 V, North West London Hospitals NHS Trust, Watford Road, HAI 3UJ, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Cruwys, Michele [Department of Paediatrics, Hillingdon Hospital, Hillingdon, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Suri, Mohnish [Clinical Genetics Service, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Aylett, Sarah E. [Neurosciences Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder associated with defects in nucleotide excision repair. We report a 7-year-old boy with TTD due to mutation in the XPD gene. The patient has classic features of this condition, including brittle, sulphur-deficient hair, ichthyosis, growth retardation and developmental delay. In addition, he has radiological evidence of progressive central osteosclerosis. Although similar radiological findings have previously been reported in a small number of patients, this association is not widely recognised. We review the radiological findings in this and other similar cases and discuss the natural history of these bony changes. (orig.)

  18. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  19. Decentralized central heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, S.; Hudjera, A.

    1994-08-04

    The decentralized central heating is essentially based on new technical solutions for an independent heating unit, which allows up to 20% collectible energy savings and up to 15% savings in built-in-material. These savings are already made possible by the fact that the elements described under point A are thus eliminated from the classical heating. The thus superfluous made elements are replaced by new technical solutions described under point B - technical problem - and point E - patent claim. The technical solutions described in detail under point B and point E form together a technical unit and are essential parts of the invention protected by the patent. (author)

  20. Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M W Y; Leegwater, Peter A J; Buijtels, Jenny J C W M; Daminet, Sylvie; Kooistra, Hans S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the

  1. Central Banking after the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick S. Mishkin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores where central banking is heading after the recent financial crisis. First it discusses the central bank consensus before the crisis and then outlines the key facts learned from the crisis that require changes in the way central banks conduct their business. Finally, it discusses four main areas in which central banks are altering their policy frameworks: 1) the interaction between monetary and financial stability policies, 2) nonconventional monetary policy, 3) risk manage...

  2. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs

  3. The central Iowa project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, H M

    1994-10-01

    This project developed and tested a population-based survey, the HS Form, to examine health and health care in the Central Iowa community. Data from this new collection of proven sets of items were used to compare competing health plans, doctor offices, hospitals, and to develop preliminary norms of the community's insured, in two areas: system performance and health burden. The results showed that the survey: (1) was both feasible and efficient in delivering a comprehensive and generic assessment of consumers and patients; (2) revealed consistent, noteworthy differences between plans and between providers across both sets of criteria; and (3) indicated that there is substantial room for improvement in Central Iowa's health care delivery system from the public's perspective. Recommendations for next steps include: (1) following through on the June 1993 community forum (held to discuss the project's methods and results with local decision makers); (2) broadening the evaluation design to increase sample representativeness; and (3) implementing a pre/post approach to measure changes in plan and provider performance.

  4. A central neural circuit for itch sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Di; Deng, Juan; Liu, Ke-Fei; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Shi, Yu-Feng; Guo, Wei-Min; Mao, Qun-Quan; Liu, Xing-Jun; Li, Hui; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-08-18

    Although itch sensation is an important protective mechanism for animals, chronic itch remains a challenging clinical problem. Itch processing has been studied extensively at the spinal level. However, how itch information is transmitted to the brain and what central circuits underlie the itch-induced scratching behavior remain largely unknown. We found that the spinoparabrachial pathway was activated during itch processing and that optogenetic suppression of this pathway impaired itch-induced scratching behaviors. Itch-mediating spinal neurons, which express the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, are disynaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus via glutamatergic spinal projection neurons. Blockade of synaptic output of glutamatergic neurons in the parabrachial nucleus suppressed pruritogen-induced scratching behavior. Thus, our studies reveal a central neural circuit that is critical for itch signal processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Alpha current flow betweenness centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, K.; Litvak, Nelli; Medyanikov, V.; Sokol, M.

    2013-01-01

    A class of centrality measures called betweenness centralities reflects degree of participation of edges or nodes in communication between different parts of the network. The original shortest-path betweenness centrality is based on counting shortest paths which go through a node or an edge. One of

  6. Regulator process for the authorization of an amendment to the operation license of a nuclear power plant in Mexico; Proceso regulador para la autorizacion de una enmienda a la licencia de operacion de una central nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R.; Espinosa V, J.M.; Salgado, J.R.; Mamani, Y.R. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The regulator process by which an authorization is granted from an amendment to the License of Operation of a nuclear power station in Mexico is described. It makes an appointment the effective legal mark, the technical characteristics of the modification, the evaluation process and deposition upon oath of tests and finally the elaboration of the Safety report and the Technical Verdict that is a correspondent for the regulator organism to the Secretary of Energy, the one that in turn is the responsible of granting the amendment the License just as it establishes it the Law. (Author)

  7. [Central nervous system control of energy homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machleidt, F; Lehnert, H

    2011-03-01

    The brain is continuously supplied with information about the distribution and amount of energy stores from the body periphery. Endocrine, autonomic and cognitive-hedonic signals are centrally integrated and exert effects on the whole organism via anabolic and catabolic pathways. The adiposity signals insulin and leptin reflect the amount of body fat and are part of a negative feedback mechanism between the periphery and the central nervous system. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is the most important central nervous structure, which integrates this information. Furthermore, the CNS is able to directly measure and to respond to changes in the concentration of certain nutrients. In order to develop effective therapies for the treatment of disorders of energy balance the further elucidation of these neuro-biological processes is of crucial importance. This article provides an overview of the CNS regulation of metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanisms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Geochemical Study of Natural CO2 Emissions in the French Massif Central: How to Predict Origin, Processes and Evolution of CO2 Leakage Étude géochimique des émissions naturelles de CO2 du Massif Central : origine et processus de migration du gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battani A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an overview of some results obtained within the French ANR (National Agency of Research supported Géocarbone-Monitoring research program. The measurements were performed in Sainte-Marguerite, located in the French Massif Central. This site represents a natural laboratory for CO2/fluid/rock interactions studies, as well as CO2 migration mechanisms towards the surface. The CO2 leaking character of the studied area also allows to test and validate measurements methods and verifications for the future CO2 geological storage sites. During these surveys, we analyzed soil CO2 fluxes and concentrations. We sampled and analyzed soil gases, and gas from carbo-gaseous bubbling springs. A one-month continuous monitoring was also tested, to record the concentration of CO2 both in atmosphere and in the soil at a single point. We also developed a new methodology to collect soil gas samples for noble gas abundances and isotopic analyses, as well as carbon isotopic ratios. Our geochemical results, combined with structural geology, show that the leaking CO2 has a very deep origin, partially mantle derived. The gas rises rapidly along normal and strike-slip active faults. CO2 soil concentrations (also showing a mantle derived component and CO2 fluxes are spatially variable, and reach high values. The recorded atmospheric CO2 is not very high, despite the important CO2 degassing throughout the whole area. Cette étude présente les principaux résultats de campagnes de monitoring géochimique menées en 2006 et 2007 dans le cadre du projet Géocarbone-Monitoring, sur le site de Sainte-Marguerite, situé dans le Massif Central. Ce site constitue un « laboratoire naturel » pour l’étude des interactions CO2/fluides/roches et des mécanismes de migration du CO2 vers la surface, à l’échelle des temps géologiques. Le caractère particulièrement émissif de cet « analogue » permet également de tester et valider des méthodes de mesure et

  9. Geochemical Study of Natural CO{sub 2} Emissions in the French Massif Central: How to Predict Origin, Processes and Evolution of CO{sub 2} Leakage; Etude geochimique des emissions naturelles de CO{sub 2} du Massif Central: origine et processus de migration du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battani, A.; Deville, E.; Faure, J.L.; Jeandel, E.; Noirez, S.; Tocque, E.; Benoit, Y.; Schmitz, J.; Parlouar, D. [Institut francais du petrole, IFP, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Sarda, P. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Gal, F.; Le Pierres, K.; Brach, M.; Braibant, G.; Beny, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Pokryszka, Z.; Charmoille, A.; Bentivegna, G. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique ALATA, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pironon, J.; De Donato, P.; Garnier, C.; Cailteau, C.; Barres, O.; Radilla, G.; Bauer, A. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2010-07-15

    This study presents an overview of some results obtained within the French ANR (National Agency of Research) supported Geocarbone-Monitoring research program. The measurements were performed in Sainte-Marguerite, located in the French Massif Central. This site represents a natural laboratory for CO{sub 2}/fluid/rock interactions studies, as well as CO{sub 2} migration mechanisms towards the surface. The CO{sub 2} leaking character of the studied area also allows to test and validate measurements methods and verifications for the future CO{sub 2} geological storage sites. During these surveys, we analyzed soil CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations. We sampled and analyzed soil gases, and gas from carbo-gaseous bubbling springs. A one-month continuous monitoring was also tested, to record the concentration of CO{sub 2} both in atmosphere and in the soil at a single point. We also developed a new methodology to collect soil gas samples for noble gas abundances and isotopic analyses, as well as carbon isotopic ratios. Our geochemical results, combined with structural geology, show that the leaking CO{sub 2} has a very deep origin, partially mantle derived. The gas rises rapidly along normal and strike-slip active faults. CO{sub 2} soil concentrations (also showing a mantle derived component) and CO{sub 2} fluxes are spatially variable, and reach high values. The recorded atmospheric CO{sub 2} is not very high, despite the important CO{sub 2} degassing throughout the whole area. (authors)

  10. Natural factors and mining activity bearings on the water quality of the Choapa basin, North Central Chile: insights on the role of mafic volcanic rocks in the buffering of the acid drainage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Amparo; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Kretschmer, Nicole; Meza, Francisco; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    This contribution analyzes water chemical data for the Choapa basin, North Central Chile, for the period 1980-2004. The parameters considered are As, Cu Fe, pH, EC, SO₄⁻², Cl⁻¹, and HCO[Formula: see text], from samples taken in nine monitoring stations throughout the basin. Results show rather moderate contents of As, Cu, and Fe, with the exception of the Cuncumén River and the Aucó creek, explained by the influence of the huge porphyry copper deposit of Los Pelambres and by the presence of mining operations, respectively. When compared against results obtained in previous researches at the neighboring Elqui river basin, which host the El Indio Au-Cu-As district, a much reduced grade of pollution is recognized for the Choapa basin. Considering the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD)-related Cu contents on the fine fraction of the sediments of both river basins, the differences recorded are even more striking. Although the Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit, on the headwaters of the Choapa river basin, is between one and two orders of magnitude bigger than El Indio, stream water and sediments of the former exhibit significantly lower copper contents than those of the latter. A main factor which may explain these results is the smaller degree of H( + )-metasomatism on the host rocks of the Los Pelambres deposit, where mafic andesitic volcanic rocks presenting propylitic hydrothermal alteration are dominant. This fact contrast with the highly altered host rocks of El Indio district, where most of them have lost their potential to neutralize ARD.

  11. A New Sulfur and Carbon Degassing Inventory for the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc: The Importance of Accurate Time-Series Data Sets and Possible Tectonic Processes Responsible for Temporal Variations in Arc-Scale Volatile Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, J. M.; Kern, C.; Avard, G.; Muller, C.; Aiuppa, A.; Saballos, A.; Ibarra, M.; LaFemina, P.; Protti, M.; Fischer, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a new database of SO2 and CO2 fluxes from the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc (SCAVA) for the period 2015-2016. We report ˜300 SO2 flux measurements from 10 volcanoes and gas ratios from 11 volcanoes in Costa Rica and Nicaragua representing the most extensive available assessment of this ˜500 km arc segment. The SO2 flux from SCAVA is estimated at 6,240 ± 1,150 T/d, about a factor of three higher than previous estimations (1972-2013). We attribute this increase in part to our more complete assessment of the arc. Another consideration in interpreting the difference is the context of increased volcanic activity, as there were more eruptions in 2015-2016 than in any period since ˜1980. A potential explanation for increased degassing and volcanic activity is a change in crustal stress regime (from compression to extension, opening volcanic conduits) following two large (Mw > 7) earthquakes in the region in 2012. The CO2 flux from the arc is estimated at 22,500 ± 4,900 T/d, which is equal to or greater than estimates of C input into the SCAVA subduction zone. Time-series data sets for arc degassing need to be improved in temporal and spatial coverage to robustly constrain volatile budgets and tectonic controls. Arc volatile budgets are strongly influenced by short-lived degassing events and arc systems likely display significant short-term variations in volatile output, calling for expansion of nascent geochemical monitoring networks to achieve spatial and temporal coverage similar to traditional geophysical networks.

  12. A new sulfur and carbon degassing inventory for the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc: The importance of accurate time-series datasets and possible tectonic processes responsible for temporal variations in arc-scale volatile emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Maarten; Kern, Christoph; Avard, Geoffroy; Muller, Cyril; Aiuppa, Sandro; Saballos, Armando; Ibarra, Martha; LaFemina, Peter; Protti, Mario; Fischer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a new database of SO2 and CO2 fluxes from the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc (SCAVA) for the period 2015–2016. We report ∼300 SO2 flux measurements from 10 volcanoes and gas ratios from 11 volcanoes in Costa Rica and Nicaragua representing the most extensive available assessment of this ∼500 km arc segment. The SO2 flux from SCAVA is estimated at 6,240 ± 1,150 T/d, about a factor of three higher than previous estimations (1972–2013). We attribute this increase in part to our more complete assessment of the arc. Another consideration in interpreting the difference is the context of increased volcanic activity, as there were more eruptions in 2015–2016 than in any period since ∼1980. A potential explanation for increased degassing and volcanic activity is a change in crustal stress regime (from compression to extension, opening volcanic conduits) following two large (Mw > 7) earthquakes in the region in 2012. The CO2 flux from the arc is estimated at 22,500 ± 4,900 T/d, which is equal to or greater than estimates of C input into the SCAVA subduction zone. Time‐series data sets for arc degassing need to be improved in temporal and spatial coverage to robustly constrain volatile budgets and tectonic controls. Arc volatile budgets are strongly influenced by short‐lived degassing events and arc systems likely display significant short‐term variations in volatile output, calling for expansion of nascent geochemical monitoring networks to achieve spatial and temporal coverage similar to traditional geophysical networks.

  13. Orden monetario y bancos centrales Monetary order and Central Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglietta Michel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el enfoque evolucionista e institucionalista de la economía de las convenciones francesa, este trabajo analiza el surgimiento histórico de la banca central y la creación institucional del 'arte de la banca central'. El artículo estudia los modelos formales del orden monetario, la banca libre y la banca central, y analiza los eventos históricos que llevaron a que el Banco de Inglaterra inventara el arte de manejar los bancos centrales en conjunción con el aprendizaje colectivo e institucional que lo hizo posible. Aglietta muestra que la banca central no es una creación del Estado sino una creación institucional endógena al sistema de mercado.With the evolutionist and institutionalist focus of the economics of the French conventions, this paper analyzes the historical rise of the central bank and the institutional creation of the 'art of the central bank'. The article studies formal models of the monetary order, free banking and the central bank, and analyzes the historie events that led to the Bank of England inventing the art of managing the central banks, in conjunction with the collective and institutional learning that made it possible. Aglietta shows that the central bank is not a creation of the State, but rather aninstitutional creation endogenous to the market system.

  14. Adult central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Historically, the adult central nervous system (CNS) was regarded as relatively immune to the effects of ionising radiation, and the recognition of the CNS as a radio-vulnerable structure occurred later than was the case for many other tissues. Increasingly precise knowledge of the time-dose-volume relationships for CNS tolerance has had two important consequences: (1) it has permitted the avoidance of catastrophic and usually lethal late effects in the brain and spinal cord when these tissues are unavoidably irradiated during the treatment of adjacent non-CNS tumours, and (2) it has encouraged referral for irradiation of certain technically benign lesions which, although compatible with prolonged survival, represent a continuing threat to the patient - for example arteriovenous malformations, pituitary adenomas, and some meningiomas. Many of these can now be controlled for very long periods following radiation doses consistent with the long-term functional integrity of the CNS

  15. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  16. CENTRAL EUROPE: Austron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    For many of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe access to international research centres such as CERN, the European Space Agency (ESA), the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) or to national centres such as the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK or DESY in Germany, is hindered by the absence of intermediate research institutions. Since mid-1990 this question has been studied by an 'Austron' Study Group set up under the auspices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and which cooperates with the so-called 'Pentagonal' initiative of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy and Yugoslavia to promote cooperation in the area, with which Poland is now associated

  17. Central Accountability System (CLAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Central Accountability System (CLAS) is a high level accountability system that consolidates data from the site's 39 material balance areas (MBA) for reporting to Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) management, Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) in Oak Ridge, TN. Development of the system began in 1989 and became operational in April, 1991. The CLAS system enhances data accuracy and accountability records, resulting in increased productivity and time and cost savings. This paper reports that the system is in compliance with DOE Orders and meets NMMSS reporting requirements. WSRC management is provided with the overall status of the site's nuclear material inventory. CLAS gives WSRC a leading edge in accounting technology and enhances good accounting practices

  18. Central America's shrinking forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This news brief reports that 66% of deforestation in Central America has happened in the past 40 years, based on World Conservation Union (WCU) data. Deforestation is expected to continue. The population of Central America and Mexico grew by 28% between 1977 and 1987. Growth is decreasing but remains high at 2.5% in all countries of the region except Panama. 29 million was the regional population in 1990; the projection is for 63 million by 2025. Population is migrating to urban centers. Forests declined by 13% and croplands increased from 4% to 13% of total land area and pasture land from 2% to 37%. There was an increase in unproductive land from 145 to 24%, i.e., 50% of El Salvador's land had soil degradation as does 30% of Guatemala's. In addition to deforestation and soil degradation, there has been soil erosion leading to sedimentation buildup near dam sites and in rivers, which diminishes hydroelectric power capability. Silting also affects groundwater resources, which impact on a safe drinking water supply. Population growth results in increased demand for fuelwood, urban land, and agricultural land. New techniques practiced widely are needed in order to meet the region's needs or demands. Slowing population growth buys time for adjusting to the necessary changes needed for sustaining the region's population. WCU urges conservation organizations to raise awareness about the role population plays in environmental degradation, and to support efforts to reduce birth rates. Women's status needs to be improved through income-generating projects, for instance, and cooperation is needed between conservation groups and organizations involved with improving maternal and child health.

  19. Central control of thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, John C

    2012-07-01

    In mammals and birds, conservation of body heat at around 37 °C is vital to life. Thermogenesis is the production of this heat which can be obligatory, as in basal metabolic rate, or it can be facultative such as the response to cold. A complex regulatory system has evolved which senses environmental or core temperature and integrates this information in hypothalamic regions such as the preoptic area and dorsomedial hypothalamus. These areas then send the appropriate signals to generate and conserve heat (or dissipate it). In this review, the importance of the sympathetic nervous system is discussed in relation to its role in basal metabolic rate and adaptive thermogenesis with a particular emphasis to human obesity. The efferent sympathetic pathway does not uniformly act on all tissues; different tissues can receive different levels of sympathetic drive at the same time. This is an important concept in the discussion of the pharmacotherapy of obesity. Despite decades of work the medicine chest contains only one pill for the long term treatment of obesity, orlistat, a lipase inhibitor that prevents the absorption of lipid from the gut and is itself not systemically absorbed. The central controlling system for thermogenesis has many potential intervention points. Several drugs, previously marketed, awaiting approval or in the earlier stages of development may have a thermogenic effect via activation of the sympathetic nervous system at some point in the thermoregulatory circuit and are discussed in this review. If the balance is weighted to the "wrong" side there is the burden of increased cardiovascular risk while a shift to the "right" side, if possible, will afford a thermogenic benefit that is conducive to weight loss maintenance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control Food Intake' Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conformation of an evaluation process for a license renovation solicitude of a nuclear power plant in Mexico. Part 2; Conformacion de un proceso de evaluacion para una solicitud de renovacion de licencia de una central nuclear en Mexico. Parte 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M. de L., E-mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    At the present time the operation licenses in force for the reactors of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) will expire in the year 2020 and 2025 for the Unit-1 and Unit-2, respectively, for which the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) has begun its preparation to assist a solicitude of the licensee to continue the operation of the NPP-L V. The present work has the purpose of defining the steps to continue and to generate the documents that would help in this process, as the normative, guides, procedures, regulations, controls, etc. so that the evaluation process will be effective and efficient, as much for the regulator organ as for the licensee. The advance carried out in the continuation of the conformation of an evaluation process of license renovation solicitude is also exposed, taking like base the requirements established by the CNSNS, the regulator organ of the United States (US NRC), and the IAEA for license renovation solicitude of this type. A summary of the licenses granted from the beginning of commercial operation of the NPP-L V is included, both units and the amendments to these licenses, explaining the reason of the amendment shortly and in the dates they were granted. A brief exposition of the nuclear power plants to world level that have received extension of its operation is included. The normative that can be applied in a life extension evaluation is presented, the evaluation process to continue with the guides of the US NRC, the reach of the evaluation and the minimum information required to the licensee that should accompany to their solicitude. (author)

  1. Os Bancos Centrais e sua ambivalência público-privada [Central Banks and their public-private nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Corazza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the historic origin of Central Banks, from three basic processes: the evolution and convergence of the free banking system to a hierarchical and centralized system in the Central Bank; the transformation of Clearing Houses in Central Banks, and finally, the processes by which governmental banks were assuming Central Bank’s functions and transforming themselves in Central Banks. The assumes the hypothesis by which the Central Banks were not created arbitrarily by Government, but from the evolution of private banking system suffering periodic crises, which needed public intervention. Finally, the paper concludes that this historic origin grounds the ambivalent public-private nature in Central Banks.

  2. Rare earth element and strontium isotopic study of seamount-type limestones in Mesozoic accretionary complex of Southern Chichibu Terrane, central Japan. Implication for incorporation process of seawater REE into limestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Miura, Noriko; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Kawabe, Iwao

    2003-01-01

    Ishimaki and Tahara limestones occur as exotic blocks juxtaposed in the Mesozoic (Jurassic) accretionary complex of Southern Chichibu Terrane in eastern Aichi Prefecture, central Japan. They are supposed to be of the seamount-type limestone, since they have no terrigenous materials and are intimately associated with greenstones. REE (rare earth elements) and Sr isotopic studies for the limestones have been made in order to know their geochemical characteristics, ages and origins. Their 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, when referred to the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve and relevant geological data, suggest that Ishimaki and Tahara limestones are the late Permian and the Carboniferous to the Early Permian, respectively. Two greenstone fragments found inside the Ishimaki limestone block and one greenstone sample associated with Tahara limestone block, resemble the Hawaiian alkali basalt in the their REE and Y patterns. This is supporting the idea that the limestone blocks may be parts of reef limestones on ancient volcanic seamounts. All the limestone samples, except three unusual Tahara ones, show seawater REE and Y signatures in their chondrite-normalized patterns. Their REE/Ca ratios, however, are 10 2 -10 4 times as high as those ratios of modern biogenic carbonates like corals and the seawater. Accordingly, seawater REE and Y were incorporated into the limestones, when originally biogenic carbonates transformed into inorganic calcite and its secondary growths occurred in diagenesis in contact with sufficient seawater. This view is favored by the reported REE partition experiment between calcite overgrowths and seawater solution. The seawater Ce anomaly as a function of water depth in the modern ocean is a key to infer the water depth of the REE and Y incorporation. The Ce anomalies given by log (Ce/Ce*) for about a half of Ishimaki samples and most of Tahara ones are between -0.5 and -0.2, which are compatible with the shallow water origin. Another half of Ishimaki samples

  3. Selective attention to affective value alters how the brain processes olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian; Margot, Christian; da Silva, Maria A A P; Velazco, Maria Ines

    2008-10-01

    How does selective attention to affect influence sensory processing? In a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation, when subjects were instructed to remember and rate the pleasantness of a jasmine odor, activations were greater in the medial orbito-frontal and pregenual cingulate cortex than when subjects were instructed to remember and rate the intensity of the odor. When the subjects were instructed to remember and rate the intensity, activations were greater in the inferior frontal gyrus. These top-down effects occurred not only during odor delivery but started in a preparation period after the instruction before odor delivery, and continued after termination of the odor in a short-term memory period. Thus, depending on the context in which odors are presented and whether affect is relevant, the brain prepares itself, responds to, and remembers an odor differently. These findings show that when attention is paid to affective value, the brain systems engaged to prepare for, represent, and remember a sensory stimulus are different from those engaged when attention is directed to the physical properties of a stimulus such as its intensity. This differential biasing of brain regions engaged in processing a sensory stimulus depending on whether the cognitive demand is for affect-related versus more sensory-related processing may be an important aspect of cognition and attention. This has many implications for understanding the effects not only of olfactory but also of other sensory stimuli.

  4. Conformation of an evaluation process for a license renovation solicitude of a nuclear power plant in Mexico; Conformacion de un proceso de evaluacion para una solicitud de renovacion de licencia de una central nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M. L., E-mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    So that the construction stages, of operation, closing, dismantlement and the radioactive waste disposal of a nuclear power plant (NPP) are carried out in Mexico, is necessary that the operator has a license, permission or authorization for each stage. In Mexico, these licenses, permissions or authorizations are granted by the Energy Secretariat with base in the verdict of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The operation licenses ar the moment effective for the reactors of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) they will expire respectively in the year 2020 and 2025 for the Unit 1 and Unit 2, for what the CNSNS has begun its preparation before a potential solicitude of the licensee to continue the operation of the NPP-L V. Defining the process to continue and to generate the documents that would help in this phase as normalization, guides, procedures, regulations, controls, etc., is the task that intends to be carried out the regulator body so that the evaluation process is effective and efficient, so much for the same regulator body as for the licensee. This work exposes the advance that the CNSNS has in this aspect and is centered specifically in the conformation of an evaluation process of license renovation solicitude, taking as base what the regulator body of the United States of North America (US NRC) established and following to the IAEA. Also, this work includes statistical of electric power production in Mexico, licensing antecedents for the NPP-L V, a world perspective of the license renovations and the regulation of the US NRC related to the license renovation of a NPP. (Author)

  5. Modelling Central Bank Independence and Inflation: Deus Ex Machina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Central bank independence represents the core element of assessing the complex relationship between government and central bank, having at background the fundamental issue of a free monetary policy decision-making process from the hands of the political circle. However, central bank independence is a multilevel concept within some social, economic and behavioral implications both for the central banks and for the society at whole. Central bank independence is needed in order to establish an autonomous central bank with a high degree of freedom in choosing its’ instruments, objectives, techniques and tactics. Moreover, a high degree of transparency for the public disclosure and monitoring of central bank operation and transaction is needed for the social barometer of the central bank. Consequently the central bank must have a high degree of accountability and responsibility vis - á - vis of the most democratic institution, i.e. Parliament. In this article it is presented a comprehensive study regarding the complex relationship between central bank independence and inflation by modeling these two monetary policy panacea, in order to make a fine tuning regarding the causal relationship established in a heterodox manner.

  6. SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Gül Yesevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze main security threats in Central Asia. It is obvious thatsince the end of Cold War, there have been many security threats in Central Asiaas internal weakness of Central Asian states, terrorism, transnational crime,economic insecurity, environmental issues, drug trafficking, ethnic violence,regional instability. This study will propose thatwith increasing interdependence,states need each other to solve these global security problems. In that sense,regional and sub-regional cooperation between Central Asian states and with otherregional actors has been witnessed. It is clear that the withdrawal of NATO fromAfghanistan will destabilize Central Asia. This study will investigate overallsecurity situation in Central Asia and affects andcontributions of regionalorganizations to Eurasian security

  7. CENTRAL EUROPE: Role models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-12-15

    Hungary is one of the newcomers to the CERN fold, having joined in 1992. The country's contributions are naturally in line with its slender resources and are not as immediately visible as those of the major Western European Member States. However the approach used and its consequent successes provide a good role model for a smaller nation in an international research environment. This was reflected on 24 September at a meeting of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) convened in Budapest, continuing an ECFA tradition of holding meetings in national centres to learn more about the physics programmes of different countries. This tradition started with visits to major West European Centres, but last year ECFA held a meeting in Warsaw, its first in a central European country. By far the largest Hungarian population centre, Budapest is also a hub for national research in this sector, with university centres and the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of the National Academy of Sciences. However important research work is also carried out in the eastern city of Debrecen. Hungarians look back to the classic investigations of Eotvos early this century as the starting point of their national tradition in fundamental physics. (In the mid-80s, these experiments briefly came back into vogue when there was a suggestion of an additional 'fifth force' contribution to nuclear masses.)

  8. CENTRAL EUROPE: Role models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Hungary is one of the newcomers to the CERN fold, having joined in 1992. The country's contributions are naturally in line with its slender resources and are not as immediately visible as those of the major Western European Member States. However the approach used and its consequent successes provide a good role model for a smaller nation in an international research environment. This was reflected on 24 September at a meeting of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) convened in Budapest, continuing an ECFA tradition of holding meetings in national centres to learn more about the physics programmes of different countries. This tradition started with visits to major West European Centres, but last year ECFA held a meeting in Warsaw, its first in a central European country. By far the largest Hungarian population centre, Budapest is also a hub for national research in this sector, with university centres and the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of the National Academy of Sciences. However important research work is also carried out in the eastern city of Debrecen. Hungarians look back to the classic investigations of Eotvos early this century as the starting point of their national tradition in fundamental physics. (In the mid-80s, these experiments briefly came back into vogue when there was a suggestion of an additional 'fifth force' contribution to nuclear masses.)

  9. The central part of CMS is lowered

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    On 28 February 2007, the CMS central piece containing the magnet and weighing as much as five Jumbo jets (1920 tonnes) was gently lowered into place. Only 20 cm separated the detector, which was suspended by four huge cables, each with 55 strands and sophisticated monitoring to minimize sway and tilt, from the walls of the shaft. The entire process took about 10 hours to complete.

  10. Chemical processes of coal for use in power plants. Part 1: Approximate analysis and associated indexes of pulverized coal; Procesos quimicos del carbon para su uso en centrales termoelectricas. Parte 1: Analisis aproximado e indices asociados del carbon pulverizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J. A.; Manzanares-Papayanopoulos, E.; Herrera-Velarde, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The usage of hydrocarbons, such as natural gas, oil products and coal, will be the main source of energy to the mankind for next generations. Therefore, the actual research and technological developments point out to employ with high efficiency those fuels. The main interests are to release most of the energy as possible and to guide the combustion reactions. It is well known that during the combustion process of coal, the chemical energy is converted to thermal energy, which it allows the steam production, and therefore to produce energy through an electric generator. The main interest of the work presented here is to study the behavior of the coal combustion processes in function of the approximate analysis and some associate indices of that analysis, to point out the optimization of the coal usage as main fuel in electrical power generation plants. [Spanish] El uso de hidrocarburos como son el gas natural, los derivados del petroleo y el carbon mineral, continuara siendo en las proximas decadas la principal fuente de energia de la humanidad. Por consiguiente, la investigacion cientifica y los desarrollos tecnologicos actualmente se enfocan en emplear de manera mas eficiente dichos combustibles, satisfaciendo entre otros factores, dos intereses principales: liberar la mayor cantidad de energia, reduciendo al minimo el material combustible no quemado, y direccionar las reacciones del proceso de combustion para minimizar la cantidad de productos no deseados resultantes de la reaccion. A traves de los procesos quimicos de combustion del carbon, se transforma la energia quimica a energia termica, lo que permite la produccion de vapor para a su vez impulsar una turbina la cual esta acoplada a un generador electrico. El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del comportamiento de los procesos quimicos que se llevan a cabo durante las reacciones de combus-tion del carbon en funcion del analisis aproximado y de los indices asociados resultantes de dicho analisis; lo

  11. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  12. Big Data and central banks

    OpenAIRE

    David Bholat

    2015-01-01

    This commentary recaps a Centre for Central Banking Studies event held at the Bank of England on 2–3 July 2014. The article covers three main points. First, it situates the Centre for Central Banking Studies event within the context of the Bank’s Strategic Plan and initiatives. Second, it summarises and reflects on major themes from the event. Third, the article links central banks’ emerging interest in Big Data approaches with their broader uptake by other economic agents.

  13. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...

  14. The Regional Centrality of Vietnam’s Central Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    strategic value turned it into a battleground among various Vietnamese parties, France, and the United States. It was here that the outcome of the Indochina wars was determined, but at a terrible price for the local population. After the adoption of economic reforms in reunified Vietnam the Central......Vietnam’s Central Highlands—or Tây Nguyên—area is usually described as remote, backward, and primitive, but this region has played a central role in the history of the surrounding states and the wider East and Southeast Asia region. Far from isolated, the Central Highlands engaged in trade...... various rivalrous polities now known as Vietnam, Champa, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand, the area occupied a strategic position in the wider mainland Southeast Asia region. With the emergence of a unified, neo-Confucianist Vietnamese state the region lost its centrality until the late colonial era, when its...

  15. Aged Lewis rats exposed to low and moderate doses of rotenone are a good model for studying the process of protein aggregation and its effects upon central nervous system cell physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cell physiology is impaired before protein aggregation and this may be more relevant than inclusions themselves for neurodegeneration. The present study aimed to characterize an animal model to enable the analysis of the cell biology before and after protein aggregation. Ten-month-old Lewis rats were exposed either to 1 or 2 mg/kg/day of rotenone, delivered subcutaneously through mini-pumps, for one month. Hyperphosphorylated TAU, alpha-synuclein, amyloid-beta peptide and protein carbonylation (indicative of oxidative stress were evaluated in the hippocampus, substantia nigra and locus coeruleus through immunohistochemistry or western blot. It was found that 2 mg/kg/day rotenone increased amyloid-beta peptide, hyperphosphorylation of TAU and alpha-synuclein. Rotenone at 1mg/kg/day did not alter protein levels. Protein carbonylation remained unchanged. This study demonstrated that aged Lewis rats exposed to a low dose of rotenone is a useful model to study cellular processes before protein aggregation, while the higher dose makes a good model to study the effects of protein inclusions.

  16. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  17. Dublin South Central (DSC)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  18. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  19. Central Au on Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V. [Labo de Phys. Corp., IN2P3-CRNS, Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Fd. (France); Basrak, Z. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)] [and others; FOPI-Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions the initial relative kinetic energy of target and projectile is available for internal excitation of the interacting system; it is however still not well established to what extent local equilibrium and thermalisation occur. Local equilibrium is of interest to derive, within the formalism of transport equations and of the equation of state, (EOS), general properties of compressed and excited nuclear matter. Such approach describes in relatively simple terms the complex many body interactions occuring within extended baryonic and hadronic (or quark) matter. For a basic microscopic understanding it is highly desirable to investigate the elementary in-medium interactions in relation to the free elementary processes. Excitation function measurements of central collisions between the heaviest available nuclei (like Au on Au), supply the best ground for such studies: the highest degree of thermalisation and compression is expected for such reactions. The consideration presented here of energy thermalisation and of an expanding system clusterizing at freeze-out in a situation close to the liquid gas phase transition can be of interest to astrophysics as well as to the quark gluon plasma deconfinement studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the higher energy regime of CERN and Brookhaven. (orig.).

  20. Use of a novel cell adhesion method and digital measurement to show stimulus-dependent variation in somatic and oral ciliary beat frequency in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Wade E; Hallworth, Richard; Wyatt, Todd A; Sisson, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    When Paramecium encounters positive stimuli, the membrane hyperpolarizes and ciliary beat frequency increases. We adapted an established immobilization protocol using a biological adhesive and a novel digital analysis system to quantify beat frequency in immobilized Paramecium. Cells showed low mortality and demonstrated beat frequencies consistent with previous studies. Chemoattractant molecules, reduction in external potassium, and posterior stimulation all increased somatic beat frequency. In all cases, the oral groove cilia maintained a higher beat frequency than mid-body cilia, but only oral cilia from cells stimulated with chemoattactants showed an increase from basal levels. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  1. Precursory strong-signal characteristics of the convective clouds of the Central Tibetan Plateau detected by radar echoes with respect to the evolutionary processes of an eastward-moving heavy rainstorm belt in the Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Xiangde; Ruan, Zheng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Fang

    2018-03-01

    The integrated analysis of the data from a C-band frequency-modulated continuous-wave (C-FMCW) radar site in Naqu obtained during a rainstorm over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the data concerning the three-dimensional structure of the circulation of the precipitation system that occurred over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin during the Third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Atmospheric Experiment from August 15th to 19th, 2014, was carried out. The changes in the echo intensity at the C-FMCW radar site in Naqu were of regional indicative significance for the characteristics of the whole-layer apparent heat source Q1 in local areas and the region of the adjacent river source area, including the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Lancang River (hereinafter referred to as the "source area of three rivers"), as well as to the vertical speeds due to the development of convection. This study indicates that the C-FMCW radar echo intensity of the plateau convection zone and the related power structures of the coupled dipole circulations in the middle layer of the atmosphere, as well as in the upper atmospheric level divergence and lower atmospheric level convergence, are important stimuli for convective clouds in this region. Furthermore, these radar data provided a physical image of the development and maintenance mechanisms of an eastward-moving heavy rainstorm belt. This study also shows that changes in the echo intensities at the C-FMCW radar site of Naqu can provide strong signals related to heavy rainstorm processes in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.

  2. Monitoring System with Two Central Facilities Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caesar Firdaus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of data and information on government’s information system required proper way of defending against threat. Security aspect can be achieved by using cryptography algorithm, applying information hiding concept, and implementing security protocol. In this research, two central facilities protocol was implemented on Research and Development Center of Mineral and Coal Technology’s Cooperation Contract Monitoring System by utilizing AES and whitespace manipulation algorithm. Adjustment on the protocol by creating several rule of validation ID’s generation and checking processes could fulfill two of four cryptography objectives, consist of authentication and non-repudiation. The solid collaboration between central legitimization agency (CLA, central tabulating facility (CTF, and client is the main idea in two central facilities protocol. The utilization of AES algorithm could defend the data on transmission from man in the middle attack scenario. On the other hand, whitespace manipulation algorithm provided data integrity aspect of the document that is uploaded to the system itself. Both of the algorithm fulfill confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication.

  3. Geometric origin of central charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Rytel, L.

    1981-05-01

    The complete set of N(N-1) central charge generators for D=4 N-extended super Poincare algebra is obtained by suitable contraction of OSp (2N; 4) superalgebra. The superspace realizations of the spinorial generators with central charges are derived. The conjugate set of N(N-1) additional bosonic superspace coordinates is introduced in an unique and geometric way. (author)

  4. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  5. Controlling centrality in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, V.; Criado, R.; Romance, M.; Russo, G.; Latora, V.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral centrality measures allow to identify influential individuals in social groups, to rank Web pages by popularity, and even to determine the impact of scientific researches. The centrality score of a node within a network crucially depends on the entire pattern of connections, so that the usual approach is to compute node centralities once the network structure is assigned. We face here with the inverse problem, that is, we study how to modify the centrality scores of the nodes by acting on the structure of a given network. We show that there exist particular subsets of nodes, called controlling sets, which can assign any prescribed set of centrality values to all the nodes of a graph, by cooperatively tuning the weights of their out-going links. We found that many large networks from the real world have surprisingly small controlling sets, containing even less than 5 – 10% of the nodes. PMID:22355732

  6. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  7. Potencial evocado cognitivo e desordem de processamento auditivo em crianças com distúrbios de leitura e escrita Cognitive evoked potentials and central auditory processing in children with reading and writing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Richter Minhoto Wiemes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As dificuldades na aprendizagem escolar muitas vezes podem ser causadas por uma alteração do Processamento Auditivo - PA. OBJETIVO: Identificar se acima da média dos valores de latência do P300, num grupo de indivíduos com Distúrbio de Leitura e Escrita, também seriam encontradas alterações no teste Staggered Spondaic Word - SSW e no teste de Fala no Ruído que sugerissem Desordem do Processamento Auditivo - DPA. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte transversal. Foram avaliados 21 indivíduos com distúrbio de leitura e escrita, idade entre 7 e 14 anos. RESULTADOS: Todos apresentaram resultados normais no exame otorrinolaringológico, na avaliação audiológica e Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico. Fazendo-se a média aritmética de todos os valores de latência do P300 obtidos, chegou-se à média de 334,25 ms, sendo divididos em dois grupos: grupo "A", com média da latência acima de 335 ms, e "B", com latência abaixo de 335 ms. Nos indivíduos do grupo "A", foram realizados os testes SSW e Fala no Ruído. CONCLUSÃO:O presente estudo pode concluir que foram encontradas alterações nos testes de fala dicótica (SSW e de Fala no Ruído no grupo de indivíduos com Distúrbio da Escrita e Leitura com valores de latência do P300 acima de 335 ms, sugerindo DPA.Learning disorders are often magnified by auditory processing disorders (APD. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to verify whether individuals with reading and writing disorders and P300 latencies above the average also present altered Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW and speech-in-noise test results suggestive of APD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional cohort study. Twenty-one individuals with reading and writing disorders aged between 7 and 14 years were enrolled. RESULTS: All subjects had normal findings on ENT examination, audiological tests, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. The average P300 latency (334,25 ms of all patients was picked as a cutoff

  8. Use of distributed ledger technology by central banks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César del Río

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews what stage the central banks of the world’s leading economies are at in their study and adoption of distributed ledger technology (DLT to reengineer their various systems and functions. A brief description of DLT will be given, followed by an analysis of central banks’ publications and pronouncements to determine what each central bank is doing on their journey to DLT adoption. It was found that of the central banks for which information was available, all of them have expressed interest in DLT and have evaluated it to some extent. Nevertheless, no central bank has an operational DLT-based system at this point. This is because some issues remain regarding the speed, cost of processing, security, transparency and privacy, legal settlement finality, scalability and network effects of the technology. As DLT matures, the expectation is that these issues will begin to be resolved.

  9. Central and peripheral nervous systems: master controllers in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Liu, Dan; Yang, Zhengyan; Guo, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Central and sympathetic nervous systems govern functional activities of many organs. Solid tumors like organs are also innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers. Neurotransmitters released from sympathetic nerve fibers can modulate biological behaviors of tumor cells. Multiple physiologic processes of tumor development may be dominated by central and sympathetic nervous systems as well. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of central and sympathetic nervous systems and disorder of the hormone network induced by psychological stress may influence malignant progression of cancer by inhibiting the functions of immune system, regulating metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, and inducing interactions between tumor and stromal cells. Over-release of inflammatory cytokines by tumors may aggravate emotional disorder, triggering the vicious cycles in tumor microenvironment and host macroenvironment. It is reasonable to hypothesize that cancer progression may be controlled by central and sympathetic nervous systems. In this review, we will focus on the recent information about the impacts of central and sympathetic nervous systems on tumor invasion and metastasis.

  10. Financial Crisis and the Central Bank System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD POSPISIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  11. Centralization vs. Decentralization in Medical School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Helen

    1966-01-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568

  12. Central Air-Conditioning Plant (CAP) extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.S.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Central Air-Conditioning Plant (CAP) and its associated chilled water network of BARC is one among the largest central plants in India for such application. The plant was planned in 1960s to cater to the air-conditioning and process water requirements of laboratories, workshops and buildings spread over a distance of 1.5 Km in three directions from CAP through underground network of chilled water pipelines. The plant was designed for a total capacity of 6600 TR. The present installed capacity of the plant is 7250 TR. The connected load at present is 9800 TR. After the XII plan capacity will be augmented to 7650 TR. The connected load is expected to cross 11,000 TR after the commissioning of new Engg. Halls 9, 10 and 11

  13. FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE CENTRAL BANK SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  14. Centralization vs. decentralization in medical school libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, H

    1966-07-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed.

  15. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-02

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes.

  16. [Central diabetes insipidus: diagnostic difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoussi, N; Aissa, K; Fitouri, Z; Hajji, M; Makni, S; Bellagha, I; Ben Becher, S

    2008-06-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is rare in children. Characteristic features include polyuria and polydipsia due to arginine vasopressin deficiency. The differential diagnosis of polyuric states may be difficult. Etiologic diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus may be an equally difficult task. To specify the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus and to point out features of the etiologic work-up and of long-term follow-up of children with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. A retrospective study of 12 children admitted with a polyuria/polydipsia syndrome to the pediatric - consultation and emergency unit of the children's hospital of Tunis between 1988 and 2005. Children with acquired nephrogenic central diabetes insipidus were excluded. Fourteen-hour fluid restriction test and/or desmopressin test were used without plasma vasopressin measurement. Eight patients were classified as having central diabetes insipidus, which was severe in seven children and partial in one girl. One patient was classified as having primary polydipsia. The diagnosis remains unclear in three patients. The etiological work-up in eight patients with central diabetes insipidus enabled the identification of Langerhan's-cell histiocytosis in two patients and neurosurgical trauma in one. The cause was considered idiopathic in five patients. The median follow-up of the five patients with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus was five years two months plus or minus six years seven months (range five months, 14.5 years). During this follow-up, neither brain magnetic resonance imaging scans findings nor anterior pituitary function have changed. Fluid restriction and desmopressin tests did not enable an accurate distinction between partial diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia. Regular surveillance is warranted in patients with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus to identify potential etiologies.

  17. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melen, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors

  18. Central European gas market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanous, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This presentation deals with (1) Definition of the Central European market, (2) Factors driving up consumption of natural gas in Central and Eastern Europe, (3) Role of natural gas in regional energy consumption, (4) Position of natural gas in individual country markets, (5) Future sources of imported natural gas into the region. The Central European market are the eleven countries Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia, with a total population of 121 million. This market is comparable to combined France and Italy in terms of population, but only 30% of its size in terms of GDP

  19. Big Data and central banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bholat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This commentary recaps a Centre for Central Banking Studies event held at the Bank of England on 2–3 July 2014. The article covers three main points. First, it situates the Centre for Central Banking Studies event within the context of the Bank’s Strategic Plan and initiatives. Second, it summarises and reflects on major themes from the event. Third, the article links central banks’ emerging interest in Big Data approaches with their broader uptake by other economic agents.

  20. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  1. Indonesia: population central to development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Indonesian representative to the 50th session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) reiterated the issue of population as being central to sustainable development. Indonesia recognizes that quality of life, which can be improved with education, health, skills, productivity, self reliance, and resiliency, has an impact on the process of development. Without quality improvements, large numbers of people become a burden. Population programs must aim to reduce population growth rates simultaneously with enhancing the quality of life. Women's improvement in education, health, and employment opportunities must be accomplished because of women's important role in national development. The goals of sustainable development are to maintain a balance between human needs and desires of the population and available resources and the environment. Sustainable development is necessary for present and future generations. The Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference was held in Bali in August 1992, at which time the Bali Declaration was affirmed. At the January 1994 meeting of officials regarding the implementation of the Bali Declaration held in Bangkok, Thailand, the Indonesian representative stressed the importance of the vigorous involvement of the ESCAP secretariat in planning and implementing population programs in the region. Recommendations included in the Bali Declaration are related to the issues being addressed at the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo in September 1994. The secretariat was also asked by the Indonesian representative to disseminate information on the implementation of the Bali Declaration through regular publications and other appropriate venues. Comprehensive data collection and information systems were needed on the links between population, development, and resources.

  2. Centralized consolidation/recycling center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Georges, L.T.; Poor, A.D.

    1995-05-01

    There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation center). Once there the materials would be prepared for offsite recycling. This document discusses the removal of batteries, partially full aerosol cans, and DOP light ballasts from the traditional waste management approach, which eliminates 89 satellite accumulation areas from the Hanford Site (43 for batteries, 33 for aerosols, and 13 for DOP ballasts). Eliminating these 89 satellite accumulation areas would reduce by hundreds the total number of containers shipped offsite as hazardous waste (due to the increase in containers when the wastes that are accumulated are segregated according to compatibility for final shipment). This new approach is in line with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) draft Universal Waste Rules for these open-quotes nuisanceclose quotes and common waste streams. Additionally, future reviews of other types of wastes that can be handled in this less restrictive and more cost-effective manner will occur as part of daily operations at the consolidation center. The Hanford Site has been identified as a laboratory for reinventing government by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Hazel O'Leary, and as a demonstration zone where open-quotes innovative ideas, processes and technologies can be created, tested and demonstrated.close quotes Additionally, DOE, EPA, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have agreed to cut Hanford cleanup costs by $1 billion over a 5-year period

  3. Centralization and decentralization in energy systems and associated risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, W.; Schinner, F.; Kromp, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the concept of centralization/decentralization is - considering its widespread use - surprisingly ill-defined. Within the SERF-program (Socio Economic Research on Fusion) an attempt is made to clarify the complex issue of centralization/decentralization and to analyze its expected interaction with electricity production system in the case of nuclear fusion. Fusion research at the time is a multinational, highly centralized undertaking. As a result of this, and due to the expected large energy production units, it is generally expected that fusion will be embedded in a highly centralized, international energy supply system. The degree of centralization of an energy supply system, however, is believed to have for reaching consequences on the stability of the system, and beyond that, on decision making processes in energy policy, as well as democratic structures on the national or even international level. Internationalization might require control instruments that do not exist so far. Amongst other reservations, it is the possibly unwanted consequences of such a highly centralized, international energy supply system that limit acceptance of the fusion technology in the public. Therefore, centralization and decentralization trends of energy supply systems over the years are being looked at, to study their influence on the political and social systems (and vice-versa). In a first step, an attempt is made to classify centralization. Careful analyses and evaluation of available literature revealed a broad spectrum of different forms and degrees of centralization. Various parameters describing energy production and distribution are used. A differentiation of centralization on a technical and on an organizational level seems necessary, although they are not fully independent of each other. Beyond this, the choice of parameters must depend on the questions to be addressed. A new approach defining different levels and degrees of

  4. Centralization and decentralization in energy systems and associated risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, W.; Schinner, F.; Kromp, W. [Vienna Univ., Institute of Risk Research, IRR (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: the concept of centralization/decentralization is - considering its widespread use - surprisingly ill-defined. Within the SERF-program (Socio Economic Research on Fusion) an attempt is made to clarify the complex issue of centralization/decentralization and to analyze its expected interaction with electricity production system in the case of nuclear fusion. Fusion research at the time is a multinational, highly centralized undertaking. As a result of this, and due to the expected large energy production units, it is generally expected that fusion will be embedded in a highly centralized, international energy supply system. The degree of centralization of an energy supply system, however, is believed to have for reaching consequences on the stability of the system, and beyond that, on decision making processes in energy policy, as well as democratic structures on the national or even international level. Internationalization might require control instruments that do not exist so far. Amongst other reservations, it is the possibly unwanted consequences of such a highly centralized, international energy supply system that limit acceptance of the fusion technology in the public. Therefore, centralization and decentralization trends of energy supply systems over the years are being looked at, to study their influence on the political and social systems (and vice-versa). In a first step, an attempt is made to classify centralization. Careful analyses and evaluation of available literature revealed a broad spectrum of different forms and degrees of centralization. Various parameters describing energy production and distribution are used. A differentiation of centralization on a technical and on an organizational level seems necessary, although they are not fully independent of each other. Beyond this, the choice of parameters must depend on the questions to be addressed. A new approach defining different levels and degrees of

  5. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  6. Hepatostomy for central hepatic hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewertz, B.L.; Olsen, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with central hepatic hematomas are presented. Hepatostomy tube drainage provided prompt healing of the cavities without complications. The technique is presented as a safe and effective alternative to hepatic resection without compromising the established principles of management

  7. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  8. Magnetic basement in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    Analyses of about 6000 km of processed magnetic data in the central Bay of Bengal using Analytical Signal Processing and Werner Deconvolution techniques revealed that the depth to top of the magnetic basement varies between 5 and 12 km from the sea...

  9. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    are composed of 2-10 m thick melanocratic layers rich in clinopyroxene and sometimes olivine, relative to the thicker overlying leucocratic oxide gabbros. While the overall compositional variation is limited (Mg# clinopyroxene 72-84; An% plagioclase 56-85), the melanocratic bases display spikes in Mg# and Cr2O......3 of clinopyroxene and magnetite indicative of magma replenishment. Some macrorhythmic units show mineral trends indicative of up-section fractional crystallisation over up to 100 m, whereas others show little variation. Two populations of plagioclase crystals (large, An-rich and small, less An......-rich) indicate that the recharge magma carried plagioclase xenocrysts (high An-type). The lack of evolved gabbros suggests formation in a dynamic magma chamber with frequent recharge, tapping and fractionation. Modelling of these compositional trends shows that the parent magma was similar to known transitional...

  10. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  11. Parallel Algorithm for Incremental Betweenness Centrality on Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Jamour, Fuad Tarek

    2017-10-17

    Betweenness centrality quantifies the importance of nodes in a graph in many applications, including network analysis, community detection and identification of influential users. Typically, graphs in such applications evolve over time. Thus, the computation of betweenness centrality should be performed incrementally. This is challenging because updating even a single edge may trigger the computation of all-pairs shortest paths in the entire graph. Existing approaches cannot scale to large graphs: they either require excessive memory (i.e., quadratic to the size of the input graph) or perform unnecessary computations rendering them prohibitively slow. We propose iCentral; a novel incremental algorithm for computing betweenness centrality in evolving graphs. We decompose the graph into biconnected components and prove that processing can be localized within the affected components. iCentral is the first algorithm to support incremental betweeness centrality computation within a graph component. This is done efficiently, in linear space; consequently, iCentral scales to large graphs. We demonstrate with real datasets that the serial implementation of iCentral is up to 3.7 times faster than existing serial methods. Our parallel implementation that scales to large graphs, is an order of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art parallel algorithm, while using an order of magnitude less computational resources.

  12. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  13. CENTRAL BANK TRANSPARENCY AND EVALUATION OF MONETARY POLICY COMMUNACATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romanchukevych

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals approaches to evaluate transparency of the central banks and, operating indices, measures it for the National bank of Ukraine. The quantitative analysis of the informational disclosure of the central banks of Ukraine, Czech Republic, Poland, and Russia is allocated. The aspects of the communications of the National Bank of Ukraine in the process of the monetary regime transformation are explored.

  14. Conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, D.; Oliaro, G.; Roney, P.; Sichta, P.; Tindall, K.

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction phase for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is under way at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Operation is scheduled to begin on April 30, 1999. This paper describes the conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System. Major elements of the Central I and C System include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System to support the NSTX experimental device

  15. Conceptual design of centralized control system for LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Taniguchi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A centralized control system for a fusion experimental machine is discussed. A configuration whereby a number of complete and uniform local systems are controlled by a central computer, a timer and an interlock system is appropriate for the control system of the Large Helical Device (LHD). A connection among local systems can be made by Ethernet, because a faster transmission of control data is processed by a specific system. (author)

  16. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  17. The role of central bank transparency for guiding private sector forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrmann, Michael; Eijffinger, Sylvester C W; Fratzscher, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    There is a broad consensus in the literature that costs of information processing and acquisition may generate costly disagreements in expectations among economic agents, and that central banks may play a central role in reducing such dispersion in expectations. This paper analyses empirically whether enhanced central bank transparency lowers dispersion among professional forecasters of key economic variables, using a large set of proxies for central bank transparency in 12 advanced economies...

  18. Reproducibility of central lumbar vertebral BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, F.; Pocock, N.; Griffiths, M.; Majerovic, Y.; Freund, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has generally been calculated from a region of interest which includes the entire vertebral body. Although this region excludes part of the transverse processes, it does include the outer cortical shell of the vertebra. Recent software has been devised to calculate BMD in a central vertebral region of interest which excludes the outer cortical envelope. Theoretically this area may be more sensitive to detecting osteoporosis which affects trabecular bone to a greater extent than cortical bone. Apart from the sensitivity of BMD estimation, the reproducibility of any measurement is important owing to the slow rate of change of bone mass. We have evaluated the reproducibility of this new vertebral region of interest in 23 women who had duplicate lumbar spine DXA scans performed on the same day. The patients were repositioned between each measurement. Central vertebral analysis was performed for L2-L4 and the reproducibility of area, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD calculated as the coefficient of variation; these values were compared with those from conventional analysis. Thus we have shown that the reproducibility of the central BMD is comparable to the conventional analysis which is essential if this technique is to provide any additional clinical data. The reasons for the decrease in reproducibility of the area and hence BMC requires further investigation

  19. Temporal diversification of Central American cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulsey C Darrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cichlid fishes are classic examples of adaptive radiation because of their putative tendency to explosively diversify after invading novel environments. To examine whether ecological opportunity increased diversification (speciation minus extinction early in a species-rich cichlid radiation, we determined if Heroine cichlids experienced a burst of diversification following their invasion of Central America. Results We first reconstructed the Heroine phylogeny and determined the basal node to use as the root of Central American Heroine diversification. We then examined the influence of incomplete taxon sampling on this group's diversification patterns. First, we added missing species randomly to the phylogeny and assessed deviations from a constant rate of lineage accumulation. Using a range of species numbers, we failed to recover significant deviations from a pure-birth process and found little support for an early burst of diversification. Then, we examined patterns of lineage accumulation as nodes were increasingly truncated. We assumed that as we removed more recently diverged lineages that sampling would become more complete thereby increasing the power to detect deviations from a pure-birth model. However, truncation of nodes provided even less support for an early burst of diversification. Conclusions Contrary to expectations, our analyses suggest Heroine cichlids did not undergo a burst of diversification when they invaded from South America. Throughout their history in Central America, Heroine cichlids appear to have diversified at a constant rate.

  20. Performance evaluation of Central European companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Fiala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modelling approach for performance comparison of Central European companies on three levels: country, industry, and company. The approach is based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process. The proposed model consists of two basic sections. The first section estimates the importance of selected industries in the countries, whereas the second section evaluates the performance of companies within industries. The results of both sections are synthesized and finally the country performance is estimated. The evaluation is based on the data set resulting from a survey of companies from selected industries.

  1. [Medical specialization in Chile. A centralized vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouet-Huerta, Diego E; González, Bárbara; Correa, Katherine

    2017-11-01

    Medical graduates face different postgraduate training options, but their priority is to obtain a primary medical specialty, defined as a specialty that does not derive from other. There are different specialty training programs in Chile, which can be dependent or independent of the Ministry of Health. The information about these programs is available in different Internet sites. However a centralized information service that groups and synthetize these programs is lacking, hampering graduate choice decisions. This article aims to review all specialization program modalities, providing a general vision of the institutional structure and implications that govern the specialization process in Chile.

  2. ITER central solenoid manufacturing R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay Jayakumar, R.; Tsuji, H.; Ohsaki, O.

    2001-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Engineering Design Activity (EDA) includes the development of high performance superconductors, high current joints between superconducting cables and insulating materials. Also in the EDA, the resulting products of this R and D are incorporated in a Central Solenoid Model Coil which utilizes full size conductors. The manufacturing of the model coil and components has led to the development of the design, materials, tooling and process which are fully applicable to the manufacture of the ITER relevant CS coil. The R and D is essentially complete and final stages of the CS Model Coil manufacturing are underway. (author)

  3. ITER central solenoid manufacturing R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.J.; Tsuji, H.; Ohsaki, O.

    1999-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Engineering Design Activity (EDA) includes the development of high performance superconductors, high current joints between superconducting cables and insulating materials. Also in the EDA, the resulting products of this R and D are incorporated in a Central Solenoid Model Coil which utilizes full size conductors. The manufacturing of the model coil and components has led to the development of the design, materials, tooling and process which are fully applicable to the manufacture of the ITER relevant CS coil. The R and D is essentially complete and final stages of the CS Model Coil manufacturing are underway. (author)

  4. Antiseptic barrier cap effective in reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voor In 't Holt, Anne F; Helder, Onno K; Vos, Margreet C; Schafthuizen, Laura; Sülz, Sandra; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Ista, Erwin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microorganisms can intraluminally access a central venous catheter via the catheter hub. The catheter hub should be appropriately disinfected to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). However, compliance with the time-consuming manual disinfection process is

  5. Central localization of plasticity involved in appetitive conditioning in Lymnaea

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Volko A.; Styles, Benjamin J.; Ireland, Julie S.; O'Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    Learning to associate a conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) results in changes in the processing of CS information. Here, we address directly the question whether chemical appetitive conditioning of Lymnaea feeding behavior involves changes in the peripheral and/or central processing of the CS by using extracellular recording techniques to monitor neuronal activity at two stages of the sensory processing pathway. Our data show that appetitive conditioning does not affect signific...

  6. Chapter 1. Central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planiol, T.; Veyre, A.; Plagne, R.

    1975-01-01

    The present situation with regard to explorations of the central nervous system by radioactive compounds is reviewed. For the sake of clarity the brain and cerebrospinal fluid examinations are described separately, with emphasis nevertheless on their complementarity. The tracers used in each of these examinations are listed, together with the criteria governing their choice. The different techniques employed are described. Scintigraphy is presented apart from gamma-angio-encephalography since it is not possible with rectilinear scintigraphs to observe the circulatory phase. The results are interpreted by an analysis of normal and pathological aspects of the different stages of the central nervous system [fr

  7. Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkwood, James R

    2015-01-01

    Review of ProbabilityShort HistoryReview of Basic Probability DefinitionsSome Common Probability DistributionsProperties of a Probability DistributionProperties of the Expected ValueExpected Value of a Random Variable with Common DistributionsGenerating FunctionsMoment Generating FunctionsExercisesDiscrete-Time, Finite-State Markov ChainsIntroductionNotationTransition MatricesDirected Graphs: Examples of Markov ChainsRandom Walk with Reflecting BoundariesGambler’s RuinEhrenfest ModelCentral Problem of Markov ChainsCondition to Ensure a Unique Equilibrium StateFinding the Equilibrium StateTransient and Recurrent StatesIndicator FunctionsPerron-Frobenius TheoremAbsorbing Markov ChainsMean First Passage TimeMean Recurrence Time and the Equilibrium StateFundamental Matrix for Regular Markov ChainsDividing a Markov Chain into Equivalence ClassesPeriodic Markov ChainsReducible Markov ChainsSummaryExercisesDiscrete-Time, Infinite-State Markov ChainsRenewal ProcessesDelayed Renewal ProcessesEquilibrium State f...

  8. Understanding the centrality deficit: insight from foreign language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amanda C; Keenan, Janice M

    2011-07-01

    This study replicated and extended a phenomenon in the text memory literature referred to as the centrality deficit Miller & Keenan (Annals of Dyslexia 59:99-113, 2009). It examined how reading in a foreign language (L2) affects one's text representation and ability to recall the most important information. Readers recalled a greater proportion of central than of peripheral ideas, regardless of whether reading in their native language (L1) or a foreign language (L2). Nonetheless, the greatest deficit in participants' L2 recalls, as compared with L1 recalls, was on the central, rather than the peripheral, information. This centrality deficit appears to stem from resources being diverted from comprehension when readers have to devote more cognitive resources to lower level processes (e.g., L2 word identification and syntactic processing), because the deficit was most evident among readers who had lower L2 proficiency. Prior knowledge (PK) of the passage topic helped compensate for the centrality deficit. Readers with less L2 proficiency who did not have PK of the topic displayed a centrality deficit, relative to their L1 recall, but this deficit dissipated when they did possess PK.

  9. Centrality of collisions and total disintegration of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulejmanov, M.K.; Abdinov, O.B.; Anoshin, A.I.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Kuznetsov, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The interrelation of the processes of total disintegration of nuclei with the process, characterized by the 'centrality' of collisions and a minimum flow of energy of secondary particles emitted at a zero angle in pC, dC, 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions, is investigated at 4.2 A · GeV/c. The events with total disintegration of nuclei are characterized by a high degree 'centrality' of collisions and similar to the events having a minimum flow of energy of particles emitted at a zero angle

  10. The Analysis on Leading industries in Central Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyani Irmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is for identifying the types of industriesthat become leading industries in Central Java Province. The methods, used are LQ (SLQ and DLQ and Shift Share. The result of this research shows that the the leading industries in Central Java Province are beverage industry, tobacco processing industry, textile industry, apparel industry, wood industry, printing industry, furniture industry and other processing industries.In the future, the development of the industry should not only focus on the leading industries  but also onnon-leading industries, so that the non leading industries will not be left behind.

  11. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  12. The central dogma of cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S

    1981-06-01

    The Continuum Model proposes that preparations for DNA synthesis occur continuously during all phases of the division cycle. Various stimuli activate cell proliferation by changing the rate of initiator (protein) synthesis. Cell division does not initiate any process regulating cell proliferation. Cell division is the end of a process and the beginning of nothing. The alternative model which has cell proliferation regulated in the G1 phase of the division cycle is reexamined and the two types of evidence for this model, G1-variability and G1-arrest are shown to be compatible with the Continuum Model. Here, the Continuum Model is generalized to produce a new look at the logic of the division cycle in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This new view, the Central Dogma of Cell Biology, is presented and two predictions are made. I propose that (i) cell division does not have any regulatory function, and (ii) that DNA synthesis may, indeed, have some affect on the synthesis of initiator.

  13. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly

  14. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  15. Central system of Interlock of ITER, high integrity architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, I.; Martinez, G.; Lopez, C.

    2014-01-01

    The CIS (Central Interlock System), along with the CODAC system and CSS (Central Safety System), form the central I and C systems of ITER. The CIS is responsible for implementing the core functions of protection (Central Interlock Functions) through different systems of plant (Plant Systems) within the overall strategy of investment protection for ITER. IBERDROLA supports engineering to define and develop the control architecture of CIS according to the stringent requirements of integrity, availability and response time. For functions with response times of the order of half a second is selected PLC High availability of industrial range. However, due to the nature of the machine itself, certain functions must be able to act under the millisecond, so it has had to develop a solution based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) capable of meeting the requirements architecture. In this article CIS architecture is described, as well as the process for the development and validation of the selected platforms. (Author)

  16. Distributed Design of a Central Service to Ensure Deterministic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ali Jokhio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A central authentication service to EPC (Electronic Product Code system architecture is proposed in our previous work. A challenge for a central service always arises that how it can ensure a certain level of delay while processing emergent data. The increasing data in the EPC system architecture is tags data. Therefore, authenticating increasing number of tag in the central authentication service with a deterministic time response is investigated and a distributed authentication service is designed in a layered approach. A distributed design of tag searching services in SOA (Service Oriented Architecture style is also presented. Using the SOA architectural style a self-adaptive authentication service over Cloud is also proposed for the central authentication service, that may also be extended for other applications.

  17. Welding with the TIG automatic process of the end fittings for the execution of the Embalse nuclear power plant fuel channel rechange; Soldadura con proceso TIG automatico de los accesorios extremos (end fitting) para la ejecucion de un recambio de canal de combustible en el reactor de la Central Nuclear Embalse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, P O

    1991-12-31

    The present work describes the methodology for the cutting of the existing welding and subsequent welding applied by the TIG process of the coupling composed by the shroud ring and the end fitting ring from one of Embalse nuclear power plant`s fuel channels. The replacement will be previously determined by the SLAR-ETTE mechanism where a displacement operated among the Gartner Spring rings, the pressure tubes are separated from the Calandria tubes. The welding to be carried out has the function of stamping the CO{sub 2} annular gas (thermal insulator) circulating between the pressure tube and the Calandria one during the functioning of the plant. (Author). [Espanol] El presente trabajo describe la metodologia de corte de la soldadura existente y la posterior soldadura aplicada mediante proceso TIG de la junta compuesta por el aro de fuelle y el anillo del `end fitting`, de uno de los canales de combustibles del reactor de la Central Nuclear Embalse. El reemplazo, se determinara previamente mediante el mecanismo de SLAR-ETTE con lo cual se observara el desplazamiento operado entre los anillos garten spring que separan los tubos de presion de los tubos de calandria. La soldadura a efectuar cumple la funcion de sellar el gas anular CO{sub 2} (aislante termico) circulante entre el tubo de presion y el tubo de calandria durante el funcionamiento de la planta. (Autor).

  18. Educated Cities and Regional Centralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper

    centralization where the shares of students rose significantly more in urban municipalities than non-urban municipalities. The highest shares of students as well as fastest increases were seen in the municipalities of the four largest cities, Copenhagen, Århus, Odense, and Aalborg. At the national level...

  19. Fire management in central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea L. Koonce; Armando González-Cabán

    1992-01-01

    Information on fire management operations in Central America is scant. To evaluate the known level of fire occurrence in seven countries in that area, fire management officers were asked to provide information on their fire control organizations and on any available fire statistics. The seven countries surveyed were Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua,...

  20. Central amygdala, stress and adaption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the results were presented of studies that were designed to provide more insight in the role of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in the adaptation to environmental demands. The experiments were performed in several situations, in which rats react either directly to aversive

  1. Central African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Central African Journal of Medicine is a quarterly refereed general medical journal which seeks to promote the practice and science of medicine in Africa. Emphasis is placed on general medical topics, reflecting common and important conditions in the region. The journal also covers related medical fields. Submissions ...

  2. Shared breastfeeding in central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramharter, Michael; Chai, Sanders K.; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Klöpfer, Anna; Längin, Matthias; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Schwarz, Norbert G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Issifou, Saadon; Kremsner, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, shared breastfeeding is described asa novel risk factor for vertical HIV transmission. This cross-sectional survey conducted in the central African country Gabon found that 40% of lactating mothers also breastfed other children than their own, and as many children were additionally

  3. Music Libraries: Centralization versus Decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper-Rushing, Lois

    2002-01-01

    Considers the decision that branch libraries, music libraries in particular, have struggled with concerning a centralized location in the main library versus a decentralized collection. Reports on a study of the Association of Research Libraries that investigated the location of music libraries, motivation for the location, degrees offered,…

  4. Central New York's New Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for an Urban Future, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Conducted in late 2008 in partnership with the Greater Syracuse Chamber of Commerce and the Mohawk Valley Chamber of Commerce, this is the largest survey ever taken of Central New York businesses regarding the English language skills of the area workforce. The online survey was emailed to several hundred local businesses; 126 responses were…

  5. Central index of dose information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Central Index of Dose Information (CIDI) is a national database of occupational exposure to radiation operated by the NRPB as agent for the Health and Safety Executive. It receives summarised information on the radiation doses to classified persons in Great Britain annually from Approved Dosimetry Services. This document is the first annual CIDI summary of the data, giving statistics for 1986. (UK)

  6. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely

  7. Central Libraries in Uncertain Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses security and safety issues for public libraries, especially high-profile central facilities, in light of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Highlights include inspecting bags as patrons enter as well as exit; the need for security guidelines for any type of disaster or emergency; building design; and the importance of communication.…

  8. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado

    2018-01-01

    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  9. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T.W.; Sill, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter-observer variabil......Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter......-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show...

  10. Building the foundations for a new central bank doctrine: Redefining central banks’ missions in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2007-2008 financial crisis demonstrated both the responsibilities that central bankers, alongside other actors, bear for turbulences of this kind as well as how economics can be used to provide central bankers and governments with the understanding and tools that they need to prevent the international financial system from collapsing. At the same time, central banks’ responses to the crisis have taken monetary policy into unknown territory. The paper’s first section diagnoses good and bad practice in post-crisis central banking; assesses the efficiency of pre-crisis doctrines; and identifies the dangers of actions exceeding certain limits. It specifically focuses on the European Central Bank’s much-debated intervention in certain peripheral bond markets, particularly Greece. The second section is more normative and lays the foundations for a social science perspective of how to manage modern central banks, an approach that draws on a variety of disciplines including economics, governance theory and management. This starts with a definition of the new doctrine and its underlying philosophy, followed by an identification of sound central banking practices (revolving around a few key concepts, notably inflation and financial stability. The missions and objectives of these practices are then defined (along with a choice of indicators, culminating in an exploration of which strategies and tools might be used in both normal and turbulent times. Lastly, a few concrete rules of governance are offered, built on the triptych of central banks’ independence, accountability and composition, with specific focus placed on the process for selecting governors fit to handle the new role that modern central banks are destined to assume in developed countries.

  11. The central column structure in SPHEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duck, R.C.; French, P.A.; Browning, P.K.; Cunningham, G.; Gee, S.J.; al-Karkhy, A.; Martin, R.; Rusbridge, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    SPHEX is a gun injected spheromak in which a magnetised Marshall gun generates and maintains an approximately axisymmetric toroidal plasma within a topologically spherical flux conserving vessel. The central column has been defined as a region of high mean floating potential, f > up to ∼ 150 V, aligned with the geometric axis of the device. It has been suggested that this region corresponds to the open magnetic flux which is connected directly to the central electrode of the gun and links the toroidal annulus (in which f > ∼ 0 V). Poynting vector measurements have shown that the power required to drive toroidal current in the annulus is transmitted out of the column by the coherent 20 kHz mode which pervades the plasma. Measurements of the MHD dynamo in the column indicate an 'antidynamo' electric field due to correlated fluctuations in v and B at the 20 kHz mode frequency which is consistent with the time-averaged Ohm's Law. On shorting the gun electrodes, the density in the column region decays rapidly leaving a 'hole' of radius R c ∼ 7 cm. This agrees with the estimated dimension of the open flux from mean internal B measurements and axisymmetric force-free equilibrium modelling, but is considerably smaller than the radius of ∼ 13 cm inferred from the time-averaged potential. In standard operating conditions the gun delivers a current of I G ∼ 60 kA at V G ∼ 500 V for ∼ 1 ms, driving a toroidal current of I t ∼ 60 kA. Ultimately we wish to understand the mechanism which drives toroidal current in the annulus; the central column is of interest because of the crucial role it plays in this process. (author) 8 refs., 6 figs

  12. Central and eastern European activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Florida State University/Technical University of Budapest environmental research center, Center for Hungarian/American Environmental Research, Studies and Exchanges (CHAERSE), provides a resource base for information and technologies that is used to address near- and long-term environmental problems within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in Central and Eastern Europe. The CHAERSE is used as a technology transfer conduit for environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) problems and solutions. The International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) used the CHAERSE as one source of information for the identification of international ER/WM technologies being developed in Central and Eastern Europe. This was accomplished by matching high-priority problems in that region to high-priority problems in the DOE Complex; conducting symposia, meetings and workshops with international environmental experts; and identifying innovative technologies

  13. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  14. A Randomized Central Limit Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT), one of the most elemental pillars of Probability Theory and Statistical Physics, asserts that: the universal probability law of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands with zero mean and finite variance, scaled by the square root of the aggregate-size (√(n)), is Gaussian. The scaling scheme of the CLT is deterministic and uniform - scaling all aggregate-summands by the common and deterministic factor √(n). This Letter considers scaling schemes which are stochastic and non-uniform, and presents a 'Randomized Central Limit Theorem' (RCLT): we establish a class of random scaling schemes which yields universal probability laws of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands. The RCLT universal probability laws, in turn, are the one-sided and the symmetric Levy laws.

  15. Centrality in earthquake multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Nastaran; Darooneh, Amir Hossein; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2018-06-01

    Seismic time series has been mapped as a complex network, where a geographical region is divided into square cells that represent the nodes and connections are defined according to the sequence of earthquakes. In this paper, we map a seismic time series to a temporal network, described by a multiplex network, and characterize the evolution of the network structure in terms of the eigenvector centrality measure. We generalize previous works that considered the single layer representation of earthquake networks. Our results suggest that the multiplex representation captures better earthquake activity than methods based on single layer networks. We also verify that the regions with highest seismological activities in Iran and California can be identified from the network centrality analysis. The temporal modeling of seismic data provided here may open new possibilities for a better comprehension of the physics of earthquakes.

  16. Perihelium shifts in central potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, A.E.A.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Motivated by the rigorous results on level ordering for arbitrary central potentials recently derived in the literature a classical treatment of the perihelium shifts is presented, based on the consideration of those orbits which lie in the vicinity of a circular orbit. The role played by the Laplacian of the potential is emphasized. By the same approach Bertrand's theorem is also discussed, in connection with Arnold's proof. (Author) [pt

  17. Information from the central stores

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    All items sold in the CERN shop (Bldg. 33) are now available in the central stores (Bldg. 73) and can be purchased on-line via EDH “Material Request” or at the “Emergency Desk” of the stores on the ground floor of Bldg. 73. These items are visible in the CERN catalogue under the “SCEM” codes beginning with 92. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SEM Group

  18. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring particles produced exclusively. In addition, a new system of forward shower counters has been installed upstream and downstream of the detector, and has been used to facilitate studies of Central Exclusive Production. Such measurements of integrated and differential cross-section in both Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC, are summarised here.

  19. Volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William I.; Bluth, Gregg J.S.; Carr, Michael J.; Ewert, John W.; Patino, Lina C.; Vallance, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This volume is a sampling of current scientific work about volcanoes in Central America with specific application to hazards. The papers reflect a variety of international and interdisciplinary collaborations and employ new methods. The book will be of interest to a broad cross section of scientists, especially volcanologists. The volume also will interest students who aspire to work in the field of volcano hazards mitigation or who may want to work in one of Earth’s most volcanically active areas.

  20. Barter Economies and Centralized Merchants

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Noguera

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this essay is to analyze the emergence of a barter economy, and the rise of centralized merchants and a barter redistribution system out of a primitive barter system. The environment is a spatial general equilibrium model where exchange is costly. Since exchange becomes more complicated as the scope of the economy increases, we prove that, after the economy reaches a critical size, the cost of trade expansion surpasses its benefits. This imposes limitations on the scope of th...

  1. MR findings of central nerocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Myung Soon

    1997-01-01

    Central neurocytoma is a reae neuronal differentiated intraventricular tomor of young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristic MR appearance of central neurocytoma. We retrospectively reviewed MR images of 12 patients with central neurocytoma, confirmed by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. We analyzed patient age, and on all sequences, tumor location, extension into the third ventricle, involvement of brain parenchyma, cyst, hemorrhage, vascular signal void and signal intensity ; and egree of Gd-enhancement was examined on MR images, pattern of calcification on CT, and neovascularity, tumor staining on angiography. Age distribution was wide ranging from 26 to 64 years ; the most frequent age group was the fourth decade (five patients). All tumors except one (in the third ventricle) were located in the lateral ventricle and most were seen in the region of the foramen of Monro (10 cases). Tumors showed extension into the third ventricle and involvement of parenchyma in three cases. The internal architecture of the tumor was heterogenous and consisted of cysts (83%), hemorrhage (25%) and vascular signal void (25%). The solid portion of the tumor showed variable signal intensity on T1-weighted images and iso or high signal intensity on T2- and proton density-weighted images. On MR imaging, mild to moderate heterogenous Gd-enhancement was seen in ten cases (83%), and on CT, a spotted, amorphous, nodular pattern of calcifications was seen in seven cases (63%). On angiography, neovasevlarity and tumor staining was seen in three cases (100%). The typical location of the lateral and third ventricles and MR imaging characteristics including variable signal intensity and heterogenous internal architecture are helpful in the diagnosis of central neurocytoma in young adults

  2. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F. [INM Neuromed IRCCS, Pozzilli (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Caroli, E. [Policlinico S. Andrea, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery

    2005-06-15

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival.

  3. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F.; Caroli, E.

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival

  4. MR appearance of central neurocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.H.; Han, M.H.; Kim, D.G.; Chi, J.G.; Suh, D.C.; Kim, S.J.; Cha, S.H.; Han, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    To provide a detailed description of the MR appearances of central neurocytoma, MR images of 13 patients with central neurocytoma were retrospectively reviewed and compared with CT examinations. The histology was confirmed by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. In 12 patients the tumors were histologically benign and located in the anterior part of the lateral ventricle, 6 of which extended to the 3rd ventricle. There was one case of a histologically malignant variant involving the thalamus and lateral ventricle. The tumors were primarily solid, but contained cysts (85%, 11/13), calcifications (69%, 9/13), and signal void from tumor vessels (62%, 8/13), frequently producing heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Most of the solid portion appeared isointense or slightly hyperintense relative to the cerebral cortex on all MR pulse sequences. Calcifications were iso- or hypointense on MR, making them difficult to characterize with MR alone. Intratumoral hemorrhage was seen in 2 patients on MR but not on CT. Contrast enhancement was variable in degree and pattern. Coronal and sagittal MR images were valuable in evaluating the tumor extent and origin site, and in planning the surgical approach. It is concluded that MR imaging appears to be more useful than CT in the overall evaluation of central neurocytoma, even though calcification is better characterized with CT. (orig.)

  5. Concept of the central clip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Chan, Pak Hei; Foin, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with the MitraClip(®) was shown to be a safe and feasible alternative compared to conventional surgical mitral valve repair. We analyse the concept of the central clip and the predictors for the need of more than one MitraClip(®) in our high.......8±10.7 years (30 males, 13 females; mean logistic EuroSCORE 24.1±11, mean LVEF 47.5±18.5%; mean±SD) were treated. Median follow-up was 385 days (104-630; Q1-Q3). Device implantation success was 93%. All patients were treated following the central clip concept: 52.5% of MR was degenerative in aetiology and 47....... The presence of a restricted posterior mitral valve leaflet (PML) was inversely correlated with the need for more than one clip (p=0.02). A cut-off value of ≥7.5 mm for vena contracta predicted the need for a second clip (sensitivity 83%, specificity 90%, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The central MitraClip(®) concept...

  6. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melen, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Upon careful examination of the architecture of SLAC's computer control systems, it becomes evident that the distribution of the systems' intelligence generally falls into tree-like layers. The first layer typically consists of a central computer complex incorporating one or more relatively large and powerful processors. The more modern systems use state-of-the-art 32-bit processors with several megabytes of RAM and several hundreds of megabytes of disk memory. Further, they support extensive user-friendly operating systems and program development facilities. The second layer typically consists of several smaller processors which are downloaded from the central complex and whose primary task is to provide data acquisition and distribution. The more modern systems are 16-bit processors with several hundred kilobytes of RAM and no disk memory. The third layer typically consists of several tens or hundreds of micro-processors, each dedicated to a single device. The micro-processors for these ''dedicated intelligent controllers'' are small and inexpensive and typically require less than 32 kilobytes of RAM or EPROM memory. Their hardware may be general purpose in nature or may be built into the architecture of the device itself. Figure 5 illustrates several of the relevant features of each of these layers. This paper serves to illustrate that SLAC is commited to the centralized digital control of its accelerators

  7. The New Great Game in Muslim Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    and maci]ine tools, petrol - chemicals, agro-processing and textiles. ’’~ 14 THE NEW GREAT GAME IN MUSLIM CENTRAL ASIA Kazakhstan is well endowed...Algeria, Tunisia , and Morocco---are keeping a wary eye. But at the popular level, this pan-Islmnism has the potential to attract a considerable amount of

  8. Baryon - antibaryon asymmetry in central rapidity region at LHC ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Study of asymmetry in number of baryons and antibaryons in central rapidity region is important for clarification of baryon number carriers character. Effect we are interested in is small, can be hidden by systematical processes of particle track reconstruction and identification. To make corrections on these effects is the aim of this thesis. (author)

  9. Central serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors in functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S O'Mahony; TG Dinan; PW Keeling; ASB Chua

    2006-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia is a symptom complex characterised by upper abdominal discomfort or pain, early satiety,motor abnormalities, abdominal bloating and nausea in the absence of organic disease. The central nervous system plays an important role in the conducting and processing of visceral signals. Alterations in brain processing of pain, perception and affective responses may be key factors in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. Central serotonergic and noradrenergic receptor systems are involved in the processing of motor,sensory and secretory activities of the gastrointestinal tract. Visceral hypersensitivity is currently regarded as the mechanism responsible for both motor alterations and abdominal pain in functional dyspepsia. Some studies suggest that there are alterations in central serotonergic and noradrenergic systems which may partially explain some of the symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Alterations in the autonomic nervous system may be implicated in the motor abnormalities and increases in visceral sensitivity in these patients.Noradrenaline is the main neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system and again alterations in the functioning of this system may lead to changes in motor function. Functional dyspepsia causes considerable burden on the patient and society. The pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia is not fully understood but alterations in central processing by the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems may provide plausible explanations for at least some of the symptoms and offer possible treatment targets for the future.

  10. The Impact of Central Bank FX Interventions on Currency Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beine, M.; Bos, C.S.; Laurent, S.

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of official FOREX interventions of the three major central banks in terms of the dynamics of the currency components of the major exchange rates over the period 1989-2003. We identify the currency components of the mean and volatility processes of exchange rates

  11. Computed tomography of the central nervous system in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipold, A.; Tipold, E.

    1991-01-01

    With computed tomography in 44 small animals some well defined anatomical structures and pathological processes of the central nervous system are described. Computed tomography is not only necessary for the diagnosis of tumors; malformations, inflammatory, degenerative and vascular diseases and traumas are also visible

  12. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  13. RIGHT MEDICATION RELATED TO DRUG CENTRALIZED IN RSUD SIDOARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Aprilia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Centralized drug is a management of the entire drug which is entirely done by nurses to administration to patients. Right medication is the process of right drug administration which is done by nurses based on 6 rights of medication, and wary of side effects. The purpose of this study was to analyze the corelation between centralized drug, team leadership, and nurse`s knowledge with right medication among nurses. Methods.The design of the study was descriptive corelational with cross-sectional approach. The population was inpatient nurses in RSUD Sidoarjo. Total sample was 114 respondents was selected by purposive sampling. The independent variables in this study: centralized drug, team leadership, and nurse`s knowledge. The dependent variable was right medication. Data were collected by using questionnares for independent variables and dependent variable. Data were analyzed by using Binary Logistic Regression with degree of significance α>0,05. Results. Binary Logistic Regression test showed non significance level between centralized drug with right medication (P=0.501, team leadership with right medication (P=0.874, and nurses`s knowledge with right medication (P=0.243. Discussion. This study concluded centralized drug, team leadership, and nurse`s knowledge were good. But, there are nurses that have negative value at right medication, however right medication in RSUD Sidoarjo has majority positive value. Keywords: centralized drug, right medication

  14. Central and peripheral interactions of hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dremin, I.M. [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Nechitailo, V.A. [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); White, S.N. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-12-15

    Surprisingly enough, the ratio of elastic to inelastic cross sections of proton interactions increases with energy in the interval corresponding to ISR→LHC (i.e. from 10 to 10{sup 4} GeV). That leads to special features of their spatial interaction region at these and higher energies. Within the framework of some phenomenological models, we show how the particular ranges of the transferred momenta measured in elastic scattering experiments expose the spatial features of the inelastic interaction region according to the unitarity condition. The difference between their predictions at higher energies is discussed. The notion of central and peripheral collisions of hadrons is treated in terms of the impact-parameter description. It is shown that the shape of the differential cross section in the diffraction cone is mostly determined by collisions with intermediate impact parameters. Elastic scattering at very small transferred momenta is sensitive to peripheral processes with large impact parameters. The role of central collisions in the formation of the diffraction cone is less significant. (orig.)

  15. Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles' aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles' extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic-scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are "random environment" settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic-scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark's law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)-in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes-and present "randomized counterparts" to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.

  16. The storm time central plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schödel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The plasma sheet plays a key role during magnetic storms because it is the bottleneck through which large amounts of magnetic flux that have been eroded from the dayside magnetopause have to be returned to the dayside magnetosphere. Using about five years of Geotail data we studied the average properties of the near- and midtail central plasma sheet (CPS in the 10–30 RE range during magnetic storms. The earthward flux transport rate is greatly enhanced during the storm main phase, but shows a significant earthward decrease. Hence, since the magnetic flux cannot be circulated at a sufficient rate, this leads to an average dipolarization of the central plasma sheet. An increase of the specific entropy of the CPS ion population by a factor of about two during the storm main phase provides evidence for nonadiabatic heating processes. The direction of flux transport during the main phase is consistent with the possible formation of a near-Earth neutral line beyond ~20 RE.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; storms and substorms

  17. Galactic spiral arms formed by central explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havnes, O.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations have been made of spiral arm formation due to central explosions in a nucleus surrounded by a disc containing most of the galactic mass with the purpose of obtaining estimates on lifetimes of arms and the requirements on the energy involved in the process. The ejected gas is taken to be a few percent, or less, of the central nucleus and is ejected with velocities of the order of 1000 km s -1 . The gas, considered to be in forms of blobs, moves under the gravitational force from the disc and the nucleus and the drag force by the gas in the disc. The orbits of the blobs evolve towards the circular orbits of the disc due to this drag force and the velocities in the arms will therefore, after some time, approach those of a normal rotation curve. A relatively open structure will last 8 years. Stable ring structures with longer lifetimes may be formed by some explosions. With an energy of approximately 5 x 10 57 erg in the initial gas-blob motion and a duration of the explosion of approximately 10 7 years, the energy output in such explosions has to be > 10 43 erg s -1 . (Auth.)

  18. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  19. Management of Technology - a political process approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Most management of technology writings fail to address enterprise developments as political processes, where visions, coalitions and emergence are central features. The paper report of a participants observation study of management of technology processes.......Most management of technology writings fail to address enterprise developments as political processes, where visions, coalitions and emergence are central features. The paper report of a participants observation study of management of technology processes....

  20. Probabilistic evaluation of process model matching techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, Elena; Leopold, Henrik; van der Aa, Han; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Process model matching refers to the automatic identification of corresponding activities between two process models. It represents the basis for many advanced process model analysis techniques such as the identification of similar process parts or process model search. A central problem is how to