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Sample records for stimulation safely reduced

  1. SIR (Safe Integral Reactor) - reducing size can reduce cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional engineering economics have favoured the advantages of larger size as a means of reducing specific capital costs and hence unit generating costs. For large and small plants utilising the same concept, e.g. a small four-loop PWR vs a large four-loop PWR with the same number of components, economies of scale are well established. If, however, a smaller plant is sized to take advantage of features which are only feasible at smaller outputs, is of simpler design, with the advantage taken of the simplified design to produce the most cost-effective layout, and incorporates fewer, more easily replaceable components with minimal assembly on site, it is possible to produce a plant which is competitive with larger plant of more traditional design. When 'system' effects, such as better matching of installed capacity to the growth in demand and the fact that a smaller total capacity will be needed to meet a given demand with a specified level of confidence, are taken into account, it can be shown that a utility's overall cash-flow position can be improved with lower associated absolute financial risks. The UK/US Safe Integral Reactor (SIR) is an integral pressurized water reactor in the 300-400 MW(e) range which utilises conventional water reactor technology in a way not feasible at the very large, sizes of recent years. The SIR concept is briefly explained and its technical and economic advantages in terms of simplicity, construction, maintenance, availability, decommissioning, safety and siting described. The results of system analyses which demonstrate the overall financial advantages to a utility are presented. (author)

  2. Design of efficient and safe neural stimulators a multidisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    van Dongen, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the design of neural stimulator systems which are used for the treatment of a wide variety of brain disorders such as Parkinson’s, depression and tinnitus. Whereas many existing books treating neural stimulation focus on one particular design aspect, such as the electrical design of the stimulator, this book uses a multidisciplinary approach: by combining the fields of neuroscience, electrophysiology and electrical engineering a thorough understanding of the complete neural stimulation chain is created (from the stimulation IC down to the neural cell). This multidisciplinary approach enables readers to gain new insights into stimulator design, while context is provided by presenting innovative design examples. Provides a single-source, multidisciplinary reference to the field of neural stimulation, bridging an important knowledge gap among the fields of bioelectricity, neuroscience, neuroengineering and microelectronics;Uses a top-down approach to understanding the neural activation proc...

  3. Reducing interaction in simultaneous paired stimulation with CI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Vellinga

    Full Text Available In this study simultaneous paired stimulation of electrodes in cochlear implants is investigated by psychophysical experiments in 8 post-lingually deaf subjects (and one extra subject who only participated in part of the experiments. Simultaneous and sequential monopolar stimulation modes are used as references and are compared to channel interaction compensation, partial tripolar stimulation and a novel sequential stimulation strategy named phased array compensation. Psychophysical experiments are performed to investigate both the loudness integration during paired stimulation at the main electrodes as well as the interaction with the electrode contact located halfway between the stimulating pair. The study shows that simultaneous monopolar stimulation has more loudness integration on the main electrodes and more interaction in between the electrodes than sequential stimulation. Channel interaction compensation works to reduce the loudness integration at the main electrodes, but does not reduce the interaction in between the electrodes caused by paired stimulation. Partial tripolar stimulation uses much more current to reach the needed loudness, but shows the same interaction in between the electrodes as sequential monopolar stimulation. In phased array compensation we have used the individual impedance matrix of each subject to calculate the current needed on each electrode to exactly match the stimulation voltage along the array to that of sequential stimulation. The results show that the interaction in between the electrodes is the same as monopolar stimulation. The strategy uses less current than partial tripolar stimulation, but more than monopolar stimulation. In conclusion, the paper shows that paired stimulation is possible if the interaction is compensated.

  4. Safe and Inclusive Cities Research to Reduce Urban Violence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-08

    TOm mCKeLVey. Date: Tuesday April 8, 2014, 2:00-4:00pm | Location: Medellín, Colombia, Plaza Mayor (Yellow Pavilion, Room 5) ... discuss the challenges of creating safe urban spaces where all residents can ... MULTI FUNDER INITIATIVE.

  5. Reduced discomfort during High-Definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkan eGuleyupoglu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS allows for non-invasive neuromodulation using an array of compact (approximately 1 cm2 contact area High-Definition (HD electrodes, as compared to conventional tDCS (which uses two large pads that are approximately 35cm2. In a previous transcutaneous study, we developed and validated designs for HD electrodes that reduce discomfort over >20 min session with 2 mA electrode current.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a chemical pretreatment with 6% benzocaine (topical numbing agent to further reduce subjective discomfort during transcutaneous stimulation and to allow for better sham controlled studies.MethodsPre-treatment with 6% benzocaine was compared with control (no pretreatment for 22 minutes 2 mA of stimulation, with either CCNY-4 or Lectron II electroconductive gel, for both cathodal and anodal transcutaneous (forearm stimulation (8 different combinations.Results Results show that for all conditions and polarities tested, stimulation with HD electrodes is safe and well tolerated and that pretreatment further reduced subjective discomfort. ConclusionPretreatment with a mild analgesic reduces discomfort during HD-tDCS.

  6. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  7. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces psychophysically measured surround suppression in the human visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Spiegel

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a safe, non-invasive technique for transiently modulating the balance of excitation and inhibition within the human brain. It has been reported that anodal tDCS can reduce both GABA mediated inhibition and GABA concentration within the human motor cortex. As GABA mediated inhibition is thought to be a key modulator of plasticity within the adult brain, these findings have broad implications for the future use of tDCS. It is important, therefore, to establish whether tDCS can exert similar effects within non-motor brain areas. The aim of this study was to assess whether anodal tDCS could reduce inhibitory interactions within the human visual cortex. Psychophysical measures of surround suppression were used as an index of inhibition within V1. Overlay suppression, which is thought to originate within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, was also measured as a control. Anodal stimulation of the occipital poles significantly reduced psychophysical surround suppression, but had no effect on overlay suppression. This effect was specific to anodal stimulation as cathodal stimulation had no effect on either measure. These psychophysical results provide the first evidence for tDCS-induced reductions of intracortical inhibition within the human visual cortex.

  8. Reducing Maternal Mortality in Papua New Guinea: Contextualizing Access to Safe Surgery and Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alicia T

    2018-01-01

    Papua New Guinea has one of the world's highest maternal mortality rates with approximately 215 women dying per 100,000 live births. The sustainable development goals outline key priority areas for achieving a reduction in maternal mortality including a focus on universal health coverage with safe surgery and anesthesia for all pregnant women. This narrative review addresses the issue of reducing maternal mortality in Papua New Guinea by contextualizing the need for safe obstetric surgery and anesthesia within a structure of enabling environments at key times in a woman's life. The 3 pillars of enabling environments are as follows: a stable humanitarian government; a safe, secure, and clean environment; and a strong health system. Key times, and their associated specific issues, in a woman's life include prepregnancy, antenatal, birth and the postpartum period, childhood, adolescence and young womanhood, and the postchildbearing years.

  9. Continuous theta burst stimulation of angular gyrus reduces subjective recollection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Yazar

    Full Text Available The contribution of lateral parietal regions such as the angular gyrus to human episodic memory has been the subject of much debate following widespread observations of left parietal activity in healthy volunteers during functional neuroimaging studies of memory retrieval. Patients with lateral parietal lesions are not amnesic, but recent evidence indicates that their memory abilities may not be entirely preserved. Whereas recollection appears intact when objective measures such as source accuracy are used, patients often exhibit reduced subjective confidence in their accurate recollections. When asked to recall autobiographical memories, they may produce spontaneous narratives that lack richness and specificity, but can remember specific details when prompted. Two distinct theoretical accounts have been proposed to explain these results: that the patients have a deficit in the bottom-up capturing of attention by retrieval output, or that they have an impairment in the subjective experience of recollection. The present study aimed to differentiate between these accounts using continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS in healthy participants to disrupt function of specific left parietal subregions, including angular gyrus. Inconsistent with predictions of the attentional theory, angular gyrus cTBS did not result in greater impairment of free recall than cued recall. Supporting predictions of the subjective recollection account, temporary disruption of angular gyrus was associated with highly accurate source recollection accuracy but a selective reduction in participants' rated source confidence. The findings are consistent with a role for angular gyrus in the integration of memory features into a conscious representation that enables the subjective experience of remembering.

  10. Repeated intranasal TLR7 stimulation reduces allergen responsiveness in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiff Lennart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Th1 and Th2 immune responses are of importance to the onset and development of allergic disorders. A Toll-like receptor 7 agonist such as AZD8848 may have potential as a treatment for allergic airway disease by skewing the immune system away from a Th2 profile. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal AZD8848. Methods In a placebo-controlled single ascending dose study, AZD8848 (0.3-600 μg was given intranasally to 48 healthy subjects and 12 patients with allergic rhinitis (NCT00688779. In a placebo-controlled repeat challenge/treatment study, AZD8848 (30 and 60 μg was given once weekly for five weeks to 74 patients with allergic rhinitis out of season: starting 24 hours after the final dose, daily allergen challenges were given for seven days (NCT00770003. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and biomarkers were monitored. During the allergen challenge series, nasal symptoms and lavage fluid levels of tryptase and α2-macroglobulin, reflecting mast cell activity and plasma exudation, were monitored. Results AZD8848 produced reversible blood lymphocyte reductions and dose-dependent flu-like symptoms: 30–100 μg produced consistent yet tolerable effects. Plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was elevated after administration of AZD8848, reflecting interferon production secondary to TLR7 stimulation. At repeat challenge/treatment, AZD8848 reduced nasal symptoms recorded ten minutes after allergen challenge up to eight days after the final dose. Tryptase and α2-macroglobulin were also reduced by AZD8848. Conclusions Repeated intranasal stimulation of Toll-like receptor 7 by AZD8848 was safe and produced a sustained reduction in the responsiveness to allergen in allergic rhinitis. Trial registration NCT00688779 and NCT00770003 as indicated above.

  11. Temporal lobe cortical electrical stimulation during the encoding and retrieval phase reduces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S Boggio

    Full Text Available A recent study found that false memories were reduced by 36% when low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS was applied to the left anterior temporal lobe after the encoding (study phase. Here we were interested in the consequences on a false memory task of brain stimulation throughout the encoding and retrieval task phases. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS because it has been shown to be a useful tool to enhance cognition. Specifically, we examined whether tDCS can induce changes in a task assessing false memories. Based on our preliminary results, three conditions of stimulation were chosen: anodal left/cathodal right anterior temporal lobe (ATL stimulation ("bilateral stimulation"; anodal left ATL stimulation (with a large contralateral cathodal electrode--referred as "unilateral stimulation" and sham stimulation. Our results showed that false memories were reduced significantly after the two active conditions (unilateral and bilateral stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in veridical memories. Our findings show that false memories are reduced by 73% when anodal tDCS is applied to the anterior temporal lobes throughout the encoding and retrieval stages, suggesting a possible strategy for improving certain aspects of learning.

  12. Dose-Reduced Trastuzumab Emtansine: Active and Safe in Acute Hepatic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sharp

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of deaths attributed to breast cancer are a result of metastatic disease, and 30% of early breast cancers (EBC will develop distant disease. The 5-year survival of patients with metastatic disease is estimated at 23%. Breast cancer subtypes continue to be stratified histologically on oestrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2 receptor expression. HER2-positive breast cancers represent 25% of all breast cancer diagnoses. The therapies available for metastatic breast cancer (MBC are expanding, in particular within the field of HER2-positive disease, with the approval of trastuzumab, pertuzumab, lapatinib and trastuzumab emtansine (TDM-1. Recently, TDM-1 has been shown to improve progression-free survival in HER2 MBC when compared to capecitabine and lapatinib in clinical studies. Its main toxicities are deranged liver function tests and thrombocytopenia. There have also been cases of acute liver failure. Therefore, its use in acute hepatic dysfunction, to our knowledge, has been neither studied nor reported. We report a patient with progressive HER2-positive MBC who had previously responded to multiple HER2-targeted therapies that presented with acute hepatic dysfunction. She was treated with dose-reduced TDM-1 safely, with clear evidence of rapid biochemical, clinical and radiological response. This allowed dose escalation of TDM-1, and the patient maintains an ongoing response.

  13. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella -free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×10 6 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×10 6 PFU/g) concentrations significantly ( P contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×10 7 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  14. Redesigning existing transcranial magnetic stimulation coils to reduce energy: application to low field magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boshuo; Shen, Michael R.; Deng, Zhi-De; Smith, J. Evan; Tharayil, Joseph J.; Gurrey, Clement J.; Gomez, Luis J.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. To present a systematic framework and exemplar for the development of a compact and energy-efficient coil that replicates the electric field (E-field) distribution induced by an existing transcranial magnetic stimulation coil. Approach. The E-field generated by a conventional low field magnetic stimulation (LFMS) coil was measured for a spherical head model and simulated in both spherical and realistic head models. Then, using a spherical head model and spatial harmonic decomposition, a spherical-shaped cap coil was synthesized such that its windings conformed to a spherical surface and replicated the E-field on the cortical surface while requiring less energy. A prototype coil was built and electrically characterized. The effect of constraining the windings to the upper half of the head was also explored via an alternative coil design. Main results. The LFMS E-field distribution resembled that of a large double-cone coil, with a peak field strength around 350 mV m‑1 in the cortex. The E-field distributions of the cap coil designs were validated against the original coil, with mean errors of 1%–3%. The cap coil required as little as 2% of the original coil energy and was significantly smaller in size. Significance. The redesigned LFMS coil is substantially smaller and more energy-efficient than the original, improving cost, power consumption, and portability. These improvements could facilitate deployment of LFMS in the clinic and potentially at home. This coil redesign approach can also be applied to other magnetic stimulation paradigms. Finally, the anatomically-accurate E-field simulation of LFMS can be used to interpret clinical LFMS data.

  15. Closed-system drug-transfer devices plus safe handling of hazardous drugs versus safe handling alone for reducing exposure to infusional hazardous drugs in healthcare staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Best, Lawrence Mj; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lennan, Elaine; Korva, Mika; Bussières, Jean-François

    2018-03-27

    Occupational exposure to hazardous drugs can decrease fertility and result in miscarriages, stillbirths, and cancers in healthcare staff. Several recommended practices aim to reduce this exposure, including protective clothing, gloves, and biological safety cabinets ('safe handling'). There is significant uncertainty as to whether using closed-system drug-transfer devices (CSTD) in addition to safe handling decreases the contamination and risk of staff exposure to infusional hazardous drugs compared to safe handling alone. To assess the effects of closed-system drug-transfer of infusional hazardous drugs plus safe handling versus safe handling alone for reducing staff exposure to infusional hazardous drugs and risk of staff contamination. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, OSH-UPDATE, CINAHL, Science Citation Index Expanded, economic evaluation databases, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov to October 2017. We included comparative studies of any study design (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) that compared CSTD plus safe handling versus safe handling alone for infusional hazardous drugs. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using both fixed-effect and random-effects models. We assessed risk of bias according to the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool, used an intracluster correlation coefficient of 0.10, and we assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. We included 23 observational cluster studies (358 hospitals) in this review. We did not find any randomised controlled trials or formal economic evaluations. In 21 studies, the people who used the intervention (CSTD plus safe handling) and control (safe handling alone) were pharmacists or pharmacy

  16. A Reduced Stimulation Unit: Effects on Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, T. Anne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluated special unit for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. Results showed in the unit, in which reduced stimulation was emphasized, patient weight loss was curtailed, patient agitation was diminished, restraint use was reduced, and wandering was no longer a concern. Found family members to be satisfied with care.…

  17. Pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity, reduces visceral fat and stimulates lipolysis in non diabetic dialyzed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Zanchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is common in dialyzed patients and is associated with increased mortality and protein-energy wasting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone (PIO, a powerful insulin sensitizer, on insulin sensitivity, body composition and adipose tissue metabolism, in dialyzed patients. A double blind randomized cross-over study was performed in non diabetic dialysis patients. Each patient followed 2 treatment phases of 16 weeks, starting either with oral PIO 45 mg/d or placebo (PL, and then switched to the other phase. At the end of each phase, patients underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, an abdominal CT, and extensive plasma biochemical analysis. Twelve patients including 8 HD (59.6±4.4 y and 4 PD patients (43.5±3.6 y were recruited. Nine patients completed both phases and 3 patients dropped out (renal transplantation/2 HD and peritonitis/1 PD. PIO was safe and well tolerated. Under PIO, insulin sensitivity improved, as assessed by increased total glucose disposal rate (1.98±0.24 for PIO versus 1.58±0.12 umol/kg/min for PL, p<0.05, and reduced glucose endogenous hepatic production. PIO did not affect post-dialysis body weight, total fat and lean body mass, but significantly reduced visceral adipose tissue (VAT area and the VAT/SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased. PIO decreased CRP (3.96±1.44 mg/l vs 7.88±2.56, p<0.05, plasma leptin, and dramatically reduced leptin/adiponectin ratio. Glycerol turnover, circulating glycerol and non esterified fatty acids were paradoxically increased. In conclusion, the improvement in insulin sensitivity by PIO, in non diabetic dialyzed patients, was associated with favorable metabolic effects, reduction in inflammation and body fat redistribution. The stimulation of systemic lipolysis was a surprising finding which may reflect adipose tissue remodeling and/or a paradoxical lypolitic

  18. Maintaining access to safe abortion and reducing sex ratio imbalances in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Bela

    2008-05-01

    High sex ratios at birth (108 boys to 100 girls or higher) are seen in China, Taiwan, South Korea and parts of India and Viet Nam. The imbalance is the result of son preference, accentuated by declining fertility. Prenatal sex detection with ultrasound followed by second trimester abortion is one of the ways sex selection manifests itself, but it is not the causative factor. Advocates and governments seeking to reverse this imbalance have largely prohibited sex detection tests and/or sex selective abortion, assuming these measures would reverse the trend. Such policies have been difficult to enforce and have met with only limited success. At the same time, such policies are starting to have adverse effects on the already limited access to safe and legal second trimester abortion for reasons other than sex selection. Moreover, the sex selection issue is being used as a platform for anti-abortion rhetoric by certain groups. Maintaining access to safe abortion and achieving a decline in high sex ratios are both important goals. Both are possible if the focus shifts to addressing the conditions that drive son preference.

  19. Signal processing methods for reducing artifacts in microelectrode brain recordings caused by functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.; Willett, F.; Memberg, W. D.; Murphy, B.; Walter, B.; Sweet, J.; Miller, J.; Hochberg, L. R.; Kirsch, R. F.; Ajiboye, A. B.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a promising technology for restoring movement to paralyzed limbs. Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (iBCIs) have enabled intuitive control over virtual and robotic movements, and more recently over upper extremity FES neuroprostheses. However, electrical stimulation of muscles creates artifacts in intracortical microelectrode recordings that could degrade iBCI performance. Here, we investigate methods for reducing the cortically recorded artifacts that result from peripheral electrical stimulation. Approach. One participant in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial had two intracortical microelectrode arrays placed in the motor cortex, and thirty-six stimulating intramuscular electrodes placed in the muscles of the contralateral limb. We characterized intracortically recorded electrical artifacts during both intramuscular and surface stimulation. We compared the performance of three artifact reduction methods: blanking, common average reference (CAR) and linear regression reference (LRR), which creates channel-specific reference signals, composed of weighted sums of other channels. Main results. Electrical artifacts resulting from surface stimulation were 175  ×  larger than baseline neural recordings (which were 110 µV peak-to-peak), while intramuscular stimulation artifacts were only 4  ×  larger. The artifact waveforms were highly consistent across electrodes within each array. Application of LRR reduced artifact magnitudes to less than 10 µV and largely preserved the original neural feature values used for decoding. Unmitigated stimulation artifacts decreased iBCI decoding performance, but performance was almost completely recovered using LRR, which outperformed CAR and blanking and extracted useful neural information during stimulation artifact periods. Significance. The LRR method was effective at reducing electrical artifacts resulting from both intramuscular and surface FES, and

  20. Cerebellar transcranial static magnetic field stimulation transiently reduces cerebellar brain inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugi, Akiyoshi; Okada, Y

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) delivered using a compact cylindrical NdFeB magnet over the cerebellum modulates the excitability of the cerebellum and contralateral primary motor cortex, as measured using cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and resting motor threshold (rMT). These parameters were measured before tSMS or sham stimulation and immediately, 5 minutes and 10 minutes after stimulation. There were no significant changes in CBI, MEPs or rMT over time in the sham stimulation condition, and no changes in MEPs or rMT in the tSMS condition. However, CBI was significantly decreased immediately after tSMS as compared to that before and 5 minutes after tSMS. Our results suggest that tSMS delivered to the cerebellar hemisphere transiently reduces cerebellar inhibitory output but does not affect the excitability of the contralateral motor cortex.

  1. Auditory-somatosensory bimodal stimulation desynchronizes brain circuitry to reduce tinnitus in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kendra L; Martel, David T; Wu, Calvin; Basura, Gregory J; Roberts, Larry E; Schvartz-Leyzac, Kara C; Shore, Susan E

    2018-01-03

    The dorsal cochlear nucleus is the first site of multisensory convergence in mammalian auditory pathways. Principal output neurons, the fusiform cells, integrate auditory nerve inputs from the cochlea with somatosensory inputs from the head and neck. In previous work, we developed a guinea pig model of tinnitus induced by noise exposure and showed that the fusiform cells in these animals exhibited increased spontaneous activity and cross-unit synchrony, which are physiological correlates of tinnitus. We delivered repeated bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation to the dorsal cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs with tinnitus, choosing a stimulus interval known to induce long-term depression (LTD). Twenty minutes per day of LTD-inducing bimodal (but not unimodal) stimulation reduced physiological and behavioral evidence of tinnitus in the guinea pigs after 25 days. Next, we applied the same bimodal treatment to 20 human subjects with tinnitus using a double-blinded, sham-controlled, crossover study. Twenty-eight days of LTD-inducing bimodal stimulation reduced tinnitus loudness and intrusiveness. Unimodal auditory stimulation did not deliver either benefit. Bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation that induces LTD in the dorsal cochlear nucleus may hold promise for suppressing chronic tinnitus, which reduces quality of life for millions of tinnitus sufferers worldwide. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Reducing the Risk of Tick-Borne Diseases through Smart, Safe and Sustainable Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year PestWise programs form new partnerships to address ongoing and emerging issues. Reducing the risk from ticks and tick-borne disease is an issue of importance and EPA is contributing to a larger federal effort.

  3. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Cocaine Seeking and Alters Plasticity in the Extinction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jessica E.; DeLeon, Jaime; Nickel, Emily; Kroener, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Drugs of abuse cause changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and associated regions that impair inhibitory control over drug-seeking. Breaking the contingencies between drug-associated cues and the delivery of the reward during extinction learning reduces rates of relapse. Here we used vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to induce targeted synaptic…

  4. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces cocaine use: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraneo, Alberto; Leggio, Lorenzo; Saladini, Marina; Ermani, Mario; Bonci, Antonello; Gallimberti, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Recent animal studies demonstrate that compulsive cocaine seeking strongly reduces prelimbic frontal cortex activity, while optogenetic stimulation of this brain area significantly inhibits compulsive cocaine seeking, providing a strong rationale for applying brain stimulation to reduce cocaine consumption. Thus, we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), to test if dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation might prevent cocaine use in humans. Thirty-two cocaine-addicted patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (rTMS) on the left DLPFC, or to a control group (pharmacological agents) during a 29-day study (Stage 1). This was followed by a 63-day follow-up (Stage 2), during which all participants were offered rTMS treatment. Amongst the patients who completed Stage 1, 16 were in the rTMS group (100%) and 13 in the control group (81%). No significant adverse events were noted. During Stage 1, there were a significantly higher number of cocaine-free urine drug tests in the rTMS group compared to control (p=0.004). Craving for cocaine was also significantly lower in the rTMS group compared to the controls (p=0.038). Out of 13 patients who completed Stage 1 in the control group, 10 patients received rTMS treatment during Stage 2 and showed significant improvement with favorable outcomes becoming comparable to those of the rTMS group. The present preliminary findings support the safety of rTMS in cocaine-addicted patients, and suggest its potential therapeutic role for rTMS-driven PFC stimulation in reducing cocaine use, providing a strong rationale for developing larger placebo-controlled studies. Trial name: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in cocaine abusers, URL:〈http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN15823943?q=&filters=&sort=&offset=8&totalResults=13530&page=1&pageSize=10&searchType=basic-search〉, ISRCTN15823943. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Food-safe modification of stainless steel food processing surfaces to reduce bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Tarek Samir; Asker, Dalal; Hatton, Benjamin D

    2018-06-11

    Biofilm formation on stainless steel (SS) surfaces of food processing plants, leading to foodborne illness outbreaks, is enabled by the attachment and confinement within microscale cavities of surface roughness (grooves, scratches). We report Foodsafe Oil-based Slippery Coatings (FOSCs) for food processing surfaces that suppress bacterial adherence and biofilm formation by trapping residual oil lubricant within these surface cavities to block microbial growth. SS surfaces were chemically functionalized with alkylphosphonic acid to preferentially wet a layer of food grade oil. FOSCs reduced the effective surface roughness, the adhesion of organic food residue, and bacteria. FOSCs significantly reduced Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on standard roughness SS-316 by 5 log CFU cm-2, and by 3 log CFU cm-2 for mirror-finished SS. FOSCs also enhanced surface cleanability, which we measured by bacterial counts after conventional detergent cleaning. Importantly, both SS grades maintained their anti-biofilm activity after erosion of the oil layer by surface wear with glass beads, which suggests there is a residual volume of oil that remains to block surface cavity defects. These results indicate the potential of such low-cost, scalable approaches to enhance the cleanability of SS food processing surfaces and improve food safety by reducing biofilm growth.

  6. Extracellular Vesicles from Hypoxic Adipocytes and Obese Subjects Reduce Insulin‐Stimulated Glucose Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczko, Justyna; Ortega, Francisco J.; Falcon‐Perez, Juan Manuel; Wabitsch, Martin; Fernandez‐Real, Jose Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Scope We investigate the effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from in vitro adipocyte cell models and from obese subjects on glucose transport and insulin responsiveness. Methods and results EVs are isolated from the culture supernatant of adipocytes cultured under normoxia, hypoxia (1% oxygen), or exposed to macrophage conditioned media (15% v/v). EVs are isolated from the plasma of lean individuals and subjects with obesity. Cultured adipocytes are incubated with EVs and activation of insulin signalling cascades and insulin‐stimulated glucose transport are measured. EVs released from hypoxic adipocytes impair insulin‐stimulated 2‐deoxyglucose uptake and reduce insulin mediated phosphorylation of AKT. Insulin‐mediated phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is not affected. EVs from individuals with obesity decrease insulin stimulated 2‐deoxyglucose uptake in adipocytes (p = 0.0159). Conclusion EVs released by stressed adipocytes impair insulin action in neighboring adipocytes. PMID:29292863

  7. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  8. Reduced multimodal integration of memory features following continuous theta burst stimulation of angular gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Yasemin; Bergström, Zara M; Simons, Jon S

    Lesions of the angular gyrus (AnG) region of human parietal cortex do not cause amnesia, but appear to be associated with reduction in the ability to consciously experience the reliving of previous events. We used continuous theta burst stimulation to test the hypothesis that the cognitive mechanism implicated in this memory deficit might be the integration of retrieved sensory event features into a coherent multimodal memory representation. Healthy volunteers received stimulation to AnG or a vertex control site after studying stimuli that each comprised a visual object embedded in a scene, with the name of the object presented auditorily. Participants were then asked to make memory judgments about the studied stimuli that involved recollection of single event features (visual or auditory), or required integration of event features within the same modality, or across modalities. Participants' ability to retrieve context features from across multiple modalities was significantly reduced after AnG stimulation compared to stimulation of the vertex. This effect was observed only for the integration of cross-modal context features but not for integration of features within the same modality, and could not be accounted for by task difficulty as performance was matched across integration conditions following vertex stimulation. These results support the hypothesis that AnG is necessary for the multimodal integration of distributed cortical episodic features into a unified conscious representation that enables the experience of remembering. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. En bloc ligation of renal vessels is safe and reduces duration of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn Htum; Hult, Mariam Annalisa Skibsted; Dahl, Claus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Conventionally, individual ligation of the renal vessels with clips is performed during laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN). Concomitant ligation of the vessels is not a standard procedure due to an expected risk of stapler dysfunction and the development of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF......). Using the EndoGIA stapler 45/2.5 mm, we compared en bloc ligation with individual ligation during LN and nephroureterectomy (LNU) with a special focus on the development of AVF and technique safety. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all patients undergoing LN or LNU at the Department of Urology......, Roskilde Hospital, Denmark, between January 2010 and April 2014. The follow-up period was minimum six months. RESULTS: A total of 228 patients underwent LN and 56 patients underwent LNU. In the LN group, 77 patients underwent en bloc ligation. The mean surgical time was significantly reduced to 89 minutes...

  10. Can a Risk Factor Based Approach Safely Reduce Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Friddle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Current American retinopathy of prematurity (ROP screening guidelines is imprecise for infants ≥ 30 weeks with birth weights between 1500 and 2000 g. Our objective was to evaluate a risk factor based approach for screening premature infants at low risk for severe ROP. Study Design. We performed a 13-year review from Intermountain Health Care (IHC data. All neonates born at ≤32 weeks were reviewed to determine ROP screening and/or development of severe ROP. Severe ROP was defined by stage ≥ 3 or need for laser therapy. Regression analysis was used to identify significant risk factors for severe ROP. Results. We identified 4607 neonates ≤ 32 weeks gestation. Following exclusion for death, with no retinal exam or incomplete data, 2791 (61% were included in the study. Overall, severe ROP occurred in 260 (9.3%, but only 11/1601 ≥ 29 weeks (0.7%. All infants with severe ROP ≥ 29 weeks had at least 2 identified ROP risk factors. Implementation of this risk based screening strategy to the IHC population over the timeline of this study would have eliminated screening in 21% (343/1601 of the screened population. Conclusions. Limiting ROP screening for infants ≥ 29 and ≤ 32 weeks to only those with clinical risk factors could significantly reduce screening exams while identifying all infants with severe ROP.

  11. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David

    2011-01-01

    . One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been...... at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong...... partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered...

  12. Decommissioning Programme Management: reducing risk and cost while accelerating schedules through improved planning, Earned Value Management and safe work execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    CH2M HILL experience includes more than two decades of managing nuclear facilities and providing clean-up and operations support for commercial and government facilities worldwide. Our expertise ranges from decommissioning and defence sector businesses to nuclear technology development and innovation. Our approach places top priority on the safe execution of work while reducing both risk and cost. Our nuclear services include: programme management, nuclear safety analysis, radiological protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear remediation, nuclear materials and waste transportation management, nuclear safeguards and security services, and nuclear decontamination and decommissioning. This paper will discuss our approach which has resulted in a strong track record of accelerating schedules and reducing costs of major nuclear programmes, including Rocky Flats, Idaho, and our work at UKAEA sites. (author)

  13. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Jones

    Full Text Available 'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when' was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting' were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti

  14. A GENTLER GESTALT THERAPY: ON REDUCING STIMULATION IN ADULT SURVIVORS OF ABUSE

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    Andrew Lapides

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult survivors of abuse require a slower progression in treatment. Profoundly abused patients suffering from pre-oedipal conditions may become overstimulated using gestalt methods. This paper will focus on reducing stimulation in the patient using methods borrowed from modern psychoanalysis, which was developed by Hyman Spotnitz. The author argues for a combined approach that emphasizes support rather then frustration in the development of the treatment process.

  15. Thyroid hormone reduces PCSK9 and stimulates bile acid synthesis in humans[S

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Ylva; Breuer, Olof; L?tjohann, Dieter; Sj?berg, Stefan; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol is a hallmark of hyperthyroidism and is caused by transcriptional stimulation of LDL receptors in the liver. Here, we investigated whether thyroid hormone (TH) actions involve other mechanisms that may also account for the reduction in LDL-cholesterol, including effects on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and bile acid synthesis. Twenty hyperthyroid patients were studied before and after clinical normalization, and the responses to hyperthyr...

  16. CUTANEUS STIMULATION: SLOW-STROKE BACK MASSAGE REDUCES THE INTENSITY OF OSTEOARTRITIS PAIN OF ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis disease is the result of both mechanical and biological process which lead come to unstable degradation and synthesis of condrozyte cartilage and extracellular matrix. The risk factor of this instability is aging process. The aging process stimulates osteophytes formation and degradation of cartilage, and emerged pain as primary clinical symptom. One of the non pharmacological ways to cope this pain is by applying cutaneus stimulation through slow-stroke back massage method. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of applying cutaneus stimulation with slow-stroke back massage method to osteoarthritis’s pain intensity. Method: Pre experimental design with one group pre test-post test approach was used in this study. The subject of this study were elderly above 50 years old living in Panti Werdha Hargo Dedali Surabaya, 15 participants were involved using purpose sampling technique. This study started on January 29th until February 6th, 2010. Data were collected by interview and observation and analyzed by WIlcoxcon Signed Rank Test α = 0.05, p value <α. Result: The Result showed that the message intervention was significantly affect the elder’s level of osteoarthritis pain in Panti Werdha Hargo Dedali Surabaya (p = 0.003. Discussion: It can be concluded that gives stimulation cutaneus: slow-stroke back massage reduce osteoathritis pain intensity. Slow-stroke back massage increase level of endorphin, so that pain reduction and individual pain perception will decrease.

  17. Thyroid hormone reduces PCSK9 and stimulates bile acid synthesis in humans[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Ylva; Breuer, Olof; Lütjohann, Dieter; Sjöberg, Stefan; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol is a hallmark of hyperthyroidism and is caused by transcriptional stimulation of LDL receptors in the liver. Here, we investigated whether thyroid hormone (TH) actions involve other mechanisms that may also account for the reduction in LDL-cholesterol, including effects on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and bile acid synthesis. Twenty hyperthyroid patients were studied before and after clinical normalization, and the responses to hyperthyroidism were compared with those in 14 healthy individuals after 14 days of treatment with the liver-selective TH analog eprotirome. Both hyperthyroidism and eprotirome treatment reduced circulating PCSK9, lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB and AI, and lipoprotein(a), while cholesterol synthesis was stable. Hyperthyroidism, but not eprotirome treatment, markedly increased bile acid synthesis and reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 and dietary cholesterol absorption. Eprotirome treatment, but not hyperthyroidism, reduced plasma triglycerides. Neither hyperthyroidism nor eprotirome treatment altered insulin, glucose, or FGF21 levels. TH reduces circulating PSCK9, thereby likely contributing to lower plasma LDL-cholesterol in hyperthyroidism. TH also stimulates bile acid synthesis, although this response is not critical for its LDL-lowering effect. PMID:25172631

  18. Pedophilia is linked to reduced activation in hypothalamus and lateral prefrontal cortex during visual erotic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Martin; Witzel, Joachim; Wiebking, Christine; Gubka, Udo; Rotte, Michael; Schiltz, Kolja; Bermpohl, Felix; Tempelmann, Claus; Bogerts, Bernhard; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Northoff, Georg

    2007-09-15

    Although pedophilia is of high public concern, little is known about underlying neural mechanisms. Although pedophilic patients are sexually attracted to prepubescent children, they show no sexual interest toward adults. This study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of deficits of sexual and emotional arousal in pedophiles. Thirteen pedophilic patients and 14 healthy control subjects were tested for differential neural activity during visual stimulation with emotional and erotic pictures with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions showing differential activations during the erotic condition comprised the hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the latter correlating with a clinical measure. Alterations of emotional processing concerned the amygdala-hippocampus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Hypothesized regions relevant for processing of erotic stimuli in healthy individuals showed reduced activations during visual erotic stimulation in pedophilic patients. This suggests an impaired recruitment of key structures that might contribute to an altered sexual interest of these patients toward adults.

  19. Repetitive low-frequency stimulation reduces epileptiform synchronization in limbic neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcangelo, G; Panuccio, G; Tancredi, V; Avoli, M

    2005-01-01

    Deep-brain electrical or transcranial magnetic stimulation may represent a therapeutic tool for controlling seizures in patients presenting with epileptic disorders resistant to antiepileptic drugs. In keeping with this clinical evidence, we have reported that repetitive electrical stimuli delivered at approximately 1 Hz in mouse hippocampus-entorhinal cortex (EC) slices depress the EC ability to generate ictal activity induced by the application of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) or Mg(2+)-free medium (Barbarosie, M., Avoli, M., 1997. CA3-driven hippocampal-entorhinal loop controls rather than sustains in vitro limbic seizures. J. Neurosci. 17, 9308-9314.). Here, we confirmed a similar control mechanism in rat brain slices analyzed with field potential recordings during 4AP (50 microM) treatment. In addition, we used intrinsic optical signal (IOS) recordings to quantify the intensity and spatial characteristics of this inhibitory influence. IOSs reflect the changes in light transmittance throughout the entire extent of the slice, and are thus reliable markers of limbic network epileptiform synchronization. First, we found that in the presence of 4AP, the IOS increases, induced by a train of electrical stimuli (10 Hz for 1 s) or by recurrent, single-shock stimulation delivered at 0.05 Hz in the deep EC layers, are reduced in intensity and area size by low-frequency (1 Hz), repetitive stimulation of the subiculum; these effects were observed in all limbic areas contained in the slice. Second, by testing the effects induced by repetitive subicular stimulation at 0.2-10 Hz, we identified maximal efficacy when repetitive stimuli are delivered at 1 Hz. Finally, we discovered that similar, but slightly less pronounced, inhibitory effects occur when repetitive stimuli at 1 Hz are delivered in the EC, suggesting that the reduction of IOSs seen during repetitive stimulation is pathway dependent as well as activity dependent. Thus, the activation of limbic networks at low frequency

  20. Evaluating the evidence: is phrenic nerve stimulation a safe and effective tool for decreasing ventilator dependence in patients with high cervical spinal cord injuries and central hypoventilation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Emily P; Payne, Russell A; Hazard, Sprague; Rizk, Elias

    2016-06-01

    Case reports, case series and case control studies have looked at the use of phrenic nerve stimulators in the setting of high spinal cord injuries and central hypoventilation syndromes dating back to the 1980s. We evaluated the evidence related to this topic by performing a systematic review of the published literature. Search terms "phrenic nerve stimulation," "phrenic nerve and spinal cord injury," and "phrenic nerve and central hypoventilation" were entered into standard search engines in a systematic fashion. Articles were reviewed by two study authors and graded independently for class of evidence according to published guidelines. The published evidence was reviewed, and the overall body of evidence was evaluated using the grading of recommendations, assesment, development and evaluations (GRADE) criteria Balshem et al. (J Clin Epidemiol 64:401-406, 2011). Our initial search yielded 420 articles. There were no class I, II, or III studies. There were 18 relevant class IV articles. There were no discrepancies among article ratings (i.e., kappa = 1). A meta-analysis could not be performed due to the low quality of the available evidence. The overall quality of the body of evidence was evaluated using GRADE criteria and fell within the "very poor" category. The quality of the published literature for phrenic nerve stimulation is poor. Our review of the literature suggests that phrenic nerve stimulation is a safe and effective option for decreasing ventilator dependence in high spinal cord injuries and central hypoventilation; however, we are left with critical questions that provide crucial directions for future studies.

  1. The safe motherhood referral system to reduce cesarean sections and perinatal mortality - a cross-sectional study [1995-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudge Marilza VC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs set targets for reducing child mortality and improving maternal health by 2015. Objective To evaluate the results of a new education and referral system for antenatal/intrapartum care as a strategy to reduce the rates of Cesarean sections (C-sections and maternal/perinatal mortality. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University/UNESP, Brazil. Population: 27,387 delivering women and 27,827 offspring. Data collection: maternal and perinatal data between 1995 and 2006 at the major level III and level II hospitals in Botucatu, Brazil following initiation of a safe motherhood education and referral system. Main outcome measures: Yearly rates of C-sections, maternal (/100,000 LB and perinatal (/1000 births mortality rates at both hospitals. Data analysis: Simple linear regression models were adjusted to estimate the referral system's annual effects on the total number of deliveries, C-section and perinatal mortality ratios in the two hospitals. The linear regression were assessed by residual analysis (Shapiro-Wilk test and the influence of possible conflicting observations was evaluated by a diagnostic test (Leverage, with p Results Over the time period evaluated, the overall C-section rate was 37.3%, there were 30 maternal deaths (maternal mortality ratio = 109.5/100,000 LB and 660 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate = 23.7/1000 births. The C-section rate decreased from 46.5% to 23.4% at the level II hospital while remaining unchanged at the level III hospital. The perinatal mortality rate decreased from 9.71 to 1.66/1000 births and from 60.8 to 39.6/1000 births at the level II and level III hospital, respectively. Maternal mortality ratios were 16.3/100,000 LB and 185.1/100,000 LB at the level II and level III hospitals. There was a shift from direct to indirect causes of

  2. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Is Expressed by Most Ovarian Cancer Subtypes and Is a Safe and Effective Immunotherapeutic Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Rutkowski, Melanie R; Allegrezza, Michael J; Tesone, Amelia J; Payne, Kyle K; Wickramasinghe, Jayamanna; Nguyen, Jenny M; O'Brien, Shane W; Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Huang, Qihong; Cadungog, Mark G; Connolly, Denise C; Tchou, Julia; Curiel, Tyler J; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2017-01-15

    To define the safety and effectiveness of T cells redirected against follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR)-expressing ovarian cancer cells. FSHR expression was determined by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and qPCR in 77 human ovarian cancer specimens from 6 different histologic subtypes and 20 human healthy tissues. The effectiveness of human T cells targeted with full-length FSH in vivo was determined against a panel of patient-derived xenografts. Safety and effectiveness were confirmed in immunocompetent tumor-bearing mice, using constructs targeting murine FSHR and syngeneic T cells. FSHR is expressed in gynecologic malignancies of different histologic types but not in nonovarian healthy tissues. Accordingly, T cells expressing full-length FSHR-redirected chimeric receptors mediate significant therapeutic effects (including tumor rejection) against a panel of patient-derived tumors in vivo In immunocompetent mice growing syngeneic, orthotopic, and aggressive ovarian tumors, fully murine FSHR-targeted T cells also increased survival without any measurable toxicity. Notably, chimeric receptors enhanced the ability of endogenous tumor-reactive T cells to abrogate malignant progression upon adoptive transfer into naïve recipients subsequently challenged with the same tumor. Interestingly, FSHR-targeted T cells persisted as memory lymphocytes without noticeable PD-1-dependent exhaustion during end-stage disease, in the absence of tumor cell immunoediting. However, exosomes in advanced tumor ascites diverted the effector activity of this and other chimeric receptor-transduced T cells away from targeted tumor cells. T cells redirected against FSHR + tumor cells with full-length FSH represent a promising therapeutic alternative against a broad range of ovarian malignancies, with negligible toxicity even in the presence of cognate targets in tumor-free ovaries. Clin Cancer Res; 23(2); 441-53. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Scheduled, intermittent stimulation of the thalamus reduces tics in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P Justin; Opri, Enrico; Shute, Jonathan B; Molina, Rene; Bowers, Dawn; Ward, Herbert; Foote, Kelly D; Gunduz, Aysegul; Okun, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Personalized, scheduled deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome (TS) may permit clinically meaningful tic reduction while reducing side effects and increasing battery life. Here, we evaluate scheduled DBS applied to TS at two-year follow-up. Five patients underwent bilateral centromedian thalamic (CM) region DBS. A cranially contained constant-current device delivering stimulation on a scheduled duty cycle, as opposed to the standard continuous DBS paradigm was utilized. Baseline vs. 24-month outcomes were collected and analyzed, and a responder analysis was performed. A 40% improvement in the Modified Rush Tic Rating Scale (MRTRS) total score or Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) total score defined a full responder. Three of the 4 patients followed to 24 months reached full responder criteria and had a mean stimulation time of 1.85 h per day. One patient lost to follow-up evaluated at the last time point (month 18) was a non-responder. Patients exhibited improvements in MRTRS score beyond the improvements previously reported for the 6 month endpoint; on average, MRTRS total score was 15.6% better at 24 months than at 6 months and YGTSS total score was 14.8% better. Combining the patients into a single cohort revealed significant improvements in the MRTRS total score (-7.6 [5.64]; p = 0.02). Electrical stimulation of the centromedian thalamic region in a scheduled paradigm was effective in suppressing tics, particularly phonic tics. Full responders were able to achieve the positive DBS effect with a mean of 2.3 ± 0.9 (SEM) hours of DBS per day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Leucine supplementation stimulates protein synthesis and reduces degradation signal activation in muscle of newborn pigs during acute endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepsis disrupts skeletal muscle proteostasis and mitigates the anabolic response to leucine (Leu) in muscle of mature animals. We have shown that Leu stimulates muscle protein synthesis (PS) in healthy neonatal piglets. To determine if supplemental Leu can stimulate PS and reduce protein degradation...

  5. Reduced spread of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens by stimulating the bird's natural barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, B; Rudi, K; Svihus, B; Skånseng, B

    2012-11-01

    We have tested the effect of feed structure and feeding regime to prevent the spread of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chicken flocks. Birds were offered two types of feed, control diet and a diet supplemented with 15% oat/barley hulls for structure. In addition, the birds were either fed ad libitum or intermittent. One bird in each treatment group was infected with a three-strain-mix of Camp. jejuni, and the spread of Camp. jejuni within the group was investigated. Feed structure increased the gizzard weight, delayed the spread of Camp. jejuni within the group and reduced the relative amount of Camp. jejuni in the caecum compared with the control diet. Our results show that stimulating the bird's natural barriers is a novel and promising intervention strategy to reduce the spread of Camp. jejuni in chicken flocks. Preventing Camp. jejuni in broiler chicken flocks is essential to ensure food safety because this bacterium is transferred to chicken carcasses during the slaughter process and readily survive in unprocessed poultry products. We have evaluated a novel approach for stimulation of the bird's natural barriers in the upper digestive tract with promising results. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Breastfeeding or nipple stimulation for reducing postpartum haemorrhage in the third stage of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Parvin; Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Namvar, Farideh; Lee, Jasmine

    2016-01-27

    Oxytocin and prostaglandin are hormones responsible for uterine contraction during the third stage of labour. Receptors in the uterine muscles are stimulated by exogenous or endogenous oxytocin leading to uterine contractions. Nipple stimulation or breastfeeding are stimuli that can lead to the secretion of oxytocin and consequent uterine contractions. Consequently, uterine contractions can reduce bleeding during the third stage of labour. To investigate the effects of breastfeeding or nipple stimulation on postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) during the third stage of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 July 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing breast stimulation, breastfeeding or suckling for PPH in the third stage of labour were selected for this review. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion in terms of risk of bias and independently extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by a third review author. We included four trials (4608 women), but only two studies contributed data to the review's analyses (n = 4472). The studies contributing data were assessed as of high risk of bias overall. One of these studies was cluster-randomised and conducted in a low-income country and the other study was carried out in a high-income country. All four included studies assessed blood loss in the third stage of labour. Birth attendants estimated blood loss in two trials. The third trial assessed the hematocrit level on the second day postpartum to determine the effect of the bleeding. The fourth study measured PPH ≥ 500 mL. Nipple stimulation versus no treatmentOne study (4385 women) compared the effect of suckling versus no treatment. Blood loss was not measured in 114 women (59 in control group and 55 in suckling group). After excluding twin pregnancies, stillbirths and neonatal deaths, the main analyses for this trial were performed on

  7. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  8. Mechanical Stimulation of the HT7 Acupuncture Point to Reduce Ethanol Self-Administration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yun Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcoholism, which is a disabling addiction disorder, is a major public health problem worldwide. The present study was designed to determine whether the application of acupuncture at the Shenmen (HT7 point suppresses voluntary alcohol consumption in addicted rats and whether this suppressive effect is potentiated by the administration of naltrexone. Methods. Rats were initially trained to self-administer a sucrose solution by operating a lever. A mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI for objective mechanical stimulation was used on rats whose baseline response had been determined. In addition, the effect of HT7 acupuncture on beta-endorphin concentration and ethanol intake via naltrexone were investigated in different groups. Results. We found that ethanol intake and beta-endorphin level in rats being treated with the MAI at the HT7 point reduced significantly. The treatment of naltrexone at high doses reduced the ethanol intake and low-dose injection of naltrexone in conjunction with the MAI also suppressed ethanol intake. Conclusions. The results of the current study indicate that using the MAI at the HT7 point effectively reduces ethanol consumption in rats. Furthermore, the coadministration of the MAI and a low dose of naltrexone can produce some more potent reducing effect of ethanol intake than can acupuncture alone.

  9. Does electrical stimulation reduce spasticity after stroke? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiary, Amir H; Fatemy, Elham

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of electrical stimulation on plantarflexor spasticity in stroke patients. A randomized controlled clinical trial study. Rehabilitation clinic of Semnan University of Medical Sciences. Forty stroke patients (aged from 42 to 65 years) with ankle plantarflexor spasticity. Fifteen minutes of inhibitory Bobath techniques were applied to one experimental group and a combination of 9 minutes of electrical stimulation on the dorsiflexor muscles and inhibitory Bobath techniques was applied to another group for 20 sessions daily. Passive ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, dorsiflexion strength test, plantarflexor muscle tone by Modified Ashworth Scale and soleus muscle H-reflex. The mean change of passive ankle joint dorsiflexion in the combination therapy group was 11.4 (SD 4.79) degrees versus 6.1 (SD 3.09) degrees, which was significantly higher (P = 0.001). The mean change of plantarflexor muscle tonicity measured by the Modified Ashworth Scale in the combination therapy group was -1.6 (SD 0.5) versus -1.1 (SD 0.31) in the Bobath group (P = 0.001). Dorsiflexor muscle strength was also increased significantly (P = 0.04) in the combination therapy group (0.7 +/- 0.37) compared with the Bobath group (0.4 +/- 0.23). However, no significant change in the amplitude of H-reflex was found between combination therapy (-0.41 +/- 0.29) and Bobath (-0.3 +/- 0.28) groups. Therapy combining Bobath inhibitory technique and electrical stimulation may help to reduce spasticity effectively in stroke patients.

  10. Prefrontal electrical stimulation in nondepressed reduces levels of reported negative affects from daily stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide H Austin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Negative emotional responses to the daily life stresses have cumulative effects which, in turn, impose wide-ranging negative constraints on emotional well being and neurocognitive performance (Kalueff et al, 2007, Charles et al, 2013, Nadler et al, 2010. Crucial cognitive functions such as memory and problem solving, as well more short term emotional responses (e.g., anticipation of- and response to- monetary rewards or losses are influenced by mood. The negative impact of these behavioural responses is felt at the individual level, but it also imposes major economic burden on modern healthcare systems. Although much research have been undertaken to understand the underlying mechanisms of depressed mood and design efficient treatment pathways, comparatively little was done to characterize mood modulations that remain within the boundaries of a healthy mental functioning. In one placebo-controlled experiments, we applied daily prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS at five points in time, and found reliable improvements on self-reported mood evaluation. We replicated this finding in an independent double-blinded placebo-controlled experiment and showed that stimulation over a shorter period of time (3 days is sufficient to create detectable mood improvements. Taken together, our data show that repeated bilateral prefrontal tDCS can reduce psychological distress in nondepressed individuals.

  11. Correlations in V1 are reduced by stimulation outside the receptive field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Adam C; Morais, Michael J; Kohn, Adam; Smith, Matthew A

    2014-08-20

    The trial-to-trial response variability of nearby cortical neurons is correlated. These correlations may strongly influence population coding performance. Numerous studies have shown that correlations can be dynamically modified by attention, adaptation, learning, and potent stimulus drive. However, the mechanisms that influence correlation strength remain poorly understood. Here we test whether correlations are influenced by presenting stimuli outside the classical receptive field (RF) of visual neurons, where they recruit a normalization signal termed surround suppression. We recorded simultaneously the activity of dozens of cells using microelectrode arrays implanted in the superficial layers of V1 in anesthetized, paralyzed macaque monkeys. We presented annular stimuli that encircled--but did not impinge upon--the RFs of the recorded cells. We found that these "extra-classical" stimuli reduced correlations in the absence of stimulation of the RF, closely resembling the decorrelating effects of stimulating the RFs directly. Our results suggest that normalization signals may be an important mechanism for modulating correlations. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411222-06$15.00/0.

  12. Defoliation reduces soil biota - and modifies stimulating effects of elevated CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie; Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    defoliation increased activity and biomass of soil biota and more so at elevated CO2. Based on soil biota responses, plants defoliated in active growth therefore conserve resources, whereas defoliation after termination of growth results in release of resources. This result challenges the idea that plants via...... was needed to reduce nematodes. We found positive effects of CO2 on root density and microbial biomass. Defoliation affected soil biota negatively, whereas elevated CO2 stimulated the plant-soil system. This effect seen in June is contrasted by the effects seen in September at the same site. Late season...... assessed in the rhizosphere of manually defoliated patches of Deschampsia flexuosa in June in a full-factorial FACE experiment with the treatments: increased atmospheric CO2, increased nighttime temperatures, summer droughts, and all of their combinations. We found a negative effect of defoliation...

  13. A new technique of "midline anchoring" in spinal cord stimulation dramatically reduces lead migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironer, Y Eugene; Brown, Christopher; Satterthwaite, John R; Cohen, Mary; Tonder, Lisa M; Grumman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a popular method of treatment of chronic pain. Unfortunately, migration of the lead continues to be a serious complication of this therapy. In an attempt to reduce lateral migration of the SCS lead, we performed a retrospective assessment of a new technique of percutaneous lead placement. This new method of "midline anchoring" of the lead using the plica mediana dorsalis was tested against conventional technique in a retrospective study involving 122 trials and 91 implants of SCS over a period of five years. The use of "midline anchoring" resulted in a decrease in lead migration from 23% to 6% after trial insertion and from 24% to 7% after implantation. We conclude that "midline anchoring" of the SCS lead is an effective method of preventing lead migration.

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the Midwestern surgical experience with the diaphragm pacing stimulation system shows that general anesthesia can be safely performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onders, Raymond P; Carlin, Arthur M; Elmo, MaryJo; Sivashankaran, Subhalakashmi; Katirji, Bashar; Schilz, Robert

    2009-03-01

    There is a paucity of literature concerning general anesthesia and surgery in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). This report summarizes the largest series of surgical cases in ALS during multicenter prospective trials of the laparoscopic diaphragm pacing system (DPS) to delay respiratory failure. The overall strategy outlined includes the use of rapidly reversible short-acting analgesic and amnestic agents with no neuromuscular relaxants. Fifty-one patients were implanted from March 2005 to March 2008 at 2 sites. Age at implantation ranged from 42 to 73 years and the percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) ranged from 20% to 87%. On preoperative blood gases, Pco(2) was as high as 60. Using this protocol, there were no failures to extubate or 30-day mortalities. The DPS system increases the respiratory system compliance by decreasing posterior lobe atelectasis and can stimulate respirations at the end of each case. Laparoscopic surgery with general anesthesia can be safely performed in patients with ALS undergoing DPS.

  15. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  16. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces acute low back pain during emergency transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertalanffy, Alexander; Kober, Alexander; Bertalanffy, Petra; Gustorff, Burkhard; Gore, Odette; Adel, Sharam; Hoerauf, Klaus

    2005-07-01

    Patients with acute low back pain may require emergency transport because of pain and immobilization. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmaceutical therapy for patients with low back pain. To evaluate the efficacy of paramedic-administered TENS in patients with acute low back pain during emergency transport. This was a prospective, randomized study involving 74 patients transported to hospital. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 (n = 36) was treated with true TENS, while group 2 (n = 36) was treated with sham TENS. The authors recorded pain and anxiety as the main outcome variables using a visual analog scale (VAS). The authors recorded a significant (p pain reduction (mean +/- standard deviation) during transport in group 1 (79.2 +/- 6.5 mm VAS to 48.9 +/- 8.2 mm VAS), whereas pain scores remained unchanged in group 2 (75.9 +/- 16.4 mm VAS and 77.1 +/- 11.2 mm VAS). Similarly, the scores for anxiety were significantly reduced (p TENS was found to be effective and rapid in reducing pain during emergency transport of patients with acute low back pain and should be considered due to its ease of use and lack of side effects in the study population.

  17. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  18. Low luminance/eyes closed and monochromatic stimulations reduce variability of flash visual evoked potential latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Visual evoked potentials are useful in investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the human visual system. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP, though technically easier, has less clinical utility because it shows great variations in both latency and amplitude for normal subjects. Aim: To study the effect of eye closure, low luminance, and monochromatic stimulation on the variability of FVEPs. Subjects and Methods: Subjects in self-reported good health in the age group of 18-30 years were divided into three groups. All participants underwent FVEP recording with eyes open and with white light at 0.6 J luminance (standard technique. Next recording was done in group 1 with closed eyes, group 2 with 1.2 and 20 J luminance, and group 3 with red and blue lights, while keeping all the other parameters constant. Two trials were given for each eye, for each technique. The same procedure was repeated at the same clock time on the following day. Statistical Analysis: Variation in FVEP latencies between the individuals (interindividual variability and the variations within the same individual for four trials (intraindividual variability were assessed using coefficient of variance (COV. The technique with lower COV was considered the better method. Results: Recording done with closed eyes, 0.6 J luminance, and monochromatic light (blue > red showed lower interindividual and intraindividual variability in P2 and N2 as compared to standard techniques. Conclusions: Low luminance flash stimulations and monochromatic light will reduce FVEP latency variability and may be clinically useful modifications of FVEP recording technique.

  19. Electrical stimulation reduces smokers' craving by modulating the coupling between dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Zhuang; Shi, Bin; Li, Hai; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhou, Yanfei; Wang, Ying; Lv, Wanwan; Ji, Xuebing; Hudak, Justin; Zhou, Yifeng; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-08-01

    Applying electrical stimulation over the prefrontal cortex can help nicotine dependents reduce cigarette craving. However, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. This study investigates this issue with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-two male chronic smokers received real and sham stimulation over dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) separated by 1 week. The neuroimaging data of the resting state, the smoking cue-reactivity task and the emotion task after stimulation were collected. The craving across the cue-reactivity task was diminished during real stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. The whole-brain analysis on the cue-reactivity task revealed a significant interaction between the stimulation condition (real vs sham) and the cue type (smoking vs neutral) in the left superior frontal gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus. The functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and the right parahippocampal gyrus, as revealed by both psychophysical interaction analysis and the resting state functional connectivity, is altered by electrical stimulation. Moreover, the craving change across the real and sham condition is predicted by alteration of functional connectivity revealed by psychophysical interaction analysis. The local and long-distance coupling, altered by the electrical stimulation, might be the underlying neural mechanism of craving regulation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Nicoboxil/nonivamide cream effectively and safely reduces acute nonspecific low back pain – a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahova Z

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zuzana Blahova,1 Janina Claudia Holm,1 Thomas Weiser,2 Erika Richter,2 Matthias Trampisch,2 Elena Akarachkova3 1Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH & Co KG, Vienna, Austria; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 3I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation Background/objective: Low back pain affects many patients and has a high socioeconomic impact. Topical capsaicinoids have been used for decades to treat musculoskeletal pain. This study investigated the effects of the fixed dose combination (FDC of nonivamide (a capsaicinoid and nicoboxil (a nicotinic acid ester cream in the treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain.Materials and methods: This phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, multi-center trial investigated efficacy, safety, and tolerability of topical nicoboxil 1.08%/nonivamide 0.17% (Finalgon® cream in treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain with the endpoints: pain intensity (PI difference between pre-dose baseline and 8 hours after first application and the end of treatment, mobility score, and efficacy score.Results: Patients (n=138, 21–65 years of age, were treated for up to 4 days with FDC or placebo cream. Mean baseline PI was 6.8 on a 0–10 point numerical rating scale. After 8 hours, pain was more reduced with the FDC than with placebo (adjusted means: 2.824 vs. 0.975 points; p<0.0001. On the last treatment day, mean pain reduction by the FDC was stronger than with placebo (adjusted means: 5.132 vs. 2.174 points; p<0.0001. Mobility on Day 1 was in favor of the FDC when compared to placebo (odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 7.200 [3.609, 14.363], p<0.0001. At the end of treatment, patients treated with the FDC rated efficacy significantly higher than placebo (odds ratio [95% CI]: 11.370 [5.342, 24.199], p<0.0001. Both treatments were tolerated well. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Nicoboxil

  1. Reduced graphene oxide-coated hydroxyapatite composites stimulate spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Ho; Shin, Yong Cheol; Jin, Oh Seong; Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Park, Jong-Chul; Hong, Suck Won; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-07-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite the potential biomedical applications of graphene and its derivatives, only limited information is available regarding their osteogenic activity. This study concentrates upon the effects of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The average particle sizes of HAp and rGO were 1270 +/- 476 nm and 438 +/- 180 nm, respectively. When coated on HAp particulates, rGO synergistically enhanced spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, without hampering their proliferation. This result was confirmed by determining alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of calcium and phosphate as early and late stage markers of osteogenic differentiation. It is suggested that rGO-coated HAp composites can be effectively utilized as dental and orthopedic bone fillers since these graphene-based particulate materials have potent effects on stimulating the spontaneous differentiation of MSCs and show superior bioactivity and osteoinductive potential.Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite

  2. Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) reduces synaptic depression during repetitive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Priego, Mercedes; Obis, Teresa; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Tomàs, Josep

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has trophic and maintenance effects on several types of peripheral and central neurons, glia, and cells outside the nervous system. Both CNTF and its receptor, CNTF-Rα, are expressed in the muscle. We use confocal immunocytochemistry to show that the trophic cytokine and its receptor are present in the pre- and post-synaptic sites of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Applied CNTF (7.5-200 ng/ml, 60 min-3 h) does not acutely affect spontaneous potentials (size or frequency) or quantal content of the evoked acetylcholine release from post-natal (in weak or strong axonal inputs on dually innervated end plates or in the most mature singly innervated synapses at P6) or adult (P30) NMJ of Levator auris longus muscle of the mice. However, CNTF reduces roughly 50% the depression produced by repetitive stimulation (40 Hz, 2 min) on the adult NMJs. Our findings indicate that, unlike neurotrophins, exogenous CNTF does not acutely modulate transmitter release locally at the mammalian neuromuscular synapse but can protect mature end plates from activity-induced synaptic depression. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  3. Accelerating the development of an information ecosystem in health care, by stimulating the growth of safe intermediate processing of health information (IPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshana Liyanage

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Health care, in common with many other industries, is generating large amounts of routine data, data that are challenging to process, analyse or curate, so-called ‘big data’. A challenge for health informatics is to make sense of these data. Part of the answer will come from the development of ontologies that support the use of heterogeneous data sources and the development of intermediate processors of health information (IPHI. IPHI will sit between the generators of health data and information, often the providers of health care, and the managers, commissioners, policy makers, researchers, and the pharmaceutical and other healthcare industries. They will create a health ecosystem by processing data in a way that stimulates improved data quality and potentially health care delivery by providers of health care, and by providing greater insights to legitimate users of data. Exemplars are provided of how a health ecosystem might be encouraged and developed to promote patient safety and more efficient health care. These are in the areas of how to integrate data around the unsafe use of alcohol and to explore vaccine safety. A challenge for IPHI is how to ensure that their processing of data is valid, safe and maintains privacy. Development of the healthcare ecosystem and IPHI should be actively encouraged internationally. Governments, regulators and providers of health care should facilitate access to health data and the use of national and international comparisons to monitor standards. However, most importantly, they should pilot new methods of improving quality and safety through the intermediate processing of health data.

  4. Background matters: Minor vibratory stimulation during motor skill acquisition selectively reduces off-line memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Maria; Herling, Zohar; Levy, Ishay; Egbarieh, Nebal; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Karni, Avi

    2017-04-01

    Although a ubiquitous situation, it is not clear how effective is a learning experience when task-irrelevant, sensory noise occurs in the background. Here, young adults were trained on the finger opposition sequence task, in a well-established training and testing protocol affording measures for online as well as off-line learning. During the training session, one group experienced a minor background vibratory stimulation to the trunk by the means of vibrating cushion, while the second group experienced recorded sound vibrations. A control group was trained with no extra sensory stimulation. Sensory stimulation during training had no effect on the online within-session gains, but dampened the expression of the off-line, consolidation phase, gains in the two sensory stimulation groups. These results suggest that background sensory stimulation can selectively modify off-line, procedural memory consolidation processes, despite well-preserved on-line learning. Classical studies have shown that neural plasticity in sensory systems is modulated by motor input. The current results extend this notion and suggest that some types of task-irrelevant sensory stimulation, concurrent with motor training, may constitute a 'gating' factor - modulating the triggering of long-term procedural memory consolidation processes. Thus, vibratory stimulation may be considered as a behavioral counterpart of pharmacological interventions that do not interfere with short term neural plasticity but block long-term plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Partial Sleep Deprivation Reduces the Efficacy of Orexin-A to Stimulate Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePorter, Danielle P; Coborn, Jamie E; Teske, Jennifer A

    2017-10-01

    Sufficient sleep is required for weight maintenance. Sleep deprivation due to noise exposure stimulates weight gain by increasing hyperphagia and reducing energy expenditure (EE). Yet the mechanistic basis underlying the weight gain response is unclear. Orexin-A promotes arousal and negative energy balance, and orexin terminals project to the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), which is involved in sleep-to-wake transitions. To determine whether sleep deprivation reduces orexin function in VLPO and to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation would attenuate the orexin-A-stimulated increase in arousal, physical activity (PA), and EE. Electroencephalogram, electromyogram, distance traveled, and EE were determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats following orexin-A injections into VLPO both before and after acute (12-h) and chronic (8 h/d, 9 d) sleep deprivation by noise exposure. Orexin-A in the VLPO significantly increased arousal, PA, total EE, and PA-related EE and reduced sleep and respiratory quotient before sleep deprivation. In contrast to after acute sleep deprivation in which orexin-A failed to stimulate EE during PA only, orexin-A failed to significantly increase arousal, PA, fat oxidation, total EE, and PA-related EE after chronic sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation may reduce sensitivity to endogenous stimuli that enhance EE due to PA and thus stimulate weight gain. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  6. No dry dock: safely strategy for avoiding unplanned dry dock and reducing safety, health and environment risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinis, Danny A.; Brett, David E. [EM and I Alliance, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    There are currently over 150 operational FPUs with an expected increase of a further 100 units in the next 5 years. This results from several factors: increasing demand for hydrocarbons; new reserves in deep water; pipeline infrastructure is not required and FPU design fits many field requirements. FPUs are increasingly chosen for large, deep water, longer life developments. Units are bigger and more complex. Regulators and oil majors are imposing more stringent integrity requirements to protect against safety, environmental and operational risks related to loss of containment and loss of hull structure integrity which could lead to HSE risks, increased costs and production losses which would become particularly onerous should the unit have to dry dock. There are a number of other important components the context of asset integrity, e.g. mooring and sub sea systems, but these are outside the scope of this paper. The 'No Dry dock....Safely' approach is based on the principle of Criticality Based Integrity which identifies components whose integrity is critical to avoiding incidents and the risk of dry docking. Once critical components are identified the challenge is to establish integrity status and maintain fitness-for-service. Various JIPs e.g. the Hull Inspection Techniques and Strategies are looking at best practice inspection methodologies. The industry is progressing ways of maintaining and repairing critical items without going to dry dock. The challenges include coating maintenance, structural and pressure system repairs. Advances in cathodic protection and coating maintenance strategies are proving successful as are techniques for carrying out major structural repairs. The 'No Dry dock...Safely' methodology is a proven solution and case histories have been included. Technological advances will further improve integrity in the industry. There is no reason why FPUs cannot be kept on station and in production for 25 years or more whilst

  7. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula

    2007-01-01

    exposure from the rain and sun and a reduced risk of theft. Data were analysed for 172 households that reported agricultural use of pesticides at follow-up. Of these, 141 (82%) kept pesticides in the house under lock against 3 (2%) at baseline. As expected, the distribution of boxes significantly reduced...

  8. Destruction of the medial forebrain bundle caudal to the site of stimulation reduces rewarding efficacy but destruction rostrally does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Leon, M; Lim, B T; Sim, J C; Waraczynski, M

    1996-08-01

    Rats with an electrode in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in or near the ventral tegmental area and another at the level of the rostral hypothalamus sustained large electrolytic lesions at either the rostral or the caudal electrode. The rewarding efficacy of stimulation through the other electrode was determined before and after the lesion. Massive damage to the MFB in the rostral lateral hypothalamus (LH) generally had little effect on the rewarding efficacy of more caudal stimulation, whereas large lesions in the caudal MFB generally reduced the rewarding efficacy of LH stimulation by 35-60%. Similar reductions were produced by knife cuts in the caudal MFB. These results appear to be inconsistent with the hypothesis that the reward fibers consist either of descending or ascending fibers coursing in or near the MFB. It is suggested that the reward fibers are collaterals from neurons with both their somata and their behaviorally significant terminals located primarily in the midbrain.

  9. How safe is safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.F.; Flood, M.

    1996-01-01

    60 and 70 degree convexo-concave valve. Nine hundred and one valves were implanted in Australia. Twelve strut fractures were reported. Two other patients have been explanted and have demonstrated 'single leg separation'. This particular problem was only investigated when two patients died of a fractured valve in the same hospital on the same day. A retrospective study of all known patients in Australia has shown poor follow up, lack of knowledge and indeed lack of interest in device failure modes. Consequently, the Australian and New Zealand Heart Valve Registry was established to track all implanted valves and to notify physicians of any new information. This is perhaps the first device-specific register in Australia. The safety of individual devices is often not known by manufacturers, regulators and clinicians alike. No follow up is available and large volume long term studies are yet to be implemented for the majority of devices. Without such studies and without mandatory problem reporting, the relative safety of medical devices will continue to be measured by banner headlines, sensational TV 'grabs' and protracted law suits. At present, only schemes such as the Problem Reporting Scheme can tell us (albeit vaguely) 'how safe is safe'

  10. Combined sub-threshold dosages of phenobarbital and low-frequency stimulation effectively reduce seizures in amygdala-kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Azam; Semnanian, Saeed; Atapour, Nafiseh; Shojaei, Amir; Moradi, Homeira; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad

    2014-08-01

    Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) is a potential therapy utilized in patients who do not achieve satisfactory control of seizures with pharmacological treatments. Here, we investigated the interaction between anticonvulsant effects of LFS and phenobarbital (a commonly used medicine) on amygdala-kindled seizures in rats. Animals were kindled by electrical stimulation of basolateral amygdala in a rapid manner (12 stimulations/day). Fully kindled animals randomly received one of the three treatment choices: phenobarbital (1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 mg/kg; i.p.; 30 min before kindling stimulation), LFS (one or 4 packages contained 100 or 200 monophasic square wave pulses, 0.1-ms pulse duration at 1 Hz, immediately before kindling stimulation) or a combination of both (phenobarbital at 3 mg/kg and LFS). Phenobarbital alone at the doses of 1, 2 and 3 mg/kg had no significant effect on the main seizure parameters. LFS application always produced anticonvulsant effects unless applied with the pattern of one package of 100 pulses, which is considered as non-effective. All the seizure parameters were significantly reduced when phenobarbital (3 mg/kg) was administered prior to the application of the non-effective pattern of LFS. Phenobarbital (3 mg/kg) also increased the anticonvulsant actions of the effective LFS pattern. Our results provide an evidence of a positive cumulative anticonvulsant effect of LFS and phenobarbital, suggesting a potential combination therapy at sub-threshold dosages of phenobarbital and LFS to achieve a satisfactory clinical effect.

  11. Free-living energy expenditure reduced after deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Ulrik; Werdelin, Lene; Lokkegaard, Annemette

    2012-01-01

    with deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is now considered the gold standard in fluctuating PD. Many patients experience a gain of weight following the surgery. The aim of this study was to identify possible mechanisms, which may contribute to body weight gain in patients with PD...

  12. Sequential segmental neuromuscular stimulation reduces fatigue and improves perfusion in dynamic graciloplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonnevijlle, E D; Somia, N N; Abadia, G P; Stremel, R W; Maldonado, C J; Werker, P M; Kon, M; Barker, J H

    Dynamic graciloplasty is used as a treatment modality for total urinary incontinence caused by a paralyzed sphincter. A problem with this application is undesirable fatigue of the muscle caused by continuous electrical stimulation. Therefore, the neosphincter must be trained via a rigorous regimen

  13. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP are reduced in lymphocytes from alcoholic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, I.; Wrubel, B.; Estrin, W.; Gordon, A.

    1987-01-01

    Alcoholism causes serious neurologic disease that may be due, in part, to the ability of ethanol to interact with neural cell membranes and change neuronal function. Adenosine receptors are membrane-bound proteins that appear to mediate some of the effects of ethanol in the brain. Human lymphocytes also have adenosine receptors, and their activation causes increases in cAMP levels. To test the hypothesis that basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels in lymphocytes might be abnormal in alcoholism, the authors studied lymphocytes from 10 alcoholic subjects, 10 age- and sex-matched normal individuals, and 10 patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels were reduced 75% in lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects. Also, there was a 76% reduction in ethanol stimulation of cAMP accumulation in lymphocytes from alcoholics. Similar results were demonstrable in isolated T cells. Unlike other laboratory tests examined, these measurements appeared to distinguish alcoholics from normal subjects and from patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Reduced basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from alcoholics may reflect a change in cell membranes due either to chronic alcohol abuse or to a genetic predisposition unique to alcoholic subjects

  14. Long pacing pulses reduce phrenic nerve stimulation in left ventricular pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortshøj, Søren; Heath, Finn; Haugland, Morten; Eschen, Ole; Thøgersen, Anna Margrethe; Riahi, Sam; Toft, Egon; Struijk, Johannes Jan

    2014-05-01

    Phrenic nerve stimulation is a major obstacle in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Activation characteristics of the heart and phrenic nerve are different with higher chronaxie for the heart. Therefore, longer pulse durations could be beneficial in preventing phrenic nerve stimulation during CRT due to a decreased threshold for the heart compared with the phrenic nerve. We investigated if long pulse durations decreased left ventricular (LV) thresholds relatively to phrenic nerve thresholds in humans. Eleven patients, with indication for CRT and phrenic nerve stimulation at the intended pacing site, underwent determination of thresholds for the heart and phrenic nerve at different pulse durations (0.3-2.9 milliseconds). The resulting strength duration curves were analyzed by determining chronaxie and rheobase. Comparisons for those parameters were made between the heart and phrenic nerve, and between the models of Weiss and Lapicque as well. In 9 of 11 cases, the thresholds decreased faster for the LV than for the phrenic nerve with increasing pulse duration. In 3 cases, the thresholds changed from unfavorable for LV stimulation to more than a factor 2 in favor of the LV. The greatest change occurred for pulse durations up to 1.5 milliseconds. The chronaxie of the heart was significantly higher than the chronaxie of the phrenic nerve (0.47 milliseconds vs. 0.22 milliseconds [P = 0.029, Lapicque] and 0.79 milliseconds vs. 0.27 milliseconds [P = 0.033, Weiss]). Long pulse durations lead to a decreased threshold of the heart relatively to the phrenic nerve and may prevent stimulation of the phrenic nerve in a clinical setting. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor Also Reduces Voice Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Schrock, Lauren; Davis, Tyler; House, Paul A

    2017-12-12

    Voice tremor is a common feature of essential tremor (ET) that is difficult to treat medically and significantly affects quality of life. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) of the thalamus is effective in improving contralateral distal limb tremor and has been shown in limited studies to affect voice tremor. Our objective was to retrospectively evaluate whether Vim-DBS used to treat patients with essential motor tremor also effectively treated underlying concurrent voice tremor and assess whether particular lead locations were favorable for treating vocal tremor. In this retrospective cohort study, patients had unilateral or bilateral lead placement and were monitored for up to 12 months. We used the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin (FTM) subscore to assess vocal tremor. Changes in vocal tremor before and after stimulation and over several sessions were assessed. Of the 77 patients who met the inclusion criteria and were treated for essential tremor, 20 (26%) patients had vocal tremor prior to stimulation. Active Vim-DBS decreased the amplitude of voice tremor by 80% (p centroid of stimulation showed that Vim thalamic stimulation that is more anterior on average yielded better voice tremor control, significantly so on the left side (p < 0.05). Additionally, there was improvement in head, tongue, and face tremor scores (p < 0.05). Unilateral and bilateral Vim-DBS targeted to treat the motor component of essential tremor also dramatically decreased the amplitude of voice tremor in this group of patients, suggesting a potential benefit of this treatment for affected patients. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  16. The problem of search safe and effective method in reducing injuries in bodybuilding stage of specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Slavityak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify the most frequently used coaches and athletes in bodybuilding principles that can help to reduce the injuries of athletes while maintaining the progressivity results. Material : a survey participated 86 coaches and 120 athletes, bodybuilders from 5 to 8 years. Results : It was found that most of the coaches used in the course of employment principles generally accepted system of training. In such circumstances, the risk of injury to athletes is large enough. When using pre-exhaustion principle to increase the intensity of the training process increases the risk of overloading the body athletes. Conclusions : Athletes with a longer training experience (about 8 years, more likely to use the principle of prior exhaustion. In this case athletes try using this principle to reduce the operating parameters of volume load. This helps to reduce the level of injury and maintain positive dynamics performance.

  17. Bi-frontal transcranial alternating current stimulation in the ripple range reduced overnight forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Gergely eAmbrus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available High frequency oscillations in the hippocampal structures recorded during sleep have been proved to be essential for long-term episodic memory consolidation in both animals and in humans. The aim of this study was to test if transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in the hippocampal ripple range, applied bi-frontally during encoding, could modulate declarative memory performance, measured immediately after encoding, and after a night’s sleep. An associative word-pair learning test, taken from Marshall and colleagues, was used. During an evening encoding phase, participants received 1 mA 140 Hz tACS or sham stimulation over both DLPFCs for 10 minutes while being presented twice with a list of word-pairs. Cued recall performance was investigated 10 minutes after training and the morning following the training session. Forgetting from evening to morning was observed in the sham condition, but not in the 140 Hz stimulation condition. 140 Hz tACS during encoding may have an effect on the consolidation of declarative material.

  18. Bi-frontal transcranial alternating current stimulation in the ripple range reduced overnight forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Pisoni, Alberto; Primaßin, Annika; Turi, Zsolt; Paulus, Walter; Antal, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    High frequency oscillations in the hippocampal structures recorded during sleep have been proved to be essential for long-term episodic memory consolidation in both animals and in humans. The aim of this study was to test if transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in the hippocampal ripple range, applied bi-frontally during encoding, could modulate declarative memory performance, measured immediately after encoding, and after a night's sleep. An associative word-pair learning test was used. During an evening encoding phase, participants received 1 mA 140 Hz tACS or sham stimulation over both DLPFCs for 10 min while being presented twice with a list of word-pairs. Cued recall performance was investigated 10 min after training and the morning following the training session. Forgetting from evening to morning was observed in the sham condition, but not in the 140 Hz stimulation condition. 140 Hz tACS during encoding may have an effect on the consolidation of declarative material.

  19. Restoration of ankle movements with the ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator: a safe and reliable treatment option for permanent central leg palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Klaus Daniel; Polanski, Witold Henryk; Schulz, Anne-Kathrin; Jöbges, Michael; Hoff, Hansjoerg; Schackert, Gabriele; Pinzer, Thomas; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The ActiGait drop foot stimulator is a promising technique for restoration of lost ankle function by an implantable hybrid stimulation system. It allows ankle dorsiflexion by active peroneal nerve stimulation during the swing phase of gait. In this paper the authors report the outcome of the first prospective study on a large number of patients with stroke-related drop foot. METHODS Twenty-seven patients who experienced a stroke and with persisting spastic leg paresis received an implantable ActiGait drop foot stimulator for restoration of ankle movement after successful surface test stimulation. After 3 to 5 weeks, the stimulator was activated, and gait speed, gait endurance, and activation time of the system were evaluated and compared with preoperative gait tests. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS Postoperative gait speed significantly improved from 33.9 seconds per 20 meters to 17.9 seconds per 20 meters (p < 0.0001), gait endurance from 196 meters in 6 minutes to 401 meters in 6 minutes (p < 0.0001), and activation time from 20.5 seconds to 10.6 seconds on average (p < 0.0001). In 2 patients with nerve injury, surgical repositioning of the electrode cuff became necessary. One patient showed a delayed wound healing, and in another patient the system had to be removed because of a wound infection. Marked improvement in mobility, social participation, and quality of life was confirmed by 89% to 96% of patients. CONCLUSIONS The ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator improves gait speed, endurance, and quality of life in patients with stroke-related drop foot. Regarding gait speed, the ActiGait system appears to be advantageous compared with foot orthosis or surface stimulation devices. Randomized trials with more patients and longer observation periods are needed to prove the long-term benefit of this device.

  20. Sensory trigeminal ULF-TENS stimulation reduces HRV response to experimentally induced arithmetic stress: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Ortu, Eleonora; Constantinescu, Marian Vladimir; Pietropaoli, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Ultra Low Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Nervous Stimulation (ULF-TENS) is extensively used for pain relief and for the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In addition to its local effects, ULF-TENS acts on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with particular reference to the periaqueductal gray (PAG), promoting the release of endogenous opioids and modulating descending pain systems. It has been suggested that the PAG participates in the coupling between the emotional stimulus and the appropriate behavioral autonomic response. This function is successfully investigated by HRV. Therefore, our goal is to investigate the effects of trigeminal ULF-TENS stimulation on autonomic behavior in terms of HRV and respiratory parameters during an experimentally-induced arithmetic stress test in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women between 25 and 35years of age were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the control (TENS stimulation off) or test group (TENS stimulation on). Heart (HR, LF, HF, LF/HF ratio, DET, RMSSD, PNN50, RR) and respiratory (BR) rate were evaluated under basal, T1 (TENS off/on), and stress (mathematical task) conditions. Results showed that HRV parameters and BR significantly changed during the arithmetic stress paradigm (pTENS and control group could be discriminated only by non-linear HRV data, namely RR and DET (p=0.038 and p=0.027, respectively). During the arithmetic task, LF/HF ratio was the most sensitive parameter to discriminate between groups (p=0.019). Our data suggest that trigeminal sensory ULF-TENS reduces the autonomic response in terms of HRV and BR during acute mental stress in healthy subjects. Future directions of our work aim at applying the HRV and BR analysis, with and without TENS stimulation, to individuals with dysfunctional ANS among those with TMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intraoperative hemidiaphragm electrical stimulation reduces oxidative stress and upregulates autophagy in surgery patients undergoing mechanical ventilation: exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Mankowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical ventilation (MV during a cardio-thoracic surgery contributes to diaphragm muscle dysfunction that impairs weaning and can lead to the ventilator- induced diaphragm dysfunction. Especially, it is critical in older adults who have lower muscle reparative capacity following MV. Reports have shown that the intraoperative intermittent hemidiaphragm electrical stimulation can maintain and/or improve post-surgery diaphragm function. In particular, from a molecular point of view, intermittent electrical stimulation (ES may reduce oxidative stress and increase regulatory autophagy levels, and therefore improve diaphragm function in animal studies. We have recently shown in humans that intraoperative ES attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and force decline in single diaphragm muscle fibers. The aim of this study was to investigate an effect of ES on oxidative stress, antioxidant status and autophagy biomarker levels in the human diaphragm during surgery. Methods One phrenic nerve was simulated with an external cardiac pacer in operated older subjects (62.4 ± 12.9 years (n = 8 during the surgery. The patients received 30 pulses per min every 30 min. The muscle biopsy was collected from both hemidiaphragms and frozen for further analyses. 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, an oxidative stress marker, and autophagy marker levels (Beclin-1 and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, I and II-LC3 II/I protein concentrations were detected by the Western Blot technique. Antioxidant enzymatic activity copper-zinc (CuZnSOD and manganese (MnSOD superoxide dismutase were analyzed. Results Levels of lipid peroxidation (4-HNE were significantly lower in the stimulated side (p  0.05. Additionally, the protein concentrations of Beclin-1 and the LC3 II/I ratio were higher in the stimulated side (p < 0.05. Conclusion These results suggest that the intraoperative electrical stimulation decreases oxidative stress levels

  2. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on reducing spasticity in patients suffering from HTLV-1-associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mostafa; Nafissi, Shahriar; Jamal-Omidi, Shirin; Amiri, Motahareh; Fatehi, Farzad

    2014-12-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 has been implicated in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Regarding its endemicity in Iran and the role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in reducing spasticity, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in reducing spasticity (as primary outcome) and pain, muscle power, and quality of life (as secondary outcomes) in patients suffering from HAM/TSP. In this pretest-posttest study, nine definite patients with HAM/TSP (according to WHO guidelines) were recruited. All patients underwent five consecutive daily sessions of active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (each session consisting of 20 trains of 10 pulses at 5 Hz and an intensity of 90% of resting motor threshold for the biceps brachii muscle). Main outcome measures including spasticity (by modified Ashworth scale), pain (by visual analog scale), muscle power, and quality of life (by SF 36) were measured before the study and days 5, 7, 30 after the termination of the sessions. Seven (77.8%) females and 2 (22.2%) males were recruited with the mean age of 52 ± 12.67 years, and the mean duration of the disease was 5 ± 3.94. Comparison of the repeated measures showed a statistically significant decrease in pain and spasticity in lower limbs. The decrement in spasticity was persistent even 30 days after the intervention; however, the pain reduction was seen only 5 days after the procedure. No change in quality of life, and muscle power was detected. It seems that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation could decrease spasticity and pain in patients with HAM/TSP, and this effect could persistently continue by 1 month, but it did not influence patients' muscle power and quality of life, and it could be used as an adjuvant therapy in patients suffering from human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated HAM/TSP.

  3. Reduced sensory stimulation alters the molecular make-up of glutamatergic hair cell synapses in the developing cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, M; Constable, R; James, N R; Thorne, P R; Montgomery, J M

    2016-06-14

    Neural activity during early development is known to alter innervation pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We sought to examine how reduced sound-induced sensory activity in the cochlea affected the consolidation of glutamatergic synapses between inner hair cells (IHC) and the primary auditory neurons as these synapses play a primary role in transmitting sound information to the brain. A unilateral conductive hearing loss was induced prior to the onset of sound-mediated stimulation of the sensory hair cells, by rupturing the tympanic membrane and dislocating the auditory ossicles in the left ear of P11 mice. Auditory brainstem responses at P15 and P21 showed a 40-50-dB increase in thresholds for frequencies 8-32kHz in the dislocated ear relative to the control ear. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were subsequently used to examine the effect of this attenuation of sound stimulation on the expression of RIBEYE, which comprises the presynaptic ribbons, Shank-1, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, and the GluA2/3 and 4 subunits of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. Our results show that dislocation did not alter the number of pre- or postsynaptic protein puncta. However, dislocation did increase the size of RIBEYE, GluA4, GluA2/3 and Shank-1 puncta, with postsynaptic changes preceding presynaptic changes. Our data suggest that a reduction in sound stimulation during auditory development induces plasticity in the molecular make-up of IHC glutamatergic synapses, but does not affect the number of these synapses. Up-regulation of synaptic proteins with sound attenuation may facilitate a compensatory increase in synaptic transmission due to the reduced sensory stimulation of the IHC. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An artificial neural network to safely reduce the number of ambulance ECGs transmitted for physician assessment in a system with prehospital detection of ST elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forberg Jakob L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG transmission to an expert for interpretation and triage reduces time to acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI. In order to detect all STEMI patients, the ECG should be transmitted in all cases of suspected acute cardiac ischemia. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN to safely reduce the number of ECGs transmitted by identifying patients without STEMI and patients not needing acute PCI. Methods Five hundred and sixty ambulance ECGs transmitted to the coronary care unit (CCU in routine care were prospectively collected. The ECG interpretation by the ANN was compared with the diagnosis (STEMI or not and the need for an acute PCI (or not as determined from the Swedish coronary angiography and angioplasty register. The CCU physician's real time ECG interpretation (STEMI or not and triage decision (acute PCI or not were registered for comparison. Results The ANN sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for STEMI was 95%, 68%, 18% and 99%, respectively, and for a need of acute PCI it was 97%, 68%, 17% and 100%. The area under the ANN's receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.96 and for predicting the need of acute PCI 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97. If ECGs where the ANN did not identify a STEMI or a need of acute PCI were theoretically to be withheld from transmission, the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could have been reduced by 64% without missing any case with STEMI or a need of immediate PCI. Conclusions Our ANN had an excellent ability to predict STEMI and the need of acute PCI in ambulance ECGs, and has a potential to safely reduce the number of ECG transmitted to the CCU by almost two thirds.

  5. Tranexamic Acid Safely Reduced Blood Loss in Hemi- and Total Hip Arthroplasty for Acute Femoral Neck Fracture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Chad D; Houdek, Matthew T; Sems, S Andrew; Cross, William W; Pagnano, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to determine whether (1) tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces the incidence of transfusion (2) TXA reduces the calculated blood loss, and (3) there are any observable differences in 30- and 90-day complications with TXA administration during arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF). Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. One hundred thirty-eight patients who presented with a low-energy, isolated, FNF (AO 31B) treated with either hemi- or total hip arthroplasty within 72 hours of injury were randomized to either the TXA group (69 patients) or placebo group (69 patients). In the TXA group, patients received 2 doses of 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA dissolved in 100 mL of saline, each administered over 10 minutes; 1 dose just before incision, and the second at wound closure. In the placebo group, 100 mL of saline solution was administered in a similar fashion. Perioperative care was otherwise standardized including conservative transfusion criteria. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of patients who underwent blood transfusion during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were calculated blood loss, number of units transfused during hospitalization, and incidence of adverse events at 30 and 90 days including thromboembolic event, wound complications, reoperation, hospital readmission, and all-cause mortality. TXA reduced mean incidence of transfusion by 305 mL (P = 0.0005). There was a trend toward decreased transfusion rate in the TXA group (17% vs. 26%, P = 0.22). TXA was safe with no differences in adverse events at 30 and 90 days. This randomized clinical trial found that TXA administration safely reduced blood loss with a tendency for decreased transfusion rate and total blood product consumption for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for acute FNF. More studies are needed to further ascertain the role of TXA in the management of patients with FNF. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors

  6. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation reduces weight gain in an obesity-animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Melega

    Full Text Available Prior studies of appetite regulatory networks, primarily in rodents, have established that targeted electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH can alter food intake patterns and metabolic homeostasis. Consideration of this method for weight modulation in humans with severe overeating disorders and morbid obesity can be further advanced by modeling procedures and assessing endpoints that can provide preclinical data on efficacy and safety. In this study we adapted human deep brain stimulation (DBS stereotactic methods and instrumentation to demonstrate in a large animal model the modulation of weight gain with VMH-DBS. Female Göttingen minipigs were used because of their dietary habits, physiologic characteristics, and brain structures that resemble those of primates. Further, these animals become obese on extra-feeding regimens. DBS electrodes were first bilaterally implanted into the VMH of the animals (n = 8 which were then maintained on a restricted food regimen for 1 mo following the surgery. The daily amount of food was then doubled for the next 2 mo in all animals to produce obesity associated with extra calorie intake, with half of the animals (n = 4 concurrently receiving continuous low frequency (50 Hz VMH-DBS. Adverse motoric or behavioral effects were not observed subsequent to the surgical procedure or during the DBS period. Throughout this 2 mo DBS period, all animals consumed the doubled amount of daily food. However, the animals that had received VMH-DBS showed a cumulative weight gain (6.1±0.4 kg; mean ± SEM that was lower than the nonstimulated VMH-DBS animals (9.4±1.3 kg; p<0.05, suggestive of a DBS-associated increase in metabolic rate. These results in a porcine obesity model demonstrate the efficacy and behavioral safety of a low frequency VMH-DBS application as a potential clinical strategy for modulation of body weight.

  7. Treatment of Graves' disease with rituximab specifically reduces the production of thyroid stimulating autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fassi, Daniel; Banga, J Paul; Gilbert, Jacqueline A

    2008-01-01

    involving Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the human thyrotropin receptor, we found that the stimulatory capacity of TRAbs was reduced markedly, by 66+/-22%, upon treatment with rituximab and methimazole for 21 days (p

  8. Functional electrical stimulation mediated by iterative learning control and 3D robotics reduces motor impairment in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meadmore Katie L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel stroke rehabilitation techniques that employ electrical stimulation (ES and robotic technologies are effective in reducing upper limb impairments. ES is most effective when it is applied to support the patients’ voluntary effort; however, current systems fail to fully exploit this connection. This study builds on previous work using advanced ES controllers, and aims to investigate the feasibility of Stimulation Assistance through Iterative Learning (SAIL, a novel upper limb stroke rehabilitation system which utilises robotic support, ES, and voluntary effort. Methods Five hemiparetic, chronic stroke participants with impaired upper limb function attended 18, 1 hour intervention sessions. Participants completed virtual reality tracking tasks whereby they moved their impaired arm to follow a slowly moving sphere along a specified trajectory. To do this, the participants’ arm was supported by a robot. ES, mediated by advanced iterative learning control (ILC algorithms, was applied to the triceps and anterior deltoid muscles. Each movement was repeated 6 times and ILC adjusted the amount of stimulation applied on each trial to improve accuracy and maximise voluntary effort. Participants completed clinical assessments (Fugl-Meyer, Action Research Arm Test at baseline and post-intervention, as well as unassisted tracking tasks at the beginning and end of each intervention session. Data were analysed using t-tests and linear regression. Results From baseline to post-intervention, Fugl-Meyer scores improved, assisted and unassisted tracking performance improved, and the amount of ES required to assist tracking reduced. Conclusions The concept of minimising support from ES using ILC algorithms was demonstrated. The positive results are promising with respect to reducing upper limb impairments following stroke, however, a larger study is required to confirm this.

  9. Reduced salmonella fecal shedding in swine administered porcine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella colonization of food animals is a concern for animal health, food safety and public health. Key objectives of pre-harvest food safety programs are to detect asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in food animals, reduce colonization, and prevent transmission of Salmonella to other animals and ...

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong eXu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (~1.5 h smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and cathode to the right supra orbital area for 20min with a current of 2.0mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood State (POMS to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation.

  11. Anti-Mullerian hormone-tailored stimulation protocols improve outcomes whilst reducing adverse effects and costs of IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, A P; Rustamov, O; Roberts, S A; Lim, H Y N; Pemberton, P W; Smith, A; Nardo, L G

    2011-09-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is increasingly used to quantify ovarian reserve, but it has not yet realized its full clinical potential in assisted reproduction technology. We investigated the possible benefits of using novel, stratified ovarian hyperstimulation protocols, tailored to individual AMH levels, compared with conventional stimulation. Retrospective data were collected from 769 women (first cycle of IVF, using fresh embryos), in a UK tertiary care unit: 346 women using conventional stimulation protocols; 423 women treated under new AMH-tailored protocols. Embryo transfer rates increased significantly (79-87%: P= 0.002) after the introduction of AMH-tailored stimulation protocols. Pregnancy rate per cycle started and live birth rate also increased significantly compared with conventionally treated women (17.9-27.7%, P= 0.002 and 15.9-23.9%, P = 0.007, respectively). Moreover, in the AMH group, the incidence of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) fell significantly (6.9-2.3%, P = 0.002) and failed fertilization fell from 7.8 to 4.5%. The cost of fertility drug treatment fell by 29% per patient and the overall cost of clinical management of OHSS fell by 43% in the AMH group. GnRH antagonist protocols, introduced as part of AMH-tailored treatment, may have contributed to the observed improvements: however, within the AMH-tailored group, the live birth rate was not significantly different between agonist and antagonist-treated groups. Although large, prospective, multicentre studies are indicated, we have clearly demonstrated that individualized, AMH-guided, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocols significantly improved positive clinical outcomes, reduced the incidence of complications and reduced the financial burden associated with assisted reproduction.

  12. Chewing Stimulation Reduces Appetite Ratings and Attentional Bias toward Visual Food Stimuli in Healthy-Weight Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Akitsu; Miyamoto, Jun J; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Moriyama, Keiji

    2018-01-01

    Based on the theory of incentive sensitization, the exposure to food stimuli sensitizes the brain's reward circuits and enhances attentional bias toward food. Therefore, reducing attentional bias to food could possibly be beneficial in preventing impulsive eating. The importance of chewing has been increasingly implicated as one of the methods for reducing appetite, however, no studies to investigate the effect of chewing on attentional bias to food. In this study, we investigated whether chewing stimulation (i.e., chewing tasteless gum) reduces attentional bias to food as well as an actual feeding (i.e., ingesting a standardized meal) does. We measured reaction time, gaze direction and gaze duration to assess attentional bias toward food images in pairs of food and non-food images that were presented in a visual probe task (Experiment 1, n = 21) and/or eye-tracking task (Experiment 2, n = 20). We also measured appetite ratings using visual analog scale. In addition, we conducted a control study in which the same number of participants performed the identical tasks to Experiments 1 and 2, but the participants did not perform sham feeding with gum-chewing/actual feeding between tasks and they took a rest. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after actual feeding, subjective ratings of hunger, preoccupation with food, and desire to eat significantly decreased, whereas fullness significantly increased. Sham feeding showed the same trends, but to a lesser degree. Results of the visual probe task in Experiment 1 showed that both sham feeding and actual feeding reduced reaction time bias significantly. Eye-tracking data showed that both sham and actual feeding resulted in significant reduction in gaze direction bias, indexing initial attentional orientation. Gaze duration bias was unaffected. In both control experiments, one-way ANOVAs showed no significant differences between immediately before and after the resting state for any of the appetite ratings, reaction time bias, gaze

  13. Chewing Stimulation Reduces Appetite Ratings and Attentional Bias toward Visual Food Stimuli in Healthy-Weight Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Akitsu; Miyamoto, Jun J.; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Moriyama, Keiji

    2018-01-01

    Based on the theory of incentive sensitization, the exposure to food stimuli sensitizes the brain’s reward circuits and enhances attentional bias toward food. Therefore, reducing attentional bias to food could possibly be beneficial in preventing impulsive eating. The importance of chewing has been increasingly implicated as one of the methods for reducing appetite, however, no studies to investigate the effect of chewing on attentional bias to food. In this study, we investigated whether chewing stimulation (i.e., chewing tasteless gum) reduces attentional bias to food as well as an actual feeding (i.e., ingesting a standardized meal) does. We measured reaction time, gaze direction and gaze duration to assess attentional bias toward food images in pairs of food and non-food images that were presented in a visual probe task (Experiment 1, n = 21) and/or eye-tracking task (Experiment 2, n = 20). We also measured appetite ratings using visual analog scale. In addition, we conducted a control study in which the same number of participants performed the identical tasks to Experiments 1 and 2, but the participants did not perform sham feeding with gum-chewing/actual feeding between tasks and they took a rest. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after actual feeding, subjective ratings of hunger, preoccupation with food, and desire to eat significantly decreased, whereas fullness significantly increased. Sham feeding showed the same trends, but to a lesser degree. Results of the visual probe task in Experiment 1 showed that both sham feeding and actual feeding reduced reaction time bias significantly. Eye-tracking data showed that both sham and actual feeding resulted in significant reduction in gaze direction bias, indexing initial attentional orientation. Gaze duration bias was unaffected. In both control experiments, one-way ANOVAs showed no significant differences between immediately before and after the resting state for any of the appetite ratings, reaction time bias

  14. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reducers Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Medication Health Fraud Resources for You FDA Consumer Updates (Drugs) Page ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  15. Selective Cannabinoid 2 Receptor Stimulation Reduces Tubular Epithelial Cell Damage after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressly, Jeffrey D; Mustafa, Suni M; Adibi, Ammaar H; Alghamdi, Sahar; Pandey, Pankaj; Roy, Kuldeep K; Doerksen, Robert J; Moore, Bob M; Park, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is an increasing problem in the clinic and has been associated with elevated rates of mortality. Therapies to treat AKI are currently not available, so identification of new targets that can be modulated to ameliorate renal damage upon diagnosis of AKI is essential. In this study, a novel cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist, SMM-295 [3'-methyl-4-(2-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-2-yl)biphenyl-2,6-diol], was designed, synthesized, and tested in vitro and in silico. Molecular docking of SMM-295 into a CB2 active-state homology model showed that SMM-295 interacts well with key amino acids to stabilize the active state. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, SMM-295 was capable of reducing cAMP production with 66-fold selectivity for CB2 versus cannabinoid receptor 1 and dose-dependently increased mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt phosphorylation. In vivo testing of the CB2 agonist was performed using a mouse model of bilateral IRI, which is a common model to mimic human AKI, where SMM-295 was immediately administered upon reperfusion of the kidneys after the ischemia episode. Histologic damage assessment 48 hours after reperfusion demonstrated reduced tubular damage in the presence of SMM-295. This was consistent with reduced plasma markers of renal dysfunction (i.e., creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) in SMM-295-treated mice. Mechanistically, kidneys treated with SMM-295 were shown to have elevated activation of Akt with reduced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-deoxyuridine nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells compared with vehicle-treated kidneys after IRI. These data suggest that selective CB2 receptor activation could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of AKI. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. SAFE Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Center of Excellence SAFE – “Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe” – is a cooperation of the Center for Financial Studies and Goethe University Frankfurt. It is funded by the LOEWE initiative of the State of Hessen (Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz). SAFE brings together more than 40 professors and just as many junior researchers who are all dedicated to conducting research in support of a sustainable financial architecture. The Center has...

  17. Growth of sulfate reducers in deep-subseafloor sediments stimulated by crustal fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFichtel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, crustal fluids fuel a substantial part of the deep subseafloor biosphere by providing electron acceptors for microbial respiration. In this study, we examined bacterial cultures from a sediment column of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Northeast Pacific (IODP Site U1301 which is divided into three distinctive compartments: an upper sulfate-containing zone, formed by bottom-seawater diffusion, a sulfate-depleted zone and a second (~140 m thick sulfate-containing zone influenced by fluid diffusion from the basaltic aquifer. Sulfate reducers were isolated from near-surface and near-basement sediments. All initial enrichments harboured specific communities of heterotrophic microorganisms. Among those, the number of isolated spore-forming Firmicutes decreased from 60% to 21% with sediment depth. Strains affiliated to Desulfosporosinus lacus, Desulfotomaculum sp. and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis were recovered from the upper sediment layers (1.3-9.1 meters below seafloor, mbsf. Several strains of Desulfovibrio indonesiensis and one relative of Desulfotignum balticum were isolated from near-basement sediments (240-262 mbsf. The physiological investigation of strains affiliated to D. aespoeensis, D. indonesiensis and D. balticum indicated that they were all able to use sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite as electron acceptors. In the presence of sulfate, they grew strain-specifically on a few short-chain n-alcohols and fatty acids, only. The strains fermented either ethanol, pyruvate or betaine. Interestingly, all strains utilized hydrogen and the isolate affiliated to D. indonesiensis even exhibited an autotrophic life-mode. Thus, in the deep subseafloor where organic substrates are limited or hardly degradable, hydrogen might become an essential electron donor. The isolation of non-sporeforming sulfate reducers from fluid-influenced layers indicates that they have survived the long-term burial as active populations even after the separation from

  18. Chronic Electrical Stimulation at Acupoints Reduces Body Weight and Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Rats via Autonomic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiemin; Jin, Haifeng; Foreman, Robert D; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xiaohong; Li, Shiying; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects and mechanisms of chronic electrical stimulation at acupoints (CEA) using surgically implanted electrodes on food intake, body weight, and metabolisms in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Thirty-six DIO rats were chronically implanted with electrodes at acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli). Three sets of parameters were tested: electrical acupuncture (EA) 1 (2-s on, 3-s off, 0.5 ms, 15 Hz, 6 mA), EA2 (same as EA1 but continuous pulses), and EA3 (same as EA2 but 10 mA). A chronic study was then performed to investigate the effects of CEA on body weight and mechanisms involving gastrointestinal hormones and autonomic functions. EA2 significantly reduced food intake without uncomfortable behaviors. CEA at EA2 reduced body weight and epididymal fat pad weight (P fasting plasma level of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (P < 0.05); the increase of GLP-1 was inversely correlated with postprandial blood glucose (R (2) = 0.89, P < 0.05); and the plasma ghrelin level remained unchanged. EA increased sympathetic activity (P < 0.01) and reduced vagal activity (P < 0.01). CEA at ST-36 reduces body weight and improves blood glucose possibly attributed to multiple mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility and hormones via the autonomic pathway.

  19. Role of reduced insulin-stimulated bone blood flow in the pathogenesis of metabolic insulin resistance and diabetic bone fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide, 387 million adults live with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and an additional 205 million cases are projected by 2035. Because T2D has numerous complications, there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Identification of early events in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D might lead to more effective treatments that would mitigate health and monetary costs. Here, we present our hypothesis that impaired bone blood flow is an early event in the pathogenesis of whole-body metabolic insulin resistance that ultimately leads to T2D. Two recent developments in different fields form the basis for this hypothesis. First, reduced vascular function has been identified as an early event in the development of T2D. In particular, before the onset of tissue or whole body metabolic insulin resistance, insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated skeletal muscle blood flow is impaired. Insulin resistance of the vascular endothelium reduces delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle, which leads to tissue and whole-body metabolic insulin resistance. Second is the paradigm-shifting discovery that the skeleton has an endocrine function that is essential for maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis. Specifically, in response to insulin signaling, osteoblasts secret osteocalcin, which stimulates pancreatic insulin production and enhances insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, adipose, and liver. Furthermore, the skeleton is not metabolically inert, but contributes to whole-body glucose utilization, consuming 20% that of skeletal muscle and 50% that of white adipose tissue. Without insulin signaling or without osteocalcin activity, experimental animals become hyperglycemic and insulin resistant. Currently, it is not known if insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated blood flow to bone plays a role in the development of whole body metabolic insulin resistance. We hypothesize that it is a key, early event. Microvascular dysfunction is a

  20. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C; Lowen, Steven B; Trksak, George H; Maclean, Robert R; Lukas, Scott E

    2011-08-15

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABA(A) receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 min after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem's modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABA(A) receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Trksak, George H.; MacLean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABAA receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 minutes after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20 mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem’s modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABAA receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. PMID:21640782

  2. Electrospun silk fibroin scaffolds coated with reduced graphene promote neurite outgrowth of PC-12 cells under electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Cervantes, Salvador; Pagán, Ana; Martínez, Jose G; Bernabeu-Esclapez, Antonia; Otero, Toribio F; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Paredes, Juan I; Cenis, Jose L

    2017-10-01

    Novel approaches to neural research require biocompatible materials capable to act as electrode structures or scaffolds for tissue engineering in order to stimulate or restore the functionality of damaged tissues. This work offers promising results that indicate the potential use of electrospun silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds coated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in this sense. The coated material becomes conductor and electroactive. A complete characterisation of SF/rGO scaffolds is provided in terms of electrochemistry, mechanical behaviour and chemical conformation of fibroin. The excellent biocompatibility of this novel material is proved with cultures of PC-12 cells. The coating with rGO improved the adhesion of cells in comparison with cells growing onto the surface of pure SF scaffolds. Also, the use of SF/rGO scaffolds combined with electrical stimulation promoted the differentiation into neural phenotypes reaching comparable or even superior levels to those obtained by means of the traditional treatment with neural growth factor (NGF). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How safe is safe enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, B.; Chanzy, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, were historically established with the objective to reduce the probability that persons be exposed to unacceptable doses due to normal operation or accident situations during transport of radioactive material. Based on the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS), the definition, which was adopted for an unacceptable dose for an accident situation, is the excess of the maximum dose limits permissible in a single year for the occupational exposure of a worker in the BSS. Concerning the severity of accident situations, it has always be clearly stated that the objective of the tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of transport was not to cover every accident condition, but solely most of them. The last available evaluations regarding the rate of accidents which are covered by the standardised accident conditions of transport defined in the IAEA Regulations give a range of about 80%, plus or minus 15% which depends on transport mode and studies. Consequently, slight variations in the capabilities of the packages to meet the specified performance would probably not have significant consequences on the protection level in case of accident. In the assessment of the compliance with the regulations, the tendency of experts, taking advantage of the enhanced performances of computer calculation codes, is to ask more and more calculations, with more and more accuracy, leading to more and more restrictions. Consequently, cost and delay are considerably increased without any evidence of an equivalent effect on the level of protection. This paper will initiate a reflection on the general objectives and principles when implementing the Regulations, in such a way that demonstrations remain cost effective, taking into account evolution of the techniques and a high level of safety

  4. Decreased adrenoceptor stimulation in heart failure rats reduces NGF expression by cardiac parasympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib; Smith, Peter G

    2014-04-01

    Postganglionic cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves are physically proximate in atrial cardiac tissue allowing reciprocal inhibition of neurotransmitter release, depending on demands from central cardiovascular centers or reflex pathways. Parasympathetic cardiac ganglion (CG) neurons synthesize and release the sympathetic neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), which may serve to maintain these close connections. In this study we investigated whether NGF synthesis by CG neurons is altered in heart failure, and whether norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons promotes NGF synthesis. NGF and proNGF immunoreactivity in CG neurons in heart failure rats following chronic coronary artery ligation was investigated. NGF immunoreactivity was decreased significantly in heart failure rats compared to sham-operated animals, whereas proNGF expression was unchanged. Changes in neurochemistry of CG neurons included attenuated expression of the cholinergic marker vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and increased expression of the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. To further investigate norepinephrine's role in promoting NGF synthesis, we cultured CG neurons treated with adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. An 82% increase in NGF mRNA levels was detected after 1h of isoproterenol (β-AR agonist) treatment, which increased an additional 22% at 24h. Antagonist treatment blocked isoproterenol-induced increases in NGF transcripts. In contrast, the α-AR agonist phenylephrine did not alter NGF mRNA expression. These results are consistent with β-AR mediated maintenance of NGF synthesis in CG neurons. In heart failure, a decrease in NGF synthesis by CG neurons may potentially contribute to reduced connections with adjacent sympathetic nerves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. EPINEPHRINE OR GV-26 ELECTRICAL STIMULATION REDUCES INHALANT ANESTHESTIC RECOVERY TIME IN COMMON SNAPPING TURTLES (CHELYDRA SERPENTINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Alexandra; Shmalberg, Justin; Gatson, Bonnie; Bartolini, Pia; Curtiss, Jeff; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged anesthetic recovery times are a common clinical problem in reptiles following inhalant anesthesia. Diving reptiles have numerous adaptations that allow them to submerge and remain apneic for extended periods. An ability to shunt blood away from pulmonary circulation, possibly due to changes in adrenergic tone, may contribute to their unpredictable inhalant anesthetic recovery times. Therefore, the use of epinephrine could antagonize this response and reduce recovery time. GV-26, an acupuncture point with reported β-adrenergic and respiratory effects, has reduced anesthetic recovery times in other species. In this prospective randomized crossover study, six common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were anesthetized with inhalant isoflurane for 90 min. Turtles were assigned one of three treatments, given immediately following discontinuation of isoflurane: a control treatment (0.9% saline, at 0.1 ml/kg i.m.), epinephrine (0.1 mg/kg i.m.), or acupuncture with electrical stimulation at GV-26. Each turtle received all treatments, and treatments were separated by 48 hr. Return of spontaneous ventilation was 55% faster in turtles given epinephrine and 58% faster in the GV-26 group versus saline (P < 0.001). The times to movement and to complete recovery were also significantly faster for both treatments than for saline (P < 0.02). Treated turtles displayed increases in temperature not documented in the control (P < 0.001). Turtles administered epinephrine showed significantly increased heart rates and end-tidal CO(2) (P < 0.001). No adverse effects were noted in the study animals. The mechanisms of action were not elucidated in the present investigation. Nevertheless, the use of parenteral epinephrine or GV-26 stimulation in the immediate postanesthetic period produces clinically relevant reductions in anesthetic recovery time in common snapping turtle. Further research is necessary to evaluate the effects of concurrent GV-26 and epinephrine administration

  6. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) reduces pain, fatigue, and hyperalgesia while restoring central inhibition in primary fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Vance, Carol GT; Liebano, Richard E; Anand, Amrit S; Bush, Heather M; Lee, Kyoung S; Lee, Jennifer E; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Because TENS works by reducing central excitability and activating central inhibition pathways, we tested the hypothesis that TENS would reduce pain and fatigue and improve function and hyperalgesia in people with fibromyalgia who have enhanced central excitability and reduced inhibition. The current study used a double-blinded randomized, placebo controlled cross-over design to test effects of a single treatment of TENS in people with fibromyalgia. Three treatments were assessed in random order: active TENS, placebo TENS, no TENS. The following measures were assessed before and after each TENS treatment: pain and fatigue at rest and movement, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), 6 minute walk test (6MWT), range of motion (ROM), five time sit to stand test (FTSTS), and single leg stance (SLS). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was completed at end of testing. There was a significant decrease in pain and fatigue with movement for active TENS compared to placebo and no TENS. PPTs increased at site of TENS (spine) and outside site of TENS (leg) when compared to placebo TENS or no TENS. During Active TENS CPM was significantly stronger compared to placebo TENS and no TENS. No changes in functional tasks were observed with TENS. Thus, the current study suggests TENS has short-term efficacy in relieving symptoms of fibromyalgia while the stimulator is active. Future clinical trials should examine the effects of repeated daily delivery of TENS, similar to how TENS is used clinically, on pain, fatigue, function and quality of life in individuals with fibromyalgia. PMID:23900134

  7. Activation of Spinal α2-Adrenoceptors Using Diluted Bee Venom Stimulation Reduces Cold Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yun Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold allodynia is an important distinctive feature of neuropathic pain. The present study examined whether single or repetitive treatment of diluted bee venom (DBV reduced cold allodynia in sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI rats and whether these effects were mediated by spinal adrenergic receptors. Single injection of DBV (0.25 or 2.5 mg/kg was performed into Zusanli acupoint 2 weeks post CCI, and repetitive DBV (0.25 mg/kg was injected for 2 weeks beginning on day 15 after CCI surgery. Single treatment of DBV at a low dose (0.25 mg/kg did not produce any anticold allodynic effect, while a high dose of DBV (2.5 mg/kg significantly reduced cold allodynia. Moreover, this effect of high-dose DBV was completely blocked by intrathecal pretreatment of idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist or propranolol (nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist. In addition, coadministration of low-dose DBV (0.25 mg/kg and intrathecal clonidine (α2-adrenoceptor agonist synergically reduced cold allodynia. On the other hand, repetitive treatments of low-dose DBV showing no motor deficit remarkably suppressed cold allodynia from 7 days after DBV treatment. This effect was also reversed by intrathecal idazoxan injection. These findings demonstrated that single or repetitive stimulation of DBV could alleviate CCI-induced cold allodynia via activation of spinal α2-adrenoceptor.

  8. Novel Stimulation Paradigms with Temporally-Varying Parameters to Reduce Synchronous Activity at the Onset of High Frequency Stimulation in Rat Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyan Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has shown wide applications for treating various disorders in the central nervous system by using high frequency stimulation (HFS sequences of electrical pulses. However, upon the onset of HFS sequences, the narrow pulses could induce synchronous firing of action potentials among large populations of neurons and cause a transient phase of “onset response” that is different from the subsequent steady state. To investigate the transient onset phase, the antidromically-evoked population spikes (APS were used as an electrophysiological marker to evaluate the synchronous neuronal reactions to axonal HFS in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats. New stimulation paradigms with time-varying intensity and frequency were developed to suppress the “onset responses”. Results show that HFS paradigms with ramp-up intensity at the onset phase could suppress large APS potentials. In addition, an intensity ramp with a slower ramp-up rate or with a higher pulse frequency had greater suppression on APS amplitudes. Therefore, to reach a desired pulse intensity rapidly, a stimulation paradigm combining elevated frequency and ramp-up intensity was used to shorten the transition phase of initial HFS without evoking large APS potentials. The results of the study provide important clues for certain transient side effects of DBS and for development of new adaptive stimulation paradigms.

  9. Safe Haven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Discusses school libraries as safe havens for teenagers and considers elements that foster that atmosphere, including the physical environment, lack of judgments, familiarity, leisure, and a welcoming nature. Focuses on the importance of relationships, and taking the time to listen to teens and encourage them. (LRW)

  10. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation reduces pathological information transmission to the thalamus in a rat model of parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin James Anderson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta leads to parkinsonian motor symptoms via changes in electrophysiological activity throughout the basal ganglia. High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS partially treats these symptoms, but the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are associated with increased information transmission from basal ganglia output neurons to motor thalamus input neurons, and that therapeutic DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN treats these symptoms by reducing this extraneous information transmission. We tested these hypotheses in a unilateral, 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rodent model of hemiparkinsonism. Information transfer between basal ganglia output neurons and motor thalamus input neurons increased in both the orthodromic and antidromic directions with hemiparkinsonian onset, and these changes were reversed by behaviorally therapeutic STN-DBS. Omnidirectional information increases in the parkinsonian state underscore the detrimental nature of that pathological information, and suggest a loss of information channel independence. Therapeutic STN-DBS reduced that pathological information, suggesting an effective increase in the number of independent information channels. We interpret these data with a model in which pathological information and fewer information channels diminishes the scope of possible motor activities, driving parkinsonian symptoms. In this model, STN-DBS restores information-channel independence by eliminating or masking the parkinsonism-associated information, and thus enlarges the scope of possible motor activities, alleviating parkinsonian symptoms.

  11. Motor/Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Following Lumbar Surgery Reduces Postoperative Analgesia Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John; Reeves, Scott T; Stoll, William David; Epperson, Thomas I; Hilbert, Megan; Madan, Alok; George, Mark S; Borckardt, Jeffrey J

    2016-05-01

    Randomized, controlled pilot trial. The present study is the first randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot clinical trial of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for pain and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) opioid usage among patients receiving spine surgery. Lumbar spinal surgeries are common, and while pain is often a complaint that precedes surgical intervention, the procedures themselves are associated with considerable postoperative pain lasting days to weeks. Adequate postoperative pain control is an important factor in determining recovery and new analgesic strategies are needed that can be used adjunctively to existing strategies potentially to reduce reliance on opioid analgesia. Several novel brain stimulation technologies including tDCS are beginning to demonstrate promise as treatments for a variety of pain conditions. Twenty-seven patients undergoing lumbar spine procedures at Medical University of South Carolina were randomly assigned to receive four 20-minute sessions of real or sham tDCS during their postsurgical hospital stay. Patient-administered hydromorphone usage was tracked along with numeric rating scale pain ratings. The effect of tDCS on the slope of the cumulative PCA curve was significant (P tDCS was associated with a 23% reduction in PCA usage. In the real tDCS group a 31% reduction was observed in pain-at-its-least ratings from admission to discharge (P = 0.027), but no other changes in numeric rating scale pain ratings were significant in either group. The present pilot trial is the first study to demonstrate an opioid sparing effect of tDCS after spine surgical procedures. Although this was a small pilot trial in a heterogeneous sample of spinal surgery patients, a moderate effect-size was observed for tDCS, suggesting that future work in this area is warranted. 2.

  12. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  13. Intra-articular enzyme replacement therapy with rhIDUA is safe, well-tolerated, and reduces articular GAG storage in the canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond Y; Aminian, Afshin; McEntee, Michael F; Kan, Shih-Hsin; Simonaro, Calogera M; Lamanna, William C; Lawrence, Roger; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Guerra, Catalina; Le, Steven Q; Dickson, Patricia I; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    abolished in rhIDUA-treated joints only. Intra-articular rhIDUA is well-tolerated and safe in the canine MPS I animal model. Qualitative and quantitative assessments indicate that IA-rhIDUA successfully reduces tissue and cellular GAG storage in synovium and articular cartilage, including cartilage deep to the articular surface, and eliminates inflammatory macrophages from synovial tissue. The MPS I canine IA-rhIDUA results suggest that clinical studies should be performed to determine if IA-rhIDUA is a viable approach to ameliorating refractory orthopedic disease in human MPS I. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deep brain stimulation may reduce the relative risk of clinically important worsening in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Mallory L; Tonascia, James; Turchan, Maxim; Currie, Amanda; Heusinkveld, Lauren; Konrad, Peter E; Davis, Thomas L; Neimat, Joseph S; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Wang, Lily; Shi, Yaping; Shade, David M; Sternberg, Alice L; Drye, Lea T; Charles, David

    2015-10-01

    The Vanderbilt pilot trial of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in early Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled patients on medications six months to four years without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias. We conducted a patient-centered analysis based on clinically important worsening of motor symptoms and complications of medical therapy for all subjects and a subset of subjects with a more focused medication duration. Continuous outcomes were also analyzed for this focused cohort. A post hoc analysis was conducted on all subjects from the pilot and a subset of subjects taking PD medications 1-4 years at enrollment. Clinically important worsening is defined as both a ≥ 3 point increase in UPDRS Part III and a ≥ 1 point increase in Part IV. DBS plus optimal drug therapy (DBS + ODT) subjects experienced a 50-80% reduction in the relative risk of worsening after two years. The DBS + ODT group was improved compared to optimal drug therapy (ODT) at each time point on Total UPDRS and Part III (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively, at 24 months). Total UPDRS, Part IV, and PDQ-39 scores significantly worsened in the ODT group after two years (p < 0.003), with no significant change in the DBS + ODT group. DBS + ODT in early PD may reduce the risk of clinically important worsening. These findings further confirm the need to determine if DBS + ODT is superior to medical therapy for managing symptoms, reducing the complications of medications, and improving quality of life. The FDA has approved the conduct of a large-scale, pivotal clinical trial of DBS in early stage PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS reduces pain and postpones the need for pharmacological analgesia during labour: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Santos Santana

    2016-01-01

    analgesia for pain relief. Trial registration: NCT01600495. [Santana LS, Gallo RBS, Ferreira CHJ, Duarte G, Quintana SM, Marcolin AC (2016 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS reduces pain and postpones the need for pharmacological analgesia during labour: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 29–34

  16. Early sepsis does not stimulate reactive oxygen species production and does not reduce cardiac function despite an increased inflammation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Thibault; Charrier, Alice; Moreau, Clarisse; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Pitois, Elodie; Bouvier, Damien; Sapin, Vincent; Pereira, Bruno; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2017-07-01

    If it is sustained for several days, sepsis can trigger severe abnormalities of cardiac function which leads to death in 50% of cases. This probably occurs through activation of toll-like receptor-9 by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- α and IL-1 β In contrast, early sepsis is characterized by the development of tachycardia. This study aimed at determining the early changes in the cardiac function during sepsis and at finding the mechanism responsible for the observed changes. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups, the first one being made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis group) and the second one being subjected to the same surgery without cecal ligation and puncture (sham-operated group). The cardiac function was assessed in vivo and ex vivo in standard conditions. Several parameters involved in the oxidative stress and inflammation were determined in the plasma and heart. As evidenced by the plasma level of TNF- α and gene expression of IL-1 β and TNF- α in the heart, inflammation was developed in the sepsis group. The cardiac function was also slightly stimulated by sepsis in the in vivo and ex vivo situations. This was associated with unchanged levels of oxidative stress, but several parameters indicated a lower cardiac production of reactive oxygen species in the septic group. In conclusion, despite the development of inflammation, early sepsis did not increase reactive oxygen species production and did not reduce myocardial function. The depressant effect of TNF- α and IL-1 β on the cardiac function is known to occur at very high concentrations. The influence of low- to moderate-grade inflammation on the myocardial mechanical behavior must thus be revisited. © 2017 French National Institute of Agronomical Research (INRA). Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Effect of Vericiguat, a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator, on Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Worsening Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Greene, Stephen J; Butler, Javed

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Worsening chronic heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal dose and tolerability of vericiguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). DESIGN, ...

  18. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  19. Reducing renal uptake of 9Y- and 177Lu-labeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yubin; Fisher, Darrell R.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-[1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-Re-Cys 3,4,1 , D-Phe 7 , Arg 11 ]α-melanocyte stimulating hormone 3-13 {DOTA-Re(Arg 11 )CCMSH} through coupling a negatively charged glutamic acid (Glu) to the peptide sequence. Methods: A new peptide of DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH was designed, synthesized and labeled with 9 Y and 177 Lu. Pharmacokinetics of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH was determined in B16/F1 murine melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Results: 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH exhibited significantly (P 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg 11 )CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 4 and 24 h after dose administration. The renal uptake values of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH were 28.16% and 28.81% of those of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg 11 )CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h postinjection. 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH displayed higher tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios than 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg 11 )CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 4 and 24 h after dose administration. The tumor-to-kidney uptake ratio of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH was 2.28 and 1.69 times of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg 11 )CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h postinjection. The 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH activity accumulation was low in normal organs except for kidney. Conclusions: Coupling a negatively charged amino acid (Glu) to the CCMSH peptide sequence dramatically reduced the renal uptake values and increased the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH, facilitating their potential applications as radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma

  20. Efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in reducing consumption in patients with alcohol use disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojak, Benoit; Soudry-Faure, Agnès; Abello, Nicolas; Carpentier, Maud; Jonval, Lysiane; Allard, Coralie; Sabsevari, Foroogh; Blaise, Emilie; Ponavoy, Eddy; Bonin, Bernard; Meille, Vincent; Chauvet-Gelinier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-17

    effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on tobacco consumption. Several studies have reported a beneficial effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on substance use disorders by reducing craving, impulsivity, and risk-taking behavior, and suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation may be a promising treatment in addiction. However, to date, no studies have included sufficiently large samples and sufficient follow-up to confirm the hypothesis. Results from this large randomized controlled trial will give a better overview of the therapeutic potential of transcranial direct current stimulation in alcohol use disorders. Clinical Trials Gov, NCT02505126 (registration date: July 15 2015).

  1. Is the birthweight of singletons born after IVF reduced by ovarian stimulation or by IVF laboratory procedures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, M. J.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Haadsma, M. L.; Nijhuis, W. L.; Kiewiet, S. M.; Hoek, A.; Heineman, M. J.; Middleburg, K. J.

    Singletons born after IVF are at risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, the cause of which is unknown. The present study investigated the influence of ovarian stimulation and IVF laboratory procedure on birthweight. Birthweight of singleton pregnancies resulting from IVF treatment with (n = 161) and

  2. Is the birthweight of singletons born after IVF reduced by ovarian stimulation or by IVF laboratory procedures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, M. J.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Haadsma, M. L.; Nijhuis, W. L.; Kiewiet, S. M.; Hoek, A.; Heineman, M. J.; Middelburg, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    Singletons born after IVF are at risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, the cause of which is unknown. The present study investigated the influence of ovarian stimulation and IVF laboratory procedure on birthweight. Birthweight of singleton pregnancies resulting from IVF treatment with (n = 161) and

  3. Anodal Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum Reduces Cerebellar Brain Inhibition but Does Not Influence Afferent Input from the Hand or Face in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H; Young, Jessica; Bradnam, Lynley V

    2016-08-01

    The cerebellum controls descending motor commands by outputs to primary motor cortex (M1) and the brainstem in response to sensory feedback. The cerebellum may also modulate afferent input en route to M1 and the brainstem. The objective of this study is to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum influences cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and trigeminal reflexes (TRs) in healthy adults. Data from two studies evaluating effects of cerebellar anodal and sham tDCS are presented. The first study used a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol to investigate CBI and combined TMS and cutaneous stimulation of the digit to assess SAI. The second study evaluated effects on trigemino-cervical and trigemino-masseter reflexes using peripheral nerve stimulation of the face. Fourteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 1. CBI was observed at baseline and was reduced by anodal cerebellar DCS only (P < 0.01). There was SAI at interstimulus intervals of 25 and 30 ms at baseline (both P < 0.0001), but cerebellar tDCS had no effect. Thirteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 2. Inhibitory reflexes were evoked in the ipsilateral masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. There was no effect of cerebellar DCS on either reflex. Anodal DCS reduced CBI but did not change SAI or TRs in healthy adults. These results require confirmation in individuals with neurological impairment.

  4. Electrical stimulation of paralyzed vibrissal muscles reduces endplate reinnervation and does not promote motor recovery after facial nerve repair in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinis, Nektarios; Horn, Frauke; Genchev, Borislav; Skouras, Emmanouil; Merkel, Daniel; Angelova, Srebrina K; Kaidoglou, Katerina; Michael, Joern; Pavlov, Stoyan; Igelmund, Peter; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Irintchev, Andrey; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N

    2009-10-01

    The outcome of peripheral nerve injuries requiring surgical repair is poor. Recent work has suggested that electrical stimulation (ES) of denervated muscles could be beneficial. Here we tested whether ES has a positive influence on functional recovery after injury and surgical repair of the facial nerve. Outcomes at 2 months were compared to animals receiving sham stimulation (SS). Starting on the first day after end-to-end suture (facial-facial anastomosis), electrical stimulation (square 0.1 ms pulses at 5 Hz at an ex tempore established threshold amplitude of between 3.0 and 5.0V) was delivered to the vibrissal muscles for 5 min a day, 3 times a week. Restoration of vibrissal motor performance following ES or SS was evaluated using the video-based motion analysis and correlated with the degree of collateral axonal branching at the lesion site, the number of motor endplates in the target musculature and the quality of their reinnervation, i.e. the degree of mono- versus poly-innervation. Neither protocol reduced collateral branching. ES did not improve functional outcome, but rather reduced the number of innervated motor endplates to approximately one-fifth of normal values and failed to reduce the proportion of poly-innervated motor endplates. We conclude that ES is not beneficial for recovery of whisker function after facial nerve repair in rats.

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food-craving and measures of hyperphagia behavior in participants with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gabriela L; Poje, Albert B; Perissinotti, Iago; Marcondes, Bianca F; Villamar, Mauricio F; Manzardo, Ann M; Luque, Laura; LePage, Jean F; Stafford, Diane; Fregni, Felipe; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disabilities and insatiable appetite with compulsive eating leading to severe obesity with detrimental health consequences. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate decision-making and cue-induced food craving in healthy adults. We conducted a pilot double blind, sham-controlled, multicenter study of tDCS modulation of food drive and craving in 10 adult PWS participants, 11 adult obese (OB) and 11 adult healthy-weight control (HWC) subjects. PWS and OB subjects received five consecutive daily sessions of active or sham tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), while HWC received a single sham and active tDCS in a crossover design. Standardized psychometric instruments assessed food craving, drive and hyperphagia by self-report and caregiver assessment over 30 days. Robust baseline differences were observed in severity scores for the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Dykens Hyperphagia Questionnaire (DHQ) for PWS compared to HWC while obese participants were more similar to HWC. Active tDCS stimulation in PWS was associated with a significant change from baseline in TFEQ Disinhibition (Factor II) (Ƶ = 1.9, P food drive and behaviors impacting hyperphagia in PWS. Transcranial direct current stimulation may represent a straight-forward, low risk and low cost method to improve care, management and quality of life in PWS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reduced malonyl-CoA content in recovery from exercise correlates with improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Roepstorff, Carsten; Brandt, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in recovery from acute exercise coincides with reduced malonyl-CoA (MCoA) content in human muscle. Furthermore, we investigated whether a high-fat diet [65 energy-% (Fat)] would alter the content of MCoA and insulin action...... to be compromised, although to a minor extent, by the Fat diet. Collectively, this study indicates that reduced muscle MCoA content in recovery from exercise may be part of the adaptive response leading to improved insulin action on glucose uptake after exercise in human muscle....

  7. High- and low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation does not reduce experimental pain in elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron-V?zina, Kayla; Corriveau, H?l?ne; Martel, Marylie; Harvey, Marie-Philippe; L?onard, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite its widespread clinical use, the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) remains poorly documented in elderly individuals. In this randomized, double-blind crossover study, we compared the efficacy of high-frequency (HF), low-frequency (LF), and placebo (P) TENS in a group of 15 elderly adults (mean age: 67 ? 5 years). The effect of HF-, LF-, and P-TENS was also evaluated in a group of 15 young individuals (26 ? 5 years; same study design) to validate t...

  8. Additional biological therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: repetitive transcranical magnetic stimulation of 1 Hz helps to reduce methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Niederhofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive hyperactivity, impulsiveness and attentional difficulties characterize attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The aim of this case report is to signal the possible therapeutic effectiveness of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Low frequency (1Hz, 1200 stim/die for five days was applied on the impending scalp in the motor additional area of a patient suffering from combined type ADHD who received methylphenidate (MPH. We saw a significant improvement, especially according to criteria associated with hyperactivity. The improvement lasted for at least three weeks and suggested the final reduction in dosage of MPH.to 10 mg.

  9. Biofeedback can reduce foot pressure to a safe level and without causing new at-risk zones in patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León Rodriguez, D; Allet, L; Golay, A; Philippe, J; Assal, J-Ph; Hauert, C-A; Pataky, Z

    2013-02-01

    Plantar pressure reduction is mandatory for diabetic foot ulcer healing. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a new walking strategy learned by biofeedback on plantar pressure distribution under both feet in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Terminally augmented biofeedback has been used for foot off-loading training in 21 patients with diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy. The biofeedback technique was based on a subjective estimation of performance and objective visual feedback following walking sequences. The patient was considered to have learned a new walking strategy as soon as the peak plantar pressure (PPP) under the previously defined at-risk zone was within a range of 40-80% of baseline PPP in 70% of the totality of steps and during three consecutive walking sequences. The PPP was measured by a portable in-shoe foot pressure measurement system (PEDAR(®)) at baseline (T0), directly after learning (T1) and at 10-day retention test (T2). The PPP under at-risk zones decreased significantly at T1 (165 ± 9 kPa, p biofeedback leads to a safe and regular plantar pressure distribution without inducing any new 'at-risk' area under both feet. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) reduces pain, fatigue, and hyperalgesia while restoring central inhibition in primary fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Vance, Carol GT; Liebano, Richard E; Anand, Amrit S; Bush, Heather M; Lee, Kyoung S; Lee, Jennifer E; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2013-01-01

    Because TENS works by reducing central excitability and activating central inhibition pathways, we tested the hypothesis that TENS would reduce pain and fatigue and improve function and hyperalgesia in people with fibromyalgia who have enhanced central excitability and reduced inhibition. The current study used a double-blinded randomized, placebo controlled cross-over design to test effects of a single treatment of TENS in people with fibromyalgia. Three treatments were assessed in random or...

  11. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  12. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces oxidative stress and improves skeletal muscle function in response to electrically stimulated isometric contractions in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael J.; Jackson, Janna R.; Hao, Yanlei; Leonard, Stephen S.; Alway, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a putative factor responsible for reducing function and increasing apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle with aging. This study examined the contribution and functional significance of the xanthine oxidase enzyme as a potential source of oxidant production in aged skeletal muscle during repetitive in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited in young adult and aged mice via a subcutaneously placed time release (2.5 mg/day) allopurinol pellet, 7 days prior to the start of in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Gastrocnemius muscles were electrically activated with 20 maximal contractions for three consecutive days. Xanthine oxidase activity was 65% greater in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged mice compared to young mice. Xanthine oxidase activity also increased after in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions in muscles from both young (33%) and aged (28%) mice, relative to contralateral non-contracted muscles. Allopurinol attenuated the exercise-induced increase in oxidative stress, but it did not affect the elevated basal levels of oxidative stress that was associated with aging. In addition, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity decreased caspase 3 activity, but it had no effect on other markers of mitochondrial associated apoptosis. Our results show that compared to control conditions, suppression of xanthine oxidase activity by allopurinol reduced xanthine oxidase activity, H2O2 levels, lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 activity, prevented the in situ electrically stimulated isometric contraction-induced loss of glutathione, prevented the increase of catalase and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activities, and increased maximal isometric force in the plantar flexor muscles of aged mice after repetitive electrically evoked contractions. PMID:21530649

  13. Feeling worse to feel better: pain-offset relief simultaneously stimulates positive affect and reduces negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C; Lee, Kent M; Hanna, Eleanor K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2013-04-01

    Although pain itself induces negative affect, the removal (or offset) of pain induces a powerful state of relief. Despite being implicated in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenomena, relief remains a poorly understood emotion. In particular, some theorists associate relief with increased positive affect, whereas others associate relief with diminished negative affect. In the present study, we examined the affective nature of relief in a pain-offset paradigm with psychophysiological measures that were specific to negative valence (startle eyeblink reactivity) and positive valence (startle postauricular reactivity). Results revealed that pain offset simultaneously stimulates positive affect and diminishes negative affect for at least several seconds. Results also indicated that pain intensity differentially affects the positive and negative valence aspects of relief. These findings clarify the affective nature of relief and provide insight into why people engage in both normal and abnormal behaviors associated with relief.

  14. Reduced neuronal activity in language-related regions after transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy for auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Jochen; Homan, Philipp; Jann, Kay; Federspiel, Andrea; Flury, Richard; Hauf, Martinus; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Hubl, Daniela

    2013-03-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a novel therapeutic approach, used in patients with pharmacoresistant auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). To investigate the neurobiological effects of TMS on AVH, we measured cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous magnetic resonance-arterial spin labeling 20 ± 6 hours before and after TMS treatment. Thirty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were investigated. Fifteen patients received a 10-day TMS treatment to the left temporoparietal cortex, and 15 received the standard treatment. The stimulation location was chosen according to an individually determined language region determined by a functional magnetic resonance imaging language paradigm, which identified the sensorimotor language area, area Spt (sylvian parietotemporal), as the target region. TMS-treated patients showed positive clinical effects, which were indicated by a reduction in AVH scores (p ≤ .001). Cerebral blood flow was significantly decreased in the primary auditory cortex (p ≤ .001), left Broca's area (p ≤ .001), and cingulate gyrus (p ≤ .001). In control subjects, neither positive clinical effects nor cerebral blood flow decreases were detected. The decrease in cerebral blood flow in the primary auditory cortex correlated with the decrease in AVH scores (p ≤ .001). TMS reverses hyperactivity of language regions involved in the emergence of AVH. Area Spt acts as a gateway to the hallucination-generating cerebral network. Successful therapy corresponded to decreased cerebral blood flow in the primary auditory cortex, supporting its crucial role in triggering AVH and contributing to the physical quality of the false perceptions. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Shifting from Ziegler-Natta to Philips-type catalyst? A simple and safe access to reduced titanium systems for ethylene polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Popoff, Nicolas

    2011-09-22

    Silica-supported titanium(IV) chloride is readily reduced by Mashima and co-workers\\' reagent (1-methyl-3,6-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene) to afford materials active in ethylene polymerisation without need of aluminum alkyl cocatalyst. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Shifting from Ziegler-Natta to Philips-type catalyst? A simple and safe access to reduced titanium systems for ethylene polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoff, Nicolas; Espinas, Jeff; Gouré, Eric; Boyron, Olivier; Le Roux, Erwan; Basset, Jean-Marie; Gauvin, Régis M; De Mallmann, Aimery; Taoufik, Mostafa

    2011-12-01

    Silica-supported titanium(IV) chloride is readily reduced by Mashima and co-workers' reagent (1-methyl-3,6-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene) to afford materials active in ethylene polymerisation without need of aluminum alkyl cocatalyst. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  18. When self-reliance is not safe: associations between reduced help-seeking and subsequent mental health symptoms in suicidal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouliere, Christa D; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2015-04-01

    The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths' perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  19. When Self-Reliance Is Not Safe: Associations between Reduced Help-Seeking and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms in Suicidal Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa D. Labouliere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time, help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  20. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Medial Prefrontal and Cingulate Cortices Reduces Cocaine Self-Administration: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Martinez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may serve as a potential treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD, which remains a public health problem that is refractory to treatment. The goal of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of rTMS on cocaine self-administration in the laboratory. In the self-administration sessions, CUD participants chose between cocaine and an alternative reinforcer (money in order to directly measure cocaine-seeking behavior. The rTMS was delivered with the H7 coil, which provides stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. These brain regions were targeted based on previous imaging studies demonstrating alterations in their activation and connectivity in CUD.MethodsVolunteers with CUD were admitted to an inpatient unit for the entire study and assigned to one of three rTMS groups: high frequency (10 Hz, low frequency (1 Hz, and sham. Six participants were included in each group and the rTMS was delivered on weekdays for 3 weeks. The cocaine self-administration sessions were performed at three time points: at baseline (pre-TMS, session 1, after 4 days of rTMS (session 2, and after 13 days of rTMS (session 3. During each self-administration session, the outcome measure was the number of choices for cocaine.ResultsThe results showed a significant group by time effect (p = 0.02, where the choices for cocaine decreased between sessions 2 and 3 in the high frequency group. There was no effect of rTMS on cocaine self-administration in the low frequency or sham groups.ConclusionTaken in the context of the existing literature, these results contribute to the data showing that high frequency rTMS to the prefrontal cortex may serve as a potential treatment for CUD.

  1. Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: α (Group A = 20 patients, recombinant FSH-β (Group B = 20 patients, and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients. All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology, but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment.

  2. Kids Safe and Smokefree (KiSS): a randomized controlled trial of a multilevel intervention to reduce secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Stephen J; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Moughan, Beth; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra C; Taylor, Daniel R; Fleece, David; Davey, Adam; Nair, Uma S; Godfrey, Melissa; Collins, Bradley N

    2013-08-30

    Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) harms children's health, yet effective interventions to reduce child SHSe in the home and car have proven difficult to operationalize in pediatric practice. A multilevel intervention combining pediatric healthcare providers' advice with behavioral counseling and navigation to pharmacological cessation aids may improve SHSe control in pediatric populations. This trial uses a randomized, two-group design with three measurement periods: pre-intervention, end of treatment and 12-month follow-up. Smoking parents of children parents about child SHSe, advise about SHSe harms, and refer smokers to cessation resources. After receiving clinic intervention, eligible parents are randomized to receive: (a) a 3-month telephone-based behavioral counseling intervention designed to promote reduction in child SHSe, parent smoking cessation, and navigation to access nicotine replacement therapy or cessation medication or (b) an attention control nutrition education intervention. Healthcare providers and assessors are blind to group assignment. Cotinine is used to bioverify child SHSe (primary outcome) and parent quit status. This study tests an innovative multilevel approach to reducing child SHSe. The approach is sustainable, because clinics can easily integrate the tobacco intervention prompts related to "ask, advise, and refer" guidelines into electronic health records and refer smokers to free evidence-based behavioral counseling interventions, such as state quitlines. NCT01745393 (clinicaltrials.gov).

  3. DCS upgrades for nuclear power plants: Saving money and reducing risk through virtual-stimulation control system checkout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, G.; Yeager, M.; Weirich, C.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plant control systems of 1970's vintage have reached the end of their life: reliability is poor and spare parts are hard to come by. At First Energy Perry station, two costly feedwater system trips caused by an ailing analog control system led to the decision to replace it with a modern Foxboro I/A-series Distributed Control System. The simulator was also upgraded using the Virtual-Stim simulation of I/A, called FSIM. Virtual-Stim simulation allows the configuration and graphics from the plant to be downloaded onto the simulator as-is, using the same tools and operator interface as the plant, without imprecise translations, conversions, or other emulation. Advances in simulation technology and market forces have led to an open architecture design, allowing FSIM to be 'bridged' to Perry's existing Opensim simulator process model. This appears to be an industry-wide trend as more control system vendors offer Virtual Stimulation solutions for connection to third-party simulation products. Taking a cue from First Energy's Sammis Station FSIM simulator projects, the Perry simulator was used for dedicated control verification and tuning. Preventing forced outages caused by control configuration errors can result in enormous savings, and the simulator is now required to precede any plant modifications rather than just a training tool that lags the plant. This testing revealed several surprising results for a relatively straightforward control strategy, showing that simulator-based testing will be even more crucial in the future as the remain-der of the balance of plant is migrated to digital control. (author)

  4. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces pain and postpones the need for pharmacological analgesia during labour: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Licia Santos; Gallo, Rubneide Barreto Silva; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge; Duarte, Geraldo; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In the active phase of the first stage of labour, does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) relieve pain or change its location? Does TENS delay the request for neuraxial analgesia during labour? Does TENS produce any harmful effects in the mother or the foetus? Are women in labour satisfied with the care provided? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding for some outcomes, and intention-to-treat analysis. Forty-six low-risk, primigravida parturients with a gestational age > 37 weeks, cervical dilation of 4cm, and without the use of any medications from hospital admission until randomisation. The principal investigator applied TENS to the experimental group for 30minutes starting at the beginning of the active phase of labour. A second investigator assessed the outcomes in both the control and experimental groups. Both groups received routine perinatal care. The primary outcome was pain severity after the intervention period, which was assessed using the 100-mm visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes included: pain location, duration of the active phase of labour, time to pharmacological labour analgesia, mode of birth, neonatal outcomes, and the participant's satisfaction with the care provided. After the intervention, a significant mean difference in change in pain of 15mm was observed favouring the experimental group (95% CI 2 to 27). The application of TENS did not alter the location or distribution of the pain. The mean time to pharmacological analgesia after the intervention was 5.0hours (95% CI 4.1 to 5.9) longer in the experimental group. The intervention did not significantly impact the other maternal and neonatal outcomes. Participants in both groups were satisfied with the care provided during labour. TENS produces a significant decrease in pain during labour and postpones the need for pharmacological analgesia for pain relief. NCT01600495. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A multi-component patient-handling intervention improves attitudes and behaviors for safe patient handling and reduces aggression experienced by nursing staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Casper, Sven Dalgas; Andersen, Lars L.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for patient-handling equipment aimed to improve nursing staffs' use of patient handling equipment and improve their general health, reduce musculoskeletal problems, aggressive episodes, days of absence and work-related accidents. As a controlled before......-after study, questionnaire data were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up among nursing staff at intervention and control wards at two hospitals. At 12-month follow-up, the intervention group had more positive attitudes towards patient-handling equipment and increased use of specific patient......-handling equipment. In addition, a lower proportion of nursing staff in the intervention group had experienced physically aggressive episodes. No significant change was observed in general health status, musculoskeletal problems, days of absence or work-related accidents. The intervention resulted in more positive...

  6. Does reducing unnecessary right ventricular pacing improve sympathetic activity and innervation of heart in sinus node disease patients? MVP and SafeR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mihoko; Kimura, Yuichiro; Hosoda, Junya; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Matsushita, Kohei; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular desynchronization imposed by ventricular pacing causes regional disturbances of adrenergic innervation in the left ventricular myocardium and increases the risk of heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with sinus node disease (SND). As a result, decreased iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-(123 )MIBG) uptake occurs in patients with an implanted permanent pacemaker. Fourteen SND patients with an implanted pacemaker equipped with an algorithm for reducing unnecessary right ventricular pacing (RURVP) were enrolled. Pacemakers were programmed to RURVP mode for the first 12 weeks, and then reprogrammed to DDD for the last 12 weeks. At the end of each mode, data on cumulative percent ventricular pacing (%Vp), atrial high rate episodes (%AHR), I-(123 )MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP), and myocardial damage indices typified by troponin T and C-reactive protein (CRP) were collected. %Vp was lower in RURVP than in DDD (0.2% versus 95.7%, P = 0.00098). BNP, hANP, troponin T, and CRP did not differ significantly between the pacing modes. However, I-(123 )MIBG findings of patients with full ventricular pacing in DDD improved in RURVP. In contrast, among patients without full ventricular pacing in DDD, their I-(123 )MIBG findings did not differ significantly between the pacing modes. In SND patients with normal cardiac function and intact atrioventricular conduction, the reduction of %Vp in RURVP was due to the reduction of ineffective pacing and fusion pacing in DDD. Therefore, these 2 types of pacing do not affect cardiac pump function.

  7. Purinergic receptor stimulation reduces cytotoxic edema and brain infarcts in mouse induced by photothrombosis by energizing glial mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatments to improve the neurological outcome of edema and cerebral ischemic stroke are severely limited. Here, we present the first in vivo single cell images of cortical mouse astrocytes documenting the impact of single vessel photothrombosis on cytotoxic edema and cerebral infarcts. The volume of astrocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP increased by over 600% within 3 hours of ischemia. The subsequent growth of cerebral infarcts was easily followed as the loss of GFP fluorescence as astrocytes lysed. Cytotoxic edema and the magnitude of ischemic lesions were significantly reduced by treatment with the purinergic ligand 2-methylthioladenosine 5' diphosphate (2-MeSADP, an agonist with high specificity for the purinergic receptor type 1 isoform (P2Y(1R. At 24 hours, cytotoxic edema in astrocytes was still apparent at the penumbra and preceded the cell lysis that defined the infarct. Delayed 2MeSADP treatment, 24 hours after the initial thrombosis, also significantly reduced cytotoxic edema and the continued growth of the brain infarction. Pharmacological and genetic evidence are presented indicating that 2MeSADP protection is mediated by enhanced astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism via increased inositol trisphosphate (IP(3-dependent Ca(2+ release. We suggest that mitochondria play a critical role in astrocyte energy metabolism in the penumbra of ischemic lesions, where low ATP levels are widely accepted to be responsible for cytotoxic edema. Enhancement of this energy source could have similar protective benefits for a wide range of brain injuries.

  8. OK-432 reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Masako; Uzawa, Akiko; Ogyu, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suzuki, Gen

    2001-06-01

    Acute radiation induces bacterial translocation from the gut, followed by systemic infection and sepsis. In order to reduce the mortality after acute whole body irradiation, it is essential to control bacterial translocation. In this study, we established a bacterial translocation assay as a sensitive method to detect minor mucosal injury by radiation. By utilizing this assay, we evaluated the adverse effects, if any, of hematopoietic reagents on the mucosal integrity in the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen occurred after whole-body irradiation if the dose exceeded 6 Gy. The administration of G-CSF unexpectedly increased the bacterial translocation in 8 Gy-irradiated mice. The pharmaceutical preparation of low-virulent Streptococcus pyogenes, OK-432, significantly reduced the endotoxin levels in peripheral blood without any reduction of bacterial translocation. A combined treatment with G-CSF and OK-432 decreased bacterial translocation and prevented death. This result indicates that the early administration of G-CSF has an adverse effect on bacterial translocation, and that a combined treatment of G-CSF and OK-432 attenuates the adverse effect of G-CSF and improves the survival rate after acute irradiation. (author)

  9. Babies Living Safe & Smokefree: randomized controlled trial of a multilevel multimodal behavioral intervention to reduce low-income children’s tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley N. Collins

    2017-03-01

    -focused telephone counseling, mobile app, and multimedia text messages about improving nutrition. The control condition also receives a referral to the state smoking cessation quitline. Discussion This study tests an innovative community-based, multilevel and integrated multimodal approach to reducing child TSE in a vulnerable, low-income population. The approach is sustainable and has potential for wide reach because WIC can integrate the tobacco intervention prompts into routine workflow and refer smokers to free evidence-based behavioral counseling interventions, such as state quitlines. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02602288 . Registered 9 November 2015.

  10. Facile synthesis of amine-functional reduced graphene oxides as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe adsorbent for multi-pesticide residues analysis of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guicen; Zhang, Minglu; Zhu, Li; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2018-01-05

    Amine-functional reduced graphene oxide (amine-rGO) with different carbon chain length amino groups were successfully synthesized. The graphene oxides (GO) reduction as well as amino grafting were achieved simultaneously in one step via a facile solvothermal synthetic strategy. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the modification of GO with different amino groups. The adsorption performance of catechins and caffeine from tea acetonitrile extracts on different amine functional rGO samples were evaluated. It was found that tributylamine-functional rGO (tri-BuA-rGO) exhibited the highest adsorption ability for catechins and caffeine compared to GO and other amino group functional rGO samples. It was worth to note that the adsorption capacity of catechins on tri-BuA-rGO was 11 times higher than that of GO (203.7mgg -1 vs 18.7mgg -1 ). Electrostatic interaction, π-π interaction and surface hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of tri-BuA-rGO played important roles in the adsorption of catechins as well as caffeine. The gravimetric analysis confirmed that the tri-BuA-rGO achieved the highest efficient cleanup preformance compared with traditional dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) adsorbents like primary-secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) or C18. A multi-pesticides analysis method based on tri-BuA-rGO is validated on 33 representative pesticides in tea using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The analysis method gave a high coefficient of determination (r 2 >0.99) for each pesticide and satisfactory recoveries in a range of 72.1-120.5%. Our study demonstrated that amine functional rGO as a new type of QuEChERS adsorbent is expected to be widely applied for analysis of pesticides at trace levels. Copyright © 2017

  11. Citrus Polyphenol Hesperidin Stimulates Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells while Improving Endothelial Function and Reducing Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Stefano; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Iantorno, Micaela; Kim, Jeong-a; Chen, Hui; Pullikotil, Philomena; Senese, Nicoletta; Tesauro, Manfredi; Lauro, Davide; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Context: Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, and its metabolite hesperetin may have vascular actions relevant to their health benefits. Molecular and physiological mechanisms of hesperetin actions are unknown. Objective: We tested whether hesperetin stimulates production of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium and evaluated endothelial function in subjects with metabolic syndrome on oral hesperidin therapy. Design, Setting, and Interventions: Cellular mechanisms of action of hesperetin were evaluated in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in primary culture. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial examined whether oral hesperidin administration (500 mg once daily for 3 wk) improves endothelial function in individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 24). Main Outcome Measure: We measured the difference in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation between placebo and hesperidin treatment periods. Results: Treatment of BAEC with hesperetin acutely stimulated phosphorylation of Src, Akt, AMP kinase, and endothelial NO synthase to produce NO; this required generation of H2O2. Increased adhesion of monocytes to BAEC and expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in response to TNF-α treatment was reduced by pretreatment with hesperetin. In the clinical study, when compared with placebo, hesperidin treatment increased flow-mediated dilation (10.26 ± 1.19 vs. 7.78 ± 0.76%; P = 0.02) and reduced concentrations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, soluble E-selectin). Conclusions: Novel mechanisms for hesperetin action in endothelial cells inform effects of oral hesperidin treatment to improve endothelial dysfunction and reduce circulating markers of inflammation in our exploratory clinical trial. Hesperetin has vasculoprotective actions that may explain beneficial cardiovascular effects of citrus consumption. PMID:21346065

  12. Nucleus Accumbens MC4-R Stimulation Reduces Food and Ethanol Intake in Adult Rats Regardless of Binge-Like Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvajal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP in hypothalamic and limbic areas. Given the protective role of MC against excessive ethanol consumption, disturbances in the MC system induced by binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence might contribute to excessive ethanol consumption during adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to elevated ethanol intake and/or eating disturbance during adulthood. Toward that aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ethanol (3 g/kg i.p.; BEP group or saline (SP group for 14 days (PND 25 to PND 38. On PND73, all the groups were given access to 20% ethanol on an intermittent schedule. Our results showed that adult rats given intermittent access (IAE to 20% ethanol achieved high spontaneous ethanol intake that was not significantly enhanced by binge-like ethanol pretreatment during adolescence. However, BEP group exhibited an increase in food intake without a parallel increase in body weight (BW relative to SP group suggesting caloric efficiency disturbance. Additionally, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the expected reduction in feeding and ethanol consumption following NAc shell administration of a selective MC4-R agonist in adult rats showing high rates of ethanol consumption. For that, animals in each pretreatment condition (SP and BEP were divided into

  13. Mir-130a-Mediated Downregulation of SMAD4 Contributes to Reduced Sensitivity to TGE beta Stimulation in Promyelocytic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hager, Mattias; Pedersen, Corinna Cavan; Larsen, Maria Torp

    2011-01-01

    mature, the expression of miR-130a decreases dramatically whereas the level of Smad4 protein expression increases demonstrating inverse correlation between miR-130a and Smad4 protein. The level of Stnad4 mRNA is comparable at all stages of granulopoiesis. High miR-130a levels and low or no expression...... by point mutations in the miRNA-binding site. In agreement, we observed that stable overexpression of miR-130a in a granulocytic cell line reduces the level of Smad4 protein, and render the cells less sensitive to TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition. This was also confirmed with cell cycles analysis...... of Smad4 was found in primary cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and in a cell line (Kasumi-1) with the t(8:21)(q22;q22) chromosomal translocation. The level of Smad4 increased in Kasumi-1 cells when the endogenous level of miR-130a was inhibited by anti-miR-130a LNA. Our data indicate...

  14. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) stimulates corneal wound healing and reduces haze formation after PRK surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; Alcalde, I; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) on the corneal wound healing process after Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). To address this, blood from three healthy donors was collected, centrifuged and, the whole plasma column (WP) and the plasma fraction with the highest platelet concentration (F3) were collected. The effects of F3 and WP on the proliferation and migration of human corneal epithelial cells (HCE) were analyzed. PRK was performed on C57BL/6 mice. Animals were divided in three treatment groups: Control, F3, and WP. Corneal wound healing and haze formation were evaluated macroscopically. Eyes were collected at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after surgery, and were processed for histological studies. Immunofluorescence was used to assess cellular proliferation, apoptosis and myofibroblast transformation in the mouse cornea. Results showed a significant increased on proliferation and wound healing after F3 and WP treatment when compared with control group. In vivo studies showed significant reduction on haze formation in mice treated with both PRGF-Endoret formulations (F3 and WP). Histological studies showed an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in corneas of control group, promoting an epithelial hyperplasia. The number of SMA-positive cells (corresponding to myofibroblast differentiation) was significantly lower in the PRGF-Endoret group than in the control group, correlating with the higher transparence results observed macroscopically in both PRGF-Endoret groups. According to this, it can be concluded that PRGF-Endoret accelerates corneal tissue regeneration after PRK, reducing haze formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Safe Kids Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Menu Why It Matters Who We Are What We Do Find Your Safe Kids Safe Kids Day Main menu Keeping All Kids Safe Safety Tips Get Involved 4 Star Charity Donate Text Burns and Scalds 4 tips ...

  16. Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    much lower, and the performance gained can dramatically reduce life -cycle costs. Validated cost data are scarce, and accurate AM cost models need to be...reduce costs, minimize obsolescence issues and improve both capability and readi- ness across the entire life cycle of naval systems—including both the...of naval weapon systems. The Navy is actively engaging its various communi- ties to align needs and ensure that AM can be safely acceler- ated and

  17. "Same Room, Safe Place".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene Woods, Nikki

    2017-04-01

    There are many different professional stances on safe sleep and then there is the reality of caring for a newborn. There is a debate among professionals regarding safe sleep recommendations. The continum of recommendations vary from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Safe Sleep Guidelines to the bed-sharing recommendations from the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory. The lack of consistent and uniform safe sleep recommendations from health professionals has been confusing for families but has more recently raised a real professional ethical dilemma. Despite years of focused safe sleep community education and interventions, sleep-related infant deaths are on the rise in many communities. This commentary calls for a united safe sleep message from all health professionals to improve health for mothers and infants most at-risk, "Same Room, Safe Place."

  18. Cost-effective way to reduce stimulant-abuse among gay/bisexual men and transgender women: a randomized clinical trial with a cost comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S X; Shoptaw, S; Reback, C J; Yadav, K; Nyamathi, A M

    2018-01-01

    A randomized controlled study was conducted with 422 homeless, stimulant-using gay/bisexual (G/B) men and 29 transgender women (n = 451) to assess two community-based interventions to reduce substance abuse and improve health: (a) a nurse case-managed program combined with contingency management (NCM + CM) versus (b) standard education plus contingency management (SE + CM). Hypotheses tested included: a) completion of hepatitis A/B vaccination series; b) reduction in stimulant use; and c) reduction in number of sexual partners. A deconstructive cost analysis approach was utilized to capture direct costs associated with the delivery of both interventions. Based on an analysis of activity logs and staff interviews, specific activities and the time required to complete each were analyzed as follows: a) NCM + CM only; b) SE + CM only; c) time to administer/record vaccines; and d) time to receive and record CM visits. Cost comparison of the interventions included only staffing costs and direct cash expenditures. The study outcomes showed significant over time reductions in all measures of drug use and multiple sex partners, compared to baseline, although no significant between-group differences were detected. Cost analysis favored the simpler SE + CM intervention over the more labor-intensive NCM + CM approach. Because of the high levels of staffing required for the NCM relative to SE, costs associated with it were significantly higher. Findings suggest that while both intervention strategies were equally effective in achieving desired health outcomes, the brief SE + CM appeared less expensive to deliver. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. South Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome exhibit greater sensitivity to gonadotropin stimulation with reduced fertilization and ongoing pregnancy rates than their Caucasian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palep-Singh, M; Picton, H M; Vrotsou, K; Maruthini, D; Balen, A H

    2007-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous syndrome. In vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is required for PCOS cases that are refractory to standard ovulation induction or have co-existing infertility factors in women with PCOS and Tubal factor subfertility. Assess ethnic variations in response to IVF/ICSI treatment. Observational Comparative study in a University hospital fertility clinic in women with PCOS and Tubal factor subfertility. Women with PCOS (Asians: AP=104; Caucasians: CP=220) and those with tubal factor infertility seeking fertility treatment were assessed (Asians: AC=84; Caucasians: CC=200). Six hundred and eight fresh IVF or ICSI cycles using long protocol of GnRHa suppression and resulting in a fresh embryo transfer were compared. The primary endpoint was to assess the dose of gonadotropins used in the cycles. The secondary outcomes were: total number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization and ongoing clinical pregnancy rates. We found that the South Asian women presented at a younger age for the management of sub-fertility. An extended stimulation phase and Caucasian ethnicity showed an inverse correlation with the number of oocytes retrieved in the PCOS subgroup. Caucasian ethnicity was associated with a higher fertilization rate however increase in body mass index (BMI) and the laboratory technique of IVF appeared to have a negative impact on fertilization rates in the PCOS subgroup. Commencing down regulation on day 1 of the cycles was negatively associated with fertilization rates in the tubal group. In terms of clinical pregnancy rates, the Caucasian PCOS had a 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.25-5) higher chance of an ongoing clinical pregnancy as compared with their Asian counterpart. Also, a unit increase in the basal FSH concentration reduced the odds of pregnancy by 18.6% (95% CI: 1.8-32.6%) in the PCOS group. The Asian PCOS have a greater sensitivity to gonadotropin stimulation with lower fertilization and

  20. Strategies for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-02-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality.

  1. Evaluation of focused multipolar stimulation for cochlear implants: a preclinical safety study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert K.; Wise, Andrew K.; Enke, Ya Lang; Carter, Paul M.; Fallon, James B.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Cochlear implants (CIs) have a limited number of independent stimulation channels due to the highly conductive nature of the fluid-filled cochlea. Attempts to develop highly focused stimulation to improve speech perception in CI users includes the use of simultaneous stimulation via multiple current sources. Focused multipolar (FMP) stimulation is an example of this approach and has been shown to reduce interaction between stimulating channels. However, compared with conventional biphasic current pulses generated from a single current source, FMP is a complex stimulus that includes extended periods of stimulation before charge recovery is achieved, raising questions on whether chronic stimulation with this strategy is safe. The present study evaluated the long-term safety of intracochlear stimulation using FMP in a preclinical animal model of profound deafness. Approach. Six cats were bilaterally implanted with scala tympani electrode arrays two months after deafening, and received continuous unilateral FMP stimulation at levels that evoked a behavioural response for periods of up to 182 d. Electrode impedance, electrically-evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) and auditory brainstem responses (EABRs) were monitored periodically over the course of the stimulation program from both the stimulated and contralateral control cochleae. On completion of the stimulation program cochleae were examined histologically and the electrode arrays were evaluated for evidence of platinum (Pt) corrosion. Main results. There was no significant difference in electrode impedance between control and chronically stimulated electrodes following long-term FMP stimulation. Moreover, there was no significant difference between ECAP and EABR thresholds evoked from control or stimulated cochleae at either the onset of stimulation or at completion of the stimulation program. Chronic FMP stimulation had no effect on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) survival when compared with

  2. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  3. Electric Stimulation of Ear Reduces the Effect of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway on Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Tzu Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common clinical syndrome with recurrent neuronal discharges in the temporal lobe, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus. Clinical antiepileptic medicines are often ineffective or of little benefit in 30% of epileptic patients and usually cause severe side effects. Emerging evidence indicates the crucial role of inflammatory mediators in epilepsy. The current study investigates the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and its underlying mechanisms in kainic acid- (KA- induced epileptic seizures in rats. Experimental KA injection successfully initiated an epileptic seizure accompanied by increased expression of TLR4 in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and somatosensory cortex. In addition, calcium-sensitive phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKIIα increased after the initiation of the epileptic seizure. Furthermore, downstream-phosphorylated signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK, and p38 kinase simultaneously increased in these brain areas. Moreover, the transcriptional factor phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (pNF-κB increased, suggesting that nucleus transcription was affected. Furthermore, the aforementioned molecules decreased by an electric stimulation (ES of either 2 Hz or 15 Hz of the ear in the three brain areas. Accordingly, we suggest that ES of the ear can successfully control epileptic seizures by regulating the TLR4 signaling pathway and has a therapeutic benefit in reducing epileptic seizures.

  4. MicroRNA-130a-mediated down-regulation of Smad4 contributes to reduced sensitivity to TGF-β1 stimulation in granulocytic precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häger, Mattias; Pedersen, Corinna Cavan; Larsen, Maria Torp

    2011-01-01

    Smad4 is important in the TGF-ß pathway and required for transcriptional activation and inhibition of cell growth after TGF-ß1 stimulation. We demonstrate that miR-130a is differentially expressed during granulopoiesis and targets Smad4 mRNA. The transcript for Smad4 is present throughout...... neutrophil maturation, but Smad4 protein is undetectable in the most immature cells, where miR-130a is highly expressed. Two miR-130a binding sites were identified in the 3'-untranslated region of the Smad4 mRNA. Overexpression of miR-130a in HEK293, A549, and 32Dcl3 cells repressed synthesis of Smad4...... protein without affecting Smad4 mRNA level. Repression of Smad4 synthesis in a granulocytic cell line by miR-130a reduced its sensitivity to TGF-ß1-induced growth inhibition. This effect was reversed by inhibiting the activity of miR-130a with an antisense probe or by expressing a Smad4 mRNA lacking mi...

  5. MicroRNA-130a–mediated down-regulation of Smad4 contributes to reduced sensitivity to TGF-β1 stimulation in granulocytic precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häger, Mattias; Pedersen, Corinna Cavan; Larsen, Maria Torp

    2011-01-01

    Smad4 is important in the TGF-β pathway and required for transcriptional activation and inhibition of cell growth after TGF-β1 stimulation. We demonstrate that miR-130a is differentially expressed during granulopoiesis and targets Smad4 mRNA. The transcript for Smad4 is present throughout...... neutrophil maturation, but Smad4 protein is undetectable in the most immature cells, where miR-130a is highly expressed. Two miR-130a binding sites were identified in the 3'-untranslated region of the Smad4 mRNA. Overexpression of miR-130a in HEK293, A549, and 32Dcl3 cells repressed synthesis of Smad4...... protein without affecting Smad4 mRNA level. Repression of Smad4 synthesis in a granulocytic cell line by miR-130a reduced its sensitivity to TGF-β1–induced growth inhibition. This effect was reversed by inhibiting the activity of miR-130a with an antisense probe or by expressing a Smad4 mRNA lacking mi...

  6. Electrical Stimulation at the ST36 Acupoint Protects against Sepsis Lethality and Reduces Serum TNF Levels through Vagus Nerve- and Catecholamine-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Villegas-Bastida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical vagus nerve (VN stimulation during sepsis attenuates tumor necrosis factor (TNF production through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which depends on the integrity of the VN and catecholamine production. To characterize the effect of electroacupuncture at ST36 (EA-ST36 on serum TNF, IL-6, nitrite, and HMGB1 levels and survival rates, based on VN integrity and catecholamine production, a sepsis model was induced in rats using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. The septic rats were subsequently treated with EA-ST36 (CLP+ST36, and serum samples were collected and analyzed for cytokines levels. The serum TNF, IL-6, nitrite, and HMGB1 levels in the CLP+ST36 group were significantly lower compared with the group without treatment, the survival rates were significantly higher (P<0.05, and the acute organ injury induced by CLP was mitigated by EA-ST36; however, when subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was performed, the serum levels of TNF in the CLP+ST36 group did not show a significant difference compared with the group without electrostimulation, and, similarly, no significant difference in serum TNF levels was found under the pharmacological blockade of catecholamines. These results suggest that in rats with CLP sepsis models EA-ST36 reduces serum TNF levels through VN- and atecholamine-dependent mechanisms.

  7. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  8. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  9. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  10. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru

  11. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  12. Reduced ethanol consumption by alcohol-preferring (P) rats following pharmacological silencing and deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, Jessica A; Qing, Kurt Y; Hauser, Sheketha R; McBride, William J; Irazoqui, Pedro P; Rodd, Zachary A

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of addiction. Initial testing must be conducted in animals, and the alcohol-preferring (P) rat meets the criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. This study is composed of 2 experiments designed to examine the effects of 1) pharmacological inactivation and 2) DBS of the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) on the consumption of alcohol by P rats. In the first experiment, the effects of reversible inactivation of the AcbSh were investigated by administering intracranial injections of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists. Bilateral microinjections of drug were administered to the AcbSh in P rats (8-10 rats/group), after which the animals were placed in operant chambers containing 2 levers--one used to administer water and the other to administer 15% EtOH--to examine the acquisition and maintenance of oral EtOH self-administration. In the second experiment, a DBS electrode was placed in each P rat's left AcbSh. The animals then received 100 or 200 μA (3-4 rats/group) of DBS to examine the effect on daily consumption of oral EtOH in a free-access paradigm. In the first experiment, pharmacological silencing of the AcbSh with GABA agonists did not decrease the acquisition of EtOH drinking behavior but did reduce EtOH consumption by 55% in chronically drinking rats. Similarly, in the second experiment, 200 μA of DBS consistently reduced EtOH intake by 47% in chronically drinking rats. The amount of EtOH consumption returned to baseline levels following termination of therapy in both experiments. Pharmacological silencing and DBS of the AcbSh reduced EtOH intake after chronic EtOH use had been established in rodents. The AcbSh is a neuroanatomical substrate for the reinforcing effects of alcohol and may be a target for surgical intervention in cases of alcoholism.

  13. Immune defense of wild-caught Norway rats is characterized by increased levels of basal activity but reduced capability to respond to further immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkov, Ivana; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Subota, Vesna; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2018-03-01

    Studies of wild animals' immunity often use comparison with laboratory-raised individuals. Using such an approach, various data were obtained concerning wild Norway rat's immunity. Lower or higher potential of immune system cells to respond to activation stimuli were shown, because of analysis of disparate parameters and/ or small number of analyzed individuals. Inconsistent differences between laboratory and wild rats were shown too, owing to great response variability in wild rats. We hypothesized that wild rats will express more intense immune activity compared to their laboratory counterparts which live in a less demanding environment. To test this, we analyzed the circulating levels of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), a mediator which has a central role in host immune defense. In addition, we examined the activity of the central immune organ, the spleen, including cell proliferation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17), which are major effectors of cellular adaptive immune response. In order to obtain reasonable insight into the immunity of wild Norway rats, analysis was conducted on a much larger number of individuals compared to other studies. Higher levels of plasma IL-6, higher spleen mass, cellularity and basal IFN-γ production concomitantly with lower basal production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) revealed more intense immune activity in the wild compared to laboratory rats. However, lower responsiveness of their spleen cells' proinflammatory cytokine production to concanavalin A (ConA) stimulation, along with preserved capacity of IL-10 response, might be perceived as an indication of wild rats' reduced capability to cope with incoming environmental stimuli, but also as a means to limit tissue damage. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Surface-Displayed IL-10 by Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Reduces Th1 Responses of RAW264.7 Cells Stimulated with Poly(I:C) or LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ruopeng; Jiang, Yanlong; Yang, Wei; Yang, Wentao; Shi, Shaohua; Shi, Chunwei; Hu, Jingtao; Gu, Wei; Ye, Liping; Zhou, Fangyu; Gong, Qinglong; Han, Wenyu; Yang, Guilian; Wang, Chunfeng

    2016-02-01

    Recently, poly-γ-glutamic acid synthetase A (pgsA) has been applied to display exogenous proteins on the surface of Lactobacillus casei or Lactococcus lactis, which results in a surfacedisplayed component of bacteria. However, the ability of carrying genes encoded by plasmids and the expression efficiency of recombinant bacteria can be somewhat affected by the longer gene length of pgsA (1,143 bp); therefore, a truncated gene, pgsA, was generated based on the characteristics of pgsA by computational analysis. Using murine IL-10 as an exogenous gene, recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum was constructed and the capacity of the surface-displayed protein and functional differences between exogenous proteins expressed by these strains were evaluated. Surface expression of IL-10 on both recombinant bacteria with anchorins and the higher expression levels in L. plantarum-pgsA'-IL-10 were confirmed by western blot assay. Most importantly, up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and the nuclear transcription factor NF-κB p65 in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with Poly(I:C) or LPS was exacerbated after co-culture with L. plantarum-pgsA. By contrast, IL-10 expressed by these recombinant strains could reduce these factors, and the expression of these factors was associated with recombinant strains that expressed anchorin (especially in L. plantarum-pgsA'-IL-10) and was significantly lower compared with the anchorin-free strains. These findings indicated that exogenous proteins could be successfully displayed on the surface of L. plantarum by pgsA or pgsA', and the expression of recombinant bacteria with pgsA' was superior compared with bacteria with pgsA.

  15. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol-conjugated bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for reducing the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis in periparturient dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfurther, Renee L; TerHune, Terry N; Canning, Peter C

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate effects of various doses of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (bG-CSF) on the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis in periparturient dairy cattle. 211 periparturient Holstein cows and heifers. Approximately 7 days before the anticipated date of parturition (day of parturition = day 0), healthy cattle received SC injections of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) or PEG-bG-CSF at 5, 10, or 20 μg/kg. Cattle were commingled and housed in a pen with dirt flooring, which was kept wet to maximize the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis. Within 24 hours after parturition, each animal again received the assigned treatment. Mammary glands and milk were visually scored for abnormalities twice daily for 28 days after parturition. Milk samples were aseptically collected from mammary glands with an abnormal appearance or abnormal milk and submitted for microbial culture. Daily milk production was recorded, and milk composition was assessed on days 3, 5, 7, and 10. Cattle treated with PEG-bG-CSF at 10 and 20 μg/kg had significantly fewer cases of clinical mastitis (9/54 and 5/53, respectively), compared with control cattle (18/53). Administration of PEG -bG-CSF did not significantly affect daily milk production or milk composition. Results suggested that PEG-bG-CSF was effective for reducing the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis in periparturient dairy cattle. Further investigations of the use of PEG-bG-CSF as a potential preventative intervention should be conducted.

  16. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  17. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  18. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  19. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  20. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  1. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  2. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  3. Medications: Using Them Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Safely Give Ibuprofen Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Medicines for Diabetes Complementary and Alternative Medicine How Do Pain Relievers Work? What Medicines Are and What They Do Medicines ...

  4. DroidSafe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Massachusetts Avenue, Build E19-750 Cambridge , MA 02139-4307 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...Activity objects illustrating the challenges of points-to and information flow analysis...measure how many malicious flows Droid- Safe was able to detect). As these results illustrate , DroidSafe implements an analysis of unprece- dented

  5. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  6. Do Stimulants Reduce the Risk for Alcohol and Substance Use in Youth With ADHD? A Secondary Analysis of a Prospective, 24-Month Open-Label Study of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerness, Paul; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of stimulant treatment on risk for alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents with ADHD. Analysis of data derived from a prospective open-label treatment study of adolescent ADHD ( n = 115, 76% male), and a historical, naturalistic sample of ADHD ( n = 44, 68% male) and non-ADHD youth ( n = 52, 73% male) of similar age and sex. Treatment consisted of extended-release methylphenidate in the clinical trial or naturalistic stimulant treatment. Self-report of alcohol and drug use was derived from a modified version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. Rates of alcohol and drug use in the past year were significantly lower in the clinical trial compared with untreated and treated naturalistic ADHD comparators, and similar to rates in non-ADHD comparators. Well-monitored stimulant treatment may reduce the risk for alcohol and substance use in adolescent ADHD.

  7. A low concentration of ethanol reduces the chemiluminescence of human granulocytes and monocytes but not the tumor necrosis factor alpha production by monocytes after endotoxin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Diedrich, J. P.; Schäfer, Christian

    1998-01-01

    necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from Mphi. Further, the efficiency of ethanol to inactivate chemically generated ROS was tested. Significant stimulation of ROS release occurred at endotoxin concentrations of 1 ng/ml or higher in both PMNs and Mphi. Ethanol significantly suppressed the formation of ROS...... immunogens and to increase the susceptibility of alcohol abusers to infectious diseases. As endotoxemia is common in alcohol abusers, we investigated the effect of ethanol (21.7 mmol/liter) on the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence of PMNs and Mphi after endotoxin stimulation and the release of tumor...... identical (6 to 8 ng/ml) in both PMNs and Mphi, independent of the presence of ethanol. In contrast to ROS formation, ethanol had no effect on the amount of TNF-alpha produced by endotoxin-stimulated Mphi. Ethanol was shown to be unable to decrease the levels of chemically generated ROS under physiological...

  8. Experimental chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in rats. Non-specific stimulation with LPS reduces lethality as efficiently as specific immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Hougen, H P; Høiby, N

    1995-01-01

    In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis, we investigated the possibility of preventing chronic lung inflammation or decreasing the progression of the infection. We compared the lethality, pathology, bacterial clearance, and immunogenicity after...... with either E. coli LPS or P. aeruginosa sonicate. Four and two weeks prior to challenge other rats were vaccinated with either E. coli LPS or P. aeruginosa sonicate. Controls did not receive any stimulation or vaccination. The lethality after challenge was lower in rats stimulated with E. coli LPS (p = 0...... but not to prevent the chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection and inflammation caused by alginate-embedded bacteria....

  9. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  10. Electrical foot stimulation and implications for the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert E; Czyrny, James J; Fung, Tat S; Unsworth, John D; Hirsh, Jack

    2002-08-01

    Venous stasis caused by immobility is an important risk factor for deep vein thrombosis following surgery and lower limb trauma, in bed-ridden medical patients, and in high-risk long distance air travelers. A safe and convenient method for reducing venous stasis would be useful in patients while in hospital and after discharge during their rehabilitation. 49 healthy subjects aged 51-76 were seated for 4 hours during which they received mild electrical stimulation of the calf, or sole of the foot (plantar muscles). Popliteal and femoral venous blood flow velocities were measured via doppler ultrasound. The non-stimulated lower extremity served as the simultaneous control. Subjects completed a questionnaire regarding their acceptance and tolerance of the electrical stimulation. There was a significant increase in venous femoral and popliteal blood flow for both calf (p < 0.035, p < 0.003), and plantar muscles (p < 0.0001, p < 0.009) on the stimulated side compared to the unstimulated side. The magnitude of the effect was similar for calf and plantar muscle stimulation. Subjects did not find the experience uncomfortable, and would use an electrical stimulator if told by their physician that they were at risk for developing blood clots. Mild electrical stimulation of the feet, as well as the calf, is a safe effective and convenient method for counteracting venous stasis and therefore has the potential to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism for subjects who are immobilized.

  11. Stimulant Treatment Reduces Lapses in Attention among Children with ADHD: The Effects of Methylphenidate on Intra-Individual Response Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah V.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Richards, Jerry B.; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that intra-individual variability in reaction time (RT) distributions of children with ADHD is characterized by a particularly large rightward skew that may reflect lapses in attention. The purpose of the study was to provide the first randomized, placebo-controlled test of the effects of the stimulant methylphenidate…

  12. Assisting People with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Actively Reducing Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Gyration Air Mouse through a Controlled Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the gyration air mouse into a high performance limb movement detector, and have assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulation using limb movement. This study extends gyration air mouse functionality by actively reducing…

  13. An activity stimulation programme during a child's first year reduces some indicators of adiposity at the age of two-and-a-half

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Agm; Huiting, H. G.; van den Heuvel, Er; L'Abée, C; Corpeleijn, E; Stolk, Rp

    AIM: Obesity tracks from childhood into adulthood. We evaluated the effect of early stimulation of physical activity on growth, body composition, motor activity and motor development in toddlers. METHODS: We performed a cluster randomised controlled single-blinded trial in Dutch Well Baby Clinics,

  14. An activity stimulation programme during a child's first year reduces some indicators of adiposity at the age of two-and-a-half

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de A.G.M.; Huiting, H.G.; Heuvel, van den E.R.; L'Abee, C.; Corpeleijn, E.; Stolk, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Obesity tracks from childhood into adulthood. We evaluated the effect of early stimulation of physical activity on growth, body composition, motor activity and motor development in toddlers. Methods. We performed a cluster randomised controlled single-blinded trial in Dutch Well Baby Clinics,

  15. Neuropeptide Y-stimulated [(35) S]GTPγs functional binding is reduced in the hippocampus after kainate-induced seizures in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbrønd-Bek, Heidi; Olling, Janne Damm; Gøtzsche, Casper René

    2014-01-01

    , in this study, we explored functional NPY receptor activity in the mouse hippocampus and neocortex after kainate-induced seizures using NPY-stimulated [(35) S]GTPγS binding. Moreover, we also studied levels of [(125) I]-peptide YY (PYY) binding and NPY, Y1, Y2, and Y5 receptor mRNA in these kainate-treated mice...

  16. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  17. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  18. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  19. The safe home project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  20. Reduced response of splenocytes after mitogen-stimulation in the prion protein (PrP) gene-deficient mouse: PrPLP/Doppel production and cerebral degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi-Kyeong; Hirose, Yuko; Sakudo, Akikazu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kang, Chung-Boo; Taniuchi, Yojiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Onodera, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Splenocytes of wild-type (Prnp +/+ ) and prion protein gene-deficient (Prnp -/- ) mice were treated with various activation stimuli such as T cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) + ionomycin (Io), or B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cellular prion protein (PrP C ) expression was enhanced following ConA stimulation, but not PMA + Io or LPS in Prnp +/+ splenocytes. Rikn Prnp -/- splenocytes elicited lower cell proliferations than Prnp +/+ or Zrch I Prnp -/- splenocytes after LPS stimulation and showed sporadic nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and deeper structure. Around the degenerated nerve cells, mild vacuolation in the neuropil was observed. This neural alteration correlated well to the suppressed response of B cells in the spleen. The finding that discrete lesions within the central nervous systems induced marked modulation of immune function probably indicates the existence of a delicately balanced neural-endocrine network by PrP C and PrPLP/Doppel

  1. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons reveals that tonic but not phasic patterns of dopamine transmission reduce ethanol self-administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Bass

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that acute ethanol exposure stimulates ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine cell activity and that VTA-dependent dopamine release in terminal fields within the nucleus accumbens plays an integral role in the regulation of ethanol drinking behaviors. Unfortunately, due to technical limitations, the specific temporal dynamics linking VTA dopamine cell activation and ethanol self-administration are not known. In fact, establishing a causal link between specific patterns of dopamine transmission and ethanol drinking behaviors has proven elusive. Here, we sought to address these gaps in our knowledge using a newly developed viral-mediated gene delivery strategy to selectively express Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 on dopamine cells in the VTA of wild-type rats. We then used this approach to precisely control VTA dopamine transmission during voluntary ethanol drinking sessions. The results confirmed that ChR2 was selectively expressed on VTA dopamine cells and delivery of blue light pulses to the VTA induced dopamine release in accumbal terminal fields with very high temporal and spatial precision. Brief high frequency VTA stimulation induced phasic patterns of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Lower frequency stimulation, applied for longer periods mimicked tonic increases in accumbal dopamine. Notably, using this optogenetic approach in rats engaged in an intermittent ethanol drinking procedure, we found that tonic, but not phasic, stimulation of VTA dopamine cells selectively attenuated ethanol drinking behaviors. Collectively, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel viral targeting strategy that can be used to restrict opsin expression to dopamine cells in standard outbred animals and provide the first causal evidence demonstrating that tonic activation of VTA dopamine neurons selectively decreases ethanol self-administration behaviors.

  2. G-quadruplex and G-rich sequence stimulate Pif1p-catalyzed downstream duplex DNA unwinding through reducing waiting time at ss/dsDNA junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wu, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Na-Nv; Duan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Ming; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Hou, Xi-Miao; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Alternative DNA structures that deviate from B-form double-stranded DNA such as G-quadruplex (G4) DNA can be formed by G-rich sequences that are widely distributed throughout the human genome. We have previously shown that Pif1p not only unfolds G4, but also unwinds the downstream duplex DNA in a G4-stimulated manner. In the present study, we further characterized the G4-stimulated duplex DNA unwinding phenomenon by means of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. It was found that Pif1p did not unwind the partial duplex DNA immediately after unfolding the upstream G4 structure, but rather, it would dwell at the ss/dsDNA junction with a ‘waiting time’. Further studies revealed that the waiting time was in fact related to a protein dimerization process that was sensitive to ssDNA sequence and would become rapid if the sequence is G-rich. Furthermore, we identified that the G-rich sequence, as the G4 structure, equally stimulates duplex DNA unwinding. The present work sheds new light on the molecular mechanism by which G4-unwinding helicase Pif1p resolves physiological G4/duplex DNA structures in cells. PMID:27471032

  3. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  4. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  5. Reduced Performance During a Sentence Repetition Task by Continuous Theta-Burst Magnetic Stimulation of the Pre-supplementary Motor Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Ackermann, Hermann; Belardinelli, Paolo; Desideri, Debora; Seibold, Verena C.; Ziemann, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is engaged in speech comprehension under difficult circumstances such as poor acoustic signal quality or time-critical conditions. Previous studies found that left pre-SMA is activated when subjects listen to accelerated speech. Here, the functional role of pre-SMA was tested for accelerated speech comprehension by inducing a transient “virtual lesion” using continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). Participants were tested (1) prior to (pre-baseline), (2) 10 min after (test condition for the cTBS effect), and (3) 60 min after stimulation (post-baseline) using a sentence repetition task (formant-synthesized at rates of 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 syllables/s). Speech comprehension was quantified by the percentage of correctly reproduced speech material. For high speech rates, subjects showed decreased performance after cTBS of pre-SMA. Regarding the error pattern, the number of incorrect words without any semantic or phonological similarity to the target context increased, while related words decreased. Thus, the transient impairment of pre-SMA seems to affect its inhibitory function that normally eliminates erroneous speech material prior to speaking or, in case of perception, prior to encoding into a semantically/pragmatically meaningful message. PMID:29896086

  6. Reduced Performance During a Sentence Repetition Task by Continuous Theta-Burst Magnetic Stimulation of the Pre-supplementary Motor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Dietrich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA is engaged in speech comprehension under difficult circumstances such as poor acoustic signal quality or time-critical conditions. Previous studies found that left pre-SMA is activated when subjects listen to accelerated speech. Here, the functional role of pre-SMA was tested for accelerated speech comprehension by inducing a transient “virtual lesion” using continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS. Participants were tested (1 prior to (pre-baseline, (2 10 min after (test condition for the cTBS effect, and (3 60 min after stimulation (post-baseline using a sentence repetition task (formant-synthesized at rates of 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 syllables/s. Speech comprehension was quantified by the percentage of correctly reproduced speech material. For high speech rates, subjects showed decreased performance after cTBS of pre-SMA. Regarding the error pattern, the number of incorrect words without any semantic or phonological similarity to the target context increased, while related words decreased. Thus, the transient impairment of pre-SMA seems to affect its inhibitory function that normally eliminates erroneous speech material prior to speaking or, in case of perception, prior to encoding into a semantically/pragmatically meaningful message.

  7. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on Yongquan acupoint reduces CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia of rats via down-regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and c-Fos expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Yang, Lianxue; Gao, Xiulai

    2010-07-01

    Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and its involvement in regulating gene expression in spinal dorsal horn, cortical and subcortical neurons by peripheral noxious stimulation contribute to pain hypersensitivity. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a treatment used in physiotherapy practice to promote analgesia in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. In this study, a total number of 114 rats were used for three experiments. Effects of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain hypersensitivity and TENS analgesia on ERK1/2 phosphorylation and c-Fos protein expression were examined by using behavioral test, Western blot, and immunostaining methods. We found that CFA injection caused an area of localized swelling, erythema, hypersensitivity to thermal stimuli, the decreased response time of hind paw licking (HPL), as well as upregulation of c-Fos protein expression and ERK2 phosphorylation in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn and the contralateral primary somatosensory area of cortex and the amygdala of rats. TENS on Yongquan acupoint for 20 min produced obvious analgesic effects as demonstrated with increased HPL to thermal stimuli of CFA-treated rats. In addition, TENS application suppressed the CFA-induced ERK2 activation and c-Fos protein expression. These results suggest that down-regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and c-Fos expression were involved in TENS inhibition on CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia of rats.

  8. Electrical Stimulation for Pressure Injuries: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinos, Anna; Falk, Lindsey; Ali, Arshia; Holubowich, Corinne; Walter, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    years. Patients and caregivers reported that pressure injuries were burdensome and reduced their quality of life. Patients and caregivers also noted that electrical stimulation seemed to reduce the time it took the wounds to heal. Conclusions While electrical stimulation is safe to use (GRADE quality of evidence: high) there is uncertainty about whether it improves wound healing (GRADE quality of evidence: low). In Ontario, publicly funding electrical stimulation for pressure injuries could result in extra costs of $0.77 to $3.85 million yearly for the next 5 years. PMID:29201261

  9. Electrical Stimulation for Pressure Injuries: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    reported that pressure injuries were burdensome and reduced their quality of life. Patients and caregivers also noted that electrical stimulation seemed to reduce the time it took the wounds to heal. While electrical stimulation is safe to use (GRADE quality of evidence: high) there is uncertainty about whether it improves wound healing (GRADE quality of evidence: low). In Ontario, publicly funding electrical stimulation for pressure injuries could result in extra costs of $0.77 to $3.85 million yearly for the next 5 years.

  10. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  11. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A

    1996-12-01

    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  12. Inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Anders

    1992-01-01

    A rethinking of nuclear reactor safety has created proposals for new designs based on inherent and passive safety principles. Diverging interpretations of these concepts can be found. This article reviews the key features of proposed advanced power reactors. An evaluation is made of the degree of inherent safety for four different designs: the AP-600, the PIUS, the MHTGR and the PRISM. The inherent hazards of today's most common reactor principles are used as reference for the evaluation. It is concluded that claims for the new designs being inherently, naturally or passively safe are not substantiated by experience. (author)

  13. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  15. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  16. Performance Enhancement by Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Gazerani

    2017-09-01

    et al., 2017 has summarized that overall brain stimulation by some techniques including TMS and tDCS seem to speed up motor learning, and motor skills in sport activities. Considering that performance enhancement can be seen (Colzato et al., 2017, one would ask how and by which mechanism. Davis proposed that there would be two ways that brain stimulation could possibly improve sport performance (Davis, 2013. One way is to benefit from brain stimulation before performance to, for instance, reduce stress level or muscle tension or to enhance focus for a quicker action. The other way would be potential use during training for athletic performance that can eventually help athletes to learn motor skills better. Presented research results are mainly based on the experimental set up; therefore, it is important to identify whether physical and mental performance gains under experimental conditions would also be meaningful in a real world competition. To study actual gain by brain stimulation, future investigations must properly be designed, include placebo and control arms, remain blinded until after data analysis, and include objective assessments in addition to subjective outcomes. Time-course of beneficial effect in certain sport competition is not clear. It has been shown that repetitive applications of tDCS can increase the effects of stimulation (Nitsche and Paulus, 2011; but, it is not clear if this is the case for athletic performance. There is no evidence on side effects especially for long term use of these techniques. Overall, these techniques are considered non-invasive and safe (Rossi et al., 2009. Under medical application, it has been notified that some individuals are highly responders while others do not respond well. This might be the case for athletes. Additive or synergistic effects of these techniques together with other techniques or methods of performance enhancement have not yet been investigated either. Therefore, further studies are required to

  17. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  19. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  20. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  1. Safe Handover : Safe Patients - The Electronic Handover System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Sall, Hanish; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Failure of effective handover is a major preventable cause of patient harm. We aimed to promote accurate recording of high-quality clinical information using an Electronic Handover System (EHS) that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in effective patient care and safety. Within our hospital the human factors associated with poor communication were compromising patient care and unnecessarily increasing the workload of staff due to the poor quality of handovers. Only half of handovers were understood by the doctors expected to complete them, and more than half of our medical staff felt it posed a risk to patient safety. We created a standardised proforma for handovers that contained specific sub-headings, re-classified patient risk assessments, and aided escalation of care by adding prompts for verbal handover. Sources of miscommunication were removed, accountability for handovers provided, and tasks were re-organised to reduce the workload of staff. Long-term, three-month data showed that each sub-heading achieved at least 80% compliance (an average improvement of approximately 40% for the overall quality of handovers). This translated into 91% of handovers being subjectively clear to junior doctors. 87% of medical staff felt we had reduced a risk to patient safety and 80% felt it increased continuity of care. Without guidance, doctors omit key information required for effective handover. All organisations should consider implementing an electronic handover system as a viable, sustainable and safe solution to handover of care that allows patient safety to remain at the heart of the NHS.

  2. Reduced mirror neuron activity in schizophrenia and its association with theory of mind deficits: evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Basavaraju, Rakshathi; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-09-01

    The "mirror-neuron system" has been proposed to be a neurophysiological substrate for social cognition (SC) ability. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms to compare putative mirror neuron activity (MNA) in 3 groups: antipsychotic-naive, medicated schizophrenia patients, and healthy comparison subjects. We also explored the association between MNA and SC ability in patients. Fifty-four consenting right-handed schizophrenia patients (33 antipsychotic naive) and 45 matched healthy comparison subjects completed a TMS experiment to assess putative premotor MNA. We used 4 TMS paradigms of eliciting motor-evoked potentials (MEP) in the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. These were applied while the subjects observed a goal-directed action involving the FDI (actual action and its video) and a static image. The difference in the amplitude of the MEP while they observed the static image and the action provided a measure of MNA. Subjects also underwent SC assessments (theory of mind [ToM], emotion processing, and social perception). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant group × occasion interaction effect in 3 TMS paradigms, indicating deficient motor facilitation during action observation relative to rest state in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients as compared with the other two groups. Among patients, there were significant direct correlations between measures of MNA and ToM performance. Antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients have poorer MNA than medicated patients and healthy controls. Measures of putative MNA had significant and consistent associations with ToM abilities. These findings suggest a possibility of deficient mirror neuron system underlying SC deficits in schizophrenia. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Fe(II)/Cu(II) interaction on goethite stimulated by an iron-reducing bacteria Aeromonas Hydrophila HS01 under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Liang; Zhu, Zhen-Ke; Li, Fang-Bai; Wang, Shan-Li

    2017-11-01

    Copper is a trace element essential for living creatures, but copper content in soil should be controlled, as it is toxic. The physical-chemical-biological features of Cu in soil have a significant correlation with the Fe(II)/Cu(II) interaction in soil. Of significant interest to the current study is the effect of Fe(II)/Cu(II) interaction conducted on goethite under anaerobic conditions stimulated by HS01 (a dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) microbial). The following four treatments were designed: HS01 with α-FeOOH and Cu(II) (T1), HS01 with α-FeOOH (T2), HS01 with Cu(II) (T3), and α-FeOOH with Cu(II) (T4). HS01 presents a negligible impact on copper species transformation (T3), whereas the presence of α-FeOOH significantly enhanced copper aging contributing to the DIR effect (T1). Moreover, the violent reaction between adsorbed Fe(II) and Cu(II) leads to the decreased concentration of the active Fe(II) species (T1), further inhibiting reactions between Fe(II) and iron (hydr)oxides and decelerating the phase transformation of iron (hydr)oxides (T1). From this study, the effects of the Fe(II)/Cu(II) interaction on goethite under anaerobic conditions by HS01 are presented in three aspects: (1) the accelerating effect of copper aging, (2) the reductive transformation of copper, and (3) the inhibition effect of the phase transformation of iron (hydr)oxides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stay Safe at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Take steps to manage stress. Chronic (ongoing) stress at work or at home can increase your risk of getting sick or hurt. You can reduce stress by planning ahead, noticing when you feel stressed, ...

  5. Fetal programming: excess prenatal testosterone reduces postnatal luteinizing hormone, but not follicle-stimulating hormone responsiveness, to estradiol negative feedback in the female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Hirendra N; Manikkam, Mohan; Herkimer, Carol; Dell'Orco, James; Welch, Kathleen B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2005-10-01

    Exposure of female sheep fetuses to excess testosterone (T) during early to midgestation produces postnatal hypergonadotropism manifest as a selective increase in LH. This hypergonadotropism may result from reduced sensitivity to estradiol (E2) negative feedback and/or increased pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. We tested the hypothesis that excess T before birth reduces responsiveness of LH and FSH to E2 negative feedback after birth. Pregnant ewes were treated with T propionate (100 mg/kg in cotton seed oil) or vehicle twice weekly from d 30-90 gestation. Responsiveness to E2 negative feedback was assessed at 12 and 24 wk of age in the ovary-intact female offspring. Our experimental strategy was first to arrest follicular growth and reduce endogenous E2 by administering the GnRH antagonist (GnRH-A), Nal-Glu (50 microg/kg sc every 12 h for 72 h), and then provide a fixed amount of exogenous E2 via an implant. Blood samples were obtained every 20 min at 12 wk and every 10 min at 24 wk before treatment, during and after GnRH-A treatment both before and after E2 implant. GnRH-A ablated LH pulsatility, reduced FSH by approximately 25%, and E2 production diminished to near detection limit of assay at both ages in both groups. Prenatal T treatment produced a precocious and selective reduction in responsiveness of LH but not FSH to E2 negative feedback, which was manifest mainly at the level of LH/GnRH pulse frequency. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to excess T decreases postnatal responsiveness to E2 inhibitory feedback of LH/GnRH secretion to contribute to the development of hypergonadotropism.

  6. Safe percutaneous suprapubic catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, N K; Goel, A; Sankhwar, S N

    2012-11-01

    We describe our technique of percutaneous suprapubic catheter insertion with special reference to steps that help to avoid common complications of haematuria and catheter misplacement. The procedure is performed using a stainless steel reusable trocar under local infiltrative anaesthesia, usually at the bedside. After clinical confirmation of a full bladder, the trocar is advanced into the bladder through a skin incision. Once the bladder is entered, the obturator is removed and the assistant inserts a Foley catheter followed by rapid balloon inflation. Slight traction is applied to the catheter for about five minutes. Patients with previous lower abdominal surgery, an inadequately distended bladder or acute pelvic trauma do not undergo suprapubic catheterisation using this method. The procedure was performed in 72 men (mean age: 42.4 years, range: 18-78 years) with urinary retention with a palpable bladder. The average duration of the procedure was less than five minutes. No complications were noted in any of the patients. Trocar suprapubic catheter insertion is a safe and effective bedside procedure for emergency bladder drainage and can be performed by resident surgeons. The common complications associated with the procedure can be avoided with a few careful steps.

  7. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  8. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  9. Vitamin D deficiency impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increases insulin resistance by reducing PPAR-γ expression in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Human studies have provided relatively strong associations of poor vitamin D status with Type 2 diabetes but do not explain the nature of the association. Here, we explored the physiological pathways that may explain how vitamin D status modulates energy, lipid and glucose metabolisms in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were fed high-fat diets containing 25 (VD-low), 1000 (VD-normal) or 10,000 (VD-high) cholecalciferol-IU/kg diet for 8 weeks. Energy expenditure, insulin resistance, insulin secretory capacity and lipid metabolism were measured. Serum 25-OH-D levels, an index of vitamin D status, increased dose dependently with dietary vitamin D. VD-low resulted in less fat oxidation without a significant difference in energy expenditure and less lean body mass in the abdomen and legs comparison to the VD-normal group. In comparison to VD-low, VD-normal had lower serum triglycerides and intracellular fat accumulation in the liver and skeletal muscles which was associated with down-regulation of the mRNA expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase and up-regulation of gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. In euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance was exacerbated in the VD-low group but not in the VD-normal group, possibly through decreasing hepatic insulin signaling and PPAR-γ expression in the adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes 1,25-(OH)2-D (10 nM) increased triglyceride accumulation by elevating PPAR-γ expression and treatment with a PPAR-γ antagonist blocked the triglyceride deposition induced by 1,25-(OH)2-D treatment. VD-low impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in hyperglycemic clamp and decreased β-cell mass by decreasing β-cell proliferation. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency resulted in the dysregulation of glucose metabolism in GK rats by simultaneously increasing insulin

  10. A 2-center Comparative Study on Tonic Versus Burst Spinal Cord Stimulation: Amount of Responders and Amount of Pain Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, D.M.D.; Lenders, M.W.P.M.; de Vos, Cecilia Cecilia Clementine; Dijkstra-Scholten, C.R.N.; Wolters, R.R.N.; Vancamp, T.P.T.; Van Looy, P.R.N.; Van Havenbergh, T.M.D.; Vanneste, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Spinal cord stimulation is a safe and effective procedure applied for medically intractable neuropathic pain and failed back surgery syndrome. Recently, a novel stimulation paradigm was developed, called burst stimulation consisting of intermittent packets of closely spaced

  11. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the tre...

  12. Evaluation of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Warren, E.; DeSoto, R.; Moroney, G.; Chastain, J.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N.; Taylor, L.; Peters, B. T.; Allen, E.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure results in an adaptive central reinterpretation of information from multiple sensory sources to produce a sensorimotor state appropriate for motor actions in this unique environment, but this new adaptive state is no longer appropriate for the 1-g gravitational environment on Earth. During these gravitational transitions, astronauts experience deficits in both perceptual and motor functions including impaired postural control, disruption in spatial orientation, impaired control of locomotion that include alterations in muscle activation variability, modified lower limb kinematics, alterations in head-trunk coordination as well as reduced dynamic visual acuity. Post-flight changes in postural and locomotor control might have adverse consequences if a rapid egress was required following a long-duration mission, where support personnel may not be available to aid crewmembers. The act of emergency egress includes, but is not limited to standing, walking, climbing a ladder, jumping down, monitoring displays, actuating discrete controls, operating auxiliary equipment, and communicating with Mission Control and recovery teams while maintaining spatial orientation, mobility and postural stability in order to escape safely. The average time to recover impaired postural control and functional mobility to preflight levels of performance has been shown to be approximately two weeks after long-duration spaceflight. The postflight alterations are due in part to central reinterpretation of vestibular information caused by exposure to microgravity. In this study we will use a commonly used technique of transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied across the vestibular end organs (galvanic vestibular stimulation, GVS) to disrupt vestibular function as a simulation of post-flight disturbances. The goal of this project is an engineering human-in-the-loop evaluation of a device that can degrade performance of functional tasks (e.g. to maintain upright balance

  13. Metallic gold treatment reduces proliferation of inflammatory cells, increases expression of VEGF and FGF, and stimulates cell proliferation in the subventricular zone following experimental traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mie Østergaard; Larsen, Agnete; Pedersen, Dan Sonne

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury represents a leading cause of morbidity in young individuals and there is an imperative need for neuroprotective treatments limiting the neurologic impairment following such injury. It has recently been demonstrated that bio-liberated gold ions liberated from small metallic...... gold implants reduce inflammation and neuronal apoptosis, while generating an increased neuronal stem cell response following focal brain damage. In this study mice were subjected to a unilateral traumatic cryo-lesion with concomitant injection of 25-45 microm gold particles near the lesion. Placebo...... increase in cell proliferation in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral subventricular zone was found in response to gold-treatment. In conclusion: we confirmed the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect of bio-liberated gold ions, and further show that metallic gold increases growth factor...

  14. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  15. Safe Handover : Safe Patients – The Electronic Handover System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Sall, Hanish; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Failure of effective handover is a major preventable cause of patient harm. We aimed to promote accurate recording of high-quality clinical information using an Electronic Handover System (EHS) that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in effective patient care and safety. Within our hospital the human factors associated with poor communication were compromising patient care and unnecessarily increasing the workload of staff due to the poor quality of handovers. Only half of handovers were understood by the doctors expected to complete them, and more than half of our medical staff felt it posed a risk to patient safety. We created a standardised proforma for handovers that contained specific sub-headings, re-classified patient risk assessments, and aided escalation of care by adding prompts for verbal handover. Sources of miscommunication were removed, accountability for handovers provided, and tasks were re-organised to reduce the workload of staff. Long-term, three-month data showed that each sub-heading achieved at least 80% compliance (an average improvement of approximately 40% for the overall quality of handovers). This translated into 91% of handovers being subjectively clear to junior doctors. 87% of medical staff felt we had reduced a risk to patient safety and 80% felt it increased continuity of care. Without guidance, doctors omit key information required for effective handover. All organisations should consider implementing an electronic handover system as a viable, sustainable and safe solution to handover of care that allows patient safety to remain at the heart of the NHS. PMID:26734244

  16. Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective

  17. Examination of a University-Affiliated Safe Ride Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieck, D. Joseph; Slagle, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A university-affiliated safe ride program was evaluated to determine whether these programs can reduce drunk-driving related costs. Data was collected from 187 safe ride passengers during three nights of operation. Among the passengers, 93% were enrolled at a local University, 31% were younger than 21, and 40% reported a prior alcohol-related…

  18. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential in preventing foodborne illness. You can't see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four guidelines to keep food safe: ...

  19. More than a Safe Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  20. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.

  1. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative (www.safetots.org) has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the safetots.org initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  2. Method of safely operating nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a method of safely operating an nuclear reactor, comprising supporting a load applied to a reactor container partly with secondary container facilities thereby reducing the load borne by the reactor container when water is injected into the core to submerge the core in an emergency. Method: In a reactor emergency, water is injected into the reactor core thereby to submerge the core. Further, water is injected into a gap between the reactor container and the secondary container facilities. By the injection of water into the gap between the reactor container and the secondary container facilities a large apparent mass is applied to the reactor container, as a result of which the reactor container undergoes the same vibration as that of the secondary container facilities. Therefore, the load borne by the reactor container itself is reduced and stress at the bottom part of the reactor container is released. This permits the reactor to be operated more safely. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  4. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F

    2007-01-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  5. Effect of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on a Child with Involuntary Movement after Hypoxic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nagai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the supplementary motor area to inhibit involuntary movements of a child. An 8-year-old boy who developed hypoxic encephalopathy after asphyxia at the age of 2 had difficulty in remaining standing without support because of involuntary movements. He was instructed to remain standing with his plastic ankle-foot orthosis for 10 s at three time points by leaning forward with his forearms on a desk. He received cathodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation to the supplementary motor area at 1 mA for 10 min. Involuntary movements during standing were measured using an accelerometer attached to his forehead. The low-frequency power of involuntary movements during cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation significantly decreased compared with that during sham stimulation. No adverse effects were observed. Involuntary movement reduction by cathodal stimulation to supplementary motor areas suggests that stimulations modulated the corticobasal ganglia motor circuit. Cathodal stimulation to supplementary motor areas may be effective for reducing involuntary movements and may be safely applied to children with movement disorders.

  6. Computationally Developed Sham Stimulation Protocol for Multichannel Desynchronizing Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magteld Zeitler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic pattern of abnormal brain activity is abnormally strong neuronal synchronization, as found in several brain disorders, such as tinnitus, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. As observed in several diseases, different therapeutic interventions may induce a placebo effect that may be strong and hinder reliable clinical evaluations. Hence, to distinguish between specific, neuromodulation-induced effects and unspecific, placebo effects, it is important to mimic the therapeutic procedure as precisely as possibly, thereby providing controls that actually lack specific effects. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation has been developed to specifically counteract abnormally strong synchronization by desynchronization. CR is a spatio-temporally patterned multichannel stimulation which reduces the extent of coincident neuronal activity and aims at an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of both synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. Apart from acute desynchronizing effects, CR may cause sustained, long-lasting desynchronizing effects, as already demonstrated in pre-clinical and clinical proof of concept studies. In this computational study, we set out to computationally develop a sham stimulation protocol for multichannel desynchronizing stimulation. To this end, we compare acute effects and long-lasting effects of six different spatio-temporally patterned stimulation protocols, including three variants of CR, using a no-stimulation condition as additional control. This is to provide an inventory of different stimulation algorithms with similar fundamental stimulation parameters (e.g., mean stimulation rates but qualitatively different acute and/or long-lasting effects. Stimulation protocols sharing basic parameters, but inducing nevertheless completely different or even no acute effects and/or after-effects, might serve as controls to validate the specific effects of particular desynchronizing protocols such as CR. In particular, based on

  7. Telmisartan, a possible PPAR-δ agonist, reduces TNF-α-stimulated VEGF-C production by inhibiting the p38MAPK/HSP27 pathway in human proximal renal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hideki, E-mail: hkimura@u-fukui.ac.jp [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nephrology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui (Japan); Mikami, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Kazuko [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sugimoto, Hidehiro [Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nephrology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui (Japan); Kasuno, Kenji; Takahashi, Naoki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Yoshida, Haruyoshi [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Division of Nephrology, Obama Municipal Hospital, Obama, Fukui (Japan); Iwano, Masayuki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • TNF-α increased VEGF-C expression by enhancing phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan decreased TNF-α-stimulated expression of VEGF-C. • Telmisartan suppressed TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan activated endogenous PPAR-δ protein. • Telmisartan suppressed p38MAPK phosphorylation in a PPAR-δ-dependent manner. - Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a main inducer of inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis in various inflammatory disorders including chronic progressive kidney diseases, for which angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs) are widely used as the main treatment. Although proximal renal tubular cells may affect the formation of lymphatic vessels in the interstitial area by producing VEGF-C, the molecular mechanisms of VEGF-C production and its manipulation by ARB have not yet been examined in human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs). In the present study, TNF-α dose-dependently induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs. The TNF-α-induced production of VEGF-C was mediated by the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27, but not by that of ERK or NFkB. Telmisartan, an ARB that can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), served as a PPAR-δ activator and reduced the TNF-α-stimulated production of VEGF-C. This reduction was partially attributed to a PPAR-δ-dependent decrease in p38MAPK phosphorylation. Our results indicate that TNF-α induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs by activating p38MAPK/HSP27, and this was partially inhibited by telmisartan in a PPAR-δ dependent manner. These results provide a novel insight into inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis.

  8. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sun is by using these tips for skin cancer prevention. Indoor tanning is not a safe way to get vitamin ... to previous findings on the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. Only a small number of people reported ...

  9. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  10. Dukovany NPP - Safely 16 TERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this presentation increasing of power output of the Dukovany NPP is reviewed. To operate all Dukovany Units safely with the perspective of long-term operation (LTO) of 50 - 60 years it is proposed.

  11. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  12. Safe handling of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

  13. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    a controller for motion compensation in beating-heart surgery, and prove that it is safe, i.e., the surgical tool is kept within an allowable distance and orientation of the heart. We solve the problem by simultaneously finding a control law and a barrier function. The motion compensation system is simulated...... from several initial conditions to demonstrate that the designed control system is safe for every admissible initial condition....

  14. Safe use of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Based on the ''Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use'' (CIS 74-423), this handbook shows how hospital staff can avoid exposing themselves and others to these hazards. It is designed particularly for junior and student nurses. Contents: ionizing radiations, their types and characteristics; their uses and dangers; basic principles in their safe use; safe use in practice; explanation of terms.

  15. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  16. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    -related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain...... stimulation. Trait-related and state-related determinants contribute to this variability, challenging the standard approach to apply stimulation in a rigid, one-size-fits-all fashion. Several strategies have been identified to reduce variability and maximize the plasticity-inducing effects of noninvasive...

  17. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyandt LL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Brynheld Martinez Zavras, Ben Kuhar Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%–4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and

  18. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive and relatively painless tool that has been used to study various cognitive functions as well as to understand the brain-behavior relationship in normal individuals as well as in those with various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has also been used as a therapeutic tool in various neuropsychiatric disorders because of its ability to specifically modulate distinct brain areas. Studies have shown that repeated stimulation at low frequency produces long-lasting inhibition, which is called as long-term depression, whereas repeated high-frequency stimulation can produce excitation through long-term potentiation. This paper reviews the current status of rTMS as an investigative and therapeutic modality in various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been used to study the cortical and subcortical functions, neural plasticity and brain mapping in normal individuals and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. rTMS has been most promising in the treatment of depression, with an overall milder adverse effect profile compared with electroconvulsive therapy. In other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, epilepsy and substance abuse, it has been found to be useful, although further studies are required to establish therapeutic efficacy. It appears to be ineffective in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. There is a paucity of studies of efficacy and safety of rTMS in pediatric and geriatric population. Although it appears safe, further research is required to optimize its efficacy and reduce the side-effects. Magnetic seizure therapy, which involves producing seizures akin to electroconvulsive therapy, appears to be of comparable efficacy in the treatment of depression with less cognitive adverse effects.

  19. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  20. Reducing Fever in Children: Safe Use of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label or you can’t tell how much to give, ask your pharmacist or doctor what to do. Never give more of an acetaminophen-containing medicine than directed. If the medicine doesn’t help your child feel better, talk to your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist. If the ...

  1. Safe and Inclusive Cities: Research to Reduce Urban Violence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urbanization brings with it possibilities of improved access to jobs, goods, and services ... base on the connections between urban violence, poverty, and inequalities. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  2. Inherently safe light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Takeharu

    1987-01-01

    Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)

  3. Comparing the force ripple during asynchronous and conventional stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Ryan J; Tate, Mark; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Dixon, Warren E

    2014-10-01

    Asynchronous stimulation has been shown to reduce fatigue during electrical stimulation; however, it may also exhibit a force ripple. We quantified the ripple during asynchronous and conventional single-channel transcutaneous stimulation across a range of stimulation frequencies. The ripple was measured during 5 asynchronous stimulation protocols, 2 conventional stimulation protocols, and 3 volitional contractions in 12 healthy individuals. Conventional 40 Hz and asynchronous 16 Hz stimulation were found to induce contractions that were as smooth as volitional contractions. Asynchronous 8, 10, and 12 Hz stimulation induced contractions with significant ripple. Lower stimulation frequencies can reduce fatigue; however, they may also lead to increased ripple. Future efforts should study the relationship between force ripple and the smoothness of the evoked movements in addition to the relationship between stimulation frequency and NMES-induced fatigue to elucidate an optimal stimulation frequency for asynchronous stimulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Assisting children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to reduce the hyperactive behavior of arbitrary standing in class with a Nintendo Wii remote controller through an active reminder and preferred reward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Yun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies in the field of special education have shown that in combination with software technology, high-tech commercial products can be applied as useful assistive technology devices to help people with disabilities. This study extended this concept to turn a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, in order to evaluate whether two students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) could reduce their hyperactive behavior through an active reminder and stimulation in the form of the participants' preferred rewards. This study focused on one particular hyperactive behavior common to both students: standing up arbitrarily during class. The active reminder was in the form of vibration feedback provided via the built-in function of the Wii Remote Controller, which was controlled and triggered by a control system to remind participants when they were engaging in standing behavior. This study was performed according to a multiple baseline design across participants. The results showed that both participants significantly improved their control over their hyperactive behavior during the intervention phase, and retained this effective performance in the maintenance phase. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospects for inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Public fears over nuclear safety have led some within the nuclear community to investigate the possibility of producing inherently safe nuclear reactors; that is, reactors that are transparently incapable of producing a core melt. While several promising designs of such reactors have been produced, support for large-scale research and development efforts has not been forthcoming. The prospects for commercialization of inherently safe reactors, therefore, are problematic; possible events such as further nuclear reactor accidents and superpower summits, could alter the present situation significantly. (author)

  6. Is nuclear power safe enough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, A F [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1979-01-01

    The lecture formed a commentary on the report of the Norwegian Government's Commission on Nuclear power Safety which was published in October 1978. It was introductorily pointed out that 'safe' and 'safety' are not in themselves meaningful terms and that the probability of an occurrence is the real measure. The main items in the Commission's report have been core meltdown, releases during reprocessing, waste disposal, plutonium diversion and environmental impacts. The 21 members of the Commission were unanimous in 7 of the 8 chapters. In chapter 2, 'Summary and Conclusions', 3 members dissented from the majority opinion, that, subject to certain conditions, nuclear power was a safe and acceptable source of energy.

  7. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  8. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  9. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  10. How Safe Are Our Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Lifer, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Addresses issues of safety and security in libraries. Topics discussed include keeping library collections safe; patron behavioral problems; factoring loss into the budget; staff theft; access versus security; apathy regarding library crime; a need for a unified security apparatus; preventive measures; staff and patron safety; and a…

  11. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  12. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-05

    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  13. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow

  14. Working safely with ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A small leaflet provides information on working safely with ionizing radiation. Topics covered include the types of radiation, radiological units, external radiation, contamination and internal radiation, methods of protection form radiation, radiation monitors, protective clothing for contamination, personal dosemeters, radiation dose limits for classified workers and finally the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. (UK)

  15. Power amplifier circuits for functional electrical stimulation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar Carvalho de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional electrical stimulation (FES is a technique that has been successfully employed in rehabilitation treatment to mitigate problems after spinal cord injury (SCI. One of the most relevant modules in a typical FES system is the power or output amplifier stage, which is responsible for the application of voltage or current pulses of proper intensity to the biological tissue, applied noninvasively via electrodes, placed on the skin surface or inside the muscular tissue, closer to the nervous fibers. The goals of this paper are to describe and discuss about the main power output designs usually employed in transcutaneous functional electrical stimulators as well as safety precautions taken to protect patients. Methods A systematic review investigated the circuits of papers published in IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect databases from 2000 to 2016. The query terms were “((FES or Functional electric stimulator and (circuit or design” with 274 papers retrieved from IEEE Xplore and 29 from ScienceDirect. After the application of exclusion criteria the amount of papers decreased to 9 and 2 from IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect, respectively. One paper was inserted in the results as a technological contribution to the field. Therefore, 12 papers presented power stage circuits suitable to stimulate great muscles. Discussion The retrieved results presented relevant circuits with different electronic strategies and circuit components. Some of them considered patient safety strategies or aimed to preserve muscle homeostasis such as biphasic current application, which prevents charge accumulation in stimulated tissues as well as circuits that dealt with electrical impedance variation to keep the electrode-tissue interface within an electrochemical safe regime. The investigation revealed a predominance of design strategies using operational amplifiers in power circuits, current outputs, and safety methods to reduce risks of electrical

  16. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  17. Safe new reactor for radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    In late 1995, DOE is schedule to announce a new tritium production unit. Near the end of the last NPR (New Production Reactors) program, work was directed towards eliminating risks in current designs and reducing effects of accidents. In the Heavy Water Reactor Program at Savannah River, the coolant was changed from heavy to light water. An alternative, passively safe concept uses a heavy-water-filled, zircaloy reactor calandria near the bottom of a swimming pool; the calandria is supported on a light-water-coolant inlet plenum and has upflow through assemblies in the calandria tubes. The reactor concept eliminates or reduces significantly most design basis and severe accidents that plague other deigns. The proven, current SRS tritium cycle remains intact; production within the US of medical isotopes such as Mo-99 would also be possible

  18. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  19. Towards a Switched-Capacitor Based Stimulator for Efficient Deep-Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a novel 4-channel prototype stimulation circuit for implantable neurological stimulators (INS). This Switched-Capacitor based Stimulator (SCS) aims to utilize charge storage and charge injection techniques to take advantage of both the efficiency of conventional voltage-controlled stimulators (VCS) and the safety and controllability of current-controlled stimulators (CCS). The discrete SCS prototype offers fine control over stimulation parameters such as voltage, current, pulse width, frequency, and active electrode channel via a LabVIEW graphical user interface (GUI) when connected to a PC through USB. Furthermore, the prototype utilizes a floating current sensor to provide charge-balanced biphasic stimulation and ensure safety. The stimulator was analyzed using an electrode-electrolyte interface (EEI) model as well as with a pair of pacing electrodes in saline. The primary motivation of this research is to test the feasibility and functionality of a safe, effective, and power-efficient switched-capacitor based stimulator for use in Deep Brain Stimulation. PMID:21095987

  20. USING THE SAFE SYSTEM APPROACH TO KEEP OLDER DRIVERS SAFELY MOBILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim LANGFORD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, Australian road transport jurisdictions collectively accepted that the greatest road safety gains would be achieved through adopting a Safe System approach, derived from Sweden's Vision Zero and the Netherlands' Sustainable Safety strategies. A key objective of all three approaches is to manage vehicles, the road infrastructure, speeds, road users and the interactions between these components, to ensure that in the event of crashes, crash energies will remain at levels that minimize the probability of death and serious injury. Older drivers pose a particular challenge to the Safe System approach, given particularly their greater physical frailty, their driving patterns and for some at least, their reduced fitness to drive. This paper has analyzed the so-called ‘older driver problem’ and identified a number of key factors underpinning their crash levels, for which countermeasures can be identified and implemented within a Safe System framework. The recommended countermeasures consist of: (1 safer roads, through a series of design improvements particularly governing urban intersections; (2 safer vehicles, through both the promotion of crashworthiness as a critical consideration when purchasing a vehicle and the wide use of developed and developing ITS technologies; (3 safer speeds especially at intersections; and (4 safer road users, through both improved assessment procedures to identify the minority of older drivers with reduced fitness to drive and educational efforts to encourage safer driving habits particularly but not only through self-regulation.

  1. How safe are nuclear plants? How safe should they be?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1988-01-01

    It has become customary to think about safety of nuclear plants in terms of risk as defined by the WASH-1400 study that some of the implications for the non-specialist escape our attention. Yet it is known that a rational program to understand safety, to identify unsafe events, and to use this kind of information or analysis to improve safety, requires us to use the methods of quantitative risk assessment. How this process can be made more understandable to a broader group of nontechnical people and how can a wider acceptance of the results of the process be developed have been questions under study and are addressed in this report. These are questions that have been struggled with for some time in the world of nuclear plant safety. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission examined them for several years as it moved toward developing a position on safety goals for nuclear plants, a requirement that had been assigned it by Congress. Opinion was sought from a broad spectrum of individuals, within the field of nuclear power and outside it, on the topic that was popularly called, ''How safe is safe enough?'' Views were solicited on the answer to the question and also on the way the answer should be framed when it was adopted. This report discusses the public policy and its implementation

  2. Transcranial electrical stimulation accelerates human sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Reato

    Full Text Available The sleeping brain exhibits characteristic slow-wave activity which decays over the course of the night. This decay is thought to result from homeostatic synaptic downscaling. Transcranial electrical stimulation can entrain slow-wave oscillations (SWO in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG. A computational model of the underlying mechanism predicts that firing rates are predominantly increased during stimulation. Assuming that synaptic homeostasis is driven by average firing rates, we expected an acceleration of synaptic downscaling during stimulation, which is compensated by a reduced drive after stimulation. We show that 25 minutes of transcranial electrical stimulation, as predicted, reduced the decay of SWO in the remainder of the night. Anatomically accurate simulations of the field intensities on human cortex precisely matched the effect size in different EEG electrodes. Together these results suggest a mechanistic link between electrical stimulation and accelerated synaptic homeostasis in human sleep.

  3. Modern management of epilepsy: Vagus nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Menachem, E

    1996-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was first tried as a treatment for seizure patients in 1988. The idea to stimulate the vagus nerve and disrupt or prevent seizures was proposed by Jacob Zabarra. He observed a consistent finding among several animal studies which indicated that stimulation of the vagus nerve could alter the brain wave patterns of the animals under study. His hypothesis formed the basis for the development of the vagus nerve stimulator, an implantable device similar to a pacemaker, which is implanted in the left chest and attached to the left vagus nerve via a stimulating lead. Once implanted, the stimulator is programmed by a physician to deliver regular stimulation 24 hours a day regardless of seizure activity. Patients can also activate extra 'on-demand' stimulation with a handheld magnet. Clinical studies have demonstrated VNS therapy to be a safe and effective mode of treatment when added to the existing regimen of severe, refractory patients with epilepsy. Efficacy ranges from seizure free to no response with the majority of patients (> 50%) reporting at least a 50% improvement in number of seizures after 1.5 years of treatment. The side-effect profile is unique and mostly includes stimulation-related sensations in the neck and throat. The mechanism of action for VNS is not clearly understood although two theories have emerged. First, the direct connection theory hypothesizes that the anticonvulsant action of VNS is caused by a threshold raising effect of the connections to the nucleus of the solitary tract and on to other structures. The second is the concept that chronic stimulation of the vagus nerve increases the amount of inhibitory neurotransmitters and decreases the amount of excitatory neurotransmitters. Additional research into the optimal use of VNS is ongoing. Animal and clinical research have produced some interesting new data suggesting there are numerous ways to improve the clinical performance of vagus nerve stimulation as a

  4. Safe motherhood -- from advocacy to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, A

    1991-12-01

    Every minute a woman dies from complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. That translates to 500,000 annually, of which, 99% live in developing countries. A woman in Africa has a 1:18 lifetime chance of dying from pregnancy-related causes, compared with a northern European woman who has a 1:10,000 chance. Thus, in 1987 international and regional agencies and national governments started a global program titled the Safe Motherhood Initiative. Its goal is to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality 50% by 2000. The death of a woman during pregnancy or child birth means that her surviving children are much more likely to die. In a bangladesh study it was found that the death of the mother was associated with a 200% increase in mortality for her sons and 350% for her daughters for children up to 10. Family planning is the key, since it is the single best tool of preventing these deaths, by reducing the number of times a woman gets pregnant. Family planning also reduces the number of abortions which are estimated to kill 200,000 women annually in developing countries. Trained midwives who can provide obstetrical emergency assistance will also make a large impact. Risk assessment was once considered very important, but studies have shown that the majority of pregnancy complications develop without being detected. Further, the number of women with risk factors that develop complications is much lower than the number of women who develop complications during pregnancy. So monitoring women with risk factors misses most complications. Regular monitoring and medical examinations are much more effective for preventing complications. Safe motherhood can only be achieved if each program is tailored to the needs of the community. Donor nations are necessary for this program to succeed, but ultimate success rests in the hands of each country. National priorities must be set, resources must be allocated, and programs must be designed to be effective.

  5. Small intrinsically safe reactor implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Reviewing the history of nuclear power, it is found that peaceful uses of nuclear power are children of the war-like atom. Importance of special growth in a shielded environment is emphasized to exploit fully the advantages of nuclear power. Nuclear power reactors must be safe for their assimilation into society from the points of view of both technology and social psychology. ISR/ISER is identified as a missing link in the development of nuclear power reactors from this perspective and advocated for international development and utilization, being unleashed from the concerns of politicization, safety, and proliferation

  6. Mifrenz: Safe email for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hunt

    Full Text Available Products currently available for monitoring children\\'s email usage are either considered to encourage dubious ethical behaviour or are time consuming for parents to administer. This paper describes the development of a new email client application for children called Mifrenz. This new application gives parents the ability to let their children safely use email, with the minimum of intervention. It was developed using mostly free software and also with the desire to provide real first hand programming examples to demonstrate to students.

  7. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  8. Particle trapping in stimulated scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.J.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Particle trapping effects on stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are investigated. A time and space dependent model assumes a Maxwellian plasma which is taken to be homogeneous in the interaction region. Ion trapping has a rather weak effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering and large reflectivities are obtained even in strong trapping regime. Stimulated Raman scattering is considerably reduced by electron trapping. Typically 15-20 times larger laser intensities are required to obtain same reflectivity levels than without trapping. (author)

  9. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G W [Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States); Coffer, H F; Luetkehans, G R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  10. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.W.; Coffer, H.F.; Luetkehans, G.R.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  11. Nuclear hydrogen production and its safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Ahn, Do-Hee; Lee, Minsoo; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the hydrogen related research presently undertaken at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. These encompass nuclear hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and the safe handling of hydrogen, High temperature gas-cooled reactors can play a significant role, with respect to large-scale hydrogen production, if used as the provider of high temperature heat in fossil fuel conversion or thermochemical cycles. A variety of potential hydrogen production methods for high temperature gas-cooled reactors were analyzed. They are steam reforming of natural gas, thermochemical cycles, etc. The produced hydrogen should be stored safely. Titanium metal was tested primarily because its hydride has very low dissociation pressures at normal storage temperatures and a high capacity for hydrogen, it is easy to prepare and is non-reactive with air in the expected storage conditions. There could be a number of potential sources of hydrogen evolution risk in a nuclear hydrogen production facility. In order to reduce the deflagration detonation it is necessary to develop hydrogen control methods that are capable of dealing with the hydrogen release rate. A series of experiments were conducted to assess the catalytic recombination characteristics of hydrogen in an air stream using palladium catalysts. (author)

  12. Inherently safe characteristics of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report is based on a detailed study which was carried out by Colenco (a company of the Motor-Columbus Group) on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). It presents a summary of this study and concentrates more on the generic issues involved in the subject of inherent safety in nuclear power plants. It is assumed that the reader is reasonably familiar with the design outline of the systems included in the report. The report examines the role of inherent design features in achieving the safety of nuclear power plants as an alternative to the practice, which is largely followed in current reactors, of achieving safety by the addition of engineered safety features. The report examines current reactor systems to identify the extent to which their characteristics are either already inherently safe or, on the other hand, have inherent characteristics that require protective action to be taken. It then considers the advantages of introducing design changes to improve their inherent safety characteristics. Next, it looks at some new reactor types for which claims of inherent safety are made to see to what extent these claims are justified. The general question is then considered whether adoption of the inherently safe reactors would give advantages (by reducing risk in real terms or by improving the public acceptability of nuclear power) which are sufficient to offset the expected high costs and the technical risks associated with any new technology

  13. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A

    2017-10-01

    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  16. Clinical Applications of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Pediatric Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Papanicolaou, Andrew C; McGregor, Amy; Boop, Frederick A; Wheless, James W

    2015-08-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation is now an accepted technique that is used as a diagnostic aid and in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in adults, and is being increasingly used in children. In this review, we will discuss the basic principles and safety of one noninvasive brain stimulation method, transcranial magnetic stimulation. Improvements in the spatial accuracy of transcranial magnetic stimulation are described in the context of image-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation. The article describes and provides examples of the current clinical applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation in children as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and discusses future potential applications. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive tool that is safe for use in children and adolescents for functional mapping and treatment, and for many children it aids in the preoperative evaluation and the risk-benefit decision making. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Is renewable energy 100% environmentally safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, Ali Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) concerned are usually optimistic in introducing RE as environmentally safe resource. This might be reasonably acceptable when compared with conventional energy resources, there should be some side effects however. Those effects, and critics, when considered and possibly avoided, RE sources will be environmentally more acceptable and as a result will be appreciated by consumers. In this paper we try to investigate and point out some of these critics, and negative impacts by examining examples of some RE systems and how different solutions were tackled and partially managed. Through Re resources have advantages over other resources, when environmental issues are considered, there still exists, however, some negative impacts on the environment caused by RE resources. Present study showed that the above mentioned impacts can be reduced to some reasonable level.(Author)

  18. An inherently safe power reactor module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salerno, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    General Electric's long participation in liquid metal reactor technology has led to a Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) concept supported by DOE contract DE-AC06-85NE37937. The reactor module is sized to maximize inherent safety features. The small size allows factory fabrication, reducing field construction and field QA/QC labor, and allows safety to be demonstrated in full scale, to support a pre-licensed standard commercial product. The module is small enough to be placed underground, and can be combined with steam and electrical generating equipment to provide a complete electrical power producing plant in the range of 400-1200 MWe. Initial assessments are that the concept has the potential to be economically competitive with existing methods of power production used by the utility industry

  19. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  20. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  1. [Towards safe motherhood. World Health Day].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, M I

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the 'safe motherhood' initiative is to reduce maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. A strong policy is needed to permit development of national and international programs. The lifetime risk of death from causes related to complications of pregnancy is estimated at 1/16 in Africa, 1/65 in Asia, 1/130 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1/1400 in Europe, and 1/3700 in North America. A minimum of 585,000 women die of maternal causes each year, with nearly 90% of the deaths occurring in Asia and Africa. Approximately 50 million women suffer from illnesses related to childbearing. A principal cause of maternal mortality is lack of medical care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period. Motherhood will become safe if governments, multilateral and bilateral funding agencies, and nongovernmental organizations give it the high priority it requires. Women also die because they lack rights. Their reduced decision-making power and inequitable access to family and social resources prevents them from overcoming barriers to health care. Women die when they begin childbearing at a very young age, yet an estimated 11% of births throughout the world each year are to adolescents. Adolescents have very limited access to family planning, either through legal restrictions or obstacles created by family planning workers. Maternal deaths would be avoided if all births were attended by trained health workers; an estimated 60 million births annually are not. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and, thus, of the 50 million abortions estimated to take place each year would avoid over 200 maternal deaths each day. Unsafe abortions account for 13% of maternal deaths. The evidence demonstrates that rates of unsafe abortion and abortion mortality are higher where laws are more restrictive.

  2. Working safely with electronics racks

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Think of CERN and you’ll probably think of particle accelerators and detectors. These are the tools of the trade in particle physics, but behind them are the racks of electronics that include power supplies, control systems and data acquisition networks.   Inside an electronics rack: danger could be lurking if the rack is not powered off. In routine operation, these are no more harmful than the home entertainment system in your living room. But unscrew the cover and it’s a different matter. Even after following appropriate training, and with formal authorisation from your group leader or equivalent to carry out electrical work or any work in the vicinity of electrical hazards, and even with extensive experience of carrying out such operations, it’s important to incorporate safe working practices into your routine. At CERN, before the racks of electronics reach their operational configurations for the accelerators and detectors, they play a vital role in test set-ups ...

  3. Workshop on Developing Safe Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23, 1992, at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was learned from the workshop

  4. Workshop on developing safe software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23 at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was teamed from the workshop

  5. The Difference Safe Spaces Make

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendric Coleman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students have become very visible at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs, but this visibility is not reflected in some colleges’ student programs and activities. Only a few notable HBCUs, such as Howard University and Spelman College, have made a concerted effort. Acknowledging that the LGBT community is significant and exists, and fostering such support, comes up against a steep wall of religious tradition and doctrines, and conservative administrations. It is imperative that HBCUs address LGBT issues and create and support a safe space for students to articulate their identity. Meanwhile, many LGBT students on these campuses find voice and understanding in Black scholars and writers such as Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name and Charles Michael Smith’s Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men.

  6. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2011-01-01

    of projections that covers a DCR Graph that the network of synchronously communicating DCR Graphs given by the projections is bisimilar to the original global process graph. We exemplify the distribution technique on a process identified in a case study of an cross-organizational case management system carried...... process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...

  7. Spark-safe power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mester, I M; Konushkin, N A; Nevozinskiy, A K; Rubinshteyn, B Sh; Serov, V I; Vasnev, M A

    1981-01-01

    A shortcoming of the known power sources is their low reliability. The purpose of the invention is to improve the reliability of the device. This is achieved because the spark-safe power source is equipped with a by-passing transistor and potentiometer, and also a generator of control interruptions in the circuit, an I-element, first separating transformer, control block, second separating transformer whose secondary winding has a relay winding whose contacts are connected to the load circuit are connected in series. The generator of control separations of the circuit is connected to the base of the by-passing transistor and to the power source outlet, the potentiometer is connected in series to the main thyristor. The middle point of the potentiometer is connected to the second inlet of the I-element.

  8. Biomarkers and Stimulation Algorithms for Adaptive Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B. Hoang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to describe in what ways feedback or adaptive stimulation may be delivered and adjusted based on relevant biomarkers. Specific treatment mechanisms underlying therapeutic brain stimulation remain unclear, in spite of the demonstrated efficacy in a number of nervous system diseases. Brain stimulation appears to exert widespread influence over specific neural networks that are relevant to specific disease entities. In awake patients, activation or suppression of these neural networks can be assessed by either symptom alleviation (i.e., tremor, rigidity, seizures or physiological criteria, which may be predictive of expected symptomatic treatment. Secondary verification of network activation through specific biomarkers that are linked to symptomatic disease improvement may be useful for several reasons. For example, these biomarkers could aid optimal intraoperative localization, possibly improve efficacy or efficiency (i.e., reduced power needs, and provide long-term adaptive automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters. Possible biomarkers for use in portable or implanted devices span from ongoing physiological brain activity, evoked local field potentials (LFPs, and intermittent pathological activity, to wearable devices, biochemical, blood flow, optical, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI changes, temperature changes, or optogenetic signals. First, however, potential biomarkers must be correlated directly with symptom or disease treatment and network activation. Although numerous biomarkers are under consideration for a variety of stimulation indications the feasibility of these approaches has yet to be fully determined. Particularly, there are critical questions whether the use of adaptive systems can improve efficacy over continuous stimulation, facilitate adjustment of stimulation interventions and improve our understanding of the role of abnormal network function in disease mechanisms.

  9. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  10. Developing Safe Schools Partnerships with Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, John

    2009-01-01

    Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world. If a school is safe, and if children feel safe, students "are better able to learn. But what are the steps to make" this happen? First, it is important to understand the problem: What are the threats to school safety? These include crime-related behaviors that find their way to…

  11. The SafeBoosC phase II clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Joan; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Bravo, María Carmen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial recently demonstrated the benefits of a combination of cerebral regional tissue oxygen saturation (rStO2) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and a treatment guideline to reduce the oxygen imbalance in extremely preterm infants. AIMS: ...

  12. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  13. 2010 update of EORTC guidelines for the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to reduce the incidence of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in adult patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aapro, M S; Bohlius, J; Cameron, D A; Dal Lago, Lissandra; Donnelly, J Peter; Kearney, N; Lyman, G H; Pettengell, R; Tjan-Heijnen, V C; Walewski, J; Weber, Damien C; Zielinski, C

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a major risk factor for infection-related morbidity and mortality and also a significant dose-limiting toxicity in cancer treatment. Patients developing severe (grade 3/4) or febrile neutropenia (FN) during chemotherapy frequently receive dose reductions and/or delays to their chemotherapy. This may impact the success of treatment, particularly when treatment intent is either curative or to prolong survival. In Europe, prophylactic treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSFs), such as filgrastim (including approved biosimilars), lenograstim or pegfilgrastim is available to reduce the risk of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. However, the use of G-CSF prophylactic treatment varies widely in clinical practice, both in the timing of therapy and in the patients to whom it is offered. The need for generally applicable, European-focused guidelines led to the formation of a European Guidelines Working Party by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the publication in 2006 of guidelines for the use of G-CSF in adult cancer patients at risk of chemotherapy-induced FN. A new systematic literature review has been undertaken to ensure that recommendations are current and provide guidance on clinical practice in Europe. We recommend that patient-related adverse risk factors, such as elderly age (≥65 years) and neutrophil count be evaluated in the overall assessment of FN risk before administering each cycle of chemotherapy. It is important that after a previous episode of FN, patients receive prophylactic administration of G-CSF in subsequent cycles. We provide an expanded list of common chemotherapy regimens considered to have a high (≥20%) or intermediate (10-20%) risk of FN. Prophylactic G-CSF continues to be recommended in patients receiving a chemotherapy regimen with high risk of FN. When using a chemotherapy regimen associated with FN in 10-20% of patients, particular attention

  14. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov—Maxwell system. A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma. It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light, as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction. The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period. The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade, which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures. For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation, higher-harmonic generation and wave—wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter. In addition, stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  15. Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Allyson C; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain. Furthermore, TMS and tDCS can be applied with other techniques, such as event-related potentials and pharmacologic manipulation, to illuminate the underlying physiologic mechanisms of normal and pathological pain. This review presents a description and overview of the uses of two major brain stimulation techniques and a listing of useful references for further study.

  16. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  17. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  18. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  19. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  20. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  1. Working safely with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Wynne

    1993-01-01

    In common with exposure to many other laboratory chemicals, exposure to ionising radiations and to radioactive materials carries a small risk of causing harm. Because of this, there are legal limits to the amount of exposure to ionising radiations at work and special rules for working with radioactive materials. Although radiation protection is a complex subject it is possible to simplify to 10 basic things you should do -the Golden Rules. They are: 1) understand the nature of the hazard and get practical training; 2) plan ahead to minimise time spent handling radioactivity; 3) distance yourself appropriately from sources of radiation; 4) use appropriate shielding for the radiation; 5) contain radioactive materials in defined work areas; 6) wear appropriate protective clothing and dosimeters; 7) monitor the work area frequently for contamination control; 8) follow the local rules and safe ways of working; 9) minimise accumulation of waste and dispose of it by appropriate routes, and 10) after completion of work, monitor, wash, and monitor yourself again. These rules are expanded in this article. (author)

  2. Materials for passively safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, T.

    1993-01-01

    Future nuclear power capacity will be based on reactor designs that include passive safety features if recent progress in advanced nuclear power developments is realized. There is a high potential for nuclear systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the current generation of reactors, especially when passive or intrinsic characteristics are applied to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction and to minimize the burden on equipment and operating personnel. Taylor, has listed the following common generic technical features as the most important goals for the principal reactor development systems: passive stability, simplification, ruggedness, case of operation, and modularity. Economic competitiveness also depends on standardization and assurance of licensing. The performance of passively safe reactors will be greatly influenced by the successful development of advanced fuels and materials that will provide lower fuel-cycle costs. A dozen new designs of advanced power reactors have been described recently, covering a wide spectrum of reactor types, including pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, heavy-water reactors, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs), and fast breeder reactors. These new designs address the need for passive safety features as well as the requirement of economic competitiveness

  3. Safe and green nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Energy development plays an important role in the national economic growth. Presently the per capita consumption of energy in our country is about 750 kWh including captive power generation which is low in comparison to that in the developed countries like USA where it is about 12,000 kWh. As of now the total installed capacity of electricity generation is about 152,148 MW(e) which is drawn from Thermal (65%), Hydel (24%), Nuclear (3%) power plants and Renewables (8%). It is expected that by the end of year 2020, the required installed capacity would be more than 3,00,000 MW(e), if we assume per capita consumption of about 800-1000 kWh for Indian population of well over one billion. To meet the projected power requirement in India, suitable options need to be identified and explored for generation of electricity. For choosing better alternatives various factors such as availability of resources, potential to generate commercial power, economic viability, etc. need to be considered. Besides these factors, an important factor which must be taken into consideration is protection of environment around the operating power stations. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the nuclear power generation is an environmentally benign option for meeting the future requirement of electricity in India. It also discusses the need for creating the public awareness about the safe operations of the nuclear power plants and ionising radiation. (author)

  4. SAFE testing nuclear rockets economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M

  5. A 'simple anterior fish excluder' (SAFE for mitigating penaeid-trawl bycatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J McHugh

    Full Text Available Various plastic strips and sheets (termed 'simple anterior fish excluders'-SAFEs were positioned across the openings of penaeid trawls in attempts at reducing the unwanted bycatches of small teleosts. Initially, three SAFEs (a single wire without, and with small and large plastic panels were compared against a control (no SAFE on paired beam trawls. All SAFEs maintained targeted Metapenaeus macleayi catches, while the largest plastic SAFE significantly reduced total bycatch by 51% and the numbers of Pomatomus saltatrix, Mugil cephalus and Herklotsichthys castelnaui by up to 58%. A redesigned SAFE ('continuous plastic' was subsequently tested (against a control on paired otter trawls, significantly reducing total bycatch by 28% and P. saltatrix and H. castelnaui by up to 42%. The continuous-plastic SAFE also significantly reduced M. macleayi catches by ~7%, but this was explained by ~5% less wing-end spread, and could be simply negated through otter-board refinement. Further work is required to refine the tested SAFEs, and to quantify species-specific escape mechanisms. Nevertheless, the SAFE concept might represent an effective approach for improving penaeid-trawl selectivity.

  6. The SafeCOP ECSEL Project: Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems Using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Hansson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication" (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016 -- 2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...... detection of abnormal behaviour, triggering if needed a safe degraded mode. SafeCOP will also develop methods and tools, which will be used to produce safety assurance evidence needed to certify cooperative functions. SafeCOP will extend current wireless technologies to ensure safe and secure cooperation...

  7. A novel brain stimulation technology provides compatibility with MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serano, Peter; Angelone, Leonardo M; Katnani, Husam; Eskandar, Emad; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2015-04-29

    Clinical electrical stimulation systems--such as pacemakers and deep brain stimulators (DBS)--are an increasingly common therapeutic option to treat a large range of medical conditions. Despite their remarkable success, one of the significant limitations of these medical devices is the limited compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a standard diagnostic tool in medicine. During an MRI exam, the leads used with these devices, implanted in the body of the patient, act as an electric antenna potentially causing a large amount of energy to be absorbed in the tissue, which can lead to serious heat-related injury. This study presents a novel lead design that reduces the antenna effect and allows for decreased tissue heating during MRI. The optimal parameters of the wire design were determined by a combination of computational modeling and experimental measurements. The results of these simulations were used to build a prototype, which was tested in a gel phantom during an MRI scan. Measurement results showed a three-fold decrease in heating when compared to a commercially available DBS lead. Accordingly, the proposed design may allow a significantly increased number of patients with medical implants to have safe access to the diagnostic benefits of MRI.

  8. In vivo charge injection limits increased after 'unsafe' stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; Sørensen, Søren; Rechendorff, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    was not observed with any of the stimulation protocols and no tissue damage was observed for the 20 mA – 200 Hz stimulation group. This indicates that the ‘safe potential window’ may not be applicable in vivo, as no damage was done stimulating with 20 mA at 200 Hz, while damage was done using the same current......The effect of unsafe stimulation on charge injection limits (Qinj) and pulsing capacitance (Cpulse) was investigated. Four stimulation protocols were applied: 20 mA – 200 and 400 Hz, 50 mA – 200 and 400 Hz. Increasing Qinj and Cpulse were observed for all stimulation protocols. Corrosion...

  9. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396

  11. SAFE/SNAP application to shipboard security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.; Walker, J.L.; Polito, J.

    1981-11-01

    An application of the combined Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation/Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SAFE/SNAP) modeling technique to a physical protection system (PPS) aboard a generic ship is described. This application was performed as an example of how the SAFE and SNAP techniques could be used. Estimates of probability of interruption and neutralization for the example shipboard PPS are provided by SAFE as well as an adversary scenario, which serves as input to SNAP. This adversary scenario is analyzed by SNAP through four cases which incorporate increasingly detailed security force tactics. Comparisons between the results of the SAFE and SNAP analyses are made and conclusions drawn on the validity of each technique. Feedback from SNAP to SAFE is described, and recommendations for upgrading the ship based on the results of the SAFE/SNAP application are also discussed

  12. [Clinical research of post-stroke insomnia treated with low-frequency electric stimulation at acupoints in the patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; You, Fei; Ma, Chao-Yang

    2014-08-01

    To compare the difference in the clinical efficacy on post-stroke insomnia between the low-frequency electric stimulation at the acupoints and the conventional western medication. One hundred and twenty patients of post-stroke insomnia were randomized into a low-frequency electric stimulation group, a medication group and a placebo group, 40 cases in each one. In the low-frequency electric stimulation group, the low-frequency electric-pulsing apparatus was used at Dazhui (GV 14) and Shenshu (BL 23), once a day; the treatment of 15 days made one session and 2 sessions were required. In the medication group, estazolam was taken orally, 1 mg each time. In the placebo group, starch capsules were taken orally, 1 capsule each time. All the drugs were taken before sleep every night, continuously for 15 days as one session, and 2 sessions were required. PSQI changes and clinical efficacy were observed before and after treatment in each group. Pitlsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) score was reduced in every group after treatment (all P low-frequency electric stimulation group and medication group, the score was reduced much more significantly as compared with the placebo group (both P low-frequency electric stimulation group, medication group and placebo group separately. The efficacy in the low-frequency electric stimulation group and medication group was better apparently than that in the placebo group (both P low-frequency electric stimulation at the acupoints effectively and safely treats post-stroke insomnia and the efficacy of it is similar to that of estazolam.

  13. Optimal number of stimulation contacts for coordinated reset neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyansky, Borys; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    In this computational study we investigate coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation designed for an effective control of synchronization by multi-site stimulation of neuronal target populations. This method was suggested to effectively counteract pathological neuronal synchrony characteristic for several neurological disorders. We study how many stimulation sites are required for optimal CR-induced desynchronization. We found that a moderate increase of the number of stimulation sites may significantly prolong the post-stimulation desynchronized transient after the stimulation is completely switched off. This can, in turn, reduce the amount of the administered stimulation current for the intermittent ON–OFF CR stimulation protocol, where time intervals with stimulation ON are recurrently followed by time intervals with stimulation OFF. In addition, we found that the optimal number of stimulation sites essentially depends on how strongly the administered current decays within the neuronal tissue with increasing distance from the stimulation site. In particular, for a broad spatial stimulation profile, i.e., for a weak spatial decay rate of the stimulation current, CR stimulation can optimally be delivered via a small number of stimulation sites. Our findings may contribute to an optimization of therapeutic applications of CR neuromodulation. PMID:23885239

  14. Embracing Safe Ground Test Facility Operations and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven C.; Green, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting integrated operations and maintenance in wind tunnel ground test facilities requires a balance of meeting due dates, efficient operation, responsiveness to the test customer, data quality, effective maintenance (relating to readiness and reliability), and personnel and facility safety. Safety is non-negotiable, so the balance must be an "and" with other requirements and needs. Pressure to deliver services faster at increasing levels of quality in under-maintained facilities is typical. A challenge for management is to balance the "need for speed" with safety and quality. It s especially important to communicate this balance across the organization - workers, with a desire to perform, can be tempted to cut corners on defined processes to increase speed. Having a lean staff can extend the time required for pre-test preparations, so providing a safe work environment for facility personnel and providing good stewardship for expensive National capabilities can be put at risk by one well-intending person using at-risk behavior. This paper documents a specific, though typical, operational environment and cites management and worker safety initiatives and tools used to provide a safe work environment. Results are presented and clearly show that the work environment is a relatively safe one, though still not good enough to keep from preventing injury. So, the journey to a zero injury work environment - both in measured reality and in the minds of each employee - continues. The intent of this paper is to provide a benchmark for others with operational environments and stimulate additional sharing and discussion on having and keeping a safe work environment.

  15. Residential Tornado Safe Rooms from Commodity Wood Products: Wall Development and Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell; John C. Hermanson

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, tornadoes cause significant damage and result in many injuries and deaths. Although the development and use of tornado safe rooms and shelters have helped reduce the human toll associated with these events, the cost of these structures is often too high for many that could benefit from their use. The development of a residential tornado safe room...

  16. Characteristics of Young Children Exposed to Violence: The Safe Start Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joy S.; Ortega, Sandra; Schewe, Paul A.; Kracke, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The Safe Start demonstration projects, funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) under the first phase of the Safe Start initiative, are primarily designed to influence change at the systems or macrolevels to reduce the incidence of and impact of exposure to violence for children aged birth to 6 years; direct…

  17. Distributed Programming via Safe Closure Passing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Haller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Programming systems incorporating aspects of functional programming, e.g., higher-order functions, are becoming increasingly popular for large-scale distributed programming. New frameworks such as Apache Spark leverage functional techniques to provide high-level, declarative APIs for in-memory data analytics, often outperforming traditional "big data" frameworks like Hadoop MapReduce. However, widely-used programming models remain rather ad-hoc; aspects such as implementation trade-offs, static typing, and semantics are not yet well-understood. We present a new asynchronous programming model that has at its core several principles facilitating functional processing of distributed data. The emphasis of our model is on simplicity, performance, and expressiveness. The primary means of communication is by passing functions (closures to distributed, immutable data. To ensure safe and efficient distribution of closures, our model leverages both syntactic and type-based restrictions. We report on a prototype implementation in Scala. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results evaluating the performance impact of a static, type-based optimization of serialization.

  18. Safe nuclear power for the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Lyon, C.F.; Redick, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is clear that using nuclear power for the generation of electricity is one way of reducing the emissions of CO 2 and other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Equally clear is the fact that the reduction can be magnified by converting domestic, commercial, and industrial power-consuming activities from the direct use of fossil fuel sources to electrical energy. A major area for future progress in limiting CO 2 emissions is in the Third World, where population growth and expectations for a higher social and economic standard of living portend vast increases in future energy use. A number of problems come to mind as one contemplates the widespread expansion of nuclear energy use into the Third World. The authors propose a method involving the marriage of two currently evolving concepts by which nuclear electrical generation can be expanded throughout the world in a manner that will address these problems. The idea is to form multinational independent electric generating companies, or nuclear electric companies (NECs), that would design, build, operate, and service a standardized fleet of nuclear power plants. The plants would be of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design, now under development at Argonne National Laboratory, and, in particular, a commercial conceptualization of the IFR sponsored by General Electric Company, the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM)

  19. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  20. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark; Reeves, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  1. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  2. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark [NB Power Nuclear, P.O. Box 600, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Reeves, David [Atlantic Nuclear Services Ltd., PO Box 1268 Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  3. Capacity building in safe nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Markus; Gommel, Udo

    2011-01-01

    In all places where engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) are produced, used or handled, adequate workplace safety precautions should be implemented due to the protection of workers and the surrounding environment. Any possible accidental release of ENPs should be evaluated. Thereby detected potential risks have to be eliminated as far as possible. An implemented reasonable safety culture in each ENP-related company will help to meet this challenge. Different infrastructures and workplace design can help to reduce the risk of an accidentally contact of the workers with ENPs: Transferable examples will be shown from the semiconductor and life-science Industry. These systems like clean rooms, glove boxes, fume cupboards, filter and suction systems and other restricted area barrier access systems (RABS) are mainly being developed to protect sensitive products, but they can also be used to protect working personnel. Clean environments regarding airborne particulate contaminations can be classified according to ISO 14644-1. A short insight into this ISO-classification will be given. But overall, a simple and reasonable workplace and workflow organization will reduce the risk of an accidental release of ENPs largely. This may lead to a therefore necessary adaption of existing workflow patterns. The workers have to get aware about the potential risks! This can be done with appropriate education materials, leaflets, posters and brochures. These are some of the later outcomes from the NanoDevice dissemination and handbook work package.

  4. Capacity building in safe nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Gommel, Udo

    2011-07-01

    In all places where engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) are produced, used or handled, adequate workplace safety precautions should be implemented due to the protection of workers and the surrounding environment. Any possible accidental release of ENPs should be evaluated. Thereby detected potential risks have to be eliminated as far as possible. An implemented reasonable safety culture in each ENP-related company will help to meet this challenge. Different infrastructures and workplace design can help to reduce the risk of an accidentally contact of the workers with ENPs: Transferable examples will be shown from the semiconductor and life-science Industry. These systems like clean rooms, glove boxes, fume cupboards, filter and suction systems and other restricted area barrier access systems (RABS) are mainly being developed to protect sensitive products, but they can also be used to protect working personnel. Clean environments regarding airborne particulate contaminations can be classified according to ISO 14644-1. A short insight into this ISO-classification will be given. But overall, a simple and reasonable workplace and workflow organization will reduce the risk of an accidental release of ENPs largely. This may lead to a therefore necessary adaption of existing workflow patterns. The workers have to get aware about the potential risks! This can be done with appropriate education materials, leaflets, posters and brochures. These are some of the later outcomes from the NanoDevice dissemination and handbook work package.

  5. Capacity building in safe nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Markus; Gommel, Udo, E-mail: markus.keller@ipa.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, Ultraclean Technology and Micromanufacturing, Nobelstr 12, D-70569 (Germany)

    2011-07-06

    In all places where engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) are produced, used or handled, adequate workplace safety precautions should be implemented due to the protection of workers and the surrounding environment. Any possible accidental release of ENPs should be evaluated. Thereby detected potential risks have to be eliminated as far as possible. An implemented reasonable safety culture in each ENP-related company will help to meet this challenge. Different infrastructures and workplace design can help to reduce the risk of an accidentally contact of the workers with ENPs: Transferable examples will be shown from the semiconductor and life-science Industry. These systems like clean rooms, glove boxes, fume cupboards, filter and suction systems and other restricted area barrier access systems (RABS) are mainly being developed to protect sensitive products, but they can also be used to protect working personnel. Clean environments regarding airborne particulate contaminations can be classified according to ISO 14644-1. A short insight into this ISO-classification will be given. But overall, a simple and reasonable workplace and workflow organization will reduce the risk of an accidental release of ENPs largely. This may lead to a therefore necessary adaption of existing workflow patterns. The workers have to get aware about the potential risks{!} This can be done with appropriate education materials, leaflets, posters and brochures. These are some of the later outcomes from the NanoDevice dissemination and handbook work package.

  6. Stimulants for the control of hedonic appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Sally Poulton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behaviour. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognised to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone, are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilisation of this effective and inexpensive class of drug.

  7. Aromatase inhibitors in stimulated IVF cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, Evangelos G; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2011-01-01

    are available regarding their efficacy in IVF stimulated cycles. Current available evidence support that letrozole may have a promising role in stimulated IVF cycles, either when administered during the follicular phase for ovarian stimulation. Especially for women with poor ovarian response, letrozole appears...... to have the potential to increase clinical pregnancy rates when combined with gonadotropins, whereas at the same time reduces the total gonadotropin dose required for ovarian stimulation. However, given that in all of the trials letrozole has been administered in GnRH antagonist cycles, it is intriguing...... to test in the future how it may perform when used in GnRH agonist cycles. Finally administration of letrozole during luteal phase in IVF cycles offers another treatment modality for patients at high risk for OHSS taking into account that it drastically reduces estradiol levels....

  8. Training to Increase Safe Tray Carrying Among Cocktail Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Megan D; Wilder, David A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of training on proper carrying techniques among 3 cocktail servers to increase safe tray carrying on the job and reduce participants' risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. As participants delivered drinks to their tables, their finger, arm, and neck positions were observed and recorded. Each participant received individual safety training that focused on proper carrying positions and techniques after baseline data were collected. A multiple baseline design acr...

  9. Vagal stimulation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Gaetano M

    2014-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is accompanied by an autonomic imbalance that is almost always characterized by both increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity. Experimentally, vagal stimulation has been shown to exert profound antiarrhythmic activity and to improve cardiac function and survival in HF models. A open-label pilot clinical study in 32 patients with chronic HF has shown safety and tolerability of chronic vagal stimulation associated with subjective (improved quality of life and 6-min walk test) and objective improvements (reduced left ventricular systolic volumes and improved left ventricular ejection fraction). Three larger clinical studies, including a phase III trial are currently ongoing and will evaluate the clinical role of this new approach.

  10. HIV and safe, healthy sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    If a woman wants to become pregnant, how can she reduce her risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections? When a young man is growing up and worried about his future, how can you expect him to be concerned about HIV? Many HIV prevention projects focus on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections without considering people's broader reproductive and sexual health concerns. HIV prevention depends on people being able to make choices about their sexual behavior. This means understanding how their bodies work, knowing what choices are available to them, and having the confidence and skills to discuss and make changes in their sexual and reproductive lives. HIV educators, family planning workers, youth counselors, and others need to be able to respond to a range of questions and concerns in a sensitive and supportive way. This special, double issue of AIDS Action provides basic facts about the reproductive system, fertility, sexually transmitted infections and contraception, and looks at the links between HIV, sex, and reproduction. Talking about sex can be difficult. Sex is a private matter and people often feel embarrassed talking about it. This issue also contains tips for communication and activities to find out what people know already and help them learn. You may find that not everything in this issue is necessary for the people you are working with. This is a 'pick and mix' issue for you to pick out what is useful, adapting it if you wish. full text

  11. Published diagnostic models safely excluded colorectal cancer in an independent primary care validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Kok, Liselotte; Witteman, Ben J M; Goedhard, Jelle G; Romberg-Camps, Mariëlle J L; Muris, Jean W M; de Wit, Niek J; Moons, Karel G M

    OBJECTIVE: To validate published diagnostic models for their ability to safely reduce unnecessary endoscopy referrals in primary care patients suspected of significant colorectal disease. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Following a systematic literature search, we independently validated the identified

  12. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Improving Safe Sleep Modeling in the Hospital through Policy Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Rachel; Nilles, Ester K; Jeans, Ashley; Moreland, Jackie; Clarke, Chris; McDonald, Morgan F; Warren, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    Introduction Sleep-related infant deaths are major contributors to Tennessee's high infant mortality rate. The purpose of this initiative was to evaluate the impact of policy-based efforts to improve modeling of safe sleep practices by health care providers in hospital settings across Tennessee. Methods Safe sleep policies were developed and implemented at 71 hospitals in Tennessee. Policies, at minimum, were required to address staff training on the American Academy of Pediatrics' safe sleep recommendations, correct modeling of infant safe sleep practices, and parent education. Hospital data on process measures related to training and results of crib audits were compiled for analysis. Results The overall observance of infants who were found with any risk factors for unsafe sleep decreased 45.6% (p ≤ 0.001) from the first crib audit to the last crib audit. Significant decreases were noted for specific risk factors, including infants found asleep not on their back, with a toy or object in the crib, and not sleeping in a crib. Significant improvements were observed at hospitals where printed materials or video were utilized for training staff compared to face-to-face training. Discussion Statewide implementation of the hospital policy intervention resulted in significant reductions in infants found in unsafe sleep situations. The most common risk factors for sleep-related infant deaths can be modeled in hospitals. This effort has the potential to reduce sleep-related infant deaths and ultimately infant mortality.

  14. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1997-01-01

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs

  15. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Attenuates Neuronal Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Kohitij; Duijnhouwer, Jacob; Krekelberg, Bart

    2017-03-01

    We previously showed that brief application of 2 mA (peak-to-peak) transcranial currents alternating at 10 Hz significantly reduces motion adaptation in humans. This is but one of many behavioral studies showing that weak currents applied to the scalp modulate neural processing. Transcranial stimulation has been shown to improve perception, learning, and a range of clinical symptoms. Few studies, however, have measured the neural consequences of transcranial current stimulation. We capitalized on the strong link between motion perception and neural activity in the middle temporal (MT) area of the macaque monkey to study the neural mechanisms that underlie the behavioral consequences of transcranial alternating current stimulation. First, we observed that 2 mA currents generated substantial intracranial fields, which were much stronger in the stimulated hemisphere (0.12 V/m) than on the opposite side of the brain (0.03 V/m). Second, we found that brief application of transcranial alternating current stimulation at 10 Hz reduced spike-frequency adaptation of MT neurons and led to a broadband increase in the power spectrum of local field potentials. Together, these findings provide a direct demonstration that weak electric fields applied to the scalp significantly affect neural processing in the primate brain and that this includes a hitherto unknown mechanism that attenuates sensory adaptation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Transcranial stimulation has been claimed to improve perception, learning, and a range of clinical symptoms. Little is known, however, how transcranial current stimulation generates such effects, and the search for better stimulation protocols proceeds largely by trial and error. We investigated, for the first time, the neural consequences of stimulation in the monkey brain. We found that even brief application of alternating current stimulation reduced the effects of adaptation on single-neuron firing rates and local field potentials; this mechanistic

  16. Staying Safe on Social Network Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Security Tip (ST06-003) Staying Safe on Social Networking Sites Original release date: January 26, 2011 | Last revised: ... so you should take certain precautions. What are social networking sites? Social networking sites, sometimes referred to as "friend- ...

  17. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....

  18. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  19. Safe delivery, Service utilization, Metekel Zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decision making power of subjects were found to have a statistically significant association with preference of safe delivery ... Studies that focused on maternal mortality and proportion of ...... Anna M, Hannekee M, Frank Odhiambo et.al. Use.

  20. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, W. de L.M.

    1979-02-01

    The hazards of radioactive materials in transport are surveyed. The system whereby they are safely transported between nuclear establishments in the United Kingdom and overseas is outlined. Several popular misconceptions are dealt with. (author)

  1. Layered Safe Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The major problem addressed by this research is how to plan a safe motion for autonomous vehicles in a two dimensional, rectilinear world. With given start and goal configurations, the planner performs motion planning which

  2. AFSC/REFM: Groundfish SAFE Economic Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Groundfish SAFE Economic Report, published annually as a supplement to the Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Reports for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  3. Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... I be concerned about unsafe practices, or the tattoo ink itself? Both. While you can get serious ...

  4. Safe Eats - Eating Out and Bringing In

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stay safe. What's On the Menu? When dining out: Remember that harmful bacteria can be hidden ... above the "danger zone." Remember the 2-Hour Rule : Discard any perishables (foods that can spoil or ...

  5. Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.; Grady, L.M.; Bennett, H.A.; Sasser, D.W.; Engi, D.

    1978-01-01

    The SAFE procedure is an efficient method of evaluating the physical protection system of a nuclear facility. Since the algorithms used in SAFE for path generation and evaluation are analytical, many paths can be evaluated with a modest investment in computer time. SAFE is easy to use because the information required is well-defined and the interactive nature of this procedure lends itself to straightforward operation. The modular approach that has been taken allows other functionally equivalent modules to be substituted as they become available. The SAFE procedure has broad applications in the nuclear facility safeguards field as well as in the security field in general. Any fixed facility containing valuable materials or components to be protected from theft or sabotage could be analyzed using this same automated evaluation technique

  6. SAFE users manual. Volume 4. Computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Documentation for the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) computer programs is presented. The documentation is in the form of subprogram trees, program abstracts, flowcharts, and listings. Listings are provided on microfiche

  7. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  8. Ultrasonic Detectors Safely Identify Dangerous, Costly Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 1990, NASA grounded its space shuttle fleet. The reason: leaks detected in the hydrogen fuel systems of the Space Shuttles Atlantis and Columbia. Unless the sources of the leaks could be identified and fixed, the shuttles would not be safe to fly. To help locate the existing leaks and check for others, Kennedy Space Center engineers used portable ultrasonic detectors to scan the fuel systems. As a gas or liquid escapes from a leak, the resulting turbulence creates ultrasonic noise, explains Gary Mohr, president of Elmsford, New York-based UE Systems Inc., a long-time leader in ultrasonic detector technologies. "In lay terms, the leak is like a dog whistle, and the detector is like the dog ear." Because the ultrasound emissions from a leak are highly localized, they can be used not only to identify the presence of a leak but also to help pinpoint a leak s location. The NASA engineers employed UE s detectors to examine the shuttle fuel tanks and solid rocket boosters, but encountered difficulty with the devices limited range-certain areas of the shuttle proved difficult or unsafe to scan up close. To remedy the problem, the engineers created a long-range attachment for the detectors, similar to "a zoom lens on a camera," Mohr says. "If you are on the ground, and the leak is 50 feet away, the detector would now give you the same impression as if you were only 25 feet away." The enhancement also had the effect of reducing background noise, allowing for a clearer, more precise detection of a leak s location.

  9. Standards for safe operation of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The safety of research reactors is based on many factors such as suitable choice of location, design and construction according to the international standards, it also depends on well trained and qualified operational staff. These standards determine the responsibilities of all who are concerned with the research reactors safe operation, and who are responsible of all related activities in all the administrative and technical stages in a way that insures the safe operation of the reactor

  10. Influencing behaviour for safe working environments

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, de, J. (Johannes); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2011-01-01

    Safety at work The objective of the project Safety at Work is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artefacts from personal protective equipment and ambient intelligence technology. In this state of the art document we focus on the developments with respect to how (persuasive) technology can help to influence behaviour in a natural, automatic way in order to make industrial environments safer. We focus on personal safety, safe environments and safe beh...

  11. Licensing issues for inherently safe fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, S.; Okrent, D.

    1986-01-01

    There has been considerable interest recently in a new generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) concepts in the US. Some significant changes in regulatory philosophy will be required if the anticipated cost advantages of inherently safe designs are to be achieved. The defense in depth philosophy will need to be significantly re-evaluated in the context of inherently safe reactors. It is the purpose of this paper to begin such a re-evaluation of this regulatory philosophy

  12. Curiosity's Autonomous Surface Safing Behavior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Tracy A.; Manning, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The safing routines on all robotic deep-space vehicles are designed to put the vehicle in a power and thermally safe configuration, enabling communication with the mission operators on Earth. Achieving this goal is made a little more difficult on Curiosity because the power requirements for the core avionics and the telecommunication equipment exceed the capability of the single power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. This drove the system design to create an operational mode, called "sleep mode", where the vehicle turns off most of the loads in order to charge the two Li-ion batteries. The system must keep the vehicle safe from over-heat and under-heat conditions, battery cell failures, under-voltage conditions, and clock failures, both while the computer is running and while the system is sleeping. The other goal of a safing routine is to communicate. On most spacecraft, this simply involves turning on the receiver and transmitter continuously. For Curiosity, Earth is above the horizon only a part of the day for direct communication to the Earth, and the orbiter overpass opportunities only occur a few times a day. The design must robustly place the Rover in a communicable condition at the correct time. This paper discusses Curiosity's autonomous safing behavior and describes how the vehicle remains power and thermally safe while sleeping, as well as a description of how the Rover communicates with the orbiters and Earth at specific times.

  13. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  14. Predicting soil acidification trends at Plynlimon using the SAFE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Reynolds

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The SAFE model has been applied to an acid grassland site, located on base-poor stagnopodzol soils derived from Lower Palaeozoic greywackes. The model predicts that acidification of the soil has occurred in response to increased acid deposition following the industrial revolution. Limited recovery is predicted following the decline in sulphur deposition during the mid to late 1970s. Reducing excess sulphur and NOx deposition in 1998 to 40% and 70% of 1980 levels results in further recovery but soil chemical conditions (base saturation, soil water pH and ANC do not return to values predicted in pre-industrial times. The SAFE model predicts that critical loads (expressed in terms of the (Ca+Mg+K:Alcrit ratio for six vegetation species found in acid grassland communities are not exceeded despite the increase in deposited acidity following the industrial revolution. The relative growth response of selected vegetation species characteristic of acid grassland swards has been predicted using a damage function linking growth to soil solution base cation to aluminium ratio. The results show that very small growth reductions can be expected for 'acid tolerant' plants growing in acid upland soils. For more sensitive species such as Holcus lanatus, SAFE predicts that growth would have been reduced by about 20% between 1951 and 1983, when acid inputs were greatest. Recovery to c. 90% of normal growth (under laboratory conditions is predicted as acidic inputs decline.

  15. A Stimulator ASIC Featuring Versatile Management for Vestibular Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai Jiang; Demosthenous, Andreas; Perkins, Timothy; Xiao Liu; Donaldson, Nick

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a multichannel stimulator ASIC for an implantable vestibular prosthesis. The system features versatile stimulation management which allows fine setting of the parameters for biphasic stimulation pulses. To address the problem of charge imbalance due to rounding errors, the digital processor can calculate and provide accurate charge correction. A technique to reduce the data rate to the stimulator is described. The stimulator ASIC was implemented in 0.6-μ m high-voltage CMOS technology occupying an area of 2.27 mm(2). The measured performance of the ASIC has been verified using vestibular electrodes in saline.

  16. Fail-safe computer-based plant protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    A fail-safe mode of operation for computers used in nuclear reactor protection systems was first evolved in the UK for application to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The fail-safe properties of both the hardware and the software were achieved by permanently connecting test signals to some of the multiplexed inputs. This results in an unambiguous data pattern, each time the inputs are sequentially scanned by the multiplexer. The ''test inputs'' simulate transient excursions beyond defined safe limits. The alternating response of the trip algorithms to the ''out-of-limits'' test signals and the normal plant measurements is recognised by hardwired pattern recognition logic external to the computer system. For more general application to plant protection systems, a ''Test Signal Generator'' (TSG) is used to compute and generate test signals derived from prevailing operational conditions. The TSG, from its knowledge of the sensitivity of the trip algorithm to each of the input variables, generates a ''test disturbance'' which is superimposed upon each variable in turn, to simulate a transient excursion beyond the safe limits. The ''tripped'' status yielded by the trip algorithm when using data from a ''disturbed'' input forms part of a pattern determined by the order in which the disturbances are applied to the multiplexer inputs. The data pattern formed by the interleaved test disturbances is again recognised by logic external to the protection system's computers. This fail-safe mode of operation of computer-based protection systems provides a powerful defence against common-mode failure. It also reduces the importance of software verification in the licensing procedure. (author)

  17. Design of low-cost general purpose microcontroller based neuromuscular stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, S; Rahmi Canal, M; Güler, I

    2000-04-01

    In this study, a general purpose, low-cost, programmable, portable and high performance stimulator is designed and implemented. For this purpose, a microcontroller is used in the design of the stimulator. The duty cycle and amplitude of the designed system can be controlled using a keyboard. The performance test of the system has shown that the results are reliable. The overall system can be used as the neuromuscular stimulator under safe conditions.

  18. Computational modeling of epidural cortical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsarnpigoon, Amorn; Grill, Warren M.

    2008-12-01

    Epidural cortical stimulation (ECS) is a developing therapy to treat neurological disorders. However, it is not clear how the cortical anatomy or the polarity and position of the electrode affects current flow and neural activation in the cortex. We developed a 3D computational model simulating ECS over the precentral gyrus. With the electrode placed directly above the gyrus, about half of the stimulus current flowed through the crown of the gyrus while current density was low along the banks deep in the sulci. Beneath the electrode, neurons oriented perpendicular to the cortical surface were depolarized by anodic stimulation, and neurons oriented parallel to the boundary were depolarized by cathodic stimulation. Activation was localized to the crown of the gyrus, and neurons on the banks deep in the sulci were not polarized. During regulated voltage stimulation, the magnitude of the activating function was inversely proportional to the thickness of the CSF and dura. During regulated current stimulation, the activating function was not sensitive to the thickness of the dura but was slightly more sensitive than during regulated voltage stimulation to the thickness of the CSF. Varying the width of the gyrus and the position of the electrode altered the distribution of the activating function due to changes in the orientation of the neurons beneath the electrode. Bipolar stimulation, although often used in clinical practice, reduced spatial selectivity as well as selectivity for neuron orientation.

  19. Interventions to Improve Safe Sleep Among Hospitalized Infants at Eight Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Stephanie; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Lukasiewicz, Gloria; Truong, Therese Macasiray

    2016-02-01

    Within hospital pediatric units, there is a lack of consistent application or modeling of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for safe infant sleep. The purpose of this study was to improve safe sleep practices for infants in nonneonatal pediatric units with implementation of specific interventions. This multi-institutional study was conducted by using baseline observations collected for sleep location, position, and environment (collectively, "safe sleep") of infants admitted to pediatric units. Interventions consisted of: (1) staff education, including a commitment to promote safe sleep; (2) implementing site-generated safe sleep policies; (3) designating supply storage in patient rooms; and/or (4) caregiver education. Postintervention observations of safe sleep were collected. Eight hospitals participated from the Inpatient FOCUS Group of the Children's Hospital Association. Each site received institutional review board approval/exemption. Safe sleep was observed for 4.9% of 264 infants at baseline and 31.2% of 234 infants postintervention (Ppresent in 77% of cribs at baseline and 44% postintervention. However, the mean number of unsafe items observed in each sleeping environment was reduced by >50% (P=.001). Implementation of site-specific interventions seems to improve overall safe sleep in inpatient pediatric units, although continued improvement is needed. Specifically, extra items are persistently left in the sleeping environment. Moving forward, hospitals should evaluate their compliance with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations and embrace initiatives to improve modeling of safe sleep. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Calculations on safe storage and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathout, A M; El-Messiry, A M; Amin, E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control and AEA, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    In this work the safe storage and transportation of fresh fuel as a radioactive material studied. Egypt planned ET RR 2 reactor which is of relatively high power and would require adequate handling and transportation. Therefore, the present work is initiated to develop a procedure for safe handling and transportation of radioactive materials. The possibility of reducing the magnitude of radiation transmitted on the exterior of the packages is investigated. Neutron absorbers are used to decrease the neutron flux. Criticality calculations are carried out to ensure the achievement of subcriticality so that the inherent safety can be verified. The discrete ordinate transport code ANISN was used. The results show good agreement with other techniques. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. 105-C Reactor interim safe storage project technology integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Technology Integration Plan involves the decontamination, dismantlement, and interim safe storage of a surplus production reactor. A major goal is to identify and demonstrate new and innovative D and D technologies that will reduce costs, shorten schedules, enhance safety, and have the potential for general use across the RL complex. Innovative technologies are to be demonstrated in the following areas: Characterization; Decontamination; Waste Disposition; Dismantlement, Segmentation, and Demolition; Facility Stabilization; and Health and Safety. The evaluation and ranking of innovative technologies has been completed. Demonstrations will be selected from the ranked technologies according to priority. The contractor team members will review and evaluate the demonstration performances and make final recommendations to DOE

  2. Appetite stimulants for people with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinuck, Ruth; Dewar, Jane; Baldwin, David R; Hendron, Elizabeth

    2014-07-27

    , this is based upon moderate quality data from a small number of trials and so this therapy cannot be conclusively recommended based upon the findings in the review. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential adverse effects of appetite stimulants and actively monitor any patients prescribed these medications accordingly.Research is needed to determine meaningful surrogate measures for appetite and define what constitutes quality weight gain. Future trials of appetite stimulants should use a validated measure of symptoms including a disease-specific instrument for measuring poor appetite. This review highlights the need for multicentred, adequately powered and well-designed trials to evaluate agents to safely increase appetite in people with cystic fibrosis and to establish the optimal mode of treatment.

  3. Brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C; Barr, Mera S; Wass, Caroline E; Lipsman, Nir; Lozano, Andres M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; George, Tony P

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, but many smokers are simply unable to quit. Psychosocial and pharmaceutical treatments have shown modest results on smoking cessation rates, but there is an urgent need to develop treatments with greater efficacy. Brain stimulation methods are gaining increasing interest as possible addiction therapeutics. The purpose of this paper is to review the studies that have evaluated brain stimulation techniques on tobacco addiction, and discuss future directions for research in this novel area of addiction interventions. Electronic and manual literature searches identified fifteen studies that administered repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrostimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or deep brain stimulation (DBS). rTMS was found to be the most well studied method with respect to tobacco addiction. Results indicate that rTMS and tDCS targeted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were the most efficacious in reducing tobacco cravings, an effect that may be mediated through the brain reward system involved in tobacco addiction. While rTMS was shown to reduce consumption of cigarettes, as yet no brain stimulation technique has been shown to significantly increase abstinence rates. It is possible that the therapeutic effects of rTMS and tDCS may be improved by optimization of stimulation parameters and increasing the duration of treatment. Although further studies are needed to confirm the ability of brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction, this review indicates that rTMS and tDCS both represent potentially novel treatment modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil respiration is stimulated by elevated CO2 and reduced by summer drought: three years of measurements in a multifactor ecosystem manipulation experiment in a temperate heathland (CLIMAITE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang; van der Linden, Leon; Ibrom, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of predicted future climatic and atmospheric conditions on soil respiration (RS) in a Danish Calluna‐Deschampsia‐heathland. A fully factorial in situ experiment with treatments of elevated atmospheric CO2 (+130 ppm), raised soil temperature (+0.4 °C) and extended...... summer drought (5–8% precipitation exclusion) was established in 2005. The average RS, observed in the control over 3 years of measurements (1.7 μmol CO2 m−2 sec−1), increased 38% under elevated CO2, irrespective of combination with the drought or temperature treatments. In contrast, extended summer...... due to reduced plant growth or changes in soil water holding capacity. An empirical model that predicts RS from soil temperature, soil moisture and plant biomass was developed and accounted for 55% of the observed variability in RS. The model predicted annual sums of RS in 2006 and 2007...

  5. The healing of alkali-injured cornea is stimulated by a novel matrix regenerating agent (RGTA, CACICOL20): a biopolymer mimicking heparan sulfates reducing proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejkova, Jitka; Olmiere, Celine; Cejka, Cestmir; Trosan, Peter; Holan, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of a chemically modified dextran - heparan sulfate mimicking regenerating agent (RGTA) on the healing of the rabbit cornea injured with alkali was examined. The eyes were injured with 0.15 N NaOH applied on the cornea or with 1.0 N NaOH using a 8 mm diameter filter paper disk. Then RGTA or placebo was applied on the cornea. In the last group of rabbits, corneas injured with the high alkali concentration were left without any treatment for four weeks; subsequently, the corneas were treated with RGTA or placebo. The central corneal thickness was measured using a pachymeter. The corneas were examined morphologically, immunohistochemically and for real time-PCR. Compared to control (unaffected) corneas, following the application of low alkali concentration the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, metalloproteinase 9, nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase was increased in the injured corneal epithelium of placebo-treated eyes, whereas the expression of antioxidant enzymes was reduced. Nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde stainings appeared in the corneal epithelium. RGTA application suppressed the antioxidant/prooxidant imbalance and reduced the expression of the above-mentioned immunohistochemical markers. The corneal thickness increased after alkali injury, decreased during corneal healing after RGTA treatment faster than after placebo application. Following the injury with the high alkali concentration, corneal inflammation and neovascularization were highly pronounced in placebo-treated corneas, whereas in RGTA-treated corneas they were significantly supressed. When RGTA or placebo application was started later after alkali injury and corneas were ulcerated, subsequent RGTA treatment healed the majority of them. In conclusion, RGTA facilitates the healing of injured corneas via a reduction of proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

  6. Stimulating thought: a functional MRI study of transcranial direct current stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; O'Daly, Owen; Tracy, Derek K; Daniju, Yusuf; Hodsoll, John; Valdearenas, Lorena; Rothwell, John; Shergill, Sukhi S

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia typically suffer a range of cognitive deficits, including prominent deficits in working memory and executive function. These difficulties are strongly predictive of functional outcomes, but there is a paucity of effective therapeutic interventions targeting these deficits. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a novel neuromodulatory technique with emerging evidence of potential pro-cognitive effects; however, there is limited understanding of its mechanism. This was a double-blind randomized sham controlled pilot study of transcranial direct current stimulation on a working memory (n-back) and executive function (Stroop) task in 28 individuals with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Study participants received 30 min of real or sham transcranial direct current stimulation applied to the left frontal cortex. The 'real' and 'sham' groups did not differ in online working memory task performance, but the transcranial direct current stimulation group demonstrated significant improvement in performance at 24 h post-transcranial direct current stimulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with increased activation in the medial frontal cortex beneath the anode; showing a positive correlation with consolidated working memory performance 24 h post-stimulation. There was reduced activation in the left cerebellum in the transcranial direct current stimulation group, with no change in the middle frontal gyrus or parietal cortices. Improved performance on the executive function task was associated with reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulated functional activation in local task-related regions, and in more distal nodes in the network. Transcranial direct current stimulation offers a potential novel approach to altering frontal cortical activity and exerting pro-cognitive effects in schizophrenia. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford

  7. 76 FR 12719 - Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Safe Schools/Healthy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Office of Safe and Drug- Free Schools; Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 84... priorities, requirements, and definitions under the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) program. Since...

  8. THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBALIZATION UPON SAFE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Mihić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, a phenomenon on the rise, is characterized by the free cross-bor- der movement of individuals, technologies, and capital. It has far- reaching consequen- ces for tourism, too, as it implies travel for leisure and business, and correspondingly, financial transfers between various nation states. Startinf from the status quo in the field, the current paper sets out to analyze the consequences and implications of globalization upon safe tourism and conduct a marketing research into the perceptions of consumers upon Serbia as a safe vacation destination for the purpose of safe tourism. Finally the research results will be presented and several solutions will be provided for improving security in tourism zones

  9. From Safe Systems to Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, J.; Nøhr, C.

    2010-01-01

    for the third conference with the theme: The ability to design, implement and evaluate safe, useable and effective systems within complex health care organizations. The theme for this conference was "Designing and Implementing Health IT: from safe systems to patient safety". The contributions have reflected...... and implementation of safe systems and thus contribute to the agenda of patient safety? The contributions demonstrate how the health informatics community has contributed to the performance of significant research and to translating research findings to develop health care delivery and improve patient safety......This volume presents the papers from the fourth International Conference on Information Technology in Health Care: Socio-technical Approaches held in Aalborg, Denmark in June 2010. In 2001 the first conference was held in Rotterdam, The Netherlands with the theme: Sociotechnical' approaches...

  10. Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; Asahi, Yoshiro

    1991-01-01

    The Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER) is designed based on the principle of a process inherent ultimate safe reactor, PIUS, a so-called inherently safe reactor (ISR). ISER has been developed joingly by the members of the Kanagawa Institute of Technology, the University of Tokyo, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and several industrial firms in Japan. This paper describes the requirements for the next generation of power reactor, the safety design philosphy of ISR and ISER, the controllability of ISER and the results of analyses of some of the design-based accidents (DBA) of ISER, namely station blackout, accidents in which the pressurizer relief valve becomes jammed and stuck in open position and tube breaks in the steam generator. It is concluded that the ISER can ensure a wide range of contraollabitily and fuel integrity for all the analysed DBAs. (orig.)

  11. Inherently safe technologies-chemical and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments show an inverse relationship between the likelihood and the consequences of nuclear and chemical plant accidents, but the Bhopal accident has change public complacency about the safety of chemical plants to such an extent that public confidence is now at the same low level as with nuclear plants. The nuclear industry's response was to strengthen its institutions and improve its technologies, but the public may not be convinced. One solution is to develop reactors which do not depend upon the active intervention of humans of electromechanical devices to deal with emergencies, but which have physical properties that limit the possible temperature and power of a reactor. The Process Inherent Ultimately Safe and the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactors are two possibilities. the chemical industry needs to develop its own inherently safe design precepts that incorporate smallness, safe processes, and hardening against sabotage. 5 references

  12. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  13. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yo-Taik

    1987-01-01

    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  14. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  15. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Landscape planning for a safe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishikawa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  17. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  18. Enhancing transcranial direct current stimulation via motor imagery and kinesthetic illusion: crossing internal and external tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodranghien, Florian; Manto, Mario; Lebon, Florent

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation is a safe technique which is now part of the therapeutic armamentarium for the neuromodulation of motor functions and cognitive operations. It is currently considered that tDCS is an intervention that might promote functional recovery after a lesion in the central nervous system, thus reducing long-term disability and associated socio-economic burden. A recent study shows that kinesthetic illusion and motor imagery prolong the effects of tDCS on corticospinal excitability, overcoming one of the limitations of this intervention. Because changes in excitability anticipate changes in structural plasticity in the CNS, this interesting multi-modal approach might very soon find applications in neurorehabilitation.

  19. The inherently-safe power reactor DYONISOS (Dynamic Nuclear Inherently-Safe Reactor Operating with Spheres)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.; Lanfranchi, M.; Weissenfluh, Th. von; Ligou, J.; Yadigaroglu, G.; Taube, P.

    1986-01-01

    A philosophy of inherent safety is formulated and an inherently-safe thermal power reactor is presented. Solid fuel in the form of spheres a few centimetres in diameter is suspended under the hydro-dynamic pressure of molten lead coolant in vertical channels within the graphite moderator. Loss of main pump pressure, or a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), results in immediate removal of the fuel to rigid sieves below the core, with consequent subcriticality. Residual and decay heat are carried away by thermal conduction through the coolant or, in the case of a LOCA, by a combination of radiation and natural convection of cover gas or incoming air from the fuel to the reactor vessel and convection of air between the vessel and steel containment wall. All decay heat removal systems are passive, though actively initiated external spray cooling of the containment can be used to reduce wall temperature. This, however, is only necessary in the case of a LOCA and after a period of 24 h. (author)

  20. Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sarwar; Dearing, John A; Eigenbrod, Felix; Johnson, Fiifi Amoako

    2017-04-15

    This study makes a first attempt to operationalize the safe operating space concept at a regional scale by considering the complex dynamics (e.g. non-linearity, feedbacks, and interactions) within a systems dynamic model (SD). We employ the model to explore eight 'what if' scenarios based on well-known challenges (e.g. climate change) and current policy debates (e.g. subsidy withdrawal). The findings show that the social-ecological system in the Bangladesh delta may move beyond a safe operating space when a withdrawal of a 50% subsidy for agriculture is combined with the effects of a 2°C temperature increase and sea level rise. Further reductions in upstream river discharge in the Ganges would push the system towards a dangerous zone once a 3.5°C temperature increase was reached. The social-ecological system in Bangladesh delta may be operated within a safe space by: 1) managing feedback (e.g. by reducing production costs) and the slow biophysical variables (e.g. temperature, rainfall) to increase the long-term resilience, 2) negotiating for transboundary water resources, and 3) revising global policies (e.g. withdrawal of subsidy) that negatively impact at regional scales. This study demonstrates how the concepts of tipping points, limits to adaptations, and boundaries for sustainable development may be defined in real world social-ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of the design and clinical evaluation of the ShefStim array-based functional electrical stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Laurence P; Heller, Ben W; Barker, Anthony T; Reeves, Mark L; Healey, Jamie; Good, Timothy R; Cooper, Glen; Sha, Ning; Prenton, Sarah; Liu, Anmin; Howard, David

    2016-11-01

    Functional electrical stimulation has been shown to be a safe and effective means of correcting foot drop of central neurological origin. Current surface-based devices typically consist of a single channel stimulator, a sensor for determining gait phase and a cuff, within which is housed the anode and cathode. The cuff-mounted electrode design reduces the likelihood of large errors in electrode placement, but the user is still fully responsible for selecting the correct stimulation level each time the system is donned. Researchers have investigated different approaches to automating aspects of setup and/or use, including recent promising work based on iterative learning techniques. This paper reports on the design and clinical evaluation of an electrode array-based FES system for the correction of drop foot, ShefStim. The paper reviews the design process from proof of concept lab-based study, through modelling of the array geometry and interface layer to array search algorithm development. Finally, the paper summarises two clinical studies involving patients with drop foot. The results suggest that the ShefStim system with automated setup produces results which are comparable with clinician setup of conventional systems. Further, the final study demonstrated that patients can use the system without clinical supervision. When used unsupervised, setup time was 14min (9min for automated search plus 5min for donning the equipment), although this figure could be reduced significantly with relatively minor changes to the design. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Better safe than sorry: Increasing safety in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Miklos; Mutluer, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Abderrahim Bouih used to be worried about space. In charge of managing Morocco’s radioactive waste since 2006, he had long projected that the country’s sole radioactive waste facility would fill up by 2019. Thanks to a new methodology he and his colleagues learned through an IAEA project, they can now dismantle smoke detectors, lightning rods and other waste that contains radioactive material, safely separating the radioactive components from the metal, and significantly reducing the amount of radioactive waste they need to store.

  3. The effect of social marketing communication on safe driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Jenn; Lin, Wan-Chen; Lo, Jyue-Yu

    2011-12-01

    Processing of cognition, affect, and intention was investigated in viewers of advertisements to prevent speeding while driving. Results indicated that anchoring-point messages had greater effects on viewers' cognition, attitude, and behavioral intention than did messages without anchoring points. Further, the changes in message anchoring points altered participants' perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable judgments: a higher anchoring point in the form of speeding mortality was more persuasive in promoting the idea of reducing driving speed. Implications for creation of effective safe driving communications are discussed.

  4. A conceptual design of intrinsically safe and economical reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Junro

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the reference conceptual designs of the ISER which were prepared for the ISER development forum in Japan. At the forum, participants from influential utilities, academia, as well as companies in the nuclear industry, discussed the development of the inherently safe reactor over the last two years. The conceptual designs described in this paper are preliminary trial designs at an early stage and essentially versions of the PIUS reactor developed by ASEA-ATOM. A notable feature of the ISER which is different from the original PIUS is its use of a steel reactor pressure vessel for reducing plant construction costs and improving plant performance

  5. WHO safe surgery checklist: Barriers to universal acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of the Safe Surgery Checklist is an initiative taken by the World Health Organization (WHO with an aim to reduce the complication rates during the surgical process. Despite gross reduction in the infection rate and morbidity following adoption of the checklist, many health-care providers are hesitant in implementing it in their everyday practice. In this article, we would like to highlight the hurdles in adoption of the WHO Surgical Checklist and measures that can be taken to overcome them.

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation as a treatment for auditory hallucinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne eKoops

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations (AH are a symptom of several psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. In a significant minority of patients, AH are resistant to antipsychotic medication. Alternative treatment options for this medication-resistant group are scarce and most of them focus on coping with the hallucinations. Finding an alternative treatment that can diminish AH is of great importance.Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a safe and non-invasive technique that is able to directly influence cortical excitability through the application of very low electric currents. A 1-2 mA direct current is applied between two surface electrodes, one serving as the anode and the other as the cathode. Cortical excitability is increased in the vicinity of the anode and reduced near the cathode. The technique, which has only a few transient side effects and is cheap and portable, is increasingly explored as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric symptoms. It has shown efficacy on symptoms of depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and stroke. However, the application of tDCS as a treatment for AH is relatively new. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge in this field and provides guidelines for future research.

  7. "SAFE" LEVEL OF SOMATIC HEALTH IN INDICATORS REGULATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM AT YOUNG MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Romanchuk

    2015-12-01

    2Lviv State University Physical Culture The aim of this study was to determine the functional state cardiorespiratory system in males younger with "safe" level of somatic health (LSH. Were examined 104 males aged 20,6 ± 0,9 years, engaged in various sports, and had no existing acute and chronic diseases. The survey was conducted using spiroarteriocardiorhythmography (SACR. It is shown that in all studied systems of regulation, regulation except SBP probably marked differences between persons with "safe" and "low" LSH. At the same time, the comparison of "safe" and "medium" LSH differences relate only to the predominance of sympathetic influences on heart rate, decrease suprasegmental effects on DBP, reducing regulatory influences on spontaneous breath and their high-frequency components, reducing of baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac output. Key words: "safe" level of somatic health, regulation of the cardiorespiratory system.

  8. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  9. How safe are nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danzmann, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The question 'how safe are nuclear power plants' can be answered differently - it depends on how the term 'safety' is understood. If the 'safety of supply' is left out as a possibility of interpretation, then the alternative views remain: Operational safety in the sense of reliability and safety of personnel and population. (orig.) [de

  10. Safe and Healthy Travel to China

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-09

    In this podcast, Dr. Phyllis Kozarsky, CDC Travel Medicine expert, discusses what travelers should do to ensure a safe and healthy trip to China.  Created: 10/9/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 10/9/2008.

  11. Safe Space Oddity: Revisiting Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by an incident in a social work graduate classroom in which she was a teaching assistant, the author reflects on her commitment to constructivist teaching methods, critical theory, and critical pedagogy. Exploring the educational utility of notions such as public space and safe space, the author employs this personal experience to examine…

  12. Safe reduction rules for weighted treewidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkhof, F. van den; Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Several sets of reductions rules are known for preprocessing a graph when computing its treewidth. In this paper, we give reduction rules for a weighted variant of treewidth, motivated by the analysis of algorithms for probabilistic networks. We present two general reduction rules that are safe for

  13. Safe laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed by trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Peter Koch; Schultz, Martin; Harvald, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe, but there have been hesitations to implement the technique in all departments. One of the reasons for this may be suboptimal learning possibilities since supervised trainees have not been allowed to do the operations to an adequate extent...

  14. Safe and secure: transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.

    2015-01-01

    Western Waste Management Facility is Central Transportation Facility for Low and Intermediate waste materials. Transportation support for Stations: Reactor inspection tools and heavy water between stations and reactor components and single bundles of irradiated fuel to AECL-Chalk River for examination. Safety Track Record: 3.2 million kilometres safely travelled and no transportation accident - resulting in a radioactive release.

  15. Using over-the-counter medicines safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about OTC drugs. About OTC Medicines You can buy OTC medicines without a prescription in: Drug stores Grocery stores ... Safely You should: Examine the package before you buy it. Make sure it has not been tampered with. Never use medicine you have bought that does not look the ...

  16. Safe Sleep for Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.

  17. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  18. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  19. Disabled Children: The Right to Feel Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…

  20. School Counselors: Untapped Resources for Safe Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Connie J.

    2000-01-01

    Principals should consider redirecting school counselors' responsibilities to include directing safe-school teams; establishing networks to identify at-risk students and violent behavior signs; developing conflict-resolution activities; assessing and counseling misbehaving students; devising crisis- management plans; and helping staff predict and…

  1. How to Keep Your Sleeping Baby Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first hour. After that, or when the mother needs to sleep or cannot do skin-to-skin, babies should ... Back is Best New Crib Standards: What Parents Need to Know Safe Sleep for Babies (Video) The Healthy Children Show: Sleep ( ...

  2. Education in Safe and Unsafe Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Recent student demands within the academy for "safe space" have aroused concern about the constraints they might impose on free speech and academic freedom. There are as many kinds of safety as there are threats to the things that human beings might care about. That is why we need to be very clear about the specific threats of which the…

  3. Asymptotically Safe Standard Model via Vectorlike Fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R. B.; Meffe, J. R.; Sannino, F.; Steele, T. G.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    We construct asymptotically safe extensions of the standard model by adding gauged vectorlike fermions. Using large number-of-flavor techniques we argue that all gauge couplings, including the hypercharge and, under certain conditions, the Higgs coupling, can achieve an interacting ultraviolet fixed point.

  4. Have a Safe and Healthy Fall

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-14

    Fall is a great time to try new and healthy activities with your parents! Have a food tasting or a leaf raking contest! Whatever your plans, make sure to have fun and be safe!  Created: 10/14/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/14/2010.

  5. The conformity of BPP and vibroacoustic stimulation results in fetal non reactive non stress test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modarres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most frequently used test for evaluation of fetal health is the Non Stress Test (NST. Unfortunately it has a high incidence of false positive results. The combination of vibroacoustic stimulation with the NTS has been shown to reduce non reactive results. Methods: A tests assessment method was chosen with a simple randomized sampling. 40 pregnant women with non reactive NST in the first 20 minutes who received VAS in one of Tehran University's Hospitals were compared with BPP scores. A vibroacoustic stimulation was applied for a 3 seconds on the maternal abdomen and fallowed within 10 minutes.Data collection tools were NST, sonography instruments ,NST result paper, tooth brusher, watch, demographic questioner and check list. Data analysis was made by descriptive static and by using the Fisher's Exact Test (with level of significant at p<0/05. All statistical analysis were performed using an spss/win. Results: After VAS, 70% of non reactive tracing became reactive. All cases with fetal reactivity response after a VAS had a subsequent BPP score of 8 (negative predictive value of 100%. False positivity of VAS was lower than NST. Conclusion: VAS offers benefits, by decreasing the incidence of non reactive test and reducing test time. VAS lowers the rate of false positive NST. VAS is safe and allows more efficient of prenatal services. This test could be used as a rapid antepartum test to predict fetal well-being.

  6. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Mikulskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation and development of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports, the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system. A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed. Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in the strategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  7. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Astrauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation anddevelopment of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports,the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system.A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed.Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in thestrategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  8. Evaluation of intradural stimulation efficiency and selectivity in a computational model of spinal cord stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Howell

    Full Text Available Spinal cord stimulation (SCS is an alternative or adjunct therapy to treat chronic pain, a prevalent and clinically challenging condition. Although SCS has substantial clinical success, the therapy is still prone to failures, including lead breakage, lead migration, and poor pain relief. The goal of this study was to develop a computational model of SCS and use the model to compare activation of neural elements during intradural and extradural electrode placement. We constructed five patient-specific models of SCS. Stimulation thresholds predicted by the model were compared to stimulation thresholds measured intraoperatively, and we used these models to quantify the efficiency and selectivity of intradural and extradural SCS. Intradural placement dramatically increased stimulation efficiency and reduced the power required to stimulate the dorsal columns by more than 90%. Intradural placement also increased selectivity, allowing activation of a greater proportion of dorsal column fibers before spread of activation to dorsal root fibers, as well as more selective activation of individual dermatomes at different lateral deviations from the midline. Further, the results suggest that current electrode designs used for extradural SCS are not optimal for intradural SCS, and a novel azimuthal tripolar design increased stimulation selectivity, even beyond that achieved with an intradural paddle array. Increased stimulation efficiency is expected to increase the battery life of implantable pulse generators, increase the recharge interval of rechargeable implantable pulse generators, and potentially reduce stimulator volume. The greater selectivity of intradural stimulation may improve the success rate of SCS by mitigating the sensitivity of pain relief to malpositioning of the electrode. The outcome of this effort is a better quantitative understanding of how intradural electrode placement can potentially increase the selectivity and efficiency of SCS

  9. Interaction between HIV Awareness, Knowledge, Safe Sex Practice and HIV Incidence: Evidence from Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Ray; Kompal Sinha

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes methodological and empirical contributions to the study of HIV awareness, knowledge, incidence and safe sex practice in the context of Botswana, one of the most HIV prone countries in the world. While the focus is on Botswana, the paper presents comparable evidence from India to put the Botswana results in perspective. The results point to the strong role played by affluence and education in increasing HIV knowledge, promoting safe sex and reducing HIV incidence. The study pr...

  10. Choosing and Using Safe Water Technologies: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Luoto, Jill Emily

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the decision-making of poor rural Kenyan households with respect to the adoption of point-of-use (POU) safe water technologies designed to expand access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Low-cost POU products such as chlorine and filters substantially reduce diarrhea, which kills two million children in poor countries each year. Nevertheless, POU products remain little used in many parts of the developing world, even when they are widely available at s...

  11. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodovsky, T.J.; Larson, A.R.; Dexheimer, D.

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes the inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials present in the 105-C Reactor Facility and the operations associated with the Interim Safe Storage Project which includes decontamination and demolition and interim safe storage of the remaining facility. This document also establishes a final hazard classification and verifies that appropriate and adequate safety functions and controls are in place to reduce or mitigate the risk associated with those operations

  12. Brain stimulation in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Novakovic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder that develops following trauma and often includes perceptual, cognitive, affective, physiological, and psychological features. PTSD is characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive thoughts, exaggerated startle response, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbances, emotional numbness, and persistent avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli. The efficacy of available treatments for PTSD may result in part from relief of associated depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in addition to treatment of core symptoms that derive from reexperiencing, numbing, and hyperarousal. Diverse, heterogeneous mechanisms of action and the ability to act broadly or very locally may enable brain stimulation devices to address PTSD core symptoms in more targeted ways. To achieve this goal, specific theoretical bases derived from novel, well-designed research protocols will be necessary. Brain stimulation devices include both long-used and new electrical and magnetic devices. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES have both been in use for decades; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, magnetic seizure therapy (MST, deep brain stimulation (DBS, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS, and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS have been developed recently, over approximately the past twenty years. The efficacy of brain stimulation has been demonstrated as a treatment for psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety (CES, depression (ECT, CES, rTMS, VNS, DBS, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD (DBS, essential tremor, dystonia (DBS, epilepsy (DBS, VNS, Parkinson Disease (DBS, pain (CES, and insomnia (CES. To date, limited data on brain stimulation for PTSD offer only modest guidance. ECT has shown some efficacy in reducing comorbid depression in PTSD patients but has not been demonstrated to improve most core PTSD symptoms. CES and VNS have shown some efficacy in

  13. High frequency oscillations evoked by peripheral magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, S; Simon, L; Fiedler, P; Strohmeier, D; Haueisen, J

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and / or fields (SEF) is a well-established and important tool for investigating the functioning of the peripheral and central human nervous system. A standard technique to evoke SEPs / SEFs is the stimulation of the median nerve by using a bipolar electrical stimulus. We aim at an alternative stimulation technique enabling stimulation of deep nerve structures while reducing patient stress and error susceptibility. In the current study, we apply a commercial transcranial magnetic stimulation system for peripheral magnetic stimulation of the median nerve. We compare the results of simultaneously recorded EEG signals to prove applicability of our technique to evoke SEPs including low frequency components (LFC) as well as high frequency oscillations (HFO). Therefore, we compare amplitude, latency and time-frequency characteristics of the SEP of 14 healthy volunteers after electric and magnetic stimulation. Both low frequency components and high frequency oscillations were detected. The HFOs were superimposed onto the primary cortical response N20. Statistical analysis revealed significantly lower amplitudes and increased latencies for LFC and HFO components after magnetic stimulation. The differences indicate the inability of magnetic stimulation to elicit supramaximal responses. A psycho-perceptual evaluation showed that magnetic stimulation was less unpleasant for 12 out of the 14 volunteers. In conclusion, we showed that LFC and HFO components related to median nerve stimulation can be evoked by peripheral magnetic stimulation.

  14. Optimal number of stimulation contacts for coordinated reset neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys eLysyansky

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this computational study we investigatecoordinated reset (CR neuromodulation designed for an effective controlof synchronization by multi-site stimulation of neuronal target populations. This method was suggested to effectively counteract pathological neuronal synchronycharacteristic for several neurological disorders. We studyhow many stimulation sites are required for optimal CR-induced desynchronization. We found that a moderate increase of the number of stimulation sitesmay significantly prolong the post-stimulation desynchronized transientafter the stimulation is completely switched off. This can, in turn,reduce the amount of the administered stimulation current for theintermittent ON-OFF CR stimulation protocol, where time intervalswith stimulation ON are recurrently followed by time intervals withstimulation OFF. In addition, we found that the optimal number ofstimulation sites essentially depends on how strongly the administeredcurrent decays within the neuronal tissue with increasing distancefrom the stimulation site. In particular, for a broad spatial stimulationprofile, i.e., for a weak spatial decay rate of the stimulation current,CR stimulation can optimally be delivered via a small number of stimulationsites. Our findings may contribute to an optimization of therapeutic applications of CR neuromodulation.

  15. Implementation Evaluation of "Steering Teens Safe": Engaging Parents to Deliver a New Parent-Based Teen Driving Intervention to Their Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. "Steering Teens Safe" is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills…

  16. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  17. stimulated BV2 Microglial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... 2), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The level of NO production was analyzed using Griess reaction. The release of PGE2 was determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay ...

  18. Vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental health in young Australian women: the Safe-D study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma T. Callegari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study. Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life.

  19. Attenuated Neural Processing of Risk in Young Adults at Risk for Stimulant Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Reske

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of young adults report non-medical use of stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, which puts them at risk for the development of dependence. This fMRI study investigates whether subjects at early stages of stimulant use show altered decision making processing.158 occasional stimulants users (OSU and 50 comparison subjects (CS performed a "risky gains" decision making task during which they could select safe options (cash in 20 cents or gamble them for double or nothing in two consecutive gambles (win or lose 40 or 80 cents, "risky decisions". The primary analysis focused on risky versus safe decisions. Three secondary analyses were conducted: First, a robust regression examined the effect of lifetime exposure to stimulants and marijuana; second, subgroups of OSU with >1000 (n = 42, or <50 lifetime marijuana uses (n = 32, were compared to CS with <50 lifetime uses (n = 46 to examine potential marijuana effects; third, brain activation associated with behavioral adjustment following monetary losses was probed.There were no behavioral differences between groups. OSU showed attenuated activation across risky and safe decisions in prefrontal cortex, insula, and dorsal striatum, exhibited lower anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsal striatum activation for risky decisions and greater inferior frontal gyrus activation for safe decisions. Those OSU with relatively more stimulant use showed greater dorsal ACC and posterior insula attenuation. In comparison, greater lifetime marijuana use was associated with less neural differentiation between risky and safe decisions. OSU who chose more safe responses after losses exhibited similarities with CS relative to those preferring risky options.Individuals at risk for the development of stimulant use disorders presented less differentiated neural processing of risky and safe options. Specifically, OSU show attenuated brain response in regions critical for performance monitoring

  20. The ISMAAR proposal on terminology for ovarian stimulation for IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nargund, G.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Macklon, N. S.; Ombelet, W.; Nygren, K.; Frydman, R.

    IVF is performed with oocytes collected in natural and stimulated cycles. Different approaches to ovarian stimulation have been employed worldwide. Following the introduction of GnRH antagonists and strategies to reduce multiple births such as single embryo transfer, there is a genuine scientific

  1. Transcranial direct current stimulation, implicit alcohol associations and craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uijl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) enhances working memory (e.g. in the n-back task), and reduces craving for cigarettes and alcohol. Stimulation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) improves response inhibition. The underlying

  2. The ISMAAR proposal on terminology for ovarian stimulation for IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nargund, G.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Macklon, N. S.; Ombelet, W.; Nygren, K.; Frydman, R.

    2007-01-01

    IVF is performed with oocytes collected in natural and stimulated cycles. Different approaches to ovarian stimulation have been employed worldwide. Following the introduction of GnRH antagonists and strategies to reduce multiple births such as single embryo transfer, there is a genuine scientific

  3. Safe patient care - safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, Michael

    2013-12-13

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organization's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organization's maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organization's safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality. Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate stimulation based team trainings into their

  4. Safe distribution without a disinfectant residual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, G.; Smeets, P.W.M.H.; Van Blokker, E.J.M.; Lieverloo, J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining the microbial quality in distribution systems and connected installations remains a challenge for the water supply companies all over the world, despite many years of research. This book identifies the main concerns and knowledge gaps related to regrowth and stimulate cooperation in

  5. A Microfabricated Transduction Coil for Inductive Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie (Jayne WU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available "Inductively Coupled Deep Brain Stimulator" describes a chip/system design to inductively couple arbitrary waveforms to electrodes embedded in the brain for deep brain stimulation or other neurostimulation. This approach moves the conventionally implanted signal generator outside the body and provides flexibility in adjusting waveforms to investigate optimum stimulation waveforms. An "inlaid electroplating" process with through-wafer plating is used to reduce microcoil resistance and integrate microstructures and electronics. Utilizing inductive link resonance specific to microcoils, waveforms are selectively transmitted to microcoils, which further produces biphasic waveforms that are suitable for deep brain stimulation.

  6. Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.; Grady, L.M.; Bennett, H.A.; Sasser, D.W.; Engi, D.

    1978-08-01

    An automated approach to facility safeguards effectiveness evaluation has been developed. This automated process, called Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE), consists of a collection of a continuous stream of operational modules for facility characterization, the selection of critical paths, and the evaluation of safeguards effectiveness along these paths. The technique has been implemented on an interactive computer time-sharing system and makes use of computer graphics for the processing and presentation of information. Using this technique, a comprehensive evaluation of a safeguards system can be provided by systematically varying the parameters that characterize the physical protection components of a facility to reflect the perceived adversary attributes and strategy, environmental conditions, and site operational conditions. The SAFE procedure has broad applications in the nuclear facility safeguards field as well as in the security field in general. Any fixed facility containing valuable materials or components to be protected from theft or sabotage could be analyzed using this same automated evaluation technique

  7. Safe waste management practices in beryllium facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.N.; Soundararajan, S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium, an element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, has very high stiffness to weight ratio and low density. It has good electrical conductive properties with low coefficient of thermal expansion. These properties make the metal beryllium very useful in varied technological endeavours, However, beryllium is recognised as one of the most toxic metals. Revelation of toxic effects of beryllium resulted in institution of stringent health and safety practices in beryllium handling facilities. The waste generated in such facilities may contain traces of beryllium. Any such waste should be treated as toxic waste and suitable safe waste management practices should be adopted. By instituting appropriate waste management practice and through a meticulously incorporated safety measures and continuous surveillance exercised in such facilities, total safety can be ensured. This paper broadly discusses health hazards posed by beryllium and safe methods of management of beryllium bearing wastes. (author)

  8. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Advising Your Elderly Patients Concerning Safe Exercising

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Anita

    1987-01-01

    With the emergence of physical activity programs geared specifically to senior citizens, family physicians will increasingly be called on to provide advice or approval concerning their patients' suitability for participation. In addition, family physicians have been identified as having a key role to play in the promotion of exercise for sedentary older adults. To assist the family practitioner in advising elderly patients concerning safe exercise patterns, this article discusses the document...

  10. The Safe Transportation of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megrahi, Abdulhafeed; Abu-Ali, Giuma; Enhaba; Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the essential conditions that should be required for transporting the radioactive materials. We demonstrate the procedure for transporting the radioactive iodine-131 from the Centre of Renewable Energies and Desalination of Water in Tajoura, Libya to Tripoli Medical Center. The safe measures were taken during the process of the transportation of the isotope produced in the centre including dosimetry analysis and the thickness of the container. (author)

  11. Safe handling of plutonium in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The training film illustrates the main basic requirements for the safe handling of small amounts of plutonium. The film is intended not only for people setting up plutonium research laboratories but also for all those who work in existing plutonium research laboratories. It was awarded the first prize in the category ''Protection of Workers'' at the international film festival organized by the 4th World Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Paris in April 1977

  12. Procedure of safe handling with cytostatic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodžo Dragan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Working group for safe handling with cytostatic drugs has been formed by the Ministry of Health, and it consists of professionals from IORS, Federal Bureau of Weights and Measures, Industrial Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Military Medical Academy, and Crown Agents. The aim of this working group is to prepare procedures for safe handling with cytostatic drugs, as well as program for educational seminar for nurses, medical technicians, and pharmaceutical technicians. The procedures will serve as a guide of good practice of oncology health care, and will refer to all actions that health care professionals carry out from the moment of drugs arrival to the pharmacy to the moment of their application. In the first segment of this procedure, general rules are given for working with cytotoxic agents, control for risky exposures, safe system of work, control of working environment, monitoring of the employees' health condition adequate protection in the working environment, protective equipment of the employees (gloves, mask, cap, eyeglasses, shoe covers, coats and chambers for vertical laminary air stream. Storing of cytostatics, procedure in case of accident, and waste handling and removal are also described in this segment. Fifty-three standard operational procedures are described in detail in the second segment. Training scheme for preparation of chemotherapy is given in the third segment - education related to various fields and practical part, which would be carried out through workshops, and at the end of the course participants would pass a test and obtain certificate. After the procedures for safe handling with cytostatics are legally regulated employer will have to provide minimum of protective equipment, special rooms for the drugs dissolving, chambers with laminar airflow, 6 hours working time, rotation of the staff working with drugs dissolving in intervals of every five years, higher efficiency, better health control. In conclusion

  13. Safe Sleep for Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-09

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.  Created: 1/9/2018 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/9/2018.

  14. Esomeprazole: a safe alternative to lansoprazole allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Muammer; Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Kutlu, Ali; Sirkeci, Ozgur; Kekilli, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed drugs in daily practice. Allergic reactions, even small number of anaphylactic reactions to PPIs have been reported. Omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rapeprazol and esomeprazole are classified in the same group. Despite the similarity of biochemical structures among these drugs, presence of cross-reactivity between PPIs is controversial.1,2 In this letter, we present 3 lansoprazole allergy cases, who were prescribed and took esomeprazole safely after allergic reactions to lansoprazole.

  15. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  16. Iser: an international inherently safe reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1988-01-01

    Iser is a modular standardised 200-300 MWe power reactor based on the PIUS principle. It differs from PIUS in being simpler, and making full use of existing steel-vessel-based LWR technology. Iser is an inherently safe reactor concept under development in Japan. It is a generic concept, not a patented commodity, and it is expected that an international association to develop the concept will be formed. (U.K.)

  17. SIR - small is safe [in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.

    1989-01-01

    A joint USA-UK venture has been initiated to design a small nuclear reactor which offers low capital cost, greater flexibility and a potentially lower environmental impact. Called Safe Integral Reactor (SIR), the lead unit could be built in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's (UKAEA's) Winfrith site if the design is accepted by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). This article describes the 320 MWe reactor unit that is the basis of the design being developed. (author)

  18. Safe handling of plutonium in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The training film illustrates the main basic requirements for the safe handling of small amounts of plutonium. The film is intended not only for people setting up plutonium research laboratories but also for all those who work in existing plutonium research laboratories. It was awarded the first prize in the category ``Protection of Workers`` at the international film festival organized by the 4th World Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Paris in April 1977

  19. Managing radioactive waste safely. Engaging Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrick, D.; Boyes, L.; McCormick, J.

    2002-01-01

    Between January and May 2002 the Scottish Council Foundation undertook a research project to assess 1 the level of public awareness about and interest in engaging the public in decision-making on managing radioactive waste safely in Scotland. This paper presents the main findings from the research that involved 70 people from across Scotland, aged between 14 and over 65 years old, and a literature review of Scottish, UK and international experience in engaging the public

  20. Peptides having reduced toxicity that stimulate cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan; Danho, Waleed

    2016-08-16

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABCA1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. Further, the peptides of the invention have little or no toxicity when administered at therapeutic and higher doses. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  1. Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Sljivo, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled ―Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication‖ (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016–2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...... detection of abnormal behaviour, triggering if needed a safe degraded mode. SafeCOP will also develop methods and tools, which will be used to produce safety assurance evidence needed to certify cooperative functions. SafeCOP will extend current wireless technologies to ensure safe and secure cooperation...

  2. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material embraces the carriage of radioisotopes for industrial, medical and research uses, and the movement of waste, in addition to consignments of nuclear fuel cycle material. It has been estimated that between eighteen and thirty-eight million package shipments take place each year. On the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), which enjoys wide representations from the Agency's Member States and international organizations, the Secretariat is preparing a training kit comprising this training manual and complementary visual aids. The kit is intended to be the basis for an extensive course on the subject and can be used in whole or in part for inter-regional, regional and even national training purposes. Member States can thus benefit from the material either through training courses sponsored by the Agency, or, alternatively, organized by themselves. As a step towards achieving that goal, the current training manual was compiled using material from the first Inter-Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive material that was held in co-operation with the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the then Central Electricity Generating Board at Bristol, United Kingdom. This Manual was initially published in 1990. On the recommendation of the Agency's Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Manual has since been expanded and updated in time for the second Inter-Regional Training Course, that will in 1991 similarly be held in Bristol. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author)

  4. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  5. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor cortex stimulation in neuropathic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, V; Ayache, S S; Teepker, M; Kappus, C; Kolodziej, M; Rosenow, F; Nimsky, C; Oertel, W H; Lefaucheur, J P

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive and invasive cortical stimulation allows the modulation of therapy-refractory neuropathic pain. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the contralateral motor cortex yields therapeutic effects at short-term and predicts the benefits of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS). The present article summarizes the findings on application, mechanisms and therapeutic effects of cortical stimulation in neuropathic pain.

  6. Minimal stimulation IVF vs conventional IVF: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, John J.; Merhi, Zaher; Yang, Mingxue; Bodri, Daniel; Chavez-Badiola, Alejandro; Repping, Sjoerd; van Wely, Madelon

    2016-01-01

    Minimal stimulation in vitro fertilization (mini-in vitro fertilization) is an alternative in vitro fertilization treatment protocol that may reduce ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, multiple pregnancy rates, and cost while retaining high live birth rates. We performed a randomized noninferiority

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingli; Liang, Wei; Yang, Shichang; Dai, Ping; Shen, Lijuan; Wang, Changhong

    2013-10-05

    positive or negative symptoms. Compared with sham stimulation, active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation had equivocal outcome in cognitive function and commonly caused headache and facial muscle twitching. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is a safe and effective treatment for auditory hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  8. Constant Current versus Constant Voltage Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez de Noriega, Fernando; Eitan, Renana; Marmor, Odeya; Lavi, Adi; Linetzky, Eduard; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2015-02-18

    medication was reduced on average by 67% (range 15-88). Patients were poorly compliant with PD diaries, and these did not yield useful information. The minor deterioration in quality-of-life scores (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire) with CC stimulation were not statistically significant. Two measures of depression (Hamilton Rating Scale D17, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report) showed a nonsignificant lower score (less depression) with CC stimulation, but a third (Beck Depression Inventory) showed equivalence. Cognitive testing (Mini Mental State Examination) and emotional processing (Montreal Affective Voices) were equivalent for CC and CV. Conclusion: CC STN DBS is safe. For equivalent motor efficacy, no significant difference could be identified between CC and CV stimulation for nonmotor evaluations in PD patients 2 years after surgery. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Memory and convulsive stimulation: effects of stimulus waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanis, C W; Squire, L R

    1981-09-01

    Electrical stimulation with brief pulses can produce a seizure requiring less energy than conventional sine-wave stimulation, and it has been suggested that brief-pulse stimulation might reduce the memory loss associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The authors evaluated the effects of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on memory in mice by using various waveforms, current intensities, training-ECS intervals, pulse widths, and stimulus durations. When equated for ability to produce seizures, low-energy, brief-pulse stimulation caused as much amnesia as sine-wave stimulation and sometimes more. In the absence of comparisons of the amnesic effects of brief-pulse and sine-wave stimulation in humans, the use of brief pulses for administering ECT is unwarranted.

  10. Stimulation of protein synthesis by internalized insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.S.; Sykes, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showed that microinjected insulin stimulates transcription and translation in Stage 4 Xenopus oocytes by acting at nuclear and cytoplasmic sites. The present report is concerned with the question of whether hormone, internalized from an external medium, can act on those sites to alter cell function. Both intracellular accumulation of undegraded 125I-insulin and insulin-stimulated 35S-methionine incorporation into oocyte protein were measured. Anti-insulin antiserum and purified anti-insulin antibody were microinjected into the cytoplasm of insulin-exposed cells to determine if insulin derived from the medium acted through internal sites. In cells exposed for 2 h to 7 or 70 nM external insulin, methionine incorporation was stimulated, but intracellular hormone accumulation was minimal and microinjected antibody was without effect. In cells exposed for 24 h, methionine incorporation again increased, but now accumulation of undegraded, intracellular hormone was substantial (2.6 and 25.3 fmol with 7 and 70 nM, respectively), and microinjected anti-insulin antibody significantly reduced the insulin-stimulated component of incorporation; basal incorporation was not affected. For cells exposed to 70 nM insulin for 24 h, inhibition of the insulin-stimulated component was maximal at 39%. Thus under those conditions, about 40% of insulin's effects were mediated by the internal sites. Together, the data show that inhibition of insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by microinjected antibody was associated with the intracellular accumulation of insulin. They indicate that when oocytes are exposed to external insulin, hormone eventually gains access to intracellular sites of action and through these stimulates translation. Control of translation appears to be shared between the internal sites and the surface receptor

  11. Grating stimulated echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubetsky, B.; Berman, P.R.; Sleator, T.

    1992-01-01

    A theory of a grating simulated echo (GTE) is developed. The GSE involves the sequential excitation of atoms by two counterpropagating traveling waves, a standing wave, and a third traveling wave. It is shown that the echo signal is very sensitive to small changes in atomic velocity, much more sensitive than the normal stimulated echo. Use of the GSE as a collisional probe or accelerometer is discussed

  12. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  13. Optimized temporal pattern of brain stimulation designed by computational evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocker, David T; Swan, Brandon D; So, Rosa Q; Turner, Dennis A; Gross, Robert E; Grill, Warren M

    2017-01-04

    Brain stimulation is a promising therapy for several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Stimulation parameters are selected empirically and are limited to the frequency and intensity of stimulation. We varied the temporal pattern of deep brain stimulation to ameliorate symptoms in a parkinsonian animal model and in humans with Parkinson's disease. We used model-based computational evolution to optimize the stimulation pattern. The optimized pattern produced symptom relief comparable to that from standard high-frequency stimulation (a constant rate of 130 or 185 Hz) and outperformed frequency-matched standard stimulation in a parkinsonian rat model and in patients. Both optimized and standard high-frequency stimulation suppressed abnormal oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia of rats and humans. The results illustrate the utility of model-based computational evolution of temporal patterns to increase the efficiency of brain stimulation in treating Parkinson's disease and thereby reduce the energy required for successful treatment below that of current brain stimulation paradigms. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Optogenetic stimulation effectively enhances intrinsically generated network synchrony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eEl Hady

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized bursting is found in many brain areas and has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Despite extensive studies of network burst synchronization, it is insufficiently understood how this type of network wide synchronization can be strengthened, reduced or even abolished. We combined electrical recording using multi-electrode array with optical stimulation of cultured channelrhodopsin-2 transducted hippocampal neurons to study and manipulate network burst synchronization. We found low frequency photo-stimulation protocols that are sufficient to induce potentiation of network bursting, modifying bursting dynamics and increasing interneuronal synchronization. Surprisingly, slowly fading-in light stimulation, which substantially delayed and reduced light driven spiking, was at least as effective in reorganizing network dynamics as much stronger pulsed light stimulation. Our study shows that mild stimulation protocols that do not enforce particular activity patterns onto the network can be highly effective inducers of network-level plasticity.

  15. Optogenetic stimulation effectively enhances intrinsically generated network synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hady, Ahmed; Afshar, Ghazaleh; Bröking, Kai; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Geisel, Theo; Stühmer, Walter; Wolf, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Synchronized bursting is found in many brain areas and has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. Despite extensive studies of network burst synchronization, it is insufficiently understood how this type of network wide synchronization can be strengthened, reduced, or even abolished. We combined electrical recording using multi-electrode array with optical stimulation of cultured channelrhodopsin-2 transducted hippocampal neurons to study and manipulate network burst synchronization. We found low frequency photo-stimulation protocols that are sufficient to induce potentiation of network bursting, modifying bursting dynamics, and increasing interneuronal synchronization. Surprisingly, slowly fading-in light stimulation, which substantially delayed and reduced light-driven spiking, was at least as effective in reorganizing network dynamics as much stronger pulsed light stimulation. Our study shows that mild stimulation protocols that do not enforce particular activity patterns onto the network can be highly effective inducers of network-level plasticity. PMID:24155695

  16. Multilevel models in the explanation of the relationship between safety climate and safe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Alistair; Tomás, José M; Oliver, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between components of organizational safety climate, including employee attitudes to organizational safety issues; perceptions of the physical working environment, and evaluations of worker engagement with safety issues; and relates these to self-reported levels of safety behavior. It attempts to explore the relationships between these variables in 1189 workers across 78 work groups in a large transportation organization. Evaluations of safety climate, the working environment and worker engagement, as well as safe behaviors, were collected using a self report questionnaire. The multilevel analysis showed that both levels of evaluation (the work group and the individual), and some cross-level interactions, were significant in explaining safe behaviors. Analyses revealed that a number of variables, at both levels, were associated with worker engagement and safe behaviors. The results suggest that, while individual evaluations of safety issues are important, there is also a role for the fostering of collective safety climates in encouraging safe behaviors and therefore reducing accidents.

  17. Smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system: a condition-based corrosion detection system for aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Seifert, Greg; Paul, Clare A.

    1996-05-01

    The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is an advanced structural health monitoring effort to detect and characterize corrosion in hidden and inaccessible locations of aircraft structures. Hidden corrosion is the number one logistics problem for the U.S. Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of $700M per year in 1990 dollars. The SAFE system incorporates a solid-state electrochemical microsensor and smart sensor electronics in the body of a Hi-Lok aircraft fastener to process and autonomously report corrosion status to aircraft maintenance personnel. The long-term payoff for using SAFE technology will be in predictive maintenance for aging aircraft and rotorcraft systems, fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service, and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs. A summary of the SAFE concept, laboratory test results, and future field test plans is presented.

  18. Reducing surgical nurses' aseptic practice-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aholaakko, Teija-Kaisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to explore aseptic practice-related stress in surgery. The objectives are to define stress-related factors and the means to reduce the stress. Occupational stress is related to personal characteristics: job satisfaction and physiological and psychological well-being. The stress symptoms are often classified as part of a negative mood. Nurses have expressed stress when deadening their conscience to external demands with co-workers or internal working role-related demands. Surgery nurses expect fair division of work and compliance with rules. The hospital management, technology and the medical profession, instead of the needs of the patient, are recognised as a danger in the development of surgery nurses' role. A qualitative stimulated recall interview was performed in the surgery of the university hospital. Thirty-one operations were videotaped, and 31 nurses interviewed during videotape stimulation. The 1306 text pages were transcripted and analysed by a qualitative membership categorisation device analysis. The analysis revealed aseptic practice-related stress which constructed a sixteen level category. The membership categorisation identified connections between qualitatively attributed personnel and seven stress factors: working experience; time; equipment; person; patient; working morals and power. Final analysis revealed nurses reducing aseptic practice-related stress by safe, peaceful, competent and relative means. The aseptic practice-related stress varied from positive motivating feelings to exhaustion. The stress was experienced by medical and nursing co-workers and reduced by means which varied according to expertise and co-workers. This study showed needs for both the shared multiprofessional documentation of aseptic practice and better adherence to recommendations. Constructive means are useful when solving conflicts and replacing person-related aseptic practice with evidence-based. They may support nurses' professional growth, reduce

  19. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  20. Aromatase inhibitors in stimulated IVF cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tournaye Herman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatase inhibitors have been introduced as a new treatment modality that could challenge clomiphene citrate as an ovulation induction regiment in patients with PCOS. Although several randomized trials have been conducted regarding their use as ovulation induction agents, only few trials are available regarding their efficacy in IVF stimulated cycles. Current available evidence support that letrozole may have a promising role in stimulated IVF cycles, either when administered during the follicular phase for ovarian stimulation. Especially for women with poor ovarian response, letrozole appears to have the potential to increase clinical pregnancy rates when combined with gonadotropins, whereas at the same time reduces the total gonadotropin dose required for ovarian stimulation. However, given that in all of the trials letrozole has been administered in GnRH antagonist cycles, it is intriguing to test in the future how it may perform when used in GnRH agonist cycles. Finally administration of letrozole during luteal phase in IVF cycles offers another treatment modality for patients at high risk for OHSS taking into account that it drastically reduces estradiol levels

  1. Vitamin D Status, Bone Mineral Density and Mental Health in Young Australian Women: The Safe-D Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Emma T; Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John D

    2015-11-17

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study). Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life. Significance for public healthVitamin D deficiency, depression and osteoporosis are all major public health issues. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both reduced bone mineral density and depressive symptoms. Moreover, cohort studies have found that subjects with depression have lower bone mineral density when compared to healthy controls. Early adulthood is a critical

  2. Infant Safe Sleep Interventions, 1990-2015: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Balfour, Giselle M

    2016-02-01

    Sleep-related infant deaths remain a major public health issue. Multiple interventions have been implemented in efforts to increase adherence to safe sleep recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of the international research literature to synthesize research on interventions to reduce the risk of sleep-related deaths and their effectiveness in changing infant sleep practices. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2015 which described an intervention and reported results. Twenty-nine articles were included for review. Studies focused on infant caregivers, health care professionals, peers, and child care professionals. Targeted behaviors included sleep position, location, removing items from the crib, breastfeeding, smoke exposure, clothing, pacifier use, and knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Most articles described multi-faceted interventions, including: one-on-one or group education, printed materials, visual displays, videos, and providing resources such as cribs, pacifiers, wearable blankets, and infant t-shirts. Two described public education campaigns, one used an educative questionnaire, and one encouraged maternal note taking. Health professional interventions included implementing safe sleep policies, in-service training, printed provider materials, eliciting agreement on a Declaration of Safe Sleep Practice, and sharing adherence data. Data collection methods included self-report via surveys and observational crib audits. Over half of the studies utilized comparison groups which helped determine effectiveness. Most articles reported some degree of success in changing some of the targeted behaviors; no studies reported complete adherence to recommendations. Future studies should incorporate rigorous evaluation plans, utilize comparison groups, and collect demographic and collect follow-up data.

  3. Deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation using variable "Halo coil" system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Crowther, L. J.; Xu, Z.; Qu, J.; Jiles, D. C.

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brain with lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing "Halo coil" configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current "Halo coil" design along with a graphical user interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate different regions of the brain by adjusting the position and orientation of the larger coil on the head. We have calculated magnetic and electric fields inside a MRI-derived heterogeneous head model for various positions and orientations of the coil. We have also investigated the mechanical and thermal stability of the adjustable "Halo coil" configuration for various positions and orientations of the coil to ensure safe operation of the system.

  4. Inherently safe passive gas monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Bellamy, John Stephen; Shuler, James M.; Shull, Davis J.; Leduc, Daniel R.

    2016-09-06

    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to gas monitoring systems that use inductive power transfer to safely power an electrically passive device included within a nuclear material storage container. In particular, the electrically passive device can include an inductive power receiver for receiving inductive power transfer through a wall of the nuclear material storage container. The power received by the inductive power receiver can be used to power one or more sensors included in the device. Thus, the device is not required to include active power generation components such as, for example, a battery, that increase the risk of a spark igniting flammable gases within the container.

  5. Managing radioactive waste safely. Engaging Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrick, D.; Boyes, L.; McCormick, J.

    2002-01-01

    The report presents findings from a study to explore how best to engage the public and other stakeholders in decision-making processes on the safe management of radioactive waste. Scottish Council Foundation conducted extended focus groups with the Scottish public in 4 locations, as well as group and one-to-one interviews with stakeholders from the nuclear industry, environment non-governmental organisations (NGOs), bodies experienced in using other public engagement methods, Community Planning partners and media reporters. A review of literature on public involvement in radioactive waste issues and public engagement more generally was also conducted

  6. The journey from safe yield to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M; Leake, Stanley A

    2004-01-01

    Safe-yield concepts historically focused attention on the economic and legal aspects of ground water development. Sustainability concerns have brought environmental aspects more to the forefront and have resulted in a more integrated outlook. Water resources sustainability is not a purely scientific concept, but rather a perspective that can frame scientific analysis. The evolving concept of sustainability presents a challenge to hydrologists to translate complex, and sometimes vague, socioeconomic and political questions into technical questions that can be quantified systematically. Hydrologists can contribute to sustainable water resources management by presenting the longer-term implications of ground water development as an integral part of their analyses.

  7. Safe handling of plutonium: a panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This guide results from a meeting of a Panel of Experts held by the International Atomic Energy Agency on 8 to 12 November 1971. It is directed to workers in research laboratories handling plutonium in gram amounts. Contents: aspects of the physical and chemical properties of plutonium; metabolic features of plutonium; facility design features for safe handling of plutonium (layout of facility, working zones, decontamination room, etc.); glove boxes; health surveillance (surveillance of environment and supervision of workers); emergencies; organization. Annexes: types of glove boxes; tables; mobile ..cap alpha.. air sampler; aerosol monitor; bio-assay limits of detection; examples of contamination control monitors.

  8. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana G. Colson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body.

  9. Safe 15 Terawatt of Temelin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work author presents a project Safe 15 Terawatt realised on the Temelin NPP. This project is one of the eight key projects of the CEZ group, associated in the 'Programme of efficiency'. The project started in June 2007 with long-term goals for horizon of year 2012. The safety indicators will be reached of the first quarter level of world's nuclear power plant - by the end of the first decade. By the end of year 2012 we will have achieved annual production of 15 billion kWh - in the Czech Republic: 15 Terawatt.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  11. Circulating osteocrin stimulates bone growth by limiting C-type natriuretic peptide clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yugo; Yasoda, Akihiro; Mori, Keita P; Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Nagai-Okatani, Chiaki; Yamashita, Yui; Hirota, Keisho; Ueda, Yohei; Yamauchi, Ichiro; Kondo, Eri; Yamanaka, Shigeki; Sakane, Yoriko; Nakao, Kazumasa; Fujii, Toshihito; Yokoi, Hideki; Minamino, Naoto; Mukoyama, Masashi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2017-11-01

    Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished in either CNP- or NPR-C-depleted backgrounds, confirming that CNP and NPR-C are indispensable for the bone growth-stimulating effect of OSTN. Interestingly, double-transgenic mice of CNP and OSTN had even higher levels of circulating CNP and additional increases in bone length, as compared with mice with elevated CNP alone. Together, these results support OSTN administration as an adjuvant agent for CNP therapy and provide a potential therapeutic approach for diseases with impaired skeletal growth.

  12. Prepare to protect: Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herseth, Andrew; Goldsmith-Grinspoon, Jennifer; Scott, Pataya

    2017-06-01

    Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room can be critical to the effective continuity of business operations because a firm's most valuable asset is its people. This paper describes aspects of operations and maintenance (O&M) for existing tornado safe rooms as well as a few planning and design aspects that affect the ultimate operation of a safe room for situations where a safe room is planned, but not yet constructed. The information is based on several Federal Emergency Management Agency safe room publications that provide guidance on emergency management and operations, as well as the design and construction of tornado safe rooms.

  13. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...

  14. Is safe surgery possible when resources are scarce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Nathan N

    2015-07-01

    The greatest burden of surgical disease exists in low- and middle-income countries, where the quality and safety of surgical treatment cause major challenges. Securing necessary and appropriate medical supplies and infrastructure remains a significant and under-recognised limitation to providing safe and high-quality surgical care in these settings. The majority of surgical instruments are sold in high-income countries. Limited market pressures lead to superfluous designs and inflated costs for these devices. This context creates an opportunity for frugal innovation-the search for designs that will enable low-cost care without compromising quality. Although progressive examples of frugal surgical innovations exist, policy innovation is required to augment design pathways while fostering appropriate safety controls for prospective devices. Many low-cost, high-quality medical technologies will increase access to safe surgical care in low-income countries and have widespread applicability as all countries look to reduce the cost of providing care, without compromising quality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Project SAFE. Complexing agents in SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanger, G.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, produced at Swedish nuclear power plants, will be deposited in an underground repository, SFR. Different substances in the waste or in degradation products emanating from the waste, and chemicals added during the building of cementitious barriers in the repository, may exhibit complexing properties. The complexation of radionuclides with such ligands may increase the mobility of the deposited radionuclides as sorption on the cement phases is decreased and solubility increased. This could lead to an increased leaching of the radionuclides from the repository to the geosphere and biosphere. To be able to evaluate the implications for the function and long-term safety of the repository a study has been performed on complexants in SFR. The study is a part of project SAFE (Safety Assessment of Final Repository for operational Radioactive Waste) at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. Concentrations of complexants were calculated in different waste types in the repository and compared to critical levels above which radionuclide sorption may be affected. The analysis is based on recent research presented in international and national literature sources. The waste in SFR that may act or give rise to substances with complexing properties mainly consists of cellulose materials, including cement additives used in waste conditioning and backfill grout. The radioactive waste also contains chemicals mainly used in decontamination processes at the nuclear power plants, e.g. EDTA, NTA, gluconate, citric acid and oxalic acid. The calculations performed in this report show that the presence of complexants in SFR may lead to a sorption reduction for some radionuclides in certain waste types. This may have to be considered when performing calculations of the radionuclide transport. Concentration calculations of isosaccharinic acid (ISA), using a degradation yield of 0.1 mole/kg cellulose (2%), showed that the limit above

  16. Project SAFE. Complexing agents in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanger, G.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.

    2001-01-01

    Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, produced at Swedish nuclear power plants, will be deposited in an underground repository, SFR. Different substances in the waste or in degradation products emanating from the waste, and chemicals added during the building of cementitious barriers in the repository, may exhibit complexing properties. The complexation of radionuclides with such ligands may increase the mobility of the deposited radionuclides as sorption on the cement phases is decreased and solubility increased. This could lead to an increased leaching of the radionuclides from the repository to the geosphere and biosphere. To be able to evaluate the implications for the function and long-term safety of the repository a study has been performed on complexants in SFR. The study is a part of project SAFE (Safety Assessment of Final Repository for operational Radioactive Waste) at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. Concentrations of complexants were calculated in different waste types in the repository and compared to critical levels above which radionuclide sorption may be affected. The analysis is based on recent research presented in international and national literature sources. The waste in SFR that may act or give rise to substances with complexing properties mainly consists of cellulose materials, including cement additives used in waste conditioning and backfill grout. The radioactive waste also contains chemicals mainly used in decontamination processes at the nuclear power plants, e.g. EDTA, NTA, gluconate, citric acid and oxalic acid. The calculations performed in this report show that the presence of complexants in SFR may lead to a sorption reduction for some radionuclides in certain waste types. This may have to be considered when performing calculations of the radionuclide transport. Concentration calculations of isosaccharinic acid (ISA), using a degradation yield of 0.1 mole/kg cellulose (2%), showed that the limit above

  17. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA

  18. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  19. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA.

  20. Light water ultra-safe plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.

    1989-01-01

    Since the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Penn State Nuclear Engineering Department Faculty and Staff have considered various methods to improve already safe reactor designs and public perception of the safety of Nuclear Power. During 1987 and 1988, the Department of Energy provided funds to the Nuclear Engineering Department at Penn State to investigate a plant reconfiguration originated by M.A. Schultz called ''The Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept''. This report presents a final summary of the project with references to several masters' theses and addendum reports for further detail. The two year research effort included design verification with detailed computer simulation of: (a) normal operation characteristics of the unique pressurizing concept, (b) severe transients without loss of coolant, (c) combined primary and secondary system modeling, and (d) small break and large break loss of coolant accidents. Other studies included safety analysis, low power density core design, and control system design to greatly simplify the control room and required operator responses to plant upset conditions. The overall conclusion is that a reconfigured pressurized water reactor can achieve real and perceived safety improvements. Additionally, control system research to produce greatly simplified control rooms and operator requirements should be continued in future projects